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WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION Division of Social Research SURVEY OF WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT IN EIGHT AREAS DURING THE SECOND QUARTER OF 1936 Series rz: Number 3 WO R K S P R OG R E S S A D M I N I S T R A T I O N-i Harry L. Hopkins, Administrator Corrington Gill, Assistant Administrator Howard B. Myers, Director Division of Social Research RE S E A RC H BUL L E T I N SURVEY OF WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT IN EIGHT .lRE.lS DURING THE SECOND QUARTER OF 1936 •Prepared by the Special Inquiries Section Division of Social Research washi ngton 1937 Digitized by Google Digitized by Google CONTENTS Intf'Od.uction............................................ Page v Su111111ar7. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • vii Incomes of inteniewed cases before and after separation. Cases with July incomes mainly from private employment.. Cases dependent mainly upon relief in July.............. Cases with July incomes mainly from miscellaneous sources. Cases with no income in July............................ Status of cases at date of inteniew.................... Workers transferred to other parts of the Works Program. 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 TABLES Table A. Number of cases with members separated from WPA employment in the second quarter of 1936, sampling ratios, and numbers of cases located and not located, eight areas..................... Table l. Source of greater part of July income, of cases with members separated from WPA employment in the second quarter of 1936, eight areas...... Table 2. Total incomes, during last month of WPA employment and during July, by source of greater part of July income, of cases with members eeparated fromWPA employment in the second quarter of 1936, eight areas............................ Table 3. Comparison of July incomes with incomes during last month of WPA employment, of cases with members separated from WPA employment in the second quarter of 1936, eight areas.......... Table 4. Comparison of class of usual occupationwith class of occupation in private industry after separation, for workers separated from WPA employment in the second quarter of 1936, eight areas. Table 5. Comparison of class of usual industry with class of industry in which employed after separation, for workers separated from WPA employment in the second quarter of 1936, eight areas...... Table 6. Characteristics, by source of greater part of July income, of cases with members separated from WPA employment in the second quarter of 1936, eight areas............................ iii Digitized by Google 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 Digitized by Google INTRODUCTION During the second quarter of 1936, the number of certified relief workers employed on WPA projects throughout the country was reduced by about 750,000. A reexamination of all cases with members on WPA projects was also initiated during this period for the purpose of eliminating workers no longer in need of Works Program employment. During the latter part of August and the first half of September 1936, the Division of Social Research undertook a series of surveys of workers separated from WPA employment in eight areas, to determine C11 the amounts and sources of income rece_ived by the families of separated workers subsequent to separation, ( 21 the proportions of these workers who secured employment in private industry, and 131 the extent to which loss of WPA employment necessitated reapplication for direct relief. The cases selected for study were those in which a member bad resigned or bad been dismissed from a WPA project (other than a Federal project) during the second quarter of 1936. In order to obtain a clear-cut comparison of the economic condition of cases before and after separation from WPA, the study did not include families in which the separated member or another member had been employed on any part of the WPA program (except NYAI during the third quarter of 1936 up to the date of interview, August 15-September 15. Data were secured from WPA records, from the files of local relief agencies, and from interviews with the workers or other members of their families. No attempt was made to inteniew the workers who had been transferred from WPA projects to other parts of the Works Program; schedules for such cases were filled from data. available in the WPA and relief agency records. Of the workers not so transferred, approximately one-third could not be located for interview. The areas and the numbers of cases studied are shown in table A. In 4 of the areas, all separated workers as defined above were included; in the other 4 areas, random samples of from 200 to 500 cases were drawn. The areas were selected in an attempt to secure data which would, at least in part, reflect local variations in the administrative policies and procedures used in reducing WPA employment during the second quarter of 1936. Supenisors from the regular staff of the Division of Social Research were assigned to each of the areas and the surveys were conducted with the assistance of personnel recruited locally. V Digitized by Google Digitized by Google SUMMARY After the separation of a case member from WPA employment in the second quarter of 1936, the 4,552 cases which were located for study in 8 areas divided into 3 well-defined groups on the basis of the source of the greater part of their July incomes. One-half derived the major part of their incomes from private employment; one-fourth received their income chiefly from relief or miscellaneous sources or received no income; and onefourth, having been transferred to work projects operated by Government agencies other than WPA, presumably continued to be supported in the main by income from Works Program employment. Those cases which derived the greater part of their income from private employment fared best, on the average, after separation. Their average income in July was $76.36, or approximately $23 more than they received during the last month of WPA employment. Three-fifths of them had higher incomes in July than prior to separation, and one-tenth reported incomes of approximately the same size in both periods. The families of the separated workers in this group were above average in size, and the workers themselves were relatively young. The second group (one-fourth of the located cases I was characterized by low average income and by a relatively high proportion of unemployabi 1i ty among the separated members. The 12 percent which received the bulk of their July incomes from relief and the 6 percent receiving income mainly from miscellaneous sources (aid from friends and relatives, payments from boarders and lodgers, etc. I received average incomes of $16.95 and $27.08 respectively, amounts well below the minimum security wage rate for unskilled labor on the Works Program in the areas studied. Another 7 percept reported no income in July. In this group as a whole, 86 percent of the cases had smaller incomes in July than during their last month of employment on the Progra111. The separated workers in half of the relief cases, and in nearly onethird of those with miscellaneous income or with no income in July, reported that they were unable to work at their usual occupation. The average age of the separated workers for these types was relatively high 148 years I, much above that of workers who went into private or other Works Program employment. Income changes between July and the week preceding interview (about September 11 were not large. The bulk of the private employment cases appeared to have fully maintained their earning vii Digitized by Google viii WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT power, though about 10 percent reported no income in the latest week. Some of the cases dependent upon relief and miscellaneous income in July reported no income in the week before interview; this change was, in part, offset by the incomes reported by a number o! the cases without income in July. The remaining fourth of the located cases were transferred to jobs at similar wage-rate levels on work projects operated by Government agencies other than the WPA. Hence, if their assignments continued through July, their incomes in that month were presumably about the same as during the last month of WPA employment. Digitized by Google SURVEY OF WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT IN EIGHT AREAS DURING THE SECOND QUARTER OF 1936 129144 0-37-2 Digitized by Google Digitized by Google SURVEY OF WORKEHS SEPARATEn FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT IN EIGHT AREAS DURING THE SECOND QUARTER OF 1936 About half of the 4,552 1 families included in the survey received the bulk of their income in the form of wages from private employment during Joly, the first calendar month after all the separations studied becane effective I table l). Some 12 percent were dependent on local relief for the greater part of their July income. About 6 percent of the total studied subsisted during July primarily by means of income from miscellaneous sources, such a.s aid from relatives and friends, payments from boarders and lodgers, and soldiers' bonus payments; about 7 percent of the total reported no income of any sort during July. 2 The remainder of the workers 124 percent) were transferred to Works Program projects operated by Government agencies other than the WPA. Since these workers were not sought for interview, income data for their families are not available, but most of them were presumably dependent mainly upon Works Program income in July. e:ach of the above groups is treated briefly in subsequent sections of this report. Incomes of Inteniewed Cases Before and After Separation Average I median I incomes for the la.c;t month of WPA employment and for the month of July were almost identical, $53.39 and $53.79 respectively, but there were marked differences between the two periods with regard to the proportions of cases having high or extremely low incomes (table 21. In the last month of WPA employment, when 86 percent of the aggregate income of the entire group wa.s obtained from WPA wages, about one-half of the cases received incomes between $40 and $60, a range including the minimum security wage rate in most of the areas; 3 only about 3 percent had less than $20, and but slightly more than 5 percent had incomes above $100. In July, on the other hand, 1There were 1.797 additional cases Included In the s11111ple, but because or deaths, removals, etc., they could not be located tor Interview. The records lndlcated that they bad not been transterred to other parts ot the Works Progr u. 2-rhe cases were dlTlded lnto these categorles on the basis ot the source or 60 percent or more or their total July income. The rew cases reporUng less than 60 percent of their income fro• any one source were clasaHied according to tbe source rrom 111:licb tbe largest amount was receiTed. 3Tbe WPA unaltllled wage rates in tbe areas studied range fro• $38 .26 in Marlon County, West Virginia, to $60 in Indian&polls. 1 Digitized by Google 2 WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT only 11 percent of the cases had incomes within the $40 to $60 range, one-fourth had incomes under $20, and one-fifth received $100 or more. The wide variations among case incomes in July are to be explained by reference to the sources from which the incomes were principally derived. The families obtaining the bulk of their JulyincOllle fromprivate employment received an average of $76.36, or almost $23 above that for all interviewed cases I table 21. On the other hand, those receiving their incomes largely from relief or from miscellaneous sources reported average incomes of $16.95 and $27.08 respectively, amounts farbelow the average income for the entire group. In view of the sharp increases in the proportions of high and extremely low incomes after separation, it is not surprising that most of the families reported significant changes in amounts of income between the last month of WPA employment and the month of July. Of all the cases interviewed 43 percent received higher incomes during July than during the pre-separation period; the incomes of 9 percent remained relatively unchanged,' while the remaining 48 percent received less during July ltable 31. Comparison among cases grouped according to major source of July income gives further evidence of changes in individual case incomes before and after separation. Thus, for the group recei ving the major part of their July incomes from private employment, 61 percent fared better after separation than before, 11 percent were about equally as well off, and only 28 percent reported less income I tab le 3 l • Conversely, of the cases mainly dependent upon income from relief or miscellaneous sources in July, more than four-fifths reported smaller incomes after separation than they had received in the earlier period. Cases With July Incomes ~ainly From PriYate Employment Incomes tn July. Half of the separated cases studied received the greaterpart of their July incomes from private employment. 5 The average incomes for this group were above the security wage rate for unskilled labor in each of the eight areas. In six areas, two-thirds or more of the cases had July incomes above the minimum security rate, and in the other two areas, Marion, West Virginia, and Indianapolis, three-fifths received incomes 'xnco,ies were considered unchanged U theJ tell wt thin the same class interval. 5 xn addltlon to the 2,290 cases included ln this group, private employment was held ln July bY a comparatively small number or cases ln other categories. 56 cases reoeiYlng the bulk or their income rro11 relier also reported earnings rrom prlYata employment, but the average amount was less tnan se. ror cases reporting tncomes ■ alnlY rrom ■ lscellaneous sources, private earnings ware or negllglble l ■ portance, constituting only 4 percent or the aggregate lnco■e tor the group. • Digitized by Google WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT 3 above this minimum. Only 7 percent of this group reported July earnings below $20; many of th.e low incomes were reported by cases in West Virginia where wage rates a.re normally lower than in the other areas studied. At the other extreme, nearly onethird of the cases reported total July incomes of $100 and over I table 21. 7'Jlpes of jobs secured bl/ separated workers. About 65 percent of the workers who secured private jobs were employed in their usual occupational class, and another 13 percent were employed in a class of occupation that might be regarded as on a higher level than their usual class 6 (table 41 •• The remaining 22 percent of workers had taken private employment in an occupational category below that in which their usual occupation fell. Each broad industrial group absorbed very nearly the same proportion of these workers as it had employed prior to the inception of the Works Program (table 51. Stze of household and ate of separated workers. The households receiving the bulk of their July incomes from private employment were generally larger than those in the total group studied or in any of the other main income groups. Less than one-fifth were non-family persons and almost a third contained five or more members. The separated workers who secured private employment in July were about U years younger on the average than the entire separated group, and about 11 years younger than those who were dependent on relief or on miscellaneous sources of income in July (table 61. Cases Dependent Mainly Upon Relief in July Households which were dependent primarily on relief grants for their support during July constituted 12 percent of the total number of separated cases studied; more than 90 percent of them were in San Francisco, Indianapolis, and Worc)tester. 7 Applications for relief were made by most of these families fairly soon after separation. One-seventh of the cases were granted relief within l week after last employment on the Program, and one-half within 3 weeks. 8 6 1n about 90 percent or the cases the separated worker waa the ■aln wage earner in July. In the remainder or the cases the ■ ain support cue rro■ the e■ plor-.ent or some other ■ ember or the household. 7suppleaentary reuer was 1iven in small uounts to a rew cases not included in this sect1on. 137 cases, main1y supported by private eaplo111ent ln July, received some relier as well, but the average amount was only about S12,60. P'or the cases mainly dependent on miscellaneous inc0111e in July, relier grants constituted less than i percent or the aa1regate income. 8 A considerable number or cases applled tor rellet subsequent to separation rroa WPA employment, but received no atd ln July. There were 1~ cases Wlllch were reJected bf local agencies, 167 wtiich were accepted but closed betore July, and 6• appllcations on Wlllch decisions had not been ■ ade at the tiae the data were collected. Digitized by Google 4 WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT The average total income of the 536 relief cases was $16.95 in July; in none of the 8 areas was the average equal to the local WPA security rate for unskilled labor. In Worc.ester, almost half the families received July incomes equal to the WPA minimum rate for unskilled labor, while none of the Indianapolis cases reported July incomes equal to the corresponding rate in that city. As might be expected from the size of the average income, four-fifths of these families were financially worse off in July than they were during the last month of WPA employment (table 31. lmployabtltty of separated workers tn reltef troup. Almost onehalf of the separated workers in this group reported that they were unable to work at their usual occupations, three-fifths because of physical disabilities, and most of the remainder because of old age. The average separated worker on relief in July was 48 years of age, or almost 11 years older than the average worker who was employed in private industry during that month (table 61. Stze of famtly. The household groups dependent mainly upon relief in July were smaller on the average than those in the entire separated group; 42 percent of them were non-family persons as compared with 28 percent for the total. Households containing five or more members were relatively less numerous in the relief group than in the entire separated group or among those employed in private industry. Cases With July Incomes Mainly From Miscellaneous Sources An average July income of only $27.08 was reported by cases deriving the bulk of their income from miscellaneous sources laid from relatives and friends, payments from boarders and lodgers, garden produce, and veterans' bonus payments). Ninety percent of these families rPceived less than the WPA wage rate for unskilled labor in the area in which they lived; a number of those with incomes above that amount had received soldiers' bonus payments. As was true of the relief group, a substantial proportion (one-third) of the workers were unemployable at their usual occupations and the average age of the separated workers was relatively high (48 years). Cases With No Income in July Three hundred and thirty cases, or 7 percent of those studied, reported no income in July. Two-thirds of them were in San Francisco, where at least a part were evidently transients or workers without dependents who are employed intermittently in the fruit and shipping industries. Only about one-fourth of these cases without income in July had made application for Digitized by Google WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT 5 relief subsequent to separation from WPA employment.g The comparatively small proportion of applicants for relief in this group is probably in part a result of the fact that a substantial number of the workers were without dependents; many of them, moreover, were probably unable to satisfy the residence requirements for local relief. One-third of these workers considered themselves unable to work at their usual occupations, a little more than half because of old age, and the remainder because of physical disabilities. Their average age was 48 years. Thus, with respect to employability and age, they bore a striking similarity to the cases primarily dependent upon relief and upon miscellaneous income. Status or Cases at Date of InteMiew (About September 1) The status of over 90 percent of the 2,290 cases receiving the bulk of their July income from private employment had changed but little by the time they were interviewed in late August or early September. Data for the week preceding interview indicated that the average income for those still employed had risen slightly. However, 205 cases, over half of which were in San Francisco, reported no income during the week preceding the interview. About 7 percent of the 536 cases dependent mainly on relief in July received no income whatever during the week preceding the date of interview. 10 The average rate of income of the remainder of these cases was slightly higher in this later period than it had been in July, largely as a result of an increase in the small earnings from private employment. The average rate of income of the 269 cases dependent primarily on funds from miscellaneous sources in July rose slightly between July and the week preceding interview. Amore important change was the rise in the proportion of the aggregate income of this group obtained from private employment. Earnings from such employment constituted one-fourth of the total in the latest week as against only 4 percent in July. Forty-eight 115 percent I of the cases without income in July received an average income of about $3 during this later weekly period. Three-quarters of the aggregate amount was in the form of wages from private employment and 15 percent consisted of relief grants. g 31 percent or the total lntervtewed group made appll catlon ror reller. 10 1t ■&)' be usumed that these cases were wl thout rel ur assl stance because lntervtewers were instructed to report an1 income allocated to tbls week b7 the reltet agenc1. Digitized by Google 6 WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT Workers Transferred to Other Parts of the Works Program The remaining 1,084 workers 124 percent of the totall were transferred from WPA employmenttoprojects operated by Government agencies other than WPA. The Public Works Administration employed nearly half of these cases. The National Park Service absorbed 118 cases or 11 percent of the total transferred; all of the workers accepted by this agency were in San Francisco and practically all of them were non-family persons. In Allegany and Steuben Counties, New York, 100 families were taken over by the Resettlement Administration. Ninety andeighty-twoworkers, respectively, were a:ssignedtoprojects operated by the Department of Agriculture and the Corps of Army Engineers; the remainder were scattered in relatively small numbers among various other agencies. It may be assumed that the Works Program incomes of transferred workers were approximately the same after separation from WPA as before, since most of the workers received the same wage-rate classifications on their new jobs as they had had on the WPA project. Eighty-seven percent received the lowest security wage classification prior to transfer and seven-eighths of them had the same rating subsequently. Of the 61 workers employed on WPA projects at the wage rate for professional workers, 51 were similarly classified after being transferred. Uttltzatton of workers' sktlls. Workers were employed at their usual occupations to about the same extent before and after their transfers from WPA. During their employment on WPA, over two-thirds of those who had normally been employed at skilled trades were assigned to projects as unskilled laborers; approximately the same situation obtained after their transfer to other parts of the Works Program. In the case of semiskilled workers, however, the percentage employed as unskilled laborers fell from 90 on WPA projects to less than 70 following their transfers. About one-half of the 98 workers who were normally employed at "white collar" jobs were assigned as unskilled laborers both on WPA projects and after transfer. Charactertsttcs of workers transferred to other parts of the Works Program. The relatively low average age 134.7 yearsl of these transferred workers is partly a result of the fact that a substantial number of young single men were transferred to the National Park Service in California. In other areas, the proportion of non-family persons transferred was small and the households of the workers contained, on the whole, about the same number of persons as did those of the entire separated group (table 61. Digitized by Google T.lBIES Dig1t,zed by Google Digitized by Google WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT g Table A-NUMBER OF CASES WITH MEMBERS SEPARATED FROM IPA EMPLOYMENT IN THE SECONO QUARTER or 1936. SAMPLING RATIOS, ANO NUMBERS OF CASES LOCATED ANO NOT LOCATEO, EIGHT AREAS Total Sel)II- A,.ea n,ted Cases Al 1 areas 6,J49 Worcester !City), Mass. A11 egany and St..,ben Counties, N. Y, Milrion County, W. Va. Kanawha County, W, Va. Marion County llndianapol is), Ind. Eight rural CQJnt ies, b Ind. Ogden, Utah San Francisco. Cal if. • Cases Cases Not Located Located Cases Not located 2,975 2,293 682 4,552 1,797 220 426 242 215 1!11 67 39 448 426 242 )17 158 288 130 24 74 173 864 390 24 74 1,018 606 493 281 374 1/1 1/1 5/8 379 49) 281 232 1,254 382 J47 2,612 1/3 1/1 1/1 1/6 418 382 J47 444 .358 273 271 1ric:lude• JO ,ercent ua,1• of 115 caua HJar&led froa • hrt• ... int ,roJ«t. bleftlon, Carroll, ,ov11tal11, ._, . . .,,. llo'11at1, llieltJ, war,-, and lffllt ■• or IPA GREATER PART or Cases Located Total 8 Table 1-SOURCE Sample Converted to 100 Percent &,is is Sample 5a,.... pl ;ng Ratio 17 67 39 27 358 273 1,594 A1I ot~r MJ ■ r■ tlDfta 110 ,aneflt. JULY INCOME, OF CASES WI TH IIEIIBERS SEPARATED FROM EMPLOYMENT IN THE SECOND QUARTER or 1936, EIGHT AREAS Source of Greeter Part of July lncO'l'II! Area Total Private EmolOY""'"t Al 1 areas Worc~ster !City), Mass. A11 egany and st..,ben Counties, N. Y. Merion County, vr. Va. Kana'tllfla County, W. Va. Marion County llndianapol is), Ind, Eight rural counties,c Ind. Ogden, Utah San Fr11ncisco, Calif, 4,552" ~I ief Miscel1aneous No Income Other lk>rks PrOQr.,.a 2,290 5)6 269 )30 1,084 448 426 242 J47 298 l49 56 17 1 12 3 58 47 31 8 140 192 48 235 29 68 864 358 273 1,594 483 151 124 753 48 42 7 1 11 144 10 8 289 14 5 82 11 24 206 138 174 1)1 258 Parcenl Dlalrlbullon All areas 100 !() 12 6 7 24 i.orcester ICityJ, Mass. Allegany and St""ben Counties, N. Y. 100 100 100 100 66 35 58 55 12 4 •3 3 1 24 14 7 2 4 55 l 20 100 100 100 100 56 17 3 3 18 5 4 2 5 Marion County. vr. Va. Kana,.t,a County, W. Va. ~rion County (lndienapol isJ. Ind. Eight rural counties,c Ind. Ogden, Utah San Francisco, Cal if. 42 45 47 5 2 48 13 49 16 16 • •L•H 11\an 1.5 perc■,it, •T11eH CHU . . re tra,1shrr«t to other ..encle1 or 11'11• Vot111 Progr•. end pretuaHl1 recelvN th 9re•t•r oart Jul1 ii'<~• froa Ule 'lt)rtil Pro9r•. bTotal incl11de1 o caMI .iu, NHirce of greater part or July Inc:~ unllnoM'I. cleriton. Carroll, Fowntain, Nonlto-er,, Nort;,an, stielOJ, hrren, Md llltlita. Digitized by u 12 Google o, their WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT 10 Tabla 2-TOTAL INCOMES, DURING LAST MONTH OF WPA EMPLOYMENT ANO DURING JULT, BT SOURCE OF GREATER PART OF JULT INCOME, OF CASES WITH MEMBERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT IN THE SECOND QUARTER OF 1936, EIGHT AREAS July lncOIM Interval All Last llonth of WPA E,,,plo)'fflafll casn Source of Greeter Part of lncon,e Total 3,468 3,468" All cases 100 100 No inca,ie -1 Private E,"1)1-nt Relief Miscella-..s 536 269 I 2,290 "-rcenl 0lalrlbullOII s 1-$ 9 10- 19 20- 29 30- 39 2 5 10 -2 7 7 20 40 19 7 5 6 21 7 28 13 4 8 10- 79 80- 89 5 7 6 6 B 5 12 9 9 99 109 119 129 139 2 2 1 1 . 5 6 4 2 2 8 9 5 4 4 140- 149 150 and over •1 1 6 2 2 6 1 90100110120130- • Not ascertainable Median $5),39 $53, 79 100 - 5 4 49 59 69 405060- 100 100 10 6 11 - 19 24 12 24 5 3 9 1 0 •0 1 • •0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 10 0 $16.95 S76.36 S27.08 •Lea• oan o.t ,.,ceM, •1011rc• of ' " ' ' ' ' " " of Jul, 1111:- ., ., UNI ......... )JO c .... ,.,...., ... H IIIC- 111 .... ,. Table 3-COMPARISON OF JULT INCOMES WITH INCOMES DURING LAST MONTH OF WPA EMPLOYMENT, OF CASES WITH MEMBERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT IN THE SECOND QUARTER OF 1936, EIGHT AREAS Relation of July lncon,e to lncon,e for Last llont h of WPI\ E,,oi, 1oy,,,ent Al I cases Source of Gr.,.,ter Part of July lncon,e Total Pri,ate E,"l)loy,,,ent 3,468° ~ All cases ., I 2,290 Relief Miscellaneous 536 269 Dlalrlbul IOII 100 100 100 100 43 61 11 28 7 13 80 12 6 82 Cases with July inc0111s: Higher than in last ""nth of WPA ""'Ploy,,,ent 5""'e as in last ""nth of WPA en,plo,...,nt• Lower than In last roonth of WPA employment 9 48 •1ncladH JJO CHH efllc,i . . ,. •111\CMft inc- 111 .1111, and ., , .... •IO ...., , . of .,.... , ,.,, of .1 .. 1, Illeb•c-• •r• COftaiderff 11ncl'lllngtel Ir tlleJ fell wlUiln ne ...,_ 111111-.111, IIIC- lnten,a1, Digitized by Google WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT 11 Table 4-COIIPARISON OF CLASS OF USUAL OCCUPATION WITH CLASS OF OCCUPATION IN PRIVATE INDUSTRY AFTER SEPARATION, FOR •DRKERS SEPARATED FROM •PA EMPLOYMENT IN THE SECOND QUARTER OF 19.36, EIGHT AREAS Class of Usual Occupation All occupations Professional and technical MaM.gers and officials Nul?lbf!r Percent 1,8479 100 60 36 Clerical and s.\les Ski I led in bui Iding Ski I led in other mechanical Percent of lire> rice rs Emp I oyed in PrivatP. Industry Total Workers in Class 159 )75 164 c;emislci11ed in building 144 Semiskill,...-t in other l'fteehanical Unski I led and farm laborers Doniestic and personal service 356 436 117 Above Class of Usual In Class of Usual Below Class of Usual Occup11t ion Occupation Occupation 13 65 22 0 3 2 9 20 i 0 4 2 6 8 19 24 6 12 15 27 24 25 67 75 33 46 76 40 50 70 62 18 23 0 0 22 54 73 76 •11, or u,e I, ZIO caHI derl•i-t u,e greeter ,art or 111cel r July inc.oa. fr• private .. plor•fllt are ••ch,ded. In abo11\ nalf '"••• ca1e1 u,a Job in pri•ate indu1C.ry ..... , M<urltd by 1 •-b•r or tne l'lo11sel\old ot"•' Ulan ue 1e,aratld •A•r: lnfomation r-,ardlng claa1 of oc:cupalion In private lnd,n&r, aUer a.,aratlOfl ••• N>t nailebla for Ule r•a•nder. Table 5-COIIPARISON OF CLASS OF USUAL INDUSTRY 11TH CLASS OF INDUSTRY IN IIIHICH EMPLOYED AFTER SE PARAT ION, FOR •DRKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT IN THE SECOND QUARTER OF 19)6, EIGHT AREAS Usul!l 1 Industry Industrial Class lndust ry Aft@r Seoarat ion 1,847" All chss@s P,rc.nt Dtetrtburton All c 1asses Agricultur@, fishing, and forestry Extraction of minerals Building and construction Manufacturing and mechanical industries other than construction Transportation and co•m1.inication Trade Public service Professional service Ocwnest ic and personal service Not specified 100 100 6 5 24 25 18 2J 10 1 10 4 5 5 27 17 3 2 5 7 3 • •Lell Ulan 0.1 p•rcent. • .. , of the 2, ltO cues darl•in9 Ula 1reaur part of their July lncoa• fr• prl•ata --,1c,-..,.t ara HChdM, In abovt half th•M casea the JOtt in private indut.tr1 •U secured l:IJ • •enitier of tne hOut.ehOld oth•r Ulan UII ff(t&rahd •oar; lnfo,-.ation regarding lndut.trial group aft.r •~aration was not a•allat,la for Ula r•all'tdar. Digitized by Google WORKERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT 12 Tobie 6-CHARACTERISTICS, BY SOURCE OF GREATER PART OF JULY INCOME, OF CASES WITH MEMBERS SEPARATED FROM WPA EMPLOYMENT IN THE SECOND QUARTER OF 1936, EIGHT AREAS O,aracteristic Totel Cases 4,552" Nl.lfft,er of cases Percent of total 100 Average age of separated worker 38.8 Source of Greater Part of Ju I y I nccrne Transferred No lncO'fte Miscel- to Other Parts of the Works Progr• Private &nployment Relief 2,290 536 12 269 6 330 7 1.~ 50 37.4 48.0 48.5 47.8 34. 7 48 14 30 32 18 13 4 1 33 18 15 0 laneous 24 Percent of separated workers unemployable because of: Al I reasons 12 4• Old age 5 7 1• 2• 1• Physical disi!bil ity Other reasons • C C C C Percent distribution by size of household: Al I households 1...-, ,4 ...... !'>-7-rs 8 or more ffll!'l'Jlbers 100 28 46 19 7 100 18 51 23 100 100" 42 54d 38 13 34d 8 7 r5d 100 25 45 24 6 •L•H ,,..11 0.1 perce1tl. •tftCI.0.1 •J CHH •iltl soi.tree of treater ,art of J11l1 lncoae •••Mft. b111 t•Mral, CUH 111 •tllcft ,,1wate ..,101•111 ••• aecwred ,, • - - . r of tM ftouHNld oOer Ulan tM ..,.ntff 110r11t1r. cwor•er1 tre111terrM le oilier ,arh of IM worlla ,rotr• 11M lNretore auwaN to i,• e111Plo1.cil•. dDela not latwlalff ror ••lacolloMG••• and •no lncotlO• 1ro•p• Nporo1e11. •r• Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google