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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




CHAS. P. NEILL, Commissioner

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1913




CONTENTS.
Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons:
Introduction...................................................................................................
Chapter I.—Critical account of the legislation respecting the workingday, rest periods, and overtime in force in the different countries.......
Legal maximum working-day...............................................................
States which have not established a legal maximum workingday for young persons and women.............................................
States which have established a legal maximum working-day for
young persons, but not for adult female workers......................
States which regulate the working-day of female young persons
(over 14 years of age) and women only....................................
States which regulate the working-day of young persons and
women (in some cases of adult men also)..................................
Rest periods and overtime.....................................................................
Maximum time available for rest periods and overtime..............
Rest periods.....................................................................................
Overtime..........................................................................................
States in which overtime is regulated by administrative
authorities........................................ .................................
States in which overtime is prescribed by law.....................
Legal exceptions as to the maximum number of hours of over­
time ......................................................................................
Legal maximum number of hours overtime in a year..........
Chapter II.—Account of the actual working-day and overtime taken
from official statistics.................................................................................
States where a 10-hour or an 8-hour working-day is prescribed by
law.......................................................................................................
States where an 11-hour and a 12-hour day is prescribed..................
States which regulate the hours of labor of young persons only.........
Classified summary of States according to legal working-day.............
Chapter III.—Justification of the reduction of the working-day to *10
hours for young persons under 18 years of age and women...................
Conclusions drawn from Chapter I I ......................................................
Why some States continue to adhere to an 11-hour and a 12-hour
working-day........................................................................................
Advantages of a reduction in the working-day....................................
Chapter IV.—Transitional arrangements...................................................
Appendix I.—Variations in the normal distribution of rest periods under
British legislation......................................................................................
Appendix II.—Exceptions from the legal arrangement of rest periods in
Austria........................................................................................................
Appendix III.—Industries in which overtime is allowed in the United
Kingdom.....................................................................................................
Appendix IV,—Industries in which overtime is allowed in France........




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BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WHOLE NO. 1 !8 .

TEN-HOUR

WASHINGTON.

APRIL 10, 1913

MAXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN
AND YOUNG PERSONS.1
INTRODUCTION.

Shortly after the Berne Convention prohibiting the night work of
women in industrial employment was signed at Berne, on 26th Sep­
tember, 1906, the International Association for Labor Legislation,
at its Fourth (Geneva) Delegates' Meeting, passed resolutions that
the question of a legal maximum working-day should be regulated
by international agreement. [Resolutions on this subject were also
passed at the Fifth (Lucerne) and Sixth (Lugano) Delegates'
Meetings.
The following are the resolutions affecting women and young
persons:
In pursuance of the principles adopted by resolution of the Fourth Delegates’ Meet­
ing, held at Geneva, respecting the maximum working-day, namely—
“ 1. The determination by law of a maximum period of daily work is of the highest
importance for the maintenance and promotion of the physical and intel­
lectual welfare of workmen and employees.
“ 2. Over and above limitations of hours of work brought about by the efforts of
trade-unions, the intervention of the legislature is necessary in order to set a
limit to daily hours of work in general.”
The Delegates’ Meeting resolves:

1. As regards the employment of women.
The period of employment for all women, subject to the provisions of the Berne Con­
vention on the Night Work of Women, to be limited by international agreement to ten
hours. This legal maximum period of employment to be introduced by degrees.
The Delegates’ Meeting confirms the resolutions of the Fifth Delegates’ Meeting, and,
in view of the fact that several States have* by national legislation introduced the teni This memorandum was prepared by the International Labor Office for the information of an inter­
national conference called to meet in Berne in September, 1913, to consider the question of an interna­
tional treaty providing for a 10 hour maximum working day for women and young persons. This English
translation, presented here by the courtesy of the International Labor Office, follows closely, except for
a few unimportant corrections, the text of the German original.




6

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

hour working-day for women, believes that the time has come to extend this ten-hour
working-day to all States by international treaty, at least in the case of establishments
employing ten or more workers.
The Bureau is authorized to take such steps as may be necessary to bring about such
a treaty and to draw up a memorandum on the subject.
The sections shall for this purpose report to the Bureau by 1st February, 1911, on
the present state of legislation and legal decisions on the hours of work of women in
their countries. The memorandum of the Bureau shall be laid as soon as possible before
a special commission of five members.

2. As regards the employment of young persons.
In view of the fact that several States have by national legislation introduced the
ten-hour maximum working-day for young persons, the Delegates’ Meeting believes
that the time has come to extend the same by international treaty to all States.
The Bureau is authorized to take the steps necessary to bring about such a treaty
and to prepare for this purpose a memorandum which will take into consideration the
special circumstances in individual States and define exactly any exceptions which
may be necessary.
The sections shall for this purpose report to the Bureau by 1st February, 1911, on
the present state of legislation and legal decisions on the hours of work of young
persons in their countries. The Bureau’s memorandum shall be laid as soon as possible
before the special commission on the maximum working-day for women.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

In order to understand these resolutions, it must in the first place
be remembered that the Berne Convention of 1906, which introduced
an 11-hour night’s rest for women in industrial employment, also
indirectly regulated the duration of their working-day. The workingday for women must not exceed 24 hours, less 11 of night rest, i. e., 13
hours, or from 11 to 12 hours allowing for rest periods, even in
countries such as Belgium and Hungary, where the working-day for
women has not been regulated.
The International Association would have liked to go further and
to introduce a 12-hour night’s rest for women. Had this proposal
been successful, the first international labor convention would have
introduced a 10-hour maximum working-day for women in all the
signatory States.
The fate of this proposal was as follows: At the first official con­
ference of experts held at Berne in 1905, according to the minutes,1
the representatives of seven countries, namely, Germany, Austria,
Hungary, Denmark, France, Luxemburg, and Switzerland, voted in
favor of this proposal. Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Portugal
abstained from voting. Italy voted for an 11-hour night’s rest, and
Belgium, Norway, and Sweden for a 10-hour night’s rest. It will be
seen that already at that date seven States were in favor of a measure
of which the indirect result would have been to introduce a 10-hour
maximum working-day for women. In view of the fact that a
1 Conference intemationale pour la protection ouvrifere, 1905. Procfcs-verbal No. 4, Annexe, p. 87.




M AXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

7

unanimous agreement was considered to be desirable, the proposal
for an 11-hour night’s rest was accepted as a compromise.
Of the States mentioned which desired to introduce a 10-hour
maximum working-day indirectly by prescribing a 12-hour night’s
rest, France had a legal maximum working-day of 10 hours for
young persons under 18 years of age and adult women, in pursuance
of article 3 of the Act of 30th March, 1900, which came into operation
on 1st April, 1904; in Great Britain articles 24 and 26 of the Fac­
tory and Workshop Act of 17th August, 1901, limited the workingday of young persons under 18 years of age and adult women em­
ployed in textile factories to 10 hours on week days and 5£ hours on
Saturdays, and prohibited overtime. The working-day in other
factories and workshops is 10i hours on week days (i. e., in textile
factories rest periods amounting to altogether 2 hours and in other
factories amounting to only H hours are required) and 7£ hours
on Saturdays. The legal maximum number of hours which may be
worked in any one week in England is accordingly 55£ hours in tex­
tile factories and 60 hours in other industrial establishments; in Ger­
many articles 135, 136, and 137 of the Act of 28th December, 1908,
amending the Industrial Code, established a 10-hour maximum work­
ing-day for young persons under 16 years and women employed in
establishments where at least 10 persons are regularly employed and,
in the case of women, the maximum working-day was reduced to 8
hours on Saturdays and the eve of holidays. These provisions came
into operation at the commencement of the year 1910. The same
intentions prevail in Switzerland. The Swiss Federal Council,
in its message to Parliament, of 6th May, 1910, on the revision
of the Factory Act, quotes the following sentence from article 30 of
the bill:
Work shall not be carried on for more than 10 hours in any one
day, nor for more than 9 hours on Saturdays.
The remaining three States which voted for a 12-hour night’s rest
in 1905, i. e., Austria, Hungary, and Denmark, have not yet mani­
fested the.ir intention to establish a universal 10-hour working-day
by national initiative. Among States, however, which abstained
from voting in 1905, the Netherlands accepted, in October, 1911,
the 10-hour day, which will come into force partly on January 1,
1912, and partly on January 1, 1913. This condition of affairs
reveals the need for international agreement which is naturally still
more urgently required in the case of all the remaining continental
countries with a longer maximum working-day, namely, Belgium,
Spain, Italy, Luxemburg, Portugal, Norway, and Sweden.
$

%




JH

H*

H*

*

8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The object of this memorandum is, therefore, to show in its first
part to what extent the working-day of women and young persons
is regulated by the legislation of the different countries with regard
to the legal hours of labor, the length of the rest periods, and the
overtime which may be lawfully worked in exceptional circumstances.
In the second part, the legal maximum working-day is compared
with the actual working-day ascertained from statistics, which is
often reduced below the legal maximum by means of agreements
between associations of workmen and employers. The third part
contains an inquiry into the hygienic, social, and productive advan­
tages obtained by reducing the working-day to 10 hours or less.
In the case of States which have not as yet regulated the workingday of women, transitional provisions will be necessary, and the
nature of such provisions is, therefore, discussed in the fourth and
final part.




CHAPTER I.
CRITICAL ACCOUNT OF THE LEGISLATION RESPECTING THE
WORKING-DAY, REST PERIODS, AND OVERTIME IN FORCE IN
DIFFERENT COUNTRIES.

With regard to the class of persons whose working-day is regulated
by law, a distinction must be made between—
I. States which have not established a legal maximum workingday for women and young persons. These are:
1. States which have no protective labor legislation
whatever;
2. States which regulate the working-day only of per­
sons under 14 years of age, i. e., States where
children only are legally protected.
II. States which have established a legal maximum working-day
for young persons only, i. e., States which restrict the workingday of male persons—
(a) Until the age of 15;
(b) Until the age of 16;
(c) Until the age of 17;
(d) Until the age of 18; and
(e) Which restrict the working-day of female persons
until the age of 21.
III. States which regulate the working-day of young persons of
the female sex and women only.
IY. States which regulate the working-day of both male young
persons and women, i. e., States where young persons and
women are legally protected.
V. States which regulate the working-day of adult men as well
as that of young persons and women, i. e., States where all
workers are legally protected.
In this memorandum, States of the last-named class will be dis­
cussed as if they gave protection only to women and young persons,
i. e., as if they were included amongst the States coming under IV.
A. LEGAL M AXIM UM W ORKING-DAY.
I. STATES WHICH HAVE NOT ESTABLISHED A LEGAL MAXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOE
YOUNG PERSONS AND WOMEN.

To this group belong—
1. States where no workers are legally protected: Greece,1
Monaco, Montenegro, Turkey, all the Asiatic States,
with the exception of India and Japan; Africa, with the
1Greece is removed from this group since the passage of the acts of Nov. 19-Dec. 2,1911, on hygiene
and safety of factory workers; of Jan. 24-Feb. 6, 1912, concerning the work of women and minors; of
Jan. 24-Feb. 6,191% on the payment of wages.




9

10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

exception of Algeria, Tunis, and Egypt; and Central and
South America, with the exception of Argentina (Buenos
Aires).
2. States where children only are legally protected: Egypt,
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, and South Dakota. Of
these States Florida has established a 9-hour, and Arkan­
sas and South Dakota a 10-hour legal maximum working-day
for children. Florida and Alabama prohibit employment
below 12 years; Arkansas below 14, and South Dakota below
15 years of age. Egypt has established an 8-hour workingday for those children only who are between 9 and 13 years
of age and are employed in cotton-ginning mills.
n . STATES WHICH HAVE ESTABLISHED A LEGAL MAXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR YOUNG
PERSONS, BUT NOT FOR ADULT FEMALE WORKERS.

This group includes nine European States, of which seven have
signed the Berne convention, namely, Belgium, Denmark, Fin­
land (nonsignatory State), Hungary, Luxemburg, Portugal,
Norway (nonsignatory State), Spain, and Sweden.
All these States, with the exception of Finland and Norway,
indirectly limit the working-day of women to between 11 and 12
hours by prohibiting night work. Young persons are protected in
Denmark, Finland, and Norway until they have completed their
eighteenth year, and in the other States they are protected imtil they
have completed their sixteenth year. In Belgium female young
persons are protected until they have completed their twenty-first
year, and in Spain their twenty-third year.
The 10-hour working-day for young persons desired by the Inter­
national Association has been introduced in six of these States, the
only exceptions being Belgium and Finland, which allow a 12-hour
working-day, and Spain with an 11-hour day.
In Belgium, however—quite apart from coal mines, in which a
maximum working-day of 9 hours also for adult workers below
ground was established by the law of 31st December, 1909—the
12-hour working-day for young persons was reduced in a number of
industries by the Eoyal Decrees of 26th and 31st December, 1892;
15th March, 1893; 22nd September, 1896; 6th July, 1904; 3rd and
29th November, 1898 to—
8 hours.—In type foundries;
8 and 10 hours.—In the building trades (8 hours, November to
February; 10 hours, March to October);
9 and 10 hours.—In the furniture industry and in auxiliary building
trades (9 hours, October to March; 10 hours, April to
September);
10 hours.—In stone quarries in the open air, in the newspaper
printing trade, in art trade, in paper factories, in tobacco and




M AXIM UM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

11

cigar factories, in the pottery and terra-cotta industry, in the
manufacture of looking glasses, in zinc rolling mills, in the
manufacture of tools and metal, domestic utensils (10 hours
for workers of 12 to 14 years of age, 11 hours other protected
workers), in bell foundries, braziers’ works and arms factories,
in subsidiary clothing trades, in tanneries, in shoe making,
harness making, leather work, the manufacture of hats,
lingerie, buttons, gloves, umbrellas and canes, dyeing, and the
manufacture of articles of fashion;
10 hours 20 minutes.—In crystal glass factories;
10$ hours.—In mines and pits in the coal mines of Mariemont
for male young persons of 14 to 16 years of age (10 hours for
transportation work below ground; 9 hours for female young
persons of 16 to 21 years of age above ground). In coke ovens
and briquette factories; in tool repair shops attached to stone
quarries (10 hours in other shops of this kind); in large-scale
establishments of the iron and steel industry; in sugar fac­
tories (not refineries—ministerial decree, 14th September
1899), in the manufacture of matches, in the plate glass
factories;
11 hours.—In fish canneries, in specified subsidiary clothing
trades—knitting, passementerie making, lace making, embroid­
ery making, in large-scale machine factories, in the linen,
hemp and jute industry;
11} hours.—In the woolen goods industry;
11$ hours (66 hours per week).—In the cotton industry.
It will be seen from the above that in Belgium in nearly all indus­
tries a 10-hour and a lOJ-hour maximum working-day has been sub­
stituted for the 12-hour working-day, except in the textile industries
and machine construction. While in England the legal maximum
hours of labor are 55$ hours in textile and 60 hours in other factories,
in Belgium in textile factories 67$ and 66 hours may be worked in a
week, while 63 and 60 may be worked in the majority of the other
industries.
Also in Luxemburg the maximum 10-hour working-day of young
persons of 14 to 16 years of age may be extended to 11 hours in
spinning mills, cloth factories, knitting mills, tobacco and cigar
factories, and in the painting of pottery, if the physical fitness of the
young person to work extended hours is proved by medical certificate
(decree of 20th May, 1883).
In Spain the employment of young persons is prohibited in a list
of trades (royal decree 25th January, 1908). Working below ground
in mines is prohibited, the maximum working-day above ground for
women and young persons under 16 years of age is fixed at 9$
hours.



12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Outside Europe the following States belong to this group:
(а) Maximum working-day for young persons under 18—
60 hours per week in North Carolina.
(б) Maximum working-day for young persons under 16—
6 hours in Porto Rico;
8 hours in Argentina (Buenos Aires only), District of
Columbia, Colorado, Kansas, North Dakota,
Oklahoma, Indiana, 9 hours with written consent
of parents, otherwise 8 hours;
9 hours in Delaware and Idaho;
10 hours in Iowa.
III. STATES WHICH REGULATE THE WORKING-DAY OP FEMALE YOUNG PERSONS (OVER

14 YEARS OF AGE) AND WOMEN ONLY.

India established in 1911 a 12-hour maximum working-day for all
persons employed in textile factories, and, with regard to other estab­
lishments, allows male persons from 9 to 14 years of age to work
not more than 7 hours, and female workers not more than 11 hours,
while the working-day of male persons over 14 is subject to no legal
restriction.
Six of the Canadian Provinces and two Australian Colonies protect
male workers until the age of 14 only, but have established a maximum
working-day for female young persons between the ages of 14 and 18
and for women. The maximum working-day is: Ontario, Quebec
(nontextile factories), and New Brunswick 10 hours (60 hours per
week); Manitoba, 9 hours (54 per week); British Columbia, 8
hours (48 per week, with consent of the inspector 9 and 54 hours) ;
Saskatchewan, 8 hours (45 per week).
Western Australia, women and young persons under 14 years
of age 8f hours (48 hours per week); and Tasmania, 10 hours for
adult women and 8 hours for young persons 13 to 14 years of age.
IV. STATES WHICH REGULATE THE WORKING-DAY OF YOUNG PERSONS AND WOMEN
(IN SOME CASES OF ADULT MEN ALSO.)

The vast majority of industrial States belong to this group.
Europe.

I. A 9 to 9f-hour working-day (55 to 58 hours per week):
Great Britain, 10 hours on week days and 5| hours on
Saturdays; 55J hours per week in textile factories.
2. Germany, 10 hours for women, 8 hours on Saturdays and
eve of holidays; 58 hours per week.
3. Netherlands, From 1st January, 1913; maximum working-day for women and young persons under 17 years
of age, 10 hours (58 hours per week). Transitional



M AXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

13

provisions until 1913, 11 hours and 66 hours per week;
from 1913 until 1915, with the permission of the
Minister, 10$ hours per day, but at most 58 hours per
week for individual establishments.
II. A 10-hour working-day (60 hours per week):
(а) For women and young persons under 18—
1. France.
2. Great Britain, for nontextile factories and work­
shops (10$ hours per day, 7$ on Saturdays).
3. Servia (without distinction of age).
(б) For women and young persons under 16—
Germany, 60 hours per week for male young persons
(women only 58 hours).
(c) For young persons under 15 years and women—
1. Bulgaria.
2. Roumania.
III. An 11-hour working-day (64 to 66 hours per week):
1. Switzerland (11 hours, 9 hours on Saturdays, without
distinction of age).
2. Austria (11 hours in factories without distinction of age).
3. Bosnia and Herzegovina (11 hours in factories with more
than 20 workers, without distinction of age).
4. Liechtenstein (11 hours in workshops with more than 10
persons, without distinction of age).
IV. An ll$-hour working-day (67$ hours per week).
Russia (11$ hours, 10 hours on Saturdays and eves of holi­
days, without distinction of age).
V. 12 hours (72 hours per week) is the maximum working-day for
women in Italy (young persons under 15 may not work more than
11 hours).
Asia.

12 hours for women and young persons under 15:
Japan.
Africa.

10 hours:
1. Algeria, for women and young persons under 18.
2. Tunis, for all industrial workers.
America.

I. 8 hours (48 hours per week):
1. Arizona (in the laundry department of laundries); 2. Cali­
fornia (canneries excepted).
II. 9 hours (54 hours per week):
1. Missouri (8 hours for young persons under 16); 2. Utah.



14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

III. 9 to 9j hours:
1. Massachusetts, 2. Michigan, and 3. Ohio, 10 hours per
day, 54 per week; 4. New Jersey, 10 hours on week days
and 5 hours on Saturday, 55 hours per week; 5. Rhode
Island, 10 hours on week days and 6 hours on Saturday,
56 hours per week; 6. Connecticut, 7. Maine, and 8.
Minnesota (8 hours a day for young persons) 10 hours, 58
per week for women; 9. New Hampshire, 9 hours and 40
minutes per day, or 58 hours per week; 10. Illinois, 8 hours
for young persons, 10 hours for women; 11. Wisconsin (8
hours for young persons under 16 and 10 hours for women,
or 55 hours per week); 12. Quebec (only in cotton and
woolen mills, 10 hours on week days, 58 hours per week).
IV. 10 hours:
1. New York and 2. Nebraska each limiting hours to 8 per
day for young persons; 3. Oregon; 4. Virginia; 5.
Georgia; 6. Tennessee; 7. Pennsylvania (young per­
sons 10 hours, women 12 hours, but not more than
60 hours per week); 8. Maryland, only in textile fac­
tories; 9. South Carolina (women and young persons
11 hours per day, 60 hours per week, only in textile
factories); 10. Louisiana; 11. Kentucky; 12. Missis­
sippi (8 hours for young persons under 16).
Australasia.

An 8 or 9 hour working-day (48 or 54 hours per week):
(а) For both sexes of all ages—
New Zealand. The working-day is 8£ hours (45 per
week) except in woolen factories where it is 8f hours
(48 hours per week).
(б) For women and young persons under 16—
1. Western Australia, 8f hours (48 hours per week);
2. Queensland, 10 hours (48 per week);
3. Victoria, 10 hours (48 hours per week);
4. New South Wales (a maximum of 48 hours per
week);
5. South Australia (a maximum of 48 hours per
week).
B. REST PERIODS AND OVERTIME.

In the States which signed the Berne Convention of 1906, the
night's rest of women occupies 66 of the 144 hours of the working
week. The remaining 78 hours cover the rest periods during working
time, the normal daily hours of labor, and any overtime. Thus the
maximum time available for rest periods and overtime, according to
the actual hours of labor, would be as follows:



M AXIM UM WORKING-DAY FOB WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

15

ACTUAL D A IL Y HOURS OF LABOR AND MAXIMUM TIME AVAILABLE FOR REST
PERIODS AND OVERTIME W O R K IN STATES WHICH SIGNED THE BERNE CONVEN­
TION OF 1906 PROVIDING FOR A MINIMUM NIGHT'S REST OF 11 HOURS.
Maximum periods
available for—
Actual daily hours of labor.
Rest
periods.
12................................................................................................................................. 1 hour.......
11................................................................................................................................. /2 hours or.
\l hour......
10J................................................................................... (2 hours or.
\1 hour......
10.................................................................................... (2 hours or.
\1 hour......

Overtime
work.

J hour.
-1
\ hour or
1h hours.
1 hour or
2 hours.

The reduction of the number of hours of work has two advantages.
In the first place it facilitates the doing away with short forenoon and
afternoon rest periods and concentrates the time devoted to rest to
the noon rest, the necessity of which is obvious for reasons of physical
welfare; secondly, it permits the adapting of the daily hours of labor
to the requirements of the business prevailing at the moment, and
overtime allowed as an exception by law takes the place of systematic
overtime.
The regulation of rest periods and overtime will here be considered
separately.
1 . R E S T P E R IO D S .

The existing laws grant the following rest periods during the daily
working time:
In Europe.

(a) Two-hour rest periods altogether in Germany (for young per­
sons of both sexes; only 1 hour for adult female workers, and for
those who have household duties a noon rest of 1J hours), Bulgaria,
Denmark, Finland, Great Britain (in textile factories),Hungary,
and Luxemburg; in Italy if the hours of labor exceed 11 hours.
(b) One and one-half hour rest periods altogether in Austria,
Bosnia, Leichtenstein, Belgium, Great Britain (in nontextile
industries), Switzerland (for women having household duties,
otherwise 1 hour), and in Italy, if the hours of labor are between 8
and 11 hours.
(c) One-hour rest periods altogether in France, Spain, Norway,
the Netherlands (at least 1^ hours for those whose hours of labor
end after 6 p. m.), Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Servia (2£
hours for work in the sun heat), and in Italy if the working time is
more than 6 and less than 8 hours.
In Africa.

(a) One-hour rest periods altogether in Tunis.



16

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

In Asia.

1
hour rest periods altogether in Japan, if the working time
exceeds 10 hours, otherwise § hour; only \ hour in India after every
6 working hours.
In America.
(a) 2 hours noon rest in Argentina (Buenos Aires).
(jb) One hour rest periods altogether in all Canadian Provinces;
in the United States, in New York (45 minutes for minors and
women, and 20 minutes additional if employed after 7 p. m.), Penn­
sylvania, California (in saw mills), Indiana, Minnesota.
(e) Three-fourths hour rest periods in Michigan.
(d) One-half hour rest periods in Ohio, Oregon, Massachusetts,
Louisiana (1 hour in sales places in cities of over 50,000 inhabitants),
New Jersey.
In Australasia.
(a) One hour rest periods in South Australia and Tasmania
after every 5 working hours.
(b) Three-fourths hour in New Zealand after every 4£ working
hours, and in Western Australia after every 5 working hours.
(c) One-half hour in Victoria, New South Wales, and Queens­
land (in all of them after every 5 working hours).
In the Netherlands the factory inspector is empowered to pre­
scribe an extra rest period of £ hour in any establishment.
Sweden is the only State which leaves it to the employers to allow
rest periods as they please. Article 49, of the act of October 17,
1900, provides that the 10-hour working-day of young persons under
18 shall be interrupted by “ suitable rest periods” but does not
regulate the rest periods.1
While in Sweden the regulation of the rest periods is left to the
employers, in Great Britain in textile factories and workshops the
shorter duration of the actual maximum working-day, is caused by
the legal extension of the rest periods for the persons protected.
Within an equal working-day (6 to 6, 7 to 7; also 8 to 8 o’clock in non­
textile factories and workshops) rest periods amounting to altogether
2 hours must be allowed on full workdays in textile factories and
workshops, and rest periods amounting to altogether 1J hours must
be allowed in nontextile factories. In both cases 1 hour must be
allowed before 3 o’clock in the afternoon, and a rest period of half
an hour must be allowed on Saturdays. On the other hand a rest
period of at least half an hour must be allowed after every 4J hours
in textile factories and workshops, and after every 5 hours in non­
textile factories and workshops (arts. 24 and 26). The latter rest
i These provisions have been continued unchanged by the repealing act of June 29,1912,




MAXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

17

periods are also prescribed in print works, bleaching and dyeing
works, which are otherwise treated as textile factories and work­
shops.1
In Germany article 136 of the Industrial Code prescribes rest
periods of 2 hours for those young persons only who are employed
for 10 hours. One hour’s rest is prescribed for midday, and two
rest periods each of £ hour for forenoon and afternoon. A midday
rest of 1 hour is all that is required in the case of 8-hour shifts, pro­
vided that work is not performed for more than 4 hours before the
rest period. Half an hour only is required for young persons who
are employed during 6 hours. Women who have domestic duties
to attend to and who make application in that behalf, are allowed
a rest period of 1J hours, and other women are only allowed a 1-hour
rest period (art. 137). These differences in the regulation of rest
periods have led to difficulties which would be avoided if morning
and afternoon rests were allowed to women as well as to young
persons, as in practice is done in many establishments.
Articles 139 and 139a of the Industrial Code allow exceptions from
the system described above. Article 139 provides for exceptions
necessitated by accidents or force majeure or in view of the nature
of the work; and article 139a gives the Federal Council the right
to permit general exceptions for particular industries.
According to article 139, the rest periods may by special request
be regulated differently by the higher administrative authorities or
the Imperial Chancellor, the workmen, however, or the workmen’s
committee must previously be given an opportunity to express their
views concerning such regulation.
The Federal Council has made use of the authority conferred upon
it by article 139a as regards the glass industry and large-scale estab­
lishments of the iron industry and has abrogated the prohibition of
night work for male young persons.
Rest periods are regulated in these two industries as follows:
1. In the glass industry the ten-hour maximum working-day
must be interrupted by rest periods amounting altogether to 1 hour.
Interruptions of less than 15 minutes’ duration are not taken into
consideration. But the higher administrative authorities may
allow exceptions, if it is shown that the work is not very tiring
and that a number of interruptions occur which give sufficient rest.
(Decree of Mar. 5, 1902. R. G. B., p. 65.)
2. In large-scale establishments of the iron industry rest periods
amounting to not less than 2 hours must be allowed in every shift
lasting longer than 8 hours. Interruptions in work of less than
15 minutes’ duration are not counted as rest periods. The rest
1 Exceptions and modifications are given in Appendix X.

85606°—Bull. 118—13------2



18

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

periods may, however, be reduced to 1 hour in the case of shifts of
less than 11 hours. (Art. 3 of the decree of December 19, 1908.)
In Austria rest periods are regulated by article 74a of the Indus­
trial Code. If not more than 5 hours are worked before or after
the midday rest, the rest period (J hour each) in these periods of
employment may be omitted, but not the midday rest of one hour.
Rest periods amounting to 1$ hours, including a midday rest of 1
hour, have also been established for railway building and construc­
tion work undertaken by railways. (Art. 8 of act of June 22 and
28, 1902.) Young persons employed in the mining industry must
be allowed a rest period after 4 hours’ work; the total duration of
their rest periods must be longer by 1 hour than those allowed to
adults, and they must not be employed in any other manner during
such rest periods. (Order of the Ministry of Agriculture, June 8,
1907, art. 5.)1
The Bosnian order of February 3, 1909 (art. 8), prescribes that
rest periods of at least 1 hour must be allowed in a working-day of
10 hours, and that rest periods of at least 1$ hours must be allowed
in a longer working-day. Where possible, 1 hour must be allowed
at midday, and the rest periods must be distributed in such manner
that one of the other rest periods lasts at least 15 minutes, and
that a rest is allowed after every 5 hours’ work.
In Belgium the order in pursuance of article 6 of the act of Decem­
ber 13, 1889, which prescribes rest periods of 1$ hours, does not apply
the system to all industries. In the case of young persons employed
in the crystal and hollow-glass industry, whose total hours of labor
are 10 hours 20 minutes, two rest periods of 20 minutes each must be
allowed in the morning and afternoon and one of half an hour at
midday. The total duration of rest periods amounts altogether to 1
hour in the leather, felt, underclothing industry and other branches
of the clothing industry (working-day 10 hours), in the machine
industry (working-day 11 hours), to one-eighth of the working time
in the mining industry below ground when interruptions occur caused
by the nature of the work. In the match industry the workers must
leave the workrooms during the rest periods. In the spinning and
weaving industries the machines must be stopped during rest periods,
and in the machine industries and a few other industries the workers
must be allowed to leave the premises.
Spain requires by law of March 13, 1900, articles 2 and 9, order of
November 13, 1900, articles 6, 8 and 19, a rest period of one hour
after 3 hours’ work for young persons of 10 to 14 years of age; after
4 hours’ night work, for young persons of 14 to 16 years of age;
further, two special rest periods for women to nurse their infants,
each amounting to half an hour.
1 The exceptions from the legal regulation of rest periods in Austria are given in Appendix II.




M AXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

19

In the United States Massachusetts is the only State which has
established simultaneous meal times for protected persons (Acts
of 1909, ch. 514, secs. 67-69). A rest period of half an hour must
be granted after every 6 hours’ work; after 6| hours’ work if work
terminates at 1 p. m.; and after 7J hours if meals are taken dur­
ing work and if work terminates at 2 p. m. Exceptions may be
allowed by the chief of the district police, with the sanction of the
governor, for iron works, glass works, paper mills, letterpress estab­
lishments, print works, and bleaching and dyeing works.
The number of hours after which a rest period must be allowed
varies in different States. The rest periods required are—
Denmark, a rest period must be allowed after 4^ hours (factories
and bakeries);
Spain, after 4 hours of night work;
Great Britain, after 4J hours (textile factories), and 5 hours (other
factories and knit-goods factories, order of May 12, 1902);
Bosnia, Bulgaria, after 5 hours; Roumania, Italy, Russia,
Massachusetts, after 6 hours;
New Zealand, after 4J hours (4£ hours in woolen factories); in
New South Wales, after 5 hours.
In Russia a one-hour rest period is prescribed by law only in cases
where the work lasts for more than 10 hours and it appears to be
necessary in view of local circumstances (regulations of Sept. 20
(Oct. 2), 1897, art. 8). If it is impossible to allow a rest period for
meals after 6 hours’ work, the workers must take their meals during
work (art. 9).
2. O V E R T IM E .

With regard to the regulation of overtime the legislation of the
different States falls into two groups, namely:
1. States which leave overtime to be regulated by the administra­
tive authorities and fix no maximum:
2. States where the maximum number of hours which may be
worked in addition to the maximum daily working time is prescribed
by law.
In this case overtime may be limited—
(а) Either by allowing work beyond the maximum limit on single
workdays but prohibiting work beyond the maximum limit per week
and prescribing in consequence shorter hours of work on other days
in the same week;
(б) Or by establishing a maximum of overtime within the calendar
year.
States in which overtime is regulated by administrative authorities.

Referring to States in group 1, in Russia overtime may be worked
ad libitum in pursuance of article 18 of the regulations of 20th
September (2d Oct.), 1897, amended 14th (26th) March, 1898, and



20

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

law of 2d (15th) July, 1902, article 19, paragraph 1. The law dis­
tinguishes between the hours of overtime which are compulsory and
not compulsory for the worker. The former are only such hours of
overtime as are a technical necessity and as are provided by the shop
rules. All other hours of overtime are permitted only after mutual
agreement between worker and employer in each single case. In
cases of overtime in which all workers of an establishment or the
greater number of such workers participate, the special permission of
the authorities is required.
In Switzerland, article 11, paragraph 4, of the Factory Act
provides that the proper district authorities, or where there are no
such authorities, the local authorities may sanction overtime for a
period not exceeding two weeks. The cantonal authorities may sanc­
tion overtime for longer periods.
States in which overtime is prescribed by law.

in some States of group 2 (a) the law does not regulate overtime but
prohibits the carrying on of work for more than the maximum
number of hours per week. The majority of the States of the
American Union belong to this group; also Spain (royal decree
26th June, 1902, art. 2) where an employer with the consent of his
workmen may substitute a 66-hour week for the 11-hour day.
Twelve additional hours of overtime per week may be conceded by the
local “ juntas” in case of interruption of operation caused by force
majeure. In Norway (law of 10th Sept., 1909, art. 24) young
persons may be employed for 10$ hours instead of 10 hours (except­
ing Saturday) during the summer months in work recognized by
the supervisory authorities as being of a light kind. They must not,
however, be employed for more than the 58 hours per week prescribed
by law.
Of the States in group 2 (6) overtime is regulated by law in Great
Britain, Germany, France, Austria, the Netherlands, New
Zealand, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia
and all the Canadian Provinces and in Japan.
Legal exceptions as to the maximum number of hours of overtime.

The law allows the following exceptions as regards the maximum
number of hours overtime:
In Great Britain women and young persons may not work over­
time in textile factories. Article 49 of the Factory and Workshop
Act of 1901 allows 2 hours' overtime to women only in nontextile
factories and workshops either between 6 a. m. and 8 p. m., or
between 7 a. m. and 9 p. m., or between 8 a. m. and 10 p. m. Over­
time must not be allowed on Saturday or the substituted day. Over­
time must not be worked on more than three days in any one week,



MAXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOB WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

21

nor on more than 30 days in any one year. On days when overtime
is worked the rest periods must amount to 2 hours, of which a rest
period of half an hour must be allowed after 5 p. m.
These factories and workshops may be named by special order and
are those in which (a) either materials are liable to be spoilt by the
weather, or (6) there is a press of work at certain seasons, or (c) there
is a sudden press of orders from unforeseen causes. Overtime may not
be worked in cases where the health of the women is liable to be
injuriously affected.1
Laundries follow the general rule (at most two hours on not more
than three days in any week and not on Saturday) with regard to the
overtime employment of women (act of 28th Aug., 1907). Women
may also be employed between 6 a. m. and 7 p. m., or between 7 a. m.
and 8 p. m., or between 8 a. m. and 9 p. m. on four days in the week
and on not more than 60 days in the year. The total number of hours
per week including rest periods must not exceed 68.
Where overtime is worked the following conditions must be ob­
served: (1) In pursuance of section 3, subsection 1 of the Factory
Act, 400 cubic feet of space must be allowed to each person employed
as against 250 cubic feet during the ordinary period of employment.
(2) A notice must be sent to the inspector before 8 p. m. on the
day when the overtime is worked (sec. 60, subs. 4). The notice must
be posted in the workrooms during the period in which overtime is
worked and the particulars must be entered in a register. In pur­
suance of article 151, the workrooms where women are employed
overtime are treated as separate factories (order of 27th Mar., 1897).
Overtime employment is not allowed in nontextile factories and work­
shops and parts thereof which are conducted on the system of not
employing any young person or child therein (sec. 49, subs. 2). In
these factories the period of employment for a woman may be 12
hours a day with a rest period of not less than one hour and a half, and
on Saturday an 8-hour day with a rest period of not less than half
an hour.
Legal maximum number of hours overtime in a year.
In Germany overtime may be sanctioned only for women but
not for young persons (art. 138a, 139a of the Industrial Code).
The overtime employment of women may be sanctioned—
1. On account of unusual press of work.
2. On account of disturbances due to force majeure or accidents.
3. For specified seasonal industries, by the Federal Council.
In the first case the lower administrative authority may sanction
the extension of the daily period of employment from 10 to 12 hours
for a period of 14 days, but on not more than 40 days altogether in
any calendar year (maximum 80 hours per annum). The period of
1 For a list of the trades m the United Kingdom where overtime is allowed see Appendix HE.




22

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LAB0B STATISTICS.

rest must be at least 10 hours. In exceptional cases, e. g., emergencies,
stock taking, and cleaning work, adult women may be employed on
Saturday until 8 p. m., provided that they have no domestic duties
to attend to and that they have a free day on the following Sunday.
Sanction for overtime for a period exceeding 14 days may be
given for not more than 50 days in any year, provided that the average
number of hours worked in the year on working-days does not exceed
the ordinary legal hours of labor.
In the second case in two instances (force majeure and accidents)
overtime may be sanctioned by the higher administrative authorities
for a period not exceeding 4 weeks and by the Imperial Chancellor
for any longer period. In urgent cases, as also in order to prevent
accidents, the lower administrative authority may allow exceptions
for a period not exceeding 14 days.
In the third case the Federal Council has decreed for the following
industries exceptional regulations, which, although they do not abro­
gate the prohibition of night work, mean, nevertheless, a reduction of
the minimum night rest otherwise in force:
1. In anthracite mines, zinc and lead ore works, and coke manufactories. In
undertakings in the district of Oppeln where work is performed in two shifts, women
over 16 years of age may, until 1st April, 1912, be employed in the first shift from
5 a. m. and in the second shift until 10 p. m., provided that neither shift is longer
than 8 hours. (Order of 20th Mar., 1902, R. G. B., p. 77.)
2. In dairies, creameries and establishments where milk is sterilized by machinery,
women over 16 years of age may be employed between 4 a. m. and 10 p. m. between
1st April and 1st October of each year. Women employed after 8.30 p. m. must be
allowed a rest of 3 hours at midday. (Order of 10th June, 1904, R. G. Bl., p. 217.)
3. In fruit and vegetable preserving factories (where more than 10 persons are
employed) women over 16 years of age may be employed between 4.30 a. m. and
10 p. m. on not more than 60 days in the calendar year including every day on which
even one woman is employed overtime. The daily period of employment must
not exceed 13 hours and the uninterrupted period of rest must be at least 8£ hours.
(Order of 20th Nov., 1909, R. G. B., p. 965.)
4. In fish preserving women over 16 may be employed until 7.30 p. m. on the eves
of Sundays and holidays on at most 60 days annually for 13 hours between 6 p. m.
and 10 a. m., which must be followed by a period of rest of at least 8J hours. (Order
of 25th Nov. 1909, R. G. B., p. 966.)

In these cases also the rule applies that wKen women are employed
after 5 p. m. on the eve of Sunday and holiday they must be
allowed a complete holiday on the following Sunday or holiday.
In France in pursuance of article 4 and of the authorization of
article 7 of the act of 2d November, 1892, the decree of 15th July,
1893, and later orders allow young persons of both sexes and women
to be employed overtime. Overtime is accordingly allowed in case
of force majeure, the accumulation of orders, and in certain sea­
sonal industries or industries which work up or produce perishable
substances.1



1 A list of these industries is given in Appendix IV.

M AXIM UM WORKXNG-DA Y FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

23

In Austria article 96a (par. 6) of the Industrial Code provides that
except in the case of young persons the provisions relating to the
maximum working-day shall not apply to work which is subsidiary
to and must be performed before or after the manufacturing process
(boiler heating, lighting, cleaning). It also provides (par. 4) that
in cases where the regular work has been interrupted by force
majeure or accidents or where there is an unusual press of work
the industrial authority of first instance may extend the hours of
work in particular undertakings for a period not exceeding three
weeks. The sanction of the provincial political authority must be
obtained for longer periods.
In urgent cases overtime may be worked on not more than three
days in any month on notice being given to the industrial authority
of first instance. Overtime must be specially paid for.
The ministerial decree of 27th May, 1885 (line 15576), provided
that three hours should be the maximum overtime which might be
worked on three days in any one month on merely giving notice to
the industrial authority. Overtime must not be sanctioned by the
industrial authority for more than two hours on any day and per­
mission may only be granted once in a year.
The provincial authorities may sanction overtime for not more
than 12 weeks in any year. Since the industrial authority of first
instance is authorized to sanction overtime for three weeks, overtime
may be worked altogether fifteen weeks in the year.
The law of 21st June, 1884, authorizes the district mining authori­
ties to allow overtime in cases of extraordinary circumstances or
during times of temporary but urgent necessity. The number of
hours of overtime has to be limited. The law of 26th December,
1911, limited these hours by prescribing that female persons below
the age of 18 years may only work overtime during 40 days in the
year and subject to the condition that their night rest is at least
10 hours. No such overtime is allowed to workers of less than 16
years of age (order of the Ministry of Agriculture of 8th June, 1907,
art. 4).
In the Netherlands the following provisions are in force from
1st January, 1912:
If at certain seasons of a year an increased activity is usual in
an enterprise, or in case of extraordinary circumstances, written
permission may be given by the competent industrial inspector,
with or without conditions, that all young persons or women em­
ployed in such an enterprise or some of them may work not to
exceed 12 hours per day and 66 hours during seven subsequent days
(as a transitional measure, 72 hours during the year 1912).
In order to obtain such permission for more than six days or in
order to secure an exemption for the same factory or workshop



24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOE STATISTICS.

before eight days have passed since the termination of the last
authorization, the chief industrial inspector of the district is bound
to obtain for each separate case the approval of the Minister charged
with the execution of the law.
The Minister or his deputy may issue a special permit to enterprises
in which the working of overtime is frequently necessary, to the effect
that in such urgencies all women and young persons employed may
work longer and later than the law otherwise permits without obtain­
ing a previous permission from the industrial inspector.
Such ministerial permission, which is given either unconditionally
or subject to certain conditions, may only be made use of during a
maximum of 24 days in the year. In addition it is provided that—
(а) Work must not be carried on during more than 11 hours per
day and not more than 66 hours during 7 subsequent days (12 and 70
hours, as a transitional measure in 1912).
(б) Work may begin only one hour earlier or end one hour later
than the hours prescribed by law.
In Japan article 8 of the Factory Act of 1911 provides that in
cases where this is temporarily necessary two hours may be worked in
addition to the 12 hours of the maximum working-day on 7 days in
any month, of which notice must be given to the administrative
authority. In seasonal industries one hour overtime may be worked
on not more than 120 days in any year. The Indian Factory Act of
1911 does not allow overtime. Article 26 provides that women and
children shall only be employed during the hours fixed by law;
article 31 prohibits the use of mechanical power in textile factories
for more than twelve hours, except in cases where the work is per­
formed in shifts.
In New Zealand (Factory Act, 1908) in factories where the 8J-hour
day is in force, 3 hours’ overtime may be worked on not more than
three days in any week, which must not be consecutive and on not
more than 30 days in the year, i. e., 11J hours may be worked in a day
as against 12J hours in Great Britain. (Maximum overtime, permis­
sible during one year, 90 hours as against 60 in Great Britain.) Notice
must be previously given to the inspector and particulars of the
employment entered in the overtime register. Workers earning less
than 10 shillings ($2.43) per week must be paid at least sixpence (12
cents), and workers earning more than 10 shillings ($2.43) per week
must be paid at least ninepence (18 cents) for every hour of overtime,
and workers who live more than one mile from the factory must be
paid at least 1 shilling (24 cents) extra to cover the cost of their
meal.
Victoria and Queensland allow 3 hours of overtime on 40 days,
New South Wales on 30 days, in the year, South Australia 100
hours per year, and Western Australia allows overtime to be worked



MAXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

25

on 12 days in a period of six months. New Brunswick allows 3$
hours, Ontario, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia 2\ hours, and Quebec
2 hours on 36 days in the year (maximum 90 hours per annum).
The maximum legally permissible hours of overtime in a year are as
follows:
60 hours in Great Britain in nontextile factories only (100 hours
in the industries specified in article 50 of the Fac­
tory and Workshop Act in case of impending dan­
ger of perishing of materials.
80 hours in Germany (not for young persons).
120 hours in France.
120 hours in Japan.
180 hours in Austria.
The following chapter will prove that generally this legal limit
is not reached in practice. This seems to show that the modification
of this legal limit of overtime by international treaty is expedient.




CHAPTER n .
ACCOUNT OF THE ACTUAL WORKING-DAY AND OVERTIME TAKEN
FROM OFFICIAL STATISTICS.

The materials at our disposal are unfortunately not sufficient to
enable us to give a comprehensive and exact account of the hours
of labor in all industries and all countries. We do not propose to
deal with the statistics respecting the hours of labor in the mining
industry, which in some cases include and in others exclude the rest
periods and the time occupied in entering and leaving the mine, nor
with the hours of labor of persons employed in continuous processes
and in commercial and traffic undertakings. With regard to per­
sons employed in other industrial undertakings carried on in closed
premises the majority of States do not give information as to short
time and overtime. It is, therefore,^impossible to distinguish between
temporary short time due to accidents and force majeure and the
permanent establishment of a shorter working-day, things which
should be dealt with separately. In hardly any case is the number
of hours worked on a full working-day, on Saturday and during the
week, given separately, and only a few States publish reliable infor­
mation as to the overtime sanctioned.
The information as to the number of hours worked by young per­
sons of either sex is particularly inadequate. In spite, however, of
the great gaps in this branch of statistics it is possible to present an
account of the actual industrial working-day which is sufficient for
practical purposes. This account is supplemented by statistics of
breaches of the law relating to the legal maximum working-day and
overtime.
I. STATES WHERE A lO-HOUR OR AN 8-HOUR W ORKING-DAY IS PRESCRIBED
BY LAW.

In Germany the last official inquiry1 shows that on 1st October,
1902, of the 813,560 women employed in industrial establishments—
10.6 per cent had a working-day not exceeding 9 hours.
42.7 per cent had a working-day of from 9 to 10 hours.
46.7 per cent had a working-day of from 10 to 11 hours.
The corresponding percentages for the 38,706 establishments where
these women were employed were 17.5 per cent, 47.2 per cent, and
36.3 per cent.
1 Die Arbeitzeit der Fabrikarbeiterinnen. Nach Berichten der Gewerbeaufsichtsbeamten, bearbeite*
im Reichsamte des Innern, Berlin, 1905 p. 23.

26




27

M AXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOB WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

In the years 1906 to 1909, inclusive, the German inspectors discov­
ered the following breaches of the law relating to the hours of labor:
Women:
1909............................................
1908............................................
1907............................................
1906............................................
Young persons:
1909............................................
1908............................................
1907............................................
1906............................................

Persons
affected.

Cases.

...........................
...........................
...........................
...........................

489
431
359
401

2, 959
2,397
2,534
3,707

...........................
...........................
...........................
...........................

1,248
1,149
1,238
1,393

3,019
2,889
2,914
3,330

The cases of breaches of the law refer only to the length of employ­
ment per day and do not include the numerous breaches against
provisions concerning rest periods, working on Saturday or on the
eves of holidays, or Sunday rest, etc., which are reported by the
German industrial inspectors.
The ' ‘ Statistiche Erhebungen liber Lohn- und Arbeitsbedingungen,”
issued in 1909 by the Federation of German Factory Workers, show
that in industries where both sexes are employed side by side an
increase in the 10-hour workday for women has as a consequence a
similar increase for men. According to these investigations the
following percentages of both sexes worked per day:
PER CENT OF MEN AND OF WOMEN W ORKING SPECIFIED HOURS PER D A Y , 1909.
Per cent of workers who worked—
Under 9
hours.

9 to 10
hours.

Over 10
hours.

6.8
Men....................................................................................
76.1
17.1
81.1
9.1
Women..............................................................................9.8

Total
workers.

34,778
2,512

The following information as to sanction for the overtime employ­
ment of adult women in Germany is taken from the annual reports
of the industrial inspectors:
OVERTIME EMPLOYMENT (OVER 11-HOUR DA Y) OF ADULT WOMEN IN GERMANY,
1906 TO 1909.
1909
Number of establishments where overtime was worked.
Number of women for whom overtime was sanctioned - .
Number of days on which overtime was sanctioned___
Number of hours of overtime...........................................
Number of cases on which sanction of overtime was re­
fused...............................................................................
Average number of days per establishment on which
overtime was worked.................................................
Average number of hours per year during which over­
time was worked per woman........................................

1908

1907

1,864
139,353
32,709
1,962,815

1,391
87,198
23,280
1,279,132

1,870
143,683
30,819
1,846,206

1906
2,610
197,938
45,516
2,464,879

111

60

72

134

17.5

16.7

16.5

17.4

14.1

14.7

12.8

12.5

The figures given above refer only to hours of overtime over and
above the 11-hour workday. The 10-hour day has been in force only



28

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

since January 1, 1910, and the tables for the whole of Germany
have not yet been published. But the figures for the largest
Federal State, Prussia, for 1910 are given below with comparative
figures for 1909. Authorizations for overtime have evidently been
on the increase. The legal reduction of the hours of labor coincided
with an industrial boom. According to the reports of the factory
inspectors sufficient female workers could not always be procured.
Thus partly in consequence of the industrial activity and partly in
order to make the transition to the 10-hour day easier, more over­
time was allowed than in previous years. For Prussia the figures
are as follows:
OVERTIME EMPLOYMENT OF ADULT WOMEN IN PRUSSIA, 1909 AND 1910.

1910

Number of establishments where overtime was worked....................
Number of women for whom overtime was sanctioned......................
Number of establishments where overtime was allowed....................
Number of hours of overtime...............................................................
Number of cases in which sanction of overtime was refused..............
Average number of days per establishment on which overtime was
worked................................................................................................
Average number of hours per year during which overtime was
worked per woman............................................................................

1909

2,236
160,254
40,862
2,381,579
298

490
34,777
8,591
470,123
67

18.3

17.5

14.9

Decrease
in 1910 as
compared
with 1909.

13.5

1,746
125,477
32,271
1,911,456
231

In France the following number of breaches of the provisions
respecting the hours of work of children, young persons, and women
has been recorded since 1905 (the ten-hour day came into operation
in 1904, in pursuance of the act of 30th Mar., 1900):
In 1905, 5,417; 1906, 4,417; 1907, 3,319; 1908, 2,844; 1909, 3,368;
1910, 2,749.
The increase in the number of breaches of the law which occurred
in 1909 has been put down to the industrial boom of that year.
Nearly two-thirds of the breaches occurred in the clothing trade
(875), trades subsidiary to the clothing trade (242), the silk indus­
try (484), the cotton industry (323), and the woolen industry (270).
The following table shows the number of days for which sanction
for overtime was given:
OVERTIME W ORK AUTHORIZED IN FRANCE, 1905 TO 1910.
Number of days for which sanction for
overtime was given—
Year.

1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910




Number
of estab­
Total num­
lish­
To adults ber of persons.
To
To
ments. persons under over women under the act
18 years of March 30,
18 years of age
of age.
1909.
6,824
7,053
6,826
6,852
7,289
8,269

1,785,222
1,585,052
1,522,502
1,429,747
1,661,002
1,787,766

4,234,293
3,955,377
3,743,392
3,392,165
3,759,350
4,221,175

4,368,893
4,448,737
4,435,592
3,964,693
4,506,344
5,148,005

10,388,408
9,989,166
9,701,487
8,786,605
9,926,696
11,156,946

M AXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

29

Three-quarters of the establishments for which sanction for over­
time was given belong to the clothing and textile industries.
In Great Britain the ten-hour day as introduced in Germany and
France (together with a free Saturday afternoon and the prohibition
of overtime) is operative in the textile industry. In all other indus­
tries only a weekly average of 10 hours per day is required, the maxi­
mum being 10$ hours per day, excepting Saturday. The following
information as to the observance of these provisions is available from
reports of the Board of Trade:
Textile industry.1
Number of persons reported.......................................................
Average weekly hours of labor (not including overtime worked
by men)....................................................................................
Per cent of persons employed on an average—
Less than 54 hours per week...............................................
54 to 55$ hours per week......................................................
56 to 59$ hours per week......................................................
60 hours and over per week..... ..........................................

472,961
55.3
4.4
88.5
6.4
.7

Clothing industry.2
Number of persons reported........................................................
Average weekly hours of labor...................................................
Per cent of persons employed on an average—
Less than 54 hours per week................................................
54 to 56 hours per week.......................................................
56 to 60 hours per week.......................................................
60 hours per week.................................................................
Over 60 hours per week........................................................

198,959
52. 7
55.0
24.9
14.9
4.9
.3

Building and woodworking industries.3
Number of persons employed (in the summer).........................
Average weekly hours of labor (in the summer).......................
Per cent of persons employed on an average—
Less than 54 hours per week............................... ...............
54 to 56 hours per week........................................................
56 to 60 hours per week........................................................
60 hours per week.................................................................
Over 60 hours per week.......................................................

153,580
53.4
50.1
21.3
27.2
.9
.5

Metal, engineering, and shipbuilding trades.4
Number of persons employed.....................................................
Average weekly hours of labor...................................................
Per cent of persons employed on an average—
Less than 54 hours per week................................................
54 to 56 hours per week........................................................
56 to 60 hours per week........................................................
60 hours and over.................................................................

740,509
53.2
51.2
42.3
5.2
1. 3

1 Report of an Enquiry b y the Board of Trade into the Earnings and Hours of Latiour of Workpeople of
the United Kingdom. I. Textile Trades in 1906, London, 1909.
2 Idem. II. Clothing Trades in 1906, London, 1909, p. 12.
8 Idem. III. Building and Woodworking Trades in 1906, London, 1910, p. 10.
* Idem. VI. Metal, Engineering, and Shipbuilding Trades in 1906, London, .1911, p. 18.




30

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The report of the chief inspector of factories and workshops con­
tains no statistics of overtime. The following were the number of
convictions for breaches of the law relating to the daily hours of
labor.1
CONVICTIONS FOR BREACHES OF LAW RELATING TO D A ILY HOURS OF LABOR,
GREAT BRITAIN, 1906 TO 1909.
1909
Women
. . .........................
Young persons..................................................................

1908

985
669

1906

1907

905
605

1,342
791

1,234
648

In those American States which have established a 10-hour day for
women the actual weekly hours of labor fall even below the European
average. In the case of Massachusetts, the United States Com­
missioner of Labor shows that in 1908 in the cotton textile industry
the actual average weekly hours of labor of 3,860 men were 50.5, and
those of 8,060 women were 49.6.2 In Maine, New Hampshire,
Massachusetts, and Rhode Island the actual average weekly hours
of labor of 2,852 spinners were 48.7, and those of 9,656 weavers were
51.2. In five Southern States the actual average number of hours
worked was only slightly higher, i. e., 51.2 hours for 6,311 spinners
and 50.1 hours for 9,747 weavers.3
In New York the 10-hour act appears to be often violated in the
clothing trade through collusion between the workmen and the
employers.4 The following table, however, shows a steady decline
in the number of hours worked in the State of New York by all
factory workers, who numbered 1,086,555 in 1907, and 958,151 in
1908.5
HOURS OF LABO R PER W E E K OF FACTORY W ORKERS IN THE STATE OF N EW Y O R K ,
1898 TO 1908.
Percentage.
Hours per week.
1898
51 or less........................................................
52 to 57..........................................................
58 to 63..........................................................
Over 63.........................................................

8.2
22.1
65.8
3.9

1901
6.3
31.7
60.1
1.9

1904
7.4
44.9
46-0
1.7

1906
8.4
45.2
43.0
3.4

1907
9.6
46.6
40.5
3.3

1908
13.7
43.3
40.3
2.7

1 Annual Report of Chief Inspector of Factories and Workshops for the year 1909, p. 241 (IV, 10,12-15);
1908, p. 230 (IV, 10,12-15); 1907, p. 314 (IV, 10,12-15); 1906, p. 371 (IV, 10,12-15).
2 Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage-Eamers in the United States, Vol. I, Cotton Textile
Industry, Washington, 1910 (Sen. Doc. No. 645,61st Cong., 2d sess.), pp. 718,719.
« Idem, pp. 732-735; the average number of hours of operating time that prevailed in the mills covered
by this report were 58.4 per week in the 4 New England States, and 62.7 per week in the Southern States,
pp. 262-268.
* Idem. Vol. II, Men’s Ready-Made Clothing, Washington, 1911 (Sen. Doc. No. 645, 61st Cong., 2d sess.),
p. 114.
5 Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Part II, Albany, 1910, pp. X X X I IX X X IIL




M AXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

31

Only 29 prosecutions for breaches of the ten-hour act were under­
taken in 1908.1
In the Australian States where the 8-hour day (48 hours per
week) is in operation the problem of overtime arises whenever there
is an industrial boom.
In Victoria the number of convictions for unlawful employment
was:
CONVICTIONS FOR UNLAW FUL EMPLOYMENT, VICTORIA, 1904 TO 1909.

Year.

1909..............................................................................................................................
1908..............................................................................................................................
1906..............................................................................................................................
1905..............................................................................................................................
1904..............................................................................................................................

Number of
Total
convic­
tions for number of
convic­
unlawful
tions
overtime
for all
employ­
offenses.
ment.
122
70
50
29
13

401
313
286
235
266

In New South Wales sanction for overtime is applied for at
Christmas and when races and cattle shows are held, and especially
in the case of clothing and biscuit factories.
In 1907 sanction was applied for for 10 factories, employing 409
women and 62 young persons.
In 1908 sanction was applied for for 19 factories, employing 191
women and 2 young persons.
“ Employers,” says the chief inspector, “ assert that they can not
obtain sufficient skilled labor at those times. If greater attention
was paid to the training of unskilled laborers the difficulty could be
got over. I am confident that the effect of the Minimum Wage Act
will be to restrict overtime especially in the case of young girls.2
In New Zealand the authorities have since 1909 ceased to publish
the statistics of overtime because the trades-unions were of the opinion
that statistics of short time and lost time should also be published
in order to prevent an impression being produced abroad that the
amount of overtime worked indicated an artificially produced scarc­
ity of labor in New Zealand.
The number of hours 3 of overtime worked by women and young
persons was 278,562 in 1910 and 263,133 in 1909. The number of
hours of overtime worked in 1908 was 264,214 (468,804 hours in
the case of men) or, altogether 0.4 per cent of the normal number
of hours worked by 78,625 persons (not including lost days) and in
1906 it was 180,953 hours (275,007 in the case of men).
. i Eighth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor for 1908, Albany, 1909, p. 1.56.
* Legislative Assembly, New South Wales. Report on the Working of the Factories and Shops Acts,
etc., during the year 1908, Sydney, 1909, p. 10.
* Nineteenth and Eighteenth Annual Reports of the Department of Labour, Wellington, 1910 and 1909,
p. VIII.




32

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The average number of hours of overtime worked by one woman
in New Zealand was:
In 1906, 26 hours (70 in the case of men).
In 1907, 30.2 hours (60.8 in the case of men).
In 1908, 27.8 hours (61.2 in the case of men).
II. STATES WHERE AN 11-HOUR AND A 12-HOUR DAY IS PRESCRIBED.

In Switzerland the following particulars are furnished by the
published factory statistics:1
W E E K L Y W ORKING HOURS OF FACTORY EMPLOYEES IN SW ITZERLAND, 1895 AND
1901.
Per cent of workers who worked per w e e k Year.

1895...........................................
1901...........................................

Total num­
ber of
workers.

200,199
242,534

54 hours
and under.
2.0
3.3

56* to 57
hours.
3.3
4.6

59 to 60
hours.
28.3
38.1

61§ to 62J
hours.
9.0
12.2

64 to 65
hours.
57.0
41.7

Instead of following the reports quoted above and giving the
statistics of the weekly period of employment, the last reports of the
Federal factory inspectors give separate figures for Saturdays and the
other working-days and do not deal with the whole weekly period of
employment. The report shows that in the three districts taken
together the weekly working-day (excluding Saturday) of 310,193
persons was—
Under 10 hours, 13.5 per cent; 10 hours. 48.6 per cent; 10^
hours, 23.3 per cent; 11 hours. 14.4 per cent;
and the average working day on Saturday was—
Under 6 hours, 5.3 per cent; 6 hours, 8.7 per cent; 7 hours, 1.0
percent; 8 hours, 9.0 per cent; 8£ hours, 21.3 per cent; 9
hours, 54.7 per cent.
The following statistics for the years 1906 and 1907 show the extent
to which overtime has been worked since the coming into operation
of the Saturday Employment Act in 1905:
E X TE N T OF OVERTIME W O R K IN SW ITZERLAND, 1906 AND 1907.

District and year.

District I:
1906.........................................................
1907.........................................................
District II:
1906.........................................................
1907.........................................................
District III:
1906.........................................................
1907.........................................................

Number of
persons for
Number of whom over­
workers.
time was
sanctioned.

Number of Average
hours for number of Per cent of
which
hours of increase in
hours of
overtime
overtime
was sanc­ per worker.
labor.
tioned.

116,773

10,539
10,652

128,439
152,057

1.09
1.30

0.03
.04

65,167

6,509
2,907

166,632
76,652

2.71
1.17

.08
.04

125,188

14,375
10,491

335,293
234,938

2.67
1.87

.08
.05

1 Schweizerische Fabrikstatistik nach den Erhebungen des eidgenossischen Fabrikinspektorates vom
5. Juni 1901. vom Sehweizerischen Industrfedepartement, Berne, 19Q2, p. X V .




M AXIM UM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

33

Unfortunately the publication of this table has been discontinued
since 1908. The following prosecutions for breaches of the provisions
relating to the hours of labor (articles 11-14) were successful:
SUCCESSFUL PROSECUTIONS FOR BREACH OF LAW RELATING TO HOURS OF LABOR,
SW ITZERLAND, 1892 TO 1901.
Years.

Cases.

1892-93.....................................................
1894-95.....................................................
1896-97.....................................................
1898-99.....................................................
1900-1901..................................................

110
136
155
124
81

Years.

Cases.

1902-3.....................................................
1904-5.....................................................
1906-7......................................................
1908-9.....................................................

129
183
245
276

In Austria the Department of Labor Statistics in the Ministry of
Commerce published in 1906 a report on “ the working-day in Aus­
trian factories” 1 which was based on special inquiries made by the
industrial inspectors. We reproduce here the most important fea­
tures of the report. Of the 930,930 persons employed in 12,188 estab­
lishments not using continuous processes, the hours of work were as
follows:
D A ILY HOURS OF W ORK IN AUSTRIAN FACTORIES NOT USING CONTINUOUS
PROCESSES, 1906.
Per cent of workers who worked
per day—
OCX.

9 hours and
less.
Male........................................................................................................
Female ..................................................................................................
Total.............................................................................................

Over 9 to
10 hours.

10.4
5.5

46.3
45.2

41.6
48.5

8 .8

45.9

43.8

Over 10 to
11 hours.

“ The fact that women work on an average longer than men is due to the influence
of one industry, i. e., the textile industry, and in nearly all other industries the propor­
tion of women whose working-day exceeds 10 hours is less than the proportion of men.”
(p. LVII.)

For the 61,321 young persons under 16, of whom 35,753 are males,
employed in establishments not having continuous processes the hours
of work were as follows:
D A IL Y HOURS OF W O R K OF YOUNG PERSONS UNDER 16 IN AUSTRIAN FACTORIES
NOT USING CONTINUOUS PROCESSES, 1906.
Per cent of workers who worked
per day—
Sex.
9 hours and
less.
9.8
5.0
Total

...........................................................................

Over 9 to
10 hours.
47.3
42.4

40.4
51.9

7.8

45.2

45.2

1Die Arbeitszeit Is den Fabrikbetrieben Oesterreichs, Wien, 1907.

.85606°—Bull. 118—13------3



Over 10 to
11 hours.

34

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The proportion of the workers who worked short time on Saturday
and on the eves of holidays were 32.9 per cent and 44.2 per cent
respectively (30.8 per cent and 40.2 per cent respectively of the men,
and 37.7 per cent and 53.9 per cent respectively of the women). The
working-day was shortened as follows:
PER CENT OF W ORKERS IN AUSTRIAN FACTORIES WHOSE W ORKING-DAY IS SHORT­
ENED ON SATURDAY AND EVES OF HOLIDAYS, 1906.
Per cent of workers whose workingday was shortened.
Extent to which working-day was shortened.
Men.

1 to 2 hours............................................................................................
Over 2 hours..........................................................................................

73.3
14.5
12.2

Women.

Total.

82.4
12.5
5.1

76.4
13.8
9.8

Overtime was worked in 9.3 per cent and short time in 6.3 per
cent of the establishments.
The appendix to the October, 1910, number of “ Soziale Rund­
schau” contains an analysis by the Austrian Department of Labor
Statistics of the overtime sanctioned in 1908 and 1909.
Sanction of overtime work was given as follows:
E XTEN T OF OVERTIME W O R K IN AUSTRIAN FACTORIES, 1908 AND 1909.
Hours of
overtime
sanctioned.

Year.

1909....................................................................................
1908....................................................................................

32,741
30,600

Persons for Total num­ Number of
whom over­ ber of hours hours of
time was of overtime overtime
sanctioned. sanctioned. per person.
40,945
34,603

2,338,260
2,140,308

57
62

If we compare the figures for 12,188 establishments without con­
tinuous processes given in the report of 1906, already referred to,
with those published in the report of the industrial inspectors relating
to their activities in 1899 (Vienna, 1900, p. XLVIII) after deducting
the number of establishments with continuous processes, we find that
in 4,637 establishments the hours of work were as follows:
DAILY HOURS OF W ORK IN AUSTRIAN FACTORIES NOT USING CONTINUOUS
PROCESSES, 1899 AND 1906.
Per cent of establishments in which
daily hours of work were—
Year.
Under
9 hours.

9 to 10
hours.

10 to 11
hours.

1899.........................................................................................................
4.1
29.8
66.1
9.2
43.3
1906......................................................................................................... 47.5




M AXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

35

If the number of establishments working 11 hours continues to
diminish in the same proportion this class will have disappeared
almost entirely by 1920.
The number of breaches of the law establishing a legal maximum
working-day of 11 hours (art. 96a of the Industrial Code) was as fol­
lows:
In 1909, 57; 1908, 54; 1907, 39; 1906, 76; 1905, 60; 1904, 65;
1903, 92; 1901, 49; 1899, 51; 1898, 36.
For the Netherlands the “ Centraal Verslag der Arbeidsinspectie
over 1909” (1910) p. 179, contains a table dealing with the hours of
labor from 1895 to 1908. In this case also the number of protected
persons employed in establishments having a 10-hour workingday has increased compared with the figures for the period from
1895 to 1898 and the number of unprotected persons has increased
proportionately.
PER CENT OF PROTECTED AND OF UNPROTECTED PERSONS W ORKING EACH
SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS, 1895 to 1908.
Protected
persons
(women
and young
persons).

Year.

10 hours
and less.
1895-96................................................................................
1897-98................................................................................
1899.....................................................................................
1900....................................................................................
1901....................................................................................
1902....................................................................................
1903....................................................................................
1904....................................................................................
1905....................................................................................
1906....................................................................................
1907....................................................................................
1908....................................................................................

41.28
39.60
45.85
47.46
48.79
48.32
50.94
51.72
48.06
51.12
49.96
47.05

Unprotected persons (adult males).

10 hours
and less.

10 to 11
hours.

19.73
23.83
28.90
32.39
27.50
24.75
24.87
23.43
24.72
28.64
26.60
27.01

40.91
26.84
28.16
25.66
32.86
35.36
31.29
32.67
32.24
34.72
37.50
37.65

Over
11 hours.
39.36
49.33
42.94
41.99
39.64
39.89
43.84
43.90
43.04
36.64
35.90
35.34

Page 210 of this same report gives a separate table showing the
working-day in establishments where at least 10 persons are employed
(8,940 establishments employing 300,505 persons).
PER CENT OF PERSONS W ORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER DAY
IN ESTABLISHMENTS EMPLOYING AT LEAST 10 PERSONS, 1909.

Working hours per day.

9J and less...............................................
I Q ........................................................................................

10i.......................................
ii* ::::.::..:

...............................

Per cent
of persons
employed.
17.43
24.23
18.88
28.76

Working hours per day.

m

..........................................

12............................................................
12£..........................................................

Per cent
of persons
employed.
3.86
5.03
1.81

The number of convictions for breaches of article 5 of the protective
law (hours of labor of women and young persons) has increased



36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

between 1904 and 1907 in consequence of the increased efficiency of
inspection. The figures are as follows:
CONVICTIONS FOR VIOLATION OF LAW IN REGARD TO HOURS OF LABOR OF
WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS, 1895 TO 1909.

Year.

1895-96.....................................................
1897-98.....................................................
1899-1900..................................................
1901..........................................................
1902..........................................................
1903..........................................................

Number
of con­
victions.
1 236
i 384
1 792
959
931
816

Number
of con­
victions.

Year.

1904........................................................
1905........................................................
1906........................................................
1907........................................................
1908........................................................
1909........................................................

1,415
1,450
1,350
1,422
994
910

1 Average per year.

Sanction of overtime was granted as follows:
In the case of an 11hour workday.
Number
of persons.

Number
of hours.

In the case of a work­
day of more than 11
hours.
Number
of persons.

fa) B y the royal commissioner........................................
559
2,130
9,598
(6) B y the mayor..............................................................
1,315
590
3,868

Number
of hours.
22,479
13,831

In Russia an official inquiry into working hours in cotton fac­
tories was undertaken in 1907;1 the inquiry gives data for 436,973
textile workers: 192,721 adults, 238,785 women and young persons
from 15 to 17 years of age, and 5,467 children from 12 to 15 years of
age. The percentage of persons working a specified number of
hours in each one of these groups was as follows:
DAILY W ORKING HOURS IN COTTON FACTORIES IN RUSSIA, 1907.
Per cent of persons working specified hours
per day.
Hours of labor per day.
Men.

Under 9 hours....................................................................
9 hours...............................................................................
9 to 10 hours.......................................................................
10 to 11 hours........... .......................... ..............................
Over 11 hours....................................................................

8.0
38.5
27.6
17.0
8.9

Women
and young
persons.
9.9
50.6
16.4
13.6
9.5

Children.

46.8
53.2

Total.

9.5
45.2
21.2
14.9
9.2

In order rightly to interpret these figures it must be remembered
that according to article 7 of the order of September 20 (October 2),
1897, in enterprises in which 18 hours are worked in two shifts, the
hours of work of one of these shifts may be extended to 12 hours. The
1 Dannja o prodolschitelnosti robotschawo wremeni w prommuischlennuich predpriatiach po obrabotkje chlopka sa 1907 god. St. Petersburg, 1909.




M AXIM UM W 03K IN G -DA Y FOB WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

37

daily average hours of labor of any worker in a fortnight must not,
however, be more than 9 hours. Generally, shifts are distributed
in such cases in such a manner that one shift has to work 12, the other
6 hours with a daily alternation of shifts.
In the above inquiry of 1907 workmen distributed among two
shifts in this way were not included in the 9-hour group, but were
separated and added to the 12 and 6 hour groups. In consequence
the percentage of the two groups “ under 9 ” and “ over 11” hours
is almost equal. According to the above table 74.1 per cent men
and 76.9 per cent women and young persons were working 10 hours
or less.
In Italy the length of the working-day of 855,138 workers was
ascertained in 1907.1 The figures are as follows:
D A ILY W ORKIN G HOURS IN ITALIAN FACTORIES, 1907.
Per cent of persons working specified hours
per day.
9 hours
and less.
Italy...................................................................................
District of Milan and Brescia (373,462 persons)...............

15.4
5.5

9* to 10
hours.
32.1
37.4

10§ to 11
hours.
50.0
56.3

11| hours
and over.
2.5
.8

In India an official inquiry2 shows that the legal maximum,
working-day is not observed. Since the introduction of electric light
the working-day in many textile factories has increased from between
II and 13Jto 14^hours. Whenthenumber of hours worked in Bombay
rose to 15 per day the manufacturers association of Bombay itself
proposed that a 12-hour maximum working-day should be intro­
duced. The association, however, proved to be powerless, a workingday of 13 to 13£ hours continued to be general, and increased in some
places to 14J and 15J hours. In Calcutta a 10-hour day has been
introduced in two textile factories employing approximately 8,200
persons. The employer applied for sanction to lengthen the workingday by one-half hour, but on account of the passive opposition of the
workers there was no increase in the output of the factories.
In other establishments the working-day was increased by “ time
cribbing” up to 16 hours. The town of Madras and the Central
Provinces have an 11-hour day, the Punjab (Amritsar, Lahore,
Delhi) has a working-day of 13 to 13£ hours and Dhariwal one of 9J to
III hours. “ The women employed in cotton ginning factories at
Gujarat which have not as yet been brought under the act work as
much as 18 hours per day and are relieved during some of the rest
1 Uflicio del Lavoro. Operai ed Orari negli Opifici Soggetti alia Legge sul Lavoro delle Donne e dei
Fanciulli, Roma, 1908, p. X L V and for the inspection district of Milan and Brescia in Rapporti sulla Ispe*
zione del Lavoro (1° die. 1906-30 giugno 1908); Roma 1909, Tab. 62,63.
* Report of the Indian Factory Labour Commission 1908. London, 1908. Appendix D and pp. 7,10,32.




38

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

periods by other members of the family.” The commission pro­
posed that a maximum working-day of 12 hours should be estab­
lished for young persons between 14 and 17 years of age as well as
for women, but did not suggest limiting the hours of labor of male
adults. The commissioners were of opinion that “ the imposition
of a direct restriction on the hours of adult labor would be repugnant
to the great majority of the capitalists, both in India and abroad,
who have invested, or are considering the question of investing
money in India.” Happily this point of view with regard to legis­
lation for textile factories is not. one which has received legal
acceptance.
III. STATES WHICH REGULATE THE HOURS OF LABOR OF YOUNG PERSONS
ONLY.

The effect on women and men of the system of regulating exclu­
sively the hours of labor of young persons can be clearly seen in
Denmark. In that country a legal maximum working-day of 12
hours for young persons was established in 1873 and reduced to 10
hours in 1901. The system of inspection was reorganized in 1890 and
the Federation of Trade Unions was instituted in 1886 and extended
in 1898.
The factory inspectors recorded in their reports from 1878 to 1882
the number of workers who worked up to 12 and more than 12 hours,
and in their reports from 1875 to 1889 the number of establishments
which worked up to 12 and more than 12 hours. The percentage of
establishments working more than 12 hours was:
P E R CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS WORKING MORE THAN 12 HOURS P E R DA Y ,
DENM ARK, 1873 TO 1889.

Year.

1873..........................................................
1875 (after the coming into operation of
the act).................................................

Per cent of
establish­
ments
working
more than
12 hours
per day.
60.2
39.9

Year.

1878.........................................................
1886 (trade unions)................................
1889.........................................................

Per cent of
establish­
ments
working
more than
12 hours
per day.
41.4
31.8
27.0

The number of establishments accounted for in the last 3 years was
631, 742, and 753, and the number of workers was between 18,000
and 23,000. The proportion of persons working more than 12 hours
was in 1878, 32.9 per cent; in 1882, 28.3 per cent.
The number of establishments on which the figures were based
increased from 753 in 1889 to approximately 1,900 in 1891, to 3,000
between 1892 and 1899, and to 3,600 between 1900 and 1902. The
working-day is here classified separately for summer and winter.



MAXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

39

The number of hours worked was as follows, the number of establish­
ments being given in percentages:
D A ILY W ORKING HOURS OF DANISH FACTORIES, 1889 TO 1902.
1901-2 2

1898-99

1889-18911
Hours per day.
Summer.
Unknown.. . . 1.........................
Not exceeding 9§ hours............
10 hours.....................................
10i hours...................................
11 nours....................................
Over 11 hours...........................

9.7
9.2
33.0
21.9
18.2
8.0

i Trades-union federation.

Winter.
9.7
14.8
34.1
20.4
16.0
5.0

Summer.
14.7
12.2
41.7
17.7
9.8
3.6

Winter.

Summer.

16.1
16.3
43.6
16.7
5.6
1.7

Winter.
17.2
21.7
44.1
12.0
2.8
2.2

15.9
16.0
45.3
14.0
5.9
2.9

2 Factory Act, 1901.

The percentage of establishments working not more than 10 hours
had therefore increased from 42.2 (48.9) to 61.3 (65.8) for all workers
at the date when it was decided to reduce the working-day for young
persons only by law to 10 hours.
In 1902 the number of workers over 18 years was 73,637, whose
hours of work per day were as follows:
Hours per day.

Per cent.

Not more than 9 hours........................................................................
9i to 10 hours.......................................................................................
Not less than 10J hours.......................................................................

16.3
70.8
12.9

In 1901 the number of young persons was 8,122 and their hours of
work per day were as follows:
Hours per day.

Per cent.

Not more than 9 hours........................................................................
9£ to 10 hours.......................................................................................
Not less than 10i hours.......................................................................

15.7
73.9
10.4

The industrial census of 12th June, 1906,1 deals with other estab­
lishments as well as with those establishments protected by the
factory act whose working-day has been described in the factory
inspectors reports (Beretning om Arbejdstilsynets Virksomhet
Kopenhavn) since 1877. These statistics deal with 167,727 persons
whose average working-day was as follows, the number of workers
being given in percentages:
D A ILY W ORKING HOURS OF W ORKERS IN DANISH FACTORIES, 1906.
Per cent of workers working speci­
fied hours per day.
Hours per day.
All
workers.
Under 9 hours........................................................................................
9 to 10 hours...........................................................................................
10 hours..................................................................................................
Over 10 hours.........................................................................................

11.1
20.6
59.1
9.2

Men.

9.8
17.7
63.2
9.3

.

Women.

17.0
32.9

41.4
8.7

* Arbejdstiden: Industrien ifdlge Handwaerks- og Industritsellingen af 12. Juni 1906. Statistiake Med*
delelser 4. R. 28. Bd.




40

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

In Sweden the Royal Board of Trade published the result1of the
inquiry into the hours of labor of 43,650 persons employed in estab­
lishments with less than 10 persons and 301,796 persons employed in
establishments with more than 10 persons. In the small establish­
ments 58 per cent and in the large establishments 76.9 per cent worked
not more than 60 hours per week. The average for all persons in
industrial employment was 59.5 hours per week, i. e., 59.3 hours in
establishments employing more than 10 persons and 60.4 hours in
smaller establishments. The following table gives the number of
hours worked, the number of persons being given in percentages:
D A ILY W ORKING HOURS OF W ORKERS IN SWEDISH FACTORIES.
Per cent of workers working speci­
fied hours per day.
Hours per day.
Men.

Not exceeding 9 hours...........................................................................
9 to 10 hours...........................................................................................
10 hours...................................................................................................
Over 10 hours.........................................................................................

13.2
5.8
51.9
29.1

Women.

15.4
9.3
50.4
24.9

Young
persons
(under 18).
17.4
7.4
65.3
9.9

For 45,495 young persons the working-day, which has been regu­
lated by law in both Sweden and Denmark, will be seen to be almost
identical with that in operation in Denmark. On the other hand the
number of women and men working more than 10 hours is nearly
three times as great as in Denmark. The heavy representation of
men in the wood industry and industries with continuous processes
and that of women in the textile, clothing, and food industries as also
the comparative weakness of the workmen’s associations must be
held responsible for this phenomenon. According to Sundbarg2 the
percentage of organized workers in 1905 was 24 in Sweden and 49 in
Denmark. The 7th international report on the Trade-union Move­
ment during 1909 (Berlin, 1911) shows that the percentage of organized
workers in these same countries had increased to 30 and 49.44,
respectively, since 1905. In Sweden 7.26 per cent and in Denmark
10.52 per cent of the organized workers were women.
In Belgium it is impossible to get accurate data concerning the
number of organized workers. Since 1896 a complete census of
industrial workers has not taken place and the number of organized
miners has also not been determined. It will, however, be hardly
erroneous to say that the relative number of organized workers is
much below that of Denmark.
For this reason the limitation of the legal working-day affecting
young persons, works quite differently in the textile industry of
Belgium and in some other countries to be dealt with later.
* Arbetsstatistik A. 10. Arbetstidens Langd inom industri och Handtverk i Sverige. Stockholm, 1911.
* Apergus statistiques intemationaux, Stockholm, 1908, p. 168.




M AXIM UM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

41

In Belgium the “ Office du Travail” has published two reports, i. e.,
“ Salaires et dur6e du travail dans les industries textiles au mois
d’octobre, 1901 (Bruxelles 1905),” and “ Salaires et duree du travail
dans les industries des metaux au mois d’octobre, 1903 (Bruxelles
1907).”
In the textile industry the report deals with 71,512 persons of whom
39.2 per cent are women and 15.6 per cent young persons. The
working-day was as follows (p. 227):
D AILY WORKING HOURS OF EMPLOYEES IN TE XTILE INDUSTRY IN BELGIUM, 1901.
Per cent of workers working specified hours per day.

9 hours.

(a) For all classes....................
1b) Men.....................................
?c) Women...............................
(d) Young persons...................

1.61
.44
2.04
3.94

101 hours.

8.57
9.26
8.41
7.00

11 hours.

26.21
28.29
25.52
21.95

11| hours.

53.06
48.68
55.79
58.84

13 hours.

Over
13 hours.

10.06
12.51
8.01
8.07

0.49
.82
.23
.20

Thus 38 per cent of the men, 36 per cent of the women, and 33 per
cent of the young persons worked 11 hours or less, although the law
(royal decree of 26th Dec., 1892) limits the working-day of the last two
classes in the woolen industry to H i and in other textile trades to 11
hours (royal decree of 6th July, 1904). Only in cotton spinning is
an Ill-hour day (66 per week) fixed by the same decree. Thanks to
the cooperation of legal protection and organization, conditions are
very different in the metal industry1 where the working-day was as
follows:
DA ILY WORKING HOURS OF EMPLOYEES IN METAL INDUSTRY IN BELGIUM, 1903.
Per cent of workers working specified hours per day.
9 hours.

(a) For all classes..........................................
lb) Men..........................................................

(c) Women....................................................
(d) Young persons (males)...........................

2.90
3.12
.37
1.21

10 hours.
49.55
49.15
54.14
52.31

11 hours.

42,90
42.91
43.67
42.54

11| hours.

2.28
2.32
1.82
2.03

Over U§
hours.
2.37
2.50
1.91

Thus one-half of the persons employed in this industry are em­
ployed in establishments working 10 hours a day.
In Hungary the industrial census report of 1900 (published in
1910) gives the following particulars.2 In all industries the number
of hours was as follows:
1 Salaries et dur6e du travail dans les industries des m6taux au mois d'octobre, 1903. ExposS de quelques
rSsultats, Bruxelles 1907, p. 35.
* St. Varr6, Die Regelung der Maximalarbeitszeit der Frauen und Jugendlichen, Jena, 1911, pp. 4 and 5.




42

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

DAILY WORKING HOURS OF FEMALE W ORKERS IN HUNGARIAN FACTORIES, 1900.
Per cent of workers working specified hours per day.

8 to 9 hours.

(a) Adult female w orkers...........................

(6) Juvenile female workers.........................

26.6
19.6

10 hours.

41.8
40.7

11 hours.

12.9
19.5

12 hours.

Over 12
hours.

15.5
17.3

3.2
2.9

For the textile industry the figures are as follows:
D A IL Y WORKING HOURS OF FEMALE W ORKERS IN HUNGARIAN T E X T IL E INDUS­
T R Y , 1900.
Per cent of workers working specified hours per day.

9 hours.

(a) Adult female workers.............................
(6) Juvenile female workers.........................

6.1
3.5

10 hours.

34.0
24.1

11 hours.

35.0
39.4

12 hours.

22.2
26.3

Over 12
hours.
2.7
6.7

In this case also young persons work relatively longer than adults.
In Finland in the year 1903 a majority of the persons employed
in the textile industry worked 11 hours,1 while in the tobacco
industry three-fourths of the persons employed (two-thirds of the
men) worked for not more than 10 hours.2 In the clothing industry
also the number of hours worked in a week does not exceed 60.3
Only 12 per cent of the men and 6 per cent of the women employed
in the printing industry exceeded this limit.4
With regard to the observance of an 11-hour day in Spain, the
last report of the inspectors 5 says :
The demand for the work of women in the agricultural and forestry industries is
such a pressing one that in some districts the working-day is increased to 14-16 hours.
The law is frequently violated in the textile and clothing industries and also in
large factories worked by water power where the working-day is increased to 12
hours in order to make use of the power.
CLASSIFIED SUM M ARY OF STATES ACCORDING TO LEGAL W ORKING-DAY.

According to the preceding data the different States may be classi­
fied as follows:
1.
Those States which have prescribed and enforced a legal 8-hour
day (48 hours per week): Most of the Australian States and New
Zealand;
1 Arbetsstatistik II. Undersoning af Textilindustrin i Finland af G. R. Snellman. Helsingfors, 1904,
p. 51.
2 Arbetsstatistik I. Undersoning af Tobaksindustrin i Finland af G. R. Snellman. Helsingfors, 1903,
p. 141.
* Arbetsstatistik VI. Undersoning af n&larbeterskomas Yrkesforhallanden i Finland af Vera Hjelt.
Helsingfors, 1908, p. 49.
* Arbetsstatistik IV. Undersdning af Tryckeri-industrin i Finland af G. R. Snellman. Helsingfors,
1907, p. 63.
* Institute de Reformas Sociales. Memoria General de.la Inspecci<5n del Trabajo corresp. al ano 1908
Madrid, 1910, p. 402.




M AXIM UM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

43

2. Those States which have a legal 10-hour day for women and
young persons but where that working-day is in many cases shorter:
Great Britain (textile industries), Germany, France, the Neth­
erlands, and the industrial States of the American Union; but in
these the 10-hour day is more often in force for women than for
young persons;
3. Those States which have a legal 10-hour day for young persons
only, but where the actual working-day for women approximates
10 hours: Denmark; Sweden, where the working-day for threefourths of the women is actually 10 hours;
4. Of the States having an 11 or llj-hour legal working-day,
nearly two-thirds to three-fifths of the factory workers in Switzer­
land, Austria, Hungary, Russia, and Finland are actually
employed for 10 hours only;
5. Of the States with a longer or unregulated working-day, in
Belgium and Italy approximately two-fifths of all workers are
actually employed for 10 hours only.
In Spain this proportion may be less on account of the contra­
ventions of the 11 and llj-hour day. For the same reason it has
been found that the longest hours of labor are worked in India in
spite of the legal 11-hour working-day. Japan has established (March
28, 1911) a 12-hour legal working-day for women and young persons
under 15 years, but during the first fifteen years of the operation of
the law the competent minister may permit a 14-hour day for these
persons.
Thus only in the countries named under 5 does there exist, actually
as well as legally, a working-day exceeding 10 hours for the greater
number of the workers.




CHAPTER m .
JUSTIFICATION OF THE REDUCTION OF THE WORKING-DAY TO 10
HOURS FOR YOUNG PERSONS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE AND
WOMEN.

The following conclusions may be drawn from Chapter II:
First. That the shortness of the working-day is proportionate to the
development of the organization of the working people. Australia,
Great Britain, Denmark, and Germany stand at the head of the list.
Second. That in States where only young persons are protected and
the workers are not strongly organized the women and young persons
who most need protection work longer hours than the relatively better
organized men.
Third. That in States where the intent of the law and its execu­
tion are frustrated by the opposition of the employers and the lack
of organization of the workmen, the only way in which a change in
conditions can be introduced is by the influence of international
public opinion.
Why then do some States continue to adhere to an 11-hour and a
12-hour working-day ?
1.
It is feared that a reduction of the hours of labor would cause
the productivity of labor and the rate of wages to diminish. If this
were true, then States which have introduced a 10-hour day would
gradually be outstripped by those States where a longer working-day
is established, unless the latter had greater natural advantages, such
as proximity of coal and iron deposits, water power, transport advan­
tages, to compensate for the longer hours of labor of the former. In
States where the hours of labor are shorter, and which have not these
great natural advantages, the piece-rate wages of the workers would
then be reduced.
If we investigate the question by means of typical examples, we
find that in the textile industry (especially in the cotton industry)
which is considered to be typical of women’s work the hours of work
and rate of wages of women weavers are as follows:
HOURS OF W O R K AND R ATE

OF WAGES OF WOMEN W EAVERS IN VARIOUS
COUNTRIES.
Per cent of
Per cent of
women
women
weavers
weavers
receiving
working more than
over 10
2 francs
hours.
(38.6 cents)
per day.

Country.

Belgium (women over 16 years)................................................................................
Denmark.....................................................................................................................
Great Britain (women and m en)..............................................................................
United States (New Y ork)........................................................................................
1 Women.

44



89.5
13.6
.7
.2

42.2
93.0
1 86.7
100.0

M AXIM UM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

45

In the metal and machine industry, where young persons are
employed, the proportion of workers employed over 10 hours is 47.3
per cent in Belgium and the Netherlands, 32.7 per cent in Switzerland,
22.1 per cent in Italy, 21.5 per cent in Austria, 18.2 per cent in Sweden,
4.5 per cent in Denmark and New York (over 63 hours), and 1.3 per
cent in Great Britain. In Great Britain and New York 99.0 per
cent, in Denmark 42.1 per cent, in Winterthur (Switzerland) 21.1 per
cent, and in Belgium 5.3 per cent of these workers earned more than
6 francs ($1.16) per day.
It will be seen that in the labor market there is still a large field
which has not been affected by the tendency towards international
uniformity. But certainly these facts leave no room to doubt that
the greater industrial development is to be found in countries with
shorter hours of work and higher wages. The woolen industry experts
on the English Tariff Commission came to the same conclusion. They
expressed the opinion that the workpeople on the Continent receiving
lower wages are not equal to the English. On the other hand the
employers, foremen, managers, and salesmen on the Continent are
superior to the English on account of their superior technical and com­
mercial training, etc.1
2.
That the difference in capacity is not counteracted by long hours
and low wages is due to two causes: The undemutrition of the workers
and the technical conditions obtaining in countries with long workingdays.
The comparison between England and Belgium may here be carried
further. It appears from the investigations of A. Slosse and E.
Waxweiler2 that the proportion of workers who have more than 85
grams of nitrogenous food is 42 per cent in Belgium, 72 per cent
in Great Britain, and 97 per cent in America. The American worker
eats two to three times as much meat, ten times as much sugar, and
one-seventh of the amount of potatoes.
Closely connected with this undemutrition is the-morbidity of
women workers and infant mortality. Food, cleanliness, nursing,
housing, and climate are, of course, important influences determining
the extent of infant mortality, and make the figures for Norway,
Sweden, Holland, and Switzerland more favorable than might be
expected from the length of the working-day. Leaving these princi­
pal causes out of consideration, however, it is nevertheless a striking
fact that in many instances the most favorable figures are to be found
where the hours of labor for women are the shortest. The percentage
of the infant deaths of the total deaths in the different States is:
1 Report of the Tariff Commission, vol. 2, pt. 2, No. 1491, London, 1905.
2 EnquSte sur Palimentation de 1065 ouviferes beiges, Institut Solvay, Bruxelles 1910, p. 175. Cf. B. Seebohm Rowntree, Land and Labour, Lessons from Belgium. London, 1910, p. 388, and C. F. Langworthy,
Food Customs and Diet in American Homes, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, 1911, p. 16.




46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

In States with an 8-hour day—
Per cent.
New Zealand...........................................................................
6.2
Australia................................................................................
7.2
In States with a 10-hour day—
England and Wales (76 towns).................... .........................
11.8
France (72 towns)...................................................................
12.9
Denmark (75 towns)..............................................................
10.7
Massachusetts.......................................................................
13.9
In States with a working day of at least 11 hours—
14.8
Italy..... ...................................................................................
Belgium (74 towns)...............................................................
14.3
Prussia—
Until 1907..........................................................................
17.3
Since 1907.........................................................................
16.4
Austria (70 communes)..........................................................
17.8
Hungary..................................................................................
21.2
Russia (in Europe).................................................................
27.2

3.
In some States technical progress is accelerated by the intro­
duction in large industrial establishments of shorter hours of labor
than the maximum prescribed by law.
A number of recent experiments confirm the evidence collected
by various well-known writers (Brassey, Brentano, von SchulzeGavernitz, Schuler, Schonhof, Rae, Fromont, Abbe, E. Bernhard M.
Weber) as to the greater intensity of production during short hours
of labor. Thus, according to the “ Centraal Verslag der Arbeidsinspectie in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden over 1909 ” (p. 226) the
average earnings per hour in a large Dutch weaving mill were*
Persons working 58.5 hours per week, 5.65 cents.
Persons working 55 hours per week, 5.84 cents.
Persons working 52.5 hours per week, 5.83 cents.
Persons working 51 hours per week, 5.93 cents.
It has not infrequently been contended that the effect of shorter
working time in increasing output is not to be found in oriental
countries, but this doubt has recently been removed. In three
factories in Calcutta electric light was introduced in 1907, and the
number of hours worked, which was formerly 11^ to 13J, was increased
to 14£. This led to a decrease of output. The productivity of these
factories per hour was greater in 1906 than in 1907. The amount of
work performed is shown in the table following:
DIFFERENCE IN PRODUCTIVITY BETW EEN SHORT HOURS IN 1906 AND LONG HOURS
IN 1907.
Per cent of production in 1906 over
1907 in—
Hours per day.

Production in—
13$ hours' work over 14$ hours' work...........................................
13J hours' work over 14$ hours' work............................................
13 hours' work over 14$ hours' work............................................
12$ hours' work over 14$ hours' work............................................
12J hours' work over 14$ hours' work............................................
12 hours' work over 14$ hours' work............................................
11$ hours' work over 14$ hours' work............................................




Factory
No. 1.

Factory
No. 2.

8.87
17.32
9.14

15.85
26.54
22.19

12.08
10.09
4.61

19.21
15.65
9.36

Factory
No. 3.

4.49
5.04
4.56
10.96
5.68
17.17

M AXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

47

The absolute amount of production in factory No. 3 in June, in
No. 2 from March to June, and in No. 1 in May and June showed a
falling off from the amount of production under the shorter workingday.1
What has been said above with regard to certain trades where
women are employed applies to a still greater extent to the fatiguing
metal trades in which young persons are employed as apprentices.
In the United States the Secretary of Commerce and Labor in 1905,
in areport entitled “ Eight Hours for Laborers on Government Work,”
published particulars of the working-day in the United States from
1860 to 1903, which are continued up to 1907 in the Bulletin of the
United States Bureau of Labor, No. 77, p. 7. The figures given show
that the hours of work were 5 per cent more in 1874 and 5 per cent less
in 1907 than they were in 1895. Since 1895 wages have increased by
nearly 24 per cent. When we remember that it is precisely during
the last 15 years that American industrial activity has increased to the
greatest extent, we are bound to acknowledge the importance of these
figures. It is now a well-known fact that the adoption of a 10-hour
or a 9-hour day has not affected the amount or value of the output even
in the case of establishments where machinery is predominately used.
The necessity of diminishing the hours of labor is still more appar­
ent in the case of establishments where workers who are subject to
increasing pressure of work are unable to transfer some of the pressure
to a machine. For instance, when the Norwegian Factory Act of
1909 was under discussion, the director of the Norwegian State
workshops declared that approximately the same amount of work
was now done in 53 hours per week as was formerly done in 60 hours.
It was reported that in other industries in which the work is done
at piece rates, the difference in the wages earned by persons working
8 and 10 hours daily was almost inappreciable.
The Annual Report of 1909 of the German industrial inspectors
and inspectors of mines contains evidence which corroborates the
experience of the States already mentioned:
In accordance with the wishes of the workers in the machine industry, the workingday, which had previously been one of 10 to 10} hours, was in many cases reduced to
9J hours. In one of the larger machine factories in the district where a 9-hour day
had been in operation for 20 years, an 8-hour day was established. Tl^e output has
not been found to have diminished.2
In a large fine machinery factory employing nearly 1,000 persons, the morning and
afternoon rest periods of } hour were not given in the summer, so that the workingday was reduced from 9$ to 9 hours. The time rate of wages was raised, so that the
workers were able to earn the same sum per day as they had when the longer workingday was in force, and the piece rates remained unaltered. The manager of the estab­
lishment declared that in spite of the fact that a great deal of the work is done at piece
1 Report of the Indian Factory Labour Commission, 1908. London, 1908, Appendix D.
2 Jahresberiehte der Gewerbe-Aufsichtsbeamten und Bergbehorden fur das Jahr 1909, Pt. 3, p. 175.




48

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

rates, the pay roll has somewhat increased, which he considers to be due mainly to
the fact that the work is no longer interrupted by short rest periods.1
The uncertainty of the business condition of the tobacco industry and the slackness
of trade after the coming into operation of the internal revenue act has led many cigar
manufacturers, if not to dismiss their female employees, at least to work short time.
It is interesting to note that according to the information furnished by the owner of
the largest cigar factory the output was only temporarily reduced under the shorttime system. After a short time as many cigars were made in 9 or 10 hours as had
previously been made in 11 hours.2
The working-day in a large leather factory was reduced from 10 to 9 hours with the
result that the earnings of the piece-rate workers were exactly the same in spite of the
fact that they worked an hour less. As the 'factory is now closed at 5 o ’clock in the
afternoon, the workers can make themselves much more useful in the house and
garden than they were able to do under the old conditions.3
A woolen factory for which sanction for overtime was repeatedly and urgently
applied obtained permission to employ a number of women for 1J hours overtime on
not more than 40 days per annum. This permission has not, however, been used
for the last ten days, because the output of the women diminished to a considerable
extent as the result of the undue strain to which they were subjected.4

In this connection it will be appropriate to quote the opinions of the
two great English employers recorded in Appendix volume X I of
the Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws and Relief of
Distress.5 Sir Christopher Furness said (p. 7):
Industrial legislation apparently has small effects on the demand for labor, its lim­
iting effects being largely met by the introduction of newer methods; it applies the
whip to inventiveness and organization. Industrial legislation, as we know it, has
helped to kill bad business methods.

Mr. Seebohm Rowntree, the cocoa manufacturer, said (p. 12):
In our own works we voluntarily reduced the hours of labor from 54 to 48 per week
some ten years ago, but I very much doubt whether the average output per head was
lessened even in the case of those working on machines. We associated the intro­
duction of the new system with a general stringing up of organization, and this will
probably always be the case.

4.
It has been shown that a reduction of the working-day to 10
hours has not been burdensome to the industries which are econom­
ically most important, and the experience of most countries shows
that increased protection given to women has not made it more
difficult for them to compete with male adult workers. The view of
certain theorists, e. g., Fawcett, that the restriction of women’s
work to certain branches of industry would greatly depress their
wages in the occupations left open to them, has not been justified by
experience in the case of the iron industry. Any reduction of wages,
which was especially marked in the case of home work, has affected
men to exactly the same extent as women. In certain skilled trades
1Jahresberichte der Gewerbe-Aufsichtsbeamten und BergbehOrden fur das Jahr 1909, Pt. 4* p. 52.
Pt. 1, p. 165.
»Idem, Pt. 1, p. 233.
« Idem, Pt. 1, p. 6.
6Miscellaneous, London, 1911 (Cd. 5072), p. 12.
2 Idem,




M AXIMUM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

49

the trades-unions, in order to strengthen their system of apprentice­
ship, have tried to keep out unskilled women, a policy which has
aroused great opposition among women. On the other hand it is a
fact that, e. g., in England, the introduction of a 10-hour day in the
printing trade (1867) did not drive women out of the trade, but led
to their work being partly replaced by machinery.1
In those countries where the textile and clothing industries are
most strongly represented, the proportion of women in industrial
employment to every 100 men is naturally larger, i. e., 20.5 in Ger­
many, 25 in the United States, and 27 in France. The influence of
legislation on the proportion of men and women employed is much
less than the influence of variations in wages and crises. In par­
ticular the proportion of married women in industrial employment
increases with the diminution in the wages and the increase in the
unemployment of men.
There is nothing to show that the greater legal protection given
to women has made it more difficult for them to obtain employment.
The protection given to women in the textile industry has led indi­
rectly to the reduction of the hours of work of the men employed in
that industry, and as a result wages have risen in many cases. In
England, for example, the actual hours of work for men are approxi­
mately the same as the maximum of 55 £ prescribed by law for women,
and the experience of Massachusetts (54 hours) is similar. Only in
those branches of the textile industry in which only men can be
employed are the hours of labor of the .men any longer. On the other
hand, where the hours of labor of women are not regulated the
women, although they stand physically in greater need of protection,
are more easily induced to overwork than men.
5.
The necessity, from a hygienic point of view, of increasing the
protection accorded to women has been demonstrated in the memo­
randum on the prohibition of night work. Since then the fact of
their greater morbidity, which is increased, due to their clothes and
the manner of wearing their hair, in establishments where poisons
are used and dust is generated, has been brought out still more
strongly by the result of the inquiries on “ Sickness and Mortality in
the Local Sick Fund for Leipzig and the surrounding district/'
Berlin, 1910. Among insured persons between 25 and 34 years of age,
the proportion of cases of sickness among the men was 36.8 per cent,
and among, the women 47.7 per cent. The number of days sickness
of women between 15 and 54 years is also greater than that of men of
the same age.
Industrial occupations, domestic duties, and motherhood impose
a very great burden on most women. If, then, it is impossible for a
>J. Kamsey Macdonald, Women in the Printing Trades, London, 1904, p. 74.

85606°—Bull. 118—13------ i



50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

woman with a large family to do her washing and cleaning except on
Saturday nights, and if her vitality is often prematurely exhausted
even when she is employed for only 10 hours a day, the excessive
strain to which the women in industrial employment are put in
countries where long hours are worked is bound to result in self­
neglect on the part of the mothers and in the neglect o f their children.
Kayserling shows that the mortality from tuberculosis among
women belonging to the age class most represented by female workers,
i. e., those under 25 years, has risen in Berlin in the last 20 years
proportionately to the mortality among men. Kayserling expresses
the opinion that the increase in the mortality from tuberculosis
among girls and women of that age class is a symptom of the reaction
of the female organism against the increased pressure of industrial
employment.1
The diminution of the nursing capacity of the mothers tends to
increase infant mortality. It has already been shown that the
physical exhaustion of mothers in industrial employment and the
inadequate protection of mothers operate in the same direction.
Finally, among other evidence, statistics given for the establish­
ment sick funds in the chemical industry for the period just before
and just after the reduction of the hours of work2 tend to show that
the reduction of the hours of labor tends to diminish the frequency
of sickness.
6. The majority of women make use of the additional spare time
secured to them by the reduction of the hours of labor, to take greater
care of their homes. Young women are also enabled to cultivate their
minds and to obtain domestic instruction. Only when they are
employed for short hours is it possible for young women to train
themselves for more skilled trades and for the mothers of the next
generation of workers to prepare themselves to bring up their children.
7. A maximum 10-hour day for male young persons up to 18 years of
age is alreadyintroducedbylawinGreatBritain, France, Denmark,
Norway, Servia, and Sweden. The Netherlands have, by the act
of 1911, extended this age limit for the legal maximum working-day
from 16 to 17 years of age. In all countries in which the principle of
the 10-hour day has been introduced by law, the 17th and 18th year
of age are the dividing line between young persons and adults, with
the exception of Germany and Luxemburg, which are the only
States still considering young persons over 16 years of age as adults,
The three States bordering on Germany, namely, Austria, Swit­
zerland, and Russia, have not limited the age during which the
maximum working-day prevails, but have introduced the latter in a
* J. Kaup, Schadigung von Leben und Gesundheit der Jugendlichen. (In Die jugendlichen Arbeiter
in Deutschland. III. Schr. der Ges.f. Soz., Ref., Bd. IV, Hft. 3 (36), p. 11.)
* E . Schneider, Gefahren der Arbeit in derchem. Industrie, Hannover, 1911, pp. 86,
E




M AXIM UM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

51

more general way (11 to l l i hours) for workers of all ages. Only up
to 16 years, are young persons protected by a maximum working-day
of 10 hours in Belgium, Spain, Hungary, and Portugal. No
maximum working-day after the 15th year is prescribed in Bulgaria,
Italy, and Roumania.
The question may be raised whether the industrial evolution of
countries has been working under economic disadvantages by limiting
the working time of young persons up to 18 years of age and whether
the historical conditions still prevail which have induced other coun­
tries to establish a lower age limit than 18 years.
British factory legislation introduced this age limit with 60 hours
per week (10£ per day) in the textile trades in the years 1831 and
1833, and this limit was extended in the year 1867 to nontextile
factories. In 1833 the most distinguished medical men of Man­
chester had insisted upon maintaining this age limit in the textile
trades in which the 10-hour day has been in effect since 1847.
British factory legislation from 1819 to 1874 allowed children to
work half time in factories at the age of 9 and in workshops at the age
of 8 years. This age of admission was raised to 10 years in conse­
quence of the compulsory education act of 1873, to 11 years by the
law of 1891, under the influence of the International Conference for
Labor Legislation of Berlin, and to 12 years in consequence of the
present factory act of 1901. The same standard of education being
required for children between 11 and 13 years before admission to
employment, the 14th year of age or a higher age has practically
become the age of admission to industrial work in factories and
workshops.
In Germany, Austria, Denmark, and in Switzerland compulsory
laws concerning elementary education preceded labor legislation.
This explains why, for instance, in the first labor legislation of Prussia
the age of admission to industrial employment (12 years) was higher
than in England and by way of compensation a lower limit for the
protected age (16 years) was accepted. The Prussian law of 16th
May, 1853, allowing a 10-hour working-day from the 12th to the 16th
year of age, corresponded to the same hours in England from the 14th
to the 18th year of age, with an additional provision, namely, per­
mission to employ children as half-time workers from the 9th to the
13th year of age. England repealed this additional provision
regarding child labor, raising the age of admission in 1901. British
children are now protected almost equally well and young persons
even better than in Germany; in respect to the hours of work, young
persons are better protected in England than in Belgium, Austria,
and Switzerland. This development of English labor legislation has
been accompanied by a steady increase of production in the United
Kingdom, as shown by the following table.



52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1900

1895
TTnport.at.inn in million £ ........... ................................. .........
■ftxport»tion in trillion £ „, „ . _______

_____

357
226
1898

Production of coal:
Millions of tons...........................................................
Production of steel:
Millions of tons...........................................................

1905

460
291
1900

225

3

4

Number of cotton spindles:
Millions........................................................................

1890

34

487
330
1905

205

1870

1909

1908

236

262

5.8
1903

40.5

533
378

5.3
1909

43.9

55.6

Number of persons employed in cotton factories:
1850
In thousands.................................................
Males over 18 years, thousands...................
Persons under the age of 14years (half-time
workers), thousands.................................

1867

1878

1895

1907

331
95

401
104

483
122

539
149

577
163

15

42

62

32

19

Not the slightest disadvantage from the point of view of produc­
tion has therefore been noted in England as a result of protecting
young persons in a more efficient way and by increasing the protec­
tion of children. The beneficial consequences are, on the contrary,
to be traced in the age groups of employed persons in the United
Kingdom as compared with those of other countries. From the
medical side it has been proved that in Belgium, Austria, and Prussia
the degree of mortality is much greater than in England from the
ages of 17 to 20 years, the English curve of mortality being, in
addition, much lower than that of Germany up to the age of 26
years. This phenomenon has also been observed in countries with­
out a permanent army, like Belgium, and has been attributed to the
want of protection of young persons after 16 years of age.1
In Belgium the party of the Center in the chamber of deputies
proposed an age limit of 18 years during the discussion of the labor
law of 1889, while the Government had proposed 16 years. This
modification of the Governments proposal was opposed during the
debates by the member for Mons as regards mining and apprentice­
ship, with the following argument: “ What is, in fact, a young man
of 18 years? A young person? No, an adult man.” The member
for Ghent, reporter for the party of the Center, attempted in vain by
pointing to foreign legislation to save the 18-year clause. Finally,
1 F. Prinzing. Die hohe Morbiditat der Lehrlinge und jungen Gehilfen in einzelnen Berufen. Zeitschriftfur soz. Med. 1906, Bd. 2, p. 37,1909, Bd. 4, p. 13.




53

M AXIM UM WORKING-DAY FOR WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

by compromise, the maximum working-day was limited only up to
the age of 16 for males and to 21 for women.
In France, however, the age limit was extended from 16 to 18
years by the law of 2d November, 1892. This reform does not seem
to have met with great resistance. The difficulties which were twice
experienced in the Senate were caused only by the increase of the
age of admission from 12 to 13 years, by the extension of protection
to adult women, and by the shortening of the working-day from 12
hours to 10 and 11 hours. Since 1893-1895 criticism has been pro­
voked only by the unequal treatment of different classes of workers,
the hours of work being 12 for adult men in factories, 10 and 11
hours for other protected persons; but at no time has the age limit of
protection been put in question. If the manufacturers had found
difficulties in this respect, they might easily have pretended that
the grown-up children were 18 years of age, when the inspectors would
not have been able to ask for certificates of age. Statistical data,
however, seem to show that such incidents must have occurred very
rarely. The per cent which young persons 16 to 18 years of age
formed of the total number of young persons 13 to 18 years of age,
was in 1893, 44 per cent; in 1894, 44 per cent; and in 1895, 47 per
cent. However difficult it may be to state the degree of reaction
which a change in the legal age limit may make upon economic
development, e. g., upon tariff legislation,1 the opening of new coal
pits and iron mines, the introduction of new machines, it can not be
presumed that the law of November 2, 1892, has produced any stag­
nation or damage to the development of French industry. It will
be sufficient, in order to give some proof to these assertions, to
quote data only for the first year after this legislation came in effect
and for the last year for which data could be obtained. These are
as follows:
1893
Exportation, in million francs...................................................................................
Importation, in million francs...................................................................................

3,460
4,188
1893

Horsepower employed in industry............................................................................
Of which there were in the—
Metal industry.....................................................................................................
Food industries....................................................................................................
Chemical industry, tanneries, etc.......................................................................
Paper and furniture industry..............................................................................
Building trades, electricity.................................................................................

1909
5,718
6,246
1908

966,000

2,663,697

178,063
114,940
48,230
41,137
107,252

487,842
222,648
119,053
123,231
500,925

Only those industries are quoted above in which very few women
workers are employed, while trades, e. g., the textile trades, in which
1 As is known, the French trade policy has since the law of January 11, 1892, which came into force
on February 1 of the same year, become strongly protective.




54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

woman’s work prevails are purposely omitted. Otherwise the objec­
tion could easily be raised that the law of 1892 was the first to regulate
women’s work, and that the latter reform would have obliterated
the effect of the strengthening of the protection of young persons.
If the latter kind of protection had caused any damage to the devel­
opment of industry, the trades employing a majority of men would
have been the first to suffer. This applies specially to the metal
industry; but in these trades the horsepower has more than doubled.
In the same period (1893-1908) the production of pig iron rose from
2,057,000 tons to 3,401,000, and that of manufactured iron and steel
from 1,511,000 to 2,412,000 tons.
Twenty years have elapsed since the age limit of protection for
young persons in France was raised from 16 to 18 years. The
experiment is perfectly conclusive, and nobody in France would like
to return to the age limit of 16 years. In 1903 the difficulties raised
by the ten-hours act of March 30, 1900, caused the representatives
of industry in the Senate to ask for an amendment to the law of
November 2, 1892 and 1900. This proposition was agreed to by
the Senate in March, 1904. The proposition does not contain any
provision which would go back to a lower age limit. Thus the pro­
tection of young persons of 16 to 18 years was introduced in France
in practice without difficulty, is accepted by everyone, and has
caused no injury to the development of French industry.




CHAPTER IV .
TRANSITIONAL ARRANGEMENTS.

In order to provide a uniform minimum regulation of the maximum
hours of labor of young persons and women, it will be necessary for
those States which have not given such protection to raise the age
limit from 15 and 16 to 18 years for protected male workers, and to
shorten their hours of labor and those of women over 16 and 18
years. The question arises as to whether these reforms should be
introduced at once or by stages.
The experience of various States is as follows:
In England the age limit of protected persons which, in pursuance
of the act of 1819 was 16 years, was raised in 1831 to 18 years. This
provision, however, did not come into operation until 1834, when the
factory inspectors appointed under the act of 1833 commenced their
activity. The 10-hour day for women employed in the textile
factories became law on 6th June, 1844, and came into force on 1st
October, 1844. The act of 6th July, 1895, of which sections 14 and 37
provided that overtime should not be worked by women and young
persons employed in textile factories and reduced from 48 to 30
the number of days on which overtime might be worked in other
establishments, came into operation on 1st January, 1896.
In France the act of 19th May, 1874, which like the previous act of
22d March, 1841, only regulated the hours of labor of workers up to
the age of 16 years, was replaced by the act of 2d November, 1892,
which raised the age limit to 18 years. This act (art. 32) came into
operation on 1st January, 1893.
The 10-hour day was prescribed by the act of 30th March, 1900,
which reduced the hours of labor to 11 until 30th March, 1902, to
hours between 1st April, 1902, and 30th March, 1904, so that the
10-hour day actually came into operation on 1st April, 1904, i. e.,
four years after the act was passed.
In Germany the age limit has not yet been raised from 16 to 18
years. On the other hand a 10-hour day for women was prescribed
by the act of 28th December, 1908, and came into operation a year
later, i. e., on 1st January, 1910.
In the Netherlands the labor law amendment act of 1911 contains
a measure of transition from the 11 to the 10-hour day, by which the
latter system will come into force on January 1, 1913. The minister
may, however, by special permit allow particular enterprises to
55

104




56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

work 10i hours a day until 1915, but even in that case the legal
maximum of 58 hours per week must be observed.
Of the States having an 11-hour day, Switzerland followed the
English example with regard to the rapidity with which the law was
put into operation. The factory act of 23d March, 1877, came into
operation on 1st January, 1878.
The Austrian act of 8th March, 1885, came into operation as early
as three months after its publication (11th March, 1885).
The h i hours prescribed by the Russian act of 2d (14th) June,
1897, came into operation on 1st January, 1898. The proper ministers
were authorized to enforce the act in particular districts, industries,
and establishments before that date.
Article 15 of the Italian act of 19th June, 1902 (12-hour day for
women, 11-hour day for juvenile workers under 15), provided that
it should come into operation four months after the publication of
the order in pursuance of the act which was published on 29th
January, 1903, so that the maximum working-day came into force
on 29th May, 1903.
The advantage of a well-prepared but not too long transition is
that it diminishes the disturbance of industry, technical arrange­
ments can be made, and the workers can be slowly adapted to the
change without creating opposition and without the sanction of
overtime which tends to cast doubts on the success of the measure.
In France, for instance, after the act of 1900 had been in force for
three years, the number of convictions for breaches of the act rose
from 1,621 (1903) to 5,357 (1904) and fell again to 2,844 in 1908.
There can be no doubt that even in those countries which have as
yet regulated only the night work of women the 10-hour day can
be introduced (possibly in transitional stages of 11 and 10J hours)
within four years at latest after the ratification of an international
convention. A longer interval checks, on the one hand, the induce­
ment to adopt improved methods of production, and, on the other
hand, tends to diminish the appreciation of the value of international
agreement to the protected classes.
An interval of four years is ample to prepare public opinion and
the employers for alterations in the conditions of work, and to
enable such administrative measures to be adopted as are necessary
in order to efficiently enforce the law.




A PPE N D IX I.
VARIATIONS IN THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION OF REST PERIODS UNDER BRITISH
LEGISLATION.

In nontextile factories and workshops where the system of an 8-hour shift is adopted,
work may be performed from 6 a. m. to 4 p. m. on Saturday, with an interval of not
less than 2 hours for meals. The arrangement of the hours of labor and times allowed
for meals must be reported to the inspector and must not be changed more often than
once a quarter.
Except in special circumstances, all protected persons must be allowed intervals
for meals at the same hour and must not be allowed to remain in a room in which a
manufacturing process is then being carried on (art. 33).
This provision does not apply—
(а) In the case of women and young persons employed in the following factories,
namely, blast furnaces, iron mills, paper mills, glass works, and letter-press printing
works, nor to undertakings with continuous processes named by order. The following
exceptions are allowed by order: Textile factories where protected persons employed
in a distinct department in which there is no machinery, commence work at a later
hour than the men and other young persons, subject to the condition that all in the
same department shall have their meals at the same time; nontextile factories and
workshops where the making of wearing apparel is carried on; nontextile factories and
workshops where there are two or more departments or sets of young persons, subject
to the condition that all in the same department or set shall have their meals at the
same time; dressing floors, tin streams; china clay pits and quarries in Cornwall;
factories where the making of bread or biscuits is carried on by means of traveling
ovens; the printing of photographs, the spinning of artificial silk. In these estab­
lishments and in textile factories where flax, jute, or hemp is used, 1,000 cubic feet
of air space must be allowed to each person.
(б) In the case of young persons employed in departments where dyeing or open
air bleaching is carried on (art. 40), and in iron and steel foundries (23d June, 1904),
and electrical stations (11th Mar., 1903).
An exception is also provided with respect to the trades allowed to women and young
persons employed in fruit preserving and fish curing and in cleaning and preparing
fruit from June until September (11th Sept., 1907).
The intervals allowed for meals maybe postponed in creameries (23d Oct., 1903).
Meals must not be taken in rooms where lead, arsenic, or other poisonous substance
is used (art. 75), nor in any part of glass works in which the materials are mixed, in
any part of flint-glass works in which grinding, cutting, or polishing is carried on, nor
in any part of lucifer-match factories in which any manufacturing process or handi­
craft (excepting wood cutting) is carried on, nor in earthenware works in the dippers’1
house, dippers’ drying rooms, and china scouring room (art. 78). This prohibition has
been extended by order (23d Mar., 1898), to the parts of textile factories in which the
process of gassing is carried on; the parts of print works, bleaching works, and dyeing
works in which the process of singeing is carried on; the parts of factories or work­
shops in which any of the following processes are carried on: Sorting or dusting
wool or hair; sorting, dusting, or grinding rags; fur pulling; grinding, glazing, or
polishing on a wheel; brass casting, type founding; dipping metal in aquafortis or
other acid solution; metal bronzing; majolica painting on earthenware; cleaning and




57

58

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

repairing catgut; cutting, turning, or polishing bone, ivory, pearl shell, or snail shell;
manufacturing chemicals or artificial manures; manufacturing white lead, litho­
graphic printing, playing-card making, fancy-box making, paper staining, almanac
making, artifidal-flower making, paper coloring and enameling, and color making if
and when dry powder or dust is used.
This provision has also been extended by order to vulcanizing works, to the making
of transfers for earthenware, to china and earthenware factories, to brass casting, and
to the use o f lead chromates and dinitrobenzol. Notice of the prohibition must be
posted in the workroom (art. 78).
The rest periods allowed in domestic workshops (i. e. places where no power is used
and In which the only persons employed are members of the same family dwelling
there) are regulated for young persons but not for women. Rest periods of altogether
4J hours must be allowed between 6 a. m. and 9 p. m., and on Saturday rest periods of
2J hours must be allowed between 6 a. m. and 4 p. m. Simultaneousness of rest
periods, posting of notices, etc. are not required in the case of domestic workshops
(art. 111).




A PPE N D IX II.
EXCEPTIONS FROM THE LEGAL ARRANGEMENT OF REST PERIODS IN AUSTRIA.

In conformity with the ministerial order of 27th May, 1885 (E. G. Bl., No. 82),
certain classes of undertakings may be exempted from the obligation of allowing
rest periods at specified hours. These are:
(1) Iron and steel works (workers at blast furnaces, coke ovens, charcoal burning,
roasting furnaces, puddling works, rolling mills, steel works, iron and metal foundries);
(2) Iron enamel works (in respect to persons employed in baking and smelting
the enamel and calcining the tin);
(3) Copper, brass, pinchbeck, German silver, silver plate, copper, tin, and bell
foundries (in respect to persons employed at open fires and furnaces);
(4) For blacksmiths and wheelwrights (when necessary in order to undertake
urgent repairs);
(5) Lime, cement, magnesite, plaster and brick kilns, works for the preparation
of strontium compounds, the manufacture of earthenware and porcelain (in respect
to persons employed at continuous furnaces and at mill courses);
(6) Glass works (persons employed at smelting);
(7) The textile industry.
(а) In the case of dyeing, bleaching, printing, finishing, dressing, fulling, and
washing, the rest periods may be allowed at times when the work can be most con­
veniently interrupted.
(б) In the case of spinning and weaving by a mechanical process, the machines
need not be stopped in order to enable the workers employed at the same to enjoy
the morning and afternoon rest periods. In such case, however, the ministerial
decree of 23d November, 1888 (No. 38851), prescribes that the morping and afternoon
rest periods, during which the workers take their meals while the operation of the
machines is discontinued, shall be paid as working time.
(8) The manufacture of paper and paper pulp in respect to persons employed in
stoking and at the machines, and in conformity with the ministerial decree of 7th
April, 1896, in respect to persons employed in drying processes;
(9) Flour mills, in respect to persons employed at machines and at the milling
apparatus who must be allowed a midday rest period of at least half an hour in rotation,
a certain proportion (one-half or one-third) being allowed the rest periods simultane­
ously. Additional rest periods at specified times need not be allowed to such persons;
(10) Sugar factories (persons employed at apparatus in operations undertaken
between the purifying of the sirup and the separating of the syrup from the crystals
must be allowed a midday rest of at least half an hour in rotation; a certain proportion,
one-half or one-third, being allowed the rest period simultaneously. Additional
rest periods at specified times need not be allowed to such persons);
(11) The manufacture of sirup and glucose (in the case of processes which can not
be interrupted);
(12) Bakeries and confectioneries;
(13) Breweries, malt factories, spirit distilleries, vinegar factories, liquor factories,
establishments for the manufacture of compressed yeast, artificial ice factories; persons
employed in continuous processes must be allowed a midday rest of at least half an
hour in rotation, a certain proportion (one-half or one-third) being allowed the rest
period simultaneously;




60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

(14) Chemical industries with continuous processes,
(15) Newspaper printing;
(16) The manufacture of linoleum (in pursuance of the ministerial order of 2d
April, 1897, It. G. Bl., No. 88, it is sufficient if a midday rest of half an hour is
allowed);
(17) Macaroni factories (in pursuance of the ministerial order of 9th January, 1905,
It. G. Bl., 7) in respect to persons employed at the rolling machines and molding
presses and in the drying process;
(18) Electrical works and electrical establishments and mechanical stone saws
(ministerial order of 21st February, 1908, It. G. Bl., No. 48);
(19) Machine tenders and boiler attendants in enterprises with steam power;
(20) The construction of railway tunnels with 8-hour shifts (ministerial order of
16th October, 1903, It. G. Bl., No. 210).




A PPE N D IX m .
INDUSTRIES IN WHICH OVERTIME IS ALLOWED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.

Overtime is allowed by the Factory and Workshops Act in the following industries
(sec. 49, 2d sched.):
(a) Flax scutch mills, establishments where bricks and tiles (not being ornamental
tiles) are made or finished, the part of rope works where the open-air process is car­
ried on, the part of bleaching and dyeing works in which is carried on open-air bleach­
ing or Turkey-red dyeing, and glue making;
(b) Letterpress printing works, bookbinding works, lithographic printing, machine
ruling, firewood cutting, bonbon and Christmas present making, almanac making,
valentine making, envelope making, aerated water making, and playing card making;
(c) The making up of articles of wearing apparel, the making up oHumiture hang­
ings, artificial flower making, fancy box making, biscuit making, job dyeing.
Any part of a factory (whether textile or nontextile) used for the polishing, cleaning,
wrapping, or packing of goods.
This list has been extended by order to include the following industries: The mak­
ing of cardboard and millboard; the coloring and enameling of paper; the stamping in
relief on paper and envelopes; the making of postage stamps, post cards, and stamped
envelopes; the making of Christmas and New Year’s cards and of cosaques; the mak­
ing of meat pies, Christmas puddings, and mincemeat; the bottling of beer; the mak­
ing of boxes for aerated water bottles; the washing of bottles for use in the preserving
of fruit; the making and mixing of butter and the making of cheese; the making of
fireworks; the calendering, finishing, hooking, lapping, or making up and packing
of any yam of cloth (this exception does not apply in Lancashire and Cheshire unless
such processes are the only processes carried on in the factory); the warping, winding,
or filling of yam without the aid of mechanical power in the weaving of ribbons; the
making up of any article of table linen, bed linen, or other household linen, and
processes incidental thereto; the making of bouquets or wreaths or similar articles
from natural flowers or leaves or processes in which natural flowers or leaves are other­
wise adapted for sale.
Similar conditions apply to overtime in industries in which the materials are liable
to be spoilt, namely, in fruit and fish preserving, fish curing, and the making of con­
densed milk. Women may not be employed after 9 p. m., but may work overtime
not more than three times a week and on not more than 50 days in any one year (art.
50). A woman may be employed at the end of the day’s work for an extra half hour
in order to complete an incomplete process, excepting on Saturday, and on condition
that any such extra half hours must not raise the total number of hours above the
number otherwise allowed under the act in a week (art. 51), in bleaching and dyeing
works and print works, also in iron mills, foundries and paper mills, where male
young persons are not employed during any part of the night (art. 51).
Overtime may be worked for one hour between 6 a. m. and 7 p. m. in factories
driven by water power alone, provided that the ordinary rest periods are allowed.
This overtime may be worked on not more than 96 days in any year, where the danger
is from drought, and on not more than 48 days in any year, where the danger is from
flood (art. 52). No limit is prescribed with respect to overtime where there is danger
of damage from spontaneous combustion in Turkey-red dyeing or from any extraor­
dinary atmospheric influence in open-air bleaching (art. 53).



61

62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The working of overtime is not limited in processes in the preserving and curing
of fish which must be carried out immediately on the arrival of the fishing boats in
order to prevent the fish from being destroyed or spoilt, or in the process of cleaning
and preparing fruit during the months of June, July, August, and September (sec. 41).
In the latter case are to be observed the conditions determined by the order of Sep­
tember 11, 1907. These are substantially the following: Work may begin at the ear­
liest at 6 a. m. and must terminate at the latest at 10 p. m.; young persons are to be
granted a rest period of not less than 10 hours between the termination of work on one
day and the commencement of work on the'following day; no woman or young person
may be employed continuously for more than 5 hours without an interval of at least
half an hour, and there must be an interval of one hour at least, either at the same
time or at different times, before 3 p. m .; no woman or young person may be employed
under this exception who has been employed by the same employer o b l overtime
work under any other special exception since the first day of the preceding October.




A PPE N D IX IV .
INDUSTRIES IN WHICH OVERTIME IS ALLOWED IN FRANCE.

The inspectors may sanction two hours’ overtime on 60 days in the year (90 days
in undertakings carried on in the open air) within the day hours of work (5 a. m. to
9 p. m.) in the following industries: In the manufacture of furniture, upholstery, and
orthopedic apparatus; artificial butter factories; bijouterie and jewelry making; bis­
cuit factories; fine laundries; establishments for the manufacture of tin cans; hosiery
factories; brick kilns in the open air; the stitching of printed matter; manufacture of
embroidery for women’s dresses; manufacture of cardboard boxes for toys, candy,
visiting cards, and ribbons; manufacture of hats, boots, shoes, glue, and gelatine;
stenciling and hand painting; corset factories; ready-made clothing; sewing and
lingerie making for women and children; manufacture and repairing of sails for fishing
boats; preserving of fruit, making of candied fruit, and preserving of vegetables and
fish; rope factories in the open air; manufacture of furs and ready-made clothing;
manufacture of mourning wreaths; wool pulling; gilding of furniture and frames; gild­
ing of leather goods, cloth, paper, etc.; Government contract work; mills for the spin­
ning and twisting of crepe yam; flower perfume refineries; manufacture of flowers and
feathers; cheese factories; manufacture of sheaths for knives, etc.; print works; bleach­
ing and dyeing of novelty dress goods; letterpress printing; lithographing; copper and
steel printing; manufacture of toys; preparation of milk; polishing, gilding, engraving,
chasing, guilloching, and planishing work in the manufacture of gold and silver
articles; manufacture of envelopes, pasteboard, exercise books, account books, fancy
paper, wall paper, perfume; china painting; bookbinding; urgent repairs to ships;
power and agricultural machinery; silk winding for novelty dress goods; dyeing,
dressing, bleaching, printing, figuring, and watering of dress goods; weaving of novelty
dress goods; outside work in the building trades; manufacture of net, lace, and tulle;
outside work in the building and repairing of river vessels, and building and repairing
of boats.
In pursuance of article 4 of the law of November 2,1892, and article 1 of the above
order of 1893, women and children may be employed in making mourning hats and
clothing until 11 p. m. on not more than 60 days in the year and provided that not
more than 12 hours are worked on any day.
The exceptions allowed for embroidery, sewing, plain sewing, laundries, the manu­
facture of furs, and the packing and folding of ribbons were rescinded by the decree of
17th February, 1910.




63




INDEX.
Africa, working day in, for young persons and women, no legal provisions as to................................ 9,10
Age, and hours of work, legally specified, for young persons:
Alabama..............................................................................................................................................
10
Algeria.............................................................................................................. , .................................
13
Argentina.............................................................................................................................................
12
Arkansas..............................................................................................................................................
10
Belgium............................................................................................................................................... 10,11
British Columbia.................................................................................................. .............................
12
Bulgaria...............................................................................................................................................
13
Colorado...............................................................................................................................................
12
Delaware..............................................................................................................................................
12
Denmark.............................................................................................................................................
10
District of Columbia...........................................................................................................................
12
“
Florida.................................................................................................................................................
10
France..................................................................................................................................................
13
Germany..............................................................................................................................................
13
Great Britain.......................................................................................................................................
13
Hungary...............................................................................................................................................
10
Idaho....................................................................................................................................................
12
Illinois..................................................................................................................................................
14
India....................................................................................................................................................
12
Indiana................................................................................................................................................
12
Iowa.....................................................................................................................................................
12
Italy.....................................................................................................................................................
13
Japan...................................................................................................................................................
13
Kansas.................................................................................................................................................
12
Luxemburg..........................................................................................................................................10,11
Manitoba.............................................................................................................................................
12
Minnesota............................................................................................................................................
14
Mississippi...........................................................................................................................................
14
Missouri...............................................................................................................................................
13
Nebraska.............................................................................................................................................
14
Netherlands.........................................................................................................................................
12
New Brunswick..................................................................................................................................
12
New South Wales................................................................................................................................
14
New York............................................................................................................................................
14
North Carolina.....................................................................................................................................
12
North Dakota......................................................................................................................................
12
Norway................................................................................................................................................
10
Oklahoma............................................................................................................................................
12
Ontario................................................................................................................................................
12
Pennsylvania.......................................................................................................................................
14
Porto Rico...........................................................................................................................................
12
Portugal...............................................................................................................................................
10
Quebec.................................................................................................................................................
12
Queensland..........................................................................................................................................
14
Roumania............................................................................................................................................
13
Saskatchewan......................................................................................................................................
12
South Australia...................................................................................................................................
14
South Carolina.....................................................................................................................................
14
South Dakota......................................................................................................................................
10
Spain....................................................................................................................................................10,11
Sweden................................................................................................................................................
10
Tasmania.............................................................................................................................................
12
Victoria................................................................................................................................................
14
Western Australia...............................................................................................................................12,14
Wisconsin............................................................................................................................................
14
Alabama, legal maximum working day in, for children only.................................................................
10
Algeria, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as t o ............................................
13
Argentina:
Legal maximum working day in, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as t o ..
12
Rest period during daily working time, regulations asto................................................................
16
Arizona, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to...........................................
13
Arkansas, legal maximum working day in, for children only, provisions as to......................................
10
Asiatic States and Turkey, working day in, for women and young persons, no legal provisions as to..
9
Austria:
Factory workers, daily hours of labor of, in factories not using continuous processes, 1899 and 1906. 33,34
Factory workers, per cent of, whose working day is shortened on Saturday and eves of holidays,
1906
.
34
Overtime, extent of, i908 and i909........................................................................................... s.........
34
Overtime, legal provisions as to .................................................................................................... 20,23,25
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to.................................................................15,18
Rest periods, exceptions from the legal arrangements o f................................................................. 59,60
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................33-35
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
13
Australia. (See South Australia; also Westem Australia.)

85606°—Bull. 118—13------5



66

66

INDEX.
Page.

Bakeries, rest periods in, Denmark.........................................................................................................
19
Belgium:
Factory workers, per cent of, working specified hours per day, textile industries, 1901, and metal
industries, 1903.................................................................................................................................
41
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................ 15,18
Weavers, women, hours of work and rates of wages of.....................................................................
44
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................40,41
Working day, legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to.........10,11
Bell foundries, braziers’ works, and arms factories, working hours in, Belgium...................................
11
Berne convention of 1906 providing minimum night’s rest of 11 hours, actual daily hours of labor and
maximum time available for rest periods and overtime in States which signed the.........................
15
Bosnia and Herzegovina, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to...............
13
Briquette factories and coke ovens, working hours in, Belgium............................................................
11
British Columbia, working day in, for female young persons (over 14) and women only, regulations
as to .........................................................................................................................................................
12
29
Building and woodworking industries, average weekly hours of labor in, etc., Great Britain............
Building trades, working hours in, Belgium...........................................................................................
10
Bulgaria:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................. 15,19
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
13
Button factories, working hours in, Belgium..........................................................................................
11
California:
Rest period during working time, regulations as to.........................................................................
16
Working day for young persons and women, regulations as to.......................................................
13
Canada:
Overtime, regulations as to................................................................................................................
20
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to.................................................................
16
Working day, legal maximum, provisions as to................................................................................
12
Cane and umbrella factories, working hours in, Belgium......................................................................
11
Central and South America, working day in, for young persons and women, no legal provisions as to .
10
Cigar and tobacco factories, working hours in, Belgium and Luxemburg.............................................
11
Cloth factories, working hours in, Luxemburg........................................................................................
11
Clothing industry, persons employed in, and average weekly hours of labor, Great Britain................
29
Clothing industry, rest periods in branches of, Belgium.........................................................................
18
Clothing, subsidiary trades, working hours in, Belgium........................................................................
11
Coal mines, working hours in, Belgium................................................................................................... 10,11
Coke ovens and briquette factories, working hours in, Belgium............................................................
11
Colorado, legal maximum working day in, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions
as to.........................................................................................................................................................
12
Connecticut, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to...................................
14
Convictions for violations of law relating to daily hours of labor:
Great Britain.......................................................................................................................................
30
Netherlands.........................................................................................................................................
36
Switzerland..........................................................................................................................................
33
Victoria................................................................................................................................................
31
Cotton and woolen mills, working hours in, Quebec..............................................................................
14
Cotton-ginning mills, working hours in, Egypt.......................................................................................
10
Cotton industry, working hours in, Belgium...........................................................................................
11
Countries or States, classified summary of, according to number of hours in a legal working day.........42,43
Delaware, working day in, legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions
as to.........................................................................................................................................................
12
Denmark:
Establishments working more than 12 hours per day, per cent of, 1873 to 1889.............................
38
Factory workers, daity working hours of, 1889 to 1902, and 1906....................................................
39
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to.............................................................. 15,19
Weavers, women, hours of work and rates of wages of....................................................................
44
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................. 38,39
Working day, legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to.........
10
District of Columbia, working day in, legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women,
provisions as to.......................................................................................................................................
12
Dyeing, and manufacture of articles of fashion, working hours in, Belgium..........................................
11
Egypt, working day in, legal maximum, for children only, provisions as to..........................................
10
jiagiit-iiuui, 10-hour, " ^ --------- J 12-hour working day prescribed by ------------- Eight-hour, 10-h— 11-hour, and 101------------J------------------- l' ” 1— *law in certain States............... 26-38
0/5 00
Embroidery making. (See Clothing, subsidiary trades, etc.)
Finland:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................
15
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................
42
Working day, legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to.........
10
Fish canneries, working hours in, Belgium............................................................................................
11
Florida, working day in, legal maximum, for children only, provisions as to.......................................
10
France:
Overtime, industries in which allowed..............................................................................................
63
Overtime, regulations as to........................................................................................................... 20,22,25
Overtime work, authorized, number of days granted and establishments affected, 1905 to 1910...
28
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to.................................................................
15
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................
28
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to...........................................................
13
Furniture industry, working hours in, Belgium.....................................................................................
10
Georgia, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to............................................
14
Germany:
Factory workers, per cent of, by sex, working specified number of hours per day, 1909...............
27
Overtime employment of adult women, 1906 to 1909........................................................................
27
Overtime, regulations as to....................................................................................................... 20,21,22,25
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ...................... . .......................................15,17
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................ 26-28
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to....................................................... 12,13




INDEX.

67

Glass industry:
Page.
Rest periods, Belgium........................................................................................................................
18
Rest periods, exceptions as to, Massachusetts..................................................................................
19
Rest periods, Germany.......................................................................................................................
17
Working hours, Belgium....................................................................................................................
II
Great Britain:
Convictions for breaches of law relating to daily hours of labor, 1906 to 1909................................
30
Overtime, industries in which allowed............................................................................................. 61,62
Overtime, regulations as to........................................................................................................... 20,21,25
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to........................................................... 15,16,19
Rest periods, variations in the normal distribution of.................................................................... 57,58
Weavers, hours of work and rate of wages of....................................................................................
44
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................29,30
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to......................................................... 12,13
9
Greece, legal maximum working day in, for young persons and women, no provisions as to...............
Hat factories, working hours in, Belgium..............................................................................................
^
Hours of labor, and age, legally specified, for young persons. (See Age, and hours of labor, etc.; also
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, etc.)
Hours of labor, daily, convictions for violations of law relating to:
Great Britain.......................................................................................................................................
30
Netherlands.........................................................................................................................................
36
Switzerland....................................................................................................................................
33
Victoria................................................................................................................................................
31
Hours of labor, short and long, difference in productivity of, in India, 1906 and 1907.......................
46
Hungary:
Factory workers, female, per cent of, working specified hours per day, 1900................................
42
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................
15
Working day, actual and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics.................................41,42
Working day, legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to___
10
Idaho, legal maximum working day in, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to.
12
lUinois, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to............................................
14
India:
Overtime, regulations as to.................................................................................................................
24
Productivity, difference in, between short hours in 1906 and long hours in 1907............................
46
Rest period, during daily working time, regulations as to...............................................................
16
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................37,38
Working day for female young persons (over 14) and women only, regulations as to...................
12
Indiana:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to..............................................................
16
Working day, legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to___
12
Industries in which overtime is allowed in France.................................................................................
63
Industries in which overtime is allowed in the United Kingdom........................................................ 61,62
International Association for Labor Legislation, resolutions of, in regard to legal maximum working
day, for women and young persons.......................................................................................................
5,6
Iowa, legal maximum working day in, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as t o ..
12
Iron ana steel industry, working hours in, Belgium...............................................................................
11
Iron industry, rest periods in, exceptions as to, Massachusetts..............................................................
19
Iron industry, rest periods in, Germany.................................................................................................. 17,18
Italy:
Factory workers, per cent of, working specified hours per day, 1907................................................
37
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................ 15,19
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics............................
37
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
13
Japan:
Overtime, regulations as to............................................................................................................ 20,24,25
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................
16
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
13
Kansas, legal maximum working day in, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to.
12
Kentucky, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to.......................................
14
19
Knit-goods factories, rest periods in, Great Britain................................................................................
Knitting mills, working hours in, Luxemburg........................................................................................
11
Knitting. (See Clothing, subsidiary trades.)
Lace making. (See Clothing, subsidiary trades, etc.)
Laundries, overtime in, exceptions as to, Great Britain........................................................................
21
Letter-press establishments, rest periods in, exceptions as to, Massachusetts........................................
19
Liechtenstein:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................
15
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
13
Linen, hemp, and jute industry, working hours in, Belgium...............................................................
11
Lingerie, manufacture of, working hours in, Belgium.............................................................................
11
Looking-glass factories, working hours in, Belgium................................................................................
11
Louisiana:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to......... .....................................................
16
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to .........................................................
14
Luxemburg:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................
15
Working day, legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to ___ 10,11
Machine industry, rest periods and working hours in, Belgium............................................................ 11,18
Maine:
Working day, actual and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................
30
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
14
Manitoba:
Overtime, regulations as to................................................................................................................
25
Working day for female young persons (over 14) and women only, regulations as to...................
12
Maryland, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to .......................................
14
Massachusetts:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to............................................................... 16,19
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................
30
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
14




68

INDEX.
Page.

Match factories, working hours in, Belgium............................................................................................
11
Metal, engineering, and shipbuilding trades, average weekly hours of labor in, etc., Great Britain..
29
Metal industry, daily working hours ol employees in, Belgium, 1903 ....................................................
41
Michigan:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................
16
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
14
Mines:
Rest periods in, Austria......................................................................................................................
18
Rest periods in, Belgium....................................................................................................................
18
Working hours in, Spain....................................................................................................................
11
Minnesota:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................
16
Working dav of young persons and women, regulations as to .........................................................
14
14
Mississippi, working day in, of young persons and women, regulations as to......................................
Missouri, working day in, of young persons and women, regulations as t o ..........................................
13
Monaco, working day in, for young persons and women, no legal provisions as to ..............................
9
Montenegro, working day in. for young persons and women, no legal provisions as to........................
9
14
Nebraska, working day in, < i young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................
5
Netherlands:
Convictions for breaches of law relating to hours of labor, 1895 to 1909 ...........................................
36
Establishments employing at least 10 persons, per cent of persons in, working each specified
number of hours per day, 1909........................................................................................................
35
Overtime, regulations as to............................................................................................................ 20,23,24
Protected and unprotected persons, per cent of, working each specified number of hours 1895 to
1908................................................................................................................................. ..................
35
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................15,16
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................35,36
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................12,13
New Brunswick:
Overtime, regulations as to.................................................................................................................
25
Working day for female young persons (over 14) and women only, regulations as to...................
12
New Hampshire:
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................
30
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
14
New Jersey:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................
16
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
14
New South Wales:
Overtime, regulations as to...............................................................................................................
24
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as.to................................................................ 16,19
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................
31
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
14
New York:
Factory workers, hours of labor per week of, 1898 to 1908 ................................................................
30
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................
16
Weavers, women, hours of work and rates of wages of.....................................................................
44
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................30,31
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to .........................................................
14
New Zealand:
Overtime, regulations as to.................................................................................................................20,24
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................ 16,19
Workmg day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................31,32
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
14
Newspaper printing trades, working hours in, Belgium.........................................................................
10
North Carolina, legal maximum working day in, for young persons but not for adult women, provi­
sions as to................................................................................................................................................
12
North Dakota, legal maximum working day in, for young persons but not for adult women, provi­
sions as to................................................................................................................................................
12
Norway:
Overtime, regulations as to.................................................................................................................
20
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................
15
Working day, legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to___
10
Nova Scotia, overtime in, regulations as to ..............................................................................................
25
Ohio:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................
16
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to .........................................................
14
Oklahoma, legal maximum working day in, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions
as to......................................................................................................................................................
12
Ontario:
Overtime, regulations as to.................................................................................................................
25
Working day for female young persons (over 14) and women only, regulations as to...................
12
Oregon:
*
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................
16
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as t o .........................................................
14
Overtime and rest periods, legislation in regard to, in force in different countries, critical account o f.. 14r-25
Overtime, industries in which allowed, France.......................................................................................
63
Overtime, industries in which allowed, United Kingdom...................................................................... 61,62
Overtime, regulations as to:
Austria........................................................................v.................................................................. 20,23,25
Canada.................................................................................................................................................
20
France........................................................................................................................................ 20 22,25,63
Germany.................................................................................................................................... 20,21,22,25
Great Britain........................................................................................................................ 20,21,25,61,62
India....................................................................................................................................................
24
Japan............................................................................................................................................... 20,24,25
Manitoba..............................................................................................................................................
25
Netherlands.................................................................................................................................... 20,23,24
New Brunswick...................................................................................................................................
25




INDEX.

69

Overtime, regulations as to—Concluded.
Page.
New South Wales................................................................................................................................
24
New Zealand........................................................................................................................................20,24
Norway................................................................................................................................................
20
Nova Scotia.........................................................................................................................................
25
Ontario.................................................................................................................................................
25
Quebec.................................................................................................................................................
25
Queensland.......................................................................................................................................... 20,24
Russia.................................................................................................................................................. 19,20
South Australia................................................................................................................................... 20,24
Spain....................................................................................................................................................
20
Switzerland..........................................................................................................................................
20
United States.......................................................................................................................................
20
Victoria................................................................................................................................................
24
Western Australia............................................................................................................................... 20,24
Overtime, maximum number of hours of, in a year, in various countries............................................21-25
Overtime, maximum number of hours of, legal exceptions as to, in various countries........................ 20,21
Overtime, prescribed by law, in various countries..................................................................................
20
Overtime, regulated by administrative authorities, in various countries........................ ..................... 19,20
Paper mills, rest periods in, exceptions as to, Massachusetts.................................................................
19
Paper mills, working hours in, Belgium..................................................................................................
10
Pennsylvania:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................
16
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
14
Plate-glass factories, working hours in, Belgium.....................................................................................
11
Porto Rico, legal maximum working day in, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions
as to.........................................................................................................................................................
12
Portugal:
Rest period during working time, regulations as to .........................................................................
15
Working day,legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as t o ..
10
Pottery and terra-cotta industry, working hours in, Belgium....................................................... . —
11
Pottery painting, working horns in, Luxemburg...................................................................................
11
Print works, bleaching and dyeing works, rest periods in, Great Britain.............................................
17
Print works, bleaching and dyeing works, rest periods in, exceptions as to, Massachusetts...............
19
Productivity, difference in, in three Calcutta factories, between short hours in 1906 and long hours in
1907..........................................................................................................................................................
46
Productivity, increase in, following British labor legislation................................................................. 51,52
Productivity, increase in, following French labor legislation.................................................................53,54
Prussia, overtime employment in, of adult women, 1909 and 1910.........................................................
28
Purpose of present report..........................................................................................................................
7
Quebec:
Overtime, regulations as to.................................................................................................................
25
Working day for female young persons (over 14) and women only, regulations as to....................
12
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to .........................................................
14
Queensland:
Overtime, regulations as t o ............................................................................................................... 20,24
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as t o ................................................................
16
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.......................................................
14
Reduction of working day to 10 hours, for young persons under 18 and for women, justification for.. 44-54
Rest periods and overtime, legislation in regard to, in force in different countries, critical account o f.. 14-25
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to:
Argentina.............................................................................................................................................
16
Austria.......................................................................................... ...................................................... 15,18
Belgium............................................................................................................................................... 15.18
Bosnia............................................................................................................................................. 15,18,19
Bulgaria............................................................................................................................................... 15,19
California.............................................................................................................................................
16
Canada.................................................................................................................................................
16
Denmark............................................................................................................................................. 15,19
Finland................................................................................................................................................
15
France..................................................................................................................................................
15
Germany............................................................................................................................................. 15,17
Great Britain............................................................................................................................. 15,16,17,19
Hungary..............................................................................................................................................
15
India.......................................... .........................................................................................................
16
Indiana................................................................................................................................................
16
Italy..................................................................................................................................................... 15,19
Japan...................................................................................................................................................
16
Liechtenstein.......................................................................................................................................
15
Louisiana.............................................................................................................................................
16
Luxemburg.........................................................................................................................................
15
Massachusetts...................................................................................................................................... 16,19
Michigan..............................................................................................................................................
16
Minnesota............................................................................................................................................
16
Netherlands......................................................................................................................................... 15,16
New Jersey..........................................................................................................................................
16
New South Wales............................................................................................................................... 16,19
New York............................................................................................................................................
16
New Zealand.-..................................................................................................................................... 16,19
Norway................................................................................................................................................
15
Ohio.....................................................................................................................................................
16
Oregon.................................................................................................................................................
16
Pennsylvania.......................................................................................................................................
16
Portugal...............................................................................................................................................
15
Queensland..........................................................................................................................................
16
Roumania............................................................................................................................................ 15,19
Russia.................................................................................................................................................. 15,19
Servia...................................................................................................................................................
15
South Australia....................................................*.............................................................................
16




70

INDEX.

Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to—Concluded.
Page.
Spain...............................................................................................................................................15.18.19
Sweden.................................................................................................................................................
16
Switzerland.......................................................................................................................................’ j
15
Tasmania................................................................................................................................... . . ! ! ! ]
16
Tunis....................................................................................................................................................
15
Victoria.................................................................................................................................................
15
W estera Australia...............................................................................................................................
15
Rest periods, exceptions from the legal arrangement of, in Austria.......................................................59,60
Rest periods, variations in the normal distribution of, under British legislation............................
57.58
Rhode Island:
'
'
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................
30
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as t o .........................................................
14
Roumania:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................ 15,19
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
13
Russia:
Factory workers, per cent of, working specified hours per day, cotton factories, 1907...................
33
Overtime, regulations as to .................................................................................................................19,20
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................ 15,19
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics...............................36,37
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to .........................................................
13
Saskatchewan, working day in, for female young persons (over 14) and women only, regulations as to.
12
Sawmills, rest periods in, California..........................................................................................................
16
Servia:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to................................................................
15
Working period of young persons and women, regulations as to .....................................................
13
South America and Central America, working day in, for young persons and women, no legal pro­
visions as to .............................................................................................................................................
10
South Australia:
Overtime, regulations as to .................................................................................................................20,24
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as t o ................................................................
16
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
14
South Carolina, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to ...............................
14
South Dakota, legal maximum working day in, for children only, provisions as to.............................
10
Spain:
Overtime, regulations as to .................................................................................................................
20
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to...........................................................15,18,19
Working day, legal maximum for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to....... 10,11
Spinning mills, working hours in, Luxemburg.......................................................................................
11
States or countries, classified summary of, according to number of hours of legal working day.......... 42,43
Stone quarries, working hours in, Belgium..............................................................................................
10
Sugar factories, working hours in, Belgium..............................................................................................
11
Sweden:
Factory workers, per cent of, working specified hours per day.......................................................
40
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................
16
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................
40
Working day, legal maximum, for young persons but not for adult women, provisions as to.........
10
Switzerland:
Convictions for breaches of law relating to hours of labor, 1892 to 1901............................................
33
Factory workers, weekly hours of labor of, 1895 to 1901...................................................................
32
Overtime work, extent of, 1906 and 1907........................... •
-..............................................................
32
O vertime, legal provisions as to.........................................................................................................
20
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................
15
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics...............................32,33
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
13
Tanneries, shoemaking, leather work, working hours in, Belgium........................................................
11
Tasmania:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................
16
Working day for female young persons (over 14) and women only, regulations as to.....................
12
Tennessee, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to.......................................
14
Textile factories:
Hours of labor, average weekly, and number of persons employed, Great Britain........................
29
Hours of labor, daily, Hungary, 1900 .................................................................................................
42
Overtime in, exceptions as to. Great Britain.................................................................................... 20,21
Overtime in, not allowed, India.........................................................................................................
24
Rest periods in, Great Britain..................................................................................................15,16,17,19
Working hours in, Belgium................................................................................................................ 11,41
Working hours in, Great Britain........................................................................................................ 6,12
Working hours in, India.....................................................................................................................
12
Working hours in, certain States of United States............................................................................
14
Tobacco and cigar factories, working hours in, Belgium and Luxemburg............................................
11
Tool repair shops (attached to stone quarries), working hours in, Belgium..........................................
11
Tools and metal manufactures and domestic utensils, working hours in, Belgium..............................
11
Transitional arrangements, necessary to introduction of regulations as to working day of women— 55,56
Tunis:
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................
15
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to.........................................................
13
Turkey and Asiatic States, workingday in, for young persons and women, no legal provisions as to..
9
Type foundries, working hours in, Belgium............................................................................................
10
Umbrella and cane factories, working hours in, Belgium.......................................................................
11
Utah, working dayi n, for young persons and women, regulations as to ...............................................
13
Victoria:
Convictions for unlawful employment, 1904 to 1909..........................................................................
31
Overtime, regulations as to.................................................................................................................
24
Rest period during daily working time, legal provisions as to.........................................................
16
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics................................
31
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to......................................................... 12*14
Virginia, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to..........................................
14
W eavers, women, hours of work and rates of wages of, in various countries.........................................
44




INDEX.
Western Australia:

71
Page.

Overtime, regulations as to.................................................................................................................20,24
Rest period during daily working time, regulations as to ................................................................
16
Working day for female young persons (over 14) and women only, regulations as to....................
12
Working day of young persons and women, regulations as to .........................................................
14
14
Wisconsin, working day in, for young persons and women, regulations as to......................................
Woolen factories:
Rest periods in, New Zealand............................................................................................................
19
Working hours in, Belgium................................................................................................................
11
Working hours in, New Zealand........................................................................................................
14
Working day, actual, and overtime, account of, taken from official statistics:
Austria.................................................................................................................................................33-35
Belgium............................................................................................................................................... 40,41
Denmark............................................................................................................................................. 38,39
Finland................................................................................................................................................
42
France..................................................................................................................................................
28
Germany..............................................................................................................................................26-28
Great Britain.......................................................................................................................................29,30
Hungary.............................................................................................................................................. 41,42
India.................................................................................................................................................... 37,38
Italy.....................................................................................................................................................
37
Maine...................................................................................................................................................
30
Massachusetts......................................................................................................................................
30
Netherlands......................................................................................................................................... 35,36
N ew Hampshire..................................................................................................................................
30
New South Wales...............................................................................................................................
31
New York............................................................................................................................................30,31
New Zealand....................................................................................................................................... 31,32
Rhode Island......................................................................................................................................
30
Russia..................................................................................................................................................36,37
Sw eden..............................................................................................................................................
40
Switzerland......................................................................................................................................... 32,33
Victoria................................................................................................................................................
31
Working day, legal, summary of States according to classified number of hours of............................. 42,43
Working day, legal maximum:
Children only, regulations as to, in various States...........................................................................
10
Female young persons (over 14) and women only, regulations as to, in various States.................
12
International Association for Labor Legislation, resolution of, as to women and young persons.. 5,6
Legislation as to, in force in different countries, critical account of................................................. 9-14
Young persons and women (men also in some cases), regulations as to, in various States.......... 12-14
Young persons and women, no provisions for, in specified States................................................... 9,10
Young persons, but not adult female workers, provisions as to; in various States........................ 10-12
Working day of 8 hours and of 10 hours, prescribed b y law, in various States..................................... 26-32
Working day of 11 hours and of 12 hours, prescribed by law, in various States................................... 32-38
Working day of young persons only, regulations as to hours of labor of, in various States..................38-42
Working day, reduction of, to 10 hours or less, hygienic, social, and productive advantages of.......... 44-54
Working day, transitional arrangements for introduction of regulations as to length of...................... 55,56
Young persons. (See Age, and hours of work, legally specified, for young persons.)
11
Zinc rolling mills, working hours in, Belgium........................................................................................