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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES)
( WHOLE O fM
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS) * * * (NUMBER l \J T!
WAGES

AND

HOURS

S T R E E T

OF

LABOR

SERIES:

R A IL W A Y

NO.

E M P L O Y ­

M E N T IN T H E U N IT E D




APRIL, 1917

W ASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1917

23

STATES




ADDITIONAL COPIES
OP THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT

75 CENTS PER COPY

CONTENTS.
Page.

Introduction............................................................................................................... 9-16
Definitions of occupations..................................................................................11-16
Track and line............................................................................................. 11-13
Transportation..............................................................................................13,14
Barn and shop.............................................................................................. 14-16
Chapter I.—Wages of car crews................................... * ....................................... 16-107
Classified rates of wages..................................................................................... 17-59
Payment by approximate units........................................................................ 60-64
Time allowed but not worked............................. . .................................... 60-62
Pay for reporting time...............................................................................
62
Allowance for making daily work reports and accident reports............. 62, 63
Meals or cash allowance when held for orders..........................................
63
Free transportation........................... ..................................................... 63, 64
Guaranteed wage to extra men......................................................................... 64, 65
Additional compensation...................................................................................
65
Rates of pay for specified classes of work......................................................... 65-68
Overtime......................................................................................................
65
Owl-car runs and work after midnight......................................................
66
Operating snowplow and sweeper............................................................
66
Instructing new men...................................................................................
67
Time in excess of regular runs caused by delays.....................................
67
One-man cars...............................................................................................
68
Pay for meal periods..........................................................................................
68
Premiums for prevention of accidents.............................................................
68
Rates at stated periods of service.................................................................... 69-107
Chapter II.—Hours of labor and days worked by car crews.............................. 108-192
Runs (day’s w ork).......................................................................................... 108-138
Additional scheduled service......................................................................... 138-165
Boston, Mass............................................................................................. 142-144
Surface lines...................................................................................... 142,143
Elevated lines......................................................................................
144
Brockton, Mass........................................................................................ 144,145
Buffalo, N. Y ...............................................................................................
145
Chicago, 111............................................................................................... 145-147
Surface lines...................................................................................... 145,146
Elevated lines................................................................................... 146,147
Cleveland, Ohio....................................................................................... 147,148
Des Moines, Iowa........................................................................................
148
Indianapolis, Ind....................................................................................149,150
Kansas City, Mo..........................................................................................
150
Los Angeles, Cal..........................................................................................
151
Lowell, Mass................................................................................................
152
Memphis, Tenn............................... ........................................................ 152,153
Newark, N. J ................................................................................................
153
New Bedford, Mass.....................................................................................
153




3

4

CONTENTS.

Chapter II.—Hours of labor and days worked by car crews—Concluded.
Additional scheduled service—Concluded.
»
Page.
New York, N. Y ....................................................................................... 153-155
Interborough Rapid Transit Co. (elevated lines)......................... 153,154
Interborough Rapid Transit Co. (subway lines)........................... 154,155
New York Railways Co. (surface lines).............................................
155
Philadelphia, Pa...................................................................................... 156,157
Surface lines...................................................................................... 156,157
Elevated lines.......................................................................................
157
Portland, Oreg.......................................................................................... 157,158
Providence, R. 1...................................................................................... 158,159
Rochester, N. Y ...........................................................................................
160
Seattle, Wash...............................................................................................
161
Spokane, Wash............................................................................................
161
Springfield, Mass...................................................................................... 161,162
Syracuse, N. Y ......................................................................................... 162,163
Tacoma, Wash..............................................................................................
164
Topeka, Kans...............................................................................................
165
Selection of runs.................................................................................................
165
Days allowed off duty............................................................................... . 165,166
Overtime allowed upon employees’ request....................................................
166
Hours worked or paid for each day for one week........................................ 166-176
Calendar days worked in whole or in part and actual earnings for one week. 177-192
Chapter III.—Change in personnel during one year......................................... 193-203
Chapter IY.—Miscellaneous data relative to car crews...................................... 204-235
Application for employment......................................................................... 204, 205
Physical examination.............................................................................. 204,205
Age entrance requirements, time under instruction, and amount of bond
or cash deposit............................................................................................. 205-210
Purchase of uniforms..........................................................................................
211
Change carried by conductors, daily assignment of runs, reporting time,
frequency of pay days, and “ hold back” ................................................ 211-215
Seats for car employees, toilet facilities, inclosed cars, and heating
methods.........................................................•
............................................... 215-219
Accident, sick, and death benefits............................................................... 220-235
Chapter Y.—Employees other than car crews.................................................... 236-249
Chapter VI.—Associations of employers and employees................................... 250-304
American Electric Railway Association....................................................... 250-263
The era of horse railways..................................... ......................................
251
Adoption of the cable system................................................................. 251-253
Electricity as a motive p ow er.............................................................. 253-255
Education of street railway labor..............................................................
255
Labor and the graduated system of compensation............................... 255-257
Reorganization period............................................................................. 257-259
Fees...............................................................................................................
260
Code of principles.................................................................................... 260-263
Organization of street railway employees..................................................... 263-304
Early organization under the Knights of Labor................................... 264, 265
Organization under the American Federation of Labor...................... 265-267
Growth of the organization..................................................................... 267-274
Legislative activities and legislation secured....................................... 274-279
Inclosed-vestibule cars................................................................... 274-276
Hours of labor................................................................................... 276-279
Collective bargaining.............................................................................. 280, 281




CONTENTS.

5

Chapter V I.—Associations of employers and employees—Concluded.
Organization of street railway employees—Concluded.
Page.
Agreements and arbitration clauses in public franchises.................... 281-284
Monroe, La........................................................................................ 282-284
East Liverpool, Ohio...........................................................................
284
Detroit, Mich........................................................................................
284
Death, disability, and old-age benefits................................................. 284-289
Conditions under which benefits are paid..................................... 284, 285
Death and disability benefits.............................................................
285
Old-age provisions................... - ..........................................................
285
Filing claims..................................................................................... 285, 286
Aggregate payments.............................................................................
286
Local division benefits..................................................................... 286-289
Strikes and lockouts................................................................................ 289-304
Notable strikes.................................................................................. 290-304
Chapter V II.—Agreements between employers and employees....................... 305-387
Between companies and the Amalgamated Association (union of employees) 305-358
Purpose, scope, and duration of agreements......................................... 305-308
Conferences..................................................................................................
308
Membership in association...................................................................... 308-310
Optional membership.............................................................................. 310,311
Collection of dues..................................................................................... 311,312
Notices of association..................................................................................
312
Suspension, discharge, and grievances..................................................312-315
Discharge at request of association........................................................ 315, 316
Arbitration................................................................................................316-319
Strikes....................................................................................................... 319,320
Resignations.................................................................................................
320
Hours of labor................... ....................................................................... 320-329
Motormen and conductors............................................................... 320-326
Other employees............................................................................... 326,327
Extra men....................................................................................327-329
Schedules......................................................................................................
329
Choice of runs........................................................................................... 329-331
Runs temporarily vacant........................................................................ 331,332
Promotions...................................................................................................
332
Leave of absence...................................................................................... 332-336
Equipment............................................................................................... 336, 337
Car crews................................................................................................... 337, 338
Change of occupation............................................................................... 338, 339
Working conditions.................................................................................. 339-341
Time for meals.................................................................................. 340, 341
Use of stools..........................................................................................
341
Toilet facilities.....................................................................................
341
Injured employees.......................................................................................
341
Lost articles................................................................................. , ..............
342
Free transportation.................................................................................. 342, 343
Place of residence........................................................................................
343
Change carried by conductors....................................................................
343
Turning in money.................................................................................... 343, 344
Collection of fares........................................................................................
344
Deposits required..................................................................................... 344,345
Uniforms...................................................................................... ...............
345
Pay days and pay checks....................................................................... 345,346




6

CONTEXTS.

Chapter V II.—Agreements between employers and employees—Concluded.
Between companies and the Amalgamated Association—Concluded.
page.
Notices and rules............'.............................................................................. 346
Instruction of trainmen................................................................................ 346
Medical examinations................................................................................... 347
W orking board............................................................................................... 347
Penalty for “ missing ” ............................................*............................... 347-349
Bates of wages.......................................................................................... 349-352
Motormen and conductors.............................................,................. 349-351
Snowplow and sweeper work................................................................ 351
Instructing students.............................................................................. 351
Overtime................................................................................................. 352
Wages of miscellaneous employees............................................................. 352
Time allowances...................................................................................... 353-358
Conduct of employees................................................................................... 358
Between companies and employees, members of the association, but not
contracted with as such.............................................................................. 358-387
Purpose, scope, and duration................................................................. 359, 360
Conferences.................................................................................................... 360
Membership in association........................................................................... 361
Collection of dues and posting of notices of association............................ 361
Suspension and discharge............................................................................ 362
Arbitration................................................................................................ 362,363
Strikes............................................................................................... ............ 364
Hours of labor.......................................................................................... 364, 365
Work orders............................................................................................ 364
Agreements with employees................................................................. 365
Agreements with individual employees.............................................. 365
Agreement drawn by arbitration board............................................... 365
Company letters..................................................................................... 365
Extra men................................................................................................ 365, 366
Choice of runs........................................................................................... 366, 367
Runs temporarily vacant............................................................................. 367
Leave of absence...................................................................................... 367, 368
Equipment..................................................................................................... 369
Use of stools................................................................................................... 369
Car crews........................................................................................................ 369
Change of occupation.................................................................................... 369
Working conditions....................................................................................... 370
Time for meals.......................................................................................... 370, 371
Lost articles.................................................................................................... 371
Free transportation................................................................... ................. 371
Turning in money................................................................................... 371, 372
Notices and rules........................................................................................... 372
Working board............................................................................................... 3 7 3
Penalty for “ missing ” ............................................................................. 373, 3 7 4
Work orders............................................................................................ 373
Agreements............................................................................................ 373
Company letter................................................................................. 373, 374
Wage scale......................................................................................... 374^-385
Time allowances............................................................................... 385-387
Conduct of employees........................................................................... 387




CONTENTS.

7
Page.

Chapter V III.—General tables........................................................................... 388-1118
Explanation of tables..................................................................................... 388-392
Table A.—Rates of wages of motormen, conductors, guards, and gripmen
in specified cities, by periods of service, 1914......................................... 393-485
Table B.—Hours of labor of motormen, conductors, guards, and gripmen,
1914............................................................................................................... 486-608
Table C.—Hours actually on duty or paid for of motormen, conductors,
guards, and gripmen each day of one selected week in specified cities,
1914............................................................................................................... 609-867
Table D.—Earnings of motormen, conductors, guards, and gripmen, and
number of calendar days worked at regular occupation in one selected
week............................................................................................................ 868-1016
Table E.—Rates of wages and days and hours of labor of certain employees
other than the car crew in specified cities, 1914................................. 1017-1118
Appendix A.—Blank forms for use of applicants for employment............. 1119-1126
Appendix B.—Blank forms relative to physical condition of applicants.. 1127-1131







BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
W HOLE NO. 204.

WASHINGTON.

APRIL, 1917.

WAGES, HOURS OF LABOR, AND WORKING CONDITIONS IN
STREET RAILWAY OPERATION.
INTRODUCTION.

This report presents the result of a study of the wages, hours of
labor, and w
rorking conditions of persons engaged in the operation
of urban street railways in representative cities of the United States.
Elevated and subway lines, as well as surface lines, were covered in
the cities selected. Interurban lines were not covered. The data
for this report were gathered in the latter half of the year 1914 and
the early part of 1915.
While the Bureau of Labor Statistics has for many years compiled
similar information for other industries, this is the first extensive
study of street-railway wages and working conditions that has been
made by this bureau, and so far as known no study of like scope has
been made.
According to a report made by the United States census there
were 282,461 persons employed by electric and other street railways,
urban and interurban, in the United States in the year 1912. The
importance of street railways in industrial affairs is greater, however,
than indicated by this number alone, as they have become a vital
necessity in the development and maintenance of the modern city
and are used daily by millions of city dwellers.

It was recognized that the bureau, with its limited resources, could
not make an extended study of street-railway employment in all
of the cities of the United States, so it was decided to make a compre­
hensive study in a number of selected cities and to collect a limited
amount of data from a larger list of cities. The cities selected in
which to make a full and careful study were:
Albany, N. Y.
Altoona, Pa.
Atlanta, Ga.
Augusta, Ga.
Baltimore, Md.
Binghamton, N. Y .
Birmingham, Ala.




Boston, Mass.
Brockton, Mass.
Buffalo, N. Y.
Butte, Mont.
Charleston, S. C.
Charlotte, N. C.
Chattanooga, Tenn.

Chicago, 111.
Cincinnati, Ohio.
Cleveland, Ohio.
Dallas, Tex.
Davenport, Iowa.
Denver, Colo.
Des Moines, Iowa.

10

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN TH E UNITED STATES.

Detroit, Midi.
Evansville, Ind.
Grand Rapids, Mich.
Houston, Tex.
Indianapolis, Ind.
Jacksonville, Fla.
Kansas City, Mo.
Lincoln, Nebr.
Little Rock, Ark.
Los Angeles, Cal.
Louisville, Ky.
Lowell, Mass.
Manchester, N. H.
Memphis, Tenn.
Milwaukee, Wis.
Minneapolis and St. Paul,
Minn.
Mobile, Ala.
Nashville, Tenn.
Newark, N. J.
New Bedford, Mass.

New Britain, Conn.
New Haven, Conn.
New Orleans, La.
New York, N. Y.
Norfolk, Ya.
Oakland, Cal.
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Omaha, Nebr.
Peoria, 111.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Pittsburgh, Pa.
Portland, Me.
Portland, Oreg.
Providence, R. I.
Pueblo, Colo.
Reading, Pa.
Richmond, Ya.
Rochester, N. Y.
Sacramento, Cal.
Saginaw, Mich.
St. Louis, Mo.

Salt Lake City, Utah.
San Antonio, Tex.
San Francisco, Cal.
Savannah, Ga.
Scranton, Pa.
Seattle, Wash.
Sioux City, Iowa.
South Bend, Ind.
Spokane, Wash.
Springfield, 111.
Springfield, Mass.
Springfield, Ohio.
Superior, Wis.
Syracuse, N. Y.
Tacoma, Wash.
Toledo, Ohio.
Topeka, Kans.
Washington, D. C.
Wheeling, W. Ya.
Wichita, Kans.
Wilmington, Del.

It will be observed that some of the large cities of the country are
omitted from the list and that some cities of smaller size are included.
This selection was made in order to get a representation from cities of
different sizes rather than to take only the largest cities. An agent
was sent to each of the several cities to collect the information
desired. Practically all of the data were copied by the bureau agents
from the records of the operating companies. The greater part of
the information collected was for the month of May, 1914. It was
necessary to take data for a later or earlier period from some of the
companies because May records were not available, or because con­
ditions, as shown by the records for that month, were not normal.
Information was refused by the company in Baltimore and in part
by the companies in New Britain, New Haven, and one company in
Seattle. The company in Albany declined to furnish agents any in­
formation, but the wage scale and figures concerning the maximum,
minimum, and prevailing hours of employment asked for on the short
form schedule mentioned below was obtained.
In January, 1915, a short form schedule asking only for the number
of motormen and conductors working at each wage rate, and the maxi­
mum, minimum, and prevailing hours of labor as of May, 1914, was
sent out by mail to the companies operating in all cities of the country
of any considerable size. Replies were received from 321 companies.
For a list of the cities included see pages 38 to 48. A few com­
panies failed to respond to this request.
The largest group of street railway employees peculiarly distinctive
of the industry is that one which comprises the men operating the
cars, which group includes motormen, conductors, gripmen, and




INTRODUCTION.

11

guards. The greater part of this report is devoted to a study of
conditions of employment in these occupations. A limited amount
of data concerning wages and hours of labor is given, however, for
certain other leading occupations in the street railway industry.

DEFINITIONS OF OCCUPATIONS.
In order that an understanding may be had of the work of street
car employees a brief definition is given below of the several occupa­
tions for which information is published. First, is stated the occu­
pation term as it appears in this bulletin, followed (in parenthesis) by
the occupation terms used by certain companies for the same class of
work. Next follows the definition sufficiently comprehensive to cover
the major word and the several synonymous or subordinate terms em­
braced thereby. The occupations are arranged alphabetically under
three general classifications, namely, track and line occupations,
transportation occupations, and barn and shop occupations.
TRACK AND LINE OCCUPATIONS.

Bonders (bonding men, bondmen).— Bond copper wire to tracks at joints to make a
complete circuit for conducting the current. Test rails for defective bonds. Also,
in some cities, drill and punch holes in the rails in which bonds are inserted. Light
work, but a skilled and experienced employee is required.
Bridgemen (draw tenders)— elevated lines.— Operate drawbridge built over navigable
waters. Light work with considerable responsibility.
Cablemen (cable joiners, riggers, splicers, wrappers).— Install and remove underground
cables, connect and disconnect lengths of cables, rig cables for installation or removal,
wrap cables in manholes. Skilled workmen.
Conductors, other than on passenger cars (freight, mail, sand, sprinkler, etc.).— Have
charge of car, signal motorman when to start and stop; also assist in loading and unload­
ing care.
Drillers (drill runners).— Drill bond holes in web of rail for bond wires; also drill
holes in fishplates, tie plates and rails on drill press. The work is fairly skilled and
varies from light to heavy manual labor.
Drivers, wagon (emergency drivers, teamsters, tower wagon men, wagon men).— Drive
teams hauling tools and supplies to track gangs; drive emergency wagons to place
where repairs are necessary and look after tools and material; drive teams of tower
wagon used by linemen in repairing overhead trolley; look after teams and harness.
Work is light labor.
Fitters, track.— Fit tracks and switches at switches and crossovers, and repair
switches. Experienced trackmen.
Flagmen (crossing tenders; crossover men; flagmen, track; flagmen, transportation/
signalmen).— Guard crossings at steam railways to protect cars from collisions with
railway trains; signal cars when it is safe to cross over from one track to another and
use a section of track in both directions temporarily. Easy work, usually performed by
employees incapacitated for service in other occupations.
Grade men.— Line up tracks and track bed to the proper grade. Some skill and
considerable experience.
Greasers (curve cleaners, curve greasers, curve men, switch cleaners, track greasers, track
oilers, track siveepers).— Clean and. grease curves and switches. Work very light and
unskilled. Considerable time is consumed in travel from point to point, on company’s
cars.




12

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

Interlocking maintainers and repairmen (elevated).— Keep switches, mechanical
signals, and mechanical interlocking machines in repair, properly adjusted and
greased, and also fill and maintain signal lamps.
Laborers (freight brakemen, bridge tenders (surface lines), concrete mixers, cupola men,
draiv tenders (surface lines), excavators, grouters, kettle men, track laborers, ladle men,
rail men (elevated lines), rail sanders, rammers, sand driers, sawyers, rail cutters, tunnel
men).— General unskilled work on and in connection with roadbeds and tracks.
Laborers operate brakes on freight cars and assist in loading and unloading cars; oper­
ate drawbridges on surface lines over navigable waters; mix and prepare cement for
use on track and about rails; have charge of portable cupola for melting iron for use
in welding track joints; excavate for roadbeds; lay grouting (mixed cement, crushed
stone or gravel, and sand) for paving along tracks; melt pitch in kettles for use in
filling between bricks or blocks; carry melted metal from cupola in ladles and pour
it into welding molds; do unskilled work involved in the erection and maintenance
of contact rail and its fittings and the distribution and laying of cables which supply
power to the contact rail; sand rails on heavy grades to prevent cars from slipping;
ram paving blocks and assist pavers; work at steam-heated revolving drums which
dry sand for sand boxes on cars; operate cold saws used in cutting rails; dig and
clean tunnels.
Where companies have a large number of unskilled laborers, they are subdivided
and designated by many of the occupations shown above, while in small companies
the term “ laborers’ ’ is applied to all unskilled work.
Line inspectors (patrolmen).— Patrol line, make minor repairs, and notify line depart­
ment of other repairs that may be necessary. Experienced linemen.
Lineman (emergency linemen, emergency men, insulator repair men, trouble men).—
Construct, install, and maintain trolley wires, feeders, and transmission lines; take
care of signals, trolley guards, and cables; answer emergency calls and repair trolley
wires; put cars on track; erect fire bridges and clear all delays on line due to failure of
equipment held for emergency calls; assemble, test, and repair insulators. Linemen
sometimes dig holes and mix concrete when poles are set, but usually this work is
done by helpers or groundmen. Most of the work is done from the deck of a line
car or wagon, although considerable pole climbing is required. Skilled electricians.
Linemen’s helpers (groundmen).— General work on construction and repair of trolley
line. Dig holes, set poles, carry material, etc. Unskilled work under the direction
of a lineman, for which position it is a training.
Motormen, other than passenger cars (freight, mail, sand, sprinkler, etc.).— Operate
motor work car carrying supplies for track and line construction and repair. Expe­
rienced motormen from passenger service are usually chosen for this work.
Pavers.— Lay brick or block paving between rails and tracks and surface concrete
and asphalt work. Manual labor requiring an experienced and skilled employee.
Rail grinders (grinder men, grind men).— Operate grinder machine used for smooth­
ing rails and track joints after repairs and connections have been made. Light man­
ual labor, semiskilled.
Sand-blast men.— Operate a compressed-air machine which cleans rail ends by a
sand blast in preparation for welding rail joints.
Shimmers.— Place shims (metal wedges) between rails to fill out space caused by
loose joints, etc.
Signal maintainers and repair men.— Inspect signal apparatus, correct or report all
trouble, make adjustments on worn and loose parts, keep parts oiled, and act as emer­
gency men when trouble is reported. Experienced linemen.
Switchmen (switch tenders),— Throw hand switches to enable cars to take right track.
Light work, unskilled.
Third-rail men (contact men).— Keep the trolley or contact rails in line, look after
insulators and bonds, and install new contact rails when necessary.




INTRODUCTION.

13

Towermen.— Operate hand and electric track switches from tower and set electric
signals for cars to stop or go ahead over switch. Occupation requires men of good
judgment and a knowledge of car routes. Work light.
Trackmen.— Experienced workmen with some skill competent to do the highest
grade of work necessary in making roadbeds, and laying and repairing tracks.
Trackwalkers.— Patrol section of track one or more times a day, inspect rails, rail
joints, frogs, switches, spikes, bolts, etc.; also sometimes grease curves. Unskilled
work.
Welders (cupola ivelders, cupola trappers, spot welders, electric welders).— Weld rail
joints with molten iron to make a smooth and continuous surface. Also repair cupped
or low joints, switch joints, and breaks in frogs or crossings. The work is largely
supervisory, the casting molds being placed by laborers as directed and removed by
them after the casting has cooled.
TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS.

Collectors and agents, elevated.— Sell tickets, see that station is in order and that
porters and gatemen perform their duties, and make reports of assignments to station
duty and of condition of furniture and stairways.
Conductors, elevated.— Have charge of train, open and close doors or gates in or
between first and second cars of train, signal motormen to start train and make
announcements. Experienced men are required in this occupation.
Conductors, surface.— Have charge of the cars and signal the motorman when to
start and stop the cars; collect fares and assist and safeguard passengers. A t the end
of each day or trip, make reports of fares collected, transfers issued, delays, accidents,
etc. Conductors must be physically strong, courteous, careful, above the ordinary
intelligence of an unskilled laborer, and a judge of human nature to avoid quarrels
with the public. The occupation is semiclerical in some respects and one of respon­
sibility rather than of skill. In the modern cars the work is comparatively easy, as
fares are collected as passengers enter the car, but conductors are required in most
cities to remain standing for long periods without opportunity for rest.
Guards or brakemen, elevated.— Have charge of cars, open and close gates or doors,
give starting signal to guard or conductor on car immediately ahead, and make
announcements. A training for occupation of conductor or motorman.
Gripmen, cable cars.— Operate cable cars by manipulating levers, which control,
clamp or grip an underground, moving cable. The work is strenuous, requiring
much strength and skill in order to control cars while in motion, etc.
Inspectors.— Stationed on streets to see that cars operate on schedule, look after
trouble, start cars after line blockades, reroute cars when necessary to avoid tie ups
on line, etc. The occupation requires experienced men familiar with car routes and
operating conditions.
Motormen.— Operate the cars, starting only when signalled by the conductors, and
open and close the door on pay cars; must have cars under control at all times, and
avoid accidents or collisions. Traffic conditions are such that the occupation requires
men physically strong, of good nerve, vitality, eyesight, judgment of speed and dis­
tance, and courage. The work is easily learned and should be classed as a responsible
rather than a skilled occupation, although experience increases efficiency, especially
in avoiding accidents. Employees usually reach the average of efficiency within
two years. In most cities motormen are allowed to be seated when outside congested
districts.
Platform men, elevated.— Have charge of loading and unloading passengers, see that
gates or doors are properly closed, and aid the movement of trains.
Porters, elevated.— Clean stations, stairways, platforms, washrooms, etc.




14

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

Sjyecial officers, elevated.— Have charge of loading and unloading passengers, see that
gates or doors are properly closed, aid movement of trains, have a little more authority
than platform men, and receive higher pay.
Starters.— See that cars leave terminal points on scheduled time. When blockades
occur on the line, reroute cars to straighten schedules and perform duties of inspectors.
Semiclerical occupation. Motormen and conductors are sometimes chosen for this
work.
Ticket choppers and gatemen, elevated.— Have charge of ticket box at gate and see that
no one goes through the gate to the platform without depositing a ticket or pass.
Yard conductors, elevated.— Have charge of trains as they are shifted and switched
about yards or terminals while making up for runs or after runs have been made.
Yard guards, elevated.— Couple and uncouple cars of trains as they are shifted about
yards or terminals.
Yard motormen, elevated.— Operate trains as they are shifted and switched about
yards or terminals while making up for runs or after runs have been made.
BARN AND SHOP OCCUPATIONS.

Armature winders (armature coil winders, repairers and rewinders, coil winders, field
coil winders).— Prepare armature cores for rewinding by swaging slots to the proper
dimensions and contour. Inspect for mechanical defects and test the commutator
for short circuits. Provide insulations; place coils in proper position in slots to con­
nect leads with commutator bars; wind coils for armatures to suitable form; provide
for insulation between coils and armature cores and prepare them for armature rewind­
ing; test armatures and repair or rewind if found defective. In large companies the
several subdivision occupational classifications are made, while in small companies
armature winders and helpers perform all classes of work.
Armature ivinders’ helpers (armature banders; armature strippers; brush-holder men,
shop; brushmen, shop; coil dippers; commutator men; mica men).— Place rewound or
repaired armature coils in banding lathe, attach and insulate insulating fiber strips
for underbands, dust hoods and wind over the insulated fiber strips bands of steel
wire; strip bands and defective insulations from armature coils, clean the cores, and
prepare the armatures for rewinding; replace burnt-out parts on brush holder and
repair insulation; replace and repair brushes which bear down on the commutator on
the car; dip coils into insulating varnish and drain and dry them; inspect and adjust
commutators, assemble the parts, and make minor repairs, such as short circuits; cut
mica insulation out of grooves in commutator so that brushes come in contact with
the copper surface of the commutator only. In large companies the several subdi­
vision occupational names above are used, while in small companies the term “ arma­
ture winders’ helpers” only is used.
Bearing men ( babbitters, babbitt men, bearing molders, bearing pourers) .— Melt babbitt
or soft metal linings out of armature or axle bearings of trucks or motors; prepare
and reline bearings with new metal, and file rough edges. Semiskilled work, easily
learned, involving only light manual labor.
Car cleaners (scrubbers, sweepers, shed men, washers, wipers).— Clean, scrub, sweep,
wash, and wipe or dust cars at terminals, barns, or sheds.
Car oilers {car greasers, oilers).— Oil motor and air-compressor bearings, journals,
and trolley wheels; inspect and replace worn brushes on motors; inspect speeders
and tease up the packing in the bearing house. Unskilled laborers are employed for
this position, who gradually acquire experience and become skilled in this particular
line of work. In some cities this work is done by car repair men.
Carpenters (car builders, car carpenters, finishers; see also car repairers).— Do the wood­
work on cars (framing, floors, roofs, doors, sash) and do the interior finishing (seats,
curtains, signs, trimmings, etc.); inspect the car body for defects of the woodwork and




INTRODUCTION.

15

make repairs and renewals. Skilled carpenters familiar with parts of car required.
In large companies the work is usually subdivided, and employees specialize in certain
operations.
Car placers (car shifters).— Place cars at repair points in shops and barns; place them
in proper positions in barn so that crews can readily locate them before time of begin­
ning runs; inspect cars and see that they are properly equipped; shift cars from barn
to barn as the service demands. The work is similar to that of motormen.
■C r repairers ( air-brake men; air-compressor men; air men; brakemen; brake repairers;
a

brush-holder men, barn; brushmen, barn; car inspectors; compressor men; controller
inspectors and repairers; controller men; door men; door repairers; dopers; fare-box men;
fare-box repairers; fender men; fender repairers; gatesmiths; motor cleaners; motor inspec­
tors; motor repairers; overhaulers; pitmen; pole men; register men; register repairers; seat
repairers; sheet-iron workers; stand men; terminal repairers; trolley inspectors; trolleymen;
trolley repairers; truck inspectors; truckmen; truck repairers; upholsterers. (See also car­
penters).— Inspect, test, overhaul, adjust, repair, and sometimes clean parts of cars and
car equipment, as air brakes, air compressors, governors, brake cylinders and valves,
hand brakes and brake shoes, brushes, controllers, doors, fare boxes, fenders, gates,
motors, trolley poles, registers, seats and seat backs, curtains, trolleys, trucks, etc.
Dopers or pitmen work in a pit underneath cars, repairing lower parts; sheet-iron
workers repair steel cars or steel parts of cars, shape and bore all sheet iron used in
barns or car shops; stand men make emergency repairs at terminals or at the end of
lines. In large companies the occupation of car repairers is subdivided into many of
the occupational classes stated above while in small companies all who do repair
work are called repairers or overhaulers. Employees who are handy with tools and
apt in learning to do the work advance to higher classes as they become skilled and
proficient.
Car repairers' helpers (see details under car repairers).— Help car repairers in their
work.
Electrical workers (battery men, battery repairers, circuit breakers, commutator builders,
commutator men, electrical inspectors and repairers, electricians, resistance men, wiremen,
wireworkers).— Inspect and repair lighting circuits, heating circuits, resistance boxes,
and other auxiliary electrical apparatus on cars; inspect, replace, and charge storage
batteries; inspect and replace worn or broken parts of circuit breakers; wire cars for
lights, bells, and motors. Light manual labor requiring skilled electricians.
Laborers (<
arc-light cleaners and lighters, beam scrapers, car coalers, car sanders, car
shifters' helpers, jackers-up, light stand tenders, sand-car men, sanders, sand-house men,
sheI men, shop hands, stove men).— Unskilled work around barns and shops; care of the
oil house; saturate and drain packing waste; fill oil tanks; sweep floors; collect and
dispose of rubbish; sort scrap materials; trim and clean arc lights used in and around
barns and shops; scrape and clean dirt from brake beams and brake rigging; make
fires in cars; keep coal in heaters; keep emergency supply of coal on cars and remove
ashes; put sand in sand boxes on cars; assist car shifters by looking after the trolley
and throwing switches; jack up car bodies and remove trucks and motors. Both
heavy and light manual labor.
Lamp men ( lamp cleaners and lamp tenders).— Clean and fill oil signal lamps; trim
wicks, and keep lamps in condition for use. Light unskilled work, done by car
repairmen in some places.
Machinists (axle grinders, lathe men, machine hands, mechanics, punch men, wheel
grinders, wheel pressmen, vise hands).— Operate lathes, planers, etc., in metal working
shops, in connection with the repairs and renewals of truck, motor, car body and other
parts of rolling stock; do bench work in fitting bearings to armatures and fitting parts
made on machines. Occupation requires men of skill, accuracy and training. Work
is both light and heavy manual labor.




16

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STATES.

Plow repairers (contact shoe men).— Assemble, rebuild, and repair plows for under­
ground connection between electric motor car and electric third rail; adjust and
change parts which make connection with the third rail. Semiskilled work requiring
a knowledge of plow construction to enable men to assemble parts. Found only in
cities where electric current is transmitted to cars from an underground circuit.

CHAPTER I.— WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
The detailed figures pertaining to wage rates of motormen, con­
ductors, guards, and gripmen are presented in Table A, pages 393 to
485. The unit of wage payment is almost invariably by the hour.
Nearly all companies pay a wagie scale that is increased automatically
from time to time, according to the length of service, only a few com­
panies paying a flat rate. The increase in wage scale indicates the
evident desire of the company to retain the services of experienced
employees. In Brooklyn there was a merit and de'merit system
which modified the seniority system, and in Washington one com­
T
pany paid a flat rate, which, however, was supplemented by a bonus
of different amounts based on length of satisfactory service.
In each car-crew occupation there are two distinct groups, the*
regular men and the extra men. The regular man has a regular run
for five, six, or seven days of the week. The extra man works more
or less intermittently, substituting for regular men in handling regular
runs, or operating regular or extra short runs, commonly called
tripper runs, or making additional runs which are scheduled for one
or two days a week. The policy of the company is to have a suffi­
cient number of extra men available to meet any contingency.
The extra man accepts such work as may be available until the
change in personnel permits his getting a regular run. Some com­
panies carry an excessive number of extra men who get but little
work perhaps for a period of several months and who consequently
are anxious for work. With plenty of extra men available to fill
every job there is a strong incentive for the regular man to be attentive
to his duties.
In companies having an increasing wage rate the advance for each
year of service usually is about 1 cent per hour. The rate advances
year by year up to a maximum flat rate. The advance in the rate
frequently continues up to the fifth year of service and in some
companies for a longer period, even as much as 10 years or longer.
A few companies make advances in rates in three or six month
intervals in the early part of service. Several companies make
advances at longer intervals than a year, after the first year of
service.
While motormen and conductors usually receive the same wages
for the same length of service, the figures show that the average




CHAP. I .---- WAGES OF CAE CHEWS.

17

wage of motormen generally is greater than that of conductors, due
to a greater average length of service.
In considering the wage rate per hour of motormen, conductors,
etc., it should be borne in mind that although as an extra man the
work afforded is more or less irregular, when once a man becomes a
regular man he has the opportunity to work full time. Street
railway operation is not so materially affected by seasonal conditions,
industrial depression, or bad weather as are many other industries.
CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES.

For ready comparison of the rates of wages in the several cities,
a table (Table 1) is here given, showing for each occupation the
number of persons employed at each classified rate. The classi­
fication of rates is made in 1-cent groups, which is sufficiently close
to indicate the rates, as well as the range of rates, for each city.
Like General Table A (p. 393), there are two sections of this table.
The first section presents figures for companies from which data
were collected by special agents, wage rates of regular and extra
men being shown separately. The second section gives the data
for companies from which data were collected by correspondence.
In this section, the data for regular and extra men have not been
segregated. Two totals are given in Table 1 for each occupation.
One total is for the surface lines and the other for the elevated and
subway lines. Immediately below the figures of each total cumula­
tive percentages are ejitered, which indicate the per cent of men
falling in or below the class specified.
Reading the first line of Table 1, it is seen that in Altoona, Pa., of
the regular motormen 5 were paid 20 and under 21 cents per hour, 7
were paid 21 and under 22 cents per hour, etc., the highest group
being 3 night-car men paid 27 and under 28 cents per hour. The
total figures for regular motormen for the surface lines show 4 men
paid 15 and under 16 cents per hour, 2 paid 16 and under 17 cents
per hour, 53 paid 17 and under 18 cents per hour, etc. Immedi­
ately below the total are cumulative percentages computed in round
numbers without extended decimals. Out of the total 30,363 regular
motormen on surface lines, the numbers 4, 2, and 53, are insignificant.
The 4, 2, 53, and 120, or 179 regular motormen, constituting approxi­
mately 1 per cent of the total, were paid under 19 cents per hour.
The number 179 plus 193, making 372 men earning under 20 cents
per hour, still constitutes approximately but 1 per cent of the
total. The sum of 374 and the several preceding numbers is 746,
constituting approximately 2 per cent of the whole number, 30,363,
that were paid under 21 cents per hour. Following the percentages
39749°— Bull. 204—17------ 2




18

STREET B A ILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

it is seen that 56 per cent, or more than half the men, were paid
under 29 cents per hour, 98 per cent under 34 cents per hour, etc.
On the elevated and subway lines the lowest rate paid is in the
group 30 and under 31 cents per hour paid to 19 regular motormen,
the highest rate, 37 and under 38 cents per hour, paid to 568 men.
With these illustrations the table can readily be understood.
No average has been computed of the rates for all companies com­
bined. The median or middle classified rate for each occupation,
however, is here shown for group I and group II. The median rate
is the rate of the man having as many men of lower rates below him
as of higher rates above him. It is the rate at which 50 per cent of
the men are shown in the cumulative percentages.
The median or middle rate for each occupation was—
GROUP I.

Motormen, regular, surface, 28 and under 29 cents per hour.
Motormen, extra, surface, 25 and under 26 cents per hour.
Motormen, regular, elevated and subway, 35 and under 36 cents
per hour.
Motormen, extra, elevated and subway, 30 and under 31 cents per
hour.
Conductors, regular, surface, 27 and under 28 cents per hour.
Conductors, extra, surface, 24 and under 25 cents per hour.
Conductors, regular, elevated and subway, 26 and under 27 cents
per hour.
Conductors, extra, elevated and subway, 25 and under 26 cents per
hour.
Gripmen, regular, surface, 31 and under 32 cents per hour.
Gripmen, extra, surface, 25 and under 26 cents per hour.
Guards, regular, elevated and subway, 23 and under 24 cents per
hour.
Guards, extra, elevated and subway, 21 and under 22 cents per
hour.
GROUP II.

Motormen, regular and extra, surface, 25 and under 26 cents per
hour.
Conductors, regular and extra, surface, 25 and under 26 cents per
hour.







20

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

l . —N UM BER OF CAR CR EW MEN R ECEIVING
I .—Cities from which data were

MOTORMEN: REGULAR.
Number of employees who received each classified
rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
No.

15 | 16
and; and
un­ un­
der der
16 17

17
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
19

1

City.

5
3

5
25
3 'Y

7
60
3

20

Altoona, Pa.........................................................
Augusta, Ga........................................................

19 2 0
21
22
23
24
25
and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un- un­ un­ un­
der der der * der der der der
20
21
22
25
23
24
26

21

2

31

18

19

1

i
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated R y. C o Surface lines.........................................
Elevated lines......................................

|
i

Buffalo, N. Y ......................................................
Butte, Mont........................................................

35

i
I
I
4

Chattfvrmopa,, Tp-pri............
Chicago, 111.:

I
J

6

i

2

127

60

70

25
14
19

13
15

O
/lp.vfilaTiri, Ohio___________________________
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation.....................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff
division of Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Iowa................................................
Denver, Colo.......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa.......................*......................
Detroit, Mich ...................................................
Evansville, Ind..................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
Houston, Tex......................................................
Indianapolis, Ind...............................................
Jacksonville, Fla................................................
Kansas City, Mo................................................
Lincoln, Nebr.....................................................
Little Rock, Ark................................................
Los Angeles, Cal.................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Lowell, Mass.......................................................
Manchester. N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn.....................
Mobile^ Ala..........................................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N. J......................................................
New Bedford, Mass...........................................
New Britain Conn
..........................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans La
......................
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.....................
New York & Queens County Ry. Co
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines.....................................
Storage-battery car lines....................
All lines except horse and storagebattery car lines.
Third Avenue, R y . Co.—
The Bronx
...............
...

!
i
|

1
1

'RmnVl'tm XvoiU Transit, Co felevated
r»rtfl>KIViL‘Rsmifl XlClilOlt vv* \vlv vaivu
_
lU
lines V

1

14

42
149

80

73

19

13

39

14
19

51

j

Chicago Surface Lines...............................

Interborongh Rapid Transit Co.—

10

1

! 7
11

4
19

33

I

...
2

7
37

1

1

3
40

:

1

14

I
1

3
28
3

22
2

1

8

1

!

...J ..
1

1

1

1

!

I
1

|
1..
i

..

3
9
1
1
1

1

24 . . . .

27
i
10

. . . J ....
"I
.

i
1

15

28

21

27
32

3
24

27
23

46
25

2

164
13

11

12
20

61

254

12
8

5
89
51

4

20

2

14

!
26
i
!____ 1_____
22
36
36
i
15 1
52

i
8

03

10

1

52

3

4

I

5
30
592

|

305
46

4 13

52

1

262

e 64
6220

i

!

52

66

4 30

i

48
42

1

1

!

39

4
33

!

1

I
!
i

1

25

4
7

6

19

11

4
17
18

2

31

i
1 1
1
1

10

13

9
2

32

1

j

1

3

i
!

l
!
--

10

2

26

*168*

|
........1.........
J

1

i Hill-car men.
a Night-car men.
.
s Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
, ^,
_ ,
.,
4 Drivers. Rate computed from daily rate on a 10-hour-day basis; runs of under 8 hours on duty were paid
for as 8 hours* over 8 to 9, paid for as 9; over 9 to 10, paid for as 10; over 10 were credited to the nearest 6
minutes.




21

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OP CAR CHEWS.
EACH CLASSIFIED R A T E OP W A G E S PER H O U R ,
obtained by special agents.

MOTORMEN: REGULAR.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
34
26
27
28 29
30
31
32
35
37
38
39
42 45
33
36
40
No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ Total.
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
29
31
32
34
35
37
38
30
27
28
33
39
36
40
41
43 46
i6

3

73
317
26
61
188

1
2

1478
58

6

556
3 36 364 3 1 00
45
1
52
1........
84

9
10
11
12

351
3367
605
809

14
15
16
17

1 22

2

18
19

37
16

10 2

6

57
17

1117

243
13

13

36

45
79

94

189

'

48
340
13

39

27

175

5
192

314 2611

346

23
72

62
52

194

246
154
973
55
133
131
259

154

175

46
47

6 43
64
1383

4S
49
50

420
594

51
52

357
198
230

53
54
55

86

124

110

12

11
10

74
5

118

42
108

86

68

350

294
108

54

268

103

55

38

10
12

25

9

5

143
42

210
11

3
3
14

6

165

6 211

502

515

394
117

"55

'

480
715

132

329

6

787

254

1
'1
1

20
21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

616
65
57
847
341
97
40

177

20

143

13

67
158
494
70
24
209
592

137

37

861

77

25

7

1913
164

102

32

4
5

8

796

8

3

7107
78
19

7
1

12

7 250
7 120

198

5 Drivers.
6 Rate computed from daily rate on 10-hour-day basis; runs of under 8 hours on duty were paid for as 8
hours; over 8 to 9, paid for as 9; over 9 to 10, paid for as 10; over 10 were credited to the nearest 6 minutes.
7 Rate computed from daily rate on a 10-hour-day basis.




STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED
T able

l-N U M B E R OF CAR CREW
I.—Cities froi

MOTORMEN, REGULAR—Concluded.
Number of employees who rec
rate of wages (cents)
City.

M.
U

44
45

Norfolk, V a .........................................................
Oakland, Cal.......................................................
Oklahoma City, Okla.......................................
Omaha, Nebr......................................................
Peoria, 111.............................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit C o .Elevated lines................ .....................
Surface lines.........................................
Pittsburgh, Pa....................................................
Portland, Me.......................................................
Portland, Oreg....................................................
Providence, R . I ................................................
Pueblo, Colo........................................................
Reading, Pa........................................................
Richmond, V a....................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
SacramentOj Cal.................................................
Saginaw, Mich....................................................
St. Louis, Mo......................................................
Salt Lake City. Utah........................................
San Antonio, Tex.............................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
Municipal Railways of San Francisco..
United Railroads of San Francisco----Savannah, Ga.....................................................
Scranton, Pa.......................................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co.
Seattle Municipal Street R y .....................
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. C o ...
Sioux City, Iowa................................................
South Bend, Ind................................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. Co___
The Washington Water Power Co.........
Springfield, 111....................................................
Springfield, Mass................................................
Springfield, Ohio................................................
Superior, W is......................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Tacoma, Wash....................................................
Toledo, Ohio........... ...........................................
Topeka, Kans.....................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co................... ...............
Washington Railway & Electric C o .. . .
Wheeling, W . V a ...............................................
Wichita, Kans....................................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. C o .........................................
Wilmington & Philadelphia TractionCo.

46
47
48
49

Total, surface lines..........................
Per cent (cumulative)...................
Total, elevated and surface lines.
Per cent (cumulative)...................

1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43




15
and
un­
der
16

16 , 17 18
and and; and
un­ un-j under deri der
17 18 19

19
and
under
20

21

and and
un­ un­
der der
22

21

14

19

11

30

17

19

26

17

10

12

13

30

3471

1 Including extra men; not reported separately.
2 Rate computed from daily rate on 9-hour-day basis.
8 Not including 13 drivers on horse cars.

4

CHAP. I .---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

agents—Continued.
MOTORMEN, REGULAR—Concluded.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
42 45
38
39
31
32
33
34
35
29
28
27
40
37
30
36
26
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ Total.
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
29
32
34
27
43 46
33
37
36
40* 41
35
31
38

33

44

40

34

a.

26

17

32
1964
932

65

76
352
62
237
108

1
2

37
2330
1045

16

6

3
4
5

7
8

121

28

11

68

9

371
389
41
55
199
267
85
36

135

10
11
12

1201

154
150

149

41

76

95
722
62

95

122

164

159

i 434

"l0

29
58
43

8

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29

244
41

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

257
301
67
54

40
41
42
43

30
67

44
45

&30363

46
47
48
49

76
97
64
170
57
24
147

4
2 121

101

1752 3905 3944 1546 5520 1875 3715
30
97
43
79
85
56
61
17
19
2
3




26

17

4 Not including 30 drivers on horse cars.
5 Not including 43 drivers on horse cars.
6 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

1231

2 4

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

l . —NUM BER OF CAR CR EW MEN R ECEIVING
I .—Cities from which data were

MOTORMEN: EXTRA.
Number of employees who received each classified
rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
No.

City.

16
and
un­
der
17

Altoona, Pa.........................................................

17
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
19

17

15
and
un­
der
16

29
4

19 2 0
24
21
22
23
25
and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der
22
21
24
20
26
23
25
12

Augusta, Ga........................................................

11

12

35

3 ,

4

6
11

9

1
6

21
1

1

1

Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines.........................................
F-lAvatdfl linp,s___
,
r. ____
Brockton, Mass..................................................

26
95

....

3

....

2

1

9

4

Chicago, 111.:

Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation....................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff
division of Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Iowa................................................
Denver Colo.......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit Mich ..................................................
Evansville, In d ..................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
Houston, Tex.....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind...............................................
Jacksonville, Fla................................................
Kansas City, Mo..............................................
Lincoln Nebr
.................<
....................
Little Rock, Ark. ................................... . . .
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Lowell, Mass.......................................................
Manchester, N. H .......................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, Wis..................................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn.................
Mobile^ A la..........................................................
Nashville, Tenn..................................................
Newark, N. J......................................................
New Bedford, Mass...........................................
New Britain, Conn........................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, La..............................................
New York, N. Y.:Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co...................
New York & Queens County Ry. Co
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines...................................
Storage-battery car lines...................
All lines except horse and storagebattery car lines.
Third Avenue R y . Co.—
The Bronx
...............................
Manhattan
.................................
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.—

1
1
10

47

78
72

5
7

5

4

1

17

26
119

114
4

2

3

1

3
26
9

12

12

12

10

1

50
15

18

....
....
61

Charleston. S. C..................................................

12

2

123

1

3

22

8

3

6
2
1

6

1

3

36
161
13

2

17
3

1

20
1

2

177
4

104

9

6
22

14

7

85
214

23
91

3

46

37

12
1

16
7 "s

3
1

" 50" ”

47*

"l7 '
20

9
91

2
10

3
1

136
301
73
3

3

5

33

2

31
s 16
5 256

102

m '

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated
lines).
Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
Conductors and guards acting as motormen.
Drivers Rate computed from daily rate on a 10-hour-day basis; runs of under 8 hours on duty were'
f™ as 8
paid for oo q hours; nvor s to q tskaA fnr as 9 ; over 9 to 10 , paid for as 1 0 ; over 1 0 , were credited to the nearest
over 8
9, paid for as
6 minutes.
< Drivers.
1
2
3




CHAP. I .— WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

25

EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by special agents—Continued.
MOTORMEN: EXTRA.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Lino
27
32
29
28
26
34
31
30
33
35
36
38
37
42 45
39
40
No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ Total.
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
29
27
28
33
31
30
37
34
35
38
36
41
39
40
43 46
23
96
15
21

42

1

266

307

129

13

3

29

5
7

2

10
2

” 34*

1

1

1
1

18

1

13

1 1

736
53
56
108
i 32
21

5
24
27

7
9

17

1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12

i.59* *287’
2

86

2 21
100

8

13

3

80
845
193
320

84

236

1

3

38

20

3
25

72

33

18

19
87
36
228
18
32
59
127
36
189
18

9

2

14
15
16
17

57
26

2

20
21
22

19

193
123
55
25
50
109
352
19
53
133
32
15
124
136
369
80

3

2

2

1

21

3

1
1

22

11
10

5

2

46
47

44

1

4

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

20
11
21

4

1

......

1
1
20

12

19

4

54

69

5 10

16
279

48
49
50

-

30
3

6

132
118

51
52

58
15
50

53
54
55

1

1

6 39
6 11

17

6

16

63

64

31

2

» Rate computed from daily rate on 10-hour-day basis; runs of under 8 hours on duty were paid for as 9
hours; over 8 to 9, paid for as 9 hours; over 9 to 10, paid for as 10; over 10, were credited to the nearest 6
minutes.
6 Rate computed from daily rate on a 10 -hour-day basis.




STREET? RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED
T able

1.—NUMBER OF CAR CREW
I .—Cities fro

MOTORMEN: EXTRA—Concluded.
Number of employees who received each classified
rate of wages (cents) per hour.
City.

u.

Norfolk, V a .........................................................
Oakland, Cal.......................................................
3 Oklahoma City, Okla.......................................
4 Omaha, Nebr......................................................
5 Peoria, 111.............................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines......................................
6
Surface lines.........................................
7
8 Pittsburgh, Pa....................................................
9 Portland, Me.......................................................
10 Portland, Oreg....................................................
11 Providence, R. I ................................................
12 Pueblo, Colo........................................................
13 Reading, Pa........................................................
14 Richmond, V a ....................................................
15 Rochester, N. Y .................................................
16 Sacramento, Cal.................................................
17 Saginaw, Mich....................................................
18 St. Louis, Mo......................................................
19 Salt Lake City, Utah........................................
20 San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
Municipal Railways of San Francisco...
21
United Railroads of San Francisco........
22
23 Savannah, Ga.....................................................
24 Scranton, Pa.......................................................
Seattle, W ash.:.
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power
25
Co.2
Seattle Municipal Street R y....................
26
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. Co___
27
28 Sioux City, Iowa................................................
29 South Bend, Ind................................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. C o...
30
The Washington Water Power Co.........
31
32 Springfield, 111............................ : .....................
33 Springfield, Mass.......................'.......................
34 Springfield, Ohio................................................
35 Superior, W is.....................................................
36 Syracuse, N . Y ...................................................
37 Tacoma, Wash...................................................
38 Toledo, Ohio.......................................................
39 Topeka, Kans.....................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co...................................
40
41
Washington Railway & Electric Co----42 Wheeling, W . V a ..............................................
43 Wichita, Kans....................................................
Wilmington, Del.:
44
People’s Ry. Co..........................................
Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Co
45

15
and
un­
der
16

16
and
un­
der
17

17
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
19

19
and
un­
der

22
21
24
20
23
25
and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
24
22
25
26
20 21

1
2

46
47
48
49

Total, surface lines............................
Per cent (cumulative).....................
Total, elevated and subway lines.
Percent (cumulative).....................

13

14

13

106 204 128 1
261
1
3
5 I 8

4 394

12

i Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
* Extra men are included with regular men; not reported separately.
3 Rate computed from daily rate on 9-hour-day l-~-~
4 Not including 3 drivers on horse-car lines.




CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
IACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

btained by special agents—Continued.
MOTORMEN s EXTRA—Concluded.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
42 h
39
40
32
35
36
37
38
28
31
34
29
30
33
27
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and £
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ I
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der (
41
43
37
40
32
33
34
38
39
31
35
28
29
27

J
.

1
2

3
4
5

128
115
24
55
3

’
147
23
24

15

207
57

1

2

6

70
19

13
31

8

7

60

9
10
11

1

12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

124

31

20

21

20

22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

12

23

34
1
31

40
41
42
43
44
45
1070 1148
70
82

831
91
27

270
94
32

10

22




110

64

67
99

47

11

41
84

2

99
1

84

17
91

20

30
100
5

19
100

1

100

100

5 Not including 1 driver on horse-car lines.
6 Not including 4 drivers on horse-car lines.
? Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

1

100

46
47
48
49

28

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN' TH E UNITED STATES.

Table 1.— UM BER
N

OF CAR CR EW MEN RECEIVING
I.—Cities from which data were

COND UCTORS: R EGULAR.

Number of employees who received each classified
rate of wages (cents) per hour.
City.

No.

10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

15 16
and. and
un­■ under• der
16 17

18
and
un­
der
19

17
and
un­
der
18

19 2 0 21
22
24
23
25
and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der
21
22
20
23
24
25
26
4

Altoona, P a .......................................................
Atlanta, Ga.........................................................
Augusta, Ga........................................................
Binghamton, N. Y ............................................
Birmingham, A la..............................................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines.........................................
Elevated lines......................................
Brockton, Mass..................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ......................................................
Butte, Mont.3 .....................................................

31
4

10

U
52

i
31
36

15

12

8

4
IC
O

78

25
130

3

1

22

4

6

13

10

13
9

l
i
13 |
12
10

3

101

1

6

1
56
15

!
12




12

30

3
13

2

12

7

i

Chattanooga, Tenn............................................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways.....................
Chicago Surface Lines...............................
Cleveland, Ohio..................................................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation......................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff ..
division of Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Towa................................................
Denver, C o lo .....................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, Mich......................................................
Evansville, Ind.......................... - ......................
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
Houston, Tex.....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind...............................................
Jacksonville, Fla................................................
Kansas City, M o................................................
Lincoln, Nebr.....................................................
little Rock, Ark................................................
Los Angeles, Cal.................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Lowell, Mass.......................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W i s ................................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn....................
Mobile, Ala ........................................................
Nashville, T e n n ................................................
Newark, N .J ....................................................
New Bedford, M ass.........................................
New Britain, Conn...........................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a ..............................................
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co....................
New York & Queens County Ry. Co
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines.....................................
Storage-battery car lines...................
All lines except horse and storagebattery car lines.
Third Avenue R y. Co.—
The Bronx ........................................
Manhattan..........................................
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevatel lines,....................................
Subway lines ....................................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated
lines).

6

50

10

61
4
23

7

1

27

1
1'

33

!
' 166

51
97

19
4

10

!

4

3

35

59

12

20
6

1

1
15
26

2

16

25

7

!
I

15

12

4

1

14
22

32

41

48
16

40

4
18
44

10

27

2

175

10

6

6

9

9

4
27

47

16
27
30

10

37

106
6
8

67

245

27

18

6

8

6
6

102
10

20

53

5

5
29
591

1
27 . . . .

2

27

65
13
16
114

16
80

90
24
9 |40

14
53

9

47

___ 1
___ ____

1 Hill-car men.
2 Night-car men.

s See Motormen: Regular.

1

,

63
4 20

48

56

97
3

368
34

435

« 19
4 63
4635 4202
194
127

108

|

*30
&
30
35

92

5 27
5 17
13

3 19
5 15
183
i

29

CH AP. I .---- WAGES OF CAR CBEWS.
EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by special agents—Continued.
CONDUCTORS: REGULAR.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
32
38
33
34
35
42 45
39
37
27
28
29
30
31
36
40
26
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ Total.
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
34
32
33
41
38
39
37
35
36
40
27
28
29
30
31
43 46
i7

1

22

312
27
62
183

1

35
121

14

4

20

8

57

Line
No.

307
31
43
30

650

391
54

1469
52
81
558

78

(3
)

48
54
81

2

3
4
5

6
7
8
9

10

U

12

13

150

319

166
140
183

737

21
22

206
591
1919
153

46
47

4 362

39
63
1312

48
49
50

219
116

413
573

51
52

333
177
231

53
54
55

122

53

21

83

38

107
14

233

95

82

26

3

66

22

10

209
80

54

252
1
1

5

80
115

I

49 206
i

160

70

1

11
8

4
16

395

4113

130

15
16

13
6

60
31

.... 1.....
.... I.._.
1
.. 1 ..
1
"

113

381

119
263
84
610
64
59
830
339
95
37
208
479
704
71
149
488

119

20

..
.

"I"
1
1

.
.

68

22

"

340

5257
n i5

4

8

20
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

22

146

18
19

74
248
157
946
54

310 2152

796

52
78

7
3

187

1

2 11
22

14
15
16
17

21

282
176

333
3353
600
818
118

59
28

....

1

.... ......
1

i
i
1

!

Rate computed from daily rate on a 10-hour-day basis; runs of under 8 hours on duty were paid for as
hours; over 8 to 9, paid for as 9; over 9 to 10, paid for as 10; over 10, were credited to the nearest 6 minutes,
e Rate computed from daily rate on a 10-hour-day basis.




STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED
T a b le

1.—NUMBER

OF CAR CREW MEN RE

I.—
Cities from which <
CONDUCTORS: REGULAR—Concluded.
Number of employees who received each classified
rate of wages (cents) per hour.
ine

City.

*o.

1

2

3
4
5
6
7

B

9

10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

15
and
un­
der
16

Norfolk, V a .........................................................
Oakland, Cal.......................................................
Oklahoma City, O kla.......................................
Omaha, N ebr...................... ...............................
Peoria, 111.............................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia R apid Transit Co—
Elevated lines......................................
Surface lines.........................................
Pittsburgh, Pa............................... ....................
Portland, M e.......................................................
Portland, Oreg....................................................
Providence, R . I ................................................
Pueblo, C olo........................................................
...............
Reading, P a ....................................... •
R ichm ond, V a ....................................................
Rochester, N . Y .................................................
Sacramento^ C al.................................................
Saginaw, M ich....................................................
St. Louis, M o ......................................................
Salt Lake City, U t a h .......................................
San Antonio, T e x ..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable R . R . Co.............
Municipal Railways of San Francisco...
United Railroads of San Francisco........
Savannah, Ga......................................................
Scranton, Pa........................................................
Seattle, W ash.:
Puget Sound Traction Light & Power
Co.
Seattle Municipal Street R y .................
Seattle, R enton & Southern R y . C o___
Sioux City, Iow a................................................
South Bend, In d ................................................
Spokane, W ash.:
Spokane & Inland E m pire R . R . C o___
The W ashington W ater Power Co.........
Springfield, 111....................................................
Springfield, Mass................................................
Springfield, Ohio................................................
Superior, W is ......................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Tacoma, W ash....................................................
Toledo, Ohio........................................................
Topeka, Kans.....................................................
Washington, D . C.:
Capital Traction C o ....................................j
Washington Railw ay & Electric C o___
Wheeling, W .V a ...............................................
W ichita, K a n s....................................................
W ilm ington, D el.:
People’s R y . C o ..........................................
W ilm ington & Philadelphia Traction Co
Total, surface lines.................................. 4
Per cent (cumulative)............................ (3)
Total, elevated and subway lines....... 1—
Per cent (cumulative)............................ !—




16
and
un­
der
17

17
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
19

22 23 24 25
21
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
23
21 22
24
25
26

1 , and
9 20

and
un­
der
20

12

28

51

33

53

63

57

17

15

16

13

10

14

15

27
80 168
( 3)
1

1 Including extra men; not reported separately.
Rate computed from daily rate on 9-hour-day basis.

2

20

1092 1350 3521
13
25
95
57
13

31

CHAP. I .---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by special agents—Continued.
CONDUCTORS: REGULAR—Concluded.

Num ber of em ployees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
N o.

42 45
39
34
37
28
40
38
32
29
33
35
36
31
30
27
26
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un ­ u n ­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ u n ­ un­ un­ un­ un ­ un­ Total.
un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
41
43 46
39
38
32
28
29
40
34
37
35
33
31
30
36
27
|
6
33

4
40

0
50
90

68

24
31

38

276
84

37
63
10

112
46
3

64
254
3

32

41

20

1

6

21

1

1
1

1

j

269
4

13 1

6

59

1
1

........1
.........

442

1

12

1

137

37
28
168

76

112

55

84

65

J
169

i 79

150

139

2

124

95 1
i

27

____ I____ _____

1 54 1 51

134 . . .

7

6

18
3

13
6

8
10

2 22

6

2 13

1
146
*ii ‘ * ' 4*
3
*23 124

6

2

3

18
5

1
I

30
74

!

4

2 21 2116

1
1

........1.........

1

.
|

i
4

8

i
r
i
........ 1 ___
........I........

3

2

,

1

.

34

!

i
!

' "

1

t

1

;

!

1
1

1

| .
;

1

1
1
I
1 ...1
!

!
i

’

.

1
1

........i___
l
!
!
....
........j........ L .. .

1




327 1 34
99 ! 99
31 1
100 j

12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
2
1
22

53
95
715
61
124

23
24
25

47
99

27
99

133
100

1

s Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

I

I

1

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

31
64

........j ‘
j
........1........ 1
1
41
7
100 100 1

13
100

26

8
28
48
42

255
299
68
42

1
;

!
;
|

j
i
j
!

1

:

i
1
I
;
1
____ 1____ ' __________ !____
1
i
i
1
. ' .
. ..........

1

!
,
I
i

1

|
2074 3392 3102 1871 4720 1373 3103
40
51
61
88
98
67
83
31
6
386 286
70
94
97
97

9

10
11

75
99 i
64
172
55
28
146
106
238
41

1

1

!
;
i

6
7
8

1474

i........

1
7

1
!
1

1

3
4
5

37
2346
1020
119
413
381
42
57
200
269
82
34
1191
! 149
142

|

21

1
2

68
356
55
234
l06

4!

7

1

5

132

13 1

:
i
;
1
1
1
'!
........1
........ ..................J ................. |
........ ! . . . .
1
........i........ ............................-........ I........ I .. ..
I
I
. . . . ..... ..... .
j
,

31

115

30

30
:

433 1590
89 811
52

27

1
!

1
j

9
36

53

1

30105
1,163 ,
1

45
46
47
48
49
50

32

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

1 .—

NUMBER

OF

CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING

I«—
Cities from which data were
CONDUCTORS: EXTRA.
N um ber of em ployees who received each classified
rate of wages (cents) per hour.

Line

City.

N o.

1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10
1
1
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21*
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
30
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

Altoona, Pa..........................................................
Atlanta, Ga.........................................................
Augusta, G a........................................................
Binghamton, N. Y .............................................
Birmingham, A la ...............................................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated R y . Co.—
Surface lines.........................................
Elevated lines......................................
Brockton, Mass...................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ......................................................
Butte, Mont.2......................................................
Charleston. S. C..................................................
Charlotte, N. C...................................................
Chattanooga, Tenn............................................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated R ailw ays.....................
Chicago Surface L ines...............................
Cincinnati, O hio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio................................".................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation.....................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cl ill
division of Fort W orth lines.
Davenport, Iowa................................................
Denver, Colo.......................................................
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
Detroit, M ich......................................................
Evansville, In d ..................................................
Grand Rapids, M ich.........................................
Houston, T e x ......................................................
Indianapolis, In d ...............................................
Jacksonville, Fla................................................
Kansas City, M o................................................
Lincoln, N ebr.....................................................
Little R ock, A rk ................................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Lowell, Mass.......................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, T enn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is..................................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn....................
Mobile, A la ..........................................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N . J.................................................... .
New Bedford, Mass......................................... .
New Britain, Conn............................................
New Haven, Conn........................................... .
New Orleans, L a ..............................................
New Y ork, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit. C o....................
New Y ork & Queens County R y. C o ..
New Y ork Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines.....................................
Storage-battery car lines...................
A ll lines except horse and storagebattery car lines.
Third Avenue R y. Co.—
The B ronx..............................................
Manhattan............. ................................
B rooklyn R apid Transit Co. (elevated
lines.)
Norfolk V a ........................................................
Oakland, Cal......................................................
Oaklahoma City, Okla...................................
Omaha, N eb r....................................................
Peoria, 111.2.......................................... - ............




15 16 I 17
and and and
un-| un-| un­
der der der
16 17 18

18
and
un­
der
19

19 20 21
22 23 24 25
and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der
20 21 22
24
25
26

16
2

24

128

60

86

32

164

31
2
294

2 See Motormen: Extra.

33

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
EACH CLASSIFIED R ATE OF W A G E S PER HOUR—Continued,
obtained by special agents—Continued.
CONDUCTORS: E X T R A .

Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.

32
28
29
34
37
38
39
27
31
33
30
35
36
40
42
26
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
28
29
30
34
41
31
33
35
36
37
38
39
40
27
43
i

27
no
13
24
82

1

,

I

456
17

270

12

7

7

779
24
58
128
(2)
23

2

39
1

45
and
un­ Total.
der
46

1

Line
No.

1
2

3
4
5
6
7
8

9

10

30
271

48

13

2

2

4

1

67

292

13

5
927
207
359

14
15
16
17

46

289

10
11
12

18
19

20
1
21

58

2

5

439
74

1

13

9

2

4

1

1

1

1

4

7

23

13

3 1

3

48
49
50

172
173
17

4

2

46
47

15
13
305

2

7

16

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

51
52
53

35
95

54
55
56

211

2

10

20
21
22

18
23
233
134
51
35
72
157
352
14
. 80
155
36
13
123
164

11

101

1

15
171
40
251
19
44
74
115
40

1

1

3

17
2

70

5

7

4

5

1

1

2

10

1
80
57
........1
.........
58
(2)
Rate computed from daily rate on a 10 -hour-day basis; runs of under 8 hours on duty were paid for as 8
hours; over 8 to 9, paid for as 9; over 9 to 10, paid for as 10; over 10, were credited to the nearest 6 minutes.
3

39749°— Bull. 204— 17------ 3




34

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

1 .—

NUMBER OF CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING

I.—
Cities from which data were
CONDUCTORS, EXTRA—Concluded.
Number of employees who received each classified
rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
30
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

City.

15
and
un­
der
16

Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines......................................
Surface lines.........................................
Pittsburgh, Pa....................................................
...................... r- Portlandf Me................ .
Portland, Oreg....................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Pueblo, Colo........................................................
Reading, Pa........................................................
Richmond, V a ....................................................
............................
Rochester, N. Y .............
Sacramento^ Cal..................................................
................
Pfiginp.w; Mirth
fit. Lmiis, Mo
......................
Salt Lake City, Utah..... ..................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable R. R. Co.............
Municipal Railways of San Francisco
United Railroads of San Francisco.........
Savannah, Ga.....................................................
Scranton, Pa........................................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light, & Power
C o .4
Seattle Municipal Street R y....................
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. Co___
Sioux City, Io w a ..............................................
South Bend, Ind................................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. Co
The Washington Water Power Co.........
Springfield, 111., ................................................
Springfield, M ass..............................................
Springfield, Ohio................................................
Superior, W is.....................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Tacoma, Wash....................................................
Toledo, Ohio.......................................................
Topeka, Kans.....................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction C o...................................
Washington Railway & Electric Co___
Wheeling, W . V a ...............................................
Wichita, Kans....................................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. Co...........................................
Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction
Co.
7
Total, surface lines.................................
Percent (cumulative)........................... (3)
Total, elevated and subway lines.. .
Per cent (cumulative)...........................

1
1
18
16 1 1
7J
and and and
un­ un-l under deri, der
17 18 19

19
and
un­
der
20

20
and
un­
der
21

7

42

1

21
22
23
24
25
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
22
24
23
25
26

4

4

1

1

44
1
50

67
4

77
1

54
1
287

29

12

1
14

2

15

1
12
136

1

7

24

10

4
10
11

17
15
7

16
123 307 138 404
4
6 10
1

1
2
21
6
4

4
1

4

1

55
4
12
1

16

11

2

28

1

104
14

1
28
101

12

395
14

2

657 1443 1777 1080
20
35
53
64
5
9
15
11
30
63

1 Extra men are included with regular men; not reported separately.
2 Rate computed from daily rate on 9-hour-day basis.




111
70

71
12

35

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR-Continued.

obtained by special agents—Concluded.
CONDUCTORS, EXTRA—Concluded.

Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.

32
28
29
34
37
31
30
42 45
38
39
33
35
26
27
36
40
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ Total.
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
27
32
34
29
41
38
39
33
35
31
30
37
36
28
43 46
40

161
133

203

31
81
1

6
26

83
26

13
3

3
17

2

1

f ___
1

____ 1____

43
1
........
........1
!

38

100
15

1

574
320
27
118
261
8
50
45
192
15

. . . .jI

1 ..................
32

17
303
34

2

1

45

4

63

4

5

2

5

5

12
21
224
8
38

21

1

........r '*
1

1

1

4

1

1
1

0)

1
2

3
4
5

6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
2
1
22

1

1

1
|
3

I

2

8
2 14

36

22

28

2 35

64
96




292
99

52
99

1
i
1

!
I
1
1
1
f

56

471
95

1

1
1

1

1492 1144
79
90
17
100

1
!

11
100

27
100

5
100

1
100

23
100

1
Less than oue-half of 1 per cent.

1
100

2
100

23
24
25

22
27
17
67
16
10
113
34
106
12

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

16
30

16
19

2

2
9
16
11

65
109
12
16

2

2

Line
No.

40
41

9916

42
43
44
45

46

36

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

1 .—N UM BER OF CAR C R EW MEN R ECEIVIN G

GRIPMEN: REGULAR.

I.—Cities from which data were

Number of employees who received each classified
rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
No.

1

15
and
un­
der
16

Cities.

3

18
and
un­
der
19

San Francisco, Cal.: California Street Cable
R. R. Co.
Seattle, Wash.: Puget Sound Traction,
Light & Power Co.
Tacoma, Wash....................................................

4
5

16 | 17
and and
un­ un­
der der
17 18

19
and
un­
der
20

20
and
un­
der
21

22
24
23
21
25
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
24
22
23
26
25
4

Total..........................................................
Per cent (cumulative)...........................

2

1

2
2
2

5
73

GRIPMEN: EXTRA.
12

San Francisco, Cal.: California Street Cable
R. R. Co.
Seattle, Wash.: Puget Sound Traction,
Light & Power Co.2
Tacoma, Wash....................................................
Total.................................
Per cent (cumulative)..

GUARDS: REGULAR.
Boston, Mass.: Boston Elevated Ry. Co.
(elevated lines).
Chicago, 111.: Chicago Elevated Railways
New York, N. Y .:
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines......................................
Subway lines........................................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated
lines).
Total..........................................................
Per cent (cumulative)...........................

4

57

14
206

328 3154 3152 3768
»270 3213 3122 3336
142
57 198 189
440
15

424
30

476 1350
46
92

220
100

GUARDS: EXTRA.
Boston, Mass.: Boston Elevated Ry. Co.
(elevated lines).
Chicago, 111.: Chicago Elevated Railways..
New York, N. Y .:
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines......................................
Subway lines.......................................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated
lines).
24

T o ta l...............................
Per cent (cumulative)..

108
146
3273 3 23
»26f5 312
146
753

1Including extra men; not reported separately.
* Extra men are included with regular men, not reported separately.




18

18

100

37

CHAP. I .---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
EACH CLASSIFIED R AT E OF W AG ES PER HO UR—Continued,
obtained by special a g e n ts—
Concluded.

GR1PMEN: REGULAR.

Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
32
42
28
37
29
30
31
45
34
35
36
38
39
40
27
26
33
No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ Total.
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
41
39
28
37
38
27
29
30
31
43 46
34
35
33
36
40
27

56

1

1

1

8

9

6

1 43

2

7

3

1
28

26
53

8
C
O

9
69

33
100

106

4
5

25
8

6

4

6
23

5
27

1

3
11
17

GRIPMEN: EXTRA.
2

14
(2)
1

2
100

15

GUARDS: REGULAR.
75
i

206

i




1102
941
586
2910

GUARDS: EXTRA.
207
830
305
295
189
1826

3 Rate computed from daily rate on a 10-hour-day basis.

38

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E UNITED STATES.
T able

1.—NUMBER OF CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING

tl.—
Cities from which data
MOTORMEN.
Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
13
and
un­
der
14

14
and
un­
der
15

15 I 16
and and
un­ un­
der der
16 17

17
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
19

3

10
and
un­
der
11

City.

20
and
un­
der
21

21 22
and and
un­ un­
der der
22 23

3

19
and
un­
der
20

Aberdeen, W ash........................................................
Albany, Cnhofis, and Trny; N. Y ____ __________
Allentown, Pa............................................................
AIlian™, Ohin
..................................... .............
Alton, 111....................................................................
Amsterdam, N. Y . (see Gloversville, N. Y .).
Anfifirsrm, Tnd............................. T.. . .. _T _____
,
Ann Arhor, Mfoh ________________ ___________
Annistony Ala. .
____________
Appleton, W is......................... ..................................
Asbury Park, N. J .....................................................
Asheville, N. C ...........................................................
Ashland, W is ..........
__________
Ashtabula, Ohio........................................................
Atnhisnn, Kans,2
, ........................ , , T
_
Athens, Ga..................................................................
, Attleboro and North Attleboro, Mass...................
Auburn, N. Y .............................................................
Augusta, Me. (see Lewiston, Me.).
Aurora, 111...................................................................
Austin, Tex. *.............................................................
Bakersfield, Cal..........................................................
Bangor, Me..................................................................
Barre and Montpelier, V t........................................
Batavia, N. Y .2..........................................................
Battle Creek, Mich....................................................
Bay City, Mich...........................................................
Beaumont, T ex..........................................................
Beaver Falls, Pa........................................................
Bellingham, W ash....................................................
Bergen division, Public Service Ry. Co., New
Jersey.
Biddeford, Me.............................................................
Bloomington, 111........................................................
Boise, Idaho................................................................
Boone, Iowa........................................ ; .....................
Bridgeport, Conn. (Bridgeport division, Con­
necticut Co.).
Bridgeton, N. J..........................................................
Bristol, Conn...............................................................
Broad Ripple, Ind.................................................
Burlington, Iowa.......................................................
Burlington, V t .................................................. r..
Cambridge, Ohio....................................... ...............
Canton, Ohio...............................................................
Carlisle, Pa..................................................................
Cedar Falls, Iowa (see Waterloo, Iowa).
Cedar Rapids, Iowa..................................................
Central division, Public Service Rv. Co., New
Jersey.
Charleston, W . V a ..................... ..............................
Charlottesville, V a.2..................................................
Chelsea, Mass..............................................................
Cheyenne. W vo.2.......................................................
Clinton, Fitchburg, and Leominster, Mass.........

Cohoes, N .Y. (wellbany, N .Y .).

1

2

8

i4
2 "T
6
6
1
4
2
16
17 *1 3 ' 16

3
2

117
5

i9
40
1
U2

U

i5

U5 i 15 i 3

1

8

1

2

4

18

3
5

3

14
11

5
4

4
13
5
10

4
5

34

35

31

3 10
8
1
29
21

* 21 4 10
3

4
48
16
11 11

46

3
1
<5

13

*1*3*

6

7
1

6
2

1

7

2

15

1

’

t Colorado Springs, Colo.............................................
Columbia, S. C ...........................................................
Columbus, Ga.............................................................
Columbus, Ohio.........................................................
i Coming, N. Y .............................................................
’ Cortland, N. Y ...........................................................
» Council Bluffs, Iowa.................................................
► Danbury, Conn..........................................................
1 Danville, 111................................................................
Danville, V a ...............................................................




9

16
15

3

3

X

6

8
3
14

3

4

6

7

1
1

76

5
6

1
15
5

1 Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
2 One-man cars.

2

8

CHAP. I .---- WAGES OP CAE CREWS.

39

EACH CLASSIFIED R A T E OF W A G E S PER H O U R —Continued,
were obtained by correspondence.

MOTORMEN.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
34 35 | 36 37
32
33
31
30
29
28
27
26
24
25
23
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
34
31
24
35 36 37 38
33
30
29
28
27
26
25
13

19

15

i1

i4

13

13

49

21

12

5
474

40
and
un­
der
41

Line
43
No.
and
un­ Total.
der
44

35

8

38
and
un­
der
39

54

12

15

129
6
122
474
108
9
25
16
14
130
5
40
48
7
20
18
134
41
50

........

2
1

36
13

1
9

4
3

8
138

4

11

7
25

7

22
2

26
3

3

10

21
4
6

4

7

7
6
1
2
15
9
4

12
18
1
3

1
5

19

2
3
2
9

8
6
10

v
-

11
30

4
1
5
15

3
1
* 11

12

1
12

3
1

15

18
5

22

9

5

63

4

3

7

i3
20

6

8

2

31

25

21

46

24

22

13

1

10

63

7
13

16
4

30

8

94

1

24

8

3

11
24
2

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

64
107
30
329
16
13
58
25
55
15

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

1 18

4

1

92

112

4

6
24

3

15

45

42

87

13
10

15

32
33
34
35
36

9
209

10

20
41
36
6
171

30
17
211
5
30

2

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

67
7

2

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

38
183
16
24
16
5
37
42
33
52
35
45

25

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

21
19
13
4 61
19

1

15




15

17
I

* For runs of 9 to 10 hours men are paid for 10 hours.
4 Motormen and conductors; not reported separately.

40

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

1.—NUMBER OF CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING
II.—Cities from which data were

MOTORMEN—Continued.
Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
10
and
un­
der
11

City.

13
and
un­
der
14

Dayton, Ohio:
Company No. 1...................................................
Company No. 2
Decatur, 111.................................................................
Derby, Conn. (Derby division, Connecticut Co.)
Dover, N. H .............................! .................................
Dubuque, Towa..........................................................
Duluth, Minn.............................................................
Dunkirk, N. Y ...........................................................
Durham, N. C
East Liverpool, O h io ...* .........................................
Easton, Pa..and Phillipsburg, N. J
Eau Claire, W is.........................................................
Elgin, 111........................ ............................................
Elkhart, Ind...............................................................
Elmira, N. Y ...............................................................
El Paso, T ex...............................................................
Elwood, Ind................................................................
Enid, Okla.2 ................................................................
Erie, Pa
Escanaba, Mich
Eureka, Cal
Everett, W ash
Fargo, N. Dak
Findlay, Ohio2
Fitchburg, Mass. (see Clinton, Mass.).
Flint, Mien
Fond du Lac, W is
Fort Dodge, Iowa
Fort Smith, A rk
Fort Wayne, Ind
Fort Worth, T ex
Framingham, Mass. (Framingham division,
Boston & Worcester Street Ry. Co.).
Frankfort, K y.2
Franklin, Mass. (see Milford, Mass.).
Freenort. Ill 2 ___________ ______________________
Fresno, Cal.................................................................. 1
____
Gadsden, Ala....................... ..................................... !___
Galesburg, 111..............................................................•
___
Galveston, Tex........................................................... 1
___
(Gardner. Mass,. _______ ________________________!___
Gary, Ind.... ...............................................................
Geneva, N. Y .............................................................
Glens Falls and Saratoga, N. Y .............................
Gloucester, Mass........................................................
Gloversville, Johnstown, and Amsterdam, N . Y .
Grand Forks, N. Dak...............................................
Grand Junction, Colo.2.............................................
Great Falls, Mont.2 ....................................................
Green Bay, W is.........................................................
Greenfield, Mass.........................................................
Greensboro, N . C .......................................................
Greenville, S. C...........................................................
Hammond, Ind..........................................................
Hampton, Va. (see Newport News, Va.).
Hannibal, Mo.............................................................
Harrisburg, Pa...........................................................
Hartford, Conn. (Hartford division, Connecti­
cut Co.).
Hazleton, Pa...............................................................
•
Helena, Mont..............................................................
Henderson, K y.2.........................................................
Holyoke, Mass............................................................
Homestead, Pa...........................................................
Homell, N. Y .............................................................
I
Hot Springs, Ark.2.....................................................

14
and
un­
der
15

..............................

i
i
1
i
i
i
.11

.

....................................
.............




16
and
un­
der
17

17
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
19

19
and
un­
der
20

20
and
un­
der
21

........
17
1

18

21 22
and and
un­ un­
der der
22 23

31
g
13
11
4
7
i7
43

10

i
i
1
I
!

4

...........................................
..................................
.......................................
....................................
....................................
...................................
........................................
................................
................................
..................................
.................................
.................................

15
and
un­
der
16

I

5

10

7

3
5
24

2
13
13

21

2

1

5
3
26

3

8

2

1

1
1
1
1
1

1

4

.. J(....

1
8
3

1
I

4

1
2
1

6
1

1
3
6
16
13

25

6

3

2

9
21
5
3

2
10
5

3
•8
6

2

1
1

2
1

1
3

3
5

2
5

7

3

3

1

'l4

3

4
18
9

2

..................................

3

3

.

2

3

4

1

4
8
5

2

I

3

1
7
4
7

8
2

2

2

.... ....

1 Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
2 One-man cars.

i

3

8
8

l

3

1

G

i

13

1

2

’ 32'

4
11
9

8

8

CHAP. X.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

41

EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by correspondence—Continued.
MOTORMEN—Continued.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
32
33
31
34 35 36 37
30
29
26
28
27
25
24
23
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
33
31
35 36 37 38
30
34
28
26
29
25
27
24

52
13

38
and
un­
der
39

40
and
un­
der
41

Line

43
No.
and
un- Total.
1
der
44

52
13

9

8
3

5
3
23
10
2

.....
173
24

5

14

2
8
9
1
6
7

7

21
2

1

4

22

46

25
9
11

3
8

2

10
4

6
24
1

37

1

3
4
1
1
5
7
16
9

1
33
15
9

5

35

15
50
10

6

7

20

1
10
3
6
2

4
5

21
1
28
2
3

7

6

6

5

13

25
2

6

5
3

3

4

16

7

41
27

-

12

5
30

2

1
4
2
1
22
26

2
23
19

4

57
22

4

12

2

3

1

7

15

-18
13
9

7

4

2

6

6

12

116 J16

56
5
I

1

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

12
47
11
35
68
£0
29
3
41
£0
37 '
16
4
22
17
30
23
24
32

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

7
115
263

-

152

12

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

44
9
8
41
93
128
61

16

2

20
3
1

135
34
41
35
30
1109
162
4
22
40
70
30
32
15
67
77
3
12
84
39
24
20
20
11

10

17

3
2
4
U4
41

9
6
2

52
53
54

18
137
12
80
5
11
35

55
56
’57
58
59
(0
61

a Including 6, rates not reported. Rates of these 6 men were increased 1 cent per hour each year after
30 months’ service, but not to exceed 25 cents per hour.




42

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STATES.
T a b l e 1 .—

NUMBER OF CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING
II*—Cities from which data were

M O TO R M EN — Continued.
Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
No.

City.

10
and
un­
der
11

13
and
un­
der
14

14
and
un­
der
15

15
and
un­
der
16

Hudson division, Public Service Ry. Co., New
Jersey.
Huntington, W . V a..................................................
Hutchinson, Kans. n . . . .
Hyde Park, Mass........................................................
Iowa City, Iowa.........................................................
Ironton, Ohio..............................................................
Ishpeming, Mich.......................................................
Jackson, Mich.............................................................
Jackson, Miss...............................................................
1
.Tanksnn, Tenn.1. . . .
.
,, ,
ii*
Jamestown, N . Y .......................................................
................
.Tanfisyillp., wis.i
. _,
Jeffersonville, Ind. (see New Albany,Ind.).
Johnstown, N . Y . (see Gloversville, N. Y .).
Johnstown, Pft...........................
Joliet, 111...................................................................
Joplin, Mo. (see Pittsburg, Kans.).
Kalamazoo, Mich....................................................
Kankakftft, Til.. T ............................ .
.
Keene, N. H .....................................................
Kenosha, W is..........................................................
Keokuk, Iowa...........................................................
Kingston, N. Y ...........................................................
Knoxville, Tenn.........................................................
Kokomo, Ind...............................................................
Laconia, N .H ..
.................
La Crosse, W is..............................
La Fayette, Ind.........................................................
Lake Charles, L a ........................................................
Lancaster, Ohio 4........................
Lancaster, Pa
.............................................................
Lansing, Mich.............................................................
Laporte, Ind.............................................................
LaSalle, 111.................................................
Lawrence, Kans.1
.......................................................
Lawrence, Mass.........................................
Leavenworth, Kans..................................................
Lebanon, Pa...............................................................
Leominster, Mass. (see Clinton, Mass.).
Lewiston and Augusta, Me.....................................
Lexington. K y ...........................................................
Lockport,N. Y .1......................................................
Logansport, Ind.........................................................
Lynchburg, V a ..
.
......................
Lynn, Mass................................................................
McAlester, Okla.......................................................
Macon, Ga....................................................................
Madison, W is..............................................................
Mankato, Minn...........................................................
1
Manistee, Mich.1.......................................................
Mansfield, Ohio..........................................................
Marietta, Ohio...................................................
Marinette, W is. (see Menominee, Mich.).
Marion, Ind.................................................................
Marion, Ohio...............................................................
Marlboro, Mass. (see Worcester, Mass.).
Marquette, Mich.......................................................
Marshalltown, Iowa1................. ......................
Mason City, Iowa .... ... .............................
Meadville, Pa..............................................................
Menominee, Mich., and Marinette, W is...............
Meriden, Conn. (Meriden division, Connecticut
Co.).
Meridian, Miss............................................................
4
Michigan City, Ind....................................................
Middletown, Conn. (Middletown division, Con­
necticut Co.).




16
and
un­
der
17

17
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
19

19
and
un­
der
20

2

5

22
20 21
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
21 22 23

5

14
4

8
3 "2

3
1

5

1

4

2
2

1
2
3

2

18

1

2

2
54

9

6
20
3
H5
15

24

3
28
**8* 2
7

6

4

6
35

5
23
3
15
2
(3)

18
4
4

3
8
2

4

3
6 .....

1
4

3

9 ....

2

1
8
15
1

1

11

7

7

7
13

17 . . . .

7
8

2

24
4
4

5
9

2

18

11
15

1

26

10

*T

” 2

10

1
'l2

1

6

1

2
12

5

4
4

4

4
6

7

2 ....

9

3

5

2

1

1 One-man cars.
2 Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
8 Flat rate of 20 cents; number not reported.

1

5
8
8
12
6

3

CHAP. I .---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

43

EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by correspondence—Continued.
M OTORMEN—Continued.

Number of employees who received each classified rate of m ages (cents) per hour.

32
31
34 35 36 37
33
28 ’ 29
30
26
27
24
25
23
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
31
33* 34
26
28
29
24
25
35 36 37 38
30
27
30

35

79

2

4

12

64

40
and
un­
der
41

16

8

69

38
and
un­
der
39

97

31

131

536

10

2

12

8

6

2

7

37

3

5

4

18
34

43
10

12
4
29

13
6
6
2

1

1

27

12

9

18

9

38

1

3

17

76

6

4
3
8

1
2
36
2

3
1

18

, 2

21
8

10

1

32
19

8

4

2
2

6

13

9

5

2

2

5

3

2

2

10

24
6
13

1

15

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

48
33
17
22
51
169
10
73
38
6
10
20
13

7

13
14

52
21.
4
21
2 22
32
88
14
(3)
33
34
9
12
38
35
3
8
24
86
&21
8

27

6
7
8
9
10
1
1
1
2

79
64

25

6

2

4

7
18

2

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
48
47
48

17
19

2

4

1

41
12
57
12
12
3
45
30
19
77
8

3
4

Lino
43
No.
and
un­ Total.
der
44

49
50

4
12
9
29
30
54

51
52
53
54
55
56

28
6
25

57
58

3
4
5

1
0
17
18
19

20
2
1
22
23
24
25

20

5J

4 One-man cars, except on special days when school boys were employed as conductors at 15 cents per ho ur.
6 Paid from $50 to $60 per month; number at each rate not reported.




44

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E UNITED STATES.
T able

1.—NUMBER OF CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING1
II.—Cities from which data were

MOTORMEN—Continued.
Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
City.

Middletown, N . Y ......................................................
Milford, Franklin, and PlavnviHe,
...
Milford, Mass..............................................................
Millville, N. Y ............................................................
Missoula, Mont.2.\
.
.
. . .
Molinp., Til ......... „ .. .. „..............................
Montgomery, Ala.......................................................
Montpelier, V e. (see Barre, V t.).
Mount Vernon and New Rochelle, N. Y ...........
Muncie, Ind................................................................
Muskegon, Mich.........................................................
Nantfaoke, Pa . ,
.
..
......................

10
and
un­
der
11

13
and
un­
der
14

14
and
un­
der
15

15
and
un­
der
16

16
and
un­
der
17

17
and
un­
der
18

1

2

4

9

18

4.

10

10

13

23

8

14

Newcastle, Pa. (see Youngstown, Ohio).
New London, Conn. (see Norwich, Conn;).
Newport, R . I ......................................................j . . .
Newport News and Hampton, V a ........................
New Rochelle, N . Y . ( see Mount Vernon, N . Y .).
Newton, Waltham, and near-by towns, Mass




1

10

5

'13 127

New Albany and Jeffersonville, Ind.3. .................

Norristown, Pa....................................... ; ..................
North Adams, Mass. ( see Pittsfield, Mass.).
Northampton, Mass..................................................
North Yakima, Wash...............................................
Norton and Taunton, Mass.....................................
Norwalk, Conn. (Nor\valk division, Connecticut
Co.).
Norwich, Willimantic, and New London, Conn
Ogden, Utah...............................................................
Ogdensburg, N . Y ......................................................
Oil City, Pa.................................................................
Olean, N . Y ...................•
.............................................
Oshkosh, W is..............................................................
Oswego, N. Y .............................................................
Ottumwa, Iowa..........................................................
Owensboro, Ky .5........................................................
Paducah, K y...............................................................
Parkersburg, W . Va*................................................
Parsons, Kans.2..........................................................
Pasadena, Cal.............................................................
Passaic, N. J. (Passaic division, Public Service
Ry. Co.).
Pawtucket, R. I.........................................................
Peekskill, N . Y ...........................................................
Pensacola, Fla.............................................................
Peru, Ind.....................................................................
Phillipsburg, N. J. (see Easton, Pa.).
Phoenix, Ariz.............................................................
Phoenixville, Pa........................................................
Pine Bluff, Ark..........................................................
Piqua, Ohio.................................................................
Pittsburg, Kans.,and Joplin, Mo..........................
Pittsfield and North Adams, Mass........................
Plainville, Mass. (see Milfora, Mass.).
Plattsburg, N. Y ........................................................
Plymouth, Mass.........................................................
Pomona, Cal................................................................
Pontiac, Mich.............................................................
Portsmouth, N. H .....................................................
Portsmouth, Ohio......................................................
Pottstown, Pa.............................................................
Pottsville, Pa..............................................................
Poughkeepsie, N. Y ..................................................
Punxsutawney, Pa....................................................
Quincy, 111...................................................................

1

i
18 19 20 21 22 !
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
19 20 21 22 23

19
3
10 ‘
6 >

!
22 i

4

42

<4

10

48

6

1

6
11

4
7

1
4
1

j
2
1
2
1 ” i'
8

2
11

4

2

2
7
1

71
1
4
2
7
1

1
4

3
1
6
4

1 1
5 !
14 1
!
!
6 i
3 j
2 :
2
19 i

12
1
12

2

4
9

5

6
4

4

2

3
8
7
2

1
1
10
8

1 3

1 Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
2 One-man cars.
3 One-man cars on some of the runs.

2

3

4

5

1

4
2
1

1
*4’

,

45

CHAP. I,-— WAGES OP CAR CREWS.
EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by correspondence—Continued.
MOTORMEN—Continued.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
32
30
33
34 35 36 37 38 40
26
28
29
31
23
24
25'
27
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
33
24
26
28
30
34
35 36 37 38 39 41
29
25
27
31

2

1
1

3

1

?

12
?,

12

1

10
3
1

23
6
2

18
25
MO
18
18
64

19
6

4

7

Line
43
No.
and
un­ Total.
der
44

3

1

8

6

101

91

2
1

34

2

1

5

6

9

19
48
27

27
2
60
9

!" 4*
, 62

"2

1

8
.....

5

7
40

6

4
1
7

13
4

61
14

159
41
62

17
18
19

2
4

3
2

10
1

27

20
21

4
1
1

3
3

2
1
10

4

20

11

34

73

136
39
14
35
32

1

14
4

3
4

|

1
14 1
1

2

11
21

2
4

1
1
1

6
27

1

31
27

1
1

1
1

14
35

1 12

14

7
24

4
16

11

7
17

19

53

3
13

1

6
22

1

7

i
1
1
1
1
1

|

3

3

33
30

1
1
!

i
1

6
22
34
22

1
10

1

1

15
16

1

18

i
!
1
1
1

64

1

1

14

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

7

1

2

1

2
2

5
2

6

4

21
2




6

8

1

38
39
40
41

2
1
6

42
43
44
45
46
47

95

1

23
7
4
14
30

4

.. . J . . . .
1

1
2
8
2

27
.. .j1...
.

4 One cent less from Oct. 1 to Apr. 1.
&One-man cars except in summer months.

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

78
17
26

|
2

13
14

9

16
6
8
2
1
3

8
9
10
1
1
12

29

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

46

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

1 .—

NUMBER

OF

CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING

II.—Cities from which data were
M O TOR M EN — Continued.

Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
10
and
un­
der
11

City.

No.

13
and
un­
der
14

14
and
un­
der
15

15
and
un­
der
16

16
and
un­
der
17

17 18
and and
un­ un­
der der
18 .19

21 22
and and
un­ un­
der der
22 23

19
and
un­
der
20

20
and
un­
der
21

3

3

5

3

5

1

8
11

21

5

Quincy, Mass. (Quincy division, Bay State
Street Ry. Co.).
10

Reading, Mass. (Reading division, Bay State
Street Ry. Co.).
Redlands, Cal.............................................................
Richmond, Tnri...
..
_______
Riverside, Cal............................ .................................
Roanoke, V a...............................................................
Rock Island, 111..........................................................
Rome. G a . ...............................................................
Rome, N. Y . (see Utica, N. Y .).
St, Cloun, Minn

___

3

4

2

_____ ________________

Salem, Mass. (Salem division, Bay State Street
Ry. Co.).
Salem, Oregon.............................................................
San Bernardino, Cal..................................................
San Diego, Cal............................................................
San Jose, Cal.:
Company No. 1....................................................
Company No. 2...................................................
Santa Cruz, Cal...........................................................
Saratoga, N ..Y . (see Glens Falls, N. Y .).
Sanlt Ste "Marfa, Mfah _____________________
Schenectady, N. Y ....................................................
Sedalia Mo
......................................................
Selma, Ala.1.................................................................
Shamokin, Pa.............................................................
Sharon, Pa. (see Youngstown, Ohio).
Shawnee, Okla .........................................................
Sheboygan, W i s ........................................................
Shreveport, L a...........................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...................................................
South Bethlehem, Pa...............................................
Southbridge, Mass. (see Webster, Mass.).
Southern division, Public Service Ry. Co., New
Jersey.
Spartanburg, S. C......................................................
Spencer, Mass. (see Worcester, Mass.).
Stamford, Conn. (Stamford division, Connecti­
cut Co.).
Stockton, Cal...............................................................
Sunbury, Pa...............................................................
Tampa, Fla.................................................................
Taunton, Mass. (see Norton, Mass.).
Temple, Tex.1.............................................................
Terre Haute, Ind.......................................................
Tiffin, Ohio1...............................................................
Torrington, Conn. (Torrington division, Con­
necticut Co.).
Trenton, N. J..............................................................
Trinidai, Colo.............................................................
Troy, N. Y . (see Albany, N. Y .).
Tucson, Ariz...............................................................
Tulsa, Okla.................................................................
Utica and Rome, N. Y .............................................
Vicksburg, Miss.........................................................
Vincennes, Ind...........................................................
Waco, Tex...................................................................
Walla Walla, W ash...................................................
Waltham, Mass. (see Newton, Mass.).
Warren, Pa..................................................................
Waterbury, Conn. (Waterbury division, Con­
necticut Co.).




5

2

6

5

1

.

4
21

6
31

12
2

___

2
2

4

5
ii’
9

2

2

1

6

2

1

6

2

” 9*

2

5

3
2

10

6

4
6

3
"2

2

5
8

26

29
28

2

22 211
15
2

1

2

11

12

1
1

35
3
2

7

2
3

i

1 One-man cars.
2 Work half day as motormen and half day as conductors.
-

2

35
5

31
6
10

3
1

10
10

11

9

5

1

7

6

2 i’

47

CHAP. I.— WAGES OP CAB CREWS.
EACH CLASSIFIED BATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by correspondence—Continued.
MOTORMEN—Continued.

Number o/employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
32
34 35 36 37
31
33
27
28
30
26
23
24
29
25
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
34
29
30
33
35 36 37 38
24
27
28
31
25
26
52
9

13
7

27

19
4
13

1
1
9

14

17
14

2
12
19

1

15

43
No.
and
un­ Total.
der
44

2

2

3

21
68

26

4

2
1

... i

3

47

12

40
61
73
23

21

12

5
8

4
1

9
3
55

3
2
30

1
3
14

3
3
18

4
13
13

2

2

25
40

6

I

14

147

30
77
14

1
i

15

8

8

8

22

24

47

27

1

3

28

4

19

23
24
25

2
1
47
12
2

26
27
28
29
30

200

31

1
1

22

32

31

33

72

,34
35

1
1
1
1

8

43

!

II
i
I
i

:
■

11
12

6

4

18

228

1

13

79

18

8

4

3

2

1

1

1

5
80
4

18

10

2

146
2

2
32

20

137
;

5
3

4
1

6

29

12

8

1
10




3$

37
38
39
40
41
42

4
8

18
19

1

I
I
I
I
15

12
13
14

168

13

1

9

10

20
21
22

150

1
7

6
7
8

15
16
17

20

30

I
i

!

4
5

1
1

125
127

6

4

3

27

60

3

1
2

2
1
1
0

51
20

1
14
1

40
and
un­
der
41

43

1

11

1
9

9

38
and
un­
der
39

3 |

.

42
i

i

2
1
1

I
i
l

45
16

1
i

43
44
45
46
47
48
49

13
122

50
51

25
105
15

!
' ' 1 ""
|
|
l

1
2

i

3 Motornien and conductors; worked interchangeably.

1

48

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E UNITED STATES.
T able

1__NUMBER OF CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING
II.—Cities from which data were

MOTORMEN—Concluded.
Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
No.

10 13 14 15
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
1 14 15 16
1

City.

16
and
un­
der
17

17
and
un­
der
18

18 19 20 21 22
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
19 20 21 22 23

Waterloo and Cedar Falls, Iowa..........................
Watertown, N. Y .....................................................
Waterville, Me..........................................................
Waukegan, 111...........................................................
Wausau, W is ............................................................
W ebb City. Mo.........................................................
Westfield, Mass.1......................................................
Webster and Southbridge, Mass..........................
White Plains, N. Y .................................................
Wilkes-Barre and near-by towns, P a.2 .............
Williamsport, Pa......................................................
Willimantic, Conn. ( see Norwich,Conn.).
Wilmington, N. C ....................................................
Winona, Minn.3........................................................
Winston-Salem, N. C..............................................
Wobum, Mass...........................................................
Woonsocket, R. I .....................................................
Worcester, Spencer, and Marlboro, Mass.............
Yonkers, N. Y ..........................................................
York, Pa....................................................................
Youngstown, Ohio, Sharon and Newcastle, Pa..

14

72

41
4662

511

Total................................
Per cent (cumulative).

21

28

CONDUCTORS.
Aberdeen, W ash.7......................................................
Adrian, Mich...............................................................
Akron, Ohio................................................................
Albany, Cohoes,and Troy, N. Y .............................
Allentown, Pa.............................................................
Alliance, Ohio.............................................................
Alton, I I I ....................................................................
Amsterdam, N . Y . (see Gloversville, N .Y .).
Anderson, Ind............................: ..............................
Ann Arbor, Mich .....................................................
Anniston, Ala.7 .........................................................
Appleton, Wis.8..........................................................
Asbury Park, N .J .....................................................
Asheville, N .C ...........................................................
Ashland, Wis .........................................................
Ashtabula, Ohio.........................................................
Atchison, Kans.9........................................... ............
Athens, Ga.7...............................................................
Attleboro and North Attleboro, Mass...................
Auburn, N. Y .............................................................
Augusta, Me. (see Lewiston, Me.).
Aurora, 111
.............................................................
Austin, Tex.7 .............................................................
Bakersfield, Cal
..............................................
Bangor, M e .................................................................
Barre and Montpelier, Vt .....................................
Batavia, N. Y .9 .................................................. .
Battle Creek, Mich ..................................................
Bay City, M ic h .........................................................
Beaumont, Tex..........................................................
Beaver Falls, Pa
..............................................

3

3

10
2

1
i
i

.

I
|
1
1

2

11 . . . .

40
2

6
6

1
6

5

2

i
20

2
2

7

18
9

11
9

3
12
8~
19

5

1 Paid daily rate of $2.30 to $2.85. Number at each rate not reported.
2 Number of men not reported.
3 One-man cars.
4 Not including 6 men whose rate was increased 1 cent per hour each year after 30 months’ service, rate not
to exceed 25 cents per hour, but number at each rate not reported.




CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

49

EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by correspondence—Continued.
MOTORMEN—Concluded.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
32
33
34 35 36 37
29
30
31
28
24
23
26
25
27
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
34
30
33
35 36 37 38
31
29
24
28
25
26
27

38
and
un­
der
39

40
and
un­
der
41

Line
43
No.
and
un­ Total.
der
44

1
2

1

2
7
1
4

1
1
6

3
4

1
2

5

31

1

1
3

3

36
24

5
2
29
15

3
21

-J
____ ! ____
5
4
3
31

........
86

1

....

3

3
4
5

i
l
i
I
|
j
|

24
18
32
34
37
272
117
58
269

..I ___ 1
___
2
6
22
102

18
23
169
16

293
92

242

11

1038 1065 1358 1427 1163 2531
72
63
90
35
43
53

664
97

243
99

54
99

33
99

1
99

8
3
3 24 23 12
99 100 100 100 100 100

13731

6
7
8
9
10
1
1
1
2
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21

CONDUCTORS.

62
9

28

12

12

11

12

42

6
519

17

___l___
102
1

24
1

(?)6
109
519
10
24

16
3

4

i
1
1
.... I
(

34

3

___ 1
___ 1
___
I

(7)
40
46
7
18
(9)
(7)
36
50

5
1
6

9
2

7
25

16

12

8

3

16
1

a

1

16

I

1

36
3

11
29

5

12
21

1
2
19
4

5

4

11

12
2

3

5
2

8
2

12
3

1

(9)
41
45
32
52
35

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

6 Not including 21 who w erAaid $50 to $60 per month, 32 who were paid $2.30 to $2.85 per day, and 6 whose
rate was not reported, but was increased 1 cent per hour each year after 30 months’ service, rate not to exceed
25 cents per hour.
* Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
7 See Motormen.
s No conductors employed except during summer months.
9 One-man cars. See Motormen.

39749°—Bull. 204— 17------ 4




50

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E UNITED STATES.
T able

1.—NUMBER OF CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING
II*—Cities from which data were

CONDUCTORS— Continued.
Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
City.

No.

10
and
un­
der
11

13
and
un­
der
14

14
and
un­
der
15

15
and
un­
der
16

16
and
un­
der
17

17
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
19

19
and
un­
der
20

20
and
un­
der
21

22
21
and and
un­ un­
der der
22 23

Bergen division, Public Service Ry. Co., New
Jersey.
19
Bloomington, 111.........................................................

18

12 12

12
2

7

8
9
10
1
1
1
2
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
2.
1
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
4?
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

32

Bridgeport, Conn. (Bridgeport division', Con­
necticut Co.).
Bridgeton, N. J...........................................................
Bristol, Conn...............................................................
Broad Ripplfi, "Jnd ,. , __________________ _______
Burlington, Iowa 2.....................................................
Burlington, Vt ..........................................................
Cambridge, Ohio 3..................................... .............

20

•
-

5

3
1

1

2

9

6

3

8
4
17
2

7

76

1
3

4
2

6
3

16

7
Cedar Falls, Iowa (see Waterloo, Iowa).
Cedar Rapids, Iowa..................................................
Central division, Public Service Ry. Co., New
Jersey.
Charleston, W .V a .....................................................
Charlottesville, Va.3..................................................
Chelsea, M ass.............................................................
Cheyenne, W yo.2.......................................................
Clinton, Fitchburg,and Leominster,Mass...........
Cohoes, N . Y . (see Albany, N. Y .).
Colorado Springs, Colo..............................................
Columbia, S. C ...........................................................
Columbus, Ga.............................................................
Columbus, Ohio.........................................................
Coming, N. Y .............................................................
Cortland, N. Y ...........................................................
Council Bluffs, Iowa..................................................
Danburv, Conn..........................................................
Danville, 111................................................................
Danville, V a...............................................................
Dayton, Ohio:
Company N o .l ...................................................
Company No. 2...................................................
Decatur, 111..................................................................
Derby, Conn. (Derby division, Connecticut Co )
Dover, N. H ............................................................
Dubuque, Iowa 2.......................................................
Duluth, Minn.............................................................
Dunkirk, N. Y ...........................................................
Durham, N .C ...........................................................
East Liverpool, Ohio................................................
Easton, Pa., and Phillipsburg, N. J...................
Eau Claire, W is...................................................
Elgin, 111......................................................................
Elkhart, Ind................................................................
Elmira, N. Y ...............................................................
El Paso, Tex...............................................................
Elwood, Ind................................................................
Enid, Okla.2
................................................................
Erie, Pa........................................................................
Escanaba, Mich..........................................................
Eureka, Cal.................................................................
Everett, Wash............................................................
Fargo, N. Dak............................................................
Findlay, Ohio 2...........................................................
Fitchburg, Mass. (see Clinton, Mass.).
Flint, Mich..................................................................
Fond du Lac, W is.....................................................
Fort Dodge, Iowa......................................................
Fort Smith, Ark........................................................
Fort Wayne, Ind.......................................................
Fort Worth, Tex.......................................................




16

10

5

5

1

1
13

12

1
3

2

6

10
34
6
21
6
1
55

12

4

6
1

a ....

* For runs of 9 to 10 hours men were paid for 10 hours.
2 See Motormen.
3 One-man cars. See Motormen.

6

4

4
6
24

4
11
13
1

3
24
2

8

1

4

4
36

1

5

1

8
2

4

1
4
10
15
13

1
3
7
9
44

1

1
3

1

7
29’ 12
15

CHAP. I .---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

51

EACH CLASSIFED KATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by correspondence—Continued.
CONDUCTORS—Continued.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
32
24
23
27
28
29
30
33
34 35 36 37
25
26
31
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
26
25
24
29
30
33
28
31
34
35 36 37 38
27
4

6

10

8

7

1

2

9

10
2

2

7

7

6

11

Line
43
No.
and
un­ Total.
der
44

13

13

40
and
un­
der
41

3

11

38
and
un­
der
39

” 44"
1

5
15
5
1

2
1

5

47

20

1

24

6

44

12

10

9

39

10

5

3

16

10

2

1

73

3

21

21

6

88
4

(2
)
19
<)
3

1

15

37

3

30
2

106

105

22

11

4
24

6

5

15

7
4
5

2
7

27

35

19

11

35

59
107
32
311

52
11

3
6
5

52
11

9
6
3

31

15

12
1
12
11
1

5
7
4
1

23
2
1

13

2
7

11

1
1
2
1

9

63
24
45
13
....
I
!
1
I

9
6

13
3 ” 39’

6
2

2

5

1

17

5
23
19

1
1
1

7

1

14
5

4
24
1

2
1
(2)
159
4

22

40
70

2
0

33

2

14

6

1
1
........!........

33S

138
28
40
33

32
16
65
80
4

2
1
1
3
, 5
12

|
!

ie

13

15
16

(3
)
231
(2
)

53

8

13
14

28

12

7

8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2

208

1
1
5

6

18
14

1

11

3
4
5

67
7

4

1

30
6
51

42
37
7
162

30

...J ....

41
93
134

17
18
19

20
2
1
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

* Including 5, rates, not reported. Rates of these 5 men were increased 1 per cent per hour each year
after 30 months’ service- but rate not to exceed 25 oents per hour.




52

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITEI> STATES.
T able

1.—NUMBER OF CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING
II.—Cities from which data were

CONDUCTORS—Continued.
Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
No.

10
and
un­
der
11

City.

13
and
un­
der
14

14
and
un­
der
15

15
and
un­
der
16

16
and
un­
der
17

17
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
19

19
and
un­
der
20

20 21 22
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
21 22 23

Framingham, Mass. (Framingham division,
Boston & Worcester Street Ry. Co.).
Frankfort, K v.1...........................................................
Franklin, Mass. (see Milford, Mass.).
3

4

1

1

Galesburg, 111..............................................................

9
24
11
1

Gardner, Mass.............................................................

4
13
6

6
14
2

1
Glens Falls and Saratoga, N. Y .................... ........
Gloucester, Mass........................................................
Grand Forks; N. Dak...............................................

6




1 See Motormen.
2 Number not reported.

2

3

Great Falls, Mont.1....................................................
4
Green Bay, W is.........................................................
1
5
Greenfield, Mass............................. , .........................
7
9
8
Greensboro, N. C .......................................................
7
Greenville, S. C.............. ...........................................
6
5 "2
6
3
Hammond, Ind..........................................................
Hampton, Va. (see Newport News, Va.).
14
Hannibal, Mo.............................................................
Harrisburg Pa
.....................................
Hartford, Conn. (Hartford division, Connecti­
cut Co.).
Hazleton, Pa...............................................................
Helena, Mont.1...........................................................
Henderson, K y.1....................r..................................
Holvoke, Mass............................................................
Homestead, Pa................................. ........................
Homell, Pa..................................................................
H3
Hot Springs, Ark.1....................................................
Hudson division, Public Service Ry. Co., New
Jersey.
Huntington, W . V a..................................................
13
8
Hutchinson, Kans.....................................................
4
Hyde Park, Mass.......................................................
1
Iowa City, Iowa.........................................................
Ironton? Ohio. ; .........................................................
3
Ishpeming, Mich........................................... ...........
Jackson, Mich.............................................................
1
1
6
Jackson, Miss..............................................................
1
Jackson, Tenn.1..........................................................
Jamestown, N. Y .......................................................
1
55
Janesville, W^is.1............... .........................................
JeffersonvillevInd. (see New Albany, Ind.).
Johnstown N ."Y . (see Gloversviiie, N. Y .).
Johnstown, Pa............................................................
Joliet, 111.............: ......................................................
Joplin, Mo. (see Pittsburg, Kans.).
Kalamazoo, Mich.......................................................
........................
Kankakee, 111....................................•
3
Keene, N. H ...............................................................
Kenosna, W is .............................................................
Keokuk, Iowa1...........................................................
5
5
Kingston, N. Y ...........................................................
Knoxville, Tenn...................................... *................
4
26 15
1
Kokomo, Ind..............................................................
3
9
Laconia, N. H .............................................................
(2)
La Crosse, W is............................................................
5
La Fayette, Ind......................................................... 5
6
Lake Charles, La........................................................
1
Lancaster, Onio 3.......................................................
Lancaster, Pa.............................................................
35 1 10

3
5 ”

7’

2

20
'69'

4

1
3

4
5

18
5

7

6
20

8

18
4
6

5

2

10
2
3
4
2

1
4
,3

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

53

EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by correspondence—Continued.
CONDUCTORS—Continued.

Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
32
34 35 36 37 38
33
31
29
30
23
26
28
24
25
27
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
35 36 37 38 39
31
34
30
33
26
28
29
24
25
27
12

10

9

7

8

40
and
un­
der
41

Line
43
No.
and
un­ Total.
der
44
63

17

1

0)
10
2
3
4
4

14
6
20
2
2
5

5
3
4
4

3

14

23
28

2

2

0

3
3
6

9

5
6
28

.

J
1

16

43
30
J
I
I
........1 ....
1

7
5

49
19

5

14

4

3

3

10

■
*
98

18
13

5

3

118

85

88

7

1

2
1

8

1

8

8

5

9

46

16

14

9

5
84

54

12

4

34

22

65
1
........1..
1
i
' “ f
........

20

1
....

21

....... . . . J . . . .
____ 1
___ !___
____ 1____ 1
___ 1

6

4

11

__

18
30

2

4

2

1

1

1

1

3
20

40
10

40

11
7

5

9
.3

.

___ I..
29

1
1
.
1

i
1
1
I
1
J .. . .
i
I
1
1
i
1

...

1
|

l

1
j

1

1

|
1
I
!
1
...J ....L ...
1
1
1
l
!
!
1
1
!
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

18
0)
0)
76
5
13
(l)
550

l
....I ....
I
1

47
9
35
68
43
31
3
43
53
39
14
(l)
(x
)
17
33
24
24
32
14
123
260

6

8

2
31
32

13

2

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

45
12
58
8
14
3
43
27
0)
74
C
1)

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

79
60

44
45

51
21
4
19
0)
31
82
15
(2)
33
33
9
(3
)
45

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

.5 cents per
hour.




54

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

1— NUMBER

OF

CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING

I I .—Cities from whicH data were

CONDUCTORS—Continued.
Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
City.

No.

10
and
un­
der
11

LaSalle, ID.................................................................
Lawrence, Kans.1..... ...............................................
Lawrence, Mass..........................................................
Leavenworth, Kans..................................................
Lebanon, Pa................................................................
Leominster, Mass. (see Clinton, Mass.).
Lewiston and Augusta, Me.....................................
Lp ington, K y ______________________________
,-K
Lockport, 'N. Y .1..................................................
Logansport, Ind.........................................................
Lynchburg, Va...........................................................
Lynn, Mass.................................................................
McAlester, Okla.........................................................
Macon, Ga...................................................................
Madison, W is..............................................................
Msunkn.to, Minn________________________________
Manistee, Mich.1.........................................................
Mansfield, Ohio..........................................................
Marietta, Ohio.......................................... .. ...............
Marinette, Wis. ( see Menominee, Mich.).
Marion, Ind.................................................................
Marion, Ohio...............................................................
Marlboro, Mass. (see Worcester, Mass.),
Marquette, Mich........................................................
Marshalltown, Iowa1................................................
Mason City, Iowa......................................................
Meadville, Pa.............................................................
Menominee, Mich., and Marinette, W is...............
Meriden, Conn. (Meriden division, Connecticut
Co.).
Meridian, Miss............................................................
Michigan City, Ind....................................................
Middletown, Conn. (Middletown division,
Connecticut Co.).
Middletown, N . Y . . ..................................................
Milford, Franklin,and Plainvilie, Mass..-...........
Milford, Mass...............................................................
Millville, N. J.i-..........................................................
Missoula, Mont.1........................................................
Moline, 111....................................................................
Montgomery, A la.......................................................
Montpelier, V t. (see Barre, Vt.).
Mount Vernon and New Rochelle, N . Y .............
Muncie, Ind................................................................
Muskegon, Mich.........................................................
Nanticoke, Pa.............................................................
Nashua, N . H .............................................................
New Albany and Jeffersonville, Ind.4..................
Newburgh, N . Y ........................................................
Newcastle, Pa. (see Youngstown, Ohio).
New London, Conn. (see Norwich, Conn.).
Newport, R. I .............................................................
Newport News and Hampton, V a ........................
New Rochelle, N . Y . (see Mount Vernon,N. Y.).
Newton, Waltham, and near-by towns, Mass.
Niagara Falls, N . Y ..................................................
Norristown, Pa...........................................................
North Adams, Mass. (see Pittsfield, Mass.).
Northampton, Mass..................................................
North Yakima, W ash...............................................
Norton and Taunton, Mass.....................................
Norwalk, Conii. (Norwalk division, Connec­
ticut Co.).
Norwich. Willimantic. and New London. Conn
Ogden, Utah............................................................... |
___




13
and
un­
der
14

14
and
un­
der
15

15
and
un­
der
16

16 17
and and
un­ un­
der der
17 18

18
and
un­
der
19

19
and
un­
der
20

20
and
un­
der
21

21 22
and and
un­ un­
der der
22 23

8

1

2
8

21

11

5
6

6

8

25
3
3

3
9

3

14

11
15

31

1
1

7

5

2

1

10

2
i

2

1

4
2

1
2

6
8

7

10

7

3
1

•

4
5
12

1

2
3

7

3
11
is

6

4

4

4

8

2

2
1

13

10

15

2

10

26
3

6

14
7

8

7

4

1

1 See Motormen.
2 Conductors are paid from $50 to $60 per month.

24

9

2

15

7

1

1
3
14

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

55

EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by correspondence—Continued.
CONDUCTORS—Continued.

Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
32
33
31
34 35 36 37
30
26
28
29
24
27
25
23
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der1 der der der der der der der
34
30
31
32
33
35 36 37 38
29
25
27
26
28
24
3

5

20

10

6
2

13

27

38
and
un­
der
39

7
45
1

3
1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

51
36
C
1)
18
52
166
9
68
38
6
0)
21
14

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

21
20

21
22

22

4
0)
10
28
23
55

23
24
25
26
27
28

11

28
6
25

29
30
31

13
15
27
0)
C)
18
64

32
33
34
35
36
37
38

102
23
37
6
20
20
26

39
40
41
42
43
44
45

7
50

46
47

30

7

47

7

12

6

39
7

10

2

30
28

1

i
1
1
1

1
i

9

4

4

9

3

2

4

4

4

2

2

1

1
1

4

3
2

6

7

26
6
2

2

8
1

19

10

1

4

84

18

Line
43
No.
and
un­ Total.
der
44
34
2
8
C
1)
87
323
2 16

13

2
6

40
and
un­
der
41

2

2

13

1

1

2

4

2

11
2

11
4

83
8

148
40
59

48
49
50

1
3

2
2

13

5

25
25
10
30

51
52
53
54

140
41

55
56

26

6
59

25
9

3

8
1
2

20

13

18
9
4
1

5
6

3

6

14
22

11




13
5
7

63
12
3 Some conductors work one-half time as motormen.
^ One-man cars on some of the runs.

56

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNIfEED STATES.
T able

1.—NUMBER OF CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING

II.—
Cities from whicH data were
CONDUCTORS—Continued.
Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
No.

City.

Ogdensburg, N. Y .....................................................
Oil City, Pa................................................ ...............
Olean, N. Y ................................................................
Oshkosh, W is.............................................................
Oswego, N . Y .............................................................
Ottumwa, Iowa.........................................................
Owensboro, K y.2.......................................................
Paducah, K y ..............................................................
Parkersburg, W . V a..................................................
Parsons, Kans.2..........................................................
Pasadena, Cal.............................................................
Passaic, N . J. (Passaic division, Public Service
Ry. Co.).
Pawtucket, R. I .........................................................
Peekskill,N. Y ..........................................................
Pensacola, Fla............................................................
Peru, Ind.....................................................................
Phillipsburg, N . J. (see Easton, Pa.).
Phoenix, Ariz.............................................................
Phoenixville, Pa........................................................
Pine Bluff, Ark..........................................................
Piqua, Ohio................................................................
Pittsburg, Kans., and Joplin, Mo..........................
Pittsfield and North Adams, Mass........................
Plainville, Mass. ( see Milford, Mass.).
Plattsburg, N . Y ..........' ............................................
Plvmoutti, Mass.........................................................
Pomona, Cal...............................................................
Pontiac, Mich.............................................................
Portsmouth, N . H .....................................................
Portsmouth, Ohio.....................................................
Pottstown, Pa............................................................
Pottsville, Pa.............................................................
Poughkeepsie, N. Y ..................................................
Punxsutawney, Pa...................................................
Quincy, 111..................................................................
Quincy, Mass. (Quincy division, Bay State
Street R y. Co.).
Raleigh, N . C ..............................................................
Reading, Mass. (Reading division, Bay State
Street Ry. Co.).
Redlands, Cal.....................*......................................
Richmond, Ind..........................................................
Riverside, Cal.............................................................
Roanoke, V a ........................ .....................................
Rockford, 111...............................................................
Rock Island, 111.........................................................
Rome, Ga. I................................................................
-Rome, N. Y . (see Utica, N. Y .).
Rutland, Vt.................................................................
St. Cloud, Minn.........................................................
St. Joseph, M o............................................................
Salem, Mass. (Salem division, Bay State Street
Ry. Co.).
Salem, Oreg................................................................
San Bernardino, Cal..................................................
San Diego, Cal............................................................
San Jose, Cal.:
Company No. 1 ...................................................
Company No. 2 ...................................................
Santa Cruz, Cal..........................................................
Saratoga, N . Y . (see Glens Falls, N . Y .).
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich..............................................
Schenectady, N . Y ....................................................
Sedalia, M o.................................................................
Selma, Ala2..................................................................
Shamokin, Pa........................................ ...................
Sharon, Pa. (see Youngstown, Ohio).
Shawnee, Okla...........................................................




13
and
un­
der
14

14
and
un­
der
15

16
and
un­
der
17

18
and
un­
der
19

19
and
un­
der
20

13
1
11

1
G

20
and
un­
der
21

6
6

1...
1
5

16
i

21 22
and and
un­ un­
der der
22 23

i2

1

15
and
un­
der
16

17
and
un­
der
18
17

10
and
un­
der
11

1
2

9
1
3

1
1
15

2

2
7

3

4

6

3
7
1

13

2

6
2

2
4 ’ io’
1

1
15

1

3

7
9

i

1

16 ’
2

2

3
11
4

I
1
1
1

1
” 'T '"
.I ..

2

1
2
2

i
I
' 1
i

;

7
3
2

2

G

4

l

16
18

26

6

6

1
4

8

8

5

6

3

6

1

6

1

3

5

4

4

1

6

2

g

i

20
53

22
2

2
1 2

2

4

3 1 1

1

1

1
8

1

* One cent less from Oct. 1 to Apr. 1.

1
4
10

;

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

57

EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR—Continued,

obtained by correspondence—Continuud.
CONDUCTORS—Continued.
Number of employees wlio received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
32
31
33
30
34 35 36 37
29
28
26
24
27
23
25
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
36 37 38
30
33
34
35
29
31
28
27
25
26
24

4
1
6
1

1

2

15

21
31

3

16

1

Line
43
No.
and
un­ Total.
der
44

1

1

1

14
34

4
14

5
8

11

1

25
22

53

3
7

2

5
1

6
23

11
1

14

53

3
2

1
3

4
1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

19
6
19
9
6
106

2

28

12
33
6
34
23
34
(2)
26
43
(2)
72
171
83
18
28
4

9

9

........1
40

40
and
un­
der
41

13

2
3

38
and
un­
der
39

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

46

30

28

4

33

3
21
7
4
14
30
4
8
27
4
38
141

11

14

13

7

23

19
68

35
36

1

2

3

2

4

1

4

7
17
14
39
67
74
23

37
38
39
40
41
42
43

22
9
142
140

44
45
46
47

27
19
137

48
49
50

32
74
14

51
52
53

9
177
13
(*)
18

54
55
56
57
58

7

59

1
1
9
3

6

2

12
. 7

*

6

1
5
10
6
22

9

2
13
11
8

20
27.

2

1

19

1

1
1
' ' 1
' ‘ 1 '

37 j........
1

7

!
1
i

1
___ I___
1

38
23

35

12

43

5
7

2
6

5

4
2
36

4
2
13

5
2
14

5

4

25
24

” 37’
2
20

5
4
13

17
1

37

6
10

I

152

15

■*




1.
j

j

1
2

|

See Motormen.

58

STBEET KAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a ble 1 .—

NUMBER OF CAR CREW MEN RECEIVING
II*—Cities from which data were

CONDUCTORS—Concluded.
Number of employees who received each
classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
No.

14
and
un­
der
15

15
and
un­
der
16

2
3
5

6
7

8
9
10
11
12

Southbridge, Mass. (see Webster, Mass.).
Southern division, Public Service By. Co., New
Jersey.

5

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

6

4
8

4

3

8

45

Total..................................................................
Per cent (cumulative)...................................

20
21
22

6

1
2

21 22
and and
un­ un­
der der
22 23

17

11

Taunton, Mass. (see Norton, Mass.).

46
47

17
18
19

6

2

20
and
un­
der
21

Sunbury, Pa.1.............................................................

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

15
16

4

19
and
un­
der
20

2

Spencer, Mass (see Worcester, Mass.).
Stamford, Conn. (Stamford division, Connecti­
cut Co.).

Terre Haute, Ind.......................................................
Tiffin, Ohio*...............................................................
Torrington, Conn. (T.orrington division, Con­
necticut Co.).
Trenton, N .J ..............................................................
Trinidaa, Colo............................................................
Troy, N. Y . (see Albany, N . Y .).
Tucson. Ariz.1.............................................................
Tulsa Okla.................................................................
Utica and Rome, N. Y .............................................
Vicksburg, Miss..........................................................
Vincennes Ind..........................................................
Waco. Tex...................................................................
Walla Walla, W ash...................................................
Waltham^ Mass. (see Newton, Mass.).
Warren Pa..................................................................
Waterbury, Conn. (Waterbury division, Con­
necticut Co.).
Waterloo and Cedar Falls, Iowa............................
Watertown, N. Y ......................................................
Waterville, Me............................................................
Waukegan, 111.............................................................
Wausau W is........................ .....................................
Webb City, Mo...........................................................
Westfield Mass.1........................................................
Webster and Southbridge, Mass............................
White Plains, N. Y ...................................................
Wilkes-Barre and near-by towns, Pa.2.................
Williamsport, Pa’.......................................................
Willimantic, Conn. (see Norwich, Conn.).
Wilmington, N. C ......................................................
Winona, Minn.1..........................................................
Winston-Salem, N .C ................................................
Woburn, Mass............................................................
Woonsocket, R. I .......................................................
Worcester, Spencer, and Marlboro, Mass............
Yonkers, N . Y ............................................................
York Pa. . ...*.......................................................
Vfoungstown, Ohio, Sharon and Newcastle, Pa

13
14

17
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
19
9

10 13
and and
un­ un­
der der
11 14

16
and
un­
der
17

3

City.

6

28
6
2
5
9

1

3
2

2
14

3

13
10

14

9

9

4

2

25
4
2
4
3
1

11

14

72

6

*35'

5

2
7
2

2

6
6
1
8
15

7
6

3

7

5

9

2
9
(5)

8
(5)

6

2

4

16

5

12

7

6

4

28

28 114 102 179 387 474 661 3669 923
2
1
3
6 10 15
20 27
(5)

1 See Motormen.
2 Number of men not reported.
3 Not including 5 Whose rate was not reported but was increased 1 cent per hour each year after 30
months’ service, rate not to exceed 25 cents per hour.




59

CHAP. I .---- WAGES OF CAPv CEEWS.
EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES PER HOUR-Continued,

obtained by correspondence—Continued.
CONDUCTORS—Concluded.
Number of employees who received each classified rate of wages (cents) per hour.
Line
32
34 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 40 43
33
31
30
29
28
25
27
24
26
23
No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un- un­ un­ Total.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
32
35 36 37 38 %T 41 H
34
33
31
29
26
27
24
30
28
25
•
5

6

6

4

18

14

33

57

32

3

5

3

4

26

8

2
1
1
2
2

39

10

*17

4

199

24

22
i

7
14

2

70

20

0)

85

6
16

3

2

8

7

2

9

154

154
3

23

3

25

13

3

1

5
2

0)
89
(2
)

27

4
1
15

1
12

2

25
174
16

142

12
48
10

4

2

14

5

3

24

8

5
3

4

4
3

6

10

17
18
19

20
2
1
22
23

8
7
49

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

8
1
1

2

3
9

34
35

15
16

47
17
16

12

7

1
30

13
14

15
113

4

1

8
9
10
1
1
1
2

50
5

2
7
26
90

24
8

*38
41

39
36
33
295
125
59
284

10
18
156
20

18

1168 1162 1335 1516 1010 2189 218
36
56
92 | 94
45
67
75

246
498
97

249
99

42
100

37
100

412978

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

4 Not including 23, whowere paid from $50 to $60 per month,and 5whose rate was not reported but w as,
increased 1 cent per hour each year after 30 months’ service, rate not to exceed 25 cents per hour.
'
5 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




60

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

PAYMENT BY APPROXIMATE UNITS.

About one-half of the companies visited credited time worked each
day to the minute, the others using various aliquot parts of an hour.
Under the latter system two methods were in vogue: (a) Payment to
the nearest aliquot part; (&) payment to the next aliquot part.
The method of paying to the nearest aliquot part of an hour is a
give-and-take proposition, which is practically equalizing in the long
run; 14 -companies paid to the nearest one-twelfth hour, 7 to the
nearest one-tenth, 1 to the nearest one-sixth, 18 to the nearest onefourth, 1 to the nearest one-third, and 1 to the nearest hour.
The second method has no equalizing feature, as it always inures
to the benefit of the employee. Three companies (Cleveland, New
Bedford, and South Bend) paid to the next one-twelfth hour,
and 2 (Boston and Charleston) paid to the next one-fourth hour; that
is, the unit of payment was one-fourth hour and any fraction of an
hour less than one-fourth was counted as a full fourth.
Another variation in the method of crediting time was in crediting
the total time for the pay period in aliquot parts of an hour, regard­
less of the crediting day by day. Davenport and Oakland credited
to the nearest one-fourth hour, while Norfolk and Richmond credited
to the nearest one-half hour.
An even-money payment for the pay period to the nearest 5 cents
was made in the following cities:
Dallas (N. T. T. Co.), Davenport, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles,
St. Louis, San Antonio, San Francisco (C. S. C. R. R. Co.), Spokane
(S. & I. E. R. R. Co. and W. W. P. Co.), and Wheeling. All of these
conditions are brought out by notes in Table A.
TIME ALLOWED BUT NOT WORKED.

The notes appended to Tables A and B show that in nrany instances
under certain conditions time not on duty was allowed and paid
for in addition to time actually worked. This provision applies
mainly to short runs and tripper rims and runs the duties of which
were not continuous but spread over a number of hours, to provide
therefor a sufficient compensation. The effect is to increase the earn­
ings per hour worked above the regular rate per hour and thus
to make the runs acceptable to the men. Such payment should be
considered in studying both the rates of wages and the hours of
labor.
The provisions reported for the several companies are here com­
piled :
AltooTia.—Tripper runs of If3 to 1} hours were paid for as 2 hours.
*
Boston (elevated and surface lines).—Runs of 8 to 8J hours were paid for as 8J hours;

runs over

hours were paid for to the next quarter hour.




For runs taldng more than

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

61

12 hours to complete, 25 per cent above the regular rate was paid for the first hour
or fraction of hour over 12, and 50 per cent for each hour or fraction of hour over 13.
There were no regular runs under 8 hours.
Buffalo.—Runs of 7 and under 9 hours, all-night (or owl) cars excepted, were paid
for as 9 hours. All-night car runs did not exceed 8 hours, but were paid for as 10
hours. There were no regular runs under 7 hours on duty. Regular men taken from
regular runs to do special work of less hours were paid for time of regular runs.
Chicago (Chicago Surface Lines).—Monday to Saturday runs under 9 hours were paid
for as 9 hours.
Chicago ( Chicago Elevated Railways).—Runs under 10 hours were paid for as 10 hours,
over 10 were paid for to the next quarter hour. Train work, other than regular runs,
under 2 hours, was paid for as 2 hours, over 2 and under 7 was paid for to the next hour
over 7 and under 9 was paid to the next quarter hour.
Cleveland.— Time worked each day was paid for to the next 5 minutes.
Lowell, Mass.—Time worked each day was paid for to "the next quarter hour.
Manchester.—Sunday runs of regular men with hours less than on week days were
paid for same as week days. There were about 20 such Sunday runs.
Milwaukee.—All Monday to Friday,-and approximately 60 per cent of all Saturday
runs under 9 hours were paid for as 9 hours.
Minneapolis and St. Paul.—Monday to Saturday runs of 2 swings (parts) under
10 hours were paid for as 10 hours. On runs of 3 swings the time not on duty between
the second and third swings was paid for. All runs had 2 or 3 swings.
Newark.—About 225 Monday to Friday and 125 Saturday runs under 10 hours had
allowances, that is, time not on duty was paid for. The allowances ranged from 1 to
43 minutes.
New Bedford.—Tripper runs under 2 hours were paid for as 2 hours.
New Orleans.—Runs under 8 hours were paid for as 8 hours. Other scheduled
time (tripper runs) under 5 hours and 20 minutes was paid for at 1J times the regular
rate.
New York (Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.—surface).—Monday to Friday runs under
10 hours, except 2 of 7J and under 8 and 1 of 8J and under 9, were paid for as 10 hours.
Saturday and Sunday runs over 7 and under 8 hours were paid for as 8 hours, over
8 and under 9 were paid for as 9, and over 9 and under 10 were paid for as 10.
New York (New York Railways Co.).—Runs under 8 hours were paid for as 8 hours,
over 8 and under 9 were paid for as 9, and over 9 and under 10 were paid for as 10.
New York (Interborough Rapid Transit Co.—elevated and subway).—A daily rate by
years of service was paid for each run regardless of the number of hours worked. Runs
ranged from 6 to 10 hours.
New York (Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.—elevated).—Motormen with runs under 10
hours were paid for 10 hours. Approximately all conductors and guards with runs
under 6 hours were paid for 7 or 8 hours, over 6 and under 7 were paid for 8, over 7
and under 8 were paid for 9, over 8 and under 9 were paid for 9, 9J, or 9§, and those
with runs over 9 were paid for 9f or 10. hours.
Philadelphia (surface and elevated).—Monday to Saturday runs under 9 hours were
T
paid for as 9 hours. To meet traffic conditions each Sunday run had several scheduled
hours on duty, but each employee was paid for his longest scheduled Sunday hours.
Employees who did court duty (attended court) were paid for the time of their runs
for each day of court attendance.
Pittsburgh.—Eight hours’ pay was guaranteed for 85 per cent of all runs under
8 hours. Many employees had Sunday runs of less hours than on Monday to Saturday,
but were paid for same time for each day. Employees who did extra tripper work
before time of beginning or after completing runs, or at noon between swings (parts
of runs), were paid for the tripper work and were also paid 25 cents for the time not on
duty between the tripper work and the regular time on duty, provided such time was




62

' STREET

RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

over 50 minutes. Regular men who were requested to take emergency runs of less
hours were paid for their regular hours.
Portland, Me.—Runs under 10 hours were paid for as 10 hours.
Providence.—Runs under 8 hours were paid for as 8 hours, and runs over 8 hours
were paid for to the next quarter hour. Employees had 1 or more tripper runs which
were paid for as follows: Fifty cents for those under 2 hours; $1 for those approximately
2 and under 4 hours; 5J hours’ pay for those 4 and under 5 hours, and 7 hours’ pay
for those 5 and under 7 hours.
Rochester.—Monday to Saturday runs under 9 hours were paid for as 9 hours.
San Antonio.—On 20 runs known as regular tripper runs which ranged from 2 to 9
hours Monday to Friday and 3 to 9 Saturday, 9 hours’ pay was guaranteed.
San Francisco ( California Street Cable R. R. Co.).—Each run had an allowance.
The allowances ranged from 2 to 31 minutes per day.
Seattle (Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. Co.).—Six Monday to Friday and 5 Satur­
day runs of 9 and under 10 hours were paid for as 10 hours; 7 Monday to Friday and 1
Saturday runs of 8 and under 9 hours were paid for as 9 hours, and 1 Saturday run of
7J and under 8 hours was paid for as 9 hours.
Spokane ( Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. Co.).—Tripper runs under 3 hours were
paid for as 3 hours.
Springfield, Mass.—A daily rate by years of service was paid for each run of 9 hours
and under; runs over 9 hours were paid for as a day and one-half hour additional for
time over 9 if time did not exceed 15 minutes, or 1 hour additional if time did exceed
15 minutes but did not exceed one-half hour.
Washington ( Capital Traction CoJ)—Practically all Monday to Saturday runs of 9
and under 10 hours were paid for as 10 hours. Many Sunday runs of 8 and under 10
hours were paid for as 10 hours,
PAY FOR REPORTING TIME.

In Table 32 on pages 213 to 215'the reporting time of each com­
pany is stated and in the text.below are enumerated the companies
that paid for such time.
ALLOWANCE FOR MAKING DAILY WORK REPORTS AND ACCIDENT REPORTS.

Seven companies reported a time allowance given to the car crew
for making daily work reports. These cities, with allowances given,
were:
Boston {surface lines).— Motormen 5 minutes, conductors 10
minutes.
Charlotte.—Motormen and conductors 10 minutes.
Chicago (C. S . L .)—Motormen and conductors 5 minu»>es.
Davenport.— Conductors 15 minuses.
Kansas City. — Motormen and conductors 1 2 minutes.
Los Angeles.— Motormen and conductors 5 minutes.
San Francisco (M . Rys. Co.).— Conductors 10 minutes.
Springfield , III .—Motormen and conductors 5 m inute.
In a number of cities the men were given an extra time allowance
or pay for making accident reports. This allowance was limited to
the actual time consumed in making reports in Augusta, Chicago
(C. S. L.), Manchester, New York (Third Ave. Ry. Co.), and Superior
(if not the fault of employee), while 10 minutes was allowed in San




C H AP. I.-----WAGES OF CAR CEEWS.

63

Francisco (M. Rys. Co.), 1 2 minutes in Kansas City, one hour in Min­
neapolis and St, Paul, and one and one-half hours in Atlanta*, In
Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse an allowance of 18 minutes and in
Pittsburgh an allowance of 15 minutes was made for personal injury
reports only. In Boston and New York (N. Y. Rys. Co.) a money
allowance was made for each report, the amount being not to exceed
10 cents in the former city and 20 cents in the latter. Chattanooga
made an allowance for reports of serious accidents only, but the
allowance was not reported.
MEALS OR CASH ALLOWANCE WHEN HELD FOR ORDERS.

When tjie car crew were held at barns for further orders after
finishing a regular day’s work, they were furnished with meals-by
the companies in the following cities:
Atlanta.
Binghamton.
Birmingham.
Boston.
Brockton.
Buffalo.
Intfianapolis.
Little Rock.

Lowell.
Memphis.
Mobile.
New Orleans.
Oklahoma City.
Omaha.
Portland, Me.
St. Louis.

Scranton.
South Bend.
Spokane (S. & I. E. R. R.
Co.).
Springfield, Mass.
Tacoma.
Brooklyn (elevated lines).

In Cincinnati a cash allowance of 30 cents was made if a man was
held over six hours, in Manchester and Spokane (W. W. P.. Co.) the
men were given 25 cents and in New Bedford 50 cents when held for
orders, and in New Britain and New Haven either a meal or 25 cents
was furnished, at the option of the men. In Chicago (elevated lines),
when men were held for 15 minutes or more, they were paid for two
hours, while in Rochester they were paid time and one-half for all
time they were held.
FREE TRANSPORTATION.

Motormen and conductors were allowed free transportation to and
from work in all cities from which information was obtained. Free
transportation was allowed also when employees were off duty,
except in Cleveland, Indianapolis, and Washington (C, T. Co.).
Employees off duty, however, were required to be in uniform to entitle
them to transportation in Boston, Milwaukee, Minneapolis and St.
Paul, Mobile, Newark, New Orleans, New York (Third Ave. Ry. Co.),
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Scranton, and Washington (W. R, & E.
Co.). In Cincinnati free transportation while off duty was given
only after three years’ service, while in Binghamton and Springfield,
Ohio, carmen were given 124 and 62 tickets per month, respectively,
to be used for such transportation.




64

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

Free transportation was given to the families of carmen by a few
companies. In Binghamton members of the family might use the
tickets given to carmen if the latter did not do so. In Denver wives
of carmen were allowed 30 trips each month and in Sacramento and
Scranton 62 and 50 tickets per month, respectively, were furnished
for members of a carman's family. In New York (N. Y. Ry. Co.)
wives and dependent mothers were given free transportation, and
on the elevated and subway lines, wives, mothers, or sisters when in
charge of the household. In Seattle (S. R. & S. Ry. Co.) and Portland,
Me., free transportation was given to the wives of carmen, but in the
latter city only when a wife was on the car operated by her husband.
In Oklahoma City and Seattle (P. S. T. L. & P. Co.) the privilege
was granted to all members of the family.
GUARANTEED WAGE TO EXTRA MEN.

The extra motorman or conductor in most of the companies has no
definite assurance of the amount of work that will be assigned him.
He must take his chances when he enters on employment. A few
companies, however, guaranteed a certain amount of wage to these
extra men so that they might have an assured minimum income.
The guaranty was in two different forms, in effect the same, a
guaranty in time or in amount of earnings.
A list is given showing the different guaranties and the companies
giving them:
Cities.

Guaranteed hours or rate.

San Antonio......................................................... 5 hours per day.
Boston................................................................... 6A hours per day.
Superior................................................................ 7 hours, first 3 months; 8 hours, sec­
ond 3 months; 9 hours, after 6
months.
Birmingham......................................................... 9 hours per day.
Portland, Me....................................................... 10 hours per day.
Pittsburgh............................................................ $1.40 per day for any time on duty less
than 5 hours.
New York (Brooklyn, surface lines), Charles- $1.50 per day.
ton, S. C., Grand Rapids.
Minneapolis and St. Paul................................... $2 per day.
Philadelphia ( “ last run men” ) ......................... $2.25 per day.
Springfield, Mass................................................. Full day’s pay.
Milwaukee, Newark, Philadelphia................... $12 per week.
Detroit.................................................................. $19 semimonthly.
Seattle (S. R. & S. Ry. Co.)............................... $20 per half month.
Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Kansas City............. $45 per month.
Des Moines........................................................... $50 per month.
Seattle (P. S. T. L. & P. C o .).......................... $55 per month.

In 34 other companies extra men, who were marked up on the
schedule or otherwise notified to report and make certain specified
runs or trips, were paid for reporting, even though they were not




65

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

given the runs or trips that had been assigned to them.
paid as follows:

They were

7 companies paid for 1 hour.
1 company paid for 1 to 2 hours.
2 companies paid for 2 hours.
1 company paid for 2 hours to half-day.
1 company paid for 5 hours.
13 companies paid for time held.
1 company paid for one-half time held.
1 company paid for 5 minutes only, as reporting time.
3 companies paid for time of run or trip assigned.
1 company paid $1, or for actual time held if would amount to over $1.
1 company paid $1.25.
1 company paid 15 cents per hour for time held.
1 company paid for 1 hour for second report and 2 hours for the third.

ADDITIONAL COMPENSATION.

Both companies in Washington, D . C., gave compensation to their
men in addition to the regular wage. One company gave a bonus
annually, based on length of satisfactory service, and the other com­
pany had a profit-sharing plan. Boston added a percentage to the
rate of wages for runs taking more than 1 2 hours to complete. These
methods are explained in the notes to Table A.
RATES OF PAY FOR SPECIFIED CLASSES OF WORK.
OVERTIME.

In nearly all cities where the car crew worked overtime, either at
their own request or at the request of the company, they were paid
only at the regular rate. A few exceptions, however, were reported
as follows:
Cities.

Rates for overtime.

Des Moines, New Britain, New Haven,
Providence............................................ Regular rate plus 5 cents per hour.
Davenport................................................. Regular rate plus 7 cents per hour.
Buffalo, Sacramento..................................Regular rate plus 10 cents per hour.
Scranton.................................................... Regular rate plus one-fourth.
Birmingham, Cincinnati . .. .................Regular rate plus one-third.
Rochester, Spokane (W. W. P. Co. and
S. & I. E. Co.), Syracuse.....................Regular rate plus one-half.
Mobile........................................................25 cents per hour for time over 11 hours.
New Orleans............................................. 36 cents per hour or 1J times regular rate.
Newark...................................................... 37£ cents per hour.
Springfield, Mass...................................... At least 2 hours’ pay for any overtime or ex­
cess time due to delays under 2 hours, and
regular rate for 2 hours and over.
Boston (elevated lines)............................ Time and one-half for first hour or fraction;
then regular rate.
39749°—Bull. 204— 17------ 5




66

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

OWL-CAR RUNS AND WORK AFTER MIDNIGHT.
F iv e co m p a n ie s m a d e a llo w a n ce s fo r a ll-n ig h t (o w l-c a r ) se rv ice , o r
f o r w o r k a fte r m id n ig h t. B u ffa lo a llo w e d 10 h o u r s ’ p a y f o r o w l-c a r
ru n s o f a b o u t 8 h o u r s ; N e w O rlea n s, 10 h o u r s ’ p a y f o r ru n s th a t d id
n o t co n su m e q u ite th a t m u c h t im e ; a n d W a s h in g to n (C a p ita l T r a c tio n
C o .) p a id an a v era g e o f 25 ce n ts p e r h o u r f o r o w l-c a r ru ns. A lt o o n a
p a id 27 an d P e o ria 50 c e n ts p e r h o u r fo r w o r k a fte r m id n ig h t.
OPERATING SNOWPLOW AND SWEEPER.
T h e cities in w h ic h th e ca r cre w w e re g iv e n e x tr a a llo w a n ce w h e n
op e ra tin g sn o w p lo w s a n d sw eep ers, w ith a m o u n ts p a id , is p re s e n te d
b e lo w :
Cities.

Rates paid.

Altoona...................................................... Usually allowed 9J hours’ pay, with meals.
Binghamton, Cincinnati, Cleveland,
Denver, Rochester, Syracuse..............Regular rate plus one-half.
Boston (surface lines).............................. 45 cents per hour.
Boston (elevated lines)............................Motormen 45 cents per hour; others 35 cents,
for operating trains to keep third rail free
of snow or ice.
Brockton, Lowell..................................... Motormen, 35 cents per hour; conductors, 30
cents.
Buffalo.......................................................5 a. m. to 10 p. m., 35 cents per hour; 10 p. m.
to 5 a. m., 40 cents per hour.
Chicago (surface lines), Newark, New
Bedford.................................................. 35 cents per hour.
Des Moines................................................Regular rate plus 5 cents per hour.
Indianapolis, St. Louis-----......................27 cents per hour.
Kansas City...............................................32 cents per hour.
New York (N. Y. & Q. Co. R y. Co.),
Saginaw................................................. Regular rate and meals.
Manchester................................................30 cents per hour.
Milwaukee.......................... ...................29 cents per hour.
New Britain, New Haven....................... Regular rate plus (a) 5 cents per hour during
regular hours, and ( b) 15 cents per hour for
overtime.
New York (N. Y. Ry. Co.)..................... 40 cents per horn’ for motormen. Others,
regular rate plus one-half.
New York (Third Ave. Ry. Co.)............ 40 cents per hour.
Pittsburgh; Providence; Springfield,
Mass........................................................Regular rate plus 10 cents per hour.
Pueblo....................................................... Straight time plus one-half for time over 3
hours; straight time under 3 hours.
Scranton.................................................... Regular rate plus one-fourth.
Washington (C. T. Co.)............................Regular rate plus 2£ cents per hour.
Washington (W. Ry. & E. Co.).............. 30 cents per hour.
Wilmington, Del. (W. & P. T. Co.)....... Full day’s pay regardless of hours worked.




CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

67

INSTRUCTING NEW MEN.
A n u m b e r o f c o m p a n ie s r e p o r te d a d d itio n a l co m p e n s a tio n g iv e n
fo r in stru ctin g n e w m en .
B e lo w are sh o w n th e cities a n d th e ra te s o f p a y :
Cities.

Rates of pay.

Buffalo, Chicago (surface lines), Kan- Regular rate plus 25 cents per day.
sas City, Los Angeles, San An­
tonio, San Francisco (U. R. R.).
Grand Rapids......................................... 50 cents per hour.
Sioux C ity................... . ......................... Regular rate plus $2 per month.
Seattle (P. S. T. L. & P. C o.).............. Regular rate plus 1 cent per hour.
New Bedford, Syracuse........................ Regular rate plus 2 cents per hour.
Boston..................................................... Regular rate plus 2\ cents per hour.
New York (N. Y. & Q. Co. Ry. Co.). .Regular rate plus 30 minutes’ pay per day.
Springfield, Mass.................................... Regular rate plus 1 hour’s pay per day.
Tacoma....................................................Not specified.
TIME IN EXCESS OF REGULAR RUNS CAUSED BY DELAYS.
O b s tr u c tio n s t o tra ffic o r b r e a k d o w n s o n th e lin e o c c a s io n a lly
n e ce ssita te tra in m e n re m a in in g o u t o n th e ir ru n s lo n g e r th a n th eir
reg u la r tim e. T h is e x ce ss o f tim e o n d u t y u su a lly w a s p a id f o r a t
th e reg u la r ra te. A fe w v a r ia tio n s fr o m th e g en era l ru le, h o w e v e r ,
w ere r e p o rte d as fo llo w s :
Cities.

Rates paid.

Philadelphia......................................Regular rate for material delays, but nothing for
minor delays.
Cleveland.......................................... Regular rate when not fault of crew.
New York (N. Y. Rys. C o.)............ Regular rate if time worked exceeds time paid for
by 15 minutes. (See note,2 p. 411.)
New York (N. Y. & Q. Co. Ry. Co.).Regular rate when over 10 minutes.
New Orleans......................................Regular rate for delays over 30 minutes.
New Britain, New H aven...............Regular rate plus 5 cents per hour.
Des Moines........................................ Regular rate plus 5 cents per hour if not fault of
crew.
Davenport......................................... Regular rate plus 7 cents per hour.
Buffalo, Sacramento......................... Regular rate plus 10 cents per hour.
Mobile................................................Regular rate, but 25 cents per hour for time in ex­
cess of 11 horn's on duty.
Peoria.................................................Regular rate except between midnight and early
morning cars; then 50 cents per hour.
Birmingham, Cincinnati...................Regular rate plus one-third.
Scranton............................................ Regular rate plus one-fourth.
Spokane (W. W. P. Co. and S. & Regular rate plus one-half.
I. E. R. R. Co.).
Chicago (elevated lin e s )................. Paid for 2 hours if delayed 15 minutes or more.
Springfield, Mass.............................. Paid for 2 hours.
Providence........................................ Regular rate except on runs of over 10 hours,
which pay 5 cents per hour additional.




68

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
ONE-MAN CARS.

Three companies reported additional compensation for the opera­
tion of one-man cars.
Sioux City paid 4 cents per hour in addition to regular rate, and
Topeka and Wichita paid 2 cents per hour additional.
PAY FOR MEAL PERIODS.

In four cities it was reported that meal periods of substantial
duration were paid for on certain runs. Chicago (surface lines) paid for
meal periods ranging from 15 to 50 minutes in 61 per cent of the runs;
Indianapolis for periods of from 2 0 to 30 minutes on 40 per cent of
the runs; South Bend for 30 minutes on 20 per cent of the runs; and
Brooklyn (elevated lines) for from 30 to 40 minutes on straight runs;
Denver reported meal periods paid for on owl-car runs ranging from
24 to 56 minutes.
PREMIUMS FOR PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS.

Only 1 2 companies are reported as giving premiums to car crews
for the prevention of accidents. In Jacksonville a safety button
was given each carman after three months’ service without accident
and one day off with pay each month thereafter in which no acci­
dent occurred. An accident fund was maintained in Louisville,
and the balance not expended for damages was distributed among
employees as a bonus. In Memphis employees were given a bonus
of 1 cent per hour for each hour in which they had no accident, 10 0
hours being deducted for each accident that occurred. Payments
were made every six; months. A bonus, based on hours worked, also
was paid in Nashville, with a deduction of 20 0 hours for each acci­
dent. The system in New Haven provided for the payment of a
bonus to men who had no accident during the year. In Norfolk
and Richmond each carman was given a uniform for each six: months
of service in which he had no accident costing the company more
than $ 1 0 , while in San Francisco (U. R. R.) the decrease in damage
claims paid in 1914 from the amount paid in 1913 was distributed
among employees. Both companies in Washington paid bonuses
for the prevention of accidents under their merit and profit-sharing
plans. In Wichita a month without accidents entitled men to pay
for the days allowed off (1 in 15), while in Wilmington, Del. (P. R.
Co.), a bonus of 1 cent an hour was paid for each month in which
the employee had no accident.




CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

69

RATES AT STATED PERIODS OF SERVICE.

Table 2 , next given, shows the rate paid at the beginning of the
first and second six months of service, and at the beginning of each
year of service thereafter. It is an abridged table, in that it does
not give the rate as advanced by a few companies at midyear inter­
vals after the first year. It affords, however, a ready comparison
of the rates paid by the several companies at stated periods of service
and brings out clearly the range of rates paid by each company.
The highest rate shown in the table for each city is the rate paid
during all the succeeding years of service. The same grouping is
made in this summary table as in Table A— cities from which data
were obtained by agents of the bureau and cities from which data
were obtained by correspondence.
On the first line of Table 2 it is seen that in Altoona, Pa., the new
man on entering service was paid 2 0 cents per hour. The company
made no advance during the first year of service. Hence, at the
beginning of the second six months of service the employee received
20 cents per hour. As the employee entered on his second year of
service he received 2 1 cents per hour. On entering the third year
of service he received 23 cents per hour. At the beginning of the
fourth year he received 24 cents, and at the beginning of the fifth
year 25 cents. For all service thereafter the employee received 25
cents per hour. A note shows that in addition to this regular rate,
which applied to the employees generally, there was a special hillcar rate of 26 cents per hour and a night-car rate of 27 cents per
hour.
T able

2 .—W A G E RATES OF MOTORM EN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AN D GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEG INNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE.

[The same rate is paid in all occupations unless otherwise specified. The highest rate shown in this table
for each company is the rate paid during all succeeding years of service.]
I.—Cities from which data were obtained by special agents.
Hourly rates of wages at beginning of—
City.
1st 6
mos.

Altoona, Pa...............
Atlanta, Ga...............
Augusta, Ga.............
Binghamton, N. Y . .
Birmingham, A la ...
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated
Ry. Co. (surface
lines)...................
Boston Elevated
R y. Co. (ele­
vated lines)—
Motormen..........
Conductors 2.......
Guards3..............

2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5th
year.

>
0.20 i$0.20
.17
.17

.20
.18

m . 21 i$0.23 1$0.24 i$0.25
.18
.21
.19
.23
.18
.21
.19
.20
.22
.22
.21
.23
.20
.21
.18
.22
.20
.23

.17
.17

.27f

. 26J

.25

.21f

.29J
.25

.21|

.30
.26

.22i

6th
year.

$0.24 $0.25

.22

.23
.24

.29f

.30f
.26*
.23

7th
9th 10th After
8th
year. year. year. year. 10th
year.

.291

.31i

.31*
.27

.32J
.27*
.24

.23 $0.23 $0.23 $0.24
.26
.25

.33
.28
.24*

.23|

1 Hill-car rate, 26 cents; night-car (12 midnight to 6 a. m.) rate, 27 cents.
2 Called guards in Boston.
brakemen in Boston.

3 Called




70
T able

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E U NITED STATES.
2.—WAGE RATES OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEGINNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE—Continued.

I.—
Cities from which data were obtained by special agents—Continued.
Hourly rates of wages at beginning of—
City.
1 st 6
mos.

2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5 th
year.

6 th
year.

7th
8 th
9th 1 0 th After
year. year.^ year. year. 1 0 th
year.

$0.24 .$0.24 $0.25 $0.26 $0.27 $0.28
Brockton, Mass.
.24
.28 $0.29 $0.29 $0.29 $0.29 $0.30
.23
.23
.25
.27
Buffalo, N. Y . . ,
.38^
.38*
.42*
.42*
.42*
.45
Butte, Mont___
.19
.2 1
.17
.2 0
.17
Charleston, S. C
.16
.18
.2 1
.2 0
.15
.15
.17
Charlotte, N. C.
.2 1
.2 2
.18
.19*
.23
.23*
Chattanooga, Tenn..
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated
Railways:
M otorm en on
Northwestern
.32
.32
.34
division only..
Motormen on all
e x c e p t the
Northwestern
.34
division...........
.30|
.30*
Motormen, act­
ing (conducto rs
and
.28
.28i
.28
guards)............
.29*
Conductors—
.25J
Regular...........
. 25*
.27
Extra............. . 1.24
Guards—
Regular........... i .24
.2 1
.2 2
.2 1
.24
.23
Extra............. .
Chicago Surface
.32
Lines...................
.23
.26
.27
.30
.29
.31
.2 1
.2 0
.23
.23
.24
.24
.25
.25
.26
.27
Cleveland, Ohio____
.27
.27
.30
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric
.2 1
.2 2
Corporation.—
.24
.2 0
.23
.25
Northern Texas
Traction Co.,
Oak Cliff divis i o n of Fort
.2 1
.2 2
.24
Worth lines___
.2 0
.25
.23
1
.24
.23
.28
.23
.26
i
.24
.24
Denver, Colo___
.26*
.28
.28
.28
.30
!
.24
Des Moines, lows
.24
.25
.29
i
.32
Detroit, M ich.. .
.25
.30
j
.2 1
.19
.2 0
.2 2
.24
.23
.24
.25
.23
.26
.26*
.27
.2 0
.2 1
.2 2
.24
.25
.23
.2 1
.2 1
.23
.24
.26
.27
.25
Jacksonville, F la ...
1
.19
.19
.2 0
.2 1
.2 2
.23
Kansas City, Mo. . .
.2 2
. 22|
.23
.23*
.25
.26
.27
.27
.........
.27
.28 |
.27
Lincoln, Nebr......... .,20
•21 *
.2 0
.221
.24*
.23*
.25* .25* .27
j
.18
.18
.19
.2 0
.2 1
.2 2
.2 2
.25
.
.25
.25
.26
.27
.28
.29
.30
Louisville, K y .. . . .
.2 1
.2 1
.2 2
.24
.23
Lowell, Mass...........
.24
.24
.25
.26
.28
.27
Manchester, N. H .:
Regular men____ (2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(0
(2)
(2)
(2)
Extra men......... .
.23
.23
.25
.26
%
Memphis, Tenn___
.17
.19
.2 0
.2 1
.2 2
.23
.24
.25
Milwaukee, W is___ .
.23
.23
.24
.25
.26
.28
.27
Minneapolis and St.
Paul, Minn. . .
.23
.24
.26
.28
.27
.29
.30
Mobile, A la........
.19
.19
.2 0
.2 1
.2 2
.24
.03
Nashville, Tenn.
.18
.18
.19
.2 0
.2 0
.2 2
Newark, N. J . . .
.24
.23
.25
.26
.27
.27
.28
.28
.29
.29
.30
.25
.25
.26
.27
.28
.29
.30
.2 2
.2 2
.23
•23J
.24|
.26i
. 275
.22
.22
.23
.23^
.24|
.261
.27^
. 3 .24
1 Flat rate.
2 paid according to hours of run, regardless of years of service—9-hour run or longer, paid 26 cents per
hour; 8f, paid 26f cents; 8*, paid 27r\ cents; 8^, paid 28^T cents; and 8-hour run, paid 29* cents per hour.
3 Flat rate, regardless of years of service, paid during first, second, and third years of a 5-year contract:
241 cents paid in fourth year, and 24* cents, in fifth year.




71

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

Table 2 . — W AG E R A T E S OF M OTORM EN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, A N D GRIPM EN PAID
AT B E G IN N IN G OF EACH SPECIFIED PER IO D OF SER VICE—Continued.
I.—Cities from which data were obtained by special agents—Continued.
Hourly rates of wages at beginning of—
City.
1st 6
mos.

New York, N . Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid
Transit Co.......... $0.24
New York and
Queens County
R y. Co.................
.22
New York Rys.
C o .Horse-car lines.. i 2.10
Storage-battery
car lines—
Motormen....... 2 2.50
Conductors___ 2 2.25
All lines except
horse a n d
storage-batte ry car
lines—
Motormen....... 12.50
Conductors___ 12.40
Third Avenue Ry.
Co.—
The Bronx..........
.24
Manhattan—
Motormen on—
Storage-battery cars. . 3.25
Other cars. .
.25
C o n d u c to rs
on—
Storage-battery cars. . 3.22
Other cars. .
.24
In te r b o ro u g h
Rapid Transit
Co. (elevated
lines)—
Motormen........... 4 3.00
Conductors......... 42 .35
Guards................ <2.00
In terb orou gh
Rapid Transit
Co. (subway
lines)—
Motormen.......... 43.00
Conductors......... 4 2.35
Guards................ 4 2.00
Brooklyn Rapid
T r a n s i t Co.
(e le v a te d
lines)—
Motormen..........
.30
Conductors.........
.23
Guards................
.20
Norfolk, V a ...............
.18
Oakland, Cal............
.30
Oklahoma City,Okla
.20
Omaha, Nebr............
.24
Peoria, 111..................
.23
Philadelphia, Pa.:
P h ila d e lp h ia
Rapid Transit
Co. (elevated
lines)—
Motormen..........
.28
Conductors.........
.25
Guards................
.25

8th
9th 10th After
7th
year. year. year. year. 10th
year.

2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5th
year.

6th
year.

$0.24

$0.24

$0.25

$0.26

$0.26

$0.27 $0.27 $0.27 $0.27 $0.28

.22

.22

.23

.23

.23

12.10

12.25

12.50
12.40

12.60
12.50

12.70
12.60

12.70
12.60

12.85
12.70

.24

.27

.25

.26

.27

.27

.28|

.24

.25

.26

.26

.27

4 3.00
4 2.35
4 2.00

43.50
4 2.35
4 2.00

4 3.50
4 2.45
4 2.10

4 3.50
4 2.55
4 2.20

4 3.50
4 2.60
4 2.30

4 3.75

4 3.00
4 2.35
4 2.00

43.50
4 2.35
4 2.00

4 3.50
4 2.45
4 2.10

4 3.50
4 2.55
4 2.20

4 3.50
4 2.60
4 2.30

4 3.75

.24

1

.30
.23
.20
.19
.30
.20
.24
.23

•32£
.23
.21
.20
.31
.22
.25
.25

. 32J
.24
.22
.21
.32
.24
.26
.28

.321
.25
.22|
.22
.33
.24
.27

.32^

.35

.22*

.23

.34
.25
.28

.35
.26
.28

.28
.25
.25

.29
.26
.26

.30
.27
.27

.31
.28
.28

.32
.29

.33
.30

.35

.37J
i

.36
.27
.28

1
.37
.28
.28

.38

.39

.28

.29

$0.40

1 Rate per day of 10 hours. Runs of under 8 hours on duty were paid for as 8 hours; over 8 to 9, paid for
as 9; over 9 to 10, paid for as 10; over 10, excess over 10 paid for at regular rate.
2 Flat rate per day of 10 hours, regardless of years of service. Runs of under 8 hours on duty were paid
for as 8 hours; over 8 to 9, paid for as 9; over 9 to 10, paid for as 10; over 10, excess over 10 paid for at regu­
lar rate.
3 Flat rate.
4 Rate per day, regardless of scheduled time of run.




72
Table

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E UNITED STATES.
2.—WAGE RATES OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEGINNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE—Continued.

I.—
Cities from which data were obtained by special agents—Continued.
Hourly rates of wages at beginning of—
City.
1st 6
mos.

2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5th
year.

6th
year.

8th
7th
9th 10th After
10th
year. year. year. year. year.

Philadelphia, Pa.—
Concluded.
P h ila d e lp h ia
Rapid Transit
C o . (su rfa c e
lines).................... $0.25 $0.25 $0.26 $0.27 $0.28 $0.29 $0.30
.25
.26*
.28
.29
.30
.23*
Pittsburgh, Pa.........
.21
.22
.23
.20
Portland, Me............
.20
.28
.29
.30
.31
Portland, Oreg.........
.25
.26
.27
.24*
.26
Providence, R . I . . . .
.23
.27
.28*
.28
.24
.29
Pueblo, Colo........
.23
.25
.26
.27
Reading, Pa........
1.23
.19
.20
.21
.22
Richmond, V a . . .
.18
Rochester. N. Y ..
.26
.28
.24
.32
Sacramento, Cal..
.29
.30
.31
.29
Saginaw, M ich...
.21
.22
.24
.20
.23
.20
.24
.23
St. Louis, Mo............
.25
.26
.27
.23
.28
.33
Salt Lake CityJJtah.
.28
.21
.21
.22
.24
San Antonio, T e x ...
.25 $0.26
.20
.23
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street
Cable R .R . Co..
.25
.30
.30
.30
.33
.25
Municipal Rail­
ways of San
Francisco........... 1.37*
United Railroads
.32
.28
of San Francisco.
.26
.29
.30
.31
.33 $0.34 $0.35
.25
.22
.21
.17
.18
.19
Savannah, Ga...........
.20
.17
.22
.24
.22
Scranton.Pa.............
.26*
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Trac­
tion, Light &
Power Co.—
Motormen and
.31
.31 $0.32
.26
.28
.27
.29
.30
.30
.31
.25
conductors.. . .
.32
.32
.32
Gripmen.............
.28
.29
.30
.31
.31
.26
.33
.27
Seattle Municipal
Street R y ...........
Seattle, Renton &
Southern Ry.Co.
.32
.28
.29
.30
.31
.25
.26
.27
Sioux City, Iowa:
Motormen, regu­
lar, on one-man
.28* .28* .28* .28* .28* $0.29
.26
cars......................
.25
.25
.27*
.27
.27*
Motormen a n d
conductors, reg­
ular, on other
.24* .24* .24* .24* .24*
.21
.21
.22
.23*
.23*
cars.................... .
.23
.25
M o to r m e n and
conductors, ex1.20

South Bend, Ind___
.20
.19
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland
Empire R.R.Co.
.27
The Washington
Water Power Co
.27
.19
.19
Springfield, 111........
Springfield, Mass... 3 2.30 3 2.45
.22
Springfield, Ohio...
.23
.22
Superior, W is.........
.24
Syracuse, N. Y .......
.24
Tacoma, Wash.:
Motormen
and
.24
.23
conductors........
.24
.25
Gripmen...............

.21

.22

.23

.28

.29

.30

.30

.30

.30

.30

.30

.30

(2)

.28
.20
3 2.60
.23
.24
.26

.29
.21
3 2.70
.24
.25
.28

.30
.22
3 2.85
.25
.26

.30
.23

.30
.24

.30

.30

.30

.30

(2)

.26
.26

.27

.27

.28

.25
.26

.25
.26

.25
.26

.26
.27

.26
.27

.26
.27

.27
.28

.27
.28

.27
.28

(4
)
(5)

i Flat rate.
11th and 12th years, 30 cents; 13th, 14th, and 15th, 31 cents; after 15th, 33 cents.
3 Rate per day of 9 hours. Scheduled runs of less than 9 hours paid for as 9; of more than 9, paid for as
a day and * hour additional for the time over 9 if such time did not exceed 15 minutes, or 1 hour addi­
tional if such time did exceed 15 minutes but did not exceed * hour.
4 11th and 12th years, 28 cents; 13th to 15th, 29 cents; after 15th, 30 cents.
6 11th and 12th years, 29 cents; 13th to 15th, 30 cents; after 15th, 31 cents.
2




CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

73

WAGE RATES OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEGINNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE—Continued.

T able 2 .—

I.—
Cities from which data were obtained by special agents—Concluded.
Hourly rates of wages at beginning of—
City.

7th
8th
9th 10th After
year. year. year. year. 10th
year.

1st 6
mos.

Toledo, Ohio.............
Topeka, Kans.:
Motormen on 1man cars.............
Motormen
and
conductors on
other cars...........
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction
Washington Rail­
way & Electric
Co.........................
Wheeling, W . Va . . .
Wichita, Kans.:
Motormen on 1man cars.............
Motormen
and
conductors on
other cars............
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. Co...
W ilm in g t o n &
P h ila d e lp h ia
Traction Co..

2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5th
year.

$0.23

$0.23

$0.24

$0.25

$0.26

$0.27

.22

.23

.231

.24

.25

.20

.21

.211

.22

.23

2. 211
.22

.211
.22

.221
.23

.221
.24

.221
.25

.221 $0,231 $0.231 $0.231 $0.231 $0.231 $0.25
.29
.26

.22

.22

.23

.231

.24

.25

.26

.20

.20

.21

.211

.22

.23

.24

.18*

.18*

.20

.21

.21

.22

.23

.24

.22
.20

6th
year.

>.22J

II.—C ities from which data were obtained by correspondence.
Aberdeen, Wash.:
Regular men......... $0.26 $0.27 $0.28 $0.29 $0.30
3
.25
Extra men.............
.18
.17
.17
Adrian, Mich.............
.25
.28 $0.29
.25
.26
.27
Akron, Ohio..............
Albany, Cohoes, and
3
.28
Troy, N. Y ............
.23
.24
.26
.23
.27
Allentown. P a..........
.25
3.17
Alliance, Ohio...........
3.263
Alton, III....................
Amsterdam, N. Y .
(see Gloversville,
N. Y .).
.211
.22
.21
.23 $0.23 $0.23 $0.23 $0.23 <50.23 $0.24
.19
.20
Anderson, Ind..........
.22
.26
.30
Ann Arbor, Mich___
.21
.19
.17
.17
Anniston, Ala...........
.22
.23
.18
.19
.20
.21
.18
Appleton, W is..........
Asbury Park, N. J ..
3
.188
.19
.21
.23
.25
.19
Asheville, N. C.........
.17
.18
.17
Ashland, W is...........
.24
.22
.20
.20
.18
Ashtabula, Ohio___
.18
.18
.20
.18
Atchison, Kans........
.188
.195
.20
.18
.17
.155
.145
Athens, u a ................
Attleboro and North
.285
.27
.245
.26
.23
Attleboro, Mass. . .
.26
.26
.26
.28
.26
.26
.26
.255
.26
.24
.25
.23
Auburn, N. Y ...........
Augusta, Me. (see
Lewiston, Me.).
.265
.235
.245
.235
Aurora, 111.................
.22
.23
.18
.20
.17
.16
Austin, Tex...............
.29
.30
.28
.27
Bakersfield, Cal........
.215
.225
.205
.215
.205
.205
Bangor, Me...............
Barre and Montpe­
.24
.25
.218
.19
.19
lier, V t....................
3.18
Batavia, N. Y ...........
1 Flat rate; under a merit system based on satisfactory service a bonus of $25 was also paid annually to
employees who had served the company satisfactorily 1 year; $50, 2 years; $75, 5 years; $100,10 years and
over. An employee was not paid bonus if his service was unsatisfactory during the 12 months Immediately
preceding date of annual bonus payments, but credit for preceding years of good service was revived by a
subsequent year of good service. See computed hourly rate in Table A .
,
2 In addition to rates here shown employees also received in the calendar year 1914 an allowance from a
profit-sharing fund which was equivalent to approximately three-fourths of 1 cent per hour.
s Flat rate.




74
T able

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
2.—WAGE RATES OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEGINNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE—Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence —Continued.

Hourly rates of wages at beginning ofCity.
lst 6
mos.

2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5tb
year.

6th
year.

8th
9th 10th After
7th
year. year. year. year. 10th
year.

Battle Creek, Mich. $0.23 $0.24 $0.25 $0.26
.20
.20
.22 $0.23 $0.24
Bay City, Mich.......
.21
Beaumont, T ex........
.21
.24
.25
.20
.22
.23
.22
.27 $0.28
Beaver Falls, Pa___
.225
.23
.23
.26
.24
Bellingham, W a sh ..
.22
.26 $0.26 $0. 27 $0.27 $0.27
.22
.23
.25
.26
Bergen
division,
Public Service Ry.
.24
.23
.28
.28
.29
.29
Co., New Jersey...
.26
.26
.27
.27
.25
.20
Biddeford, Me...........
.155
.155
.165
.175
.185
.214
.214
.257
Bloomington, 111___
.236
.236
.246
.246
.24
.29
.30
.25
.26
.27
.28
Boise, Idaho............
.21
.24
.20
Boone, Iowa............
Bridgeport, Conn*
(Bridgeport divi­
sion, Connecticut
.24
.225
.235
.253
.268
.285
.225
Co.)........................
Bridgeton, N. J ___
i. 19
Bristol, Conn...........
.225
.235
.245
.255
.265
.275
.225
.19
.24
.24
Broad Ripple, Ind.
.20
.22
.23
.24
.24
.24
.21
.215
Burlington, Iowa___
.17
.18
.21
.22
.23
.20
Burlington, V t.........
.186
.20
.171
.171
.24
.24
.24
.24
.19
Cambridge, Ohio___
.20
.21
.22
.23
.24
.24
.25
.29
.25
Canton, Ohio...........
.26
.27
.28
Carlisle, Pa.:
Company No. 1—
Motormen.........
i . 15
Conductors.......
i .14
Company No. 2—
Motormen.........
1.15
Conductors.......
1.14
Cedar Falls, Iowa
(,see
Waterloo,
Iowa).
.22
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
.21
.23
Central
division,
Public Service Ry.
.24
.26
.27
.29
.29
.23
Co., New Jersey. .
.25
.26
.27
.28
.28
.24
.20
.20
.21
.22
Charleston, W . V a.
.23
.25
Charlottesville, V a .
.135
.135
.15
.24
.24
.25
Chelsea, Mass..........
.26
.26
.26
.26
.27
.27
.28
.28
.225
Cheyenne, W y o ___
.225
.25
Clinton, Fitchburg,
and Leominster,
.23
.245
.26
.27
.285
Cohoes, N. Y . (see
A lbany, N. Y .).
Colorado
Springs,
.25
.25
.25
.27
.27
.28
Colo.........................
.30
.155
„ 20
.22
Columbia, S. C.........
.155
.17
.19
Columbus, Ga......... .
.17
.18
.19
.16
.20
Columbus, Ohio____
.233
.25
.205
.25
.26
.26
.27
.19
.18
.20
.21
.22
Corning, N. Y ......... .
.17
.22
.22
.22
.22
.22
Cortland, N. Y ....... .
.18
.18
.19
.19
.19
.21
.21
.21
.21
.22
.24
Council Bluffs, Iowa.
.24
.25
.26
.27
.28
.28
.28
.28
.28
.29
.22
.26
Danbury, C on n . . . t .
.222 .222 .233 .233 .24 .24
Danville, 111.............
.256
Danville, V a ........... .
.177
.177
.187
.197
.177
Dayton, Ohio:
Company No. 1—
D a y m e n ...........
1.27
N ig h tm e n ........
i.26
1.22
E xtra m en........
Com pany N o. 2—
D a y m e n ...........
1.27
N ig h tm e n ........
i.26
Extra m en.........
i. 22
Decatur. I l l .............
.20
.222
.228
.233
.239
.244
.25
Derby, C onn........... .
.24
.225
.225
.235
.253
.268
.285
Dover, N. H .............
.21
.21
.22
.23
.23
.24
.24
.24
.25
.25
.26
Dubuque, Io w a ____
.17
.20
.22
.24
.25
Duluth, Minn...........
.22
.23
.24
.25
.26
.26
.27
.27
.28
Dunkirk, N. Y .........
.23
.23
.25
.265
.28
.29
Durham, N. C ..........
.15
.15
.16
.17




1 Flat rate.

$0.28
.30

*
.25
.25

.30
.28

.23

75

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

Table 2.—WAGE RATES OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEGINNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE—Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence— Continued.

Hourly rates of wages at beginning of—
City.
1st 6
mos.

East Liverpool,Ohio $0.24
.23
Easton. Fa., and
Phillipsburg. N .J .
Eau Claire, W i s ....
.18
.235
Elgin, 111..................
.19
Elkhart, Ind...........
Elmira, N. Y ..........
.19
El Paso, Tex...........
.20
.19
Elwood, Ind...........
.20
Enid, Okla..............
Erie, Pa....................
.23
Escanaba, Mich----.16
i. 275
Eureka, Cal.............
Everett, W ash........
.22
Fargo, N. Dak........
.19
Findlay, Ohio.........
.175
Fitchburg,
Mass.
(see
Clinton,
Mass.).
Flint, Mich................
.25
Fond du Lac, W is..
.18
Fort Dodge, Iow a...
.21
Fort Smith, A rk----.18
Fort Wayne, Ind—
.19
Fort Worth, Tex----.20
Framingham, Mass.
(Framingham di­
vision, Boston &
Worcester Street
.235
Ry. Co.)...............
Frankfort, K y ........
.16
Franklin,
Mass.
(see Milford, Mass.).
Freeport, 111.........
.20
Fresno, Cal..........
.25
Gadsden, A la ............
.14
Galesburg, 111...........
.20
Galveston, Tex.........
.20
Gardner, Mass..........
.20
Gary, Ind..................
.20
Geneva, N. Y ...........
Glens Falls and
Saratoga, N. Y ----- i .28
Gloucester, Mass___
.24
Gloversviiie, Johns­
town, and Am ­
sterdam, N. Y ----.23
Grand Forks, N.
Dak.........................
.18
Grand J u n c t i o n ,
Colo.........................
.20
.344
Great Falls, M ont...
Green Bay, W is.......
.18
Greenfield, Mass----.20
Greensboro, N. C—
.14
Greenville, S. C ........
.15
Hammond, Ind.......
.23
Hampton, Va. (see
Newport News,
Va.).
Hannibal, Mo...........
.15
Harrisburg, Pa.........
.21
H a r t f o r d , Conn.
(Hartford d i v i ­
sion, Connecticut
.225
Co.).........................
Hazleton, Pa............
.23
Helena, Mont...........
.33
Motormen—O n emancars........... . i .40
Henderson, K y ........
.15
Holyoke, Mass.........
.23
Homestead, Pa.......
i .30




2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5th
year.

1.24
.23

$0.26
.24

$0.28

$0.30
.26

8th
7th
9th 10th After
10th
year. year. year. year. year.

$0.27

.18
.235

.19
.245
.21

.21

6th
year.

$0.22

.22
.21

.20
.265
.22
.21
.23
.215

.23
.21
.24
.22

'.*23

.23

.23
.17

.25
.18

.265
.20

.28
.21

.23

.24

.22
.21

.23
.22
.19

.24
.24
.21

.25

.26

.27

.20
.23
.22
.22
.23

.21

.245
.18

.255
.19

.265
.19

.22
.26
.16
.21
.22
.21
.26
.21

.23
.27
.17
.22
.23
.22
.30

.20

.19

.21
.20
.21

.175

.20

.22

.32
.19
.22
.21
.21

.235
.17

.26

.22
.24
.24
.25

.25

.275
.20

.29

.30

.26

.26

.407

.438
.23
.25

.18

.24

.25

.25

.27

.19

.20

.20

.21
.375
.19
.21
.16
.17
.27

.225
.407
.20
.22
.18
.18
.29

.188
.23

.23

.23

.225
.23

.235
.24
.355

.24
.25
.38

.253

.16
.245

.17
.26

.18
.27

.19
.285

.375
.18

.20
.14
.16

.27

.26

.23
.407

.21
.23

.'2 6 '
.30

1 Flat rate.

.21
.31

.285

.20

.28

$0.21

0 21

.

$0.23

.23

.21 $0. 2 $0.21
1

‘ .'23

".*2 4

76
Table

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E UNITED STATES.
2.—WAGE RATES OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEGINNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE—Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence —Continued.
Hourly rates of wages at beginning of—
City.
1st 6
mos.

2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5th
year.

6th
year.

7th
9th 10th After
8th
year. year. year. year. 10th
year.

Horaell, N . Y ........... i$0.20
.206 $0.206 $0,206 $0,214 $0,214 $0,223 $0,223 $0,223 $0,231 $0,231 $0.231 $0.24
Hot Springs, A r k .. .
H u d s o n division,
Public ServiceRy.
.27
.24
.25
.26
.27
.23
.26
.28
.29
.29
.30
Co., N . J.................
.28
.21
.22
.24
.25
Huntington, W . Va.
.20
.20
.23
.17
.17
.17
Hutchinson, Kans. .
.19
.18
.24
.27
.27
.24
.25
.26
.26
Hyde Park, Mass. . .
.26
.28
.21
.22
.24
.19
.20
.23
Iowa City, Iowa.......
.21
.20
.22
.24
.25
Ironton, Ohio...........
.20
.23
Ishpemmg, Mich___ i .21
I
.24
.25
.23
Jackson, Mich...........
.26
.14
.22
Jackson, Miss............
.16
.18
.15
.15
.19
.16
.17
.18
Jackson, Tenn..........
.195
.205
.215
.225
.225 .225 .235 .235 .25
Jamestown, N . Y . . .
.19
.19
.17
.18
.19
.20
.16
.16
Janesville, W is..........
Jeffersonville, Ind.
(see New Albany,
Ind.).
Johnstown, N . Y .
(see Gloversville,
N. Y .).
.22
.24
.25
.27
.23
.26
Johnstown, Pa........
1
.21
.24
.26
Joliet, III...................
i .27
Suburban.............
J o p l i n , Mo. (see
Pittsburg, Kans.).
.23
.24
.25
.26
Kalamazoo, Mich. .
.19
.19
.22
Kankakee, 111..........
Keene, N .H .:
Call men................ i .20
i .22
Regular men.
.21
.22
.21
.25
.23
.24
.26
Kenosha, W is..
.18
.18
.19
.20
Keokuk, Iowa..
.19
.205
.21
.215
.22
.19
.20
.225 .23
Kingston, N . Y
.235 .24
.17
Knoxville, Tenn___
.19
.20
.21
.23
i .24
Instructors___
.18
2 .22
.18
.19
.20
.21
2 .23
Kokomo, Ind. . .
2 .24
2 .25
2 .26
2 .27
i .20
Laconia, N . H . .
.21
.22
.25
La Crosse, W is..
.18
.19
.20
.21
.22
.23
La Fayette, Ind
.21
.22
.20
.20
.23
Lake Charles, La—
.16
.17
.175
.16
Lancaster, Ohio-----.18
.18
.18
.18
.18
.18
.18
.19
Lancaster, Pa...........
.19
.19
.19
.20
1
.23
.24
.25
Lansing, Mich.........
.26
.19
.21
.22
Laporte,Ind...........
.20
.23
'___ I______
La Salle, 111............. . i .20
Lawrence, Kans.:
Extra men...........
i .18
i .20
Regular men........
.24
.24
.25
Lawrence, Mass____
.26
.26
.26
.27
.27
.28
Leavenworth, Kans 350.00 3 50.00 3 52.50 3 55.00 3 57.50 3 60.00
.18
.18
Lebanon, Pa...........
.20
.23
Leominster, M a ss.
(see C l i n t o n ,
Mass.).
Lewiston and Au­
.19
.21
gusta, Me..............
.19
.20
.17
Lexington, K y .......
.16
.18
.19
.19
.20
.23
.23
.24
Lockport, N . Y ___
.25
.27
.28
.29
.29
.29
.29
.30 ..........
.18
.19
.21
Logansport, Ind___
.20
.22
.23
Lynchburg, V a -----.20
.20
.23
.24
.25
.24
.24
.25
Lynn, Mass.............
.26
.26
.26
.27
.27
.28
.22
McAlester, Okla___
.24
.26
Macon, Ga...............
.16
.17
.18
.19
.20
Madison, W is..........
.19
.19
.21
.23
.24
Mankato, Minn____
.15
.16
.18
.20
.21
.22
.23
Manistee, Mich____
1.20
Mansfield, Ohio____
.21
.18
.23
.24
Marietta, Ohio........
.175
.18
.19
.20
.21
.22
Marinette, Wis. (see
M enom inee,
Mich.).

1Flat rate.




2On interurban lines.

3Per month.

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

77

Table 2.—WAGE RATES OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEGINNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE—Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence —Continued.

Hourly rates of wages at beginning of—
City.
1st 6
mos.

2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5th
year.

6th
year.

7th
8th
9th 10th After
10th
year. year. year. year.
year.

Marion, Ind............... $0.19 $0.20 $0.21 $0.215 $0.22 $0.23 $0.23 $0.23 $0.23 $0.23 $0.24
Marion, Ohio.............
.19
.18
.18
.20
Marlboro, Mass (see
Worcester, Mass.).
Marquette, Mich___ i .22
Marshalltown, Iowa.
.265
.275
Mason City, Iow a...
.185
.204
.222
Meadville, Pa...........
.24
.25
.22
.22
.22
.23
Menominee^ M ich.,
and M a r in e tte ,
W is..........................
.21
.22
.17
.17
.18
.195
M e r i d e n , Conn.
(Meriden division,
.285
Connecticut Co.)..
.225
.235
.24
.268
.225
.253
Meridian, Miss..........
.22
.15
.21
.17
.19
.16
Michigan City, Ind.. i .275
Middletown, Conn.
(Middletown divi­
sion, Connecticut
.225
Co.)..........................
.225
.235
.268
.285
.24
.253
Middletown, N . Y . .
.18
.22
.19
.20
Milford, Franklin,
and P la in v ille ,
Mass........................
.27
:285
.23
.245
.26
Milford, Mass............
.24
.25
.27
.28
.29
.24
.26
Millville, N . J...........
Missoula, Mont.........
.35
.38
.39
.36
.37
.40
%
Moline, 111..................
.24
.28
.23
.23
.26
Montgomery, A la .. .
.15
.17
.18
.16
M o n t p e l i e r , Vt.
(see Barre, Vt.).
Mount Vernon and
New R o c h e l l e ,
N . Y ........................
.24
.27
.24
Muncie, Ind..............
.21
.215
.22
.23
.19
.23
.23
.23 $0.24
.20
.23
.23
Muskegon, Mich.......
.22
.24
.22
.23
Nanticoke, Pa..........
i .24
Nashau, N. H ...........
.27
.26
.26
.24
.24
.25
.26
.27
.28
New Albany and Jeffersonville, Ind.:
Motormen..............
.195
.215
.205
.205
.215 .215 .215 .215 .215 .225
» .185
Conductors.............
.155
.165
.175
.185
.185 .185 .185 .185 .185 .185
* .145
Newburgh, N . Y ___
Newcastle, Pa. (see
Y o u n g s t o wn ,
Ohio).
New London, Conn.
(see N o r w i c h ,
Conn.).
Newport, R . I ..........
.25
.27
.27
.28
.24
.26
.26
.26
Newport News and
Hampton, V a........
.21
.19
.18
.20
New Rochelle, N.
Y . (see Mount Ver­
non, N . Y .).
Newton, Waltham,
and near-by towns,
.24
.24
.26
.28
.29
.30
.29
.29
Niagara Falls, N . Y .
.29
.29
.24
.25
.28
.30
.23
.23
.27
Norristown, Pa........
North Adams, Mass.
(see Pi t t s f i e l d,
Mass.).
Northampton, Mass
.25
.27
.29
.30
.25
.28
.26
North Yakim a,
Wash:
Extra men........... . i .24
Regular men.........
.27
.30
.24
.25
.26
.28
.29
Norton and Taun­
.25
.22
.235
.21
.21
.23
.24
ton, Mass...............
.20

J

i Flat rate.




2First 3,000 hours, 17 cents; after 3,000 hours, 18 cents.

78
T able

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
2.—WAGE RATES OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEGINNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE—Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence —Continued.

Hourly rates of wages at beginning of—
City.
1st 6
mos.

2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5th
year.

6th
year.

7th
8th
9th 10th After
10th
year. year. year. year. year.

IT o r w a 1 k, Conn.
(Norwalk d i v ision, Connecticut
.
Co.).......................... $0.225 SO 225 $0.235 $0.24 $0,255 $0.268 $0,285
Norwich, Willimantic,and New Lon­
.285
.225
.235
.24
.253 i. 268
don, Conn...............
.225
.25
.25
.25
.275
.275
Ogden, U tah ............
.30
2 .17
2 .17
$0.18 40.18 2$0.18 2$0.18 s$0.19
*.17
Ogdensburg, N . Y . . 2 .17
1 .18
a.18
2 .18 2
.22
.24
.20
.23
Oil City, Pa...............
.25
.20
Olean, N . Y ..............
.22
,22
.22
.22
.22
.17
.17
.19
.21
.18
.20
.23
Oshkosh, W is ...........
.19
.21
.18
.18
.20
.22
.23
.24
.25
.255
Oswego, N. Y ...........
.23
.26
.26
.26
.26
.28
.26
.26
.26
.21
.22
.24
.27
Ottumwa, Iowa........
.15
.21
.15
Owensboro, K y ........
.16
.17
.18
.19
.20
.185
.15
Paducah, K y ............
.15
.16
.175
.20
Parkersburg, W . Va.
.175
.18
.19
.20
.21
.22
Parsons, Kans.......... 3 .18
Pasadena, Cal...........
.25
.25
.27
.28
.26
.29
.30
Passaic, N. J. (Pas­
saic division, Pub­
.24
.25
.27
lic Service Ry. Co.)
.26
.27
.28
.29
.29
.26
.30
.28
.285
.245
.25
.27
:23
Pawtucket, R. I .
Peekskill, N. Y . .
.18
.18
.19
.20
.21
Pensacola, Fla...
.18
.18
.19
.18
.20
Peru, Ind...................
.19
.20
.21
.22
.18
.23
Phillipsburg, N . J.
(see Easton, Pa.).
Phoenix, Ariz.........
.22
.24
.22
.25
.26
.27
Phoenixville, Pa___
.19
.20
.19
Pine Bluffj A rk ........
.17
.16
.21
.22
.18
.19
.20
Piqua, Ohio..............
Pittsburg, K a n s . ,
and Joplin, Mo___
.25
.26
Pittsfield and North
Adams, Mass.........
.285
.245
.26
.27
Plainvilie, Mass. (see
Milford, Mass.).
Plattsburgh, 1 T Y .:
S.
Motormen.............
Conductors...........
.21
.24
.24
.26
Plymouth, Mass —
.26
.27
.23
.25
.27
.28
.25
.26
.27
.28
Pomona, Cal............
.25
.30
.29
.30
.32
Pontiac, Mich..........
Portsmouth, N. H ..
.19
.19
.198
.208
.22
.23
.20
.24
Portsmouth, Ohio..
.23
.25
Pottstown, P a........
.19
.2 0
Pottsville, P a .........
.27
.25
Poughkeepsie, N. Y
.20
.21
.22
.23
j
!
Punxsutawne y , Pa.
.17
.19
.21
1
Quincy, 111...............
.17
.18
.22
.20
.21
.23
Quincy, M ass.
(Quincy division,
Bay State Street
.24
.25
.26
.26
.26
.27
.27
.28
R y. Co.).................
Raleigh, N . C ...........
.17
.18
.19
.20
Reading,
Mass.
(Reading division,
Bay State Street
.24
.26
.25
.26
.26
.27
.27
.28
Ry. Co.).................
Redlands, Cal...........
.25
.26
.27
.28
.29
.30
Richmond, In d ........
.19
.20
.21
.22
.23
Riverside, Cal...........
.25
.26
.27
.28
.29
.30
Roanoke, Va.............
.20
.24
.23
.25
.21
Rockford, 111.............
.21
.22
.24
.25
.23
Rock Island, 111........
.23
.24
.26
.28
Rome, Ga...................
.15
.16
.17
.18
.19
Rome, N. Y . ( see
Utica, N. Y .).
Rutland, V t ..............
.18
.18
.221
St. Cloud, Minn.:
Motormen...............
.167
.182
Conductors 4..........
______
.106




n, 27 cents.
Oct. 1 to Apr. 1.

s Flat rate.

4 Young men 16 to 18 years of age.

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

79

Table 2__WAGE RATES OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEGINNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE—Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence —Continued.

Hourly rates of wages at beginning ofCity.
2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5th
year.

6th
year.

$0.21 $0.21

$0.22

$0.23

$0.24

$0.24

St. Joseph, Mo...........
Salem, Mass. (Salem
d i v i s i o n , Bay
State Street Ry.
Co.)......................
Salem, Oreg...........
San Bernardino, Cal.
San Diego, Cal..........
San Jose, Cal.:
Company No. 1 . . .
Company No. 2 . . .
Santa Cruz, Cal........
Saratoga, N. Y . (see
Glens Falls, N .Y .).
Sault Ste. Marie,
Mich........................
Schenectady, N. Y ..
Sedalia, Mo...............
Selma, Ala.................
Shamokin, Pa...........
Sharon,
Pa. (see
Y ou n g s t o w n ,
Ohio).
Shawnee, Okla.........
Sheboygan, W is.......
Shreveport, La.........
Sioux Falls, S. Dak. South Bethlehem,
Pa........................ .
Southbridge, Mass.
(see W e b s t e r ,
Mass.).
Southern division,
P u b l i c Service
Ry. Co., New Jer­
sey............................
Spartanburg, S. C . ..
Spencer, Mass. (see
W orcester,
Mass.).
Stamford,
Conn.
(Stamford
divi­
sion, Connecticut
Co.)..........................
Stockton, Cal............
Sunbury, Pa.............
Tampa, Fla...............
Taunton, M a s s .
(see N orton, Mass.).
Temple, Tex.............
Terre Haute, Ind. . .
Tiffin, Ohio...............
Torrington, Conn.
(Torrington divi­
sion, Connecticut
Co.)..........................
Trenton, N. J ...........
Trinidad, Colo..........
Troy, N. Y . (see
Albany, N. Y .).
Tucson, Ariz.............
Tulsa, Okla...............
Utica and Rome,
N. Y .................... . .
Vicksburg, Miss........
Vincennes, Ind.........
Waco, Tex.................
Walla Walla, Wash.

.27
.28
.28
.30

.27
.29
.29

.30
.30

.29

.30

.205
.27

9th 10th After
7th
8th
year. year. year. year. 10th
year.

$0.25

.22

lst 6
mos.

.25
.26
.26
.28
.275

.20

.245
.17
.16

.20

.21
.285
.19

.20

.265
.18
.18

.22

.15
.185

.15
.185
.23
.17

.16
.195
.24
.18

.20

.25
.17

.22
.16

.20

.20

.21

.17
.205

.25

.19
.205
.26

.26
.19

.27

.27 $0.28 $0.28 $0.29 $0.29

.18

.253
.28

.29

.285
.30

.22

.23

.19
.26

.20

1.19

.23
.15

.225
.25
.17
.19

.225
.25
.17
.19

.14

.16
.23

.21
(2
)
.225
i.26

.235
.26
.18
.20

.20
.22

.17
.24

.235

.20

.20
.21

.24
.165
.15
.19
.23

.26
.185
.15

.185
.16

.24

.25

.27

.285

.253

.22

.20
.20

.20

.20

3.22

.22

.21

.23

.18 . . . .
.2 3

27

/

•
'

,30

1 Flat rate.
2 Based on traffic conditions and hours worked; rates were 20 cents, 19.4 cents, and 18.4 cents.
3 Two employees who broke in new men were paid 24 cents.
4 To men employed prior to September, 1910.




$0.30

80
T able

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E UNITED STATES.
2.—WAGE RATES OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND GRIPMEN PAID
AT BEGINNING OF EACH SPECIFIED PERIOD OF SERVICE—Concluded.
II —.Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence —Concluded.

Hourly rates of wages at beginning of—
City.

1st 6
mos.

2d 6
mos.

2d
year.

3d
year.

4th
year.

5th
year.

6th
year.

7th
8th
9th 10th After
10th
year. year. year. year. year.

Waltham,
Mass.
(see N e w t o n ,
Mass.).

$0.19 $0.19 $0.20 $0.21
Waterbury, Conn.
(Waterbury divi­
sion, Connecticut
.24 $0,253 $0,268 $0,285
.225
.235
.225
Co )..........................
Waterloo and Cedar
,22
.21
.20
.25
.23
Falls, Iowa.............
.22
.22
.22
.22
.22 $0.24
.20
.20
Watertown, N. Y __
.165 1.18
.15
.15
Waterville, Me ___
1
.24
.21
.22
.20
.20
Waukegan, 111..........
.23
.25
.21
.22
.19
.20
.24 1
_____
.175
.19
.23
Wausau, W is............
.22
.24
.21
.23
.26
.20
.25
Webb City, Mo........
Westfield, Mass........ 2 2.30 2 2.45 2 2.60 2 2.70 2 2.85
Webster and South.26
.27
.285
.245
.23
bridge, Mass..........
.24
White Plains, N. Y .
.235
.268
.225
.225
.253
.283
Wilkes-Barre and
near-by
towns,
3.24
Pa............................
Williamsport, Pa.:
Extra men.............
3 205
3. 21
Swing men.............
Regular men.........
3. 215
Willimantic, Conn.
(see N o r w i c h ,
Conn.).
.18
.19
.20
.21
.22
Wilmington, N. C . . .
.17
.17
.20
.21
.18
.18
.19
.22
Winona, Minn..........
.23
Winston- S a l e m ,
N. C ......................
.18
.20
.21
.16
.17
.15
.24
.24
.26
.26
Woburn, Mass..........
.25
.27 $0.28
.27
.27
.26
W oonsocket, R . I ___
.27
.285
.245
.23
Worcester, Spencer,
and Ma r l b o r o ,
.26
Mass........................
.245
.27
.285
.23
.24
.24
.27
Yonkers, N. Y .........
York, Pa....................
.18
.18
.19
.20
.21
.22
Youngstown, Ohio,
Sharon and New­
castle, P a...............
.28
.295
.31
1 Three old employees, 2(T cents.

Special rate.

2 Per day.

_____1_____
1
1
1-

3 Flat rate.

The figures in Table 3 are taken from Table A and show the
average rate of wages of motormen and conductors in all cities
covered by the report. This table is divided into two sections. In
Section I, which includes the cities visited by the agents of the
bureau, the average rates for regular and extra men are presented
separately. The regular and extra men are not segregated in Sec­
tion II, covering the cities from which data were obtained by cor­
respondence. The average is obtained by multiplying each rate by
the number of men working thereat, adding the products, and
dividing the sum by the total number of men.




81

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
T able 3 .—A V E R A G E R A T E OF W A G E S OF M OTORMEN AN D CONDUCTORS.
I.—Cities from which data were obtained by special agents.
Average rate of wages per hour of—
City.

Motormen.
Regular.

Altoona, Pa...............................................................................
Atlanta, Ga...............................................................................
Augusta, Ga. .
............................
Binghamton, N . Y ..................................................................
Birmingham, Ala
___
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines...............................................................
Elfivat.fid Jinp.s,,
Brockton, Mass........................................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ...........................................................................
Butte, Mont.............................................................................
Charleston, S. C.............................
............................
Charlotte, N. C.........................................................................
Chattanooga, Twin T,
.........
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways..........................................
Chicago Surface Lines......................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................. ... .
............................
Cleveland, Ohio........................................................................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation...........................................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff division of
Fort Worth lines...........................................................
Davenport, Iowa.....................................................................
Denver, Colo.............................................................................
Des Moines, Iowa....................................................................
Detroit, Mich...........................................................................
Evansville, Ind........................................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich...............................................................
Houston, Tex...........................................................................
Indianapolis, Ind.....................................................................
Jacksonville, Fla......................................................................
Kansas City, Mo......................................................................
Lincoln, Nebr...........................................................................
Little Rock, Ark......................................................................
Los Angeles, Cal......................................................................
Louisville, K y ..........................................................................
Lowell, Mass.............................................................................
Manchester, N. H ....................................................................
Memphis, T enn........................................................................
Milwaukee, W is.......................................................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn..........................................
Mobile, Ala................................................ . .............................
Nashville, Tenn...............*............................................
Newark, N. J............................................................................
New Bedford, Mass.................................................................
New Britain, Conn..................................................................
New Haven, Conn..................................................................
New Orleans, La......................................................................
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co..........................................
New York & Queens County Ry. Co..........................
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines...........................................................
Storage-battery car lines.........................................
All lines except horse and storage-battery car
lines..........................................................................
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx..................................................................
Manhattan..................................................................
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines............................................................
Subway lines..............................................................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated lines)............

Conductors.

Extra.

Regular.

Extra.

$0.243
.233
.208
.215
.221

$0.213
.200
.173
.200
.187

$0.239
.230
.197
.208
.215

90.202
.196
.173
.200
.182

.308
.325
.275
.273
2.441
.204
.189
.225

.276
.304
.250
. 2332.402
.174
.166
.197

.300
!. 273
.270
.258
2.441
.198
.183
.228

.272
1.257
.247
.231
2.402
.172
.165
.188

.340
.315
.258
.300

.327
.266
.217
.278

.268
.310
.248
.299

.240
.259
.206
.276

.231

.202

.223

.200

.236
.277
.296
.290
.317
.225
.264
.236
. 256
.200
.259
.248
.222
.282
.237
.276
.268
.213
.268
.280
.216
. 204
.276
.290
.260
.264
.240

.207
.241
.262
.275
.276
.195
.232
.213
.212
.190
.224
.202
.191
.251
.221
.250
.234
.173
.233
.239
.193
.185
.241
.255
.231
.231
.240

.231
.270
.293
.286
.314
.216
.258
.228
.245
.199
.249
.241
.212
.276
.236
.274
.268
.206
.265
.275
.208
.202
.262
.287
.257
.260
.240

.206
.234
.254
.241
.273
.192
.231
.208
.210
.190
.222
.200
.185
.251
.221
.248
.238
.173
.233
.236
.190
.184
.239
.255
.225
.227
.240

.263
.231

.244
.221

.259
.228

.243
.221

a 221
.
250

8. 214
4.250

4. 217
4.225

4.213
4.225

*. 274

4.252

4.252

4.241

.268
.270

.247
.252

.256
.248

.243
.238

6.368
6.365
.370

6.318
6.313
.319

5.256
6.254
.246

.242

1Conductors are called guards in Boston.
Motormen and conductors worked interchangeably.
8 Rate for drivers. Computed from daily rate on 10-hour-day basis. Runs of under 8 hours on duty were
>aid for as 8; over 8 to 9, paid for as 9; over 9 to 10, paid for as 10; over 10, excess over 10 paid for at regu­
ar rate.
4 Computed from daily rate on 10-hour-day basis. Runs of less than 8 hours on duty were paid for as
8; over 8 to 9, paid for as 9; over 9 to 10, paid for as 10; over 10, excess over 10 paid for at regular rate.
6 Computed from daily rate on 10-hour-day basis.
2

{

39749°— Bull. 204—17------ 6




82
T able

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
3.—AVERAGE RATE OF WAGES OF MOTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS—Continued.

I.—
Cities from which data were obtained by special agents—Concluded.
Average rate of wages per hour of—
City.

Motormen.
Regular.

Norfolk, V a ..............................................................
Oakland, Cal............................................................
Oklahoma City, Okla.............................................
Omaha, Nebr...........................................................
Peoria, 111.................................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit C o .Elevated lines............................................
Surface lines..............................................
Pittsburgh, Pa.........................................................
Portland, Me......................; ....................................
Portland, Oreg.........................................................
Providence, R. I .....................................................
Pueblo, Colo.............................................................
Reading, Pa.............................................................
Richmond, V a .........................................................
Rochester, N . Y ......................................................
Sacramento, Cal.......................................................
Saginaw, Mich.........................................................
St. Louis, Mo...........................................................
Salt Lake City, Utah.............................................
San Antonio, Tex....................................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable Ry. Co......................
Municipal Railways of San Francisco........
United Railroads of San Francisco.............
Savannah, Ga..........................................................
Scranton, Pa............................................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co.
Seattle Municipal Street R y .........................
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. Co...........
Sioux City, Iowa.....................................................
South Bend, Ind.....................................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. Co.........
The Washington Water Power Co..............
Springfield, 111.........................................................
Springfield, Mass.....................................................
Springfield, Ohio.....................................................
Superior, Wis...........................................................
Syracuse, N . Y ........................................................
Tacoma, Wash.........................................................
Toledo, Ohio........................................................... .
Topeka, Kans..........................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co........................................
Washington Railway & Electric Co...........
Wheeling, W . V a ....................................................
Wichita, Kans.........................................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Railway Co.......................................
Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Co . .

$0,208
.351
.252
.275
.279

Conductors.

Extra.
$0.182
.320
.209
.241

Regular.
$0,208
.341
.235
.265
.275

Extra.
$0.180
.309
.202
.241
*.238

.329
.298
.298
.223
.291
.279
.285
2.230
.205
.280
.316
.221
.263
.328
.235

.272
.267
.225
.261
.258
.253
2.230
.181
.272
.290
.206
.232
.280
.213

.286
.277
.275
2.230
.199
.280
.315
.219
.254
.326
.232

.265
.258
.218
.255
.256
.248
2.230
.182
.265
.290
.204
.231
.283
.206

3.311
2.375
.308
.187
.264

3.257
2.375
.259
.173
.231

2.375
.288
.176
.264

.250
2.375
.259
.174
.230

4 297

(«)

.298
.295
.296

.222

2.375
.296
.234
.212

2.375
.266
.200

*.278
2.375
.280
.222
.211

.294
.299
.224
7.308
.214
.250
.280
3.256
.260
.262
.219

.271
.263
.190
7.305
.227
.225
.270
3.240
.237
.232
.205

.287
.297
.213
7.307
.240
.239
.280
.252
.257

8.240
9.235
.267
.234

8.227
9. 216
.220

8.234
9.230
.243
.218

.200
.240

.187
.216

5.285

.212

.238

(8
)
2.375
.238
.200
.190

.190
7.297
.221
.225
.266
.232
.231
.200
8.227
». 216

.220
.201
.185
.216

1 Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
2 Flat rate.
3 Rate for gripmen.
< Rate for gripmen, including extra men; not reported separately.
* Rate for regular and extra men; not reported separately,
a Extra men are included with regular men; not reported separately.
7 Computed from daily rate on a 9-hour-day basis.
8 Includes bonus; see Table A.
9 In addition employees received in the calendar year 1914 from a profit-sharing fund an allowance
equivalent to approximately three-fourths of 1 cent per hour.




CHAP. I .— WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
T a b l e 3 .—

83

AVERAGE RATE OF WAGES OF MOTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS—Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence.

Average rate of wages per hour of—
City.

Motormen.
Regular.

Extra.

Aberdeen, Wash....................................................
i $0.286
Adrian, Mich..........................................................
.175
Akron, Ohio...........................................................
.266
Albany, Cohoes, and Troy, N . Y ......................
.280
Allentown, Pa........................................................
.256
Alliance, Ohio........................................................
.170
Alton, 111.................................................................
Amsterdam, N. Y . (see Gloversville, N. Y .).
Anderson, Ind........................................................
.213
Ann Arbor, Mich...................................................
.283
Anniston, Ala.........................................................
1.195
Appleton, W is.......................................................
.208
Asbury Park, N. J................................................
.188
Asheville, N .C ......................................................
.238
Ashland, W is.........................................................
.179
Ashtabula, Ohio....................................................
.227
Atchison, Kans.3....................................................
.198
Athens, Ga..............................................................
1.171
Attleboro and North Attleboro, I
.273
Auburn, N. Y .
.253
Augusta, Me. (see Lewiston, Me.).
Aurora, 111.
.257
Austin, Tex..............................................................................
1.199
Bakersfield, Cal.......................................................................
.294
.209
Bangor, Me...............................................................................
Barre and Montpelier, V t .....................................................
.225
Batavia, N. Y .3...................................................................... .
.180
Battle Creek, Mich..................................................................
.252
Bay City, Mich........................................................................
.221
Beaumont, T ex...................................................................... .
.215
Beaver Falls, Pa.....................................................................
.257
Bellingham, W ash..................................................................
.243
Bergen division, Public Service Ry. Co., New Jersey___
.270
Biddeford, Me..........................................................................
.183
Bloomington, 111....................................................................
.242
Boise, Idaho............................................................................
.280
Boone, Iowa.............................................................................
.233
Bridgeport, Conn. (Bridgeport division, Connecticut
Co.).
.258
Bridgeton, N. J......................................................................
.190
Bristol, Conn..........................................................................
.254
Broad Ripple, Ind.................................................................
.212
Burlington, Iowa...................................................................
*. 194
Burlington, V t....................................................... -...............
.195
1.226
Cambridge, Ohio..................................................... .............
Canton, Ohio..........................................................................
.273
Carlisle, Pa. (both companies)...........................................
.150
Cedar Falls, Iowa (see Waterloo, Iowa).
.227
Cedar Rapids, Iowa...............................................................
Central division. Public Service Ry. Co., New Jersey..
.268
.226
Charleston, W . V a .................................................................
Charlottesville ,V a.3...............................................................
.148
.263
Chelsea, Mass..........................................................................
.245
Cheyenne, Wyo.3....................................................................
Clinton, Fitchburg, and Leominster, Mass.....................
.280
Cohoes, N. Y . (see Albany, N. Y .).
.287
Colorado Springs, Colo..........................................................
.208
Columbia, S. C........................................................................
.171
Columbus, Ga.........................................................................
.256
Columbus, Ohio.....................................................................
.208
Corning, N. Y .........................................................................
.201
Cortland, N. Y ........................................................................
.269
Council Bluffs, Iowa.............................................................
.258
Danbury, Conn......................................................................
.239
Danville, 111............................................................................
Danville, V a .................................................................4........
1 Motormen and conductors worked interchangeably.
2 No conductors employed except in summer months.
3 One-man cars.
4 Motormen and conductors not reported separately.




Conductors.
Regular.
i $0.286
.175
.261
.280
.253
.170
.209
.300
1.195

(2
)

.188
.239
.171
.207

1.171
.267
.254
.252
1.199
.295
.211
.220
.252
.215
.212
.250
.235
.258
.175
.237
.284
.229
.252
.190
.253
.211
4.194
.195
1.226
.265
.140
.226
.255
.220
.258

.284
.208
.171
.253

.211

.190
.260
.260
.242
.187

Extra.

84
T able

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
3.—AVERAGE RATE OF WAGES OF MOTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS—Continued.

II.—
Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Continued.
Average rate of wages per hour of—
City.

Motormen.
Regular.

Dayton, Ohio:
Company No. 1...............................................................
Company No. 2 ...............................................................
Decatur, 111..............................................................................
Derby, Conn. (Derby division, Connecticut Co.)...........
Dover, N . H ............................................................................
Dubuque, Iowa......................................................................
Duluth, Minn..........................................................................
Dunkirk, N. Y ........................................................................
Durham, N. C .........................................................................
East Liverpool, Ohio............................................................
Easton, Pa., and Phillipsburg, N. J.................................
Eau Claire, Wis......................................................................
Elgin, 111...................................................................................
Elkhart, Ind............................................................................
Elmira, N. Y ..........................................................................
El Paso, Tex............................................................................
Elwood, Ind............................................................................
Enid, Okla.2 ..........................................................................
Erie, Pa....................................................................................
Escanaba. Mich......................................................................
Eureka, Cal.............................................................................
Everett, Wash........................................................................
Fargo, N. Dak........................................................................
Findlay, Ohio2.......................................................................
Fitchburg. Mass. (see Clinton, Mass.).
Flint, Mien..............................................................................
Fond du Lac, W is..................................................................
Fort Dodge, Iowa...................................................................
Fort Smith, Ark.....................................................................
Fort Wayne, Ind...................................................................
Fort Worth, Tex....................................................................
Framingham, Mass. (Framinghamdivision, Boston &
Worcester Street R y . Co.)................................................
Frankfort, K y.2......................................................................
Franklin, Mass. (see Milford, Mass.).
Freeport, 111.2..........................................................................
Fresno, Cal..............................................................................
Gadsden, A la..........................................................................
Galesburg, 111..........................................................................
Galveston, T ex.......................................................................
Gardner, Mass........................................................................
Gary, Ind.................................................................................
Geneva. N. Y ..........................................................................
Glens Falls and Saratoga, N. Y ......................................... .
Gloucester, Mass....................................................................
Gloversville, Johnstown, and Amsterdam, N. Y ..........
Grand Forks, N. Dak...........................................................
Grand Junction, Colo.2.........................................................
Great Falls, Mont.2................................................................
Green Bay, W is.....................................................................
Greenfield, Mass................................................. ..................
Greensboro, N. C ....................................................................
Greenville, S. C ......................................................................
Hammond, Ind......................................................................
Hannibal, Mo..........................................................................
Harrisburg. Pa.......................................................................
Hartford, Conn.......................................................................
Hazleton, Pa...........................................................................
Helena, Mont..........................................................................
Henderson, K y.2 ...................................................................
Holyoke, Mass........................................................................
Homestead, Pa........ ..............................................................
Hornell, N. Y ...........................................................................
Hot Springs, Ark.2 ............................................................... .
Hudson division, Public Service R y. Co., New Jersey .
Huntington, W . V a................................................................
Hutchinson, Kans..................................................................
Hyde Park, Mass....................................................................




Extra.

$0,255
.254
.239
.254
.237
i. 238
.243
.279
.160
.280
.261
.204
.259
.211
.208
.217
.217
.210
.267
(8)
.275
.241
.216
.205

Conductors.
Regular.

Extra.

$0.254
.255
.234
.252
.247
!. 238
.237
.285
.157
.277
.258
.204
.251
.206
.202
.217
.221
.264
(3)
.275
.242
.215

.316
.194
.218
.227
.218
.233

.311
.200
.216
.219
.212
.227

.264
.184

.261

.208
.276
.162
.226
.224
.229
.275
.240
.280
.268
.264
.203
.209
.418
.205
.231
.161
.184
.293
.185
.240
.266
.230
1.383
.179
.274
.300
.200
.220
.271
.227
.183
.264

1 Motormen and conductors worked interchangeably.
2 One-man cars.
3 Not computed; actual rates not reported for all employees.

.268
.157
.222
.217
.224
.277
.230
.280
.270
.262
.201
1
.204
.224
.161
.173
.291
.188
.237
.255
.230
1.383
.270
.300
.200
.257
.226
.177
.261

85

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
T able

3 .—A V E R A G E R A T E OF W A G E S OF M OTORM EN AN D CONDUCTORS—Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence— Continued.

Average rate of wages per hour of—
City.

Motormen.
Regular.

Iowa City, Iowa.......................................................................
Ironton, Ohio...........................................................................
Tshpftmin^ Mich.. „ „. . . . . .
.....
. ...............
Jackson, Mich...........................................................................
Jackson, Miss............................................................................
Jackson, Tp,nn,i
,, .
Jamestown, N. Y ....................................................................
....
..............................
Janesville, W is.1 .............
Johnstown, Pa..........................................................................
Joliet, 111....................................................................................
Kalam azoo, Mich. . . - - ____
TCanlraVfift, 1 1 .
1
Keene, N. H .............................................................................
___ „
Kp.nosna, W is .....................
Kingston, TT V
s,
KnmrvillP! Tp.frn ..................... ...............................
Kolmmo, ind , . _
. . .
_
............................. ........
Laconia, N. H ..........................................................................
La Crosse, W is..........................................................................
Lake Charles, L a......................................................................
Lancaster, Ohio 2.....................................................................
Lancaster, Pa...........................................................................
Lansing, Mich..........................................................................
Laporte, Ind..............................................................................
La Salle, 111
..........................................................................
Lawrence, Kans.1....................................................................
Lawrence, Mass........................................................................
Leavenworth, Kans................................................................
Lebanon, Pa.............................................................................
Lewiston and Augusta, Me...................................................
Lexington, K y ..........................................................................
Lockport, N. Y .1......................................................................
Logansport, Ind.......................................................................
Lynchburg, V a .........................................................................
Lynn, Mass...............................................................................
McAlester, Okla.......................................................................
Macon, Ga.................................................................................
Madison, W is............................................................................
Mankato, Minn.........................................................................
Manistee, Mich.1......................................................................
Mansfield, Ohio........................................................................
Marietta, Ohio..........................................................................
Marinette, Wis. (see Menominee, Mich.)
Marion, Ind...............................................................................
Marion, Ohio. . . .
...........................................................
Marlboro, Mass. (see Worcester, Mass.).
Marquette, Mich......................................................................
Marshalltown, Iowa1__
«
.
..............................
Mason City, Iowa........... '........................................................
Meadville, P a ...........................................................................
Menominee, Mich., and Marinette, W is.............................
Meriden, Conn..........................................................................
Meridian, Miss..........................................................................
Michigan City, Ind..................................................................
Middletown, Conn...................................................................
Middletown, N. Y ...................................................................
Milford, Franklin, and Plainville, Mass.............................
Milford, Mass............................................................................
Millville, N. J ..........................................................................
Missoula, Mont.1 .....................................................................
Moline, 111..................................................................................
Montgomery, Ala
Montpelier, Vt. (see Barre, Vt.).
Mount Vernon and New Kochelle, N. Y .
Muncie, Ind
......................................................................
Muskegon, Mich
.
. . .
Nanticoke, Pa...........................................................................
Nashua. N. H ...........................................................................

$0,208
.233
.210
.254
.197
.159
.204
.153
.259
.246
.254
.216
.220
.235
.185
.225
.201
.189
.200
.245
.209
.221
.177
.181
.254
.220
.200
.193
.266
* 56.790
.220
.199
.186
.275
.196
.238
.265
.256
.185
.212
.200
.200
.238
.218
.221
.193
.220
.257
.214
.238
.199
.257
.181
.275
.266
-.217
4.274
.283
.177
.366
.251
.165
.267
.211
.234
.240
.267

Extra.

Conductors.
Regular.
$0.220
.234
.210
.250
.201
.159
.201
.153
.258
.245
.255
.216
.220
.220
.220
.207
.187
.200
.245
.207
.219
.182
.251
.230
.200
.264
3 56.410
.222
.199
.178
.198
.257
.259
.253
.188
.212
.....................
.203 1
.225 1
.....................
.188 !.....................
.214 1
.....................
.189 1
.....................
.220 .....................
.200
.230
.186
.256
.184
.275
.261
.212
< .272
.280
.177
.258
.168
.265
.205
.235
.240
.272

1 One-man cars.
2 One-man cars, except on special days when school boys were employed,
s Per month.
* Conductors and motormen worked interchangeably.




Extra.

.....................
1
.....................
1
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................

86
T able

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STATES.
3 .—

AVERAGE RATE OF WAGES OF MOTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS—Continued.

II.—
Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Continued.
Average rate of wages per hour of—
City.

Motormen.
Regular.

New Albany and Jeffersonville, Ind.1.........
Newburgh, N. Y ................................................
Newcastle, Pa. (see Youngstown, Ohio).
New Lonclon, Conn. (see Norwich, Conn.).
Newport, R. I ....................................................
Newport News and Hampton, Va.................
New Rochelle, N . Y . (see Mount Vernon, N . Y .).
Newton, Waltham, and near-by towns, J'
Niagara Falls, N . Y .
Norristown, Pa.
North Adams, Mass. (see Pittsfield, Mass.).
Northampton, Mass....................................................
North Yakima, Wash................................................
Norton and Taunton, Mass......................................
Norwalk, Conn............................................................
Norwich, Willimantic, and New London, Conn.
Ogden, Utah.................................................................
Ogdensburg, N . Y ......................................................
Oil City, Pa........................ .•
........................................
Olean, N . Y ................................................. ...............
Oshkosh, W is...............................................................
Oswego, N . Y ...............................................................
Ottumwa, Iowa...........................................................
Owensboro, K y ...........................................................
Paducah, K y ...............................................................
Parkersburg, W . V a ...................................................
Parsons, Kans.4...........................................................
Pasadena, Cal...............................................................
Passaic, N. J................................................................
Pawtucket, R . I ..........................................................
Peekskill, N . Y ...........................................................
Pensacola, Fla.............................................................
Peru, Ind......................................................................
Phillipsburg, N. J. (see Easton, Pa.).
Phoenix, Ariz...............................................................
Phoenixville, Pa.........................................................
Pine Bluff? Ark...........................................................
Piqua, Ohio................................................................. .
Pittsburg, Kans., and Joplin, Mo...........................
Pittsfield and North Adams, Mass..........................
Plainville, Mass. (see Milford, Mass.).
Plattsburgh, N . Y ......................................................
Plymouth, Mass..........................................................
Pomona, Cal................................................................
Pontiac, Mich.............................................................. .
Portsmouth, N . H ......................................................
Portsmouth, Ohio.......................................................
Pottstown, Pa.............................................................
Pottsville, Pa................................................................
Poughkeepsie, N. Y ................................................... .
Funxsutawney, Pa......................................................
Quincy, 111....................................................................
Quincy, Mass............................................................... .
Raleigh, N. C ................................................................
Reading, Mass...............................................................
Redlands, Cal............... * ..............................................
Richmond, Ind.............................................................
Riverside, Cal................................................................
Roanoke, Va..................................................................
Rockford, 111..................................................................
Rock Island, 111........................................................... .
Rome, Ga.......................................................................
Rome, N . Y . (see Utica, N. Y .).
Rutland, V t ................................................................. .
St. Cloud, Minn.............................................................
St. Joseph, Mo...............................................................
Salem, Mass...................................................................
Salem, Oreg....................................................................

$ 0.

Extra,

Conductors.
Regular.
2 $0.144

.230
.277
.198

.274
.192

.271
.269
.230

.261
.230

.277
.260
.216
.267
.266
.271
.177
.231
.210
.201
.262
.262
.178
.169
.190
.180
.282
.267
.278
.204
.183
.213

.261
.207
.265
.263
.269
.176
.230
.200
.199
.264
.263

(3
)

.159
.190
.274
.258
.277
.206
.187
.218

.232
.200
.195
.189
.260
.277

.224
.200
.188
.189
.260
.271

.195
.246
.270
.320
.209
.245
.198
.265
.221
.258
.180
.266
.280
.213
.277
.230
.223
.265
.163

.201

.185
.236
.266
.298
.218
.243
.195
.265
.217
.200
.194
.256
.184
.263
.289
.212
.279
.224
.217
.259
.166

.221
.173
.234
.267
.266

.217
.104
.228
.262
.272

.210

1 One-man cars on part of runs.
2 Conductors become motormen or enter mterurban service before serving five years.
3 No conductors employed except during summer months.
4 One-man cars,




Extra.

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
T a b l e 3 . —AVERAGE

87

RATE OF WAGES OF MOTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS—Concluded.

II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Concluded.
Average rate of wages per hour of—
City.

Motormen.
Regular.

Extra.

San Bernardino, Cal................................................................
$0,270
San Diego, Cal..........................................................................
.290
San Jose, Cal.:
Company No. 1.................................................................
.295
Company No. 2 .................................................................
.282
Santa Cruz, Cal........................................................................
.269
Saratoga, N . Y . (see Glens Falls, N . Y .).
Sanlt Stft. Marie, Minh. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
......
.223
Schenectady, N . Y ..................................................................
.283
Sedalia, M o..............................................
...........
.195
Selma, Ala.1____ . ______ -. ...... ......... „
................
.200
Shamokin, Pa...........................................................................
.211
Sharon, Pa. (see Youngstown, Ohio).
Shawnee, Okla..........................................................................
.171
Sheboygan, W is.......................................................................
.198
Shreveport, La..........................................................................
.250
Sioux Falls, S. Dak.................................................................
.173
South Bethlehem, P a.............................................................
.190
Southbridge, Mass. (see Webster, Mass.).
Southern division, Public Service Ry.Co.,New Jersey..
.267
Spartansburg, S. C..................................................................
.175
Spencer, Mass. (see Worcester, Mass.) .
Stamford, Conn........................................................................
.254
Stockton, Cal............................................................................
.271
Sunbury, Pa.............................................................................
2.186
Tampa, Fla...............................................................................
.206
Taunton, Mass. (see Norton, Mass.).
Temple, T ex.1.........................................................................
.176
Terre Haute, Ind.....................................................................
.233
Tiffin, Ohio1.............................................................................
.193
Torrington, Conn.....................................................................
.248
Trenton, N. J............................................................................
.260
Trinidad, Colo..........................................................................
.230
Troy, N . Y . (see Albany, N. Y .).
2.213
Tucson, Ariz..............................................................................
Tulsa, Okla...............................................................................
.214
Utica and Rome, N . Y ...........................................................
.276
Vicksburg, Miss........................................................................
.199
Vincennes, Ind.........................................................................
.157
Waco, Tex.................................................................................
.209
Walla Walla, W ash.................................................................
.261
Waltham, Mass. (see Newton, Mass.).
.202
Warren, Pa .............................................................................
Waterbury, Conn.....................................................................
.255
Waterloo and Cedar Falls, Iowa...........................................
.210
Watertown, N. Y ....................................................................
.224
Waterville, Me..........................................................................
.171
Waukegan, 111...........................................................................
.208
Wausau, W is............................................................................
.215
.251
Webb City, Mo.........................................................................
Westfield, Mass ......................................................................
» 2.760
.279
Webster and Southbridge, Mass..........................................
.259
White Plains, N. Y .................................................................
.240
Wilkes-Barre and near-by towns, Pa.................................
.212
Williamsport, Pa.....................................................................
Willimantic, Conn. (see Norwich, Conn.).
.185
Wilmington, N . C ...............................................................
.201
Winona, Minn.1......................................................................
.185
Winston-Salem, N .C ..............................................................
.267
Woburn, Mass..........................................................................
.274
Woonsocket, R . I .....................................................................
.272
Worcester, Spencer, and Marlboro, Mass...........................
.266
Yonkers, N . Y ..........................................................................
.213
York, Pa
. .
....................................................
.308
Youngstown, Ohio, Sharon and Newcastle, Pa...............




1 One-man cars.
2 Motormen and conductors worked interchangeably,
s Per day.

Conductors.
Regular.
$0,266
.294
.293
.274
.269
.222
.281
.192
.211
.168
.198
.246
.184
.190
.263
.171
.251
.271
2.186
.200
.240
.245
.260
.233
2. 213
.212
.275
.205
.156
.209
.255
.195
.244
.210
.224
.171
.223
.204
.244
3 2.740
.275
.245
.240
.212
.190
.184
.260
.275
.269
.262
.207
.307

Extra.

88

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

Table 4, the figures of which are taken from Table A, relates to
rates of wages at which motormen and conductors enter the service,
the number of men working at each initial or entrance rate, the
total number engaged in the occupation, and the per cent of all em­
ployees in the occupation that are working at the initial rate. The
object of the table is to afford a ready comparison of the entrance
rates of the several companies, and to show the percentage of the
employees of each company that are working at such lowest rate.
Section I of this table covers the cities visited by agents of the
bureau; Section II covers the cities from which data were obtained
by correspondence. In Section I, as well as Section II, regular
and extra men are combined, so that the occupation is treated
as a whole. The first line of Section I, for example, shows that
motormen in Altoona entered the service at 20 cents per hour.
Seventeen men were working at this rate, which number constitutes
18 per cent of the 96 motormen employed by the company. An
analysis of Section I of the table shows that in six instances the initial
rate for motormen is a flat rate and consequently covers all employees.
The initial rate is paid to not more than 56 per cent of the motor­
men in any other company. In 2 companies the initial rate covers
50 and 56 per cent of the motormen employed, respectively. In 1
company it covers 49 per cent; in 12 companies from 30 to 39 per
cent; in 27 companies from 20 to 29 per cent; in 28 companies from
10 to 19 per cent, and in 22 companies under 10 per cent of all motor­
men employed. In two instances no motorman was at the time
working at the initial rate paid by the company.
A larger proportion of conductors than of motormen are working
at the entrance rate, due to the larger per cent of change in the per­
sonnel of this occupation, as compared with motormen, which differ- ence is brought out by the figures in Table 29, on pages 194 to 203.
In Section I there were 6 companies paying a flat rate to conductors.
In 3 companies the initial rate included from 60 to 68 per cent of
all conductors employed, in 6 companies 50 to 59 per cent, in 7
companies 40 to 49 per cent, in 17 companies 30 to 39 per cent, in 25
companies 20 to 29 per cent, in 23 companies 10 to 19 per cent, and in
13 companies under 10 per cent, including 1 company in which no
conductor was at the time working at the entrance rate. The
reader can make a like analysis of Section II for himself.




CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

89

Table 4 .—R A T E

OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH COM PAN Y A T BEG IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, AND N U M B ER A N D PER CENT W O R K IN G A T SUCH R A T E .
I.—Cities from which data were obtained by special agents.

MOTORMEN.

City.

Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
pation.
service.
rate.

Altoona, Pa...............................................................................
Atlanta, Ga.............. ......................... ....... ... r..................
Binghamton, N. Y .................................................................
Birmingham, Ala....................................................................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. C o .Elevated lines............................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ...........................................................................
Butte, Mont..............................................................................
Charleston. S. C........................................................................
Charlotte, N. C.........................................................................
Chattanooga, Tenn..................................................................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways........................................... /
\

$0 .2 0
.17
. 17
.2 0

. 18
.261
.291
.24
.23
. 38$
.17
.15
.18
2 . 30£
3. 32~
.23
.2 0

Cleveland, Obio______________ _________________________
Dallas, Tex.:

.27

41
70

96
413
41
82
230

18
4
27
50
30

77

2,214

10

111

27
128
1 18
18
7
9

135
664
i 132

17
18
11

a 12
38

66

|

78
61
249

3
9
20
19
14
27

57
108

.2 0
51
Northern Texas Traction Co. (Oak Cliff division of
.2 0
15
Fort Worth lin e s).......................................................
12
.23
Davenport, Iowa.....................................................................
.24
26
Denver, Colo .........................................................................
.24
9
Des Moines, Iowa ..................................................................
.25
133
Detroit, Mich .........................................................................
. 19
12
Evansville, Ind ......................................................................
/
.2 2
3
Grand Rapids, Mich............................................................... 1
.23
24 }
.2 0
19
Houston Tex
.
. .....................................................
.2 1
136
Indianapolis, Ind.....................................................................
.19
Jacksonville, Fla......................................................................
68
.2 2
134
Kansas City, Mo......................................................................
.2 0
Lincoln, Nebr...........................................................................
20
Little Rock, Ark......................................................................
.18
14
.25
229
Los Angeles, Cal......................................................................
.2 1
4
Louisville, K y ..........................................................................
.24
22
Lowell, M ass...........................................................................
.23
14
Manchester, N. H ..................................................................
.17
70
Memphis, Tenn...................... ................................................
.23
87
Milwaukee, Wis.......................................................................
.23
222
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn..........................................
.19
26
Mobile Ala
............................................ - ...................
.18
52
Nashville, Tenn.......................................................................
.23
53
Newark, N. J............................................................................
.25
21
New Bedford, Mass.................................................................
.2 2
9
New Britain, Conn..................................................................
.2 2
91
New Haven, Conn...................................................................
4 .24
728
New Orleans, La......................................................................
New York, N. Y .:
606
.21
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co..........................................
.2 2
119
New York & Queens County Ry. Co..........................
New York Rys. Co.—
&.2 1
6 16
Horse-car lines...........................................................
4 . 25
80
Storage-battery car lines..........................................
5 . 25
476
All except horse and storage-battery car lines...
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
.24
128
The Bronx..................................................................
.25
209
Manhattan..................................................................
Interborough Rapid Transit C o .39
6 .30
Elevated lines............................................................
6 .30
11
Subway lines..............................................................
. 30
18
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated lines)............
31
.18
Norfolk Va ...........................................................................
.30
76
Oakland, Cal.............................................................................
.2 0
8
Oklahoma City, Okla.............................................................
1 Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
2 All divisions except the Northwestern.
3 Northwestern division only.
4 Flat rate.
&
Computed from daily rate on 10-hour-day basis.
• Drivers.




Per cent
at initial
rate.

12
8

383
4,212
798
1,129

5
2
8
22

179

28

49
91
333
190

31
13

1 ,2 0 1

73

15
6

190
386
1 22

805
83
77
1,040
464
152
65
260
589
1,067

8

5
11

16
16
10

35
56
17
24
18
22
1

14
22

27
15
21

86
211

30
25

627
102

8
21

39
333
728

1 00

2,282
244

27
49

23
27

6 47

34

80
1,662

100

552
712

23
29

415
213
280
105
450
71

9
5

29

6

30
17
11

90

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

' Table 4.—R A T E

OF W A G E S PER H OU R PAID B Y EACH COM PANY A T BE G IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, AN D N U M BER AN D PER CENT W O R K IN G A T SUCH R A T E —Continued.
I.—Cities from which data were obtained by special agents—Continued.
M OTO R M EN—Concluded.

Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
service.
pation.
rate.

City.

Omaha, Nebr............................................................................

$0.24
.23

Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit C o .Elevated lines............................................................

72
149

.28
.25
.23*
.20
.25
.23
.23
2.23
.18
.24
.29
.20
.23
.28
. 20

309
1 175

Per cent
at initial
rate.
23
28

100
28
5
17
29
9
19
11

115
114
30
17

115
927
77
154

100
12
39
11

.25
2.37*
.25
.20
.19

80
9
5
9
20

434
9
37
67
58

18
100
14
13
34

. 26
. 26
. 19
3 25
.
.22
.22
. 24
.23
.23
.20

13
26
24
4
21
10
11
16
113
15

95
128
83
234
71
35
257
132
353
58

14
20
29
2
30
29
4
12
32
26

2
.22*
.21|
.22
.20

321
103
26
8

321
410
81
70

100
25
32
11

.18*
.21

Sacramento, Cal.......................................................................
Saginaw, Mich..........................................................................
St. Louis, Mo ..........................................................................
Salt Lake City, Utah..............................................................
San Antonio, Tex ..................................................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
Municipal Railways of San Francisco.........................
United Railroads of San Francisco..............................
Savannah, Ga...........................................................................
Scranton, Pa.............................................................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co................
Seattle Municipal Street R y ..........................................
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. Co............................
Sioux City, Iowa......................................................................
South Bend, Ind......................................................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. Co...........................
The Washington Water Power Co...............................
Springfield 111 ........................................................................
Springfield, Mass......................................................................
Springfield, Ohio.....................................................................
Superior, W is...........................................................................
Syracuse, N. Y .........................................................................
Tacoma, Wash.........................................................................
Toledo, Ohio.............................................................................
Topeka, T<Ta.ns.........................................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co.........................................................
Washington Railway & Electric Co............................
Wheeling, W . V a .....................................................................
Wichita, Kans ........................................................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. Co................................................................
Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Co...................

110
67
23
17
15
132
36
21

2
.37*
.25
. 17
.22

Portland, Oreg..........................................................................

45
2,956
1,347
150
471
645
50
110
237
429
100
51
1,436
185
184

14
15

46
91

30
16

30
21
9
55
129

93
422
40
86
265

5
23
64
49

141
10
35
226

2,248
76
139
686
(4)
71
64

61
40
14
45
42

2
3
9
10
7

CONDUCTORS.
Altoona, Pa.....................................
Atlanta, Ga.....................................
Augusta, Ga...................................
Binghamton, N. Y ........................
Birmingham, Ala..........................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. C o Surface lines.....................
Elevated lines.................
Brockton, Mass..............................
Buffalo, N. Y .................................
Butte, Mont...................................
Charleston. S. C.............................
Charlotte, N. C ..............................

SO 20
.
.17
.17
.20
.18
.26*
.25
.24
.23
•38*
.17
.15

(4)

21
11

1Including extra men (motormen and conductors) who worked interchangeably).
2 Flat rate.
s Computed from daily rate on 9-hour-day basis.
4 See Motormen.




32

6
13
25

30
17

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

91

Table 4.—R A T E

OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH COM PANY A T BE G IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, A N D N U M BER AN D PER CENT W O R K IN G A T SUCH R A T E —Continued.
I.—Cities from which data were obtained by special agents—Continued.
CONDUCTORS—Continued.

City.

Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
pation.
service.
rate.

Chattanooga, Tenn..................................................................
Chicago, 111.:

$0.18
f
\

Olfivelfvnri, Ohio.______________________________________
Dallas, Tqx.:
Dallas Electric Corporation...........................................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff division of
Fort Worth lines...........................................................
Davenport, Iowa.....................................................................
Denver, Colo.............................................................................
Des Moines, Iowa....................................................................
Oranri "Rapids, Minh_______________________ ___________
Tndiarm.pnlisJTnrl_____________________________________
Kansas City Mo____________ •
_________________________
Lincoln, Nebr...........................................................................
Little Rock, Ark......................................................................
Los Angeles, Cal......................................................................
Louisville, K y ..........................................................................
Lowell, Mass.............................................................................
Manchester, N. H ....................................................................
Memphis, Tenn.......................................................................
Milwaukee, W is.......................................................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn..........................................
Mobile, Ala...............................................................................
Nashville, Tenn.......................................................................
Newark, N. J............................................................................
New Bedford, Mass.................................................................
New Britain, Conn..................................................................
New Haven, Conn..................................................................
New Orleans, La......................................................................
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co..........................................
New York & Queens County Ry. Co..........................
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines...........................................................
Storage-battery car lines.........................................
All except horse and storage-battery car lines...
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx.................................................................
/
Manhattan.................................................................. \
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines............................................................
Subway lines
.......................................................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated lines)............
Norfolk, V a ...............................................................................
Oakland, Cal............................................................................
Oklahoma City, Okla ...........................................................
Omaha, Nebr............................................................................
Peoria, 111.................................................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines
..................................................
Surface lines...............................................................
Pittsburgh, Pa.........................................................................
Portland, Me............................................................................
Portland, O reg........................................................................
Providence, R . I ......................................................................
Pueblo, Colo ............................................................................
Reading. Pa............................................................. ...............




1.25*
2
.24
.23
.20
.27

20
151
35 |
138
140
314

Per cent
at initial
rate.

Ill

18

338
4,280
807
1,177

17
3
17
27

.20

52

164

32

.20
.23
.24
.24
.25
. 19
.23
.20
.21
. 19
.22
.20
. 18
. 25
. 21
.24
.23
. 17
.23
.23
. 19
. 18
. 23
.25
.22
.22
4. 24

10
16
92
38
165
17
42
42
161
65
200
24
26
333
2
26
20
92
111
238
38
69
106
24
11
82
755

41
89
419
197
1,197
73
166
193
378
124
821
82
82
1,063
473
146
72
280
636
1,056
85
229
643
104
35
329
755

24
18
22
19
14
23
25
22
43
52
24
29
32
31

. 24
.22

724
134

2,358
227

31
59

5 21
.
6. 22J
5.24

32
76
929

54
76
1,617

59
100
57

.24
7.22
8.24

349
7 127
8 277 }
l
J
30
30
40
36
94
21
112
2

585
746

60
54

333
177
248
103
451
65
314
106

9
17
16
35
21
32
36
2

37
2,920
1,340
146
531
642
50
107

4
5
10
15
7
2
100

5.23*
5.23*
.23
.18
.30
.20
.24
.23
.25
.25
.23*
.20
.25
.23
.23
4.23 1

111
71
15
80
46
1
107

1 Regular men.
2 Extra men, flat rate.
s Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
4 Flat rate.
&
Computed from daily rate on 10-hour-day basis.
6 Computed from flat daily rate on 10-hour-day basis.
7 Flat rate; on storage-battery cars.
8 On other than storage-battery cars.

(3
)

18
28
33
17
23
45
30
16
23
31
25
100

92

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E UNITED STATES.

TABLE 4.—R A T E

OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH CO M P AN Y A T B E G IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, AN D N U M BER A N D PER CENT W O R K IN G A T SUCH R A T E —Continued.
I.—Cities from which data were obtained by special agents—Concluded.
CONDUCTORS—Concluded.
Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
service.
rate.
pation.

City.

Richmond, Va ........................................................................

Per cent
at initial
rate.

$0.18
93
245
.24
54
461
Sacramento, Cal.......................................................................
.29
19
97
Saginaw, Mich..........................................................................
.20
27
51
381
St. Louis, Mo............................................................................
.23
1,494
44
.28
Salt Lake City, Utah ............................................................
183
Ran Antonio, T e x . ...... ______
_________ ____ ___
.20
36
187
San Francisco, Cal.:
.25
16
65
Municipal Railways of San Francisco.........................
116
116
138
United Railroads of San Francisco..............................
.25
939
.17
Savannah, Ga...........................................................................
47
69
Scranton, P a .................................................................. .........
.22
28
162
Seattle, Wash.:
.25
98
474
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co.................
Seattle Municipal Street R y..........................................
*•37*
10
10
4
.25
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. Co ..........................
37
.20
16
Sioux City, Iowa......................................................................
64
.19
15
South Bend, Ind......................................................................
53
Spokane, Wash.:
22
.26
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. Co............................
97
.26
19
The Washington Water Power Co...............................
126
.19
33
81
Springfield, 111
....................................................................
*.25
8
Springfield, Mass......................................................................
239
.22
29
................................................................
Springfield, Ohio
71
.22
10
38
Superior, W is...........................................................................
Syracuse, N. Y .........................................................................
.24
21
259
.23
29
Tacoma, W a s h ........................................................................
140
132
344
.23
Toledo, Ohio.............................................................................
Topeka, Kan.q...........................................................................
.20
26
53
Washington, D. C.:
!.22i
320
Capital Traction Co .....................................................
320
135
Washington Railway & Electric Co............................
408
.21*
.22
13
Wheeling, W . V a .....................................................................
80
Wichita, Kans ........................................................................
.20
18
58
Wilmington, Del.:
.18*
20
47
People’ s Ry. C o ...............................................................
.21
16
Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Co...................
94

38
12
20
53
26
24
19
25
100
15
68
17
21
100
11
25
28
23
15
41
3
41
26
8
21
38
49
100
33
16
31
43
17

II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence.
M O TO R M EN .
Aberdeen, Wash....................................................
Adrian, Mich..........................................................
Akron, Ohio...........................................................
Albany, Cohoes, and Troy, N . Y .....................
Allentown, Pa........................................................
Alliance, Ohio........................................................
Alton, 111.................................................................
Amsterdam, N. Y . (see Gloversville, N. Y .).
Anderson, Ind........................................................
Ann Arbor. Mich...................................................
Anniston, A la.........................................................
Appleton, W is........................................................
Asbury Park, N. J................................................
Asheville, N .C ......................................................
Ashland, W is.........................................................
Ashtabula, Ohio....................................................
Atchison, Kans. 4..................................................
Athens, Ga..............................................................
Attleboro and North Attleboro, Mass..............
Auburn, N. Y ........................................................
Augusta, Me. (see Lewiston, Me.).
Aurora, 111...............................................................
Austin, Tex............................................................
Bakersfield, Cal......................................................
Bangor, Me..............................................................
Barre and Montpelier, V t ....................................




$0.25
.17
.25
1.28
.23
1.17
1.263

33
3
49
474
19
9
25

3 29
6
122
474
108
9
25

10
50
40
100
18
100
100

.19
.22
.17
.18
1.188
.19
.17
.18
.18
.145
.23
.23

1
2
89

16
14
8 30
35
40
48
7
20
18
334
41
50

6
14
30

.235
.16
.27
.205
.19

40
6
1
1
2
a 12
1
9
8
»15
18
4

1 Flat rate.
3 Computed from daily rate on 9-hour-day basis.
8 Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
4 One-man cars.

38
»83
16
24
16

100
13
14
5
11
35
2
18
21
18
75
25

93

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

Table 4.—R A T E

OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH COM PAN Y A T B E G IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, AN D N U M B E R AN D PER CENT W O R K IN G A T SUCH R A T E —Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Continued.

MOTORMEN-Continued.

City.

.................................................... - ..................
Bay City, Mich

Bergen division, Public Service Ry. Co., New Jersey.. .
Bloomington, 111......................................................................
Boone, Iowa..............................................................................
Bridgeport, Conn ..................................................................
Bridgeton, N. J........................................................................
Bristol, Conn . . . _____________________________________
Broad Ripplft, Tnri. __________________________ _____
Burlington, Iowa.....................................................................
Cambridge, O h io ....................................................................
Canton, Ohio............................................................................
Carlisle, Pa.:
Company No. 1.................................................................
Company No. 2 .............................................................
Cedar Falls, Iowa (see Waterloo, Iowa).
Central division. Public Service Ry. Co., New Jersey...
Charleston, W . V a ...................................................................
Charlottesville, Va.1 ...............................................................
Chelsea, Mass............................................................................
Cheyenne, W yo.1 ....................................................................
Clinton, Fitchburg, and Leominster, Mass.......................
Cohoes, N. Y . (see Albany, N. Y .).
Colorado Springs, Colo...........................................................
Columbia, S. C..........................................................................
Columbus, Ga...........................................................................
Columbus, Ohio.......................................................................
Corning, N. Y ........................................................................
Cortland, N. Y
...................................................................
Council Bluffs, Iowa...............................................................
Danbury, Conn........................................................................
Danville, 111..............................................................................
Danville, V a .............................................................................
Dayton, Ohio:
Company No. 1.................................................................
Company No. 2 .................................................................
Decatur, 111..
....................................................................
Derby, Conn.............................................................................
Dover, N . H .............................................................................
Dubuque, Iowa........................................................................
Duluth, Minn.............................................................. ...........
Dunkirk, N . Y .........................................................................
Durham N. C ..........................................................................
East Liverpool, Ohio..............................................................
Easton, Pa., and Phillipsburg. N . J ...................................
Eau Claire, W is.......................................................................
Elgin, 111....................................................................................
Elkhart, Ind.............................................................................
Elmira, N. Y ............................................................................
El Paso, Tex.............................................................................
Elwood, In d .............................................................................
Enid, Okla.1 ..................................................... !......................
Erie, Pa.....................................................................................
Escanaba, Mich ....................................................................
Eureka, Cal...............................................................................
Everett, Wash.........................................................................
Fargo, N. Dak..........................................................................
Findlay, Ohio1.........................................................................
Fitchburg, Mass. (see Clinton, Mass.).
Flint, Mich...............................................................................
Fond du Lac, W is...................................................................
Fort Dodge, Iowa....................................................................




Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
pation.
service.
rate.

Per cent
at initial
rate.
100
16
33
33
4
29
9
25
20
3
17
17
100
16

3 21
3
*1
20

5
37
42
33
52
35
45
20
41
36
6
171
21
19
13
» 61
19
*•18
67

3
4

3
4

100
100

.21
.23
.20
.135
.24
.225
.23

1
13
6
2
63
5

9
209
30
17
211
1
30

U
6
20
12
30
20

.25
.155
.16
.205
.17
.18
.24
.22
.222
. 177

11
16
15
14

64
107
30
329
16
13
58
25
55
15

17
15
50
4

135
34
41
35
30
* 109
162
4
22
40
70
30
32
15
67
77
3
12
84
9
24
20
20
11

39
38

2 SO.18
.23
.20
.20
.22
.22
.23
.155
.214
.24
.20
.225
2.19
.225
.19
.17
.171
.19
.25
2.15
2.15

&.27
5.27
. 20
.225
. 21
.17
.22
.23
.15
.24
.23
.18
.235
. 19
.19
.20
.19
.20
.23
.16
2.275
.22
.19
.175
.25
.18
.21

5
6
14
11
2
10
4
5
8
1
1
29
21
3

6
13
1
15
5
52
13
11
7
<7
43
11
8
9
3
5
3
26
24
1
2
20
24
6
8
4
4
3
3

1 One-man cars,
a Flat rate.
a Motormen and conductors; not reported separately.
* Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
6 Night men, 26 cents.

44

9
8

34
16
6
30

46
22
4
27
33

31
23
6
27
50
20
13
10
16
20
39
31
33
17
24
100
30
40
36
9
33
38

94

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

4 .—R A T E OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH COM PANY A T B E G IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, AN D N U M B ER A N D PER CENT W O R K IN G A T SUCH R A T E —Continued.

T able

II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence— Continued.
M O TO R M EN —Continued.

City.

FraTrnngham, Mass____
_____
_
. . _____
Frankfort, K y .1 ......................................................................
Franklin, Mass. (see Milford, Mass.).
Fresno, Cal...........................
____
_________
Gadsden, A la............................................................................
Galesburg, 111............................................................................
Galveston, Tex.........................................................................
Gardner, Mass, ,. ........................ ....................
Gary, Ind...................................................................................
Geneva, N. Y ...........................................................................
Glens Falls and Saratoga, N. Y ...........................................
Gloucester, Mass...........
.......................................
Gloversville, Johnstown, and Amsterdam, N. Y „ . . .
Grand Junction, Colo.1 ..........................................................
Great Falls, Mont.1 ................................................................
Green Bay, W is........................................................................
Greenfield, Mass......................................................................
Greenville, S. C ........................................................................
......................................... ..
TTfi.mmnnn; Tnrl _...........
Hampton, Va. (see Newport News, Va.).
Hannibal, Mo...........................................................................
Harrisburg, Pa.........................................................................
Hartford, Conn.........................................................................
Hazleton, Pa.............................................................................
Helena, Mont .........................................................................
Henderson, K y.1 .....................................................................
Holyoke, Mass..........................................................................
Homestead, Pa.........................................................................
Homell,N. Y ...........................................................................
Hot Springs, Ark.1 .................................................................
Hudson division, Public Service Ry. Co., New Jersey..
Huntington, W . V a................................................................
Hutchinson, Kans...................................................................
Hyde Park, Mass....................................................................
Iowa City, Iowa.......................................................................
Ironton, O h io ........................................................................
Ishpeming, Mich......................................................................
Jackson, Mich...........................................................................
Jackson, Miss............................................................................
Jackson, Tenn.1 .......................................................................
Jamestown, N Y ....................................................................
Janesville, W is .1 ................................. ....................................
Jeffersonville, Ind. (see New A lbany, N. Y .).
Johnstown, N . Y . (see Gloversville, N. Y .).
Johnstown, P a ..........................................................................
Joliet, 111.....................................................................................
Joplin, Mo. (see Pittsburg, Kans.).
Kalamazoo, Mich....................................................................
Kankakee, 111........................................ .................................
Keene, N . H .............................................................................
Kenosha, W is...........................................................................
Keokuk, Iow a...........................................................................
Kingston, N. Y ........................................................................
Knoxville, Tenn.....................................................................
K okom o, Ind............................................................................
Laconia, N. H ..........................................................................
La Crosse, W is.........................................................................
La Fayette, Ind.....................................................................
Lake Charles, La.............................................................
Lancaster, Ohio 5 ..................................................................
Lancaster, Pa...............................................................
Lansing, Mich...........................................................................
Laporte, Ind.............................................................................
La Salle, 111...............................................................................
Lawrence, Kans.1 .................................................................. 1

Rate at be­ Number at Total num­• Per cent
ginning of such initial ber in occu­■ at initial
pation.
rate.
service.
rate.
$0.18
.19
.20
.235
.16

2
14
9
9

41
93
128
61
10

5
15
7
15

.20
.25
.14
.20
.20
.20
.20
(2
)
3.28
.24
.23
.18
.20
.344
.18
.20
.14
.15
.23

6
10
3
9
21
5
3

50
21
27
26
31
10
10

41
6
4
7
2
1
4
3
7
3
1

12
47
11
35
68
50
29
3
41
50
37
16
4
22
17
30
23
24
32

100
12
11
44
50
5
> 24
10
30
13
3

.15
.21
.225
.23
.33
.15
.23
8.30
3.20
.206
.23
.20
.17
.24
.19
.20
8
.21
.23
.14
.15
.19
.16

13
32
18
<3
2
9
5
11
9
30
14
2
8
4
2
3
4
1
11
35
5

7
115
263
18
<37
12
80
5
11
35
536
41
12
57
12
12
3
45
30
19
77
8

11
12
100
8
17
11
100
100
26
6
34
17
14
33
17
100
9
3
58
45
63

.22
.21

6
20

79
64

8
31

.23
.19
.22
.21
.18
.19
.17
.18
3.20
.21
.18
.20
.16
.18
.23
.19
3.20
.18

6
3
4
5
<15
3
15
8

52
21
4
21
* 22
32
88
14

12
14
100
24
68
9
17
57

33
34
9
12
38
35
3
8
24

9
21
22

(2)

3
7
2
35
6

<2)

8
9
1 One-man cars.
2 Not reported.
8 Flat rate.
4 Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
* One-man cars, except on special days, when school boys were employed.




92
17
100
38

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

95

4 .—R A T E OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH COM PANY A T B E G IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, A N D N U M BER A N D PER CENT W O R K IN G AT SUCH R A T E —Continued.

Table

II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Continued.

MOTORMEN—Continued.

City.

Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
service.
pation.
rate.

Per cent
at initial
rate.

$0.24
12
Lawrence, Mass........................................................................
86
LeavenW^rf.h, Kans, - .................. .
150.00
. . . . . . . . _______
2
21
Lebanon, Pa.............................................................................
.18
n
>8
Leominster, Mass. ( see Clinton, Mass.).
.19
2i
Lewiston and Augusta, Me...................................................
48
2
Lexington, K y..........................................................................
.16
33
4
Lockport, N. Y . 3....................................................................
17
Logansport, Tnd.,
_____________________
.18
8
22
Lynchburg, V a ........................................................................
.20
9
51
.24
Lynn, Mass..
.. .................................... ........ ........
36
169
.22
10
McAlester, Okla.......................................................................
11
.16
Macon, Ga.................................................................................
73
15
.19
38
Madison, W is............................................................................
1
Mankato, Mrrvn. .....................................
................
.15
6
Manistfip Mich 8
_
. _ ________ ____ ___
4 .20
10
10
.18
Mansfield, Ohio........................................................................
20
.175
Marietta, Ohio..........................................................................
13
Marinette, Wis. (see Menominee, Mich.).
Marion, Ind...............................................................................
.19
17
.18
Marion, Ohio.............................................................................
6
19
Marlboro, Mass. (see Worcester, Mass.).
4.22
4
4
Marquette, Mich......................................................................
.265
2
12
Marshalltown, Iowa3..............................................................
.185
Mason City, Iowa....................................................................
9
8
.22
Meadville, Pa............................................................................
29
Menominee, Mich., and Marinette, W is.............................
4
30
.17
12
Meriden, Conn..........................................................................
.225
54
4
Meridian, Miss.........................................................................
.15
28
4 .275
6
6
Michigan City, Ind..................................................................
Middletown, Conn...................................................................
.225
25
Middletown, N . Y ...................................................................
12
.18
2
Milford, Franklin, and Plainvilla, M a ss...........................
.23
18
1
Milford, Mass............................................................................
.24
25
6 13
Millville^ N. J............................................................................
.17
MO
6
18
Missoula, Mont.3
......................................................................
.35
7
18
Moline, 111 ................................................................................
.23
Montgomery, Ala.....................................................................
64
.15
23
Montpelier, Vt .(s ee Barre, Vt.).
Mount Vernon and New Rochelle, N. Y ...........................
.24
101
10
2
Muncie, Ind...............................................................................
.19
21
Muskegon, Mich .....................................................................
.22
34
10
6
6
4 .24
Nanticoke, Pa .........................................................................
2
Nashua, N. H ...........................................................................
.24
19
9
New Albany and Jeffersonville, In d .6
................................
48
.185
Newburgh,"N. Y ......................................................................
4 .23
27
27
Newcastle, Pa. (see Youngstown, Ohio).
New London, Conn. (see Norwich, Conn.).
7
Newport, R. I ..........................................................................
.24
Newport News and Hampton, Va.......................................
40
.18
13
New Rochelle, N. Y . (see Mount Vernon, N. Y .).
Newton, Waltham, and near-by towns, Mass..................
159
.24
60
4
41
Niagara Falls, N. Y .................................................................
.23
62
Norristown,, Pa.........................................................................
4 .23
62
North Adams, Mass. (see Pittsfield, Mass.).
8
•27
Northampton, Mass.................................................................
.25
8
North Yakima, Wash.............................................................
21
.24
Norton and Taunton, Mass...................................................
4
10
.20
5
34
Norwalk, Conn.........................................................................
.225
Norwich, Willimantic, and New London, Conn.............
136
.225
14
39
Ogden, Utah
........................................................................
.25
21
Ogdensburg, N. Y ...................................................................
8
14
7 .17
7
35
Oil City, Pa...............................................................................
.20
1
6
Olean, N. Y .............................................................................
.17
32
Oshkosh, W is............................................................................
.18
10
22
Oswego, N. Y ............................................................................
.23
1
34
Ottumwa, Iowa........................................................................
.21
22
Owensboro, K y ........................................................................
.15
6




1 Per month.
2 Not including some who worked one-half time as conductors.
3 One-man cars.
4 Flat rate.
* Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
6 One-man cars on part of runs.
7 One cent less, Oct. 1 to Apr. 1.

14
10
13
50
6
24
.23
36
18
21
15
39
17
100

32
100
17
28
13
22
14
100
11
4
33
33
39
36
10
10
29
100
11
19
100

33
38
10
100
30
38
40
15
10
54
57
20
17
31
3
27

96

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b le 4 .—R A T E OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH CO M PAN Y A T BE G IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, A N D NU M BER AN D PER CENT W O R K IN G A T SUCH R A T E —Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Continued.
M O TO R M EN —Continued.

City.

Parkersburg, W .V a ................................................................
Passaic, N . J .............................................................................
PfieVslrill, N Y . ........................................................ ...........
Pensacola, Fla*.........................................................................
Peru, Ind...................................................................................
Phillipsburg, N. J. (see Easton, Pa.).
Phoenix, Ariz............................................................................
Pine Bluff j Ark ......................................................................
Pittsburg, Kans., and Joplin, Mo........................................
Pittsfield and North Adorns, JM ____________ ________
asr
Plainville, Mass. (see Milford, Mass.).
Plymouth, Mass.......................................................................
Pomona, Cal..............................................................................
Pontiac, Mich............................................................................
Portsmouth, N. H ...................................................................
Portsmouth, Ohio....................................................................
Pottsville, Pa ..........................................................................
Poughkeepsie, N. Y ................................................................
Punxsutawney, Pa.................................................................
Quincy, 111.................................................................................
J .................................................... *................ .............
Quincy, Mass.............................................................................
Raleigh, N .C ............................................................................
Reading, Mass...........................................................................
Redlands, Cal............................................................................
Richmond, Ind.........................................................................
Riverside, Cal............................................................................
Roanoke, Va..............................................................................
Rockford, 111..............................................................................
Rock Island, 111........................................................................
Rome, Ga...................................................................................
Rome, N. Y . ( see Utica, N. Y .).
Rutland, V t ..............................................................................
St. Cloud. Minn........................................................................
St. Joseph, Mo..........................................................................
Salem, Mass...............................................................................
Salem, Oreg...............................................................................
San Bernardino, Cal................................................................
San Diego, Cal..........................................................................
San Jose, Cal.:
Company No. 1.................................................................
Company No. 2.................................................................
Santa Cruz, Cal.........................................................................
Saratoga, N. Y . ( see Glens Falls, N. Y .).
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich...........................................................
Schenectady, N. Y ...................................................................
Sedalia, Mo................................................................................
Selma, A la.1.............................................................................
Shamokin, Pa...........................................................................
Sharon, Pa. (see Youngstown, Ohio).
Shawnee, Okla..........................................................................
Sheboygan, Wis........................................................................
Shreveport, La..........................................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak..................................................................
South Bethlehem, Pa.............................................................
Southbridge, Mass. (see Webster, Mass.).
Southern division. Public Service Ry. Co., New Jersey..
Spartanburg, S. C ....................................................................
Spencer, Mass. (see Worcester, Mass.).
Stamford, Conn........................................................................
Stockton, Cal.................................................................
Sunbury, Pa..............................................................................
Tampa, Fla...............................................................................




Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
pation.
service.
rate.

Per cent
at initial
rate.

$0.15
.175
2.18
.25
.23
.23
.18
.165
.18

11
1
8
7
19

.22
.19
.16
* .189
.25
.23

12

2.195
.21
.25
.25
.19
.20
.19
.25
.20
.17
.16
.24
.17
.24
.25
.19
.25
.20
.20
.23
.14

3
8

3
52
10
9
1
5
2
8
11
13
5

3
23
7
4
14
30
12
8
27
2
29
144
21
68
6
23
12
40
61
73
23

.18
.152
.21
.24
.22
.25
.27

2
31
14
2
8
55

21
10
125
127
27
20
147

20
25
11
7
40
37

.25
.25
.25

1
14
1

30
77
14

3
18
7

.20
.245
.17
.16
.20

2
3
2

25
2
18

9

8
168
11
11
19

.15
.185
.22
.16
2 .19

2
9
6
6
2

8
21
47
12
2

25
43
13
50
100

.23
.15

14
2

200
22

7
9

.225
.25
.17
.19

8
28
86
28

31
72
8 28
79

26
39
21
35

2
4

9
1

5
1
2
2
8

i One-man
aFlat rate. cars,
8Worked half day as motormen and half day as conductors.

31
27
8
68
166
78
17
26
3

35
4
100
10
11

18
6
21
9
6
95

67

12
15

100
1
100
35
36
3
17
25
30
10
36
48
13
17
22
17
20
18
18
22

47

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

97

T a b le 4 .—R A T E O F W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH COM PANY A T BEG IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, AN D N U M B E R AN D PER CENT W O R K IN G AT SUCH R A T E —Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Continued.

MOTORMEN—Concluded.

Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
pation.
service.
rate.

City.

Taunton, Mass. (see Norton, Mass.).
Temple, Tex.1..........................................................................
Terra Hant.pi, Ind
Tiffin, Ohio1.............................................................................
Torrington, Conn.....................................................................
Trenton, N . J ...........................................................................
Trinidad, Colo.. . .
.................. ..... ......
Troy, N . Y . ( see Albany, N. Y.).
Tucson, Ariz.............................................................................
Tulsa, Okla
...
.
.
.
............................
Utica and Rome, N. Y ...........................................................
Vicksburg, Miss........................................................................'
Vincennes, Ind.........................................................................
Waco, Tex.................................................................................
Walla Walla, W ash .. ; ...........................................................
Waltham, Mass. (see Newton, Mass.).
Warren, Pa...............................................................................
Waterbury, Conn............................ .......................................
Waterloo and Cedar Falls, Iowa..........................................
Watertown, N. Y ....................................................................
Waterville, Me..........................................................................
Waukegan, 111...........................................................................
W ausau, W i s . . .
............................................
Webb City, M o ......................................................................
Westfield, Mass................................................ ......................
Webster and Southbridge, Mass..........................................
White Plains, N. Y ................................................................
Wilkes-Barre and near-by towns, Pa..................................
Williamsport, Pa....................................................................
Willimantic, Conn. (see Norwich, Conn.).
Wilmington, N. C....................................................................
Winona, Minn.1........................................................................
Winston-Salem, N. C .............................................................
Woburn, Mass..........................................................................
W oonsocket, R. I ....................................................................
Wcrcester, Spencer, and Marlboro, M ass...........................
Yonkers, N. Y ..........................................................................
York, Pa....................................................................................
Youngstown, Ohio, Sharon and Newcastle, P a ...............

5
86
4
10
146
8

Per cent
at initial
rate.

$0.14
.21
(2
)
.225
3 .26
.20

3
146
2

.20
.20
.24
.165
.15
.19
.23

<5
5
8
2
7
10
3

48
25
16F

.19
.225
.20
.20
.15
.20
.175
.20
&2.30
.23
.225
3.24
.205

5
21
17
4
4
5

38
17
44
25
24
63

2
3
13
(8)
14

13
122
39
16
17
8
11
50
32
44
47
C
6)
86

7
7
3
5
3
21
15
3
16

24
18
32
34
37
272
117
58
269

29
39
9
15
8
8
13
5
6

6
109
J>19
102
10
24

50
57
100
27
100
100

16
3

13

40
46
7
18

100
13
86
33

36

3

35

.17
.18
.15
.24
.23
.23
.24
.18
.28

-

12
45
16

41
30
100
25
63
20
5
13
58
22
19

6
7
28
16

CONDUCTORS.
Aberdeen, W ash....................................................
Adrian, Mich..........................................................
Akron, Ohio...........................................................
Albany, Cohoes, and Troy, N. Y ......................
Allentown, Pa................. 1....................................
Alliance, Ohio.......................................................
Alton, 111.................................................................
Amsterdam, N. Y . (see Gloversville, N. Y.).
Anderson, Ind........................................................
Ann Arbor, Mich...................................................
Anniston, Ala.........................................................
Appleton, W is.......................................................
Asbury Park, N. J................................................
Asheville, N. C.......................................................
Ashland, W is.........................................................
Ashtabula, Ohio....................................................
Atchison, Kans.9...................................................
Athens, Ga..............................................................
Attleboro and North Attleboro, Mass................

$0.25
.17
.25
3 .28
.23
3 .17
3 .263
.190
.220
.170
.180
3 .188
.190
.170
.180
.180
.145
.230

(7)

3
62
519
28
10
24
2

(7)
(8)

(7)

40
6
6
6
1

1 One-man cars.
2 Rates are based on traffic conditions and hours worked.
3 Flat rate.
* Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
&Per day.
6 Not reported.
7 See Motormen.
8 No conductors employed except during summer months,
9 One-man cars. See Motormen.

39749°—Bull 204— 17-




(7)

(7)
(8)

(7)

98

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b le 4 .—R A T E OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH CO M PAN Y A T B E G IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, A N D N U M B ER AN D PER CENT W O R K IN G A T SUCH R A T E —Continued.
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Continued.
CONDUCTORS—Continued.

Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
service.
pation.
rate.

City.

Auburn, N. Y ...........................................................................
Augusta, Me. (see Lewiston, Me.).
Aurora, III.................................................................................
Austin, Tex...............................................................................
Bakersfield, Cal........................................................................
Bangor, Me................................................................................
Barre and I lontpelier, V t ......................................................
Batavia, N- Y . 2. . # . .................................................................
Battle Cre ‘c, Mich...................................................................
Bay City, M, h .........................................................................

$0,230

6

.235
8
.160
(,) i
.270
.205
20
.190
5
.180
.230
5
.200
18
9
.200
.220
2
Beaver Falls, Pa......................................................................
Bellingham, W ash...................................................................
.220
19
.230
4
Bergen division, Public Service Ry. Co., New Jersey.......
s .155
Biddeford, Me...........................................................................
9
Bloomington, Til__ _____ . . . . . . __________________ _____
.214
12
Boise, Idaho..............................................................................
.240
2
.200
Bridgeport, Conn________ _______________________ ______
.225
32
* .190
20
Bristol Conn__ . .. T r. . . . . . . . . . . __________________
.
.225
3
.190
.170
Burlington, Iowa.....................................................................
0)
.171
3
.190
Cambridge, Ohio......................................................................
Canton, Ohio............................................................................
.250
30
Carlisle, Pa.............. .................................................................
.150
Cedar Falls, Iowa (see Waterloo, Iowa).
1
Cedar Rapids, Iowa.................................................................
.210
51
.230
Central division. Public Service Ry. Co., New Jersey. .
9
.200
Charleston, W . V a .......................... *......................................
.135
Charlottesville, Va.2 .............................................................
88
.240
Chelsea, Mass............................................................................
.225
Cheyenne. W y o 2
.
.........................................
4
Clinton, Fitchburg, and Leominster, Mass.........................
.230
Cohoes, N . Y . (see Albany, N . Y .).
12
.250
Colorado Springs, Colo...........................................................
.155
16
Columbia, S. C .......................................................................
12
.160
Columbus, Ga...........................................................................
.205
17
Columbus, Ohio.......................................................................
Corning, N. Y
......................................................................
.170
13
.180
Cortland, N. Y .........................................................................
22
.240
Council Bluffs, Iowa .............................................................
Danbury, C o n n ......................................................................
.220
.222
10
Danville, 111..............................................................................
5
.177
Danville, V a .............................................................................
Dayton, Ohio:
52
Company No. 1.................................................................
.270
11
Company No. 2.................................................................
.270
.200
Decatur, 111...............................................................................
.225
6
Derby, Conn.............................................................................
.210
Dover,N. H . ..........................................................................
.170
Dubuque, Iowa........................................................................
(
V)
55
.220
Duluth, Minn...........................................................................
.230
Dunkirk, N. Y .........................................................................
12
.150
Durham, N .C ..........................................................................
5
.240
East Liverpool, Ohio..............................................................
8
Easton, Pa., and Phillipsburg, N. J ...................................
.230
1
.180
EauClaire, W is...... ................................................................
.235
12
Elgin, 111....................................................................................
4
.190
Elkhart, Ind.............................................................................
36
.190
Elmira, N. Y ............................................................................
24
.200
El Paso, Tex.............................................................................
.190
Elwood, Ind.............................................................................
.200
Enid, Okla.2.............................................................................
23
.230
Erie, Pa......................................................................................
1
.160
Escanaba, Mich........................................................................
24
* .275
Eureka, Cal .............................................................................
8
.22
Everett, Wash..........................................................................
8
Fargo, N . Dak..........................................................................
.19
.175
Findlav. Ohio2.........................................................................




1 See Motormen.
2 One-man cars. See Motormen.
* Runs of 9 to 10 hours, paid for as 10 hours.
4 Flat rate.

Per cent
at initial
rate.

50

12

36

22

(1) 16
29
12

6
69
42

41
45
32
52
35
41
21
42
37
7
162
20
18
14

12
40
28
4
54
10
43
29

0)

29
20
100
17
16
45
11
25
32

231

38

31

13

59
107
32
311
11
21
63
24
45
13

20
15
38
5

138
28
40
33
21
0)

19
67
4
9
208
28

C)
1

38
39

159
4
22
40
70
20
32
16
65
80
4

35

87
9
24
21
19

62
35
22
38

18

55
13
11
5
38
25
55
30
26
U
100
38
42

CHAP. I.-----WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

99

4 .—R A T E OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH CO M PAN Y A T BEG IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, AN D N U M B E R AN D PER CENT W O R K IN G A T SUCH R A T E —Continued.

T able

II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Continued.

CONDUCTORS—Continued.
Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such init^l ber in occu­
pation.
service.
rate.

City.

Fitchburg, Mass. (see Clinton, Mass.).
.....
Flint, Mich. ............... ..................................
Fond du Lac, W is...................................................................
Fort Dodge, Iowa....................................................................
Fort Smith, Ark......................................................................
Fort Wayne, Tnd ..
. . .
. _
Fort Worth, Tex......................................................................
Framingham, Mass.: Framingham division, Boston &
Worcester Street Ry. Co....................................................
Frankfort, Ky i __ __
___ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Franklin, Mass. (see Milford, Mass.).
Fresno, Cal................................................................................
Gadsden, A la............................................................................
Galesburg, 111............................................................................
Galveston, Tex.........................................................................
fj-ardnftr,
Onry, 1ml.,
.
.......................... . . . .
Geneva, N. Y ...........................................................................
Glens Falls and Saratoga, N. Y ...........................................
Gloversville, Johnstown, and Amsterdam, N .Y ...............
Grand Forks; N. Dak.............................................................
Grand Junction, Colo.1...........................................................
Great Falls, Mont.1.................................................................
Green Bay, Wis ....................................................................
Greenfield, Mass......................................................................
Greensboro, N. C.....................................................................
Greenville, S. C ........................................................................
Hammond, Ind........................................................................
Hampton, Va. (see Newport News, Va.).
Hannibal, Mo...........................................................................
Harrisburg, Pa.........................................................................
Hartford, Conn.........................................................................
Hazleton, Pa.............................................................................
Helena, Mont...........................................................................
Henderson, K y.1......................................................................
Holyoke, Mass..........................................................................
Homestead, Pa.........................................................................
Hornell, N . Y ...........................................................................
Hot Springs, Ark.1..................................................................
Hudson division, Public Service Ry. Co., New Jersey___
Huntington, W . V a................................................................
Hutchinson, Kans..................................................................
Hyde Park, Mass....................................................................
Iowa City, Iowa ..................................................................
Ironton; Ohio...........................................................................
Ishpeming, Mich......................................................................
Jackson, Mich...........................................................................
Jackson, Miss...........................................................................
Jackson, Tenn 1........................................................................
Jamestown, N. Y ....................................................................
Janesville, Wis 1 .....................................................................
Jeffersonville, Ind. (see New Albany, Ind.).
Johnstown, N. Y . (see Gloversville, N. Y .).
Johnstown, Pa.........................................................................
Joliet, 1 1
1
.............................................................................
Joplin, Mo. (see Pittsburg, Kans.).
Kalamazoo, Mich.....................................................................
Kankakee, 111 .......................................................................
Keene, N. H ...........................................................................
Kenosha, W i s .........................................................................
Keokuk, Iowa
................................................- ..................
Kingston, N. Y ........................................................................
Knoxville, Tenn......................................................................
Kokomo, Ind............................................................................
Laconia, N. H ......................................................................
Lacrosse, W is...........................................................................
La Fayette, Ind.......................................................................
Lake Charles, La......................................................................

$0.25
.18
.210
.180
.190
.200

2
1
4
3
29
15

46
8
8
41
93
134

4
13
50
7
31
11

.235
.160

12

63

19

10
3
9
24
11
1

47
9
35
68
43
31
3
43
53
39
14

21
33
26
35
26
3

.200
.250
.140
.200
.200
.200
.200
(2
)
3.28
.24
.23
.18
.20
.344
.18
.20
.14
.15
.23




(2)

43
5
5
6
4
7
7
5

17
33
24
24
32

100
9
13
43
24
21
29
21

14
123
260
18

16
27
100

13
5
13

76
5
13

17
100
100

118
13
8
14

21
29
67
24

3
3
8
1

550
45
12
58
8
14
3
43
27

21
100
19
4

38

74

51

.22
.21

6
20

79
60

8
33

.23
.19
3.22
.21
.18
.19
.17
.18
3
.20
.21
.18
.20

5
3
4
8

51
21
4
19

10
14
100
42

31
82
15

16
5
60

33
33
9

9
15
11

.15
.21
.225
.23
.33
.15
.23
3.30
3.20
.206
.23
.20
.17
.24
.19
.20
3.21
.23
.14
.15
.19
.16

1 One-man cars. See Motormen.
2 Not reported.
3 Flat rate.
<See Motormen.

*

Per cent
at initial
rate.

20
69
18
(4
)

(4
)

W

5
4
9

0

3
5
1

(4
)

(2)

100

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

T ab le 4 .—R A T E OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH COM PANY A T B E G IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, A N D N U M B E R A N D PER CENT W O R K IN G A T SUCH R A T E —Continued
II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Continued.

CONDUCTORS—Continued.

City.

Lancaster, Ohio1......................................................................
Lancaster, Pa............................................................................
Lansing, Mich...........................................................................
Laporte, Ind.............................................................................
La Salle, 111...............................................................................
Lawrence, K ans.:a
Extra men.......................... ..............................................
Regular men......................................................................
Leavenworth, Kans................................................................
Lebanon, Pa.............................................................................
Leominster, Mass. (see Clinton, Mass.).
Lewiston and Augusta, Me................................................
Lexington, K y.........................................................................

Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
pation.
service.
rate.
$0.16
.18
.23
. 19
2.20

8

45
34
2
8

100

3
' 52

23
&16

13
5 13

35
6

.18
.20
4 50.00
.18

25
8

51
36

49
22

6
9
45
1
7
15
1

18
52
166
9
68
38
6

33
17
27
11
10
39
17

3
7

21
14

14
50

.19
.18

1
10

21
20

5
50

2.22
.265
.185
.22
. 17
.225
2 .15
.275

4

4

100

5
11
12
15
6
6

10
28
23
55
28 •
6

50
39
52
27
21
100

25
13
15
27

8
8
7
4

7
13

18
64

39
20

.24
.19
.22
2.24
.24
.135
2.23

18
3
7
6
2
g
26

102
23
37
6
20
20
26

18
13
19
100
10
40
100

.24
.18

24

7
50

48

.24
.23
a .23

25
6
59

148
40
59

17
15
100

4
8
7
3

25
25
10
30

16
32
70
10

.225
.18
.23
.24
.17
.35
.23
.15

•

.25
.24
.20
.225

2
1
1
1
(«)

(6)

1 One-man cars except on special days when schoolboys are employed.
^ Flat rate.
s Oqe-man cars. See Motormen.
* Per month.
bIncluding some who worked one-half time as motormen.
6 See Motormen.
J One-man cars on part of runs.




78
18

.19
.16
.23
.18
.20
.24
.22
.16
.19
.15
2 .20
.18
.175

Logansport, Ind.......................................................................
Lynchburg/ V a .........................................................................
Lynn, Mass. . _____ \ *________ _________________________
McAlester, Okla.......................................................................
Macon, Ga.................................................................................
Madison, W is............................................................................
Mansfield, Ohio........................................................................
Marietta, Ohio..........................................................................
Marinette, Wis. (see Menominee, Mich.).
Marion, Ind...............................................................................
Marion, Ohio.............................................................................
Marlboro, Mass. (see Worcester, Mass.).
Marquette, Mich......................................................................
Marshalltown, Iowa 3..............................................................
Mason City, Iowa....................................................................
Meadville, Pa ........................................................................
Menominee, Mich , and Marinette, W is............................
Meriden, Conn. (Meriden division, Connecticut Co.)........
Meridian, Miss........................................................................
Michigan City, Ind..................................................................
Middletown, Conn. (Middletown division, Connecticut
Co.).........................................................................................
Middletown, N . Y ...................................................................
Miliord, Franklin, and Plainville, Mass............................
Milford, Mass ........................................................................
Millville, N. J...........................................................................
Missoula, Mont.3......................................................................
Moline, 111 ...............................................................................
Montgomery, A la....................................................................
Montpelier, Vt. (see Barre, Vt.).
Mount Vernon and New Rochelle, N. Y ..........................
Muncie, Ind ..........................................................................
................................................................
Muskegon, Mich
Nanticoke, Pa
....................................................................
Nashua, N . H ...........................................................................
New Albany and Jeffersonville, Ind.7.................................
Newburgh, N . Y ......................................................................
Newcastle, P a . (see Youngstown, Ohio).
New London, Conn. (see Norwich, Conn).
Newport, R . I
....................................................................
Newport News and Hampton, V a .....................................
New Rochelle, N . Y . (see Mount Vernon, N . Y.).
Newton, Waltham, and near-by towns, Mass....................
Niagara Falls, N . Y . . . ...........................................................
Norristown, P a........................................................................
North Adams, Mass. (see Pittsfield, Mass.).
Northampton, Mass................................................................
North Yakima, Wash.............................................................
Norton and Taunton, Mass..................................................
Norwalk, Conn. (Norwalk division, Connecticut Co.). . .

Per cent
at initial
rate.

CHAP. I .---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.

101

T able 4*—R A T E OF W A G E S PER H O U R PAID B Y EACH COM PANY A T B E G IN N IN G OF
SERVICE, A N D N U M B ER AN D PER CENT W O R K IN G AT SUCH R A T E —Continued.
•

II.—Cities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Continued.

CONDUCTORS—Continued.

City.

Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
pation.
service.
rate.

14
$0.225
22
.25
7
i .17
.20
6
1
.17
11
.18
1
.23
1
.21
Ottumwa, Iowa........................................................................
.15
(2)
Paducah, K y ............................................................................
16
Parkersburg, W . Va................................................................
.175
15
Parsons, Kans.4........................................................................
3 .18
Pasadena, Cal ............... „................. ...............................
21
.25
Passaic, N. J. (Passaic division, Public Service Ry. Co.).
40
.23
.23
Pawtucket, R. I .......................................................................
1
Peekskill, N. Y ........................................................................
.18
. 165
Peru, Ind...................................................................................
.18
Phillipsburg; N . J. (see Easton, Pa.).
Phnanix, A n /................................ ,
16
.22
Phn^nixvillft; Pa............. .........
.19
1
Pine Blu£T? Ark........................................................................
.16
9
Piqua, Ohio..............................................................................
8.189
.25
Pittsfield and North Adams, Mass......................................
.23
5
Plainville, Mass. (see Milford, Mass.).
3
Plattsburg, N. Y .....................................................................
» .185
11
Plymouth, Mass.......................................................................
.21
1
Pomona, Cal.............................................................................
.25
1
Pontiac, Mich...........................................................................
.25
3
Portsmouth, N. H ...................................................................
.19
2
Portsmouth, Ohio...................................................................
.20
.19
2
Pottstown, Pa..........................................................................
2
.25
Pottsville, Pa............. . ...........................................................
6
Poughkeepsie, N . Y ................................................................
.20
1
Punxsutawney, P a ................................................................
.17
3
Quincy, 111.................. ..............................................................
.16
Quincy, Mass. (Quincy division, Bay State Street Ry.
.24
46
Co.)..........................................................................................
Raleigh, N . C............................................................................
.17
6
Reading, Mass. (Reading division, Bay State Street R y.
.24
11
Co.)..........................................................................................
.25
Redlands, Cal...........................................................................
1
.19
Richmond, Ind........................................................................
2
.25
Riverside, Cal...........................................................................
16
Roanoke, V a.............................................................................
.20
18
Rockford, 111.............................................................................
.20
22
.23
Rock Island, 111........................................................................
.14
3
Rome, Ga..................................................................................
Rome, N . Y . (see Utica, N . Y .).
.18
2
Rutland, V t ..............................................................................
.091
St. Cloud, Minn........................................................................
53
.21
St. Joseph, Mo..........................................................................
.24
27
Salem, Mass. (Salem division, Bay State Street Ry. Co.).
2
.22
Salem, Oreg...............................................................................
.25
7
San Bernardino, Cal...............................................................
37
.27
San Diego, Cal..........................................................................
San Jose, Cal.:
2
.25
Company No. 1.................................................................
.25
20
Company No. 2.................................................................
.25
Santa Cruz, Cal
...........................................................
Saratoga, N. Y . (see Glens Falls, N. Y .).
2
.20
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich............................................................
10
.245
Schenectady, N . Y . ...............................................................
2
.17
Sedalia, Mo
..........................................................................
. 16
Selma Ala 4
..............
8
.20
Shamokin, Pa...........................................................................
Sharon, Pa. (see Youngstown, Ohio).
1
.15
Shawnee, Okla..........................................................................
9
.185
Sheboygan, W is.......................................................................

140
41
12
33
6
34
23
34

Norwich. Willimantic, and New London, Conn.............
Ogden, Utah.............................................................................
Ogdensburg, N. Y ...................................................................
Oil City, Pa...............................................................................
Olean, N. Y ...........................................................................
Oshkosh, W is...........................................................................




1 1 cent less Oct. 1 to Apr. 1.
2 No conductors employed except during summer months,
a Flat rate.
* One-man cars. (See Motormen.)
* Young men 16 to 18 years of age.

Per cent
at initial
rate.

(2)

10
54
58
18
17
32
4
3

.15
26
43

62
35

72
171
83
18
28
4

29
23

19
6
19
9
6
106

84
5
100

3
21
7
4
14
30
4
8
27
4
38

100
52
14
25
21
7
50
25
22
25
8

141
19

33
32

68
7
17
14
39
67
74
23

16

22
6 10
142
140
27
19
137

6

5

6
14
41
27
30
13
9
37
19
7
37
27

32
74
14

6
27

9
177
13

22
6
15

18

44

7
21

14
43

102

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b le 4 .— R A T E OF W A G E S P E R H O U R PAID B Y EACH COM PANY A T BE G IN N IN G OF
S ER VICE, A N D N U M B ER AND PER CENT W O R K IN G AT SUCH R A T E —Concluded.
II.—C ities from which data were obtained by correspondence—Concluded.

CONDUCTORS—Concluded.

City.

Sioux Falls, S. Dak.................................................................
Southbridge, Mass. (see Webster, Mass.).
Southern division, Public Service Ry. Co., N . J............
Spartanburg, S. C.
_____
Spencer, Mass. (see Worcester, Mass.).
Stamford, Conn. (Stamford division, Connecticut Co.). .
Stockton, Cal............................................................................
Tampa, Fla...............................................................................
Taunton, Mass. (see Norton, Mass.).
Temple, Tex. 3.........................................................................
Tfirro Hantfij Tnd
Tiffin, Ohin 3,.
Torrington, Conn. (Torrington division, Connecticut
Co.)..........................................................................................
Trenton, N. J...........................................................................
Trinidad, Colo..........................................................................
Troy, N. Y . (see Albany, N . Y .).
Tucson, Ariz.............................................................................
Tulsa, Okla...............................................................................
Utica and Rome, N. Y ...........................................................
Vicksburg, Miss........................................................................
Vincennes, Ind.........................................................................
Waco, Tex.................................................................................
Walla Walla, Wash................................................................
Waltham, Mass. (see Newton, Mass.).
Warren, Pa...............................................................................
Waterbury, Conn. (Waterbury division, Connecticut
Co.)..........................................................................................
Waterloo and Cedar Falls, Iowa..........................................
Watertown, N. Y ....................................................................
Waterville, Me..........................................................................
Waukegan, 111.........................................................................
Wausau, W is..........................................................................
Webb City, Mo.....................................................................
Westfield, Mass........................................................................
Webster and Southbridge, Mass..........................................
White Plains, N . Y ...............................................................
Wilkes-Barre and near-by towns, Pa.................................
Williamsport, Pa.................................................................
Willimantic, Conn. (see Norwich, Conn.).
Wilmington, N . C....................................................................
Winona, Minn. 3......................................................................
Winston-Salem, N . C .............................................................
Woburn, Mass..........................................................................
Woonsocket, R. I ....................................................................
Worcester, Spencer, and Marlboro, Mass...........................
Yonkers, N. Y .........................................................................
York, Pa....................................................................................
Youngstown, Ohio, Sharon and New Castle, Pa.............

Rate at be­ Number at Total num­
ginning of such initial ber in occu­
pation.
rate.
service.
$0.22
.16
i .19

8
3
2

39
12
2

21
25
100

.23
.15

18
5

199
22

9
23

30
70

27
37

85

53

28

89

31

6
154
2

13
154
8

46
100
25

.225
.25
. 17
.19

8
26
(2)

.14
.21
(4)
.225
i .26
.20
.20
.20
.24
.165
.15
.19
.23

(!)

.17
.18
.15
.24
.23
.23
.24
.18
.28

5
9

(2)

9
10
2

25
174
16
12
48
10

( 2)

20
5
75
21
20

9

15

60

35
25
4
5
4
2
1
1

.19
.225
.20
.20
.15
.20
. 175
.20
5 2.30
.23
.225
1 .24
.205

45

(2)

113
47
17
16
8
11
50
31
38
41

31
53
24
31
50
18
2
3

86

16

15
(«)

14

(6)

37

7

31

23

6
6
1
30
35
2
20

39
36
33
295
125
59
284

15
17
3
10
28
3
7

1 Flat rate.
2See Motormen.
3 One-man cars. See Motormen.
4 Rate based on traffic conditions and hours worked instead of period of service.
6 Per day.
6 Not reported.




Per cent
at initial
rate.

CHAP. I .-----WAGES OF CAB CREWS.

103

Table 5 shows for all of the cities combined the several entrance
rates of motormen and conductors on surface, and elevated and sub­
way lines, the total number of persons working at each of such rates,
and the per cent of the total working at each rate or less. This
table, like other tables, presents separately the cities from which data
were obtained by special agents of the bureau and cities from which
data were obtained by correspondence.
Referring to Table 5 it appears that the lowest entrance rate of
motormen on surface lines found in the cities visited by the bureau's
agents was 15 cents per hour, and 7 motormen were receiving this
rate. The next higher entrance rate at which men were working
was 17 cents per hour paid to 147 men, etc. The highest entrance
rate found was 38J cents per hour, paid to 18 men. A total of 6,781
motormen were working at the entrance rates of their respective com­
panies. The column of cumulative percentages shows that the
7 motormen working at 15 cents per hour constituted less than onehalf of 1 per cent of the total 6,781. The 147 men at 17 cents plus
the 7 at 15 cents, a total of 154, made 2 per cent of the total receiv­
ing 17 cents per hour or less. The number 243 plus 147 plus 7 , a
total of 397, made 6 per cent receiving 18 cents per hour or less, etc.
The median rate— that is, the rate of the middle man— was 24
cents per hour. This is determined from the cumulative percentage,
as 50 per cent of the men were reached and passed in the group
receiving 24 cents.
The other figures of the table can be read in like manner.




104

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

T ab le 5 .—R ATES OF W A G E S PER H OUR P AID M OTORMEN A N D CONDUCTORS A T
T H E BEG INNING OF SERVICE, T H E NU M BER OF PERSONS W O R K IN G A T EAC H
R A T E , AN D PER CENT OF T H E T O TAL W O R K IN G A T EACH R A T E OR LESS.
Number and per cent in cities from which data were obtained by
Special agents.
Rates per hour.

Motormen.

Correspondence.

Conductors.

Motormen.

Conductors.

Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
receiving
receiving
receiving
Number. receiving Number.
each rate
each rate Number. each rate Number. each rate
or less.
or less.
or less.
or less.
SURFACE LINES.

13J cents......................
14 cents........................
14^ ccnts......................
15 cents........................
15$ cents......................
15J cents......................
16 cents........................
16£ cents......................
17 cents........................
cents.....................
17i cents......................
17Tff cents.....................
7
18 cents........................
18£ cents......................
18$ cents......................
18,% cents.....................
19 cents........................
19\ cents......................
20 cents........................
20J cents......................
20$ cents......................
21 cents........................
21$ cents......................
21£ cents......................
22 cents........................
22$ cents.......................
22J cents......................
23 cents........................
23J cents......................
24 cents........................
24J cents......................
25 cents........................
26 cents........................
2 6 ^ cents.....................
26J cents......................
27 cents........................
27J cents......................
28 cents........................
29 cents........................
30 cents........................
33 cents........................
34$ cents......................
35 cents........................
37J cents......................
38$ cents......................
Total..................

7

11

0)

0)

147

2

190

2

243
14

6
6

373
20

6
6

150

8

168

8

314

13

512

13

171

15

211

16

103
430

17
23

135
634

17
24

321
1,080
40
1,652

28
44
45
69

396
1,595
71
3,412

28
45
46
81

1,473
39

9i
91

977
41

92
92

77
249

92
96

141
314

94
97

36
17
76

97
97
98

44
19
94

98
98
99

124
18

100
100

126
(2)

100

6,781

100

9,484

' 100

40
60
5
10
51

0)

1
1
4
4
5
6
6
10
10
10
10
15
16
17
17
24
24
32
34
34
38
38

24
60
63
69
100

166

2
16
12
97
2
21
57
6
118
3
5
5
165
18
40
9
228
3
260
46
9
130
8

100

io
68
12
8

10
80
92
100

Total..................

98

100




(3)

1

79

3

25
35

3
4

67
3
24
5
145
17
40
9
272

6
6

7
7
11
12
13
13
20

282
51

28
29

152
12

34
34

112
15
152
342
22
337
3
190
146
25
2
120
30
531

42
42
47
57
58
68
68
74
78
79
79
83
83
100

i43
10
208
521
32
373
10
224
154
24

38
38
44
58
59
69
69
75
80
80

101
30
582

83
84
100

5
3
1
6

100
100
100
100

5

100

3 3,302

100

4 3,657

100

ELEVATED AND SUB­
WAY LINES.

23 cents........................
23£ cents......................
24 cents........................
25 cents........................
25£ cents......................
29| cents......................
30 cents........................
30J cents......................
32 cents........................

8
14

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
2 Conductors are included with motormen.
a Not including 2 at $2.30 per day and 2 at $50 per month.
4 Not including 1 at $2.30 per day and 3 at $50 per month.

CHAP. I.---- WAGES OP CAR CREWS.

105

The wages and hours of extra men are brought out in different
parts of the report and preceding text tables show the entrance rates
paid by the several companies, which entrance rates apply in great
part to extra men. Considering the lower scale of wages paid and
the more or less broken and irregular time worked by extra men, it
is of interest to know what proportion of the men. of the two major
occupations, motormen and conductors, are in the class “ extra.”
Table 6 , therefore, has been compiled. Reading the first line of the
table it appears that of the 96 motormen in Altoona, 73 men, or 76
per cent of the total, were regular, and 23 men, or 24 per cent of the
total, were extra men. Of the 93 conductors in Altoona, 66 men,
constituting 71 per cent of the total, were regulars, and 27 men, or
29 per cent of the total, were extra men. It will be observed that
in 2 companies 50 per cent or more motormen were extras and in
14 companies more than one-third of the motormen were extras. As
to conductors, the percentage of extra men did not run as high as 50
per cent in any company, but in 17 companies more than one-third
of the conductors were extras.




106
T able

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
6 . —NUM BER AND PER CENT OF MOTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS CLASSED AS
“ R E G U L A R S” AND AS “ E X T R A S .”
Motormen.
Regular.

Conductors.
Regular.

Extra.

Extra.

City.
Total.

Altoona, Pa..........................................
Atlanta, Ga..........................................
Augusta, Ga.........................................
Binghamton, N. Y ..............................
Birmingham, A la................................
Boston, Mass.:
Surface lines..................................
Elevated lines...............................
Brockton, Mass....................................
Buffalo, N. Y .......................................
Butte, Mont.........................................
Charleston, S. C...................................
Charlotte, N. C ....................................
Chattanooga, Tenn.............................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways____
Chicago Surface Lines.................
Cincinnati, Ohio..................................
Cleveland, Ohio...................................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation------Northern Texas Traction Co.,
Oak Cliff division of Fort
Worth lines............................... .
Davenport, Iowa.................................
Denver, Colo.........................................
Des Moines, Iowa................................
Detroit, Mich....................................... .
Evansville, Ind...................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................
Houston, Tex....................................... .
Indianapolis, Ind................................
Jacksonville, Fla................................. .
Kansas City, M o................................. .
Lincoln, Nebr........................................
Little Rock, Ark................................. .
Los Angeles, Cal...................................
Louisville, K y ..................................... .
Lowell, Mass..........................................
Manchester, N. H .................................
Memphis, Tenn...................................
Milwaukee, Wis................................... .
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn....... .
Mobile, A la............................................
Nashville, Tenn................................... .
Newark, N. J....................................... .
New Bedford, Mass............................ .
New Britain, Conn...............................
New Haven, Conn.............................. .
New Orleans, La................................. .
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co____
New York & Queens County R y.
Co.................................................
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines.......................
Storage-battery car lines-----Ail lines except horse and
storage-battery car lines...
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx...............................
Manhattan................................
Interborough Rapid Transit C o .Elevated lines.......................
Subway lines.........................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.
(elevated lines).........................




Per Total.
Per
Per
Per
Num­ cent Num­ cent
Num­ cent Num­ cent
ber.
ber.
ber.
of
ber.
of
of
of
total.
total.
total.
total.
73
317
26
61
188

76
77
63
74
82

23
96
15
21
42

24
23
37
26
18

2,214 ,1,478
111
58
135
79
664
556
132 i 100
66
45
57
52
108
84

67
52
59
84
76
68
91
78

736
53
56
108
1 32
21
5
24

383
351
4,212 3,367
798
605
1,129
809

92
80
76
72

96
413
41
82
230

93
422
40
86
265

66
312
27
62
183

71
74
68
72
69

27
110
13
24
82

33
48
41
16
24
32
9
22

2,248 1,469
76
52
139
81
686
558
(2)
(2)
71
48
64
54
111
81

65
68
58
81
68
84
73

779
35
24
32
58
42
128
19
(2)
23 **‘ *32
10
16
30
27

32
845
193
320

8
20
24
28

338
333
4,280 3,353
807
600
1,177
818

99
78
74
69

5
927
207
359

1
22
26
31

29
26
32
28
31

179

122

68

57

32

164

118

72

46

28

49
91
333
190
1,201
73
165
190
386
122
805
83
77
1,040
464
152
65
260
589
1,067
86
211
627
102
39
333
728

23
72
246
154
973
55
133
131
269
86
616
65
57
847
341
97
40
210
480
715
67
158
494
70
24
209
592

47
79
74
81
81
75
81
69
67
70
77
78
74
81
73
64
62
81
81
67
78
75
79
69
62
63
81

26
19
87
36
228
18
32
59
127
36
189
18
20
193
123
55
25
50
109
352
19
53
133
32
15
124
136

53
21
26
19
19
25
19
31
33
30
23
22
26
19
27
36
38
19
19
33
22
25
21
31
38
37
19

41
89
419
197
1,197
73
166
193
378
124
821
82
82
1,063
473
146
72
280
636
1,056
85
229
643
104
35
329
755

21
74
248
• 157
946
54
122
119
263
84
610
64
59
830
339
95
37
208
479
704
71
149
488
68
22
206
591

51
83
59
80
79
74
73
62
70
68
74
78
72
78
72
65
51
74
75
67
84
65
76
65
63
63
78

20
15
171
40
251
19
44
74
115
40
211
18
23
233
134
51
35
72
157
352
14
80
155
36
13
123
164

49
17
41
20
21
26
27
38
30
32
26
22
28
22
28
35
49
26
25
33
16
35
24
35
37
37
22

2,358 1,919

2,282 1,913

84

369

16

81

439

19

244

164

67

80

33

227

153

67

74

33

47
80

3 43
64

91
80

34

9
20

54
76

39
63

72
83

15
13

28
17

1,662 1,383

16

83

279

17

81

305

19

552
712

420
594

76
83'

132
118

24
17

1,617 1,312
585
746

413
573

71
77

172
173

29
23

415
213

357
198

86
93

58
15

14
7

333
177

333
177

100
100

280

230

82

50

18

248

231

93

17

7

1 Worked interchangeably as motormen and conductors.
2 Conductors are included with motormen.
8 Drivers.

CHAP. I .---- WAGES OF CAR CREWS.
Table

107

6 .—NUM BER AN D PER CENT OF M OTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS CLASSED AS
“ R E G U L A R S” A N D AS “ E X T R A S ”—Continued.
Conductors.

Motormen.
Regular.

Regular.

Extra.

Extra.

City.
Total.

Norfolk, V a ............................................
Oakland, Cal..........................................
Oklahoma City, Okla...........................
Omaha, Nebr.........................................
Pem-ia, Til.
. .....
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines..........................
Surface lines.............................
Pittsburgh, Pa.......................................
Portland, Me..........................................
Portland, Oreg.......................................
Providence, R. I ...................................
Pueblo, Colo...........................................
Reading, P a...........................................
Richmond, V a .......................................
Rochester, N. Y ....................................
Sacramento: Cal....................................
Saginaw, Mich.......................................
St. Louis, Mo.........................................
Salt Lake City, Utah...........................
San Antonio, Tex.................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable R. R. C o..
Municipal Railways of San Fran­
cisco ..............................................
United Railroads of San Fran­
cisco ..............................................
Savannah, Ga.........................................
Scranton, Pa..........................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light
& Power Co.4
..............................
Seattle Municipal Street R y ........
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry.
Co..................................................
Sioux City, Iowa...................................
South Bend, Ind...................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R.
Co..................................................
The Washington Water Power Co.
Springfield, 111.......................................
Springfield, Mass...................................
Springfield, Ohio...................................
Superior, W is.........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ......................................
Tacoma, Wash.......................................
Toledo, Ohio..........................................
Topeka, Kans........................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co......................
Washington Railway & Electric
Co..................................................
Wheeling, W . V a ..................................
Wichita, Kans.......................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People's Ry. Co..............................
Wilmington & Philadelphia
Traction Co.................................

Per
Per Total.
Per
Per
Num­ cent Num­ cent
Num­ cent Num­ cent
ber.
ber.
ber.
of
of
of
ber.
of
total.
total.
total.
total.
76
352
62
237
108

72
78
87
77
62

29
98
9
72
i 67

28
22
13
23
38

37
45
2,956 2,330
1,347 1,045
121
150
371
471
389
645
41
50
55
110
199
237
429
267
85
100
36
51
1,436 1,201
154
185
184
150

82
79
78
81
79
60
82
50
84
62
85
71
84
83
82

8
626
302
29
100
256
9
55
38
162
15
15
235
31
34

18
21
22
19
21
40
18
50
16
38
15
29
16
17
18

105
450
71
309
175

68
356
55
234
106

66
79
85
75
100

35
95
10
80
(3)

34
21
15
25

37
37
2,920 2,346
1,340 1,020
119
146
413
531
642
381
42
50
57
107
200
245
269
461
82
97
34
51
1,494 1,191
149
183
142
187

100
80
76
82
78
59
84
53
82
58
85
67
80
81
76

574
320
27
118
261
8
50
45
192
15
17
303
34
45

20
24
18
22
41
16
47
18
42
15
33
20
19
24
18

103
451
65
314
106

70

3 56

80

314

20

65

53

82

12

115

95

83

20

17

116

95

82

21

18

927
77
154

722
62
122

78
81
79

205
15
32

22
19
21

939
69
162

715
61
124

76
88
77

224
8
38

24
12
23

9

8

89

1

11

10

8

80

2

20

37
67
58

29
58
43

78
87
74

8
9
15

22
13
26

37
64
53

28
48
42

76
75
79

9
16
11

24
25
21

95
128
83
234
71
35
257
132
353
58

76
97
64
170
57
24
147
101
244
41

80
76
77
73
80
69
57
77
69
71

19
31
19
64
14
11
110
31
109
17

20
24
23
27
20
31
43
23
31
29

97
126
81
239
71
38
259
140
344
53

75
99
64
172
55
28
146
106
238
41

77
79
79
72
77
74
56
76
69
77

22
27
17
67
16
10
113
34
106
12

23
21
21
28
23
26
44
24
31
23

321

257

80

64

20

320

255

80

65

20

410
81
70

301
67
54

73
83
77

109
14
16

27
17
23

408
80
58

299
68
42

73
85
72

109
12
16

27
15
28

46

30

65

16

35

47

31

66

16

34

91

67

74

24

26

94

64

68

30

32

1 Extra men worked interchangeably as motormen and conductors.
2 Conductors are included with motormen.
3 Gripmen.
4 Regular and extra men are not reported separately for this company.




CHAPTER n —HOURS OF LABOR AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR
CREWS.
RUNS (DAY'S WORK).

One of the great problems that confront a street railway company
is so to arrange its car service as to accommodate the variations in
traffic from hour to hour and day to day during the week. To meet
the demands of travel the company operates a different number of
cars at different hours of the day and on different days, but at the
same time the company naturally considers the cost and seeks to run
no more cars at rush periods than necessary to carry the traveling
public. The ordinary traffic is taken care of by regular runs. Broadly
speaking, a run for men operating a street car consists of a certain
number of trips, or possibly but one trip, out from a car barn over
the line and back to the barn. A regular run is a regular established
and scheduled day’s work, consisting of a certain number of trips out
from and back to the car barn, chosen by or assigned to a regular
man, and which he is expected to make regularly. The schedules
are generally so arranged as to furnish a full week’s work of seven
days with an infrequent limitation to five or six days, as some service
may be taken off on Saturday or Sunday.
In addition to the regular runs there are other kinds of service to
meet the heavier traffic at certain hours, or on certain days. The
majority of companies have regular tripper rims put on each day at
certain hours, for short periods, generally in the morning or evening.
Also on certain days, usually Saturday or Sunday, certain full day
runs may be put on for such days only. Unusual conditions caused
by a ball game, circus, a convention, etc., may further call for spe­
cial tripper runs or all-day runs. These short or irregular runs are
almost always assigned to extra men. In a few companies there is
also a small number of scheduled runs of approximately a full day’s
service which are not filled by regular men, but given to extra men.
Detailed data covering regular runs were obtained from nearly all
companies visited by the bureau’s agents and the figures are presented
in section 1 of Table B, page 486. A limited amount of data concerning
regular scheduled car service, other than the regular runs, was ob­
tained from a few companies and the figures are presented on pages
138 to 165 Summary figures from a large number of other cities were
obtained by correspondence and are presented in section 2 of Table B,
pages 603 to 608.
Runs are also classified as straight and swing. A straight run is
one in which there is no intermission between the beginning and end
108




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

109

of the day’s work. The swing, or split, run has one and possibly two
or mofe periods of intermission between periods of duty, for meals,
or to meet variations in the volume of traffic. Such intervals are
sometimes so long that although the hours on duty may not be ex­
cessive, the time within which runs are completed may be so long as
to afford but a short and frequently inadequate period of rest between
one day and the next.
On the surface lines the regular run constitutes the day’s work for
both the motorman and conductor, and when the schedule is adhered
to, as it generally is, the runs of the motorman and conductor working
on the same car are the same. Occasionally, however, a man may be
regularly assigned or allowed to operate a regular tripper run in ad­
dition to his regular day’s run, thus, in effect, amending his scheduled
run. The man on the other end of the car may not perform such
additional service, thus breaking the exact parallel between the runs
of the motorman and conductor on the car. The modification of
regular scheduled runs occurs so seldom that to all intents and pur­
poses the runs of conductors are the same as those of motormen, hence
the runs of motormen only were tabulated for the surface lines. On
the elevated and subway lines the schedules arranged for motormen,
conductors, and guards differed so materially that the figures for
each occupation are given in the table.
Practically every street railway has two schedules of runs, one
for week days and one for Sundays, and the majority of lines in the
large cities have a still different arrangement of runs for Saturday.
There are still other variations of runs on different days for a few
cities. These changes in length of run and the hours in which the
runs are made are caused by different traffic conditions on different
days of the week. The length of run, the length of intermission be­
tween periods on duty and the consequent length of outside time have
many variations between the different runs, even on the same day
of the week.
Table B, above referred to, is so long that a general survey and a
comparison of city with city is difficult, hence two summary tables
(Tables 7 and 8 ) are here given. One table (Table 7) summarizes the
regular runs of the several cities by hours on duty, and the other (Table
8 ) by the time within which completed, that is, the interval between
the beginning and the ending of the day’s work, including intervals,
if any, off duty during the day. Each table is divided into three sec­
tions : one covering the usual week-day run, one relating to Saturday
runs, and the third relating to Sunday runs. The tabulation of runs
by exact length of time on duty, or exact length of time within which
completed, is prohibitive because of the many small variations in
time. The only practical method of tabulation was to classify the
data by half-hour periods.




110

STREET RAILWAY EM PLOYM ENT IN

THE UNITED STATES.

At the bottom of each section of the table totals are given for the
surface lines and for the elevated and subway lines separately. Thus
at the close of the section-of Table 7 relating to hours on duty in the
Monday to Friday runs, the figures show 161 regular runs on surface
lines having time on duty of under 6 hours, 87 runs with hours on
duty of 6 and under 6 J hours, etc. The greatest number of Monday
to Friday runs on surface lines falling under any one classification
of hours was 6,992, having 9§ and under 10 hours on duty; the next
largest group (6,763) had 10 and under 10J- hours on duty; and the
third largest group (5,893), 9 and under 9J hours. The median
run— that is, the run having as many shorter runs below it as it had
longer runs above it—fell within the group, 9J and under 10 hours
on duty.
The time on duty on the elevated and subway lines as a whole was
less than on surface lines. The largest number of runs for motormen
and conductors fell within the group of 9 and under 9 J hours and the
median run was in this group. For guards 8 | and under 9 hours
was the predominating group. With this explanation it is believed
that the figures of the table will be clearly understood.
Table 8 presents the outside time of the regular runs. In other
words, it shows the time intervening between the beginning and the
end of the run, including any and all intermissions. As some runs
are straight runs— that is, with no intermission— the length of time
within which they are completed is the same as the time on duty,
but as there are many swing, or split, runs with greater or less in­
tervals of time off duty, the outside time is longer than the time on
duty in such runs. Totals are given for the different sections of this
table, relating to the Monday to Friday runs, the Saturday runs, and
the Sunday runs.







112

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

7.—NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS WITH EACH

MONDAY TO FRIDAY.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Line
No.

1

2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10

11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

City

Altoona, Pa..................................................................
Atlanta, Ga..................................................................
Augusta, Ga.................................................................
Binghamton, N. Y ......................................................
Birmingham, Ala........................................................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines...................................................
Elevated lines—
Motormen..............................................
Conductors 1..........................................
Guards2..................................................
Brockton, Mass............................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ...............................................................
Butte, Mont.................................................................
Charleston, S. C...........................................................
Charlotte, N. C ............................................................
Chattanooga, Tenn.....................................................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Surface Lines.......................................
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Motormen......................................................
Conductors....................................................
Guards............................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio..........................................................
Cleveland, Ohio...........................................................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation..............................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff di­
vision of Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Iowa.........................................................
Denver, Colo................................................................
Des Moines, Iowa........................................................
Detroit, Mich...............................................................
Evansville, Ind...........................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..................................................
Houston, Tex...............................................................
Indianapolis, Ind........................................................
Jacksonville, Fla.........................................................
Kansas City, Mo.........................................................
Lincoln, Nebr..............................................................
Little Rock, Ark.........................................................
Los Angeles, Cal..........................................................
Louisville, K y .............................................................
Lowell, Mass.................................................................
Manchester, N. H .......................................................
Memphis, Tenn.3
.........................................................
Memphis, Tenn.4.........................................................
Milwaukee, W is..........................................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn.............................
Mobile, Ala...................................................................
Nashville, Tenn.’’ ........................................................
Newark, N. J ...............................................................
New Bedford, Mass....................................................
New Britain, Conn.....................................................
New Haven, Conn......................................................
New Orleans, La.........................................................
New York N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co..............................
New York & Queens County Ry. Co.............
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines (drivers).............................
Storage-battery car lines.............................
All lines except horse and storage-bat­
tery car lines,
Third Avenue Ry. Co. (The Bronx and Man­
hattan). 6




9
6
7
n
7i
Un­ and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
9
7
8
0
9£ 1
n
15

1

27

1
1

858

1
1

1

15

2
4

12

5
5
8
40

1

80

243

19
19
6

20
20

1

24

4

1
1
12

280

52
52
70
23
45
3

121
29

41 " i s "
3
19

1

10

165
15

1

870
29
29
25
41
70

109
109
47

101

120
120
43
152

107

222

1
1

3
31
57
279

46
240

13
3

4

34
7
31

3

1

1

7

*23* 145

’Y
7

12

1
0

9
13
3
3
18

21

1
20

18

13
79

3
3

1

164

2

....
"i*

1
2
1
12
1

9
13
69
13
10

50

47
13
38
2
74

45

172
25

1

2

11

1

4
5
13
13

1

16
29
25
198
138
23
55
18
12

200

53
181

1

5
72
196

403

5

11
2

21

3
46
49
57

27
32
199

10

17

29

2
1

744
36

1

4
3
60

137

1

3
9
707

2

5
‘ei*
3

1 Called guards.
Called brakemen.
3 Tuesday to Friday; used in total for all cities.

2

42
18

5
30

18

40

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
SPECIFIED N UM BER OF HOURS ON D U T Y.
M O N D AY TO FRIDAY.
Number of runs, wilk hours on duty of—

1
15 15*
12 12 *
10 10* 1 m
16 16*
13 33*;
14 14*
17
17i
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
10* 1 Hi 12 12* 13 13* 14 14* 15 15* 16 16* 17 17* 18
1
40
6

2
2
7

9

1

1

11

20

47
6

18

1
5

1

1
1

1

3

3
25
4

3
2

2

24
3

37

19
2
1

4

6
1
'*22' 12
1
3
28
7
11
57
28
21
15
1 ” T
20
10
6
7

14

4
1
4
5

.....
2

3
4
1
5
1
1

3
3

26
2
3
4

3

8

2

4

1

12
1

5

1

1

3

7
3

28

1

2

* Monday only; not used in total for all cities.
5 Friday only; used in total for all cities.
6 Wednesday only; used in total for all cities.

39749°— Bull. 204— 17-




-8

113

114

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STATES.
T able

7.—NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS WITH EACH

MONDAY TO FRIDAY—Continued.
N um ber of runs, with hours on d uty of—
Line
No.

1
2
3
4
5

6
7

8
9

10
1
1
1
2
13
14

15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

City.

New Y ork, N. Y .—Concluded.
Interborough R apid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines—
M otorm en.............................................
Conductors...........................................
Guards...........................I......................
Subway lines—
M otormen.............................................
Conductors...........................................
Guards...................................................
Brooklyn R apid Transit Co. (elevated lines)M otormen....................................................
Conductors...................................................
Guards..........................................................
Norfolk, V a .................................................................
Oaklan'd, C al..............................................................
Oklahoma City, O kla..............................................
Omaha, N ebr.............................................................
Peoria, 111....................................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia R apid Transit Co.—
Surface lines................................................
Elevated lines—
Motormen.............................................
Conductors...........................................
Guards...................................................
Pittsburgh, Pa...........................................................
Portland, M e..............................................................
Portland, Oreg...........................................................
Providence, R . I .......................................................
Pueblo, C olo...............................................................
Reading, P a ...............................................................
R ichm ond, V a ...........................................................
Rochester, N. Y ........................................................
Sacramento, Cal........................................................
Saginaw, M ich...........................................................
St. Louis, M o.............................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah...............................................
San Antonio, T e x ......................................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable R y . Co.: Gripm en...
Municipal Railways of San F rancisco.. T. . .
United Railroads of San Francisco................
Savannah, Ga.............................................................
Scranton, Pa...............................................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co..
Gripmen.......................................................
Seattle Municipal Street R y ............................
Seattle, Renton & Southern R y . C o .............
Sioux City, Iowa.............................•
.........................
South Bend, In d .......................................................
Spokane, W ash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R . R . C o ............
The Washington W ater Power Co.................
Springfield, 111...........................................................
Springfield, Mass.......................................................
Springfield, Ohio.......................................................
Superior, W is.............................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..........................................................
Tacoma, W ash...........................................................
Gripmen...............................................................
Toledo, Ohio...............................................................
Topeka, Kans.............................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction C o...........................................
Washington Railway & Electric C o.............
Wheeling, W . V a ......................................................
Wichita, K ans...........................................................




6 61 7
8
|
91
Un­ and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
6 der der der der der der der der
10
7
n
9J

138
127
300
39
29
119
126
96
70

1
1

307

399

591

1
0
1
0
206

2
1

87
103

1
0

12

115

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS ON DUTY—Continued
MONDAY TO FRIDAY—Continued.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—

12
15 154
13 13J 14 144
16 164
1 1 04 11 m
0
17 174
Line
12|
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18 Total. No.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
13 m
14 144 15
10* 11 H i 12 m
154 16
164 17 174 18

367
335
1135
199
193

14
9
7
38

388

19
2
3
10

15
1

157

21

235
238
635
77
362
64
241
108

6

8

5

3

1

3
2

2
27

38
6

5
1

1
28

2

3
1

167
3
11

50
25

2
12

56
6

5
1

1
3
4

7
3

4
13

3

7
14

4

2

6

2

3

1

9

9

3

33
1
19
1

17

8

7
2

5

33
69
5
4

12
47
1
14

6
23
7

48

1
25

11
203
1

2
3

2

1

1
2

2

3

3

5

4

3

1

12

5

3

5
3

1

1

36




7

1

1
i

32
33
34
35
36

330
32
8
30
58
44

37
38
39
40
41
42

78
99
66
176
57
28
151
110
7
252
44

1

2

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

58
101
751
62
128

4

15
3

15

39
39
72
1074
121
389
391
44
58
205
279
85
36
1211
160
137

1

10

13
14

2374

1

37
96
1

7

8
9
10
1
1
12

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

260
313
69
50

54
55
56
57

116

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STATES.
T a b le

7.—NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS WITH EACH

MONDAY TO FRIDAY—Concluded.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Line
No.

6
7
H
7i
Un­ and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
6 der der der der der der der der
10
6J 7 7*
8J 9

City.

Wilmington, Del.:
People's Ry. Co..............................................
Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Co.
Total:
Elevated and subway lines—
Motormen......................................
Conductors....................................
Guards............................................
Surface lines 1.......................................

151 252
117 301
288 433 675
388 1518 3287

241
239

15
2

48
15

4
11

21
3

27
11

12
26

399

834

296

1
1
2
4
15

52
52
70
23
46
3
41
3

5
5
8
40
132
29
1
15
19

10
180
15
1

2

161

446
395
544

40
40
48
653
32
46

96
96
45
821
93
122

125
125
44
872
134
273

1

4

8
11
90

3
30
57
245

18
6
7
1
12

32
9
23
1
50

34
30
46
285
2
44
7
29
2
74

10
8
67
16
10
10
1
6
5
7
15
1

1
31
28
15
14
36
181
78
20
58
15
21
1

SAT U R D A Y.

22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

Altoona, Pa
Atlanta, Gau
Augusta, Ga.................................................................
Binghamton, N. Y .....................................................
Birmingham, Ala............. - .............. .......
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated R y. Co.—
Surface lines..................................................
Elevated lines—
Motormen
.................................
Conductors2
................... * .. ..
Guards 3..................................................
Brockton, Mass...........................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ...............................................................
Butte, Mont.................................................................
Charleston, S. C...........................................................
Charlotte, N .C ............................................................
Chattanooga, Tenn.....................................................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Motormen..........................
Conductors....................................................
Guards............................................................
Chicago Surface Lines.......................................
Cincinnati, Ohio.........................................................
Cleveland, Ohio...........................................................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation.........................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff divi­
sion of Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Iowa.........................................................
Denver, Colo.................................................................
Des Moines, I o w a ............................................
Detroit, Mich...............................................................
Evansville, Ind...........................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..................................................
Houston, Tex...............................................................
Indianapolis, Ind........................................................
Jacksonville, Fla.........................................................
Kansas City, Mo.........................................................
Lincoln, Nebr...............................................................
Little Rock, Ark.........................................................
Los Angeles, Cal..........................................................
Louisville, K y .............................................................
Lowell, Mass.................................................................
Manchester, N. H .......................................................
Memphis, Tenn...........................................................
Milwaukee, Wis...........................................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn.............................
Mobile, Ala...................................................................
Nashville, Tenn...........................................................
Newark, N .J ...............................................................
New Bedford, Mass....................................................
New Britain, Conn.....................................................

1

1

1

1
17

1
1

5

5
1
4

3
1

12
13
1
1

37

19
19
11
68

2

1

17
17
49
202
32
40

1

14
5
1
8

1
1

1

3
2
2

2

4

12

29

1
1
2

7
2

1

2

1
2

1

1
1
9

1
8

1

1

1

9

3

2
6

7

1

3
3

4
1

2

1

3
9

3

1
5

6
4
8
9
3
14
1
10
3

10

153
21
1
51
93
165
27
32
134
9
5

i Not including drivers on the New York Ry. Co. (horse-car lines), gripmen on the California Street
Cable Ry. Co., gripmen on the Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co., and gripmen in Tacoma.




117

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED B Y CAR CREWS.
SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS ON DUTY—Continued.
MONDAY TO FRIDAY—Concluded.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—

12
10 10*
11 n *
14
Line
17
13 13*
15 15*
16 16*
14i
17|
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18 Total. No.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
12 12*
10*
11 m
13 13*
14 14*
17 17* 18
15 15* 16 16*

3

1
3

1
11

60
9
59
9
1
31
6763 2845 1173

14
11

8
28

5
8

1
1

32
67

1
2

1225
3148
30438

3
4
5
6

1260
558

351

89

59

15

8

3

S ATU R DA Y.
3
57
3
79

2
43
7
3
39

42

6

76
322
27

52

20

10
1
1

1529

3
127

1

50

1

2

18

*23'

"12

"2

56
56
31
576

1
200

211

64

14
4

37

37

26
39
29
159
17

2

2

15
4
23
63
24
126

401
54

143
116

27
43
51

*43’

33
24
123

16
7
51

15
70
3
154

'5

1

11
1
1
1

241

30
163

6

2
10 "2
24
74
1
3
6

22

1

26

18

2
3

2 ” i’

14
7
17
57
30
19
17
30

1

2
io'

19

**5’

2

1
1
21

4
5

1
1
22

16

4

2

4

4

20
3
2
14
2

1
1
1

2 Called guards.




4

1
10
3 Called brakemen.

23
24
25
26
27
28
29

75
246
161
939
56
138
133
281
9.0
633
67
59
863
348
98
40
216
481
704
71
158
452
74
24

24
4

16

92
16
4
16
78
14
144

1
8

20
21

125
23

2

32
5

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

362
362
260
3485
623
832

36
23

258

12

58
58
80
82
571
50
48
56
85

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

118

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

7.—NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS WITH EACH

SATURDAY—Continued.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of-

City.

New Haven, Conn...................... ...............................
Nfiw Orlf^n-Sj La, . . . . .
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co...........
New York & Queens County Ry. Co.............
New York Rys. Co.—

9
6
7
8
7i
%
6*
8i
Un- and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
6
9
10
8
7
8J
9J
n

22

14
4
Storage-battery car lines.............................
All lines except horse and storage-bat­ 110
tery car lines.
Third Avenue Ry. Co. (The Bronx and Man­
3
hattan).
Interborough Rapid Transit C o .Elevated lines—
Motormen................................................
Conductors..............................................
Guards.....................................................
Subway lines—
Motormen................................................
Conductors..............................................
Guards.....................................................
2
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated
lines)—
Motormen......................................................
11
Conductors.....................................................
Guards............................................................ 307
Norfolk, V a..................................................................
Oakland, Cal...........................................................
Oklahoma City, O k la ..............................................
Omaha, Nebr...............................................................
Peoria, 111......................................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.—
Surface lines..................................................
Elevated lines—
Motormen................................................
Conductors............................................
Guards.....................................................
Pittsburgh* Pa.............................................................
1
Portland, Me.........................................................
Portland, Oreg...........................................................
4
Providence* R . I ........................ *............................
6
Pueblo, Colo...........................................................
Reading, Pa.................................................................
Richmond, V a .............................................................
Rochester, N. Y .........................................................
Sacramento, Cal...........................................................
Saginaw, Mich...........................................................
St. Louis, Mo...............................................................
Salt Lake City, Utah.................................................
San Antonio, Tex........................................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable Ry. Co.: Gripmen. . .
1
Municipal Railways of San Francisco.............
United Railroads of San Francisco..................
Savannah, Ga...............................................................
Scranton, Pa.................................................. .............
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light, and Power Co.
Gripmen................................................
Seattle Municipal Street R y .............................
Seattle, Renton & Southern R . R. Co
Sioux City, Iowa.........................................................
1
South Bend, Ind.........................................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R . Co..............
The Washington Water Power Co..................
Springfield, 111.............................................................
Springfield, Mass.......................................................
Springfield, Ohio.........................................................
Superior, W is...............................................................
Syracuse, N. Y .............................................................
Tacoma, Wash.............................................................
Gripmen.................................................................




3
18

2
3
3
2

19

3
33 **28'

15

13
79

23
66

53
181

71
196

29
1

21
5

73
16

208
13

600
18

1
5
30

4
3
60

1
137

3
9
707

5
5
16 **6i*

4

2

2

6

10

18

55

1
2

74

43
4
48

82
58
230

81
144
478

115
102
260

41
23
25

53
37
167

54
56
235

43
33
169

22
51
328

7

2
2
18

4
33
4 * 19
21 127

2
56

2
31

5
22

1

1
12
23

1

1

3
3 . 42
49 *126* 59
17
41
41
56
96
29
70
22
93 153
5
14
24
1
1
52
17
38
3
6
13
87
33

348

8
252
26
11
39

20
13
2
12
1

5

9
2
7

15

2

2
2
3
4

1
4
2
13
1

2

36
185
21
6
22

9
12

2
69
3
4
8

8
5
1
5
12

3
1
1
1

2
1
2
1
1
7

1

27
2
2

1

4
1

1

8

632

548

18
18
23
322
28
37
121
21
1
7
134
43

4
4
5
203
21
69
103
10

84
54
63
7

38

*6
1
41

i42
2
34

23
2

79
10

2

6

5

1
43
37
20
10
16
89
17

2

20
53
4

9
21
24
90
29

3

2

39
9

2
1
1

1
1
1

24
107
33
4
209
64
71

119

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS ON DUTY—Continued.
SATURDAY—Continued.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—

Line
12 12*
16 16*
17 17!
10|
15 15!
14
13
10
11
13i
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18 Total. No.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
12 m
11 H i
15 15J 16
16J 17 IV! 18
14 14!
13 m
m

253
51

134
25

15
33
225

5
9
52
83

53

3
4

48
72
1461

5
6
7

416

8

9
10
11
12
13
14

238
635
77
359
64
241
108

2

144

180

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

2

519
32

1
2

211
202
1074

3

220
614

363
331
1117

50
71

28
10

1
6

1925

1

1

1

21

7

5

2

1

4
3

235

2
68
9
70
2

13
11
7
39

16
4
3
13

13
1
1
5

467

234

73

38

16
16

1
1

135
3
114
62
13
1
61
25
2
18
625
26
3

37

15

91
5

23

11
1

4

8

2
1

2

42

25

2
21

36
4

5
2

10
1

2

5
220
1

7
35

9

2
4
1

333
1
22

208
3
11

49 | 1
25
12
6

144
12
7
7
11

78
9
1
1
7
4

22
22
9
8
6
19
20

8
3
3

9

11

1

1
1

1

2374

23

39

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

39

72
8

5

1185
121
389
391
44
58
1
205
2t>8
85 |
36
|
1210
160
137

2

2

58
101
751
62
128

1
3

4
2

I

25
4

40
41
42
43
44

360
39

2

30
58
44

45
46
47
48
49
50

78
99
66
176
57
28
151
104
7

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

8
1
8
3

4
13

4
7

5

2

6

2

3

1

4
2
25
5 .

4

3

4

9
2

13

2




2
3

1
2

2
5

2
5

2
4

3

1

6
2

1

3

120

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E UNITED STATES.
T able

7 .—NU M BER OF R E G U LA R RUNS W IT H EACH

SATUR DAY—Concluded.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Lins’
No.

9
1

9
6
8
7
8i
6i
Un­ and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
6
der der der der der der der der
10
9
7
8
*
8i
6*

City.

9

1
2

7
8

9
10
11
12

Total:
Elevated and subway lines—
Motormen............................................
Conductors..........................................
Guards.................................................
Rnrfafiftl it»p,s . . ..........................................

2

3
4
5
6

1

1

1

3

2

19

58

107

3

2

1
2

5
1

8
3

9
8
1

Toledo, Ohio.................................................................
Topeka, Kans...............................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co.............................................
Washington Railway & Electric Co...............
Wheeling, W . V a ........................................................
Wichita, K an s. . . . ........ .. ...................... ......................... .............
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s R y. Co...................................................
WilTntngtnn
Philadelphia Traction C o .. . .

22
10
30
4

128
30
15
4

2

1
1

1
1

11
323
196

2
4
63
96

2
68
81

5
9
117
142

96 156 269 403 251
54 130 341 350 244
209 525 895 575 431
340 1361 3197 5434 6943

SUND AY.
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

1
Altoona, Pa...................................................................
9
16
1
7
Atlanta, Ga..................................................................
Augusta, Ga.................................................................
1
1
Binghamton, N. Y ......................................................
6
1
Birmingham, Ala........................................................
2
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines....................................................
Elevated lines—
Motormen................................................
Conductors2............................................
Guards 3...................................................
Brockton, Mass............................................................
2
8
7
Buffalo, N. Y ...............................................................
2
2
2
Butte, Mont..................................................................
1
Charleston, S. C...........................................................
Charlotte, 1 T C.............................................................
S.
9
16
4
Chattanooga, Tenn.....................................................
2
6
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Motormen.......................................................
13
Conductors.....................................................
13
Guards............................................................
Chicago Surface Lines....................................... 585 559 585 443
3
11
Cincinnati, Ohio.......................................................... 22
13
1
1
Cleveland, Ohio.....................................................
2
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation...............................
1
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff di­
1
2
vision of Fort Worth lines.
3
3
Davenport, Iowa.........................................................
2
7 ' 8
Denver, Colo................................................................
s
13
Des Moines, Iowa.......................................................
7
Detroit, Mich............................ ..................................
15
77 142
Evansville, Ind ...........................................................
1
1
Grand Rapids, Mich..................................................
2
1
1
Houston, Tex...............................................................
Indianapolis, Ind........................................................
1
1
Jacksonville, Fla-.........................................................
Kansas City, Mo............... ............I........................... 74
29
34
21
1
Lincoln, Nebr..............................................................
Little Rock, Ark.........................................................
1
2
1
Los Angeles, Cal..........................................................
Louisville, K y ............................................................. 27 **42* '*30* " 4 i '
3
7
Lowell, Mass................................................................
6
10
1
5
Manchester. N. H .......................................................
8
3
Memphis, Tenn...........................................................
Milwaukee, W is...........................................................
5
4
2
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn..............................
1
Mobile, A la...................................................................
1
2
3

6

.

1
26
4
1
32

2
2

14
2

10
1

7
3

16
8

25
12

15
3
4
9
24

443

557

151
5
5
6
17
105
29
1
8
26

1
104
15
2

16
18

13
6

2
2
7

6

48
48
68
11
30
3
1
21
14

29
29
3
256
27

40
40
3
263
51
95

25
25
20
233
121
115

65
65
18
184
158
190

111
111
44
121
97
144

2
1

5
1

7

11

15

1
14
1
150

10
19
22
196
1
8
4
2
1
26
1
1
3
5
30
3
g
18
11
7

1
16
30
151

24
22
49
65

i9
12
2
1
28
6

37
19
12
1
85
15
1
16
7
1
15
37
114
73
20

16
36
24
49
5
35
6
22
3
102
11
1
104
2

6

4
34

"8
23
1
1
3
2

15
16
7
19
43
21
17

6

2
46
113
90
14

i Not including drivers on New York Rys. Co. (horse-car lines), gripmen on California Street Cable Ry.

Co., gripmen on Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co., and gripmen in Tacoma.




121

C H AP. II.— HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
SPECIFIED N U M BER OF H O U R S ON D U T Y —Continued.
SATURDAY—Concluded.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
121
12
13 131
14 141 15 151
17
10
1 01
11
16 161
1 11
17|
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18 Total.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
131 14 141 15 151 16 161 17 171
12
13
10 1
11
121
18
111
46
2

30
87
17

1

10
1

33
73
5
4
1
2

1
2

1

252
44

3

12

6

5

1

50

?n

10

4

3

1

1

1

1

14

7

12

3

1

1

14

8

5

11

26

8

4

3
4

1

9

1
2

260
313
69
50

1

36

10
76
75
10
1
31
6562 3127 1423

684

425

Line
No.

104

149

6
5

7

2

32
67

8

41

1268
1230
3238
3 30384

10
11
12

38

11

10

4

8

3

1

1

9

SUNDAY.
72
269
27
176

13
14
15
16
17

1151

2

65

18

2

60
3

47
7

21

1

3

28
3

53

21

14

5

?,

1

3

1

2

66

88

43

4

6

11

18

9

1

2

53
53
■74
81
404
50
48
56
85

1

21
21
12

63
38
57

5

304
304
102

2
10

18

17

4

3

6

12

6
2

2

22
2

7

24

13

2

6

3

10

15

5
16

15

18

22

2

2

2

7
17

4
13

12

6
12

5

8
5

350
12

36
48
156

1

2

3302
592
619

1

8

1

76

1

2

26

13
64

1

1

13

2

......

3

21

4

2

51

12

12
12

156
26

3
25
45
29

40
7

20
6

1 22
2

50

76

7

1

3

1

56 " 2 5 ’ ' “
5
3
27

1

7
3
4

1
18

7

*

1
4

1

2




2Called guards.

2

366

.... 1.....
3Called brakemen.

36
37
38
39
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

577
71

54
55

40

2

15

34
35

129
133
257
90
577
67
58
677
335
96
45
213

56

1

17
15
19
4-

28
29
30
31
32
33

22

124

1

6

6

25
62
33

23
24
25
26
27

75
239
156
863

1

3

19
20
21
22

53

122

STREET RAILWAY EM PLOYM ENT IK T H E U NITED STATES.
T a b le

7.—
NUMBER

OF

REGULAR RUNS WITH EACH

SUNDAY—Continued.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of-

City.

8
6 .
9
7
71
8i
%
Un- and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
6.
der der der der der der der der
9
8
7
10
61
91
71

6
1

1

1

8

3

12

16
57
9

52
55

8

2

3
4

4
42
45

2

1

5
17
3
19
4

25

7

57
56

3
70
181

15
275

9

6
2

11

16
4

13
16

59
17

74
13

359
15
2
2

19

27

4
41 ” 33*

1
6

2

99

345

4

16

25

25

38

45

50

4
’ *37’ 129

22

22

72
3

19
113

5
5
13

19
19
86

1
6

3

g

3

2
6

New York, N. Y .:
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines (drivers).............................
Storage-battery car lines.............................
All lines except horse and storage-bat­
tery car lines.
Third Avenue Ry. Co. (The Bronx and Man­
hattan).
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines—
Motormen................................................
Conductors..............................................
Guards.....................................................
Subway lines—
Motormen...............................................
Conductors..............................................
Guards.....................................................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.(elevated lines)—
Motormen.......................................................
Conductors....... .............................................
N orfolk, V a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ _
Oakland, C a l...................... .
Oklahoma City, Okla................................................
Omaha, Nebr........................................... ...................
Peoria, 111.1....................................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.—
Surface lines............. .....................................
Elevated lines—
Motormen................................................
Conductors.............................................
Guards.....................................................
Pittsburgh, Pa.............................................................
Portland, Me................................................................
Portland, Oreg.............................................................
Providence, R. I .........................................................
Pueblo, Colo.................................................................
Reading, Pa..................................................................
Richmond, V a .............................................................
Rochester, N . Y ..........................................................
Sacramento, Cal...........................................................
Saginaw, Mich.............................................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................... ......................
Salt Lake City, Utah.................................................
San Antonio, Tex.......................................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable Ry. Co.: Gripmen
Municipal Railways of San Francisco............
United Railroads of San Francisco..................
Savannah, Ga..............................................................
Scranton, Pa.................................................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light and Power Co
Gripmen.........................................................
Seattle Municipal Street R y.............................
Seattle, Renton and Southern Ry. Co...........
Sioux City, Iowa.........................................................
South Bend, Ind.........................................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R . R . Co...............
The Washington Water Power Co..................
Springfield, 111 .............................................................
Springfield, Mass.........................................................
Springfield, Ohio.........................................................
1

9

1

25

10

1

3
1
2

4

1
1
1

3

4

5

30
82
2
4

89

127

14

504

151

55

18
18
49

35
35

41
41
181

24
24
186

2
10

31
40
15
45
16
37

82

46
27

1

9

3
5

11
11

10

21

88

75
15
104

9

9

2

22

71

12

5
5
3

45

119
24
38

2

16

88

10

325

377

312

20
20
12

1
1

2

1

4

3

2

7

3

5
5

2

3

5
3

116

257

3
3
3
19 "*67* 246
g
18
26
8
18
33
7
26 102

11
10
2

13
22

13
55

4

66
6

1
1

1
2

11

7
60

171

1
2

268
36
39
52
38
71
g

3
308
15

7
35

6

2

3

6

g
g
A
171
13
61
68
21
1

17
55
42
2

7

57
44
71

7
1
5

23

5

” 44* *iio*
g
13
16
22

5

3

5
19

8

28

3

8

16

43

31

70

2

2

3

4
3

6

11

1

4

2
7

4
3
3

35

5
2

3

14

g

2
8
1

5

4

1

1
2

20

10

58

14

25
67

6

1

1
1

trip—approximately

10

37
19
27

179
42
63

5

5

111
8

117
48

254
15

4

2

Alternate Sundays most of the runs are shortened by




2

6

1

hour.

8
7

34
5

70
9
” *2
11
5

35
18
In
•
lU
*15"

123

CHAP. II.---- H OURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS ON DUTY—Continued.
SUNDAY—Continued.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of-

15 15*
16 16*
17 17*
12 12 *
13 13*
14 14*
10
m
11
m
No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and Total.
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
17 17* 18
14 14* 15 15*
16 16*
12 12*
13 13*
11 m
10*
2
3

18
40
3
1
5
37

10
30

384
13

248
30

124
11

35
3

13
34
143

2
1
37

3

61

29

13

7

3

2
3

158
324
71
24
217
599

1

3
1

3

18

1

1
2
2
4

1349
128
18
47
751

1
2
3
4
5

6
7

8
9

*"43’
8
248

2
8
1
11

1

100

8

3

1

1

1

16
17
18

165
164
77
339
64
241
108

1

22

1

19

20
2
1
22
23
24
25

1852

11

2

12
1

4

5

2

17

2
14

1
3

34
1

6
4

1
11
64
16
3

7
14
1

3
3

2

2

261
11
9

158
4
9

41
9

13
2

5

4

1

66
7

9
4

2
9
1

3

1
2
3

2
2
9

1
6

18
21

6
10

1

3

4

5

4

2

1

1
8




6

5

1

2

1
........t........

1

43
44
45
46
47

321
41
8
22
58
44

6
1

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
38
37
38
39
40
41
42

50
98
656
62
126

1

26

36
36
34
925
113
349
331
44
58
205
232
85
36
1133
160
137

1

29
1
47
18
13
8
21

13
14
15

142
142
607

1

10
1
1
1
2

282
258
830

4
3
8
45

353

. . . J ____

48
49
50
51
52
53

78
97
66
172
57

54
55
56
57
58

124

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE U NITED STATES.
T a b le

7.—NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS WITH EACH

SUNDAY—Concluded.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Line
No.

1
0

6i 7 74
94
Un­ and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
64 7 74
0
4 10

City.

Superior, W is.........................................................
Syracuse, N. Y .......................................................
Tacoma, Wash.......................................................
Gripmen...........................................................
Toledo, Ohio...........................................................
Topeka, Kans.........................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co.......................................
Washington Railway & Electric Co..........
Wheeling, W . Va...................................................
Wichita, K a n s ....................................................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. Co..............................................
Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Co.
Total:
Elevated and subway lines—
Motormen......................................
Conductors.....................................
Guards............................................
Surface lines1.......................................

3

1

14
770

T a b l e 8 . — NU M BER

5
85 228 328 195
42
42 168
90 148 194 162
7
27
168 680 360 285
902 1111 1350 3027 3392 4019 3999

OF R EG U LA R RUNS COMPLETED

M O N D A Y TO F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Line
No.

City.

Altoona, Pa ..............................................................
Atlanta, Ga..................................................................
Augusta, Ga
...........................................................
Binghamton, N. Y .....................................................
Birmingham, A la........................................................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines..................................................
Elevated lines—
Motormen...............................................
Conductors2...........................................
Guards3...................................................
Brockton, Mass...........................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ...............................................................
Butte, Mont.................................................................
Charleston, S .C ...........................................................
Charlotte, N. C ............................................................
Chattanooga, Tenn.....................................................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Motormen.......................................................
Conductors....................................................
Guards............................................................
Chicago Surface Lines........................................
Cincinnati, Ohio...........................>.............................
Cleveland, Ohio...........................................................
Dallas, Tex;i
Dallas Electric Corporation...............................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff divi­
sion of Fort Worth lines.

6
8
9
7
%
7i
8K
9i
Un­ and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
6
7
8
9
10
64
74
84
94

6

5
3

2

4

42

3

27
10

12
21

10

1

14
21
2

1

208

15

7

27
3

2
52
29

4
45
15

1

2

41
3

15
16

11

12
12
6
8

10
10
4
6
8

15
15
5
116
25
1

65
65
13
211
84
2

89
89
22
310
113
11

1Not including drivers on New York Rys. Co. (horse-car lines), gripmen on California Street Cable Ry.
Co., gripmen on Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co., and gripmen in Tacoma.




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

125

SPEC IFIED N U M B ER OF H O U R S'O N D U T Y —Continued.
SUNDAY—Concluded.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of12
11
15 15*
13 13*
14 14*
10
16 16*
17
Line
10|
11*
17i
-and and and and and an ! and and and and and and and and and and 18 Total. No.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
12 12*
13 13*
14 14*
17 17*
11 H i
15 15*
16 16*
18
10*
3
7
11

3

3

1

10

1

1

13
28

8
1

i
l

1

16
70
7
7

5
60
1
4

9
,
95
2
12

t
8
8

6

1

6
7

2
12

5
15

6
5

8
8

3
7

25
24
12
2
3169 1661

828

362

1

5

1
10

28

256

77

•
1
1

10

41

9

4

2

11
12

982
957
1647
25848

?,
1

7
8
9
10

32
61

1
2

3
4
5
6

240
263
69
50

2

1

98
6
232
44

132

1

13
14
15
16

W IT H IN EACH SPECIFIED N U M BER OF HOURS.
M O N D A Y TO F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty of
15 15*
14
16 16*
17
12 12*
13 13*
11
10 10*
Total. lin e
14|
1
7|
n!
No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
16 16*
14 14* 15 15*
17 17* 18
13*
13
11 H i
12 12*
10*
3

1

4
13
4

2
30
10

1
46
2

1
51

49

47

31

8

3

4

8

7

8

2

3

5

41

61

1
55

3
26

18

2
2
2
15

249

269

299

10

22

35

49

100

111

64

7
7
10
3
21

20
20
28
16
11

8
8
10
22
5

5
5
6
6
27

4
4
6
8
69

3
3
2
1
26
1
2

22

22

8

1

1

3

1

48
48
30
328
186
1

13
13
5
180
36
6

19
19
11
109
3
21

25
25
22
156
1
97

20
20
32
278

2
1

1529

22

4

4

17
18
19
20
21

58
58
80
82
571
50
48
56
85

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

3

1
1

4
4 "*35*
6
2

1
1

5

1
1
2
2
26
1
7

2
2
4
2
25

1

7
7
12
3
131
1
21

76
322
27
66
189

2




1
26

1

1

1

4

6

6

2

6

35

158

20
20
36
355
1
122

18
18
25
296
1
102

8
8
12
288
9
87

279
23
30

196
19
14

163
22
16

178
11
23

25
7
16

12
24

28
22

25
31

9
49

362
362
232
3485
623
833

20
6

15
3

25
3

19
1

6
3

11

1
1

2

3

10

5
1

4
3

2
1

125
23

aCalled guards.

8Called brakemen.

126

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE U NITED STATES.
T a b le

8.—NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS COMPLETED WITHIN

MONDAY TO FRIDAY—Continued.
Number of runs, with hours on duty ofLine
No.

City.

Davenport, Iowa.........................................................
Denver ? Colo................................................................
Des Moines, Iowa........................................................
Detroit, Mich...............................................................
Evansville, Ind...........................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..................................................

9
8
6
7
8*
6J
7i
Un- and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
6
9
8
7
9*
10
8J
72
6*

2

1

3

3

9
46
45

1
5

4

5

5

1
1

10

18
1
15

1

Tndinnapnlis, Tnd , . . ____________________________
Jacksonville, Fla.........................................................
Lincoln, Nebr..............................................................
Little Rock, Ark.........................................................
Los Angeles, Cal..........................................................
Louisville, K y .............................................................
Lowell, Mass................................................................
Manchester, N. H .......................................................
Memphis, Tenn.1........................................................
Memphis, Tenn.2........................................................

19
54
76

4

31

5
9
27
1

1

1
2

1

1
1

1

8

10

18

21

22

2
2

12

1
5
1

5
6

47
3
2

24
5
1

39

38

102

2
86

5

8

4

20
3

2

1

4

3

8
2

20
3
3

32
45
44

117
109
171

32
19
26

Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn.............................
Mobile,Ala...................................................................
New Bedford, Mass....................................................
New Britain, Conn.....................................................
New Haven, Conn......................................................
New Orleans, La.........................................................
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co..............................
New York & Queens County R y. Co.............
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines (drivers)............................
Storage-battery car lines.............................
All lines, except horse and storage-bat­
tery car lines.
Third Avenue R y. Co. (The Bronx and
Manhattan). 4
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.:
Elevated lines—
Motormen...............................................
Conductors.............................................
Guards.....................................................
Subway lines—
Motormen...............................................
Conductors.............................................
Guards.....................................................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated lines)—
Motormen......................................................
Conductors.....................................................
Guards............................................................
Norfolk, V a..................................................................
Oakland, Cal................................................................
Oklahoma City, Okla................................................
Omaha, N ebr...............................................................
Peoria, 111......................................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.—
Surface lines..................................................
Elevated lines:
Motormen................................................
Conductors............................................
Guards.....................................................
Pittsburgh, Pa............................................................
Portland, Me................................................................
Portland, Oreg ........................................................
Providence , R . I ...................................................
Pueblo, Colo ............. ................................................
Reading, Pa
.................- ..................- ..................
Richmond Va .........................................................




1
1

1

2

1

1

1
14

1
1

1
2
15
7

3

2

1

2

1
1
1

5
6
40

38
26
98

44
42
98

30
16
49

21
37
176

1
2

1
4

1
3

2
11

3
9

4
8

24
32
28

107
85
51
2
99

6

83
1
1
87

207

429

15

1

10

. . .J ___

1 Tuesday to Friday; used in total for all cities.
2 Monday only; not used in total for all cities.

19

1
6

3
21
91
1 .....
3
12
9

13
358
14
14

192
2
6
1
1

229
1
10
2
10
4

127

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS—Continued.
MONDAY TO FRIDAY—Continued.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—

Lirni
12 121 13 131 14 141 15 151 16 161 17 171
1
1 101 1
0
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18 Total. No.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
1
10* 1 lli 12 121 13 131 14 141 15 151 16 161 17 171 18
7
7
10
28
28
12
1
1
3
58
96
40
6
5
7
11
14
?4
18
10
19
24
19
43
6
13
7
38
51
43
4
11
8
7
96 146 114
63
32
11
1
7
3
1
12
26
23
14
24
27
93
56
17
172 183
51
18
8
5
7
9
9
69
68
25
4
3
7
2
46 ” 25* " l 2

1

2
1

1
1

3

576
21

105
19

21
8
148

10
2
198
38

19

3
183

62

65

76
21
25
140
3
23
10
43

26
18
90
7
16
9
41

11
1
38

196

233

339

8
8
7
32
8
78
13
8
4
10
30

1
1
2
56
3
63
6
8
2
2
13

13
1
3
11
4
1
2

4

8

10

4
8

2

1

2

1

3

10
3
5

32
5
1

7

4

9
9
3
1
3

51
5

1

8

11

2
1
2

1

2
16

1

2

"2

17
17

1

2
2

1

1
2

1

1

11

11

1
1

20

5
10

1
1

15

2

1

25
97

4

13

20

8
10
8

220

116

18

59

75




16
59
43
3
4
17
27

1

1
1

1
2
11

2
5

4

1
2
2

1

1

17

1

1

3
1

28
29
30
31
32

411

18

18

1
1
4
8

18
17
1
2
1

1

2

3
5
9
13

28
26

1974
180

33

367
335
1135

2
22
9

4
9
9
17
1
1
1
13
1

4

.....

1
11

51

2
62
22
2

1
39

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

48
72
1461

1
2
39
2
2
6
11
15
21

75
251
161
987
56
138
133
281
90
633
67
59
863
348
98
45
216
216
485
720
71
158
503
74
24
220
614

34
35
36

199
193
994

306
27

13
2
17
6
8
13
11
3
25

37
38
39

235
238
635
77
362
64
241
108

40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

2374

1

59

61

12

41
5
4

17
2
2

11

4

3

7
9

8
4

3

2

1
2

4

3 Friday only; used in total for all cities.
4 Wednesday only; used in total for all cities.

1

1

11

1

1

1

2
17

13
18

48

39
39
72
1074
121
389
391
44
58
205
279

49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

128

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IK THE UNITED STATES.
T able

8.—NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS COMPLETED WITHIN

MONDAY TO FRIDAY—Concluded.
Number of runs, with hours on duty ofLine
No.

7
6
8
9
7J
%
6i
8i
Un- and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
6
8
9
7
10
6J
7J
Sh
9*

City.

2

Sacramento, Cal
................................................
Saginaw, Mich . . . . __________
______________

8
1
6

7
4
63
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable R .R . Co.: Gripmen.

1
14

Unit,«d Railroads of Sa.n Franoipno........ .......
Scranton, Pa................................................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co
Gripmen..........................................................
Seattle Municipal Street R y .............................
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. Co................
Sioux City, Iowa.........................................................
South Bend, Ind.........................................................
Spokane, Wash.: '
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. Co..............
The Washington Water Power C o .................
Springfield, 111 ...........................................................
Springfield, Mass.........................................................
Springfield, Ohio.........................................................
Superior, W is...............................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ............................................................
Tacoma, Wash.............................................................
Gripmen.................................................................
Toledo, Ohio................................................................
Topeka, TCnns..............................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co.............................................
Washington Railway & Electric Oo................
Wheeling, W .V a ........................................................
Wichita, Kang.............................................................
Wilmington, Dei.:
People’ s Ry. C o ........ ..........................................
Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Co___
Total:
Elevated and subway lines—
Motormen............................................
Conductors..........................................
Guards.................................................
Surface lines1.............................................

1
27

4
1

71

2
1

4
2

8
2
2
1

12

41

34

1
1
1
1

8

34

68

2
1

1
4

4

2

1

6

5

8

1

2

1

20
4
4

1
2
1
4
24
20
4
29 "jL6*
2
4

3

1

1
1

2
1

5

8

59

63

1

9

6
1
16

106
12
20

5

1

19

1
g
22

1
10
g

1
2
4
31

25
22
57
97

68
42
114
234

91 236 263
106 222 244
158 261 275
776 1970 2242

SAT U R DA Y.
Altoona, Pa....................................................................
Atlanta, Ga..................................................................
Augusta, Ga.................................................................
Binghamton, N. Y ....................................................
Birmingham, A la.......................................................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines..................................................
Elevated lines—
Motormen...............................................
Conductors 2...........................................
Guards3..................................................
Brockton, Mass...........................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .......................................... ...................
Butte, Mont.................................................................
Charleston. S .C ...........................................................
Charlotte, N. C ............................................................
Chattanooga, Tenn.....................................................

1
1

1

3

27
10

12
21

10

17

48

21
, 2

1

14
1

201

8

25
3

2
61
29

4
54
15

2

41
3

15
19

10

i Not including drivers on New York Rys. Co. (horse-car lines), gripmen on California Street Cable R. R.
Co., gripmen on Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co., and gripmen in Tacoma.




129

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS—Continued.
MONDAY TO FRIDAY—Concluded.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—

12
1 10* 1
0
15 15*
13*
14
1
16 161 17
Line
12| 13
17|
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18 Total. No.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
10* 1 n* 12 m 13 13 * 14 14* 15 15* 16 16* 17 17* 18
1
20

9

24
3

*20’

20
22

51
29

1
12
6

20

7
15
55

58

6

111

98

751
62
128

28

17

330
32

8
9
10
1
1
12

14
16

*22'
15

1

13

2

85
36

1

18

2

2

32

56

1
01

3

8

30
58
44

4

1
1
'42’

10
1
1

14

50

27

78
99

1

66

176
57
28
151

24

2

2
22

4
18

16
37
18

24
25

24
5

3
4
5

1 11
2

37

16

2
1
2
1

1
2

160
137

3

37
5
3
3

7

13
14
15
16

17
18
19

20
21
22
23

7
252
44

2
1
1

13

17

1
0

24
25
26
27

260
313
69
50

28
29
30
31

32
67

14
14
3

110

32
33

1260
1225
3148
318 30438

34
35
36
37

76
322
27

38
39
40
41
42

1529

43

58
58
80
82
571
50
48
56
85

44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

16

1
1

42
48
39
48
63 150
97
74
30
55
78
77 103 110
55
76 208 329 440 545 433 170
50
2019 1612 1701 2362 3170 3192 3034 3215 1587

158

595

147

183

1

1
1

255

SA T U R D A Y.
1
29
10

268

257

7
7

10

3
23

23

300

28
16

12

56

52

45

27

3

2

8

7

8

2

3

5

1

33

61

92

85

78

39

69

2

7
7

18

20
20

49

4

1
55

1
51
2

1
1
2
2
15
1
7

3
3
2
1
22

2
2
4
2
22
1

1
1

12
3
119
1
20

i
18

1

2
28

4

6

47
6

2

12

6
9

2

Called guards.

39749°— Bull. 204—17------ 9




3
6 "3 9
6
2

3Called brakemen.

130

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

8.—NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS COMPLETED WITHIN
SATURDAY—Continued.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of-

Line
No.

City.

9
6 , 61
8
7
»1
8i
7l
Un- and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
6
71
8
9
10
7
Si
12
H
6*

Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Motormen.......................................................
Conductors....................................................
Guards............................................................
3
Chicago Surface Lines............... „ .....................
Cincinnati, Ohio. . . ...... ......... . ...................
2
Cleveland, Ohio...........................................................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation..............................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff divi­
sion of Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Iowa.........................................................
Denver, Colo.................................................................
3
4
Des Moines, Iowa........................................................
Detroit, Mich .............................. . ........... u
Evansville, Ind...........................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..................................................
Houston, Tex...............................................................
1
Indianapolis, Ind........................................................
Jacksonville, Fla.........................................................
Kansas City, Mo.........................................................
Lincoln, Nebr..............................................................
Little Rock, Ark.........................................................
Los Angeles, Cal.........................................................
2
Louisville, K y .............................................................
Lowell, Mass................................................................
2
Manchester, N. H .......................................................
Memphis, Tenn...........................................................
Milwaukee^ W is.........................................................c
2
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn.............................
Mobile, A la...................................................................
Nashville, Tenn...........................................................
Newark, N. J ...............................................................
New Bedford, Mass....................................................
New Britain, Conn.....................................................
New Haven, Conn......................................................
New Orleans, La.........................................................
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.............................
3
20
New York & Queens County Ry. Co.............
1
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines (drivers)............................
Storage-battery car lines..........................
All lines except horse and storage-bat­
1
2
tery car lines.
Third Avenue Ry. Co. (The Bronx and Man­
1
3
hattan).
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines—
Motormen...............................................
Conductors.............................................
1
Guards........ •
...........................................
........!........
Subway lines—
i
Motormen............................................. .
Conductors.............................................
Guards........ ...........................................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated lines)—
Motormen......................................................
Conductors.....................................................
1
Guards..........................................................
2
Norfolk, V a..................................................................
Oakland, Cal................................................................
Oklahoma City, Okla................................................
Omaha, Nebr...............................................................
Peoria, 111......................................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.—
Surface lines..................................................
Elevated lines—
Motormen...............................................
i
Conductors............................................
1
Guards....................................................




12
12
6
11

6

1
1
1
1
1

9
9
19
6
13

22
22
10
134
26
2

56
56
24
272
82
6

92
92
33
349
104
10

5
11

2

5
9
14

17
54
70

10
46
47

2

3

1
7

2
2

4

5

5
18
1
18

1
1

1

1

1

2

8

18

1

1

9

12

15

16

8

2
10
7

1

3
3

3

1
6
3

5
1

51
5

24
6
1

39

38

102

1
86

5
3

7
4

4
4

21
3

1

1
.

1
1

1
14
; 10

11

1

1 9

3

8
2

21
9
23

39
67
109

90
92
178

42
28
32

1
1
1

16
10
76

43
30
111

47
47
173

25
11
51

23
34 ,
162

1
3

2
11

3
9

4
g

24
32
28

107
85
51
2
122
1

i

i
4

1

1
i
1

24

12 | 65
I
2
6
87 "i3 *
218

451

413

1

4
4
i

g
g
2

131

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAB CREWS.
EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS—Continued.
SATURDAY—Continued.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—

Line
1 124 13 13* 14 14* 15 15* 16 16* 17 17\
2
1
1 10| 1
0
Total. No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
2
10* 1 HI 1 12* 13 13* 14 14* 15 15* 16 16* 17 17* 18
1




28
34

31
24

26
49

362
362
260
3485
623
832

9

7
1

6
3

3
1

125
23

3
1

3

2

2

23

18

2
8

4

15

8
32
5
6
1

7
51
5
2
3
23

1

2
1

11
1

1
1

1
2

40
216
481
704
71
158
452
74
24

1

614

220

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

1

7

1925
180

35
36

48
72
1461

8
8

37
38
39

I
32
8
8

1
6
29

2

5

4
4
1
47

1
1
1
21

257
17
30

167
15
22

16
1

5
3

7
1

10
22
1
24
6
12
12
37
14
51
4
4
135
13

7
9
3
17
7
8
9
20
7
43
1
7
102
4

1
4
2
26
6
4
6
12
2
25

2
3
2
36
1
6
6
4
21

3
16
2
17

1
44
8

1
19
10

1
15
4

29
42
117
8
7
18
2

112

130
9
11

161
8
9

295
8
62

23
14
73
4
10
4
6

21
4
34
1
3
5
3
1
2

9
7
3

11
4

4
2
2
2

19
1

3
1

1

5
16

2
8

9
1

2
1
1
16
11
5
1

10
3
2
13
11

5
9
10
1
9
18

1

25 "io *
345
8

43
15

10
2
198

20

1
1
2

1
11

27

320

3

14

3

12

2

1

1

1

4

2

115

133

180

8

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22

1
1
1

|
1 *
1
1
1
1
6
9
3
36 ■'*8*
5

1
1
1

1
2
3

4
!

11

i *

1
i

i
!
1

2
2

363
331
1117

41
42
43

1
i
1

4

1
26
18
90
7
12
9
42

10
1
1
1
2

40

1

1
46

75
246
161
939
56
138
133
281
90
633
67
59

1074

2
11
202

44
45
46

235
238
635
77
359
64
241
108

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

1

17

1
1
2 ........

3
2

2374
39
39
72 I

55
56
57
58

132

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b le

8 .—NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS COMPLETED WITHIN
SATURDAY—Concluded.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of-

Line
No.

6
7
6i
7i 8 8i 9 9l
Un- and and and and and and and and
dcr un­ un­ un-_ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
6
8
10
9
7
9J
n

City.

Pittsburgh, Pa , r________
______
Portland, Me................................................................
Portland, Oreg
,
, _____
Providence, R. I .........................................................
Pueblo, Colo.................................................................
Reading, Pa.................................................................
Richmond, V a ............ ................................. .........
Rochester, N. Y ..........................................................
Sacramento, Cal..........................................................
Saginaw, Mich.............................................................
St. Louis, Mo...............................................................
Salt. T,ake City\ Utah
San Antonio, Tex.......................................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable Ry. Co.: Gripmen.
Municipal Railways of San Francisco...........
United Railroads of San Francisco...............
Savannah, Ga...............................................................
Scranton, Pa.................................................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co
Gripmen........................................................
Seattle Municipal Street Ry. Co......................
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. Co...............
Sioux City, Iowa.........................................................
South Bend, Ind.........................................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. Co..............
The Washington Water Power Co..................
Springfield, 111.............................................................
Springfield, M ass.......................................................
Springfield, O h io .......................................................
Superior, W is...............................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ............................................................
Tacoma, W ash...........................................................
Gripmen...............................................................
Toledo, Ohio.................................................................
Topeka, Kans...............................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co..............................................
Washington Railway & Electric Co.................
Wheeling, W . V a ........................................................
Wichita, Kans.............................................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’ s Ry. C o ..................................................
W ilm ington & Philadelphia Traction Co
Total:
Elevated and subway lines—
Motormen...........................................
Conductors..........................................
Guards.................................................
Surface lines1............................................

1

262

2

7
9

9
6

1

2

21
1
2
8

121

2
8
1

5

6

1
4
2

1

1
12
1

280
1
10
2
15
5
8
1
18

23
4
63

71

1
25

7

3
4

7
3

8

1

41

34

2

14

1
1

1

44
2

1

2

2

12

2

6

5

20
4
4

1
24
4
29

4
20

16

5

8

1

2

1

1

16

1
1

1

3

2

3

1

15

51

78

20

1

2

2
9

1

5

1

6
1
16

106
12
21

1
1

1

1
6
29

1
2
10
36

36
26
93
109

73
51
162
248

1
1

42

1
2
23

9

16
7

2
2

14

10
1

15

1
8

6

7
3

16
8

25
12

9
21

1
27

31

137

108 199 272
140 195 247
301 282 280
875 2148 2369

SUN DAY.
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

Altoona, Pa.................................................................
Atlanta, G a .................................................................
Augusta, Ga.................................................................
Binghamton, N. Y .....................................................
Birmingham, A la........................................................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines..................................................
Elevated lines—
Motormen..............................................
Conductors 2...........................................
Guards3...................................................

1

1
2

i Not including drivers on New York Railways Co. (horse-ear lines), gripmen on California Street Cable
Railway Co., gripmen on Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co., and gripmen in Tacoma.




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

133

EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS—Continued.
SATURDAY—Concluded.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of12 12*
10 10i 11
13 13*
14 14i
15 15£
16 16i
17 17|
Total. Line
No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
13 13i
14 14i
15 15i
10i 11 Hi 12 m
16i
17 17i
18
16
18
23
32
115
10
29
8
18
3
5
119
23

11
16
66
40
3
3
5
32
14
5
151
21

15
8
62
16
8
5
4
22
15
2
134
26

30
3
56
4
8
1
2
9
8
4
89
21

48

11

1

2

5

9
1
2

9

1
1

1

2
1

3
1

10
1

18

7
1
3
3
61
1

7
6
1
2
60

3

2

2

4

1

2
17

15
18

1
2
55

1
43

58

23

2
27

1

29
1

2
2

33
7

30
5

21
2

13
1
1

11
1

4

6
13
7

1
1
6

5

8

4
24

11
14

22
8

24

5

8

3

3

2
7
1

6
18

6
7

4
11
4
1
9
2

4
3
21
20
2
5
1
12 '**6'
1

9
27

4
43

7
27

6

11

11
1
13

3
10

5
8
13

83

59
1

18
3

60
55
170
2208 1960

1

108

9
3

110

4

117
2

3
7
1

50

16

101
8

21
10

22

2

123
34

9
17

2
5

3
2

1

1
2
32 *’ 20'
1

1

1

4

3

1
3

3
4

8

8

2

|

...
5
2
1
1
1
23
7
?
1

1

1
2
1

6
17
5

1
1

2

1
3

14
15
16
17

360
39
8
30
58
44

19
20
21
22
23
24

78
99
66
176
57
28
151
104
7
252
44

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

1
8

1

4

1

3

1

1

1

1
9

3

2
12

12
9

260
313
69
50

2
10

2
7

32
67

40
41

1268
1230
3238
451 30384

42
43
44
45

72
269
27

46
47
48
49
50

1

1

2

1
1

6
2

13
11

8
9

1
19
1

14

4

4
1

1

1
1
514

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

2

2

2

845

2

1

I
1
..........
1

1

38
2
42
81
43
133
2
50
29
83
71
97
9
482 362 320 256 147
2617 3119 2790 2529 2449 1333

3

1

1
!
2

2

1185
121
389
391
44
58
205
268
85
36
1210
160
137
58
101
751
62
128

50
33
4
4

1
544

.

1

...

191 | 202

255

284

2

3
2

SU N D AY.

4
1

39

1
16
1

31
8

2
34
3

18
3

45
2

20

7

3

2

15

13

10

5

4

2

4

1

1

3

307

281

15

5

12

20

19

25

15

16

18
18
26

8
8
12

9
9
14

6
6
8

3
3
4

....




2Called guards.

1
1

1
6
1

3

66

176
1151
53
53
74

3Called brakemen.

52
53
54

134

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b le

8.—NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS COMPLETED WITHIN
SUN DAY—Cont inued.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of-

Line
No.

City.

Brockton, M ass..........................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ...............................................................
Butte, Mont.................................................................
Charleston, S. C...........................................................
Charlotte, N. C ............................................................
Chattanooga, T^rm
..... ..........
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Motormen......................................................
Conductors....................................................
Guards............................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio..........................................................
Cleveland, Ohio...........................................................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation................................
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak Cliff divi­
sion of Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Iowa.........................................................
Denver, Colo................................................................
Des Moines, Iowa........................................................
Detroit, Mich...............................................................
Evansville, Ind...........................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..................................................
Houston, Tex...............................................................
Indianapolis, Ind........................................................
Jacksonville, Ela.........................................................
Kansas Cily, Mo..........................................................
Lincoln, Nebr..............................................................
Little Rock, Ark.........................................................
Los Angeles, Cal..........................................................
Louisville, K y .............................................................
Lowell, Mass.................................................................
Manchester, N. H ........................................................
Memphis, Tenn...........................................................
Milwaukee^, W is...........................................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn.............................
Mobile, Ala...................................................................
Nashville, Tenn...........................................................
Newark, N. J...............................................................
New Bedford, Mass....................................................
New Britain, Conn.....................................................
New Haven, C onn......................................................
New Orleans, La.........................................................
New York, N. Y .:
B rooklyn Rapid Transit C o ..............................
New York & Queens Countv R y . Co.............
New York R ys. Co.—
Horse-car lines (drivers)..............................
Storage-battery car lines............................
A ll lines except horse and storage-battery
car lines.
Third Avenue R y . Co. (The B ronx and Man­
hattan).
Interborough R apid Transit C o . E levated lines—
Motormen...............................................
Conductors.............................................
Guards.....................................................
Subway lines—
Motormen...............................................
Conductors.............................................
Guards.....................................................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (elevated
lines)—
Motormen.......................................................
C onductors.....................................................
Norfolk, Va .................................................................
Oakland, Cal................................................................
Oklahoma City, Okla................................................
Omaha, Nebr...............................................................
Peoria, 111.1...................................................... ...........

6
9
8
7
8i
Un- and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
6
10
9
8
7
62
9i
8*
n

2
1

3
1

9

4

2

3
3

5
18

3

7
22
3

7
60
29

51
15

16
6

2
7

6

2i
14

8
26

6

22
2,8
37
28
37
22
3
17
260 "208* 256
51 120
25
3
56
31

44
44
14
202
159
46

76
76
24
158
95
34

11
11
540
18
2

563
12
1

564
2

392
7

1

1

2
3
11

5

4

1

6

12

73
1

128

1
1

1
1

1
10
1
133

9
30
137

10
48
65

3
12
24
46

4

14
22
187
1
1
3

7

1
15
1

5
3

12

10

28

21

30
4
1

6
5
1
4
13
1

5
7
5
2
28
2
1
38
12
14
5
9
125

63
1

17

21

1
25
10

2

1

41
1

30

35

3

2
6

2

5

3

1
3

5
4

2

6

1
3
5
1

6

1

3
2
4

1

3

5
1

4

6

1

6

6
5
2
1

4

1
25

4

1
2
10

4
21

33

13

6
5

12
12

10

2

8

2

8

27
6
1
22
8
16
9
3
35
1
4

28
33
15
1

32
119
13
10

7

2

1

25

4

6

3

3

4

8

23

10

1

1

19
1
3

12
13
37

67
95
431

100
69
141

16
26
89

2

5
5
9

15
15
74

16
16
36

33
33
75

26
26
107

22
22
162

1

6
2

2

1

2
1
3
1
3

9
9
11
1
4

1
3
15
42
1
7
I 2

1
10

2

1 Alternate Sundays most of the runs are shortened by 1 trip—approxim ately 1 hour.




12

25
80
32
73
15
9
94 102
1
5
3
2
88 1 10

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

135

EACH SPECIFIED N U M B ER OF H O U R S—Continued.
SU N D AY —Cont inued.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
17 17!
15|16 16!
15
10
10i 11 n i 12 12! 13 13| 14
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 18
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
18
1 | 11 HI 12 12! 13 13-| 14 14! 15 15| 16 16! 17 m
0
7
51

22

22

13

110

39
54

6

11

6

32

27

36

7
7
3
36
17

3
3

4
4
1

121

2

8
19
54

2

3
29
16
1

3
15
23
18

12

12

2

2

24

16

17

18

*y

26

33

’ 75*
3

58
1
58
7

16
5
25

'32'
7
28

17

1

5
32

2

2

11

17
46
4
33
60

15
63

"l2

50

130
7

8

2

2

81
404
50
48
56
85

10

44

10
10

304
304

'*4*
51

3302
592
619

102

5

21

9

2

10

17
21
21

2

9
61
69

25

13
16

22

99
1
3
26

10

5

76

7
70

30

164
15

23

228
19

43

6
3
108

215

25
135

19

40

42

7
17

15
16
17
18
19

1349
128

41
42
43
44
45

32

21
12
22

13
14

18
47
751

2

6

32

10

12

20

3

38

26

12

6

3
28

12

10

6

2

2

11

18
15
8
40
9
14

22

6

257
7

76

11

12

6
4




23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

282
258
830

7
4
"

16
5

5 ’ ” i'

13

21

4
33

47
48
49

142
142
607

13
13

21

20
2
1
22

46

2

4
4
18

158
5

6

2

12

75
239
156
803
56
129
133
257
90
577
67
58
677
335
96
45
213
366
577
71
158
324
71
24
217
599

14

12

11

22

16

19

10

124

11

2

4
’ 77’ 130
16
28
2
1
1
8
22 24
53
36
54 100
10
2
5
54
1

24
31
31
18
14
54
3

15
31

4
13

'otal. Line
No.

50
51
52

165
164
77
339
64
241

53
54
55
56
57
58
59

108

136

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b le

8__NUMBER OF REGULAR RUNS COMPLETED WITHIN
SUNDAY—Concluded.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of-

Line
No.

8
6
7
9
9*
8i
7i
Un- and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
6
8
9
7
10
6*
9*
n

City.

Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines—
12
2

5
5
3
22

1
3

1
3

2

7

3

.

. ______ ______

____

4
4

2
2

5
3

115
19

239
64

310
199

8

17
5

29
2

20
3

5

11

11

2

13
4

33
16

5
4

57
7

123
8

1
216
6

1
178
1

19
1

Saginaw, Mirh . _ _____________________________
Salt Lake City, Utah.................................................
San Antonio, Tex........................................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable Ry. Co.: Gripmen
Municipal Railways of San Francisco............
United Railroads of San Francisco..................
Savannah, Ga..............................................................
Scranton, Pa.'..............................................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction Light & Power Co
Gripmen........................................................
Seattle Municipal Street R y .............................
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. Co...............
Sioux City, Iowa............... .........................................
South Bend, Ind............................................ *...........
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R . R. Co..............
The Washington Water Power Co..................
Springfield, 111.............................................................
Springfield, Mass.........................................................
Springfield, Ohio.........................................................
Superior, W is...............................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ............................................................
Tacoma, Wash.............................................................
Gripmen...............................................................
Toledo, Ohio................................................................
Topeka, Kans..............................................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co.............................................
Washington Railway & Electric Co...............
Wheeling, W . V a ........................................................
Wichita, ICans.............................................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Rv. C o ...................................................
Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Co___

2
2

5

Surface lines...................................................
Pittsburgh, Pa.............................................................

Reading, P a .. . .

20
20
12
71

40
1

8

361
260
1
22
8
1
15
15
2
2
105
5
63

318
171
9
17
27
32
31
9
65
2
71

1
2
2

10
1
1
22

7
4
2
16
68
5

1

5

5

3

28

19

8

4

1

8

15

28

2

38
2
4
3

2

60
1
1
4

2

10

6

6

3

2

5

5

4

4

2
8
3
2

14
1
8
1
2
4
2
13

1
3

4

1

1

4
4
2

5
3

2
5
1

7
3
1

7
1
1

1

20
2
6

.....

15
"is*

4
10
1
32

68
8
5

19
12
5

25

1
1

1

Total:
Elevated and subway lines—
Motormen.............................................
Conductors............................................
Guards...................................................
Surface lines1........................................... . 778

12
724

6
5
5
818

i

37
36
21
864

2

1
3
3
7
10
3
5
5
15
1
4 "*8 *
11
18
90
1

15
1

43
12
15

56
37
13
1
1

62
67 123 199 194
46
77 153 175 197
80
73 523 262 275
962 1547 1829 2476 2191

1 Not including drivers on New York Rys. Co. (horse-car lines), gripmen on California Street Cable R y.
Co., gripmen on Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co., and gripmen in Tacoma.




.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
S UMBER OF HOURS—Concluded.
T
SUNDAY—Concluded.
Number of runs, with hours on duty of—

10-1

11
10
iii 12 12\ 13
and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der
101 11 HI 12 121 13 131

11

3
14
18
10
16
3
5
5
12
18
3
36
16

116
18

75
5

10
19
13
13
55
10

30
8
13

2
2

39

4
17
8
29
4
8
4
3
7
15
6

14

21

un­
der
14

14 1H 15 151 16 161
17
17\
and and and and and and and and 18 Total.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der over.
161 17 171 18
141 15 15* 16

36
36
34
1852
925
113
349
331
44
58
205
232
85
36
1133

10

2

40

1
1

3
5

6

13

2

4

"i"

1

"2
4

14

ICO

137

74

50
98
656
62
126

17
7

1

321
41
8

J.

1

2
3
4
5

6
7

8
9
10

11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

22

23

U

22

25
26
27
28

78
97

232
44

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

240
263
69
50

40
41
42
43

32
61

44
45

982
957
1647
25848

46
47
48
49

58
44
20
7

5
19

66

3
12

172
57
28
132

20

12

21

32
26
30
21
29
26
28
37
42
19
58
1966 1741 1630 1260 1236




14
18
4
865

466

72

29

138

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

To illustrate the runs, which are arranged so as to meet the varying
traffic demands during the day aild at the same time to make a full
day’s work for each man, four charts are here given. Each chart is
for the regular week-day schedule of a surface line.
Each of the charts A, B, and C represents a division of a company
in one of three large cities. As the charts are illustrative only, the
runs of all divisions of each company are not charted. Chart D
represents all runs of a company operating in a small city of the
Middle West.
The charts show regular scheduled runs except as tripper runs are
indicated. Each line across the page of the chart shows a run, with
approximately the time of beginning and ending of each part of the
run. Each run means a scheduled day’s work for a motorman and a
conductor. Reading the first line of Chart A and quoting the exact
figures of the run sheet used in preparing the chart it appears that
the car crew on this run began work at 4.48 a. m. and worked until 9.03
a. m .; resumed work at 10.45 a. m. and worked until 2.45 p. m .; again
resumed work at 5.14 p. m. and worked until 6.53 p. m., making the
total time on duty for the day 9 hours and 54 minutes completed within
14 hours and 5 minutes. Each other line can be read in practically
the same manner. Near the bottom of Chart A are four lines repre­
senting straight all-night runs which owing to the limitations of the
chart are shown in two sections. Thus the first of the four runs
began at 10.31 p. m. and continued without a break until 9.04 a. m.
the next day. On the particular division charted there were five
tripper runs in the late afternoon. •
It will be observed that the runs were so arranged that as there was
an intermission in one run, another run was operating so as to keep
the desired number of cars moving.
At the bottom of the chart, figures show the number of cars in
operation at each stated hour. Thus Chart A shows 4 cars in oper­
ation at 4 o’clock a. m., 6 cars at 5 o’clock, 36 cars at 6 o’clock, etc.
ADDITIONAL SCHEDULED SERVICE.

By far the greater part of street-car operation is carried on by
regular men working on regular scheduled runs constituting each a
day’s work, but nearly every company has in addition some other
kind or kinds of car service to meet traffic conditions, as stated on
page 108. Such additional service consists of tripper runs on certain
days only, unassigned runs, etc.
Figures for scheduled service other than regular runs were taken
in a few cities and the data for some of the cities so covered are here
presented as illustrative of this character of car service. Stated runs
of this class practically always are given to extra men.




139

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

C

hartA

-

R

uns

on a

representative

[n u m b e r

OF R U N S

AM.

11 3 i

d i v i s i o n , in

T R IP P E R S

* P.M.

C

ity

A ,

5 \]

~
S

8 9 IO I 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 1 II 12 I 2 3 A
I 2
0

it h i "

7'y
A,

6

54- SS 54 64- 99 112 67 54-48 41 41 36 14 6 4 - 4 C A RS fN O PER A TIO N AT EACH H O U R

3 6 65 96 68 59 5 5 54NUM BZR O F




o-

er±

140

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

R uns o n

C hart B -

[n u m b e r

a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e

M
-.... A A
-- ...... ........ .. 7
4 - 5

6

7

8

9

d iv is io n ,

in

C it y

B.

o r RU N S 5 4 - ') T R I P P B R S 4 4 * C F O R E N O O N 2 3 , AFTER NOO N 2 l X ]

10 It

12

RM
A
1

2

3

■/*>-

■{75,-

7 r,

4

-

5

6

►
2

6

9

10

11

12

I

2

3

4-

ns{~'

r s.

1 1 22 40 5* 27 22 23 22 24- 23 23 23 4-2 S8 28 25 2 21 23 1 4- 1 1 1
1
6

N U M BER OF C A R S IN




O P E R A T IO N

AT EACH HOUR

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CHEWS.

C h a r t C — R u n s on a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
[ n i/

m b e r

S

6 7 6 9

orvisioN j in C it y G .

runs

RM.

A. M.

4-

or

141

IQ II

1
2

I

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 \ II 1
Q
2

I

2 3 4-

is)

9 1 42 65 6 43 36 3 36 38 40 42 46 65 7 63 35 23 2 22 1 1
5
1
5
5
3
9 5
NUMBER OF CARS IN OPERATION AT EACH HOUR.




II

1 9
0

142

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

An extra man during a day may get one of tliese runs only or two
or more of them and he may also get substitute work for the absent
regular man on a regular run. These runs, therefore, must not be
considered as a day’s work, as is the case of the regular runs shown
in Table B.
C h a r t D ~ R u n s in a REPRtsen t a t iv e s m a l l c it y ,
([number o r r u n s 75.]

4 -5

A.SV1.
6 7 8

9 IO if 12 1 2 3 - 4 - 5

P.M.
6 7

8

C ity

9 10 II 12 1 2

3

D.

4-

-

. .1

4

T~
er/r>} n a f e

— (/Vi, j h i

rc n s .

> ir
S

■t

3 8 34. 46 46 37 37 4-0 37 38 39 39 40 5» 51 4-1 38 38 37 37 23 3 3
^
NUM BER OF CARS IN OPERATION AT FACH HOUR.

3

3

'

BOSTON, MASS.

su r fa c e lin e s.
Tables are given of the tripper and additional-service runs. There
were three schedules— the Monday-t o-Friday runs, the Saturday runs,
and the Sunday runs. The Monday-1 o-Friday runs and the Sunday
runs were all of the tripper class. The number of runs on Sunday,
however, was much smaller. The Saturday runs included a consid­
erable number of full-day runs.




143

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

T able 9 .—ADDITIONAL-SERVICE AND TRIPPER RUNS ON SURFACE LINES IN BOSTON.
M O N D A Y T O F R ID A Y .

Number of runs with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

2
3
1
Un­ and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
1
01
2
3
8J
*2

Under 1......................
1 and under 1|..........
l i and under 2 ..........
2 and under 2\. _____
21 and under 3 ..........
3 and under 3J. . .
3\ and under 4 ..........
4 and under 4J..........
4? and under 5 ..........
5 and under 5^..........
51 and under 6 ..........
6 and under 6^..........
6 7 and under 7 ..........
7 and under 7J..........

85

4
and
un­
der

%
and
un­
der
5

5
and
un­
der
5*

8
and
un­
der
8J

%
and
un­
der
9

9
and Total.
un­
der
9J

85

Total................

34
and
un­
der
4

85
15?
150
100
32
25
7
5

152
150
1
2
2

99
1
3
2

29
4
2
1

16
1
3

2
1
1

1

1
1
152

155

105

36

20

4

2
2

1

2
8
2

5

5

5

1

569

i

SATURDAY.

Under 1......................
1 and under 1^..........
1\ and under 2 ..........
2 and under 2\..........
2\ and under 3 ______
3 and under 3|..........
3J and under 4 ..........
4 and under 4J..........
6 and under 6£..........
6J and under 7..........
7 and under 7|..........
9J and under 10........
10 and under 1 0 ^ ....
10J and under 11___
11 and under 11J___
11^ and under 1 2 ....
12 and under 1 2 ^ ....
12J and under 1 3 ....
13 and under 13J. . . .
13| and under 1 4 ....
14 and under 14J. . . .
14^ and under 15
15 and under 15£. . . .
15J and under 1 6 ....

68

Total................

68

3
1

1

3
4
5
11
2
1
2
6
3
1
1
2
4

1

68
122
106
85
23
11
2
2
2
5
3
4
6
7
19
'2
3
8.
11
6
5
2
2
6

30

45

6

510

122
106
1
2

84
2

21
1
1

1

8
1
1
1
1
3

2

1
2
1
2
2
7

2
3
4
3
4
1

122

109

87

23

10

5

2

3

1

SUNDAY.

Under 1
1 and under 1J.
1J and under 2
2 and under 2%........
2| and under 3
3 and under 3J
3 J and under 4 ..
4 and under 4J
4\ and under 5
5 and under 51
5J and under 6
6 and under 6|.
6J and under 7.
7 and under 1\.
Total. . .




19
23
7

1
1

3
4

4
5
1

9
2
3

...
25

1
1
1
1
2
1

1

19

5

1

9
1
1
3

6
1
1

1
2

2
1

3
1

1

2
1
1

4

7

1
25

14

12

18

8

1

19
23
7
13
12
16
13
5
8
3
6
5
2
1
133

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

144

ELEVATED LINES.

The scheduled additional-service runs were the same Monday to
Saturday, but differed on Sunday, and there was a separate schedule
for brakemen and for motormen and guards. The term “ guard”
in Boston applies to the work performed by conductors on elevated
lines in other cities, and the term “ brakeman” in Boston designates
men classed elsewhere as guards. For motormen and conductors
(guards) from Monday to Saturday there were 32 additional-service
and tripper runs classified as follows:
T able

1 0 .—AD DITIO NAL-SER VICE AND TR IPPER RUNS OF M OTORMEN AND CONDUC­
TORS i ON E L EVAT ED LINES IN BOSTON.
M ON DAY TO SATURDAY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
1 and 11 and
4 and 41 and 5 and 51 and
were completed. Under under under 31 and under under under under
under
1
2
5
6
4
41
51
1*
Under 1...................
1 and under H .
J\ and under 2.......
2 and under .......
4 and under 41.......
5 and under 51.......
5J and under 6.......
6 and under 61.......
61 and under 7.......
7 and under 71.......
71 and under 8.......

2

61 and
under
7

2

Total.............

6 and
under
61

1

3
1
1

2
2

2
2
2
1
2
4
3
1
7
4
4

5

5

4

32

2
2
1

2
1
1

1

3
1
1

1

3

2

1

2

3

1
5

Total.

3

1 Called guards in Boston.

For the same occupation group there were 19 such runs for Sun­
day, which did not differ materially from the week-day schedule.
For guards (brakemen) there were 50 week-day additional-service
or tripper runs and 28 on Sunday, corresponding closely with those
for motormen and conductors (guards).
BROCKTON, MASS.

The company had 89 straight tripper runs.
Friday are classified as follows:
28 runs of
32 runs of
16 runs of
4 runs of
3 runs of
3 runs of

Those for Monday to

1 and under 1J hours.
and under 2 hours.
2 and under 2£ hours.
2J and under 3 hours.
3 and under 3-| hours.
3J and under 4 hours.

For Monday to Friday, except Wednesday, there were—
1 run of 2\ and under 3 hours.
2 runs of 3$ and under 4 hours.




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

145

For Wednesday there were—
1 run of 3£ and under 4 hours.
2 runs of 7J and under 8 hours.

The runs for Saturday differed but slightly as to number and
length. There were no runs of this kind scheduled for Sunday.
BUFFALO, N. Y.

The company had 76 straight tripper runs, Monday to Friday, as
follows:
2 runs of under 1 hour.
26 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
25 runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
15 runs of 2 and under 2} hours.
7 runs of 2\ and under 3 hours.
1 run of 4J and under 5 hours.

On Saturday there were 60 straight tripper runs, while on Sunday
there were only 2 such rims, both in the classification of 2 and under
2 1 hours.
The company also had 1 2 Monday to Saturday straight tripper
runs for trailer conductors, classified as follows:
3 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
6 runs of 1£ and under 2 hours.
1 run of 2J and under 3 hours.
2 runs of 3 and under 3J hours.
CHICAGO, ILL.
SURFACE LINES.

The surface lines had additional scheduled service for Saturday
and Sunday. The 30 additional Saturday runs were practically as
long as the regular Saturday runs.
The additional scheduled service for Sunday was quite different
from that for Saturday, in that there was a greater proportion of
shorter runs and the outside time was decidedly lower.
T able

1 1 .—AD D ITIO N AL-SER VICE RUNS ON SURFACE LINES IN CHICAGO.
SATURDAY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours within which runs
were completed.

7 and
under
7*

7* and
under
8

8 and
under
8*

9 and
under

9* and
under
10

10 and
under
lQh

Total.

2

8* and under 9
.................................
10* and under 11 ...................................
11 and under 11*.....................................
11* and under 12.....................................
12 and under 12*
................................
12* and under 13
................................
13 and under 13*
................................
13* and under 14 .................................
15*and under 15* .................................
16 and under 16* ............. ......................

1

Total..............................................

1

1
1
2
i

1
1
1

2
1
1

1

!
i

1
1

1

1

1
1

3
2
2
,1

39749°— Bull. 204—17------ 10




8* and
under
9

1

5

6

4

5 I

8

2
2
2
4
4
6
4
3
2
1
30

146

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T able 1 1 .—A D D IT IO N AL -SER VICE RUNS ON SURFACE LIN E S IN CHICAGO—Concluded.
SUND AY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within w h i c h
runs were com­
pleted.

6
Un­ and
der 6 un­
der
6*

Under 6 ...................
6 and under 6\........
6J and under 7 ........
7 and under 7J........
7^ and under 8 ........
8 and under 8J........
8^ and under 9 ........
9 and under 9J........
9| and under 10 . .
10 and under 10£
10§ and under 11

24

7
and
un­
der
n

9
10
8
Total.
m
gK
and
and
and
and
and
ana
and
under under under under under under under
10J
9
10
11
8
9£
8*

24

Total..............

and
un­
der
7

24
..

5 i
2
-J

22
2

28
13

11
1

4
14

23
11

4
5

I
7

24

41

12

18

34

9

2
1
3

3
2

4

5
24
30
24
5
37
15
7
4
6

5

4

181

ELEVATED LINES.
Additional scheduled service on the elevated lines was different for
Monday to Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, and the schedule for
motormen and conductors differed from that for guards. Nearly all
were straight runs. For motormen and conductors, for Monday to
Friday, the straight additional-service or tripper runs were:
54 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
39 runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
22 runs of 2 and under 2\ hours.
26 runs of 2£ and under 3 hours.
2 runs of 3J and under 4 hours.
3 runs of 5 and under 5J hours.

There were also 14 swing runs, completed within 1 2 and under 1 2 ^
hours.
9 runs of 5 and under 5J hours.
5 runs of 5J and under 6 hours. •

For Saturday there were 136 runs of practically the same hours.
For Sunday there were 1 1 additional-service or tripper runs, all
straight, as follows:
3 runs of 2 and under 2J hours.
1 run of 3 and under 3J hours.
2 tuns of 4J and under 5 hours.
2 runs of 5 and under 5J hours.
2 runs of 6J and under 7 hours.
I run of 8 and under 8J hours.




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

147

For guards, from Monday to Friday, there were 696 additionalservice or tripper runs, all of which were straight runs.
1 run of under 1 hour.
175 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
110 runs of l\ and under 2 hours.
179 runs of 2 and under 2\ hours.
132 runs of 2| and under 3 hours.
42 runs of 3 and under 3J hours.
29 runs of 3| and under 4 hours.
8 runs of 4 and under 4£ hours.
18 runs of 4J and under 5 hours.
2 runs of 5 and under
hours.

On Saturday there were 624 straight runs of about the same hours,
except that 1 2 were longer than 5J hours, the longest of these 1 2
being under 8 hours. On Sunday there were but 4 additional-service
runs for guards.
CLEVELAND, OHIO.

This company had additional scheduled service on Monday to
Friday and on Saturday, with only an inconsequential number of
runs on Sunday. The Saturday schedule differed quite materially
from the Monday to Friday schedule; hence data for both the Mon­
day to Friday and the Saturday service are here presented.
T able

1 2 .—ADDITIONAL-SERVICE RUNS IN CLEVELAN D .
M O N D A Y T O F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty ofNumber of hours
within which runs
were completed.

1 and under 1*
1J and under 2
2 and under 2J . ..
2* and under 3
3 and under 3J
6 and under 6*
6* and under 7..
7 | and under 8 . .
10 and under 10*
1 0 * and under 11
11 and under 11*
l l i and under 12
12 and under 12*
12J and under 13
13 and under 13*
13* and under 14
Total.................




1
5
6
2
3
4
2i
and and and and and and and and and and and and Total.
under under under under under under under under under under under under
6
5
3
4
7
2
5*
3*
6*
2*
1*

2

54
13
6
2
2
1
1
2
1
12
7
7
25
22
21
2

2

178

54
13
6
1
1

2
1
1

1
5
1
2

54

13

17

2
6
3
3
4

20

-

1
1

1

3
2
1
1
3

1
4
9
2

3
2
2

1
5
6
10

5
1
3

1
1
1

1

10

16

8

24

9

3

2

1

148

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

1 2 .—AD D IT IO N A L -SE R V IC E R U N S IN C L E V E L A N D —Concluded.
SATURDAY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
24
within which runs Un­ and
der un­
were completed.
24 der
3

3
%
and and
un­ un­
der
der
3h 4

. 5 5J
4
%
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
5 5* 6

6
and
un­
der
6*

and
un­
der
7

7
and
un­
der
7i

8
and and
un­ un­
der der
8 8*

8* 9 9* 10 m To­
and and and and and tal.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
10 10i 11
9

17
10
3
2J and under 3.........
1
3| and under 4.........
4J and under 5.........
5 and under 5J.........
6 and under 6^.........
6J and under 7.........
7 and under .........
7J and under 8.........
8 and under 8J_____
8^ and under 9___
9 and under 9|.........
11 and under 11^
1 1 J and under 12
12 and under 124
12J and under 13
13 and under 13|
13J and under 14
14 and under 14^
14\ and under 15
15 and under 15^
15J and under 16
16 and under 16J
16J and under 17
17 and under 17^
17^ and under 18
18 and over...............
,

Total............... 131

\

?
1
2
3
1
3

1
2
2
2
2
1

1

1
3
3
1

1
1
1
1

2
2
1
1

1
3

i

1
1
1

1
4
1

1
1

1
l

1
1

1

1
1

2

2
1

1
1

1
1
1
1

1

10

10

2

8

6

3

5

7

3

1

1

1

2
1

2

i
7

2
1
2

1
"i

....

1
1

1

2

1

4

12

17
10
3
2
2
2
1
1
6

1
3

2
1
2
1
3
3

6

9

15

2
2
4
4

15 1 12
1
1

9

8
3
3
2
1
3
6
2
13
9
2
5
3
5
4
2
8
6
11
21
164

i Seventeen runs 1 and under 1J hours on duty, 10 runs 1§ and under 2 hours,‘and 4 runs 2 and under 2\
hours.

Cleveland also had additional scheduled runs for conductors on
trailers: 1 2 0 on Monday 10 Friday, 108 on Saturday, and 13 on
Sunday.
The Monday to Friday and Saturday runs correspond approxi­
mately with the runs shown in the tables above. The Sunday runs
are straight; 9 are 6 | and under 7, and 4 are
and under 8 hours.
DES MOINES, IOWA.

Des Moines had 43 scheduled additional-service or tripper runs, all
straight, from Monday to Saturday. They were—
3 runs of under 1 hour.
8 runs of 1 and under 1£ hours.
6 runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
9 runs of 2 and under 2\ hours.
3 runs of 2J and under 3 hours.
3 runs of 3 and under 3£ hours.
4 runs of 3J and under 4 hours.
1 run of 4 and under 4J hours.
2 runs of 5 and under 5| hours.
3 runs of 6 and under 6£ hours.
1 run of 7 and under 7J hours.




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

149

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

The scheduled tripper and additional-service runs of the company
for Monday to Friday, Saturday, and Sunday differ so much that
figures are given for the several schedules. Owing to the wide
variation in hours, the Saturday runs are given in 1 -hour groups to
bring them within the bounds of the page.
T able

1 3 .—A D D ITIO N AL-SER VICE AND TR IPPE R RUNS IN IN D IA N A PO LIS.
M O N D A Y T O F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty ofNumber of hours
within which runs
were completed.

2
4
5
1
3
6
Total.
5i
3*„
and and and and and and and and and and and and
under under under under under under under under under under under under
2
3
7
4
5
6
2i
3J
4!
6h
n

1 and under 1J...........
1J and under 2...........
2 and under 2\...........
2J and under 3.......
3 and under 3£...........
3J and under 4...........
4 and under 4J...........
6 and under 6|.........
12 and under 12|___
12J and under 13.......
13 and under 13|.......
13J and under 14.......
14 and under 14J .
14J and under 15.. .
15 and under 15^.......

1

Total.................

1

5
3
13
11

1
1

1
1

1

1
1

1
4
1

3
2
4
1

1

3

13

13

2

3

1
1

5

6

10

2
5

1
5

3
1

10

1
1

2

1
5
3
13
U
1
1
1
2
6
12
12
2
2
1
73

SATURDAY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

9
11
8
10
7
2
4
5
6
1
3
and
and
and
and
and
and and and and and and
under under under under under under under under under under under
12
9
10
11
4
5
7
8
6
2
3

1 and under 2
__
2 and under 3 __
3 and under 4
4 and under 5 ...........
6 and under 7
___
11 and under 12
12 and under 13.........
13 and under 14
14 and under 15
15 and under 16 .
16 and under 17

5

Total.................

5




17
16

1
6
2

17

16

3

5

5

2
2
1
11

1
1
1

5

2

6

2
3

5

1
1
4
2
1
9

1
2
3

Total.

5
17
16
1
6
1
2
16
7
10
1
82

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

150
T a b le

13— ADDITIONAL-SERVICE AND TRIPPER RUNS IN INDIANAPOLIS—Concluded.
SUNDAY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs 3fcand 4£ and 5 and 6§ and 8 and 8£ and 9£ and lOJand
11 and 11J and
were completed.
under under under under under under under under under under
4
5
7
9
12
10
11
H
H
Hi
3i- and under 4...........
4J and under 5...........
5 and under 5 i ..........
6J and under 7...........
8^ and under 9...........
9^ and under 10.........
10J and under 11.......
12 and under 12J.......
13J and under 14.......
14 and under 14£.......
15 and under 15J.......

1

Total.................

1

Total.

1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1

1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1

1

1
1
1

2

1

2

2

1

2

1

14

1

KANSAS CITY, MO.

The company had 68 additional-service and tripper runs scheduled
for Monday to Saturday, and 16 for Sunday. The Monday to Satur­
day runs are here given.
T able

1 4 .—AD DITION AL-SER VICE AND TRIPPER RUNS IN KAN SAS CITY.
M ON DAY TO SATURDAY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty ofNumber of hours
within which runs
were completed.

1 and under 1J
1J and under 2
2 and under 2|..........
2^ and under 3.
3 and under 3J..........
3£ and under 4..........
5 and under 5^..........
5J and under 6..........
6 and under 6J..........
10 and under 10^
10^ and under 1 1 ....
11 and under 11| . .
11^ and under 12
12 and under 12J . .
12J and under 13
13 and under 13J .. . .
13i and under 1 4 ....
14land under 14J.. . .
Total

............

2
3
1
2K
and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
2
4
3
2i
11

4
and
un­
der

4*
a
and
un­
der
5

5
and
un­
der
5£

5i
and
un­
der
6

6
and
un­
der

%
and
un­
der
7

7
and Total.
un­
der
7*

1
1

1

3
4
5
11
3
4
1
1
1
1
1
5
7
3
4
6
6

5

68

3
4
5
11
3
4
1

1
1

1
1

2
1

3
1

1

1
2
1
1
1
2

1
1

1
1

3

4

6

12

7

8

8

1
2

2

4

1
1

1
2

3

3

3

2
2

Eleven of the 16 Sunday runs were straight and 5. were swing. The
straight runs ranged from 3 and under 3^ to 12 and under 12^ hours
and the swing runs ranged from
and under 5 to 9^ and under 10
hours on duty, completed within 8 and under 8 J to 10 and under 1 0 £
hours.




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

151

LOS ANGELES, CAL.

The company had separate schedules of additional rims for Monday
to Friday, for Saturday, and for Sunday. The 47 Monday to Friday
runs and the 37 Sunday runs, classified, were as follows:
T able 1 5 .—AD DITION AL-SER VICE RUNS IN LOS A N G E LE S.
M O N D A Y TO F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

2
1
8
5
6
7
Total.
and and and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under under
8
5
6
7
3
2*
7*
6*
5*
1*
8*

1 and under 1*.. ..
2 and under 2*........
2* and under 3 ____
11 and under 11*
11* and under 12
12 and under 12*
12* and under 13
13 and under 13*
13* and under 14
14 and under 14*
14* and under 15
15 and under 15*
15* and under 16

2

Total..............

2

2
1
7
1
5
6
6
7
3
4
3
1
1

1
7

1
1
1
2
1

i
1

1
2
1

1
2
1

1
5
1
3
3
1

2

2
1
1
1

1

7

1

l

6

6

15

3

3

2

47

SUND AY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

5* and
under

6

5* and under 6___
7* and under 8___
9* and under 10...
10 and under 10*..
10* and under 11..
11 and under 11*..
11* and under 12..
12 and under 12*..
12* and under 13..
13 and under 13*..
13* and under 14..
14 and under 14*..
16 and under 16*..
Total...........

7 and
under
7*

7* and
under
8

9 and
under

9*

9* and
under
10

10 and
under
10*

10* and
under
11

11 and
under

Total.

Hi

8

1
1

3
2

4
5
4
3

2

2

1
1

37

The 51 runs for Saturday were about the same as those for Monday
to Friday, save 2 runs that had hours on duty of 9J and under 10
hours, 1 with outside time of 17^ and under 18 hours.




152

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E UNITED STATES.
LOWELL, MASS.

The scheduled tripper runs for Monday to Friday were all straight
runs. The 37 runs, Monday to Friday, classified, were:
1 run of under 1 hour.
9 runs of 1 and under
hours.
16 runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
4 runs of 2 and under 2J hours.
4 runs of 2J and under 3 hours.
1 run of 3J and under 4 hours.
2 runs of 4 and under 4J hours.

2.

On Saturday there were 75 scheduled tripper runs, all straight but
The straight runs were:
2 runs of under 1 hour.
17 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
21 runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
4 runs of 2 and under 2J hours.
5 runs of 2\ and under 3 hours.
1 run of 3 and under 3J hours.
2 runs of 3J and under 4 hours.
2 runs of 4 and under 4 J hours.
4 runs of 4J and under 5 hours.
1 run of 5 and under
hours.
3 runs of 5J and under 6 hours.
4 runs of 6 and under 6J hours.
5 runs of 6J and under 7 hours.
2 runs of 7 and under 7% hours.

The 2 Saturday swing runs were:
1 run of 7 and under 7\ hours, completed within 8 and under 8J hours.
1 run of 8 and under 8J hours, completed within 9 and under 9J hours.
MEMPHIS, TENN.

The company had 3 different schedules oi additional-service and
tripper runs, Monday to Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. The runs
for Monday to Friday, classified, were as follows:
T able 1 6 .— A D D IT IO N A L -SE R V IC E A N D T R IP P E R RUNS IN MEMPHIS.
M O N D A Y T O F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

and
un­
der

2

2

and
un­
der
2i

and

lan­
der
3

3
and
un­
der
31

4
and
un­
der

4*

and
un­
der
5

5
and
un­
der

5h

5K
and
un­
der
6

%
and
un­
der
7

7
and
un­
der
7h

and
un­
der

and
un­
der

8h

To­
tal.

1| and under 2___
2 and under 2\___
2| and under 3___
4 and under 4£—
4£ and under 5___
12 and under 121..
12J and under 13..
13 and under 13£..
13£and under 14..
14 and under 14J..
14£ and under 15..
15 and under 15J..
16 and under 16

2

Total..........

25




1

2
4
2

1
1
1
3
1
1
5
1

153

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

Three of the 29 Saturday runs had a little longer hours on duty
than any of the Monday to Friday runs, but the longest Saturday
outside time was 15 and under 15f hours. Of the 14 Sunday runs
one reached the limit of 1 2 and under 1 2 | hours completed within
13 and under 13^ hours.
NEWARK, N. J.

The company had 81 additional scheduled runs for Saturday and
for Sunday. The Saturday runs are here given.
1 7 .—ADDITIONAL-SERVICE RUNS IN N E W A R K .

T able

SATURDAY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

9
10J
11
10
8
8i
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under
9
10 *
11
10
8
8*
9J
Hi

8 and under 8 i ..........
9i and under 1 0 ........
1 0 and under 1 0 J___
1 0 J and under 11
11 and under 1 1 J
l l i and under 1 2
1 2 and under 1 2 i
12i and under 13
13 and under 13i___
13j and under 14___
14 and under 14£.. . .
14J and under 15___
16 and under 16^___
16i and under 17

Total...............

Hi
and
under
12

12

and
under
12i

2

2
1
1

1
1
2

5
3

«1

1
2
2

3

3
5

5
4

2
1

2
1
1
1

1
1

I

1

7

2

2

3
1

1

Q
Q
8

4

i
2

8

24

Total.

2
1

11
9

3
1

13

1
1

2
2

1

i
1

24

8

5

2

1

7
6
2
3
6

81

The Newark Sunday runs averaged somewhat shorter as to hours
on duty and an hour or more shorter as to outside time.
NEW BEDFORD, MASS.

New Bedford had scheduled tripper runs for Monday to Friday,
for Saturday, and for Sunday. The longest of the 1 2 straight Mon­
day to Friday runs was 3\ and under 4 hours. The 1 2 Saturday
runs all fell under the same group, except 3— 1 in the group 6 J and
under 7 hours, 2 in the group 9 and under 9J hours; all 3 completed
within 1 0 J and under 1 1 hours. The 6 Sunday runs were all
straight runs under 3 hours.
NEW YORK, N. Y.

INTERBOROUGH RAPID TRANSIT CO. (ELEVATED LINES).
For motormen there were but few regular tripper and additionalservice scheduled runs. The Monday to Friday runs of motormen
were—
4 straight runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
13 straight runs of 1J and under 2 hours.




STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

154

On Saturday there were—
1 straight run of 1 and under 1J hours.
6 straight runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
4 straight runs of 2 and under 2J hours.
2 straight runs of 2\ and under 3 hours.

For conductors there were 6 additional-service runs on Saturday
as follows:
1 run of 8J and under 9 hours completed within 8£ and under 9 hours.
3 runs of 8 and under 8J hours completed within 11J and under 12 hours.
1 run of 8J and under 9 hours completed within 12 and under 12J hours.
1 run of 9 and under 9£ hours completed within 12 and under 12J hours.

For guards the additional-service runs on Saturday were as
follows:
T able

1 8 .—ADDITIONAL-SER VICE RUNS OF GUARDS ON IN T E R B O R O U G H R A P ID
T R A N SIT CO.’S E L E V A T E D LINES IN N E W Y O R K .
SATURDAY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours within which runs were com­
pleted.

7£ and
under
8

8 and under 8!
...............................................................
8J and under 9......................................................................
9 and under 9|......................................................................
9J and under 10 ............................................................. ..
10J and under 11..................................................................
11 and under 11^ .............................................................
11§ and under 12...................................................................
12 and under 12J ...............................................................
12i and under 13..................................................................
13 and u nder 13i _.............................................................
T o t a l____

8 and
under
8i

8i and
under
9

9 and
under
9*

Total.

8
34
2
2
2

6

2
6
6
23
4
6
5

4
10
11
16
10
8

58

93

8
7
12
29

s
34
2
2
12
18
42
27
28
13
186

On Sunday the additional scheduled runs for guards were—
10 straight runs of 8 and under 8J hours.
6 straight runs of 8i and under 9 hours.
6 straight runs of 9 and under 9J hours.
2 straight runs of 9i and under 10 hours.

There were also swing runs:
2 runs of
and under 8 hours completed within 10 and under 10J hours.
2 runs of 8 and under 8J hours completed within 10 and under 10J hours.
4 runs of 9£ and under 10 hours completed within 11 and under 11J hours.
INTERBOROUGH RAPID TRANSIT CO. (SUBWAY LINES).

The regular tripper runs for motormen, Monday to Friday, were—
8 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
7 runs of 1§ and under 2 hours.
3 runs of 2\ and under 3 hours.
1 run of 3 and under 3i hours.




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

155

On Saturday there were—
9 runs of 1 and under 1J hourj.
9 runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
1 run of 2\ and under 3 hours.

For conductors the Monday to Friday regular tripper runs were—
5 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
3 runs of 2J and under 3 hours.

On Saturday the tripper runs for conductors were the same as for
motormen.
The Monday to Friday tripper runs for guards were—
67 runs
56 runs
14 runs
24 runs

of
of
of
of

1 and under 1J hours.
1J and under 2 hours.
2| and under 3 hours.
3J and under 4 hours.

On Saturday there were—
23 runs of
64 runs of
12 runs of
3 runs of
33 runs of

1 and under 1J hours.
1J and under 2 hours.
2J and under 3 hours.
3 and under 3J hours.
3J and under 4 hours.

On Sunday there were—
9 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
37 runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
3 runs of 2 and under 2J hours.

All of the above were straight runs.
NEW YORK RAILWAYS CO. (SURFACE LIN ES).

The few regular tripper runs Monday to Saturday were—
6 straight runs of 1| and under 2 hours.
2 straight runs of 2 and under 2\ hours.
5 straight runs of 2J and under 3 hours.

On Sunday there were 40 additional-service runs as follows*
T able 1 9 .—ADDITIONAL-SERVICE RUNS ON SURFACE LINES IN N E W Y O R K .
SUND AY.

Number of runs with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

84 and under 9—
94 and under 10...
10 and under 104-.
1 04 and under 1 1 ..
11 and under 1 1 4 ..
114 and under 1 2 ..
1 2 and under 1 2 4 ..
124 and under 13..
13 and under 134-.
134 and under 14..

Total.........




7 and
under
7*

74 and
under

8 and
under

8J

84 and
under

9 and
under

94

94 and
under

1
0

10 and
under
104

10^ and
under

Total.

1
1

1
1
1
2
2

9
14
7

2
1

40

156

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.
SURFACE LINES.

There were 278 Monday to Friday additional-service and tripper
runs, all straight runs:
9 runs of under 1 hour.
67 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
91 runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
36 runs of 2 and under 2J hours.
27 runs of 2\ and under 3 hours.
5 runs of 3 and under 3J hours.
4 runs of 3J and under 4 hours.
6 runs of 4 and under 4| hours.
3 runs of 4J and under 5 hours.
4 runs of 5 and under 5J hours.
3 runs of 5J and under 6 hours.
3 runs of 6 and under 6£ hours.
3 runs of 6J and under 7 hours.
5 runs of 7 and under 7J hours.
6 runs of 7J and under 8 hours.
3 runs of 8 and under 8J hours.
2 runs of 8^ and under 9 hours.
1 run of 9| and under 10 hours.

On Saturday there were 261 tripper and additional-service runs,
mostly straight runs but in part swing runs. The straight runs
w ere—
2 runs of under 1 hour.
36 runs of 1 and under 1^ hours.
45 runs of 1| and under 2 hours.
41 runs of 2 and under 2\ hours.
27 runs of
and under 3 hours.
12 runs of 3 and under 3^ hours.
7 runs of 3| and under 4 hours.
4 runs of 4 and under 4\ hours.
2 runs of 4| and under 5 hours.
4 runs of 5 and under 5§ hours.
2 runs of 5J and under 6 hours.
6 runs of 6 and under 6J hours.
13 runs of 6J and under 7 hours.
15 runs of 7 and under 7J hours.
4 runs of 7J and under 8 hours.
2 runs of 8 and under 8| hours.
4 runs of 8^ and under 9 hours.
9 runs of 9 and under 9J hours.
2 runs of 9| and under 10 hours.
6 runs of 10 and under 10J hours.
1 run of 10| and under 11 hours.
2 runs of 11 and under 11§ hours.
2 runs of 12 and under 12J hours.




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

157

The swing runs were—•
1 run of 8^ and under 9 hours completed within 11\ and under 12 hours.
1 run of 8J and under 9 hours completed within 12 and under 12£ hours.
1 run of 8J and under 9 hours completed within 13^ and under 14 hours.
1 run of 9 and under 9£ hours completed within 11^ and under 12 hours.
1 run of 9^ and under 10 hours completed within 11 and under 11^ hours.
1 run of 9J and under 10 hours completed within 12J and under 13 hours.
1 run of 9^ and under 10 hours completed within 13 and under 13J hours.
3 runs of 9J and under 10 hours completed within 13i and under 14 hours.
1 run of 10 and under 10J hours completed within 11 and under 11J hours.
1 run of 10 and under 10J hours completed within 12J and under 13 hours.
1 run of 10J and under 11 hours completed within 13 and under 13J hours.

On Sunday there were 2 2 such runs.
were—

The straight Sunday runs

2 runs of 5 and under 5J hours.
1 run of 5J and under 6 hours.
3 runs of 7J and under 8 hours.
4 runs of 8 and under 8J hours.
1 ran of 8J and under 9 hours.
2 runs of 9J and under 10 hours.
6 runs of 10 and under 10J hours.

The Sunday swing runs were—
1 run of 10 and under 10^- hours completed within 13 and under 13J hours.
2 runs of 10J and under 11 hours completed within 12J and under 13 hours.
ELEVATED LINES.

The company had but few tripper runs, all of which were straight
runs. The Monday to Friday runs were—
3 runs of 1| and under 2 hours.
6 runs of 2 and under 2\ hours.
9 runs of 6 -and under 6^ hours.

The Saturday runs were—
1 run under 1 hour.
7 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
1 run of 1^ and under 2 hours.
1 run of 6J and under 7 hours.
8 runs of 7 and under *1 hours.
\
PORTLAND, OREG.

The Monday to Friday straight tripper runs were—
7 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
8 runs of 1^ and under 2 hours.
16 runs of 2 and under 2J hours.
12 runs of 2\ and under 3 hours.
7 runs of 3 and under 3£ hours.
1 run of 4 and under 4^ hours.
1 run of 4£ and under 5 hours.




158

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

The Monday to Friday swing tripper runs were—
1 run of 3 and under 3J hours completed within 11 and under 11^ hours.
2 runs of 3J and under 4 hours completed within 11J and under 12 hours.
2 runs of 5 and under 5J hours completed within 12 and under 12J hours.
3 runs of 5 and under 5J hours completed within 12J and under 13 hours.
1 run of 5 and under 5J hours completed within 13 and under 13J hours.

The Saturday straight tripper runs were—
7 runs of 1 and under 1£ hours.
12 runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
17 runs of 2 and under 2J hours.
12 runs of 2\ and under 3 hours.
7 runs of 3 and under 3£ hours.
1 run of 4 and under 4J hours.
1 run of 4£ and under 5 hours.
1 run of 6i and under 6 hours.

Saturday swing tripper runs were—
2 runs of 5 and under 5J hours completed within 12J and under 13 hours.
1 run of 5£ and under 6 hours completed within 13J and under 14 hours.
2 runs of 6J and under 7 hours completed within 14 and under 14J hours.
PROVIDENCE, R. I.

The company had quite a large number of tripper and additionalservice runs. The number of tripper and additional-service runs on
Saturday varied so widely that to bring them within the bounds of
the page they are given in a 1 -hour classification.
T able

2 0 .—TR IPPER AN D A D D IT IO N A L -SE R V IC E RUNS IN PR O VID EN CE.
M O N D A Y T O F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

1
2
3
2i
Total.
4
6
5
Un­ and and and and and
%
and
and and
and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ under under and under under under under
under
der der der der
der
1
7
4
6
5
5*
6J
4J
2
3
3*
2*
li

Under 1......................
1 and under 1J..........
and under 2 ..........
2 and under 2J..........
2£ and under 3 ..........
3§ and under 4 ..........
4 and under ..........
5 and under 5^__ -...
5J and under 6 ..........
6 and under 6J..........
6-| and under 7..........
7 and under 7|..........
8 and under 8J..........
8i and under 9 ..........
9 and under 9J
11 and under 11J. . . .
11§ and under 12
12 and under 12J__
12J and under 1 3 ....
13 and under 13i . . . .
13J and under 14___
14 and under 14J. . . .

6

Total................

6




24
3

2
4

1
1
1

1
3
1

6

1
1
1
1
1

24

5

1
2
4

9

5
6
1

2
4
8
1

17

15

1
3
4
1
4
3
1
19

1
2
6
1
1
13

1
2

2

1
1
1
4
4
3
15

1

2
2
3
2
1

2
1
3
1

1
1
2
1

12

13

14

8
2

1
2
3

16

6
24
3
2
4
1
1
2
3
7
8
3
2
5
1
2
6
16
28
36
13
5
178

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
T able

159

3 0 .—TR IP P E R AND A D D IT IO N AL -SER VIC E RUNS IN PR O VID EN CE—Concluded.
SATU R D AY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
within w h i c h
runs were com­
pleted.

Un­ 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5 and 6 and 7 and 8 and 9 and 10 and Total.
der under under under under under under under under under under
4
2
8
1
3
5
6
9
11
7
10

Under 1....................
1 and under 2 ..........
2 and under 3 ..........
3 and under 4 ..........
4 and under 5 ..........
5 and under 6 ..........
6 and under 7 ..........
7 and under 8 ..........
8 and under 9 ..........
9 and under 10........
10 and under 11___
11 and under 12___
12 and under 13___
13 and under 14
14 and under 15___
15 and under 16___
17 and under 18___
18 and over..............

3

Total..............

3

31
1

12

1

4
2

*
1
1
1
3
2

1

1

2
2

1

7
4

1
2

1
2
1

6
5
2
1
1
2
3

1

1

io

3
5

2
1

5
2
1

1

1

3
5

2

1
1
1

1
34

23

20

19

22

11

10

11

2

7

1

2

2

3

6

1
1

3
31
13
1
1
3
13
17
g
1
3
11
36
14
7
1
2
1
166

SU N D A Y .

I
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
41 and
under
5

5 and
under
51

51 and
under
6

6 and
under
61

71 and
under
8

8 and
under
81

9 and
under
91

91 and
under
10

1

Total.

1

5 and under 5 i..........
51 and under 6..........
6 and under 61..........
8 and under 8 f..........
81 and under 9 ..........
9 ! and under 10........
101 and under 11___
11 and under 111___
111 and under 1 2 ....
12 and under 121___

1

Total................

1




7 and
under
71

1
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
3
1

3

15

1
1

1
2
1

1

1

1
1
1

1

2

2

2

3

2

1

160

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
ROCHESTER, N. Y.

The scheduled additional-service and tripper runs for this company
for Monday to Friday, and for Saturday, were as follows:
T able

2 1 .—ADD ITIONAL-SER VICE AND TRIPPER RUNS IN RO CH ESTER.
M O N D A Y T O F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
1
5
3
4
6
2
7
5i
w i t h i n which
%
and
runs were com­ Un­ un­ and and and and and and and and and and and and and To­
der'
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ tal.
pleted.
1 der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
5
6
2
4
7
3
8
14
44
54
64
24
34
74
Under 1.....................
1 and under 1 4 ........
14 and under 2 ........
2 and under 2 4 ........
2 4 and under 3 ........
5 and under 5J........
6 and under 6 4 ........
7 4 and under 8 ........
8 and under 8 4 ........
10| and under 11
11 and under 11^
1 14 and under 12
12 and under 1 24
124 and under 13
13 and under 134
13§ and under 14
14 and under 144
1 4 4 and under 15
15 and under 15*
154 and under 16

6

Total..............

6

6
7
......I .....

7
9
3

1

9

1
1
1
2
1

3

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
3
3
6

3

1
1

i
1
8
3

1
1
2
1
2

1
3

1
1
2
3
1

1

1
7

12

14

6

1

2

5

13

7

2
1
2

5

8

5

1
1
2
1
1

1
2
5

3

6
7
20
6
7
12
5
8
1

1
1
2
4

8

107

SATURDAY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of
Number of hours
2
1
w ith in w h ich and and and
runs were com­ un­ un­ un­
pleted.
der der der
14 2 24
Under 1.....................
1 and under 1 4 .........
and under 2.........
2 and under 2 4 .........
2 4 and under 3.........
6 4 and under 7.........
7 and under 74.........
7 4 and under 8.........
8 and under 8 4 ........
11 and under 1 1 4 ___
114 and under 12
12 and under 1 2 4 ___
1 2 4 and under 13
13 and under 134___
134 and under 14
14 and under 144___
144 and under 15
15 and under 154___
1 54 and under 16 ..

4

un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ tal.
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
9
34 4 44 5 54 6
64 7 74 8
94 10 1 04

5
11

5
11

U

11

14

Total...............

5
3
84 9
54, 6
34
%7
% and and and and and and and and and and and and and and To­
9i 10

and
un­
der
3

3
1
1

3
1
2
1
1
1

1
1
1

1

1

1

1
1
2
2

"i"

1
1
2
1

1
3
4
1

1
1
3
1

2
2
3

"’i‘

1
1
1
2
2

1

2

i

2

1
1
1

1
1
1

2
1

1

1
1
3

2
1

2

i

1
1
1

1
1

17

1“

3 I 5

2

15
i

9

5

7

3

7

6

5

5

1

6

6

1 Five runs under 1 hour on duty and 12 runs 1 and under 14 hours.

The 4 tripper runs for Sunday were—
1 straight run of under 1 hour.
1 straight run of 1 and under 1J hours.
1 straight run of 1£ and under 2 hours.
1 swing run of 2\and under 3 hours completed within 4 and under 4J hours.




6

1
10
8
18
11

U
10
2
1

109

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAE CREWS.

161

SEATTLE, WASH.

PUGET SOUND TRACTION, LIGHT & POWER CO.
The straight tripper runs of this company, Monday to Friday,
were—
23 runs of 1 and under 1J hours.
23 runs of 1£ and under 2 hours.
14 runs of 2 and under 2J hours.
12 runs of 2\ and under 3 hours.
4 runs of 3 and under 3J hours.
2 runs of 3J and under 4 hours.

There were also 1 run of 4 and under 4J hours and 1 run of 4J and
under 5 hours, both completed within 13 and under 13J hours. On
Saturday there were 28 straight tripper runs, all save 1 falling within
the limits of the Monday to Friday runs. On Sunday there were 4
straight tripper runs of 5 and under 5J hours.
SPOKANE, WASH.

th e W ashington w a te r pow er co.
All tripper runs were straight.

The Monday to Friday runs were—

1 run of 1 and under 1J hours.
5 runs of 1J and under 2 hours.
2 runs of 2 and under 2\ hours.
3 runs of 2\ and under 3 hours.
2 runs of 3 and under 3J hours.
2 runs of 3J and under 4 hours.

The 14 Saturday runs all fell within the same limits.
SPRINGFIELD, MASS.

The Monday to Friday and Sunday additional-service and tripper
runs are here shown. The 43 Saturday runs were so nearly like the
Monday to Friday runs that they are not given.
T able

2 2 .—AD D ITIO N AL-SER VICE AN D TR IP P E R RUNS IN SPRIN G FIELD .
M O N D A Y T O F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

8 and
9 and
2 and 2i
Un­ 1 and and under and and 6 and and under and under and Total.
under
under
under
under
under under under under
der 1
2i
8*
9*
6i
li
2
8
9
10
3
6

Under 1 .......................
1 and under 1 4 ...........
1J and under 2...........
2 and under 2J...........
9 and under 9J...........
9^ and under 10.........
10J and under 11.......
11 and under 11J........
11£ and under 12.......
12 and under 12J........

8

Total.................

8

14
1
2

1

14

1

39749°— Bull. 204—17------ 11




1
1

2

1

1
3
1
5

1

2

1
2
2
3

4

8

1

1

8
* 14
1
2
1
1
2
5
5

a

1

45

162

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b l e 2 2 . — ADD ITIO N AL-SER VICE

AN D TR IPPER RUNS IN

S P R IN G F IE L D —Concluded.

SUNDAY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty ofNumber of h o u r s
within which runs
were completed.

54 6 and
8 and *** 9 and 9i Total.
2 and 2*
land
Un­ under and under and and under and under and under and
under
under
under under
under
under
der 1
8!
2!
6!
9!
1£
9
10
2
3
6
8

Under 1 .......................
1 and under 1 !...........
1! and under 2...........
2 and under 2 !...........
2^ and under 3 ..
5 ! and under 6...........
8 and under 8 !...........
9 and under 9J...........
9 ! and under 10.........
11 and under 11J ... .
11J and under 12.......
12 and under 12J.......
Total.................

11

2

i

11
25
t
>
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
4

5

2

58

11
25

5
3
i

1

1
3
1
5

25

3

1

5

1

i
l
l

1

SYRACUSE, N. Y.

The company had such a variety of additional-service and tripper
runs that the 3 schedules, Monday to Friday, Saturday, and Sun­
day, are here given.
T able

2 3 .—ADD ITIO N AL-SER VICE AN D TR IP P E R RUNS IN SYRACU SE.
M O N D A Y T O F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

2
3
1
To­
ii
4
5
6
%
and and and and and and and and and and and and and tal.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ under under under under
under under under
der der der der der der
5
6
7
8
6!
5!
H
3
2
4
2!
3£
1!

1 and under 1J...........
1 ! and under 2...........
2 and under 2 !...........
2! and under 3...........
3 and under 3 !...........
3J and under 4...........
4 and under 4 !...........
4i and under 5...........
5"and under 5 !...........
5J and under 6...........
6 and under 6 ! __
8 ! and under 9...........
12 and under 12!__ .
12! and under 13.......
13 and under 13!.......
13! and under 14.......
14 and under 14!.......

1

Total.................

1




'
1 !

1
1

1
3
3
1
3
3
2
1
3
1
2
1
1
2
4
2
2

2

3

35

3
3

1
3
3
2

i
3
1
2

1
1

1

3

3

1

3

3

3

1
4

1

8

1
2

2

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
T able

163

2 3 .—A D D IT IO N A L -SE R V IC E AND T R IP P E R RUNS IN SYRACU SE—Concluded.
SATU R D AY.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
2
I
5
6
4
3
9
7
To­
within which runs and and and and and and and and and and and
2i
%
3i
%
and and and and and tal.
were completed.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
1
0
61 7 7 1
II 2 21 3 3 1 4 41 5 5 1
91
1 and under 11___
11 and under 2___
2 and under 21___
21 and under 3___
3 and under 31___
31 and under 4___
4 and under 41___
41 and under 5___
5 and under 51___
51 and under 6___
6 and under 61___
8 and under 81___
81 and under 9___
9 and under 91___
10 and under 101. ■
101 and under 11..
11 and under 111..
I ll and unde 1 1 2 ..
12 and under 121..
121 and under 13..
13 and under 13|..
131 and under 14..
Total.

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which rims
were completed.

2
and
un­
der
21

2 and under 2h...........
31 and under 4...........
41 and under 5...........
5 and under 51...........
51 and under 6...........
6 and under 61...........
71 and under 8...........
8 and under 81...........
9 and under 91...........
101 and under 11.......
11 and under 111.......
12 and under 121.......
121 and under 13.......
13 and under 131.......
13^ and under 14.......
14 and under 141.......
15 and under 151.......

1

Total.................

1




31
and
un­
der
4

41
and
un­
der
5

5
and
un­
der
51

5*„
and
un­
der
6

6
and
un­
der
61

and
un­
der
8

8
and
un­
der
81-

8i
and
un­
der
9

9
and
un­
der
91

9iA
and
un­
der
10

10
and Total.
un­
der
101

1
2
1
1
1

1

1

3
2
1

1

1
1
3

1

1
2

1

2
3
2

1

2 i
1

l

1

4

3

2

1

9

7

1

1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
6
1
3
2
3
2
33

164

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
TACOMA, WASH.

There was so much variation in the additional-service and tripper
runs that the 3 schedules are here given.
T able

2 4 .—AD D ITIO N AL-SER VICE A N D TR IPPE R RUNS IN TACOMA.
M O N D A Y T O F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
2
4
3 3*
i*
within which runs and and
and and and and
were completed. un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
2 2*
4 4*
3 3*

8
7 7*
6
9
%
and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
8 8*
9 9*
6* 7 *

9*
and
un­
der
10

10
and
un­
der
10*

10*
and
un­
der
11

11
and
un­
der
lli

Hi
and
un­
der
12

12 To­
and tal.
un­
der
12*

1

1* and under 2.........
2 and under 2*.........
2* and under 3.........
3 and under 3*........
6 and under 6*.........
Total. . .

5

5
6
4
1
1

1

17

5
6
4
1
6

4

1

SATURDAY.

i* and under 2......... | 6
2 and under 2*.
2* and under 3
3 and under 3 * ___
3* and under 4.........
4 and under 4*.........
8* and under 9.........
9 and under 9*.........
9* and under 10.......
10 and under 10*....
10* and under 11___
13 and under 13*___
13* and under 14___
16 and under 16*
17 and under 17*
17* and under 18
Total...............

6

3
2

4
2
1
2
3
2
3
1
1
1
1
1

1
3

2

4

2

2

1

3

2

4

1

2

1

1

6
3
2
4
2
1
2
3
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
34

SUND AY.

7 and under 7*.........
7* and under 8.........
8 and under 8*.........
8* and under 9.........
9 and under 9*.........
10 and under 10*___
12* and under 13___
13* and under 1 4 ....
Total...............

1

|

1




1
1
1
3
2
2
1
1

1

1

3

3

2

1
1
1
1
3
2
2
1
12

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

165

TOPEKA, KANS.

The additional-service and tripper runs, Monday to Friday, Sat­
urday, and Sunday, are here given.
Table

2 5 .—AD DITION AL-SER VICE AND TRIPPER RUNS IN TO P E K A .
M O N D A Y T O F R ID A Y .

Number of runs, with hours on duty of—
Number of hours
within which runs
were completed.

2 and under 2^..........
12 and under 12J
12^ and under 13
13 and under 13§
14 and under 14J

4J and
under
5

5J and
under
6

6 and
under
6*

7 and
under
n

9 and
under
91

10 pnd lOJand
under under
11'
m

1
2

1
1

I

1

1

1

Total.

1
2
2
2
1

1
1

Total

4 and
under
4£

1

2 and
under
2*

1
1

4

8

SATURDAY.

10 and under
12 and under
13 and under
14 and under
16 and under

1

10J
12^
13§
14J
16|___

1

1

1

T o ta l..............

4

i

l
2
2
1
2

1

l

8

1
2
1
1

SUND AY.

6 and under 6|..........
7^ and under 8 ..........
10J and under 11___
11 and under 11|
Total.

...

1

1

2
i
2 ******-----

1

2

2

1
i |
.............
1
1

2
1
2
2

1 j.............
1

7

SELECTION OF RUNS.

Regular runs are chosen by the men in order of seniority of service,
except in Memphis, Nashville, New York (Third Avenue Railway
Co.), Norfolk, Richmond, St. Louis, San Antonio, Springfield, Ohio,
and Wilmington, Del., where they are assigned by company officials.
Information was obtained from a few companies as to the frequency
of selection by the men. In such companies variations were found
ranging from once in two weeks to once a year. Generally the selec­
tions were made two, three, or four times a year.
DAYS ALLOWED OFF DUTY.

In practically all cities men operating cars are, in practice, excused
from duty upon request to a reasonable extent, and their runs given
to extra men. In the following statement are shown the cities in
which men were entitled to days off duty in accordance with an




166

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

established rule, regulation, or agreement, and the number of days
off duty:
Boston (surface lines), Buffalo, Oakland, San
Francisco (early regulars, C. S. C. R. R.
Co.)................................................................ 1 day a week.
Reading............................................................ 1 day a week (compulsory).
Denver and Washington (W. R. & E. Co.). .1 day in 8.
San Francisco (M. R ys.)................................. 1 day in 9.
Davenport, Wichita, and Boston (elevated
lines).............................................................1 day in 15.
Milwaukee and Washington (C. T. Co.)........2 days per month.
Springfield, Mass..............................................3 days per month.
Wilmington, Del. (P. Ry. Co.)...................... 4 days per month (compulsory).
Wilmington, Del. (W. & P. T. Co.)...............4 days per month.
Indianapolis..................................................... 1 Sunday per month.
Cleveland..........................................................2 Sundays per month.
New York (N. Y. Rys. Co.)........................... Every third Sunday.
Toledo............................................................... 2 weeks each year, with pay, after 1 year’s
service.

OVERTIME ALLOWED UPON EMPLOYEES’ REQUEST.

Men having regular runs are allowed to work overtime upon request
in most cities, usually, however, only after the extra men have been
provided with work. Time limits to which such work must be con­
fined have been made in some cities, as follows:
Charleston........................................................ 2 hours in excess of regular run.
Manchester....................................................... 3 hours in excess of regular run.
Altoona............................................................. 6 hours in excess of regular run.
Scranton........................................................... 8 hours in excess of regular run.
San Francisco (U. R. R. C o.)........................ 10 hours, including regular run.
Detroit, Indianapolis, New York (B. R. T.
Co.), Seattle (P. S. T. L. & P. Co.),
Washington (C. T. Co. and W. R. & E.
Co.), and Wheeling..................................... 16 hours, including regular run.
New York (N. Y. & Q. Co. Ry. Co.) and
Seattle (S. R. & S. Ry. Co.)...................... 18 hours, including regular run.

Employees having regular runs are not allowed to work overtime
upon request in Birmingham, Milwaukee, New York (Third Avenue
Ry. Co.), Reading, and Seattle (M. R. Co.), while in Denver, Minne­
apolis and St. Paul, and Mobile they may work overtime only under
exceptional conditions or emergencies. “ If needed” regulars are
allowed to work overtime in Chicago (surface lines), Cincinnati,
Davenport, Los Angeles, and Newark.
HOURS WORKED OR PAID FOR EACH DAY FOR ONE WEEK.

General Table B (p. 486) relates to the scheduled hours of men
on regular runs, and on pages 138 to 165 figures are given as to
additional scheduled service. General Table C (p. 609), next con­
sidered, shows the time actually worked each day for one represent­
ative week, as nearly as it could be determined from the records




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

167

consulted. In other words, one set of figures relates to scheduled
(time-table) time, while the other relates to time made.
Table C makes distinction, whenever the records permit, between
men who worked during a day at their regular occupation exclu­
sively and men who worked at their regular occupation and also
did additional work in some other occupation, the purpose being to
show the conditions of the occupation as unmixed with any other
work. Each day has been considered separately, as a man may
be in one class one day and in the other class on another day.
Whenever possible the time actually worked is given, but some
companies pay in approximate units of time and their records are
kept accordingly. The records of such companies thus show the
time credited rather than the time actually worked. As the source
of the information was the company records, it was necessary to
accept such figures as were available. Notes for each company
explain the character of the time tabulated. The table presents
separate figures for regular men and for extra men. Because of the
many variations in the length of time made, a classification was
necessary in this table, as well as in other tables. For regular men
all time under 6 hours is combined in one group. From 6 to 8 hours
a day the grouping is made in half-hour periods; from 8 to 1 2 hours
a day, where most of the employees fall, the grouping is by quarterhour periods; and from 1 2 hours up the grouping is by half-hour
periods. For extra men the time is classified entirely by half-hour
periods.
For certain companies two or more sets of figures are given. Thus
for the Boston surface lines there are five presentations:
(а) Paid time for men on all divisions including those who also did
more or less work in some other occupation.
(б) Paid time for men on division 2 , including those who also did
more or less work in some other occupation.
(c) Actual time for men on division 2 , including those who also
did more or less work in some other occupation.
(d) Actual time for men on division 2 who did no work other than
in their regular occupation.
(e) Actual time for men on division 2 who did work in addition
to their regular occupation.
It was possible to get actual time for all divisions, but the task
of working it out from the voluminous records was so great as to
make it impracticable, if not prohibitive. Actual time was compiled
for division 2 only, which is considered representative of the company
as a whole. The number of men included who did other work in
addition to their regular occupation was comparatively small.
As a partial analysis of Table C, Table 26 has been prepared there­
from, showing the per cent of regular and extra motormen whose
time, actual or paid, on the. Wednesday of the week studied, was cer­




168

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

tain specified hours or less. In other words, the table is one of cumu­
lative percentages of men by time made during the day. Wednesday
was selected as representing ordinary week-day conditions. A like
analysis can be made if desired for the other days of the week covered.
The classification is by 1 -hour periods for regular motormen, and for
2 -hour periods for extra motormen. The time made by nearly all
regular men fell between 6 and 1 2 hours. As many extra men made
but short time on this day, the classification for such extra men be­
gins with the group under 2 hours and continues by 2 -hour classifi­
cations.
Reading the first line of Table 26 it is seen that in Altoona no regular
motormen on the Wednesday considered made under 8 hours per
day, 30 per cent of them, however, made under 9 hours per day, 72
per cent under 10 hours per day, 78 per cent under 1 1 hours per day,
and 96 per cent under 1 2 hours per day. By deduction the remain­
ing 4 per cent of the men made 1 2 hours per day or over. The last
column of the table shows that paid time was tabulated as recorded
by the company to the nearest half hour.
Reference is next made to the Boston surface lines. The first
line covers the paid time of all regular motormen, including a small
proportion who in addition to their regular work also did work in
some other occupation. The time tabulated is the time credited
to the next quarter hour. According to the figures, 5 per cent of
the regular motormen were credited with under 6 hours on the day
stated; 6 per cent under 7 hours, etc. The second line, covering
division 2 only of the company, represents the paid time of regular
motormen, including those who also did other work. The third
line, covering division 2 only, represents the actual time, as distin­
guished from the paid time, and includes such men as did also other
work. The fourth line represents actual time for division 2 of men
who did no work outside of their regular occupation as motormen.
A comparison of the second and third line reflects the difference be­
tween the paid time and the actual time of identical men. There was
little difference in the figures for under 8 hours, but in the next col­
umn the figures differ radically, for while 32 per cent were paid for
under 9 hours, 76 per cent actually worked under 9 hours. This
difference is accounted for by pay being given for reporting time of
5 to 15 minutes, and by the number of regular runs falling a little
under 9 hours that because of paying to the next quarter hour were
paid for as 9 hours. Table C, page 626, shows but 8 regular motormen
on these Boston surface lines who did work on this particular day in
addition to their regular occupation— too few to warrant a place in
this summary table. Their exclusion accounts for the slight differ­
ence between the third and fourth lines for this company in this
table. The figures for these few men in Table C show a wide range
in the hours actually worked.




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
T a b le 2 6 .—

169

PER CENT OF MOTORMEN W HO SE ACT U AL OR PAID TIME ON A R E PR E­
S EN T ATIVE W E D N E S D A Y W A S HOURS SPECIFIED OR LESS.

MOTORMEN, REGULAR.
Per cent of motormen whose actual or paid
time on a representative Wednesday
was—
City.

Un­
der
7
hrs.

Un­
der
8
hrs.

Altoona, Pa...................................

Un­
der
9
hrs.

Un­
der
10
hrs.

Un­
der
11
hrs.

72

78

96

3
Augusta, Ga..................................

Time used in tabulation.

Un­
der
12
hrs.

30

Un­
der
6
hrs.

3

4

5

15

45

84

2

4
2

4
2

4
25

4
80

26
92

52
98

2

3

4

6

Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines—
All divisions1.........

22

78

95

5

6

7

26

91

96

98

Division 2 1..............
Do.1..................
Do. 2 ..................
Elevated lines...............
Brockton, Mass............................
Buflalo, N. Y ............................

5
6
5
4
6
4

6
6
5
5
10
4

7
7
6
7
11
5

32
76
77
82
44
15

96
97
99
100
94
53

99
99
99
100
100
96

99
100
100
100
100
99

Paid time. Paid to nearest
i hour for regular runs,
paid 2 hours for tripper
runs of 1 ^ to 1£ hours.
Paid time. Paid to near­
est 5 minutes.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
10 minutes.
Actual time.

Paid time. Paid 8J hours
for runs of 8 to 8i hours,
paid to next J hour for
runs over 8J hours. Paid
time includes 5 minutes
reporting time, and 5
minutes
allowed
for
making out.reports.
Do.
Actual time.
Do.
Do
Do.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
6 minutes.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
5 minutes.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
5 minutes.
Do.

Butte, Mont.3...............................

1

2

2

11

93

93

93

Charleston, S. C............................
Charlotte, N. C.............................

5

5

7

9
48

12
96

19
98

56
98

Chattanooga, Tenn......................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Rail­
ways—
All divisions1.................

4

9

11

24

58

81

89

2

3

4

6

6

93

94

South Side division2. ..
D o .2..........................
Chicago Surface Lines.........
Cincinnati, Ohio..........................

4
7
(<)
3

6
g
1
3

6
15
4
4

9
38
28
13

9
68
77
42

93
94
99
67

94
95
100
86

Cleveland, Ohio............................

5

6

7

23

61

99

100

7
5

9
5

10
16

15
21

21
21

47
42

95
68

Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
5 minutes.

1
5
1
3
2
3

1
7
1
3
2
8

1
9
3
6
2
9

1
12
10
35
2
22

48
39
70
84
6
72

100
73
93
98
58
89

100
92
98
99
100
96

9

11

12

12

25

47

83

Do.
Actual time,
Do.
Do.
Do.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
I hour.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
5 minutes.

Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation.
Northern Texas Traction
Co., Oak Cliff division of
Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Io w a ........................
Denver, Colo.................................
Des Moines, Iowa........................
Detroit, Mich................................
Evansville, Ind............................
Grand Rapids, Mich...................
Houston, Tex...............................




Paid time. Paid 10 hours
for runs under 10 hours,
paid to next i hour for
runs over 10 hours. Paid
time includes reporting
time of 8 to 30 minutes
on straight runs and a
maximum of 60 minutes
on swing runs.
Do.
Actual time.
Do.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
6 minutes.
Paid time.
Paid to next
5 minutes.

1 Including those who also did other work.
a Those who did no other work.
8 Motormen and conductors worked interchangeably.
4 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

170

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
CENT OF MOTORMEN WHOSE ACTUAL OR PAID TIME ON A REPRE­
SENTATIVE WEDNESDAY WAS HOURS SPECIFIED OR LESS—Continued.

T a b l e 2 6 .— P E R

M O TO R M EN , R EGULAR— Continued.
Per cent of motormen whose actual or paid
time on a representative Wednesday
was—
Time used in tabulation.

City.
Un­
der
6
hrs.

Un­
der
7
hrs.

Un­
der
8
hrs.

Un­
der
9
hrs.

Un­
der
10
hrs.

Un­
der
11
hrs.

Un­
der
12
hrs.

Indianapolis, Ind.
Jacksonville, F la..
Kansas City, Mo. -

4
3
3

4
5
3

6
5
3

11
10
5

32
10
23

90
37
67

99
90
96

Lincoln, Nebr___
Little Rock, Ark.
Los Angeles, C al..
Louisville, K y .. .
Lowell, Mass........

6
6
2
2
5

6
6
3
3
8

6
15
5
3
11

6
15
7
10
45

7
21
31
25
100

9
26
94
70
100

59
98
99
93
100

Manchester, N .H .

32

32

34

68

100

100

100

Memphis, T enn...

5

7

10

19

40

81

95

Milwaukee, W i s ...
Minneapolis and St.
Minn.
Mobile, A la............

2
4

2
4

7
5

14
6

56
48

92
86

98
94

2

5

69

92

98

Nashville, Tenn.......
Newark, N. J............
New Bedford, Mass.

3
3
21

3
3
23

3 i
6 !
26 1

8
10
46

46
52
62

66
96
95

70
99
98

New Britain, Conn..

18

18

23 J

23

32

100

100

5

5
1

6 !
4

17
25

67
86

97
99

98
100

Paul,

New Haven, Conn.....................
New Orleans, La........................ .
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit
Co.
New York & Queens Coun­
ty Ry. Co.
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines2...........
Storage-battery car lines
All lines except horse
and storage-battery
car lines

A ll lines except horse
and storage-battery
car lines and Fourth
Ave. and Ninth Ave.
divisions.3
Do.3...........................
Do.4...........................

D 0.4...................
Third Avenue Ry. Co.The Bronx..............
Manhattan...............

0)

Paid time. Paid to nearest
6 minutes.
Actual time.
Do.
Paid time. Paid to next 5
minutes.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
| hour.
Do.
Actual time.

2

2

2

3.

58

95

99

Do.

7

8

9

25

51

88

99

Do.

20
6
5

20
8
6

29
16
8

37
22
21

49
45
34

97
96
95

100
100
99

4

5

7

20

34

94

99

8
3

11
4

17
6

22
18

61
33

94
94

99
99

7

10

16

21

60

94

99

6
2

8
3

13
4

27
11

55
32

84
82

92
99

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
* Drivers.




Actual time.
Do.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
6 minutes.
Actual time.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Paid time.
Paid to next
i hour.
Paid time. Paid to near­
est J hour.
Paid time. Paid to nearest
5 minutes.
Do.
Actual time.

Do.
Do.
Paid time. Paid 8 hours
for runs under 8 hours,
paid 9 hours for runs over
8 and under 9, paid 10
hours for runs over 9 and
under 10, paid to nearest
6 minutes for runs over
10 hours.
Do.

Actual time.
Paid time. Paid 8 hours
for runs under 8 hours,
paid 9 hours for runs over
8 and under 9, paid 10
hours for runs over 9 and
under 10, paid to nearest
6 minutes for runs over
10 hours.
Actual time.
Do.
Do.

3 Including those who also did other work.
* Those who did no other work.

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

171

PER CENT OF M OTORMEN W HOSE ACTUAL OR PAID TIME ON A R E P R E ­
SEN TATIVE W E D N E S D A Y W AS HOURS SPECIFIED OR LESS—Continued.

T a b le 2 6 .—

M O TO R M EN , REGULAR—Continued.
Per cent of motormen whose actual or paid
time on a representative Wednesday
was—
Time used in tabulation.

City.
Un­
der
6
hrs.
New York, N. Y .—Concluded.
Interborough Rapid Tran­
sit Cov
Elevated lines—
AH lines 1__

Second and Third
Avenue lines.1
Do.2....................
Do.2 ...................

Un­
der
7
hrs.

Un­
der
8
hrs.

Un­
der
9
hrs.

Un­
der
10
hrs.

Un­
der
11
hrs.

Un­
der
12
hrs.

1

1

1

1

1

100

100

1

1

1

1

1

J00

100

2

3

15

50

100

100
100

100
100

D o .2...................
Subway lines..................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit
Co. (elevated lines)—
All divisions1.................

1
2

2
3

12
13

47
62

100
98

100
99

100
99

2

2

3

3

3

84

94

Brighton-Culver and
Bay
Ridge-West
End divisions.1
Do.1............................
Do.2............................

1

1

1

1

1

91

97

1
1

1
1

2
1

23
1

91
1

99
91

100
98

...........................
Do.1
Norfolk, V a ...................................
Oakland, Cal.................................
Oklahoma City, Okla.................
Omaha, Nebr................................
Peoria, 111.......................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Tran­
sit C o .Elevated lines................

1
9
1
5
3
2

1
11
1
7
3
2

2
11
1
7
3
2

23
11
6
9
5
7

91
16
75
67
39
97

100
39
97
93
94
99

100
84
100
95
100
100

100

100

100

Surface lines...................
Pittsburgh, Pa..............................
Portland, Me.................................
Portland, Oreg..............................

1
I
3

1
2
5
4

96
93
98
86

98
98
100
97

8

13

15
36
47
11
35

72
74
92
32

Providence, R. I ..........................

1 1
5
15 |
5 J
21 |
1

74

93

97

1 Including those who also did other work.




Paid time. Paid 10 hours
for runs under 10 hours.
Paid time includes re­
porting time of from 10
to 30 minutes per day.
Do.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid 10 hours
for runs under 10 hours.
Paid time includes re­
porting time of from 10
to 30 minutes per day.
Actual time.
Do.
Paid time. Paid 10 hours
for runs under 10 hours.
Paid time includes 10
m in u t e s r e p o r t i n g
time and 30 to 40 min­
utes for meals.
Do.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid 10 hours
for runs under 10 hours.
Paid time includes 10
m in u te s r e p o r t in g
time and 30 to 40 min­
utes for meals.
Actual time.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.

Paid time. Paid to near­
est 6 minutes.
Do.
Actual time.
Do.
Paid time. Paid to near­
est 5 minutes.
Paid time. Paid 8 hours
for runs under 8 hours,
and to next quarter hour
for runs over 8 hours.
Paid 50 cents for tripper
runs under 2 hours, $1 for
tripper runs of 2 and
under 4 hours, 5J hours
for tripper runs of 4 and
under 5 hours, and 7
hours for tripper runs of
5 and under 7 hours.

2 Those who did no other work.

172
T a b le

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
26.—PER CENT OF MOTORMEN WHOSE ACTUAL OR PAID TIME ON A REPRE­
SENTATIVE WEDNESDAY WAS HOURS SPECIFIED OR LESS—Continued.
M O TO R M E N , R EGULAR— Concluded.
Per cent of motormen whose actual or paid
time on a representative Wednesday
was—
City.
Un­
der

6

hrs.

Un­
der
7
hrs.

Un­
der
hrs.

Un­
der
9
hrs.

Time used in tabulation.
Un­
der

Un­
der

Un­
der

hrs.

hrs.

hrs.

100
15

100
17

10

68
1
2

Pueblo, Colo.
Reading, P a ..

1
1

1
2

Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to near­
est £ hour.
Paid time. Paid to near­
est 5 minutes.
Do.
Actual time.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.

Richmond, V a.

18

67

97

Rochester, N . Y ...........................
Sacramento, Cal............................
Saginaw, Mich..............................
St. Louis, Mo................................
Salt Lake City, Utah..................
San Antonio, Tex........................
San Francisco, Cal.:
Municipal Railways of San
Francisco.
United Railroads of San
Francisco.
Savannah, Ga...............................
Scranton, Pa.................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Seattle Municipal Street
Ry. Co.
Seattle, Renton & South­
ern R y. Co.
Sioux City, Iowa..........................

91
98
15

1
2

100
100
94
95

100
100
100
99
99
99

100

100

100

27

91

14
13

2
1
68

29
100

72
100

Do.
Do.

100

100

100

100

Do.

31

65

100

100

13

25

42

62

13

24

47

4

57

8
6

4

52

94

6
29
2

78

94
96
92

South Bend, Ind.
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire
R. R. Co.
The Washington Water
Power Co.
Springfield, 111..............................
Springfield, Mass........................
Springfield, Ohio......... .............
Superior, W is.
Syracuse, N . Y .,
Tacoma, W ash..
Toledo, Ohio___
Topeka, Kans........................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co____
Washington Railway
Electric Co.
Wheeling, W .V a ..................
Wichita, Kans.......................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s R y. Co.............
Wilmington & Philadel­
phia Traction Co.




82
95

57

8
6

60

4

13

12

Do.

Do.
Paid time. Paid to near­
est 5 minutes.
Paid time. Paid to next
5 minutes.
Actual time.
Do.

100
99
100

85

3
14

Do.

96

1
2

61

Do.
Do.
Paid time. Paid to near­
est 5 minutes.
Paid time. Paid to near­
est 6 minutes.
Actual time.
Do.
Paid time. Paid to near­
est J hour.
Do.
Actual time.
Do.

19

100
29

100
67

Do.
Do.
Paid time. Paid to near­
est I hour.
Do.

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
T a b le

173

26.—PER CENT OF MOTORMEN WHOSE ACTUAL OR PAID TIME ON A REPRE­
SENTATIVE WEDNESDAY WAS HOURS SPECIFIED OR LESS—Continued.
M OTORM EN: EXTR A.

Per cent of motormen whose actual
or paid time on a representative
Wednesday was—
Time used in tabulation.

City.

Altoona, Pa................................

Un­
der

Un­
der

Un­
der

hrs.

hrs.

hrs.

hrs.

19

94

100

15

2

hrs.

Un­
der
4
hrs.

Un­
der

19

Un­
der

81

49

92

Atlanta, Ga................................

10

1
2

Augusta, Ga...............................
Binghamton, N. Y ...................
Birmingham, Ala......................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.
Surface lines—
A ll divisions1..........

30

97

59

Paid time. Paid 8§ hours for
runs of 8 to 8£ hours; paid to
next i hour for runs over
hours. Includes 5 minutes
reporting time, and 5 minutes
allowed for making out reports.

97
99
96

28

Actual time.
Do.
Actual time and 2, 4, or 6 min­
utes reporting time.
Actual time and 5 minutes re­
portingtime.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 6
minutes.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 5
minutes.
Actual time.
Paid time. Includes 10,15, or 20
minutes reporting time and
10 min.utes allowed for making
out reports. Paid to nearest 5
minutes.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 5
minutes.

Do.

Division 2 *...
Do.1.........
Do.2........
Elevated lines.
Brockton, Mass..

100

Buffalo, N. Y —

96

Butte, Mont.3.. ..

100

Charleston, S. C .
Charlotte,N. C ..

Chattanooga, Tenn.................

17

19

52

83
60

57

Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
All divisions1............

76

19

South Side division *.
Do.2........................

Chicago Surface Lines.,

43

100
13

(4
)

(4
)

Cincinnati, Ohio.

5
13

100

31

53

13

Cleveland, O hio..

33

Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation.
Northern Texas Traction
Co., Oak Cliff division of
Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Iowa............. •...........

22

1 Including those who also did other work.
2 Those who did no other work.




Paid time. Paid to nearest £
hour for regular runs; paid 2
hours for tripper runs of 1X to
V
11 hours.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 5
minutes.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 10
minutes.
Actual time.

92

85

Paid time. Paid 10 hours for
runs under 10 hours; paid to
next i hour for runs over 10
hours. Includes reporting time
of 8 to 30 minutes on straight
runs and a maximum of 60
minutes on swing runs.
Do.
Actual time and reporting time
of 8 to 30 minutes on straight
runs and a maximum of 60
minutes on swing runs.
Actual time and 10 to 30 minutes
reporting time, 5 minutes
allowed for making out reports,
and 15 to 50 minutes for meals
on 61 per cent of runs.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 6
minutes.
Paid time. Paid to next 5 min­
utes.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 5
minutes.
Do.

3 Motormen and conductors worked interchangeably.
4 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

174
T a b le

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
26.—PER CENT OF MOTORMEN WHOSE ACTUAL OR PAID TIME ON A REPRE­
SENTATIVE WEDNESDAY WAS HOURS SPECIFIED OR LESS—Continued.
M O TO R M EN , E X T R A — Continued.
Per cent of motormen whose actual
or paid time on a representative
Wednesday was—
Time used in tabulation.

City.

Un­
der

2

hrs.

Un­
der
4
hrs.

Denver, Colo..........

Un­
der

Un­
der

Un­
der

Un­
der

hrs.

hrs.

hrs.

hrs.

10

1
2

84

28

94

Des Moines, Iowa..

97

Detroit, Mich.........

100

Evansville, Ind......... .
Grand Rapids, Mich..

93

Houston, T ex------

80

Indianapolis, Ind.

95

Jacksonville, Fla.

84

Kansas City, Mo..

78

Lincoln, Nebr----Little Rock, Ark Los Angeles, Cal..
Louisville, K y .......
Lowell, Mass..........
Manchester, N .H .

100
95

Memphis, Tenn.

50

Milwaukee, W is............................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn.
Mobile, Ala.....................................

99

100

Nashville, Tenn-----Newark, N . J........... .
New Bedford, Mass.

10

New Britain, Conn.
New Haven, Conn........................
New Orleans, L a..........................
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit
Co.
New York & Queens County
Ry. Co.
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines 1 ............
Storage-battery car lines
All except horse and
storage - battery car
„ lines.2

91
100

Do.
52

46

2

9

17

28

57

2 Including those who also did other work.




Do.
Do.
Paid time. Paid 8 hours for runs
under 8 hours, paid 9 hours for
runs over 8 and under 9, paid 10
hours for runs over 9 ana under
10; paid to the nearest 6 minutes
for runs over 10 hours.
Do.

99

yy
98

Do.3................... .

Do.3............................

Do.

100
100
100

All except horse and
storage-battery car
lines and Fourth Ave­
nue and Ninth Ave­
nue divisions.2
D 0 .2 ............................

i Drivers.

Actual time and 10 minutes al­
lowed for making out reports.
Actual time and 5 minutes re­
porting time.
Actual time and 10 minutes re­
porting time.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest £
hour.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 5
minutes.
Actual time and 20 to 30 min­
utes for meals on 40 per cent of
regular runs.
Actual time and 10 minutes re­
porting time.
Paid time. Includes 12 minutes
allowed for making out reports.
Paid to nearest 6 minutes.
Actual time.
Do.
Actual time and 5 minutes al­
lowed for making out reports.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to next J hour.
Paid time. Includes 10 minutes
reporting time. P a i d to
nearest i hour.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 5
minutes.
Do.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 6
minutes.
Actual time.
Do.
Paid time. Includes 5 to 20
m in u te s
reporting time.
Paid to next 5 minutes.
Paid time. Paid to nearest, i
hour.
Do.
Actual time.

Actual time.
Paid time. Paid 8 hours for runs
under 8 hours, paid 9 hours for
runs over 8 and under 9, paid 10
hours for runs over 9 and under
10; paid to the nearest 6 min­
utes for runs over 10 hours.
Actual time.

a Those who did no other work.

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.
TABLE

175

2 6 .—PER CENT OF MOTORMEN W H O SE ACTU AL OR P AID TIM E ON A R EP R E­
S EN T ATIVE W E D N E S D A Y W A S H OURS SPECIFIED OR LESS—Continued.
M O TO R M E N : E X T R A —Continued.
Per cent of motormen whose actual
or paid time on a representative
Wednesday was—
City.

New York. N. Y .—Concluded.
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx......................
Manhattan ___ _____
Interborough Rapid Transit
C o .Elevated lines—
..................
All lines 1

Un­
der
4
hrs.

Un­
der
6
hrs.

Un­
der
8
hrs.

Un­
der
10
hrs.

Un­
der
12
hrs.

3
1

20
3

42
4

59
11

82
46

97
100

4

23

26

38

94

Second and Third
Avenue lines.1
Do.1....................
Subway lines...................

Time used in tabulation.

Un­
der
2
hrs.

8

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.
(elevated lines)—
All divisions 1.................

28

44

88

24

44

84

100

33

47

73

87

100

18

7

20

16

24

35

50

85

Brighton-Culver a n d
Bay Ridge-W est End
divisions.1
Do.1............................

17

22

30

48

83

26

48

57

74

87

Do. 2 ..........................

17

22

30

48

83

Do.2............................

26

48

57

74

87

Norfolk, V a....................................
Oakland, Cal..................................
Oklahoma City, Okla...................

4

8
3

25
3
25

29
5
25

33
72
63

83
100
100

Omaha, Nebr.................................
Peoria, 111.3.....................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit
C o .Elevated lines.................

14

36
19

44
27

47
40

69
61

97
79

14

14

14

29

100

100

Surface lines....................
Pittsburgh, Pa..............................
Portland, Me.................................

5
7

15
21
8

21
33
8

24
36
31

77
73
77

98
94
100

Portland, Oreg..............................

1

9

21

29

47

93

Providence, R. I ...........................

0)

12

27

62

81

94

Actual time.
Do.

Paid time. Paid 10 hours for
runs under 10 hours. Includes
10 to 30 minutes reporting time.
Do.
Actual time and 10 to 30 minutes
reporting time.
Actual time and 10 to 20 minutes
reporting time.
Paid time. Paid 10 hours for
runs under 10 hours. Includes
10 minutes reporting time and
30 to 40 minutes allowed for
meals.
Do.
Actual time and 10 minutes re­
porting time, and 30 to 40 min­
utes allowed for meals.
Paid time. Paid 10 hours for
runs under 10 hours. Includes
10 minutes reporting time and
30 to 40 minutes allowed for
meals.
Actual time, and 10 minutes re
porting time and 30 to 40 min­
utes allowed for meals.
Actual time.
Do.
Actual time and 10 minutes re­
porting time.
Actual time.
Do.

Paid time. Paid to nearest 6
minutes.
Do.
Actual time.
Actual time and 20 minutes re­
porting time on 8 runs and 10
minutes reporting time on all
other runs.
Paid time. Includes 5 minutes
reporting time; paid to nearest
5 minutes.
Paid time. Paid 8 hours for
runs under 8 hours and to next
quarter hour for runs over 8
hours. Paid 50 cents for trip­
per runs under 2 hours, $1 for
tripper runs of 2 and under 4
hours, 54 hours for tripper runs
of 4 ana under 5 hours, and
7 hours for tripper rnns of 5 and
under 7 hours.

1 Including those who also did other work.
2 Those who did no other work.
« Extra men worked interchangeably as motormen and conductors.
* Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




176
T able

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
2 6 .—PER CENT OF M OTORMEN W H O SE ACTUAL OR PAID TIME ON A R E P R E ­
SE N T A T IV E W E D N E S D A Y W A S HOURS SPECIFIED OR LESS-Concluded.
M O T O R M E N : E X T R A —Concluded.
Per cent of motormen whose actual
or paid time on a representative
Wednesday was—
City

Un­
der
2
hrs.

Un­
der
4
hrs.

Un­
der
6
hrs.

Un­
der
8
hrs.

Un­
der
10
hrs.

Un­
der
12
hrs.

2

16

25

32

78
45

100
57

3

3

3

3

7

93

13

37

54

72

93

99

Sacramento, Cal............................

18

27

64

64

100

100

St Louis, Mo.................................

10
13

7
19
40

7
25
60

36
30
60

50
39
80

100
100
100

4

16

24

52

64

5

16

21

100

100

9

18

19

26

99

4

12

20

30
76

70
88

33

33

33

11

44

9

9

9

55

24

47

59

82

100

19

23

31

54

81

27

27

87

93

31
10

56
20

93
50

96
100

Richmond, V a..............................

San Antonio, Tex.........................
San Francisco, Cal.:
Municipal Railways of San
Francisco.
United Railroads of San
Francisco.

3

Savannah, Ga................................
Scranton, Pa..................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Seattle Municipal Street Ry

100

Seattle, Renton & Southern
Ry. Co.
Sioux City, Iowa..........................
South Bend, Ind..........................

Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire
R. R. Co.
The Washington Water
Power Co.
Springfield, 111...............................

12

100

50

100

Time used in tabulation.

Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest J
hour.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 5
minutes.
Paid time. Includes 5 minutes
reporting
time;
paid to
nearest 5 minutes.
Actual time and 10 minutes for
pulling cars out of barn and 5
minutes for pulling cars into
barn.
Actual time.
Do.
Actual time and 10 minutes
reporting time.
Actual time.
Actual time and 5 minutes for
pulling cars out of barn and 2
minutes for pulling cars into
barn.
Actual time and 5 minutes for
pulling cars out of barn and 2,
3 ,3J, 4, or 4| minutes for pulling
cars into barn.
Actual time.
Do.
Paid time. Paid to nearest i
hour.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 5
minutes.
Paid time. Includes 30 minutes
allowed for meals on 20 per cent
of runs. Paid to next 5 min­
utes.
Actual time.
Do.

4
10

13
10
14

14

14

29

86

Syracuse, N. Y ..............................

16

42

54

64

91

99

Tacoma, Wash..............................
Toledo, Ohio..................................

4
4

13
15

26
21

35
37

57
61

87
89

6

25

38

38

50

Actual time and 10 minutes re­
porting time and 5 minutes
for making reports.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 5
minutes.
Paid time. Paid to nearest 6
minutes.
Actual time and 5 minutes re­
porting time.
Actual time.
Paid time. Paid to nearest i
hour.
Do.

15
5

25
. 17

25
38

25
39

67
49

98
96

Actual time.
Do.

8

8
7

15
7

15
14

62
43

92
79

Do.
Do.
Paid time.
hour.
Do.

Springfield, Mass........................
Springfield, Ohio..........................
Superior, W is................................

Topeka, Kans................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co..............
Washington Railway &
Electric Co.
Wheeling, W . Va..........................
Wichita, Kans..............................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. Co.....................
Wilmington & Philadelphia
Traction Co.




25

33

33

33

33

58

11

37

68

79

84

84

Paid to nearest i

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

177

CALENDAR DAYS WORKED IN WHOLE OR IN PART AND ACTUAL
EARNINGS FOR ONE WEEK.

Street railway operation as an industry knows no rest day. The
roads are in operation 7 days per week. Individual employees, how­
ever, do not all work every day, but are absent from duty more or less
during the week from one cause or another. Occasionally a road
makes provision for regular days off, but the general rule is that men
are allowed time off from duty on request. In addition to time
off for recreation, time is also lost to a greater or less extent because
of sickness, personal affairs, etc.
General Table D, pages 177-294, Chapter V III, shows the number of
car-crew men, who in the selected week studied worked the whole or
some part of one or all of the calendar days of the week, and in con­
nection therewith it also shows the classified earnings of the employees
during the week. In the table a person is entered as at work on a day
if he performs any work on that day; a day in this table, therefore,
must not be taken as meaning a full day. As in other industries,
men do not always work at their primary occupations all of the time,
but occasionally are shifted to other kinds of work to meet condi­
tions. For example, a motorman or conductor may occasionally be
assigned to act as a switchman, inspector, etc.
Table D includes, or accounts for, all men engaged in the operation
of cars in the week studied. The records of the several companies as
to the the kind of work actually performed are incomplete. Some
companies keep account of each kind of work done by each employee,
but other companies shift men at times to other work without the
change appearing on the pay roll, especially if the rate of pay remains
the same.
As far as possible a segregation was made in the table of the carcrew men who in the week did work exclusively at their regular
occupation, and of men who worked at their regular occupation and
some other occupation as well. In some instances the number that
fell within the second group was so small as not to warrant tabulation.
Notes, however, indicate the number within the group. The number
of days worked, stated in the table, applies only to days on which
work was done at the specified occupation. No consideration is taken
in the table of days or parts of days employed at other work. In the
statement of earnings, however, the figures include the pay for work
at the regular occupation, and for all other work as well. In other
words, the earnings are the total earnings of the employees, regardless
of the occupation at which employed. For the men who worked at
their regular occupation only there is a direct correlation of days on
which work was done and earnings, but in the other group, those who
39749°— Bull. 204— 17------ 12




178

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

did other work as well, there is no correlation of days worked and
earnings.
A special condition appears in the figures for the Boston surface
lines, page 874. A complete segregation for the company into two
groups, those following their regular occupation only, and those who
did other work also, was possible, but it was not done for the entire
company because of the great amount of work involved. Such segre­
gation, however, was made for one of the divisions of the company,
division 2 . There are, therefore, three sections of this table for the
Boston surface lines:
(а) A tabulation embracing all divisions and including all men,
whether or not they did work at any other occupation.
(б) A tabulation for division 2 only, of such men as did no other
work.
(c) A tabulation for division 2 only, of the few men who worked at
their regular occupation and did work in some other occupation as
well. A comparison of the second and third sections of this table for
this company shows no material difference in the earnings, day by day,
of the men in the two groups.
As stated above, the days shown are the calendar days on which the
man worked at his regular occupation only, while the earnings are
those at the regular occupation and at all other work as well. When
other work was done, therefore, the earnings bear no relation to the
days on which the man worked at his regular occupation. Thus on
page 877 a regular motorman worked but one day in the selected
week at his regular occupation, yet earned $18 and under $19 in the
week because of other work spread over several days.
To bring out clearly the regularity with which men worked, a
summary table (Table 27) drawn from Table D is here given, showing
for each company the number of men who did work on each number
of calendar days from 1 to 7, and percentages computed from such
figures, showing the per cent who were employed 7 calendar days in
the selected week, 6 days, and less than 6 days. A wide variation was
found in the different companies in the proportion of motormen and
conductors who worked 7 days per week, 6 days per week, etc. Read­
ing the first line of the table below, relating to Altoona, it is seen that
1 regular motorman worked the whole or a part of 1 day in the week
studied, 1 man worked 2 days, 1 man 3 days, 4 men 4 days, 9 men 5
days, 23 men 6 days, and 34 men 7 days, making a total of 73 who
worked during the week. Of the total 73, the 34 who worked 7 days
constituted 47 per cent, the 23 who worked 6 days constituted 32 per
cent, and the remaining men 2 2 per cent. The figures for the other
companies can be read in like manner.




CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

179

2 7 .—NU M BER A N D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW M EN W H O W O R K E D A T T H E IR
R EG U LAR OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED NU M BER OF D A Y S OR P AR T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K .

Table

M O T O R M E N : R EGULAR.
Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

City.
1
day.

Altoona, Pa.......................................
Atlanta, Ga. . . . . . . ,
Augusta, Ga.......................................
Bingham tort, N, Y ............................
Birniinghfl.mj A la ......................... .
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines — all divi­
sions 1................................
Surface lines—division 2 2.
Surface lines—division 2 3.
Elevated lines2...................
Elevated lines3
...................
Brockton, Mass.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Buffalo, N. Y .:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Butte, Mont.4...................................
Charleston, S. C ................................
Charlotte, N . C .................................
Chattanooga, Tenn..........................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Those who did no other
work.................................
Those who also did other
work..................................
Chicago Surface Lines.............
Cincinnati, Ohio...............................
Cleveland, Ohio:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation...
Northern Texas Traction Co.,
Oak Cliff division of Fort
Worth lines.............................
Davenport, Iowa..............................
Denver, Colo.....................................
Des Moines, Iowa.............................
Detroit, Mich....................................
Evansville, Ind.................................
Grand Rapids, Mich........................
Houston, Tex....................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................
Jacksonville, Fla..............................
Kansas City, Mo.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Lincoln, Nebr...................................
Little Rock, Ark.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Los Angeles, Cal...............................
Louisville, K y ...................................
Lowell, Mass.:
Those who did no other work
Those who also did other work
Manchester, N. H .............................
Memphis, Tenn.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.

4
5
2
3
6
7
days. days. days. days. days. days.

1
4

1
3

1
9

4
21

3
4

1
4

1
2

5
6

2

8
3

10
3

38
3

Less
7
6
than
days days
6
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

3

4

1

2

1
1

1

34
88
13
32
123

73
315
25
61
188

47
28
52
52
65

32
41
32
28
21

22
31
16
20
13

104
10
2
1
2

547
66
8
7
1

769 1,478
76
161
6
17
40
49
4
9

52
47
35
82
44

37
41
47
14
11

11
12
18
4
44

1
2

16
7

46
5

64
15

72
33

25
47

3
20

11
2
4
3

6
2
1

23
128
8
17
40

1
1

1

9
62
4
2
9

1
1

1

33
1
9
2
4
7

180
16
22
11
9
16

270
28
65
30
34
57

507
49
100
43
52
84

53
57
65
70
65
68

36
33
22
26
17
19

11
10
13
5
17
13

23

138

161

338

48

41

12

3
7
13
464 1,088 1,502 3,367
60
190
605
318

54
45
53

23
32
31

23
23
16

4

3

8

24
6

40
7

2
78
5

1
171
19

4

6

16
1

35
1

75
6

272
30

322
41

730
79

44
52

37
38

19
10

2

3

2

5

10

25

75

122

61

20

18

2

2
2
1
4

2
1
6
1
4
1
2
5

2
6
11
1
1
2
5
2

8
8
45
2
2
4
13
3

2
4
32
10
99
10
11
17
23
12

6
37
130
46
276
18
26
43
73
25

12
31
69
83
531
23
87
60
139
34

23
72
244
154
973
55
133
129
256
85

52
43
28
54
55
42
65
47
54
40

26
51
53
30
28
33
20
33
29
29

22
6
18
16
17
25
15
20
17
31

3

5

8

14
2
2

65
5
12

188
18
24

293
15
26

576
40
65

51
38
40

33
45
37

16
18
23

4
1
86
36

9
2
304
95

29
5
410
176

48
9
847
341

60
56
48
52

19
22
36
28

21
22
16
21

5
3

20
4
11

49
11
25

80
17
40

61
65
63

25
24
28

14
12
10

6
2

15
7

105
63

135
75

78
84

11
9

11
7

1
1
5

1
1
1
2
3

1

4

11
7

25
20

2

9
4

4
2

1
2

1
2

1 Including those who also did other work.
2 Those who did no other work.




To­
tal.

3

3
1

3 Those who also did other work.
* Motormen and conductors worked interchangeably.

180

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

2 7 .—N UM BER AN D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW MEN W H O W O R K E D A T T H EIR
R E G U L A R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED N UM BER OF D A Y S OR P A R T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.

Table

M O T O R M E N : R EGULAR—Continued.
Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

To­
tal.

City.
1
day.

Milwaukee, W is................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, M inn..
Mobile^ Ala.................................
Nashville, Tenn................................
Newark, N. J.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
New Bedford, Mass..........................
New Britain, Conn..........................
New Haven, Conn....... ...................
New Orleans, L a ............... .
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work............. •..................
New York & Queens County
Ry. Co.—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work.................................
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other work...............
Storage-battery car lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other work...............
All lines except horse-car
and storage-battery car
lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other work...............
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx..........................
Manhattan..........................
Interborough Rapid Transit
Co.—
Elevated lines—
Those who did no
other work................
Those who also did
other work...............
Subway lines......................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.
(elevated lines)—
Those who did no other
work.................................
Those who also did other
work.................................
Norfolk, Va.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Oakland, Cal.....................................
Oklahoma City, Okla..
Omaha, Nebr....................................
Peoria, 111...........................................




3
4
5
6
7
2
days. days. days. days. days. days.

Less
7
6
than
days days
6
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

2
3
3
1

3
5
1

6
4
1

18
17
3
4

70
34
6
8

243
228
16
22

138
424
37
123

480
715
67
158

29
59
55
78

51
32
24
14

21
9
21
s

3
1
1

6

4
2

5

2
6

2
18

19
8
2
2
6
30

31
13
4
1
16
63

119
38
24
6
71
83

187
63
39
15
112
387

369
125
70
24
209
592

51
50
56
63
54
65

32
30
34
25
34
14

17
19
10
13
12
21

687 1,700

8

16

30

59

206

694

40

41

19

3

5

11

21

41

77

55

213

26

36

38

1

2

1

10

30

47

57

148

39

32

30

1

1

2

2

7

3

16

19

44

38

1

1

1

13

22

38

58

34

8

4

1

5

20

80

1

7

19

26

56

46

34

20

2

3

1

2

3

8

38

25

38

545 1,284

8

14

28

45

138

506

42

39

18

2

4

2

14

13

32

32

99

32

32

35

6

5
7

5
20

14
16

25
33

84
177

287'
335

420
594

68
56

20
30

12
14

3

2

7

17

91

162

282

57

32

10

4
3

18
68

53
127

75
198

71
64

24
34

5
2

3

6

83

100

194

52

43

6

1

3

15

17

36

47

42

11

1

15
3
307
9
80
29

46
2
18
50
116
52

68
8
352
61
237
108

68
25
5
82
49
48

22
38
87
15
34
27

10
38
8
3
17
25

2

2

1

3

1

3

2
1

4
2

1
1
8
7

3
7
5
8

15
1
22
9

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

181

T able 2 7 .—NUM BER AN D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW MEN W H O W O R K E D A T TH EIR
R E G U LA R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED NU M BER OF D A Y S OR PA R T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.
M O T O R M E N : REGULAR—Concluded.
Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

To­
tal.

City.
1
day.

Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit
Co.—
Elevated lines.....................
Surface lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other work...............
Pittsburgh, Pa.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Portland, Me.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Portland, Oreg..................................
Providence, R. I ...............................
Pueblo, Colo......................................
Reading, Pa.......................................
Richmond, V a ..................................
Rochester, N . Y ................................
Sacramento ?Cal................................
Saginaw, Mich...................................
St. Louis, Mo.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Salt Lake City, Utah......................
San Antonio, T ex.............................
San Francisco, Cal.:
Municipal Railways of San
Francisco.................................
United Railroads of San
Francisco.................................
Savannah, Ga...................................
Scranton, Pa.....................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Seattle Municipal Street Ry
Seattle, Renton & Southern
Ry. Co.....................................
Sioux City, Iowa..............................
South Bend, Ind..............................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R.
R. Co........................................
The W ashington W a t e r
Power Co.................................
Springfield, 111.................................
Springfieid, Mass..............................
Springfield, Ohio..............................
Superior, W is....................................
Syracuse, N. Y .:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Tacoma, Wash..................................
Toledo, Ohio.....................................
Topeka, TCans...................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co..................
Washington Railway & Elec­
tric Co......................................
Wheeling, W . Va..............................
Wichita, Kans...................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. Co.........................
Wilmington & Philadelphia
Traction Co.............................




2
4
6
7
5
3
days. days. days. days. days. days.

1

1

16

18

42

2

2

3

12
1

14
1

21
2

Less
7
6
than
days days
6
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

34

59

870 2,252

39

38

23

17

78

22

41

37

262
31

529
51

941
104

56
49

28
30

16
21

1

6
2
36
13
3
8
9
29
4
4

13
7
119
91
13
39
58
84
19
8

76
14
198
273
23
5
118
134
60
23

97
24
371
389
41
55
193
263
85
36

78
58
53
70
56
9
61
51
71
64

13
29
32
23
32
71
30
32
22
22

8
12
15
6
12
20
9
17
7
14

2
1
2

80
5
7
12

351
16
31
24

654 1,156
45
20
154
109
99
149

57
44
71
66

30
36
20
16

13
20
9
17

8

102

345

859

4

18

32

35
6

68
12

1
1
1
3

4

1

3
6
1

14
3
1
1
5
9

20

24

18

4
1

2
1
1

9

7

21

1

1
4

3
5

34
4
3
4

6

50

37

95

39

53

8

11
1

4

18
1
2

16
1
6

50
2
7

318
11
38

305
46
67

722
62
122

42
74
55

44
18
31

14
8
14

1

2

5

8

63

25

13

1

2
1
2

2
3
4

9
4
7

16
47
30

29
58
43

55
81
70

31
7
16

14
12
14

2

2

2

1

5

18

52

76

68

24

8

2
3
2

18
13
17
4
1

26
16
69
16
11

47
30
79
35
12

97
64
169
57
24

48
47
47
61
50

27
25
41
28
46

25
28
12
11
4

3

5

1
4

5
14
2

9
4
7
35
1

36
2
22
84
11

74
12
66
97
25

129
18
101
239
41

57
67
65
41
61

28
11
22
35
27

15
22
13
24
12

3

1

1

2
1

1

2

1
2
1

3
1

1

7

2

7

15

138

87

257

34

54

12

2
3
2

2

3

3

1

12
2

43
2
9

163
13
23

76
47
16

301
67
54

25
70
30

54
19
43

21
10
28

47

53

19

64

30

48

22

1
1

15
5

14

8

31

30

1

182

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

2 7 .—NUM BER A N D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW MEN W H O W O R K E D A T T H E IR
R E G U L A R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED NU M BER OF D A Y S OR P A R T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.
M OTORM EN: EXTR A.

T able

Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

To­
tal.

City.
1
day.

Altoona, Pa.......................................
Atlanta, Ga........................................
Augusta, Ga.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Binghamton, N. Y ...........................
Birmingham, Ala....... ......................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines—all divi­
sions 1................................
Surface lines—division 2 2.
Surface lines—division 2 3
..
Elevated lines.....................
Brockton, Mass.:
Those who did no other work..
Those who also did other work.
Buffalo, N. Y .:
Those who did no other work..
Those who also did other work
Butte, Mont.4....................................
Charleston, S. C.:
Those who did no other work..
Those who also did other work.
Charlotte, N. C .................................
Chattanooga, Tenn..........................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work..................................
Those who did no other
work5.....................: .........
Those who also did other
work 5................................
Chicago Surface Lines..............
Cincinnati, Ohio...............................
Cleveland, Ohio:
Those who did no other work..
Those who also did other work
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation...
Northern Texas Traction Co.,
Oak Cliff division of Fort
Worth lines.............................
Davenport, Iowa..............................
Denver, Colo.:
Those who did no other work..
Those who also did other work
Des Moines, Iowa.............................
Detroit, Mich.....................................
Evansville, Ind.................................
Grand Rapids, Mich........................
Houston, T e x ...................................
Indianapolis, Ind.............................
Jacksonville, F la..............................
Kansas City, Mo.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Lincoln, Nebr..........- .......................
Little Rock, Ark.:
Those who did no other work
Those who also did other work.




4
5
2
6
7
3
days. days. days. days. days. days.

1

1
6

1

Less
7
6
than
days days
6
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

1
7

3
15

6
21

4
27

8
18

23
95

35
19

17
28

48
53

2
3

1
2

1
3
2

3
1

2
1
6
6

8
2
6
27

11
4
21
42

73
50
29
64

18
25
29
14

9
25
43
21

3

10
3

15
1
7
2

41
1
14
4

141
11
25
10

524
16
32
33

736
30
82
53

71
53
39
62

19
37
30
19

10
10
30
19

1

1
1

2

1
14

4
31

7
49

57
63

14
29

29
8

1
4

3
1
4

7
2
1

14
1
6

53
21
12

82
26
32

65
81
38

17
4
19

18
15
44

2

1
1

4
1
6

11
3
3
15

13
8
5
24

85
38
60
63

50
20
25

15
13
20
13

8

20

31

65

26

10

1

1

100

1

2
1
1
1

3

1
1
2

4
3

1
1

1

3

1

1

2

5

17

26

65

19

15

62
6

74
3

2
138
3

3
197
11

10
217
24

6
123
138

22
845
193

27
15
72

45
26
12

27
60
16

6

5
1

4
3

7
7

9
8

28
22

115
105

174
146

66
72

16
15

18
13

3

2

2

1

4

10

35

57

61

18

21

2
2

1
2

1
1

3
3

18
10

26
19

69
53

12
16

19
32

9
4
1
7

2
3

1
6

2
5

5
5
1

12
5
5
11
2
2
3
6
5

21
5
8
44
8
10
13
25
6

20
137
8
20
32
69
23

71
16
36
228
18
32
58
119
35

30

12

3
2
1
8

21

1
9

56
60
44
63
55
58
66

30
31
22
19
44
31
22
21
17

41
69
22
21
11
6
22
21
17

5
1

7

1
3

8
3

18
6
1

36
8
3

77
16
14

152
37
18

51
43
78

24
22
17

26
35
6

1

1

1
2

2

9
4

12
8

75
50

25

25
25

1
34
8

1
1
5

1 Including those who also did other wore.
2 Those who did no other work.
3 Those who also did other work.
< Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.
&Acting motormen (conductors and guards). '

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

183

T a b le 2 7 .—N UM BER A N D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW MEN W H O W O R K E D A T T H E IR
R E G U LA R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED NU M BER OF D A Y S OR P A R T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.
MOTORMEN j EXTRA—Continued.
Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

To­
tal.

City.
1
day.

Tj s Angeles, Hal,.............., T
O
Tjonisvflle,
_____ . __ ________
Lowell, Mass.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Manchester, N. TT_________ _____
Memphis, Tenn.:
Those who did no other work..
Those who also did other work.
Milwaukee, W is................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, M inn..
Mobile. Ala........................................
Nasbyijle Tp/nri.. r - r_______ ____
Newark, N. J.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
New Bedford, Mass..........................

1
4

1
3

Less
6
7
than
days days
6
days
in
in
week. week. in
week.

3
7

•7
5

21
24

52
31

108
49

193
123

56
40

27
25

17
35

1

1

2

2
11

3
15
4

9
11
21

18
37
25

50
30
84

17
41
16

33
30

2

1

3

1
3

6

1
4

1

3

3

2
10
2
4

2
9
12
7
2

2
1
16
74
6
9

16
23
80
243
4
31

24
26
109
352
19
53

67
88
73
69
21
58

8
4
15
21
32
17

25
8
12
10
47
25

4
1

1

2
2

3
3

3
5

3
6
10

7
10
1
2
10
17

21
27
9
1
34
46

23
29
22
6
63
51

61
72
32
15
124
136

38
40
69
40
51
38

34
38
28
7
27
34

28
22
3
53
22
29

1
2
New Haven, Conn...........................
New Orleans, La..............................
5
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.—
Those who did no other
g
work..................................
Those who also did other
work..................................
New York & Queens County
Ry. Co.—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work..................................
4
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines....................
Storage-battery car lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other w ork...............
All lines except horse-car
and storage-battery car
lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
2
Those who also did
4
other work...............
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx...........................
3
6
Manhattan...........................
Interborough Rapid Transit
C o .Elevated lines.....................
Subway lines......................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.
(elevated lines)—
Those who did no other
work.................................
Those who also did other
2
work.................................
3
Norfolk, Va ...................................
Oakland, C a l ...................................
Olrlnhnma Cit.v OTrla
Omaha, Nebr.................................... ............
Peoria HI.1.........................................1
..........




2
4
5
7
3
6
days. days. days. days. days. days.

2
6
2

8

3

12

31

76

67

205

33

37

30

9

17

24

48

43

23

164

14

26

60

1

8

9

15

19

52

37

29

35

2

1

6

10

5

28

18

36

46

2

2

4

50

50

6

3

13

23

46

31

1

1

3

33

33

33

41

1

2

\

1

13

7

18

29

52

49

170

29

31

4

3

14

25

35

24

109

22

32

46

5
4

6
3

6
10

13
13

30
23

69
59

J32
118

52
50

23
19

25
31

13
2

40
13

57
15

70
87

23
13

7

1

3

j

1
4
1
1

2

3

8

6

20

30

40

30

5

8

4
3
8
2
2
1

5
4
57
1
13
11

2
15
28
6
55
50

30
26
98
9
72
67

7
58
29
67
76
75

17
15
58
11
18
16

77
27
13
22
6
9

1

2

|

4

2

2
1 |

1 Motormen and conductors; worked interchangeably.

184

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T ab le 2 7 .—N U M B ER AN D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW M EN W H O W O R K E D A T T H E IR
R E G U L A R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED N UM BER OF D A Y S OR PA R T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.
M O TO R M E N : E X T R A — Continued.
Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

City.

1

day.

Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit
C o .Elevated lines....................
Surface lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other work...............
Pittsburgh, Pa.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Portland, Me.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Portland, Oreg..................................
Providence, R . I ..............................
Pueblo, Colo......................................
Reading, Pa......................................
Richmond, V a.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Rochester, N. Y ...............................
SacramentOj Cal...............................
Saginaw, Mich...................................
St. Louis, Mo.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Salt Lake City, Utah......................
San Antonio, Tex............................
San Francisco, Cal.:
Municipal Railways of San
Francisco.................................
United Railroads of San Fran­
cisco..........................................
Savannah, Ga...................................
Scranton, Pa.....................................
Seattle, Wash.:
.
Seattle Municipal Street Ry.
Co..............................................
Seattle, Renton & Southern
Ry. Co.....................................
Sioux City, Iowa..............................
South Bend, Ind.........., ..................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R.
R. Co........................................
The W ashington W ater Power
Co.............................................
Springfield, 111...................................
Springfield, Mass..............................
Springfield, Ohio..............................
Superior, W is....................................
Syracuse, N. Y .:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Tacoma, Wash.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Toledo, Ohio......................................
Topeka, Kans...................................
Washington, D. C.:
Washington Railway & Elec­
tric Co...................................... .
Capital Traction Co.................. .
Wheeling, W . Va..............................
Wichita, Kans...................................




2

4
5
6
7
days. days. days. days. days. days.

To­
tal.

Less
7
than
days days
6
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

38

1
1

91

209

20
19

1
2
2
2
12
19
1

568

79
74

50

16

146
156

13
61

13

5

1
1

2
1
2
1
44

9

20

20

49
171
3
15

100
256
9
55

17
4
78
3

31
7
158
15
15

23
14
13
53
27

171
64
31

22

23
16

22
42

27
23
39

20
15

34
53
16

205
15
32
100
13

20
2
1
45
37
31

2
1

24
26

20

18

41
38
7
105
17
109
64
14
16

50
45

22

25
29

25
43
19

22
6

9

1
2

50
47
7
44

185

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

T a b le 2 7 .—NUM BER AN D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW MEN W H O W O R K E D A T T H EIR
R E G U LA R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED NU M BER OF D A Y S OR PAR T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.
MOTORMEN: EXTRA—Concluded.

Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

City.
1
day.

2
4
3
5
6
7
days. days. days. days. days. days.

Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. Co..........................
Wilmington & Philadelphia
Traction Co.—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work.................................

9

1

To­
tal.

5

1

16

Less
6
7
than
days days
6
in
days
in
week. week.
in
week.

6

31

63

1

1

7

2

11

18

64

18

1

1

6

5

13

38

46

15

31
69

CONDUCTORS : REGULAR.
Altoona, Pa.......................................
Atlanta, Ga........................................
Augusta, Ga.......................................
Binghamton, N . Y ................. . _ „
Birmingham, Ala,,. - ______
Boston^Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. C o Surface lines—all divi­
sions 1................................
Surface lines—division 2 2.
Surface lines—division 2 3
Elevated lines2...................
Elevated lines3..................
Brockton, Mass.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Buffalo, N . Y . :
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Charleston, S. C ................................
Charlotte, N . C .................................
Chattanooga, Tenn..........................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Those who did no other
work.................................
Those who also did other
work..................................
Chicago Surface Lines.............
Cincinnati, Ohio...............................
Cleveland, Ohio:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation..
Northern Texas Traction Co..
Oak Cliff division of Fort
Worth lines.............................
Davenport, Iowa..............................
Denver, Colo.....................................
Des Moines, Iowa.......................
Detroit, Mich.....................................
Evansville, Ind.................................
Grand Rapids, Mich........................
Houston, Tex....................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................
Jacksonville, Fla..............................
Kansas City, Mo.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Lincoln, Nebr...................................




6

9

8

2

1

1
16
1
2
5

5
24
2
3
3

7
60
3
7
8

22
129
12
20
27

28
139

66
309
27
62
183

47
22
30
45
76

33
42
44
32
15

20
36
26
23
9

26

2

53
5
3

173
20
4
1

551
73
6
13
3

649 1,469
158
56
4
17
26
42
7
10

44
35
24
62
70

38
46
35
31
30

18
18
41
7

1

5
1
1
1

3

5
1

22
3

37
5

69
12

54
42

32
25

14
33

4
4

32
1
1
3
8

167
24
13
12
19

269
24
30
34
46

504
54
48
54
81

53
44
63
63
57

33
44
27
22
23

13
11
10
15
20

20

141

91

265

34

53

12

24
14
68
6
564 1,134 1,243 3,353
324
63
171
600

9
37
54

35
34
29

56
29
18

2
1
1
3

1

8
1
1

1

5

2
1

3

1

2
2
0
2
2

8

3

5

21

6

4
69
7

12
86
7

8
236
22

8

11

10
3

21
1

108
7

292
18

315
24

765
53

41
45

38
34

21
21

1

1

1

5

9

21

80

118

6
8

18

14

2

1
2

7
26
104
57
247
19
30
39
80
28

12
32
89
64
531
28
73
55
133
35

21
74
248
157
946
54
122
119
263
80

57
43
36
41
56
52
60
46
51
44

33
35
42 •
36
26
35
25
33
30
35

10
22
22
23
18
13
16
21
19
21

171
16
18

293
24
31

560
50
64

52
48
48

31
32
28

17
20
23

4

2
6
1
7
1
4
2

15

1
2
2
2
3

4

1

2
1
7
1

5
10
10
3

2
12
37
26
83
5
10
11
24
9

11
2
3

13
2
2

64
5
8

6
29

1

14
4
35

1

1 Including those who also did other work.
2 Those who did no other work.
3 Those who also did other work.

186

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T able 2 7 .—NU M BER AN D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW MEN W H O W O R K E D A T T H E IR
R E G U LA R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED N UM BER OF D A Y S OR P A R T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.
COND UCTOR S: REG ULAR—Continued.

Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

To­
tal.

City.
1
day.

Little Rock, Ark.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Los Angeles, Cal...............................
Louisville, K y ...................................
Lowell, Mass.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Manchester, N . H .............................
Memphis, Tenn.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Milwaukee, W is................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, M in n ..
Mobile, Ala........................................
Nashville, Tenn
Newark, N . J.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
New Bedford, Mass..........................
New Britain, Conn..........................
New Haven, Conn............................
New Orleans, L a ..............................
New York, N . Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work..................................
New York & Queens County
R y. Co.....................................
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines....................
Storage-battery car lines
All lines except horse-car
and storage-battery car
lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other w ork...............
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx..........................
Manhattan..........................
Interborough Rapid Transit
C o .Elevated lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other work...............
Subway lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other work...............
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.
(elevated lines)—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work.................................
Norfolk, V a ........................................
Oakland, Cal.....................................
Oklahoma City Okla
. . .
Omaha, Nebr.....................................
Peoria. Ill...........................................

--....... -,__




4
5
6
7
2
3
days. days. days. days. days. days.

5
2
88
38

11
5
311
113

28
2
366
162

47
12
830
339

4
2
1

8
3
8

18
10

46
11
18

78
17
37

4

2

7
10
1
2

22
13
1
5

4
6
93
35
6
4

10
6
235
234
28
31

104
66
120
400
33
103

129
79
479
704
71
149

1

11
2
2

17
3
2

1
9

7
9

3
15

5
40

43
12
6
2
20
72

110
29
27
4
83
100

216
37
30
16
87
346

10

10

41

85

314

769

2

2

8

23

49

55

16

155

1

3

3

11

31

46

52

2

1

2
16

13
25

20
19

46

93

523

4

12

15

21

53

17
17

36
59

112
185

235
279

4
1

7
4

1

1
2
3
22 *’ *3 2 ’
5
16
1

1

3

3
1
2
8
2
1

3

5

2
4

15

15

21

1
1
11

Less
6
7
than
days days
6
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

23
42
37
33

17
42
18
19

59
23
65
49 '*'27

18
35
24

81
84
25
57
46
69

8
8
49
33
39
21

12
9
26
10
14
10

405
83
68
22
206
591

53
45
44
73
42
59

27
35
40
18
40
17

20
20
16
9
17
25

535 1,764

30

44

26

10

35

54

147

35

31

33

38
60

53
32

34
42

13
27

546 1,259

43

42

15

40

28

32

413
573

57
49

27
32

16
19

60
17
44
48

5
11

7
11

2

1

6

12

55

97

173

56

32

12

1

5

12

21

46

75

160

47

29

24

1

1

4

13

40

33

92

36

43

21

1

2

1

9

27

45

85

53

32

15

1

2

3

15

82

81

184

44

45

11

4

4
5
23
1
28
4

18
38
15
42
93
43

34
66
356
55
234
106

53
58
4
76
40
41

24
26
87
20
38
41

24
17
9
4
22
19

2

1
2

1
1

4
2

3
3
1
6
2

4
12
11

8
17
309
11
90
43 1

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

187

T able 2 7 .—N U M BER A N D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW M EN W H O W O R K E D A T TH EIR
R E G U L A R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED NU M BER OF D A Y S OR PAR T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.
CO NDU CTOR S: REGULAR—Concluded.
Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

City.
1
day.

Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit
Co.—
Elevated lines.....................
Surface lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other w ork...............
Pittsburgh, Pa.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Portland, Me.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Portland, Oreg...........................
Providence, R . I ...............................
Pueblo, Colo.......................................
Reading, Pa.......................................
Richmond, V a ..................................
Rochester N . Y ..........................
Sacramento, Cal............................
Saginaw, Mich...................................
St. Louis, Mo.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Salt Lake City, Utah......................
San Antonio, T ex.............................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable R . R.
Co..............................................
Municipal Railways of San
Francisco.................................
United Railroads of San Fran­
cisco.......................................
Savannah, Ga............................
Scranton, P a.....................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Seattle Municipal Street Ry.
Co..............................................
Seattle. Renton & Southern
Ry. Co.....................................
Sioux City, Iowa..............................
South BencL Ind..............................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R.
R. Co........................................
The W a s h i n g t o n Water
Power Co.................................
Springfield, 111...................................
Springfield, Mass..............................
Springfield, Ohio..............................
Superior, ^ i s ................................ "
Syracuse, N. Y .:
Those who did no other work
Those who also did other work
Tacoma, W ash........................
Toledo, Ohio.....................................
Topeka, Kans...................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co..................
Washington Railway & Elec­
tric Co.......................................
Wheeling, W . Va..............................
Wichita, Kans...............................
Wilmington, Del.:
People's Ry. Co........................
Wilmington & Philadelphia
Traction Co.............................




2
4
5
7
3
6
days. days. days. days. days. days.

1

5

11

To­
tal.

Less
6
7
than
days days
6
in
days
in
week. week.
in
week.

37

54

30

16

804 2,311

20

31

47

125

339

954

35

41

24

1

2

3

5

18

6

35

17

51

31

18
1

14

23
2

34
1

85
4

299
29

470
40

943
77

50
52

32
38

18
10

1
5
1

4

1

3

5
1

18
7
1
5
7
22
1

5
1
41
30
2
16
13
22
3
5

23
3
125
105
10
30
47
105
22
8

63
18
216
237
28
3
123
98
53
17

96
23
413
381
42
57
193
261
82
34

66
78
52
62
67
5
64
38
65
50

24
13
30
28
24
53
24
40
27
24

10
9
17
10
10
42
12
22
9
26

37
2
6
3

106
3
7
9

343
16
28
30

629 1,136
32
55
106
149
142
91

55
58
71
64

30
29
19
21

14
13
10
15
19

11

1
2
1
4
2

1
4

7
1
1
3

3
2
8
2
4
10
1
1
4

6

8

1

4

4

2
1

1
1

3
1
1
2

3
1
3

11

53

21

60

53

33

95

35

56

9

21
2
7

88
5
20

308
10
49

277
44
39

715
61
124

39
72
31

43
16
40

18
11
29

2

5

8

63

25

13

2
4
1

1
2
1

12
9
5

13
31
34

28
48
42

46
65
81

43
19
12

11
17
7

3

7

32

4

1

6

4

3

2

6

14

52

75

69

19

12

3
4
6
3

11
9
15
5
2

35
12
78
8
7

46
38
69
35
15

98
64
172
55
28

47
59
40
64
54

36
19
45
15
25

17
22
15
22
21

17
4
7
29
4

46
5
24
76
9

58
9
69
92
23

128
18
105
231
41

45
50
66
40
56

36
28
23
33
22

19
22
11
27
22

3
1
3

1

3

5
1

2
10
2

2
16
2

2

6

6

4

22

106

109

255

43

42

16

4

2

3
1
1

9
3

54
1
5

198
19
16

31
44
15

299
68
42

10
65
36

66
28
38

23
7
26

3

4
2

7

19

1

31

3

61

35

4

19

27

9

61

15

44

41

188

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T able 2 7 .—NUM BER AN D PER CENT OF CAR -CR EW MEN W H O W O R K E D A T TH EIR
R E G U L A R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED NU M BER OF D A Y S OR P A R T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.
C O N D U C TO R S: E X T R A .

Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

City.
1
day.

Altoona, Pa.......................................




2
1

1
7

2
1

1

12
2

8

To­
tal.

Less
7
6
than
days days
6
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

1

4
1

9

7
15
1
2
2

3
19
1
4
6

7
39
3
5
12

7
25
6
11
59

27
110
12
24
82

26
23
50
46
72

26
35
25
21
15

48
42
25
33
13

24
1
5
1

45
2
7
1

145
12
16
6

541
29
33
16

779
46
64
24

69
63
52
67

19
26
25
25

12
11
23
8

1
1

4
1

Binghamton, N. Y ..........................
Boston, Masis.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines—all divi­
sions 1................................
Surface lines—division 22.
Surface lines—division 2 3.
Elevated lines....................
Brockton, Mass.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Buffalo, N . Y .:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Charleston, S. C ................................
Charlotte, N . C.................................
Chattanooga, Tenn..........................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Those who did no other
work.................................
Those who also did other
work.................................
Chicago Surface Lines.............
Cincinnati, Ohio...............................
Cleveland, Ohio:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation
Northern Texas Traction Co.,
Oak Cliff division of Fort
Worth lines............................
Davenport, Iowa..............................
Denver, Colo.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Des Moines, Iowa.............................
Detroit, Mich.....................................
Evansville, Ind.................................
Grand Rapids, Mich.......................
Houston, Tex....................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................
Jacksonville, F la .............................
Kansas City, Mo.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who alsodidotherwork.
Lincoln, Nebr...................................
Little Rock, Ark.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Los Angeles, Cal...............................
Louisville, K y ............................... . w
Lowell, Mass.:
Those who did no other work.
- Those who also did other work.
Manchester,N. H . ..........................
Memphis, Tenn.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Milwaukee, W is................................
Minneapolis and St Paul, Minn. . .

4
7
5
2
6
3
days. days. days. days. days. days.

1
2

3

1
16

6
27

9
49

67
55

11
33

22
12

3
1

7
1
2

16
7
1
1
8

68
8
17
8
15

111
17
21
10
30

61
47
81
80
50

14
41
5
10
27

24
12
14
10
23

1

1

3

33

33

33

21
68

30
15

100
49
16

2

1

1
1
2

7

5

1
2
21
11

49
2

60
3

118
5

203
13

280
32

196
141

2
927
207

10

8

5

6
6

6
7

46
30

145
90

226
133

64
68

20
23

15
10

1

3

3

7

32

46

70

15

15

1

2
1

1

3
4

13
9

20
15

65
60

15
27

20
13

43
2
11
49
5
9
20
26
14

160
11
40 ' ”
251
19
44
74
112
37

47

22
145
12
28
36
57
16

55*
58
63
64
49
51
43

27
18
28
20
26
20
27
23
38

26
82
18
23
10
16
24
26
19

39
15
2

102
26
16

154
57
18

66
46
89

25
26
11

8
28

1
4

3
3
3
8

14
3
1
8
1

2
4
8
1

3
7
3

21
3
3
12
1
1
4
8
3

75

16

13

2
5
2

2
2
4

4
2

2

3
5

1
2

5
5

1
3

6
6

1
1
6
8

13
18

2
2
57
42

11
5
145
56

15
8
233
134

73
63
62
42

13
25
24
31

13
13
13
27

1

1
4
5

3
10
11

4
26
17

10
41
35

40
63
49

30
24
31

30
12
20

6

8
12

4
6
27
80

21
33
120
243

30
42
157
352

70
79
76
69

13
14
17
23

17
7
6
8

1
5
1
2
1
1
2
3

2
1
6

1
2
2
2

1 Including those who also did other work.
2 Those who did no other work.
3 Those who also did other work.

CHAP. II.-----HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

189

T a b l e 2 7 . — N UM BER

AND PER CENT OF CAR-CREW MEN W H O W O R K E D AT T H EIR
R EG U LA R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED NUM BER OF D A Y S OR PART D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.
CO NDU CTOR S: E X T R A —Continued.

Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

City.
1
day.

3
5
2
4
6
7
days. days. days. days. days. days.

4
Newark, N. J.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.

Less
7
6
than
days days
6
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

1
5

1

4
6

6
23

2
42

14
80

14
53

43
29

43
19

9
3
1

9
10
5

6
19

30
22

33
14
6
1
26
41

43
24
23
7
54
57

102
53
36
13
123
164

42
45
64
54
44
35

32
26
17
8
21
25

25
28
19
38
35
40

2
2
9
New York, N . Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.—
Those who did no other
work.................................
Those who also did other
New York & Queens County
New York Rys. Co.—
Horse-car lines....................
Storage-battery car lines..
All lines except horse-car
and storage-battery car
lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other work...............
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx..........................
Manhattan..........................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.
(elevated lines)—
Those who did no other
work.................................
Those who also did other
work.................................
Norfolk, Va.:
Those who did no other work
Those who alsodid other work
Oakland, Cal...................................
Oklahoma City, Okla....................
Omaha, Nebr....................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit
Co. (surface lines):
Those who did no other
work.................................
Those who also did other
work.................................
Pittsburgh, Pa.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who alsodid other work.
Portland, Me.:
Those who did no other work
Those who also did other work.
Portland, Oreg..................................
Providence, R. I ...............................
Pueblo, Colo......................................
Reading, Pa.......................................
Richmond, V a ..................... '...........
Rochester, N. Y ...............................
Sacramento, Cal...............................
Saginaw, Mich...................................
St. Louis, Mo.:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work
Salt Lake City, Utah......................
San Antonio, Tex.............................




3

To­
tal.

2
3
7

5
2
1
1
2
9

8

8

22

33

74

132

74

351

21

38

41

5

14

10

16

34

9

88

10

39

51

2

4

7

15

36

67

54

22

24

1

1
2

2
2

6
4

6
4

15
13

40
31

40
31

20
38

11

12

44

51

142

287

49

18

33

2

2

2

9

18

50

11

39

21
11

24
21

51
44

53
68

172
173

31
39

30
25

40
35

9

1

10

10

90

2

1

6

17

33

50

14
8
27
4
59

25
10
95
10
80

56
80
28
40
74

24
10
57
60
18

20
10
15

3

5

22

1

2

7
11

5
9

1

1

11
9

1

1

1
1
1

12

2

2

2

6
1
54
6
14

1

1

3

9

4

17

71

153

186

119

550

22

34

45

1

1

1

5

5

9

2

24

8

38

54

3
2

2
1

9

12
1

19
4

50
21

138
58

233
87

59
67

21
24

19
9

2
2
3
4

5
4

4
4

10
17

2
3

1
4
3

2
4
8
1

15
7
11
1
2

2
3
28
47
3
13
11
59
5
4

9
9
66
180
4
18
15
104
9
7

13
14
118
261
8
50
43
189
15
17

69
64
56
69
50
36
35
55
60
41

15
21
24
18
38
26
26
31
33
24

15
14
20
13
13
38
40
14
7
35

6

11
5
1
1

29
5
3
6

43
18
8
10

134
45
20
27

229
74
34
44

59
61
59
61

19
24
24
23

23
15
18
16

2
5
1
1
1
1

2

4

3
1
1

1

190
T

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STATES.

2 7 .—NU M BER AN D PER CENT OF CAR -CR EW M EN W H O W O R K E D A T T H EIR
R E G U L A R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED N UM BER OF D A Y S OR PAR T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.

able

CONDUCTORS: EXTRA—Concluded.
Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

City.

1
day.

San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable R. R.
Co..............................................
Municipal Railways of San
Francisco.................................
United Railroads of San
Francisco.................................
Savannah, Ga...................................
Scranton, Pa.....................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Seattle Municipal Street Ry.
Co..............................................
Seattle, Renton & Southern
Ry. Co.....................................
Sioux City, Iowa...............................
South Bend, Ind..............................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire
R . R. Co..................................
The Washington W a t e r
Power Co................................
Springfield, 111...................................
Springfield, Mass..............................
Springfield, Ohio..............................
Superior, W is.....................................
Syracuse, N. Y .:
Those who did no other work.
Those who also did other work.
Tacoma, Wash.:
Those who did no other work
Those who also did other work
Toledo, Ohio.....................................
Topeka, Kans...................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co..................
Washington Railway & Elec­
tric Co.......................................
Wheeling, W . Va...............................
Wichita, Kans...................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry Co..........................
Wilmington & Philadelphia
Traction Co.:
Those who did no other
work.................................
Those who also did other
work...................................

6
7
4
5
days. days days. days. days. days.
2

To­
tal.

6 than
7
days days
6
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

12
2
1
224

14

50

41
25
18

10

8

38

56
25

22

36

125
17
67
16

32
35
31
50
40

10

30

20
40

27
19

10

27
7
105

33

1
2

17

65

2

45

109

47

16

*38

16

56

2
1

24

1
2

22
G U A R D S: 3 R EGULAR.

Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.
(elevated lines)—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work..............................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work...................................




1

2
2

3

16

21

41

51

39

10

1

1

7

9

16

34

47

26

26

5
1

3

14

75

50

146

34

51

14

8

10

31

5

60

8

52

40

iNot including 2, who also did other work.
* Not including 1, who also did other work.
» Called brakemen in Boston.

CHAP. II.---- HOURS AND DAYS WORKED BY CAR CREWS.

191

NUM BER AN D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW M EN W H O W O R K E D AT TH E IR
R E G U L A R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED NU M BER OF D A Y S OR PART D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Continued.
Concluded.

T a ble 3 7 .—

GUARDS: REGULAR—

Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

City.
1
day.

New York, N .Y .:
Interborough Rapid Transit
Co.—
Elevated lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other work................
Subway lines—
Those who did no
other work...............
Those who also did
other work................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.
(elevated lines)—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work..................................
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit
Co. (elevated lines)...............

2
3
4
5
6
7
days. days. days. days. days. days.

To­
tal.

Less
6
than
7
6
days days
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

6

6

11

17

45

290

442

817

54

35

10

4

9

9

20

48

106

89

285

31

37

32

4

2

12

25

75

280

207

605

34

46

20

7

2

9

21

52

115

136

342

40

34

27

1

3

1

12

31

200

169

417

41

48

12

1

4

2

11

32

59

60

169

36

35

30

1

1

2

3

10

38

14

69

20

55

25

65

113

207

55

31

14

GUARDS: * EXTRA.
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co. (ele­
7
vated lines)............................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways—
Those who did no other
work...................................
5
Those who also did other
15
work.................................
New York, N .Y .:
Interborough Rapid Transit
C o .Elevated lines—
Those who did no
other work............... .........
Those who also did
other work.................
2
Subway lines—
Those who did no
other w ork...............
1
Those who also did
other work.................
1
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.
(elevated lines)—
Those who did no other
work...................................
7
Those who also did other
work...................................
4
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit
Co. (elevated lines)—
Those who did no other
work..................................
Those who also did other
work...................................




2

4

16

17

6

10

11

63

126

238

53

26

21

27

48

67

147

233

55

592

9

39

51

1

8

14

18

63

156

260

60

24

16

1

2

2

7

19

12

45

27

42

31

3

9

14

27

61

70

185

38

33

29

1

3

5

21

44

35

110

32

40

28

3

2

11

19

35

13

90

14

39

47

4

8

17

28

27

11

99

11

27

62

6

1

2

2

8

4

10

11

5

* Called brakemen in Boston.

19
30

32

68
100

192

STREET RAILWAY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

NUM BER AN D PER CENT OF CAR-CREW M EN W H O W O R K E D AT TH E IR
R E G U L A R OCCUPATION EACH SPECIFIED NUM BER OF D A Y S OR PAR T D A Y S IN
ONE W E E K —Concluded.

T able 3 7 .—

GRIPMEN: REGULAR.
Per cent who
worked on—

Number who worked on—

City.
1
day.

San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable R. R.
Co..............................................
Tacoma, W a s b .................................

2
4
5
3
6
7
days. days. days. days. days. days.

1

4

To­
tal.

Less
6
than
7
days days
6
in
in
days
week. week. in
week.

6
1

36

9
6

56
7

16
86

64

20
14

8

2

1
1

14
1

7
100

14

79

GRIPMEN: EXTRA.
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable R. R.
Co ..........................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................




3

CHAPTER III.— CHANGE IN PERSONNEL DURING ONE YEAR.
Table 29 gives figures concerning the extent of the change in the
personnel of motormen and conductors and others engaged in the
operation of cars during one year, which change is commonly desig­
nated as the turnover of the force. The table gives the number
employed at the beginning of the year, the number hired, the number
who left during the year, whether by death, resignation, or discharge,
the number in employment at the end of the year, and the per cent of
the year’s turnover. The first step in the process of computing the
per cent of turnover has been to get the mean of the number employed
at the beginning and at the end of the year, which mean has been
taken as the basis of computation in the absence of the more exact
number, the average number employed during the year. I f the force
was increased the net increase was subtracted from the number hired,
leaving the net number hired to maintain the force as distinguished
from the increase in force. This number was then divided by the mean
force for the year, giving the per cent of the turnover. If there was a
decrease in the force during the year, the number hired was divided
by the mean force for the year, to ascertain the turnover.
To illustrate the method of computation the Altoona total figures,
page 194, are taken. The mean of 175 and 196 is 185.5. The number
that left the service was 52, while 73 were taken on. Consequently
52 were taken on to maintain the service and the additional 2 1 were
taken on to increase the service. The 52 taken on to maintain the
service was 28 per cent of 185.5, the mean force, hence the turnover or
change in the force in the year was 28 per cent. Binghamton had a
reduction of force. The mean of 2 1 1 and 186 is 198.5. As the
service was reduced the whole number taken on, 182, were hired to
maintain the force desired and none were hired to increase the force.
The number 182 is 92 per cent of 198.5, making the turnover for the
year 92 per cent.
A study of the table shows a much greater turnover of conductors
than of motormen. A summary is here given for 96 companies, in
which the companies are classified according to the extent of the turn­
over of their motormen and conductors. In the data from five com­
panies the figures for motormen and conductors were inseparably
combined. The figures for such companies are included in the table
under motormen, but not under conductors.
39749°—Bull. 204—17------ 13




193

194

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STATES.

T a b l e 2 8 .—

CLASSIFIED PER C EN T OF T U R N O V E R FOR MOTORMEN AN D CONDUCTORS.

Number of com­
panies with each
classified
per
cent of turn­
over for—

Classified per cent of turnover.

Motor­
men.

Con­
ductors.

i 13
i 19
i 15
13
14
18
3
1
i3
2
5

Under 10 per cent..........................................
10 and under 20 per cent..............................
20 and under 30 per cent...............................
30 and under 40 per cent...............................
40 and under 50 per cent...............................
50 and under 60 per cent..............................
60 and under 70 per cent..............................
70 and under 80 per cent...............................
80 and under 90 per cent...............................
90 and under 100 per cent.............................
100 per cent and over.....................................
Total companies..................................

8
10
11
16
9
9
8
5
2
1
12

96

3 91

2

1 Including 1 company for which data for motormen and conductors were not reported separately.
2 Including 5 companies for which data for motormen and conductors were not reported separately.
* Not including 5 companies for which data for motormen and conductors were not reported separately
T a b l e 2 9 . — CHANGES

IN PER SO NNEL OF M OTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AN D
GRIPMEN D URING ONE Y E A R IN SPECIFIED CITIES.

(The number of men in the car crews employed by each company at the beginning or end of the year does
not agree with the number shown in Table A . Table A covers the men who actually worked the whole
or some part of one selected week, which week for many companies was for a date other than the begin­
ning or end of the year covered by Table 29. The per cent of turnover, where there was an increase
durmg the year, is derived by dividing the number leaving the service by the mean number employed
at the beginning and at the end of the year, or, where there was a decrease during the year, by divid­
ing the number taken on during the year by this mean.]
In employ at begin­
ning of year.
City, road, and occupation.
Date.

Altoona, Pa.:
Motormen .......................... Apr. 30,1913
Conductors
..................... ........d o ...........
Total.................................
Atlanta, Ga.:
Motormen............................ May 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Augusta, Ga.:
Motormen............................ May 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Binghamton, N. Y .:
Motormen........................
July 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Birmingham, Ala.:
Moformen............................ Sept. 30,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................




Separations from service
during year.
Taken
on
during
Per­ year. Died.
Re­
Dissons.
signed. chg’d. Total.

Num­
ber in
em­
ploy at
end of
year.

Per
cent
of
turn­
over
during
year.

90
85

32
41

19
23

4
6

23
29

99
97

24
32

175

73

42

' 10

52

196

28

480
463

190
204

52
82

69
70

121
152

549
515

24
31

943

394

134

139

273

1,064

27

47
46

29
29

1

10
9

18
21

29
30

47
45

62
64

93

58

1

19

39

59

92

63

102
109

60
122

1
x

43
50

27
85

71
136

91
95

62
120

211

182

2

93

112

207

186

92

222
256

154
296

3
4

77
126

57
143

137
273

239
279

59
102

450

7

203

200

410

518

82

478

CHAP. III.---- CHANGE IN PERSONNEL DURING ONE YEAR.
T a b le

195

29. — CHANGES IN PERSONNEL OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND

GRIPMEN DURING ONE YEAR IN SPECIFIED CITIES—Continued.
In employ at begin­
ning of year.
City, road, and occupation.
Date.

Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. C o Surface lines—
Motormen...........
Conductors.........

Separations from service
during year.
Taken
on
during
DisPer­ year. Died.
Re­
signed. chg’d. Total.
sons.

Total.
Elevated lines—
Motormen. .
Conductors.
Guards........

July 1,1913
------ do............
------ do............

2,397
2,477

358
646

24

238
346

4,874

July 1,1913
____do............

1,004

32

584

106

Total.
Dec. 31,1913

33

718
747

330

287
284

84
284

829

571

4 112

547

2
1
24
32

310

8 74

146

375
572

673
674

47
70

1,347

59

19

666

137

Charlotte, N. C.:
Motormen___
Conductors.. .

4
18

947

154

Nov. 14,1913
------do............

Total.

148
91
308

48

1,465

July 1,1913
....... do............

Butte, Mont.:
Trainmen5___
Charleston, S. C.:
Motormen____
Conductors___

158

667

(7
)
(7
)
(7
)

Total.

8 74

142

Total.
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Rail­
ways—
Motormen...................
Conductors.................
Guards........................

17

129
140

109
115
46

269

June 1,1913
....... do............
....... do............

415
379
1,090

Total.

14

22

1,247

1,283

Chicago Surface LinesTrainmen 10........
Cincinnati, Ohio:
Motormen......................
Conductors....................

Feb.

101
49
45

118
Sept. 30,1913
------ do............

1
2
82
112

Sept. 1,1913
------do............

Chattanooga, Tenn.:
Motormen........... .
Conductors......... .




20

15
26

223

367

2,369
2,460

157
131

Total.
Buffalo, N. Y .:
Motormen..
Conductors.

Total.

2

i 147
May 1,1913
------do............

124

163
147

142
97
273

Total.
Brockton, Mass.:
Motormen___
Conductors. . .

Per
cent
of
turn­
over
during
year.

1,049

4
19

Num­
ber in
em­
ploy at
end of
year.

1,1914

ii 781

July 31,1913
....... do............

8

(7
)
(7
)

147
411

830
1,666

9 11
9 19
9 979
1,009

2

3
178

477

352
40
218

16

1 Promoted from other occupation or occupations.
2 Including 12 promoted to motormen.
3 Including 17 promoted to conductors.
4 Including 29 promoted to motormen and conductors.
6 Worked interchangeably as motormen and conductors.
6 Including 1 promoted and those discharged.
7 Included in resigned.
8 Including those discharged.
9 Including those who died.
i° Motormen and conductors were not reported separately,
u Including those reinstated.

18

416
379
1,180

102

1,975

13

22

1,157

183

113

39

90

13
24

62

8,739
165
408

818
833

18
49

1,651

34

196

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b l e 2 9 . — CHANGES

IN PER SO N N EL OF M OTORM EN, CONDUCTORS, GU AR D S, AND
GRIPMEN D UR ING ONE Y E A R IN SPECIFIED CITIES—Continued.
In employ at begin­
ning of year.

City, road, and occupation.
Date.

Per­
sons.

•
Jan. 1,1913 1,117
........do............. 1,161

Cleveland, Ohio:

Num­
ber in
em­
ploy at
Re­
Dis- Total. end of
signed. chg’d.
year.

Per
cent
of
turn­
over
during
year.

2 20

101

4

324

91

327
419

1,163
1,203

29
35

834

10

544

192

746

2,366

32

167
170

171
171

2

88
100

69
72

159
172

179
169

101

342

2

188

141

331

348

97

41
45

23
30

g

11

9
15

17
26

47
49

39
55

86

53

19

24

43.

96

47

100

13
25

1

12
12

O
o
13

20

94

26

93
93

13
27

194

38

1

24

21

46

186

20

366
449

42
108

1
2

35
g2

11

47

lfc

102

361
455

23

815

150

3

117

29

149

816

18

213
214

33
46

1

25
31

§
20

32
51

214
209

22

427

79

1

56

26

83

423

19

1,249
1,262

349
541

5
4

125
199 ,

147
239

277
442

1,321
1,361

34

2,511

Total.................................

6

337

Sept. 1,1913
do

373
461

2,278

Total.................................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corpora­
tion—
Motormen....................
Conductors...................

Separations from service
during year.

Taken
on
during
year. Died.

890

9

324

386

719

2,682

28

72
73

26
47

g

I 16

16
29

24
45

74
75

33
61

145

73

24

45

69

149

47

336

190

1

109

76

186

340

55

194
191

68

49
67

16
29

66

109

1
2

196

98

202

34
50

385

177

3

116'

45

164

398

42

406
394

224
280

4
3

180
188

49
103

233
294

397
380

56
72

800

504

7

368

152

527

777

64

113
118

116
96

2

68

1

43

35
41

105
85

124
129

O
Q
oy
69

231

21 2

3

111

76

ion
iyu

9£Q
/O O

79

92

Northern Texas Traction
Co., Oak Cliff division
of Fort Worth lines—
Conductors...................

Sept. 1,1913
do

Total.................................
Davenport, Iowa:
Conductors..........................

Sept. 1,1913

Total.................................
Denver, Colo.:
Motormen............................
Conductors..........................

May

l, 1913

Total.................................
Des Moines, Iowa:
Motormen............................
Conductors..........................

Sept. 1,1913

Total.................................
Detroit, Mich.:
Motormen ..........................
Conductors..........................

May

1,1913

Total.................................
Evansville, Ind.:
Motormen............................
Conductors..........................

May 15,1913

Total.................................
Grand Rapids, Mich.:
Trainmen i.......................... Jan. 1,1913
Houston, Tex.:
Motormen............................ Sept. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Indianapolis, Ind.:
Motormen............................ Oct. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Jacksonville, Fla.:
Motormen............................ July 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do
Total.................................




i Motormen and conductors were not reported separately.

12

15

22

CHAP. III.---- CHANGE IN PERSONNEL DURING ONE YEAR.

197

T ablSi 2 9 .—CHANGES IN PER SO N N EL OF M OTORM EN, CONDUCTORS, GU ARD S, AND
GRIPMEN D U R IN G ONE Y E A R IN SPECIFIED CITIES—Continued.

In employ at begin­
ning of year.
City, road, and occupation.
Date.

Kansas City, Mo.:
Motormen............................ Oct. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............

Separations from service
during year.
Taken
on
during
Per­ year.
Re­
Died. signed. Dis- Total.
sons.
chg’d.

Num­
ber in
em­
ploy at
end of
year.

Per
cent
of
turn­
over
during
year.

867
837

294
481

5
2

174
250

93
177

272
429

889
889

31
50

1,704

775

7

424

270

701

1, 778

40

95
94

37
47

1

15
14

26
37

41
52

91
89

40
51

189

84

1

29

63

93

180

46

100
100

40
43

1

10
9

9
19

20
28

80
85

22
30

200

83

1

19

28

48

165

26

Los Angeles, Cal.:
Motormen............................ May 12,1913 1,014
Conductors.......................... ........do............. 1,082

418
552

7
4

233
260

91
223

331
487

1,101
1,147

31
44

2,096

970

11

493

314

818

2,248

38

457
474

217
194

4
1

133
116

67
68

204
185

470
483

44
39

931

411

5

249

135

389

953

41

150
150

30
37

2
3

11
5

7
12

20
20

160
167

13
13

300

67

5

16

19

40

327

13

76
78

32
28

1
2

l 24
23

i 25
25

83
81

31
31

154

60

3

i 47

i 50

164

31

261
266

384
434

1

249
262

105
134

355
396

290
304

129
139

527

818

1

511

239

751

594

134

610
653

81
108

3
4

52
45

32
59

87
108

604
653

13
17

1,263

189

7

97

91

195

1,257

15

973
997

743
871

3
2

327
467

208
212

538
681

1,178
1,187

50
62

1,970

1,614

5

794

420

1,219

2,365

56

88
90

88
124

51
67

37
64

88
131

88
83

100
143

178

212

118

101

219

171

121

200
239

116
125

2
1

86
94

14
36

102
131

214
233

49
53

439

241

3

180

50

233

447

53

Total.................................
Lincoln, Nebr.:
Motormen............................ Sept. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Little Rock, Ark.:
Motormen............................ Sept. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
.......................
Total......... •

Total................................
Louisville, K y.:
Motormen............................ July 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do............
Total.................................
Lowell, Mass.:
Motormen............................ June 1,1913
Conductors.......................... „___ do............
Total.................................
Manchester, N. H.:
Motormen............................ Nov. 15,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Memphis, Tenn.:
Motormen............................ Sept. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Milwaukee, Wis.:
Motormen............................ July 1,1914
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul,
Minn.:
Motormen............................ May 31,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Mobile, Ala.:
Motormen............................ Oct. 31,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Nashville, Tenn.:
Motormen............................ Sept. 30,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do............
Total.................................




» Including 12 promoted.

198

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b le

29.—CHANGES IN PERSONNEL OF MOTORMEN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND
GRIPMEN DURING ONE YEAR IN SPECIFIED CITIES—Continued.
beginar.

City, road, and occupation.
Date.

Newark, N. J.:
Motormen..
Conductors.

Separations from service
during year.
Taken
on
during
Per­ year. Died.
Re­
Dissigned. chg’d. Total.
sons.

Num­
ber in
em­
ploy at
end of
year.

Per
cent
of
turn­
over
during
year.

723
710

199
474

3
4

95
213

66
229

164
446.

758
738

22
62

1,433

673

7

308

295

610

1,496

42

117
119

34
36

1
1

17
20

5
7

23
28

128
127

19
23

236

70

2

.37

12

51

255

21

38
40

9
14

0)
0)

(x)
0)

C
1)
0)

6
16

41
38

15
36

78

23

C
1)

0)

C
1)

22

79

28

327
366

199
173

0)
0)

C
1)
0)

C
1)
C
1)

145
151

381
388

41
40

693

372

0)

0)

C
1)

296

769

40

767
779

112
164

6
6

63
72

48
86

117
164

762
779

15
21

1,546

276

12

135

134

281

1,541

18

2,080
2,098

1,336
1,579

17
19

564
698

511
617

1,092
1,334

2,324
2,343

50
60

4,178

2 ,915

36

1,262

1,128

2,426

4,667

55

217
248

145
193

3
2

53
57

55
138

111
197

251
244

47
78

465

338

5

110

193

308

495

64

1,811
1,799

1,003
2,796

8
11

400
780

553
1,943

961
2,734

1,853
1,861

52
149

3,610

3, 799

19

1,180

2,496

3,695

3, 714

101

566
571

291
814

2
2

120
142

173
644

295
788

562
597

52
135

1,137

1,105

4

262

817

1,083

1,159

94

Dec. 31,1913
------ do............

747
754

315
623

4
2

92
138

210
461

306
601

756
776

41
79

Total.
Interborough R a p i d
Transit Co.—
Elevated lines—
Motormen........... . Jan. 1,1914
Conductors......... . ....... do............
Guards.................. ....... do............

1,501

938

6

230

671

907

1,532

60

421
341
1,414

328
3 15
3 181

3
6
14

47
54
6 103

9
7
29

4 19
5 17
6 146

430
339
1,449

4
4
10

2,176

3 224

23

7 114

45

7 182

2,218

8

May 7,1913
....... do...........

Total.
New Bedford, Mass.:
Motormen.............
Conductors...........

June 1,1913
....... do............

Total.
New Britain, Conn.:
Motormen........... .
Conductors......... .

July 1,1913
....... do...........

Total.
New Haven, Conn.:
Mortormen..........
Conductors..........

July 1,1913
____do............

Total.
New Orleans, La.:
Motormen........
Conductors___

Oct. 31,1913
____do............

Total.
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit
Co.—
Motormen.................... Jan. 1,1914
Conductors.................. ____do............
Total.
New York & Queens
County Ry. Co.—
Motormen.................... Jan. 1,1914
Conductors.................. ____do........... .
Total.
New York Rys. Co.—
Motormen 2
.............
Conductors.............

Nov. 30,1913
-----do........... .

Total.
Third Avenue Ry. Co.The Bronx—
Motormen.........
Conductors........
Total......................
Manhattan—
Motormen..
Conductors.

Total.

Dec. 31,1913
____do............

1 Not reported.
2 Including drivers of horse cars.
3 Transferred from other occupations.
4 Including 3 transferred to other occupations.




&Including 1 transferred to other occupation.
6 Including 64 transfo^ pexia other occupations.
7 Including 68 transferred to other occupations.

199

CHAP. III.---- CHANGE IN PERSONNEL DURING ONE YEAR.
T a b l e 2 9 . — CHANGES

IN PER SO N N EL OF M OTORM EN, CONDUCTORS, G UARDS, AND
GRIPMEN D U R IN G ONE Y E A R IN SPECIFIED CITIES—Continued.

Separations from service
during year.
Taken
on
during
Re­
DisPer­ year. Died.
signed. chg’d. Total.
sons.

In employ at begin­
ning of year.
City, road, and occupation.
Date.

Sept. 1,1913

Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia
Rapid
Transit Co.—
Elevated lines—
Motormen............. Apr. 1,1914
Conductors........... ........do.............
Guards................... ........do.............
Total......................

216
195
1,259

16
30

10

8 300

148

8 458

1,670

26

283
249
699

21
1
458

1
5
8

3
5
215

5
9
145

9
19
368

295
231
789

480

14

223

159

396

1,315

31

133
163

137
128

58
60

70
83

128
143

142
148

93
82

265

118

153

271

290

90

393
401

110
107

1
1

22
36

16
16

39
53

464
455

9
12

217

2

58

32

92

919

11

85
77

25
35

19
20

2
5

21
25

89
87

24
30

60

39

7

46

176

27

359
365

199
174

1
1

96
96

77
58

174
155

384
384

47
41

* 724

Total.................................

29
4 31
6 418

162

Total.................................
Omaha, Nebr.:
Motormen............................ Sept. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............

3
12
133

794

Total.................................
Oklahoma City, Okla.:
Motormen............................ Sept. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............

25
415
6 280

296

Total.................................
Oakland, Cal.:
Motormen........................... May 14,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do............

1
4
5

1,231

Total..................................
Norfolk, Va.:
Motormen............................ Sept. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............

1 10
3 40
5 388

1,690

Total...................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit
Co. (elevated lines)—
Motormen.................... Jan. 1,1914
Conductors...........
........d o . . ........
Guards.
........d o ............

Peoria, 111.:
Motormen and conductors

Per
cent
of
turn­
over
during
year.

00
C
O

New Y ork, N. Y .—Concluded.
Interborough R a p i d
Transit Co.—Concluded.
Subway lines—
Motormen............. Jan. 1,1914
215
Conductors...........
186
Guards................... ........do............. 1,289

Num­
ber in
em­
ploy at
end of
year.

373

2

192

135

329

768

44

274

85

5

17

47

69

290

24

47
37
139

114

124

« 5
7

14 23

I

1 24
4

1*3
J

47
39
122

9
8
5

223

16

i6 30

1

i631

208

7

12 4
133

4

3

(9)

49

1 Transferred from other occupations.
2 Including 4 transferred to other occupations.
3 Including 39 transferred from other occupations.
< Including 5 transferred to other occupations.
5 Including 341 transferred from other occupations.
6 Including 45 transferred to other occupations.
* Including 390 transferred from other occupations.
8 Including 54 transferred to other occupations.
9 Less than one-half of 1 jper cent.
1 Including Berkley Division which is almost entirely interurban. Data for this division are not included
0
in other tables.
1 Transferred from other service.
1
1 Including 2 transferred to other service.
2
1 Including 1 transferred to other service.
3
1 Including 6 transferred to other service.
4
1 Including 9 transferred from other service,
5
is Including 9 transferred to other service.




200

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b l e 2 9 . — CHANGES

IN PE R SO N N E L OF M OTORM EN, CONDUCTORS, GU ARD S, AND
GRIPMEN D U R IN G ONE Y E A R IN SPECIFIED CITIES—Continued.
Separations from service
during year.
Taken
on
during
Re­
Dis- Total.
Per­ year. Died.
signed. chg’d.
sons.

In employ at begin­
ning of year.
City, road, and occupation.
Date.

Philadelphia, Pa.—Concld.
Philadelphia Rapid Tran­
sit Co.—Concluded.
Surface lines—
Motormen............. Apr. 1,1914 3,093
Conductors........... ........do............. 3,074

17
20

2 145
4161

46
119

2 208
4 300

3,038
2,981

5
7

5 360

37

6 306

165

6 508

6,019

6

1,450
1,474

101
190

12
11

792
8 120

28
104

7132
8 235

1,419
1,429

7
13

291

23

9 212

132

9 367

2,848

10

Total.................................
May 15,1913

Total.................................
Richmond, Va.:
Motormen............................ Dec. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ___ do..............
Total.................................
Rochester, N . Y .:
Motormen............................ Jan. 1,1914
Conductors.......................... ........d o . . ........
Total.................................
Sacramento, Cal.:
Motormen............................ May 7,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do............
Total.................................
Saginaw, Mich.:
Motormen............................ June 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........d o . .........

14
30

5
10

20
40

177
187

11
22

68

1

44

15

60

364

17

526
566

151
236

4
4

121
183

41
63

166
250

511
552

29
42

387

8

304

104

416

1,063

36

625
620

202
201

4
6

76
62

48
52

128
120

699
701

19
18

403

10

138

100

248

1,400

19

60
58

8
18

7
6

4
5

11
11

57
65

14
18

118

May 1,1913
__ do...............

1

1,245

Total.................................

23
45 1

1,092

Total.................................
Providence, R. I.:
Motormen............................ June 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ___ do............

174
182
356

Total.................................
Portland, Oreg.:
Motormen............................ May 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............

Total.................................

1 153
3 207

2,924

Total............................... .
Portland, Me.:
Motormen............................ June 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............

Reading, Pa.:
Motormen............................
Conductors..........................

26

13

9

22

122

18

116
113

18
22

2

12
8

4
9

18
17

116
118

16
15

229

40

2

20

13

35

234

15

242
. 253

172
233

1

102
152

57
87

159
240

255
246

64
93

495

405

1

254

144

399

501

80

510
535

119
192

2
3

115
99

53
132

170
234

459
493

25
37

1,045

311

5

214

185

404

952

31

95
95

19
29

10
17

3
6

13
23

101
101

13
23

190

48

27

9

36

202

18

58
54

17
35

2

9
18

8
16

19
34

56
55

30
62

112

52

2

27

24

53

111

47

1 Including 43 transferred from other service.
2 Including 29 transferred to other service.
3 Including 30 transferred from other service.
4 Including 27 transferred to other service.
6 Including 73 transferred from other service.




Ter
cent
of
turn­
over
during
year.

6,167

Total.................................
Pittsburgh, Pa.:
Motormen............................ Dec. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do............

Pueblo, Coio.:
Motormen............................
Conductors..........................

Num­
ber in
em­
ploy at
end of
year.

6 Including 56 transferred to other service.
7 Including 6 promoted.
8 Including 7 promoted.
9 Includihg 13 promoted.

201

CHAP. III.---- CHANGE IN PERSONNEL DURING ONE YEAR.

T able 2 9 .—CHANGES IN PER SO N N EL OF M OTORM EN, CONDUCTORS, GU ARD S, AN D
GRIPMEN D U R IN G ONE Y E A R IN SPECIFIED CITIES—Continued.

Separations from service
during year.
Taken
on
during
Re­
DisPer­ year. Died.
signed. chg’d. Total.
sons.

In employ at begin­
ning of year.
City, road, and occupation.
Date.

St. Louis, Mo.:
Motormen............................ Jan. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ___ do..............
Total.................................
Salt Lake City, Utah:
Motormen............................ May 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ___ do..............
Total.................................
San Antonio, Tex.:
Trainmen l . r,.
.
Sept. 1,1913
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable
Railroad Co.—
Gripmen....................... May 9,1913
Conductors................... ........do.............
Total.................................
MunicipalRailway s of San
Francisco—
Motormen.................... June 30,1913
Conductors...................
do............
Total ..............................
United Railroads of San
Francisco—
Motormen..................... May 1,1913
Conductors................... ___ do..............
Total.................................
Savannah, Ga.:
Motormen............................ June 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Scranton, Pa.:
Motormen............................ May 31,1913
Conductors......................... ........do.............

Num­
ber in
em­
ploy at
end of
year.

Per
cent
of
turn­
over
during
year.

1,573
1,552

351
595

337
472

81
155

418
627

1,506
1,520

23
. 39

3,125

946

809

236

1,045

3,026

31

164
170

59
86

1

16
30

16
39

33
69

190
187

19
39

334

145

1

46

55

102 -

377

29

348

339

1

213

92

306

381

84

68
67

26
19

1

13
6

9
9

22
16

72
70

31
23

135

45

1

19

18

38

142

27

58
57

69
68

1

1

127
124

1

115

137

1

1

251

1

892
502
872 * 513

4
4

263
242

146
189

413
435

981
950

44
48

1,764

1,015

8

505

335

848

1,931

46

79
79

104
174

1

60
81

37
93

98
174

85
79

120
220

158

278

1

141

130

272

164

169

166
163

43
29

20
11

19
5

39
16

170
176

23
9

31

24

55

346

16

329

72

Seattle, W ash.:2
Puget Sound Traction,
Light & Power Co.—
Motormen.................... Dec. 31,1913
(3)
1,008
Conductors................... ___ do.............. 4

163
157

2

129
113

63
81

194
194

S3
)
4 940

1,008

320

2

242

144

388

940

33

Total.................................

Total.................................
Seattle Municipal Street
Ry.5 .................................
Seattle, Renton & South­
ern Ry. Co.—
Motormen.................... Nov. 30,1913
Conductors................... ___ do..............
»
Total ...............................
Sioux City, Iowa:
Motormen............................ Sept. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do.............
Total.................................

36'
37

19
21

8
6

8
13

16
19

39
39

43
50

73

40

14

21

35

78

46

64
73

32
44

2

15
20

8
26

23
48

73
69

34
62

137

76

2

35

34

71

142

5!

1 Motormen and conductors were not reported separately.
2No data reported for gripmen.
3 Included in conductors.
4 Including motormen.
6 Not organized until May, 1914. No data reported.




202

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b l e 2 9 . — CHANGES

IN PER SO N N EL OF M OTORM EN, CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AN D
GRIPM EN DU R IN G ONE Y E A R IN SPECIFIED CITIES—Continued.
In employ at begin­
ning of year.

City, road, and occupation.
Date.

South Bend, Ind.:
Motormen............................ Sept. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ___ do..............

Dec.

May

Total.................................
Toledo, Ohio:
Motormen............................
Conductors..........................

Aug. 15,1913

Total.................................
Topeka, Kans.:
Motormen............................ Oct. 15,1913
Conductors.......................... ___ do...............
Total.................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co.—
Motormen.................... July 31,1913
Conductors................... ___ do...............
Total.................................

1Including 1 transferred.




56

131

112

114

101
107

32
34

1

18
24

14
14

32
39

101
102

32
33

66

1

42

28

71

203

32

143
137

62
75

37
41

30
35

67
76

138
136

44
55

137

78

65

143

274

49

74
78

63
90

24
24

5
19

29
43

108
125

32
42

153

48

24

72

233

37

233
231

38
52

1
3

110
15

3
12

14
20

257
263

5
8

90

4

2 15

15

34

520

7

75
76

28
52

18
34

5
15

23
49

80
79

30
63

80

52

20

72

159

46

42
46

56
64

49
57

4
10

53
67

45
43

122
144

120

106

14

120

88

136

264
262

76
83

1
3

39
39

25
41

65
83

275
262

24
32

159

4

78

66

148

537

28

147
152

76
123

1
1

51
72

17
49

69
122

154
153

46
80

199

2

123

66

191

307

63

360
360

191
191

2
2

168
165

16
19

186
186

365
365

51
51

382

4

333

35

372

730

51

64
60

45
66

1

30
33

14
34

45
67

64
59

70
111

111

1

63

48

112

123

90

327
347

156
180

1

99
101

48
89

148
190

335
337

45
53

674

1,1913

75

124

Total.................................

129

720

1,1913

128
102

299

Total.................................

54
58

526

1,1913

69
62

88

Total.................................
Superior, Wis.:
Motormen............................ June
Conductors..........................

30
26

151

Total.................................
Springfield, Ohio:
Motormen............................ Sept. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ___ do...............

39
36

464

Total ................................
Springfield, Mass.:
Motormen............................ June 30,1913
Conductors.......................... ___ do..............

69
60

152

Dec. 31,1913

54
60

280

Total ................................

Tacoma, Wash.:3
Motormen............................
Conductors..........................

Per
cent
of
turn­
over
during
year.

208

Total ................................
The Washington Water
Power Co.—
Motormen..................... May 15,1913
Conductors................... ___ do..............

Syracuse, N. Y .:
Motormen............................
Conductors..........................

Num­
ber in
em­
ploy at
end of
year.

114

Total ................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Em ­
pire R. R. Co.—
Motormen..................... Jan. 1,1914
Conductors................... ___ do..............

Springfield, 111.:
Motormen............................
Conductors..........................

Separations from service
during year.
Taken
on
during
DisPer­ year. Died.
Re­
sons.
signed. chg'd. Total.

336

1

200

137

338

672

50

2Including 2 transferred.

3No data reported for gripmen.

CHAP. III.---- CHANGE IN PERSONNEL DURING ONE YEAR.

203

T a b l e 2 9 . — CHANGES

IN PER SO N N EL OF M OTORM EN, CONDUCTORS, G UARDS, A N D
GRIPMEN D UR ING ONE Y E A R IN SPECIFIED CITIES—Concluded.
In employ at begin­
ning of year.

City, road, and occupation.
Date.

Washington, D. C.—Concld.
Washington Railway &
Electric Co.—
Motormen.................... June 1,1913
Conductors................... ........do.............
Total ...............................
Wheeling, W . Va.:
Motormen............................ May 31,1913
Conductors.......................... ___ do..............
T o ta l...............................
Wichita, Kans.:
Motormen............................ Oct. 1,1913
Conductors.......................... ........do............
Total.................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. Co.—
Motormen.................... Sept. 1,1913
Conductors................... ........do.............
Total.................................
Wilmington & Philadel­
phia Traction Co.—
Motormen.................... Sept. 1,1913
Conductors ................. ___ do..............
Total........

.................




Separations from service
during year.
Taken
on
during
Re­
Per­ year. Died. signed. Dischg’d. Total.
sons.

Num­
ber in
em­
ploy at
end of
year.

Per
cent
of
turn­
over
during
year.

405
409

159
212

1
4

102
100

54
97

157
201

407
420

39
48

814

371

5

202

151

358

827

44

88
87

24
17

2
1

117
19

i8
19

27
19

85
85

28
20

175

41

3

i 26

U7

46

170

24

59
61

15
25

4
3

1
9

5
12

69
74

8
18

120

40

7

10

17

143

13

51
54

26
42

1

8
16

10
25

18
42

59
54

33
78

105

68

1

24

35

60

113

55

98
98

10
29

1
2

6
13

8
17

15
32

93
95

10
30

196

39

3

19

25

47

188

20

1 Estimated.

CHAPTER IV.— MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR
CREWS,
APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT.

In making application for employment the applicant is required
generally to fill out a form giving more or less personal history, state­
ments as to previous employment, and enter into various agreements
as conditions of service. The scope of the inquiries and agreements
varies with the different companies. See Appendix A.
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION.

Applicants for the positions of motorman and conductor are required
to submit to physical examination in many companies, while in others
no examination whatever is required. These examinations range
from rigid and thorough ones given by a physician down to eye tests
only, given by a company official.
A general medical examination, similar to that given to applicants
for life insurance, is required in Altoona, Birmingham, Boston,
Butte, Charleston (S. C.), Chicago (C. S. L. and C. E. Ry. Co.), Dav­
enport, Denver, Des Moines, Detroit, Evansville, Grand Rapids,
Houston, Jacksonville, Little Rock, Lincoln, Nashville, Newark,
New York (B. R. T. Co., N. Y. & Q. Co. Ry. Co., I. R. T. Co., N. Y.
Rys. Co., and Third Ave. Ry. Co.), Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha,
Peoria, Philadelphia, Portland (Oreg.), Providence, Richmond,
Rochester, Sacramento, Saginaw, Salt Lake City, Scranton, Seattle
(S. M. S. Ry. and P. S. T. L. & P. Co.), Sioux City, South Bend,
Spokane (W. W. P. Co. and S. I. E. R. R. Co.), Springfield (Ohio),
Syracuse, Tacoma, Topeka, Washington (W. Ry. & E. Co. and C. T.
Co.), and Wichita. A general examination, but less rigid, is required
in Atlanta, Buffalo, Dallas (N. T. T. Co.), Kansas City, Los Angeles,
Milwaukee, Minneapolis and St. Paul, New Britain, New Haven,
Oakland, Pittsburgh, Pueblo, San Antonio, San Francisco (U. R. R .),
and Springfield (Mass.).
An examination for sight and color sense is made by a physician in
Brockton, Lowell, New Bedford, and Wheeling, and a similar exami­
nation is made by a company official in Binghamton and Wilmington
(Del.) (W. & P. T. Co.). In Charlotte a physician examines the ap­
plicant’s sight and hearing and a similar test is made by a company
official in Louisville. No medical examination is required in San
Francisco (M. Rys. Co.), but physical tests are given in running,
204




CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR, CREWS.

205

jumping, lifting, etc. In St. Louis tests of sight and for rupture are
made by the employment agent, and in Manchester a physician's
certificate of good health is required.
No physical examination is required in Augusta, Chattanooga,
Cleveland, Dallas (D. E. Corp.), Memphis, Mobile, Portland (Me.)?
Reading, San Francisco (C. S. C. R. R. Co.), Savannah, Seattle (S. R. &
S. Ry. Co.), Springfield (111.), Superior, Toledo, and Wilmington (Del.)
(P. Ry. Co.).
Blank forms used by some companies are published as Appendix B.
These forms illustrate the wide difference in degree of thoroughness
required in making medical examinations.
AGE ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS, TIME UNDER INSTRUCTION, AND
AMOUNT OF BOND OR CASH DEPOSIT.

Age requirements for motormen and conductors on entering the
service are shown in Table 30. It will be seen that all but 4 cities
require applicants to be within a certain age limit as a condition of
hiring. The prevailing age requirement for entrance is 2 1 years.
Only 3 cities have a lower age limit. Springfield, Mass., employs
men who are 18 years of age; Reading, Pa., employs those who are
2 0 , and Altoona has this age as a minimum for conductors. In 18
of the cities covered by the inquiry the minimum hiring age is over
21 years; the highest entrance requirement, 25 years, is found in 5
cities.
Eight cities having a minimum age requirement have no maxi­
mum age limit. The lowest maximum age is found in Minneapolis
and St. Paul, where motormen and conductors are not employed if
over 28 years of age. The next lowest is St. Louis, 33 years, fol­
lowed by 1 0 cities each having a maximum of 35 years. Charlotte,
Chattanooga, Davenport,* and Reading are the only cities having a
maximum entrance of over 45 years. In these cities men of 50 years
of age may be employed.
These requirements indicate that motormen and conductors are
not hired until they have reached an age of discretion and good
judgment, and that men who might be unable physically to perform
the duties of these occupations on account of age infirmity are
barred from employment.
All street railway companies require newly employed motormen
and conductors to take a course of instruction in order to learn the
duties of their occupations, and to become familiar with cars and their
operation, streets, etc. The time that must be spent under instruc­
tion varies in the different cities, as may be seen by referring to the
table below under the heading “ learners' period.” Altoona has a
learners’ period of 2 weeks; Atlanta, 3 weeks; Augusta, 10 days, etc.




206

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

In many of the cities no definite period of training is set, but the
period varies according to the ability of an employee to become fa­
miliar with his new duties. For instance, in Charleston the period
is given as from 1 0 to 14 days. A bright and alert employee might
be considered ready for serivce after 1 0 days of instruction, while
one less quick to learn would require the full 14 days.
The cities in which trainmen are paid for service rendered during
their learning period, with amounts paid, are as follows:
Boston (elevated), guards (brakemen) only, 2 1 f cents per hour.
Boston (surface); Buffalo; Milwaukee, paid after 1 month’s service;
Wilmington, Del. (W. & P. T. Co.), $ 1 per day.
Brooklyn (elevated), motormen only, $ 2 per day.
Chicago (elevated), guards only, 2 1 cents per hour.
Grand Rapids, $1.50 per day, paid after 1 year’s service.
Kansas City, 50 cents per day, paid after 3 months’ service.
Minneapolis and St. Paul, and Superior, 1 0 cents per hour unless
employee voluntarily leaves service within 1 year. No deduction if
discharged within year.
Newark, $10 for 14 days’ learning period, paid after 1 year’s
service.
New York (I. R. T. Co.), motormen, $3 per day; guards, $ 2 per
day. Conductors are promoted from guards.
San Antonio, 75 cents per day as motormen; nothing as conductors.
All trainmen learn duties of both occupations.
Springfield, 111., 2 cents per hour.
It will be observed that several companies withhold pay for the
learning period until after a certain length of service, thus insuring to
the company ho loss of wages for wholly nonproductive time.
Not only do some companies not pay a learner during his period of
learning, but provide that the learner, should he not stay for a cer­
tain time in the employ of the company, shall himself pay for the
instruction that he has received. This provision is illustrated by
the following paragraph drawn from a blank application of one
company:
In consideration of the necessity of the * * * Street Railway Company in­
structing me through the supervision of experienced motormen or conductors in the
duties of the employment herein applied for, which course of instruction covers a
period of from * * * to * * * days, and for which the company pays the
instructor, I agree that in case I fall to render satisfactory service for a period of three
months, dating from the day of my employment, and either resign or am dismissed
from the employment of the company for cause, that the company shall deduct from
the money due me by them the sum of five dollars ($5), which it is agreed covers the
average cost to them of my course of instruction.

Many cities require a cash deposit or surety bond of motormen
and conductors. The cash deposit is usually a small one to cover
the cost of badge, buttons, punch, tools, etc., furnished by the com­




CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.

207

pany, and is returned when an employee terminates his service. A
larger deposit or a surety bond to insure faithful service or to cover
shortages sometimes is required. In many instances the premiums
on surety bonds were paid by the companies, though in some cities
employees were required to pay them. The amount of bond or cash
deposit required in each city is shown in the table below. The
largest cash deposit, $25, is required in Buffalo, New Orleans, Oak­
land, Pueblo, and Washington (C. T. Co.). It is interesting to
note that in three of these cities interest is paid by the company on
the money deposited. The largest surety bond required is $500. This
is the amount of the bond in Evansville, Little Rock, Los Angeles,
Toledo, and Washington (W. R. & E. Co.). The latter requires also
a small cash deposit.
T a b le 3 0 .—AGE R EQ U IR E M E N TS, INSTRUCTION P ER IO D , A N D BOND OR DEPOSIT
R E Q U IR E D .

Age entrance require­
ments for—

Learners’ period.

Amount of bond or cash
deposit required of—

Motormen. Conductors.

City.

Motormen. Conductors.

Motormen.

Mini­ Maxi­ Mini­ Maxi­
mum, mum, mum. mum,
2 weeks...
3 weeks...
10 days___
15 days___
12 days___

i 21
21
21
21
21

21
21

Charlotte, N . C.............
Chattanooga, Tenn___
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated
Railways.
Chicago S u r fa c e
Lines.

i 21

Cincinnati, Ohio..........

21

40

40

Cleveland, Ohio...........
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Cor­
poration.

21

35

21

N orthern Texas
Traction Co., Oak
Cliff division of
Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Iowa...........
Denver, Colo...................
Des Moines, Iowa..........

21

21

$2 deposit.
$2.85 deposit.
$1 deposit.
None.
Do.

12 to 20
days.

Same as mo­
tormen.

60
2 weeks. .
10 days—
2 weeks. . .
10 to 14
days.
10 days___
15 days___

i 35
40

2 weeks... $1 deposit___
3 weeks.. ____do...........
10 days_
_ ____do........... .
15 days_
_ None..............
12 days_
_ ------do........... .

12 to 20
days.

Altoona, Pa...................
Atlanta, Ga...................
Augusta, Ga.................
Binghamton, N . Y ____
Birmingham, A la........
Boston, Mass.:
Surface lines..........

Elevated lines.......
Brockton, Mass............
Buffalo, N . Y ...............
Butte, Mont.................
Charleston, S. C...........

2 weeks. . ,
10 days___
2 weeks...
10 to 14
days.
10 days_
_ ....... do...........
15 days___ $5 deposit...

Surety bond
$100; com­
pany pays
prem iu m
first year.
None..............
$5 deposit___
$25 deposit2- .
None..............
....... do.............

60 days1...

None.............
2 w e e k s ........do...........
m ini­
mum.
7 t o 10 ........do...........

35

2weeks
m ini­
mum.
7 t o 10
days.
10 days___

42

42

140 hours.. 140 hours.

40

40 ...d o .........

(3
)

(3
)

14 days.
10 days___
12 t o 14
days.

10 days...

........do...........

$100 surety
bond; com­
pany pays
premium.
...d o ........... . — do...........

14 days_
_
10 days_
_
12 t o 14
days.

$1 deposit..
$50 bon d ...
$20 deposit.

1 For guards only. Conductors and motormen promoted from guards.
2 Deducted from wages at rate of $2 per month.
3 None.




Conductors.

None.
$5 deposit.
$25 deposit.2
None.
$5 deposit.
None.
$5 deposit.
None.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Same as mo­
tormen.
Do.

$1 deposit.
$50 bond.
$15 deposit.

208
T a b le

STB
EET RAILW EM
AY
PLOYM
ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
30.

AUE

REQUIREMENTS, INSTRUCTION PERIOD, AND BOND OR DEPOSIT
REQUIRED—Continued.
Age entrance require­
ments for—

Learners’ period.

Amount of bond or cash
deposit required of—

Motormen. |Conductors.

City.

Motormen. Conductors.

Motormen.

Conductors.

Mini­ Maxi­ Mini- Maxi­
mum. mum. mum. mum.
45

45

Detroit, Mich............

(0

Evansville, Ind........

(0

Grand Rapids, Mich
Houston, Tex...........

40
45

Indianapolis, Ind. . .

45

Jacksonville, Fla___

40

45

10 d a y s
m ini­
mum.
Average
10 days.
13 days....
About 2
weeks.
10 t o 20
days.

40

10 to

Kansas City, Mo-----

38

Lincoln, Nebr...........

45

Little Rock, A rk .. . .

45

12 to 17
days.
6 t o 10
days.
10 days___

40

15 days___

Los Angeles, C al.. . .

40

Louisville, K y ..........

23

15

14 d a y s
m ini­
mum.
14 days....
...d o .........
8 t o 20
days.

23

Lowell, Mass.............
Manchester, N . H . . .
Memphis, Tenn........

10 d a y s
m ini­
mum.
Av e r a g e
10 days.

None..

$500 bond at
$1 cost each
year to
each man.
10 days___ $4 deposit___
A b o u t 2 $2 deposit___
weeks.
10 t o 20 $100 s u r e t y
bond; em­
days.
ployee pays
premium.
10 to 15 $1 deposit___
days.
12 to 17 $5 deposit___
days.
6 t o 10 $2 deposit___
days.
10 d ays.... $500 surety
bond; com­
pany pays
premium.
$500 surety
15 days___
b o n d ; $5
pr e mi um
paid jointly
by com­
p a n y and
employee.
14 d a y s *$3.65 deposit.
m ini­
mum.
14 days_
_ $5 deposit___
...d o ......... $3 deposit___
8 t o 2 0 $20 deposit;
$5 of above
days.
not rereturned if
leave emloym ent
efore 3
months on
account of
unsatisfac­
tory serv­
ice.
10 days___ $5 d e p o s i t . .

None.
$500 bond at
$1 cost each
year to each
man.
$4 deposit.
$2 deposit.
Same as mo­
tormen.
$2.50 deposit.
$5 deposit.
$2 deposit.
Same as mo­
tormen.
Same as mo­
tormen.

$15 deposit.
$5 deposit.
$15 deposit.
Same as mo­
tormen.

E

21

Milwaukee, W is..

Minneapolis and
Paul, Minn.

St.

Mobile, Ala.

40

21

23

28

23

(2)

Nashville, Tenn..
Newark, N . J----New Bedford, Mass___
New Britain, Conn........
New Haven, Conn........

(2)

45
40
35

8

(2)

40

10 days___

Av e r a g e
18 days.
(2)

Average 2
weeks.

Same as mo­
tormen.

$3.50 deposit.
$150
surety
bond.
35 2 to 3 weeks 2 to 3 weeks $3.50 deposit. $5 deposit.
2 weeks.. . 2 w eeks... $3 deposit___
...d o ................. do..................... do.............
d£
45
40

8 days.......
14 days___

8

* 45 with experience or 35 without experience.




$2
deposit;
returned
with first
pay.
Average 2 $10 deposit;
weeks.
re t ur ne d
if contract
is not vio­
lated.
8 days...
$1 deposit___
14 days.. ....... do...........
Average
18 days.

$5 deposit and
$100 surety
b o n d ; em­
ployee pays
premium.
Same as mo­
tormen.

2 None.

CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.
T able 3 0 —

209

AGE REQUIREMENTS, INSTRUCTION PERIOD, AND BOND OR DEPOSIT
REQUIRED—Continued.
Age entrance require­
ments for—

City.

Now Orleans, La.

25

45

21

New York, N . Y .:
Brooklyn
Rapid
Transit Co.—
Surface lines .. .

21

45

21

2 21
21

2 45
45

21

Third Avenue Ry.
Co.
Interborough
R a p i d Transit
Co. (elevated and
subway lines).
Norfolk, V a ....................
Oakland, Cal..................

21

45

0)

C)
1

4 21

45

45

21

Oklahoma City, O kla..

45

(’)

40
40
36

Portland, Me.............
Portland, Oreg..........
Providence, R. I ___
Pueblo, Colo.............

45

0)

35
35
35

Reading, Pa..............
Richmond, V a ..........
Rochester, N . Y .......

Sacramento, Cal.......
Saginaw, Mich..........

3 weeks.. .
14 to 20
days.

Conductors.

Same as mo­
tormen.

$3.25 deposit. $4.25 deposit
and bonded;
employee
pays premi*
um, Si per
year.
1 week2. .. ........d o............ $3.25 deDosit.3
12 to 14 None............... None.
days.

7 days
m ini-

15 to 30 6 to 8 days. ........d o ............
days. 2 to 3 weeks About 12 $2 deposit___
days.
None.........
(5)
(5)

1 to 3 weeks 1 to 3 weeks $3.15 deposit.
12 days___ 12 days... $25 deposit;
company
allows 6 per
cent inter­
est.
40 Av e r a g e Av e r a g e $400 surety
bond.
14 days.
14 days.
40 About 10 About 10 None...............
days.
days.
40 10 days___ 10 days___ ........do.............
36 6 t o 1 4 6 t o 1 4 ........do.............
days.
days.
45 About 10 About 10 $1.25 deposit.
days.
days.
(0 14 days___ 14 days___ None.........
35 10 days___ 10 days___ $5 deposit___
35 19 to 26 Av e r a g e None...............
days.
12 days.
$25 deposit;
10 days—
35 10 days—
co mpany
allows 6 per
cent inter­
est.
14 to 20 14 to 20 50 cents de­
posit.
days.
days.
7 t o 2 1 7 t o 2 1 $5 deposit___
days.
days.
$200 surety
10 days___
bond first
year only;
e m ployee
pays pre­
mium.
40 14 days___ 7 t o 1 0 $5 deposit___
days.
0) 2 w eie kis­ 2 w e e kis­ $2.50 deposit.
m n
m in
mum.
mum.

40

Peoria, 111...................
Philadelphia, Pa___

0)

10 days___

Motormen.

$25 deposit;
c ompany
allows 4 per
cent inter­
est.

Motormen. Conductors.

14 d a y s
m ini­
mum.

<45

Omaha, Nebr............

Pittsburgh, Pa.........

Amount of bond or cash
deposit required of—

Motormen. Conductors
Mini­ Maxi­ Mini­ Maxi­
mum. mum. mum, mum.

Elevated lines .
New
York
&
Queens County
Ry. Co.
New York Rys. Co.

Learned period.

40

0)

Do.
$2 deposit.
None.

$4 deposit.
Same as mo­
tormen.

$400
surety
bond.
None.
$15.75 deposit.
Do.
$3.25 deposit.
None.
$5 deposit.
$500
surety
bond.
Same as mo­
tormen.

50 cents de­
posit.
$5 deposit.
Same as mo­
tormen.

$5 deposit.
$2.50 deposit.

1 None.
For guards only. Conductors promoted from guards.
8 Guards deposit $1.25.
* For gatemen only. Gatemen are promoted to guards and guards to conductors and motormen.
&Guards 3 days but serve as gatemen before eligible. Conductors promoted from guards. Motormen 5
days, but serve 1 year as guards and at least 1 year as switchmen before eligible.
2

39749°— Bull. 2 0 4 -1 7 -




-14

210
T able

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
3 0 .—

AGE REQUIREMENTS, INSTRUCTION PERIOD, AND BOND OR DEPOSIT
REQUIRE D—Concluded.
Age entrance require­
ments for—

City.

10 days—

10 days....

12 to 14
days.
About 16
days.

12 to 14
days.
About 16
days.

Salt Lake City, U tah...

45

21

45

San Antonio, T e x . ..

35

21

35

San Francisco, Cal.:
Municipal Railways
of San Francisco.
California S t r e e t
Cable R . R . Co.
United Railroads of
San Francisco.
Savannah, Ga.................

Conductors.

$10 deposit;
$5 returned
a f t e r 30
days’ serv­
ice.
None..............

Same as mo­
tormen.

None.

$3.50 deposit. $3.50 deposit.

0)

21

0)

7 days—

7 days___

$3 deposit___

21

0)

10 days...

10 days_
_

$1.50 deposit. $2.50 deposit.

13 deposit.

40

21

40

7 days___

7 days___

$3 deposit___

45

21

45

2 weeks. . .

2 weeks. . .

45

21

45

2 weeks. . .

2 weeks.

$2 deposit; Same as mo­
c o mpany
tormen.
allows 6 per
cent inter­
est.
None............... None.

45

21

45

15 days___

15 days..

23

45

Only experienced
men em­
ployed.
10 days___

Only ex- ........do.............
perienced
men em­
ployed.
10 days___ $1.75 deposit

10 to 14
days.
10 to 20
days.

10 to 14
days.
10 to 20
days.

21

0)

21

0)

21

0)

21

0)

21

40

21

40

Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland
Empire R. R. Co.
The W ashington
Water Power Co.
Springfield, 111...............
Springfield, Mass...........

40

21

23

35

23

35

0)
18

0)
40

0)
18

0)
40

Springfield, Ohio...........

21

45

21

45

Superior, W is................

21

40

21

40

Syracuse, N. Y ..............
Tacoma, Wash...............
Toledo, Ohio..................

21
21
21

40
45
0)

21
21
21

40
. 45
0)

21

2

. . . d o .......... . . . do..........
10 days___

10 days___

5 or 6 days. 5 or 6 days.
No speci­ No speci­
fiedtime
fied time
10 to 12 10 to 12
days.
days.
No speci­ No speci­
fiedtime
fiedtime
15 days___ 15 days___
10 days___ 10 days___
2 weeks. . . . . . do..........

.do..

1None.

C
1)
40

Do.

$3.50 deposit.
$10 deposit.
None.

$100 surety
bond.
$3 deposit___

$100 s u r e t y
bond,
$3 deposit.

None.............
$3 deposit___

Do.
$5 deposit.

$5 deposit___

Do.

....... do...........

None..............
....... do.............
$500 b o n d .
Employee
pays pre­
mium.
8 t o 1 4 $300 bond___
days.

10 days___
8 t o 12
days.

Do.
None.
Do.
Same as mo­
tormen.
$150 bond.

0)
45

C
1)
45
0)
21

Do.

None.............

10 days—
8 t o 12
days.

Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co.
Washington Rail­
way & Electric
Co.
Wheeling, W . V a ..........
Wichita, Kans...............

$5J50 deposit.

$10 deposit..

8 t o 14
days.

Topeka, Kans................




Motormen.

0)

Scranton, Pa.................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Trac­
tion, Light &
Power Co.
Seattle, Municipal
Street Ry.

Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. Co___
Wilmington & Phil­
adelphia T r a c ­
tion Co.

Motormen. Conductors

33

St. Louis, Mo.

South Bend, Ind...........

Amount of bond or cash
deposit required of—

Motormen. Conductors.
Mini Maxi­ Mini­ Maxi­
mum mum mum. mum.

Seattle, Renton &
Southern Ry. Co.
Sioux City, Iowa...........

Learners, period.

0)
21

14 days___
6 t o 24
days.

$25 deposit...
$3.50 deposit
a n d $5 0 0
bond.
14 days___ $1 deposit___
6 t o 2 4 ------do........... .
days.

0)
40

1 week___
15 -days___

1 week___ $10 deposit... $10 deposit.
15 days___ $1 deposit___ $1 deposit.

2 For inexperienced men.

$25 deposit.
$5 deposit and
$500 bond.
$3 deposit.

CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.

211

PURCHASE OF UNIFORMS.

Carmen purchase their uniforms in open market in practically all
cities. The company designates the concerns from which uniforms
shall be purchased in Binghamton, Memphis, Minneapolis and St.
Paul, Nashville, Newark, New York (B. R. T. Co., N. Y. Rys. Co., and
I. R. T. Co.), Oklahoma City, Pueblo, San Antonio, Savannah, and
Washington (C. T. Co.). Usually two or more concerns are desig­
nated in each city. In Buffalo and Portland, Oreg., the concerns
from which uniforms are to be purchased are chosen by the carmen's
union, and in Louisville and Salt Lake City by committees of
employees. In New York (Third Ave. Ry. Co.) the company selects
a tailor, subject to the approval of the carmen, and in Philadelphia
uniforms are purchased by the men through a cooperative associa­
tion. The company furnishes cloth for uniforms at cost in Mil­
waukee, and each carman has his suit made by a tailor chosen by
himself. In Denver the men are required to purchase their uniforms
for the first three years of service, from a tailor chosen by the com­
pany, after which time they are furnished by the company. In
Grand Rapids carmen purchase their uniforms in open market, but
are given 1 suit or overcoat each year by the company, after 5 years
of service. The same condition exists in Springfield, 111., and Topeka,
Kans., with the variation that 1 uniform is furnished each year after
5 years of service, and in the former city 1 uniform and an overcoat,
and in the latter city 2 uniforms each year after 10 years of service.
This plan also is in vogue in Kansas City, where the company, in
addition to furnishing 1 uniform a year after 5 years of service and
2 a year after 10 years, allows the men $3 to apply on uniforms after
2 years, $5 after 3 years, $8 after 4 years.
CHANGE CARRIED BY CONDUCTORS, DAILY ASSIGNMENT OF RUNS,
REPORTING TIME, FREQUENCY OF PAY DAYS, AND “HOLD BACK.”

The second column of Table 31 shows the amount of change con­
ductors are required to carry while on duty. As will be seen by
a reference to the table, the prevailing amounts of change required
to be carried are $ 2 and $5. For a few companies the amount is as
high as $ 1 0 and $2 0 . In Butte and Charleston conductors are not
required to carry any change. In 1 1 companies there is no rule on
the subject; the amount of change to be carried is not specified, but
is left to the discretion of each conductor. In Peoria, Rochester
(on P. A. Y. E. cars), and St. Louis change is furnished the con­
ductors by the company.
It is customary to post in car barns each afternoon a working
board for the following day. This board shows the motorman and
conductor for each run leaving the car barn. If the regular man




212

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

holding a run has not been excused, his name remains opposite the
run. If he has been excused, the name of the extra man who is to
take the run for the following day is inserted. An extra man posted
for a regular run usually is not required to report earlier than is
necessary to go on the run assigned. In the table below the time
when the working board is posted each day is shown under the
heading “ Time extra trainmen are assigned to runs for the following
day” for each city. When no board is posted, extra men are usually
notified verbally by the car-house foreman as soon as they are assigned
to runs.
In all cities each regular motorman, conductor, guard, and gripman
is required to report at the car barn a few minutes before his car is
scheduled to leave the barn. This is to enable the car-barn foreman
to assign an extra man to a run in sufficient time to have the car leave
the barn in accordance with the schedule, if one of the regular crew
fails to report. This reporting time is paid for in the following cities:
Boston (surface lines).
Charlotte.
Denver.
Des Moines.
Detroit.

Jacksonville.
Portland, Me.
San Francisco (C. S. C. R. R. Co.)
Springfield, 111.

Boston (elevated lines), paid for 2 minutes for each report, or 2, 4, or 6 minutes
per day.
Chicago (surface lines), paid for 10 minutes for each report.
Chicago (elevated lines), paid for 8 to 30 minutes per day on straight runs, and to
maximum of 60 minutes on swing runs;
New Bedford, paid for one-half of each report, or 5 to 20 minutes per day.
New York (I. R. T. Co.—elevated lines), paid for 10 to 30 minutes per day; (subway
lines) paid for 10 to 20 minutes per day.
New York (B. R. T. Co.—elevated lines), paid to those who started from yards.
Portland, Me., paid for 20 minutes per day.for each of 8 runs and for 10 minutes for
other runs.
Brockton, paid for on early runs only.
Portland (Oreg.) and Syracuse, paid for one-half of the reporting time.
Sacramento, paid for one-half of reporting time to those who pulled cars out of bam
in the morning, and for 5 minutes to those who pulled cars into barn after completion
of runs.
San Francisco (M. Rys.), paid for 5 minutes for each report to those who pulled cars
out of bam, and 2 minutes to those who pulled cars into barn after completion of runs.
San Francisco (U. R. R .), paid for 5 minutes to those who pulled cars out of barn,
and for 2, 3, 3J, 4, or 4£ minutes per day to those who pulled cars into bam after com­
pletion of runs.
Crews taking cars out of the barn are paid for reporting time in Manchester, Okla.
homa City, Rochester, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City.

The table below shows also the frequency with which employees
are paid and the time that elapses between the end of the pay period
and pay day. The frequency varies from daily, in Denver, Sacra­
mento, and Washington (W. R. & E. Co. and C. T. Co.), to monthly in
San Francisco (M. Rys. Co.), Spokane (S. I. E. R .R.Co.), and Superior.




CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.

213

Semimonthly pay days are in vogue in a majority of the cities covered
by the inquiry, but in many places employees are paid weekly.
Employees are seldom paid up to the last day of service. Time
is required to prepare the pay rolls and make up the pay envelopes.
As a consequence there is usually a holdback or delay in the payment
of wages after the end of a pay period for a time, varying from 1 day
to 15 days.
table

3 1 .—CHANGE CAR R IED B Y CONDUCTORS, ASSIGNM ENT OF RUNS, REPORTING
TIM E, F R E QU EN C Y OF P A Y D AY S, A N D “ H O L D B A C K .”

Amount of
change con­
ductors are
required to
carry.

City.

Time required to
report before
starting on run
(minutes).

Time extra
trainmen are
assigned to
runs for the
following day.

Motorman.

Altoona, Pa.......................... About $2......... 5 p. m ..............
$2...................... 4 p. m ..............
Augusta, Ga......................... ........do............... ........do..............
Binghamton, N. Y ............. S3 city;
$5 2 p. m ..............
suburban.
Birmingham/ A la. ........... $5...................... 5 p. m ..............
Boston, Mass.:
Surface lines.................. ........do.............. Between 2 and
3 p. m.
Elevated lines.............. None................ Before 5 p. m . /
\
Brockton, Mass................... $5...................... 5 p. m ..............
Buffalo, N . Y ...................... $5...................... 6 p. m ..............
Butte, Mont......................... None................
Charleston, §> C. *...............
Charlotte, N. C .................... $5......................
Chattanooga, Tenn............. No specified
amount.
Chicago, III.:
..Chicago Elevated Rail­ None................
ways.
Chicago Surface Lines. $10.....................
Cincinnati, Ohio................. $5......................
Cleveland, Ohio.................. $20....................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corpo­ 15.......................
ration.
Northern Texas Trac­ ........do...............
tion Co.
Davenport, Iowa................. ........do..............
Denver, Colo........................ $10.....................
Des Moines, Iowa............... $5......................
Detroit, Mich....................... $15 for tickets
and change;
at least $3
m u s t be
change.
Evansville, Ind ............... $5......................
Grand Rapids, Mich.......... ........do...............
Houston, Tex...................... ........do...............
Indianapolis, Ind................
Jacksonville, Fla................. No specified
amount.
Kansas Citv, Mo................. $2......................
Lincoln, Nebr...................... $5......................

Conduc­
tor.

Time
be­
tween
end of
How employ­
pay
ees are paid.
period
and pay
day
(days).

5
10
10
10

5 Semimonthly.
10
do
10 ........do...............
10 ........do...............

5

5 ........do...............

5

5

12
*5 }
45
(6)

5

Weekly............

6 to 7

........do...............
4 5 ........do...............
4
times
a
(5)
month.
15 Semimonthly.
15 Weekly............
10,15,20 Semimonthly.
10 ........do...............

6 to 7
5
7

m

4 p. m ..............
1.30 p. m .........
(5)
(5
)

15
15
10,15,20
10

4 p. m ..............

8 to 30

........do...............

10

5 p. m .............
5 p. m ..............
3.30 p. m .........

10
10
5

10 ........do...............
10 ........do...............
5 ........do...............

7
5
5 to 7

(6
)

5
3
3 to 5
3

4 p. m ..............

10

10 ........do...............

5

6. p. m .............

10

10 ........do...............

5

4.30 p. m .........
Between
11
a. m. and 12
noon.
12 noon............
4 p. m ..............

10
10

10 ........do...............
10 Daily...............

5

........do...............
5 p. m ..............
........do..............
4 p. m ..............
5 p. m ..............
Between 5 and
6 p. m.
4 p. m ...............

5

5

Semimonthly.
__do...............

5
5

. . do..............
........do...............
........do...............
10 Weekly............
10 Semimonthly.

6 to 8
4
4
3

15 ........do...............

6 to 12

1
0

1
0

1‘
0
5
1
0

1
0
5
1
0

15

10
10

1 1
0

10

........do...............

» At terminal.
2 At yards.
a Conductors (guards) and guards (brakemen) same as motormen.
4 On early runs.
6 No specified time.
8 Conductors and guards same as motormen.




5
8
5
5

7

1
0

214

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STATES.

T a b le

3 1 .—CHANGE CAR R IED B Y CONDUCTORS, ASSIGNM ENT OF R U N S, R EPORTING
TIM E, F R E QU EN C Y OF P A Y D A Y S, A N D “ H O L D B A C K ” — Continued.

City.

Little Rock, Ark.
Los Angeles, Cal..

Amount of
change con­
ductors are
required to
carry.

Time extra
trainmen are
assigned to
runs for the
following day.

No specified
amount.
$5......................

Time required to
report before
starting on run
(minutes).

4 p. m ..............

Louisville, K y .
Lowell, M ass...

$20...................
No specified
amount.

Manchester, N. H .............
Memphis, Tenn.................
Milwaukee, W is................
Minneapolis and St. Paul,
Minn.
Mobile, A la.........................
Nashville, Tenn.................
Newark, N. J.....................
New Bedford, Mass..........
New Britain, Conn...........

Between 4 and
5 p. in.
4 p. m ..............
6 p. m ..............

Motor­
man.

Oklahoma City, Okla.
Omaha, Nebr...............
Peoria, 111......................

$2 ...................

Philadelphia, Pa.
Pittsburgh, Pa. . .
Portland, Me____

1.30 p. m .........
4 p. m ..............
Between 4 and
5 p. m.
$3 to $5............ 4. 30 p. m ........
$5...................... 5 p. m ..............
....... do............... 4.30 p. m .........
Not specified..
0)
$10..................... 5 p. m ..............
$5 except on 6 p. m ..............
P. A . Y . E.
cars where
companyfurnishes $16.
$5...................... 4 p. m ___
$20 for itckets 4.30 p. m.
and change.
Provided by 4 p. m ___
company.
$2 ..................... 5 p. m ..
$3 and half- ------ do.
* fare book—

Portland, Oreg...
Providence, R. I .
Pueblo, Colo........
Reading, Pa........
Richmond, V a . ..
Rochester, N. Y ..

Sacramento, Cal.
Saginaw, Mich. . .
St. Louis, Mo___
Salt Lake City, Utah..
San Antonio, Tex.......

$5....................
Provided by
company.
$2 ...................
$5....................
$2 ...................

Conduc­
tor.

10

Semimonthly
Weekly..........

$10.....................

5 p. m ...............
$2...................... 4 p. m ...............
$5...................... ....... do...............
$5...................... Between 4 and
6.30 p. m.
$2......................
0)
....... do..............
0)
$5...................... 5 p. m ..............
$2 ..................... 4.30 p. m .........
No specified 5 p. m ...............
amount.
New Haven, Conn.............. ....... do..............
.do.
New Orleans, L a................ $2......................
(3
)
New York, N. Y .:
5 p. m .
Brooklyn Rapid Tran­ $ 2 .
sit Co.
New York & Queen’s $ 2 .
6 p. m ..
County Ry. Co.
4 p. m ..
New York Rys. Co___
Third Avenue Ry. Co.
....... do.
Interborough Rapid
Transit C o Elevated lines....... None.
(3
)
Subway lines....... None.
, (3
)
Brooklyn Ilapid Tran­ None.
Before 5 p. m
sit Co. ( e l e v a t e d
lines).
Norfolk, V a .......................... $ 1 0 .
About 5 p. m
3.30 p. m ........
Oakland, Cal........................ $5...

How employ­
ees are paid.

Time
be­
tween
end of
pay
period
and pay
day
(days).

0)
0)

Semimonthly
W eekly..........

0)
C
1)

10 ........do...............
10 Semimonthly.
10 ........do...............
10 ........do...............
10
10
10
2 10
5

........do...............
W eekly............
........do...............
........do...............
........d o ..............

5
10

5
5
5
10

do..............
Semimonthly .

3
3
1 to 6
4
4

10

4 to 7

10 ........d o ..............

5

10 ........d o ..............
10 ........do...............
10 to 30
10 to 20
4 10

10 to 30 ........do...............
10 to 20 ........do..............
........do...............
(5)

5 to 7
5 to 7
4 to 7

10
10

Semimonthly
4
times
a
month.
10 Semimonthly
10 ------d o . -----10 ------ do.............

5 p. m .
4 p. m..
5 p. m..

10
5
10

5
4
5
15
1
3 toe

10 Semimonthly
5 W eekly..........
10 Semimonthly
10 ___ do.............
10 ........do.............
times
a
«5 4
month.

«10
10

W eekly...........
Semimonthly
W eekly...........

5
5
10
4 and 8
3

6 10
10

6 10

5

5

-----do..............
«10
5

Daily...............
Semimonthly

5 to 8

........do..............
..d o ............ .

10

$2.

San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable No specified 3.30 p. m .
R . R. Co.
amount.
Municipal Railway of ....... do............... 1 p. m ___
San Francisco.
1 No specified time.
2 For day men.
8 Assigned for the day at reporting time.




W eek ly..
Monthly.

4 For those taking trains out of yards.
5 Conductors and guards same as motormen.
6 For those who take car out of barn.

5

CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.

215

T able 3 1 .—CHANGE CARRIED B Y CONDUCTORS, ASSIGNM ENT OF RUNS, R EPORTING
TIME, FRQ U EN C Y OF P A Y DAYS, A ND “ H O L D B A C K ” —Concluded.

City.

San Francisco, Cal.—Con.
United Railroads of
San Francisco.
Savannah, G a....................
Scranton, Pa___ _____. . . . .
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction,
Light & Power Co.
Seattle M u n i c i p a l
Street Ry.
Seattle, Renton &
Southern Ry. Co.
Sioux City, Iowa.................
South Bend, Ind.................
Spokane, Wash.:
The Washington W a­
ter Power Co.
Spokane & Inland E mpire R. R. Co.
Springfield, 111
...............
Springfield, Mass.................

Time required to
report before
starting on run
(minutes).

Time
be­
tween
end of
How employ­
pay
ees are paid.
period
and pay
day
(days).

Amount of
change con­
ductors are
required to
carry.

Time extra
trainmen are
assigned to
runs for the
following day.

$5......................

4 p. m ..............

5

$2...................... ........do...............
$2...................... 4 p. in..............

10
5

10 Semimonthly.
5 ___ do

$5......................

Motorman.

Conduc­
tor.

5

W eek ly...

2 to 6
5
21

5 p. m ...............

10

10 ........do...............

10

No specified
0)
amount.
$5, minimum.. 4.30 p. m .........

10

10 ........do...............

10

10

10 ........do...............

3

$10.................... ........do...............
........do............... 4 p. m ..............

10
10

10 ___ do...............
10 ........do...............

5
7

$5...................... ........do...............

10

10 ....... do...............

........do............... ........do...............

10

10

Monthly

5

$;3...................... ........do...............
No specified
(2
)
amount.
Springfield, Ohio................. $15.................... 6 p. m ..............
Superior, W is...................... $10.................... 5 p. m ..............
Syracuse, N. Y .................... $2...................... 4 p. m ..............

10
10

10
10

Semimonthly .
W eekly..........

7
5

10
10
10

10
10
10

5
10
3

$5...................... 3 p. m ..............
........do............... 4.30 p. m .........
........do............... 5.30 p. m ..........

10
10
10

Semimonthly.
Monthly.
4
times a
month.
10 Semimonthly.
10 ........do...............
10 ....... do...............

0)
About 3 p. m .

10
10

10 Daily...............
10 ........do...............

$2...................... 4 p. m ..............
$10..................... 5 p. m ..............

10
10

10 Semimonthly.
10 ........do . . .

5
5

3 p. m ..............
4.30 p. m .........

10
10

10 ........do...............
10 4
times
a
month.

2
4

Tacoma, Wash.....................
Toledo, Ohio........................
Topeka, Kans......................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co. . .
Washington Railway
& Electric Co.
Wheeling, W . V a ................
Wiohita, Kans
........ . . .
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s R y . Co...........
Wilmington & Phila­
delphia Traction Co.

$2......................
$3......................

$2......................
$5......................

1 No specified time.

7

7
5
5 to 10

2 Assigned for the day at reporting time.

SEATS FOR CAR EMPLOYEES, TOILET FACILITIES, INCLOSED CARS, AND
HEATING METHODS.

The next table (Table 32) shows the cities in which seats are pro­
vided for motormen and conductors. It will be noted that in
practically all cities seats are provided for motormen, but that as a
rule seats are not furnished for conductors. A conductor is required
to walk through his car to collect fares in the older styles of cars, but
in those of the newer types he is stationed at the entrance to the oar
and collects fares as the passengers enter. In the first instance it
may not be practicable to furnish a seat for the conductor, but in cars
of the type last mentioned seats are being installed in some cities.
The table also shows the cities in which toilet facilities are pro­
vided by the company at other than starting points and the longest




216

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

period of time that trainmen are without an opportunity to use
toilets. In some cities where the company does not provide such
facilities, public toilets or other places are accessible. The inquiry
concerning toilets was answered merely “ Y es” or “ N o ” in most
cases, but additional information was gjiven in some instances, as
“ Yes, at all reporting places,” and “ Yes, at end of each route.”
The answers are shown below as given. The time reported as the
longest period which trainmen are without opportunity to use
toilets appears to be rather long in some cities. It is presumed that
in some of these cases the time reported refers to the use of toilets
provided by the company, while as a matter of fact other conveni­
ences are accessible within a much shorter period of time.
In a few cities a part of the cars have inclosed vestibules'and a
part do not, and in a few instances the cars are partially inclosed—
that is, the front of the vestibule is inclosed but the sides not inclosed.
The most generally used system of car heating is electric. In
the northern cities stoves, hot air, and hot water are used to a con­
siderable extent. In several southern cities there is no provision
for heating the cars.
T able

3 2 .—SEATS FOR TRA IN M E N, T O ILET FACILITIES, INCLOSED CARS, AN D H E A T ­
ING METHODS.

Seats provided for—

City.
Motormen.

Conductors.

Longest
period
Cars
Toilet facilities without provided
provided by
oppor­
with
Method of
company at
tunity inclosed
heating cars.
other than
to use
vesti­
starting points. toilet
bules.
(min­
utes).

Altoona, Pa....................... About 60 per
cent.
Only on sub­
urban cars.
Y e s.................

No................... Yes; at all re
porting
places.
No................... Y es...................
No.....................

No...................

No.....................

Birmingham A la............ After 60 days’
service.

No................... Y es...................

Electricity or
stoves.

80

Binghamton, N . Y .......... Y es.................

Yes

30

Y e s.................

Atlanta, Ga......................
Augusta, Ga.....................

Boston, Mass.:
Surface lines..............

Y es.................

Elevated lines...........

Y e s.................

Brockton, Mass................

On prepay­
ment cars
only.
N o . . . .............

45

Par t l y Electricity.
inclosed.
Nearl y Not heated.
all cars.
45 Par t l y Hot water,
hot air? or
inclosed.
electricity.
30 85 per Electricity.
cent en­
tirely; 15
per cent
paitially.

50

Yes; at ends of
all lines.

Y e s.................

Yes; at every
station.
No................... Yes; at end of
each route.
Buffalo, N. Y ................... Yes................. Y es................. Y es...................
Butte, Mont..................... No................... No................. Y e s...................
Charleston, S. C............... No................... No.................
N o ........
Charlotte, N. C................ Y es................. No................... Y es...............
Chattanooga, Tenn.........
No................... Y es...................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago
Elevated Yes................. No................... Yes.............
Railways.
Chicago S u r f a c e Ye s ................. Ye s ................. No..........
Lines.




i Use public toilets, hotels, etc.

Yes

Do.
Do.

3

Yes

30

Yes

Do.

30
20
30
40
30

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Do.
Do.
Not heated.
Electricity.
Do.

Yes

Electricity or
hot water.
Electricity.

80
0)

Yes

CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.
T able

217

3 2 .—SEA TS F O R T R A IN M E N , T O IL E T F A C IL IT IE S , IN CLO SE D CAR S, A N D H E A T ­
IN G M E T H O D S —Continued.

Seats provided for—

City.
Motormen.

flinnirmat.ij O h io _______

Y e s .............

Cleveland, Ohio...............

Conductors.

Y e s .................

Longest
period
Cars
Toilet facilities without provided
provided b y
oppor­
with
Method of
com pany at
tunity inclosed
heating cars.
other than
to use
vesti­
starting points. toilet
bules.
(m in­
utes).
Y e s ...................

N o ................... Y e s ............. .

20

Y e s ........

90

Yes

E le c tr ic ity
or hot air.
H ot air.

seats.
Dallas, T ex.:
Dallas Electric Cor­
poration.
N orth ern T e x a s
Traction Co., Oak
Cliff division of
Fort W orth lines.
Davenport, Iowa.
Denver, C olo.. .

Y e s .................

N o ................... Y e s ...................

55

Yes

Electricity.

Y e s .................

Y e s .................

Y e s ...................

25

Yes

Do.

Y e s .................

Y e s .................

Y e s ...................

45

Y e s ........

Provide ow n
seats.
Y e s .................

N o ................... Yes; at ends
of lines.
N o .....................

45

Yes

Y e s .................

75

Yes

N o ................... Yes; at ends of
lines
and
loops.
N o................... Yes; arrange­
ment made
with fire dep a rtm en t
and others.
N o ................... Y e s ...................

54

Yes

30

Y e s........

Detroit, M ich.

Y e s .................

Evansvillp., Tnd

Y e s .................

Grand Rapids, M ich. .

.Y e s .................

Houston, T e x ...............

Provide own
seats.
........d o .............

Indianapolis, I n d . .

40

E le c tr ic ity ,
hot water,
or hot air.
Electricity.
Forced
air.
Stoves.

hot

H ot water.
hot air ana
electricity.

Y e s ........ H ot water or
stoves.
Not heated.

Provide own Y e s ...................
seats.
N o ................... Yes; at ends of
lines.

80

Yes

30

Y e s ........
P a rtly . .
per
cent.
Yes
Yes

Jacksonville, F la .. .
Kansas City, M o . . . .

Y e s .................
Y e s .................

Y e s .................
Y e s .................

N o.....................
Y e s ...................

90
60

Little R ock, A rk.............
Lincoln, Nebr...............

Y e s .................
Y e s .................

N o ................... Y e s ...................
N o ................... N o .....................

60

20

Do.
H ot air or
hot water.
Not heated.

Los Angeles, C al..........

Y e s .................

Y e s .................

Louisville, K y .................

Y e s .................

Y e s .................

Yes; at or near
ends of lines.
Yes; at ends of
lines.

60

25 p e r
cent.
Yes

Lowell, Mass.....................
Manchester, N. H ...........
Memphis, T en n ...............
Milwaukee, W is...............

Y e s .................
Y e s .................
Y e s .................
Y e s .................

N o ...................
N o ...................
N o ...................
Y e s .................

........d o ...............
N o .....................
Y e s ...................
Y e s ...................

60
30
60
45

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Minneapolis & St. Paul, Y e s ................. N o ................... Yes; at ends of
Minn.
lines.
Mobile, A la ....................... N o ................... N o ................... Y e s ...................
Nashville, Tenn............... Y e s ................. N o ................... N o ....................
Newark, N. J ...............
Y e s ................. A bout 50 per Y e s ...................
cent.
New Bedford, Mass........ Some.............. N o ................... N o .....................
New Britain, Conn......... Y e s ................. N o ................... Y e s ...................
New Haven, C onn.......... Y e s . . . : .......... N o ................... Y e s ...................
New Orleans, L a............ Y e s ................. Y e s ................. Y e s ...................
New Y ork, N . Y .:
5 per ce n t. . . N o ................... Yes; at all
B rooklyn R a p i d
swit chback
Transit Co.
points
New Y ork & Queen’ s N o................... N o ................... N o .....................
County R y. Co.
New Y ork R ys. C o .. 50 per cen t. . . N o ................... Y e s ...................

60

Yes

45
90
60

Y e s ........
Y e s ........
Yes

Not heated.
Electricity.

20
20
20

60

Yes
Yes
Yes
Y es........

D o.
Do.
D o.
N ot heated.

60

5 per cent Electricity.

50

P a rtly ..

D o.

20

50 p e r
cent.
Yes

Do.

Third Avenue R y .
Co.




Yes; except
storage bat­
tery cars.

N o ................... N o ....................

60

66§

Steam heat
or
forced
hot air.
Not heated.
Electricity.

60

E le c tr ic ity ,
hot water,
or hot air.
Electricity.
D o.
D o.
Stoves, hot
air or hot
water.
H ot water.

D o.

218
T able

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
33.—SEATS FOR TRAINMEN, TOILET FACILITIES, INCLOSED CARS, AND HEAT­
ING METHODS—Continued.
Seats provided for—

City.
Motormen.

Conductors.

Longest
period
Cars
Toilet facilities without provided
oppor­
provided b y
with
com pany at
tunity inclosed
other than,
to use
vesti­
starting points. toilet
bules.
(m in­
utes).

Method of
heating cars.

N ew Y ork, N. Y .—Con.
Interborough Rapid
Transit Co. (ele­
vated and sub­
w ay lines).
Brooklyn R a p i d
Transit Co. (ele­
vated lines).
Norfolk, V a ....................
Oakland, Cal..................
Oklahoma City, O k la ..

Y e s .................

N o ...................
Yes; at nearly
all terminals
N o................... Y e s .................

Omaha, N ebr.................

Y e s .................

Y e s .................

N o.

Peoria, 111........................

Y es.

Y es.

Y es .

Y es.

Philadelphia, P a ...........

Y es.

Y es.

Y e s.

Pittsburgh, P a...............

Y es.

N o ..

Yes; at termi­
nals.
Y e s .................

Portland, Me..................
Portland, Oreg...............

Y es.
Y es.

N o.
N o..

Y es.
Y es.

Electricity or
hot air.
E lectricitv.
D o. ‘

Only on owl
cars.
N o ..................

N o ...................
Yes; at termi­
nals.
N o ...................

Y es.

D o.

Yes; at ends of
lines.
Yes; at ends of
some lines.
N o....................
Yes; on some
lines.

Y es.

N o.

Yes; at all sta­
tions.

Y es.

N o.

Y es.

Some..
Y e s ...

N o ..
Y es .

Providence, R . I ...........

Y es.

Pueblo, C olo...................

Y es.

Reading, P a ...................

N o ..

R ichm ond, V a ...............
Rochester, N. Y .............

P a rtly.
Y e s ....

N o.
N o.

Sacramento, Cal.............

Y es.

Y es.

Saginaw, M ich...............
St. Louis, M o .................

Y es.
Y es.

N o ..
Y es.

Salt Lake City, U tah___
San Antonio, T e x ...........
San Francisco, Cal.:
California S t r e e t
Cable R . R . Co.
Municipal Railways
of San Francisco.

Y es.
N o ..

Y es .
N o ..

United Railroads of
San Francisco.
Savannah, Ga..................
Scranton, Pa....................
Seattle, W ash.:
Puget Sound Trac­
t io n , L ig h t &
Pow er Co.
Seattle
Municipal
Street R y .
Seattle, R enton &
Southern R y . Co.

Yes; at ends of
lines.
N o ....................
Yes; on some
lines.
N o ....................
N o ....................

Y es.

30

Yes —
O n ly c
few.
Y e s .. .

0)

Y e s.

Y e s.

Y es.
Y es.
Y es.
N o ..
Y es.
Y e s.
Y e s.
Y es.

Do
D o.
Not heated.
H ot air or
electricity.
H ot water,
hot air, or
electricity.
Electricity or
stoves.
Electricity.

D o.
Electricity or
hot water.
Electricity.
H ot water or
forced hot
air.
N ot heated.
Stoves.
Forced hot
air.
E lectricity.
Not heated.

N o ..

Y es.

Y es .

Y e s ..............

Y es .

On air-brake
cars only.
N o .................

N o ..

Y es; on some
lines.
Y e s ................. .

Partially

N o ..

N o.

Y e s ..

Yes, e x c e p t
on ca b le
cars.
Y e s ...............

Yes, e x c e p t
on c a b le
cars.
Y e s ...............

Y es.

Partially. N ot heated.

No .

Y e s ........

Y es.

Y es.

Y es.

45 p e r E lectricity 45
cent; 55
per cent;
per cent
not heated,
partially.
55 percent.
Forced hot
air.
Electricity or
hot water.

Y es; at ends o f
lines.
____d o .........

Sioux City, Io w a ..

Y es.

Y es.

N o.

Y es.

Y es .

N o..

Y es.

N o ..

Y es.

Y es.

Y es..




20

Y es.

South Bend, I n d ..
Spokane, W ash.:
Spokane & Inland
Em pire R . R . Co.
T he W a s h i n g t o n
W ater Power Co.

Electricity.

1

Yes; at termi­
nals.
May leave cars at any tim e.

N o.
N o.

N o ...

D o.
60 per cent
not heated;
electricity,
40 per cent.
N ot heated.
D o.
E lectricity or
hot water.

D o.

Y es.

Electricity.

Yes.

Do.

CHAP. IV,---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAE CREWS.
T a b l e 3 2 . —SEATS

219

F O R T R A IN M E N , T O IL E T F A C IL IT IE S , IN CL O SE D C AR S, A N D H E A T ­
IN G M E TH O D S—Concluded.
Seats provided for—

City.
Motormen.

Springfip.lri, Til

Conductors.

Longest
period
Cars
Toilet facilities without provided
oppor­
provided b y
with
company at
tunity inclosed
other than
to use
vesti­
starting points. toilet
bules.
(m in­
utes).

Y e s ................. N o .................
............. Y e s ................. Y e s .................
Springfield, Mass
Springfield, O hio............. Y e s ................. N o ..................
Y es................. N o ..................

N o ....................
N o ....................
Y e s ...................
Yes; at ends o f
lines.
N o ................... Y e s ...................

Syracuse, N. Y . . . ...........

Y e s .................

Tacom a, W ash................

E x ce p t on
cable cars.

N o ..................

Y e s ...................

Toledo, Ohio....................

Y e s .................

Only on P. A.
Y . E .cars.
N o...................

N o ....................

Topeka, K ans..................

Y e s .................

N o ....................

W ashington, D. C.:
Capital Traction C o. Y e s .................
W ashington Rail­
.................
Yes
way & Electric Co.

N o................... Y e s ...................
N o...................i Y es; on long
runs.

W heeling, W . V a ............

N o ................... N o ....................

67 per c e n t ...

................. Y e s ................. N o K a n s
W ichita, ................... N o ....................
W ilm ington, Del.:
People’s R y . Co........ N o ................... N o ................... N o ....................
W ilm ington & Phil­ N o ................... N o................... Y es; at each j
adelphia Traction
terminal.
Co.




45

Method o f
heating cars.

Yes
Y es
Y e s ........
Y e s ........

Electricity.
Do.
Do.
Stoves or hot
water.
H ot air, hot
90 Y e s __
water, or
stoves.
60 12 cars, Electricity in
yes;
12 c a r s ;
others not
88 cars,
partially;
heated.
cable
cars, no.
50 N e a rly H ot air or
hot water.
all cars.
H ot air.
50 Yes

30
60

Yes
Electricity.
Some
D o.
entirely,
some
partially.
120 ‘ Y e s ___ E le c tr ic ity ,
h ot air, or
hot water.
H ot air.
60 Yes
44
40

45
33

Yes
Y^es........

Electricity.
D o.

220

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

ACCIDENT, SICK, AND DEATH BENEFITS.

In connection with the present inquiry concerning wages, hours,
and working conditions, data were obtained as to existing provisions
made by companies for the relief of street railway employees injured
while on duty, and for payment by benefit associations of accident,
sick, and death benefits.
On pages 270 to 274 a statement is given of the relief provided by
the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railway
Employees as a national body and by the several local divisions of
that association in addition.
A tabular statement is here presented showing: (a) The relief

provided by the employing companies to employees or their depend­
ents ; and (6) relief given by local benefit associations not affiliated
with any labor organization.
The relief extends to : (a) Employees in case of accident; (b) em­
ployees in case of sickness, and (c) dependents of an employee in case
of his death.
State compensation acts operative in 42 of the cities covered by
the present inquiry make provision for an employee injured while on
duty, or for his dependents in case of his death from accident. In
Bulletin No. 203 of this bureau detailed information is given as to
the benefits paid under these compensation laws.
Where compensation is not provided by law, the companies them­
selves provide relief, usually for employees injured while on duty,
but sometimes also for dependents of an employee, in case of his
death caused by accident on duty. Such relief as the companies
provide is set forth in the first two columns of the table below.
Opposite each city, under the heading “ Benefit associations,” will
be found a short statement showing whether the association is man­
aged by the employees alone or jointly with the company, together
with company donations. Also the extent of the membership, dues,
and assessments, sick and accident benefits, and death benefits. As
stated above, the benefit associations mentioned in this table do not
include local divisions of the Amalgamated Association of Street and
Electric Railway Employees.







STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

33.—ACCIDENT, SICK, AND DEATH BENEFITS

Provision made b y com pany for—

su.

City.
Employees injured
while on duty.

Insuring lives oemployees.

Benefit associations.

H ow managed.

1

Altoona, Pa.

Customary to pay
regular

2

Atlanta, G a.............

Pays for hospital
service, surgeon,
and nurse.

3

Augusta, G a ..........

4

Binghamton, N. Y,

Pays physician and
regular wages.
State compensation
act.

5

Birmingham, A la .

Pays wages and gives
medical attention
if not fault of em ­
ployee.

N o provision m ad e.. Membership com pulsory
for motormen and con­
ductors.

6

Boston, Mass.: Elevated
and surface lines.

State compensation
act.

State compensation
act.

8

7

Brockton, Mass.
Buffalo, N. Y . . .

.d o .
.d o .

N o provision m ad e.. B y employees..

.do.

Jointly b y employees and
com pany.

.d o .

N o association.

State compensation
act.

.d o .
.d o .

9

Butte, M on t____

No provision m ad e.. No provision made.

10

Charleston, S. C.

11

Charlotte, N. C...............
Chattanooga, Tenn........

Pays regular wages;
also for physician,
hospital, and med­
icines.
....... d o ........................
Pays wages a n d
physician.

12

13

14

15

Chicago, 111.:
Chicago E l e v a t e d
Railways.

Chicago Surface Lines.

Cincinnati, O hio.




1 A ll

. . . . d o .......................

B y em ployees..

T w o associations, man­
aged b y employees; com ­
pany pays expenses up
to $6,000 per year.
N o association....................
Jointly b y employees and
com pany.
B y em ployees..
............d o ........... .

.d o .
.d o .

N o association....... ............
B y employees; only white
employees of operating
department eligible for
membership.

Pays medical and
hospital bill and
from half to full
pay.

...... do.

Pays part or full
wages and medical
expenses when not
fan It of employee.
State compensation
act.

.do.

B y employees; com pany
contributes $1 for each
week’s sick benefit paid
and $100 for each death
benefit.
B y employees; com pany
pays for 100 member­
ships.

State compensation
act.

B y em ployees.....................

white employees; per cent of total em ployees not reported.

IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.
T RAILWAY EMPLOYEES.
Benefit associations.
Ap­
proxi­
mate
per
■cent
of all
em­
ploy­
ees
who
are
m em ­
bers.

ne
Dues and assessments.

Sick and accident benefits.

50 cents per m onth and as­
sessed I I for death of mem­
ber and 50 cents for death
of member ’s wife.

For sickness, $5 per week after
third day; minimum period
for paym ent, 10 days; m axi­
mum , 26 weeks. For acci­
dent, $5 per week; m axi­
m um period, 26 weeks.
For sickness, $1 per day after
5 days, and furnished medi­
cines and physician; m axi­
mum period, 90 days during
any one year.

Am ount equal to $1 per
member; for death of mem­
ber's/wife amount equal to
50 cents per member.

1

$100.

2

$5 per week for not over 10
weeks in any one year.

Am ount equal to $1 per
member; for death of mem­
ber’s wife or child, amount
equal to 50 cents per mem­
ber.
$100 for first year and in­
creases $100 each year there­
after to a m axim um of $500,

50 cents per m o n th ..

.

Death benefits.

3
50 cents per month; also as­
sessed $1 for death of mem­
ber and 50 cents for death
of m ember's wife or child.

$1 per

m onth............................ SI per day for 60 consecutive
days; m aximum of $100 in
any one year; physician and
hospital service furnished at
any tim e.
50 eents per month; one as­ $7 per week; maximum period
for paym ent, 10 weeks.
sociation levies assessment
o f SI when death-benefit
fon d contains less than
$1,000.
50 cents per m onth.

$1 per

m onth...........

$1 per day after 7 days; not to
exceed 90 days in any one
year; physician and m edi­
cine free.
Medical, surgical, drug, and
hospital bills paid.
$1 per da y; minimum for
w hich paid, 7 days; m axi­
m um , 10 weeks in any one
year.

One, $1,000; other,
paid.

none

4

5

6

7

$150.

8

None..........................................

9

$100; for death of wife, $75,
and for child under 14
years o f age, $25.

10

$5 per week after 5 days for not
to exceed 15 consecutive
weeks, and not over $150 in
any calendar year.

$ 100.

12

$8 per

$ 200.

1

50 cents per year and assess­
ments; annual cost, $3 to
$6.50.

None..

$500.

14

$1 per month and death as-

$7 per week first 12 weeks; $3.50 $800..
per week second 12 weeks;
$2 per week third 12 weeks;
not to exceed $150 in one
year. If illness eortinues
m to second year, not to ex­
ceed $78, payable $3.50 for
first, $2 for second, and $1 for
third 12 weeks, and for third
year, $1 per week for 36 weeks.
For loss of both hands, both
feet, or entire sight, may
elect to receive $800 in lieu of
benefit payments.

50 cents per m onth.

50 cents per month.

.d o .




week, after 7 days, for
maximum of 14 weeks in
one year.

11

15

224

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
Table

33.—ACCIDENT, SICK, AND DEATH BENEFITS

Provision made by company for—

Line
No.

City.

Cleveland, Ohio.

Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Cor­
poration.

18

Northern T e x a s
Traction Co., O-ek
Cliff division of
Ft. Worth lines.
Davenport, Iowa.............
Denver, Colo.

Des Moines, Iowa.
Detroit, Mioh. . .
Evansville, Ind.

24

Grand Rapids, Mich.
Houston, Tex.............

26

Indianapolis, Ind.

27

Jacksonville, Fla.

28 Kansas City, Mo.

Benefit association.

Employees injured
while on duty.

Insuring lives of
employees.

State compensation
act.

State compensation
act.

Pays medical and
hospital expenses
and full wages if
not fault of em­
ployee; if fault of
employee, 60 per
cent of wage loss
after first week.
Pays medical expen­
ses and full wages.

No provision made.. No association.

State compensation
act.
Pays medical and
hospital expenses
if employee was
not at fault.

State compensation
act.
No provision made.

.do.

State compensation State compensation
act.
act.
____do........................ ........do........................
Medical and hospital No provision made.
expense, and regu­
lar pay, paid on
recovery in lump
sum.
.. . . d o .......................
.do.
Pays full
wages
and, usually, phy­
sician’s fee.
No provision made .

Pays all medical and
hospital expenses
and regular wages
when not fault of
employee.
Pays wages and hosp i t a l e x p e n se
when not caused
by e m p lo y e e 's

How managed.

By employees .

.do.

.do.
No. 1, jointly by employ­
ees and company; com­
pany pays $25 for every
$100 paid by employees
and makes up deficits.
No. 2, by company.

No association.
.do.
.do.

By employees..

.do.

No association..

.do.

By employees; company
pays physician and do­
nates proceeds of sale of
lost articles.

.do.

.do.

Jointly by employees and
company; company con­
tributes sum equal to
dues paid by employees.
Jointly by employees and
company.

1 Fifty-two per cent of all white employees; per cent of total employees not reported.




CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.

225

FOR STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYEES—Continued.
Benefit associations.
Ap­
proxi­
mate
per
cent
of all
em­
ploy­
ees
who
are
mem­
bers.

Dues and assessments.

50 cents per month.

Sick and accident benefits.

13.50 for first 7 days, $1 per day
for next 63 days, 50 cents per
day for next 35 days; not to
excede 184 in any one year.

Death benefits.

$500, less amounts of benefits
received by member dur­
ing membership for sick­
ness, death of wife, etc.;
for death of wife, $50; max­
imum amount for illness,
disability, and death of
wife, $300.

Line
No.

16

17

18

19
73

Class 1, $1 per month; class 2,
75 cents per month; class
3, 50 cents per month.

100

50 cents per month.................

Class 1, $6 per week; class 2,
$4.50 per week; class 3, $3
per week; nothing for nrst
10 days unless disability
caused by accident.
Medical and surgical attend­
ance, including medicines,
and hospital service when
authorized by company phy-

Class 1, $1,000; class 2, $750;
class 3, $500.

20

No death benefits.

2i

22
23

75 cents per month.

$1.50 per day for 100 days; phy­
sician and medicine.

$500.

24
25

80

0)

$1 per month.

50 cents per month.

80 cents per month; if mar­
ried, 15 cents additional
for wife and 10 cents addi­
tional for each child; as­
sessed 50 cents for death of
each member.

39749°—Bull. 2 0 4 -1 7 -




$30 per month for total disabil­ Death due to accident, $200;
ity for not to exceed 6 months;
death due to illness, $100;
nothing for first 7 days, if due
amounts paid as benefits
for illness or accident caus­
to illness; for partial disa­
ing death deducted from
bility, half of above amount.
death benefit.
Physician provided and $1 per $200..........................................
day for not to exceed 20
weeks in one year; nothing
paid for first week if disabil­
ity due to illness.
$1.50 per day after first 5 days, An amount equal to 50 cents
for each member; $50 for
not to exceed 80 days in any
death of wife; $35 for death
one year.
of child.

-15

26

27

226

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

33.—ACCIDENT, SICK, AND DEATH BENEFITS

Provision made by company for—

Line
No.

Benefit associations.

City.
Employees injured
wnile on duty.

Insuring lives of
employees.

No,provision made.. No provision made.. By employees; member­
ship compulsory for mo­
tormen and conductors.

29

Lincoln, Nebr..

30

Little Rock, A rk..

.do.

31

Los Angeles, Cal..

.do..

32

Louisville, K y -----

Pays wages and for
m e d ic a l a t ­
tendance.

33

Lowell, Mass..........

34

Manchester, N. H.

35

Memphis, Tenn. . .

36

Milwaukee, W is...

State compensation
act.
Pays regular wages
and physician’s
fees.
Pays regular wages;
also medical and
hospital expenses.
State compensation
act.

37
38

M in n e a p o lis and St.
Paul, Minn.
Mobile, A la.....................

State compensation
act.
No provision made..

39

Nashville, Tenn..

Pays wages if not
fault of employee.

40

Newark, N. J ............

41

New Bedford, Mass.

State compensation State compensation
act.
act.
____do.......................... ____do..........................

42
43
44

New Britain, Conn..
New Haven, Conn..
New Orleans, La___




How managed.

Pays premiums on
$1,000 policy for
each employee.
____do..........................

No association.

State compensation
act.

Jointly by employees and
company; company con­
tributes an amount
equal to that paid as
dues by employees and
pays operating expenses.
No association....................

Compulsory membership;
company deducts dues
from wages.
No provision made.. By employees; only white
employees earning $1.50
or more a day are
eligible.
State compensation No association....................
act.
No provision made., By employees; compul­
sory membership for
trainmen and inspectors.
.do..
No association....................

State compensation
act.
No provision made.. By employees; member­
ship compulsory; only
white males eligible.
.do..

____do.......................... ____do........................
____do.......................... ____do........................
Pays half of regular No provision made.
wages and physi­
cian’s bill.

i Or 98 per cent of motormen and conductors.

No. 1 and No. 2, jointly by
employees a n d com­
pany; only white em­
ployees eligible.
No. 2, death benefit asso­
ciation.
No association; company
welfare plan.
By employees......................

No association....................
____do....................................
Six associations, managed
by employees.

CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.

227

FOR STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYEES—Continued.
Benefit associations.
Ap­
proxi­
mate
per
cent
of all
em­
ploy­
ees
who
are
mem­
bers.
63

Dues and assessments.

Sick and accident benefits.

Death benefits.

Line
No.

*
»

75 cents per month; if mar­
ried, 15 cents additional
for wife, and 10 cents addi­
tional for each child; as­
sessed $1 for death of each
member.

$1.50 day after first five days,
not to exceed 80 days in any
one year.

An amount equal to $1 for
each member; $50 for death
of wife; $35 for death of
child.

29

30
Services of physician and sur­
geon, and medicines.

No death benefits..................

31

46 ........do......................................... 90 cents per day, after 7 days,
for 6 months, then 50 cents
per day indefinitely unless
permanent disability.

$150; for death of wife, $50;
and child under 14 years,
$25.

32

50 cents per month................. $7 per week after first week for
not to exceed 13 weeks in
any one year.

$100............................................

100

50 cents per month.................

33
71

34
35

50 cents per month................. $1 per day for 100 days and 50
cents per day for next 100
days, with medical and sur­
gical attendance.

$300............................................

56

50 cents per month; assessed
$1 for death of member.

75

No. 1,10 cents per week......... $2.50 for first week, $5 per week
thereafter, not to exceed 7
successive weeks.

$200; one-half paid by com­
pany; $50 for death of wife
and $25 for death of child,
paid by company.
No death benefit....................

15

No. 2, assessed $1.10 for death
of each member.
None..........................................

Amount equal to $1 for each
member.
$7 per week.................................. $300............................................

30

50 cents per month; assessed
$1 for death of member and
50 cents for death of mem^
ber’s wife.

$1 for first week; $7 per week to An amount equal to $1 for
sixteenth week; $6 for six­
each member, but not to
teenth week; not over $105
exceed $200; for death of
wife, one-half above
in one year.
amount.

30

No. 1, 75 cents per month; Drugs and physician for mem­
assessed $1 for death of
ber, wife, and children under
15 years of age.
member.
No. 2, 25 cents per month___ $3 first week; $5 thereafter;
not over 13 weeks in year.
No. 3, 75 cents per month $5 per week; not over 13 weeks
in year; drugs and physician
plus 25 cents per quarter;
assessed $1 for death of
furnished for member and
family.
member.

i 79

36

37




$1 per day after fourth day;
not over 60 days in any one
year; medicines furnisned.

Amount equal to $1 for each
member.
No death benefits.
Amount equal to $1 for each
member; $15 for death of
wife and $7.50 for child
under 15.

38

39

40
41

42
43
44

228

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T

able

34.—ACCIDENT, SICK, AND DEATH BENEFITS

Provision made by company for—

Line
No.

City.

Employees injured
while on duty.

Insuring lives of
employees.

State compensation
act.

State compensation
act.

How managed.

New Orleans, La. (con.).

45

46

New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn
Rapid
Transit Co.: Ele­
vated and surface
lines.
New York & Queens
County Ry. Co.
Interborough Rapid
Transit Co.

51

.do .

State compensation
act; also provides
for cases not cov­
ered by act.

.do .

Jointly by employees and
company; transporta­
tion department em­
ployees must join.
Jointly by employees and
company; membership
compulsory for motor­
men and conductors.
Jointly by company and
employees; c o m p a n y
pays running expenses
and deficiencies.

.d o .
Third Avenue R y ... State compensation
Jointly by employees and
act. Insured for
company; company con­
$1,000. life or ac­
tributes amount equal
cident, or both;
to that paid by mem­
members of associ­
bers.
ation pay 15 cents
per week; others
24 cents. Associa­
tion pays $250 on
life policy of its
members.
Only
applicable to trans­
p o r ta tio n men
and other employ­
ees who elect to
join in a body.
New York Rys. Co. Compensation act;
.do..
Jointly by company and
also donates in
employees.
deserving cases.
Norfolk, V a ..................... Employees in serv­ No provision made. . Jointly by company and
ice 10 years and
employees; c o m p a n y
totally disabled
pays initiation fee of
given pension of
$1 for each member and
$15 per month.
$250 for death of mem­
ber.
Oakland, Cal.,
State compensation State compensation
act.
act.
Oklahoma City, Okla__
Omaha, Nebr...................

Pays wages................ No provision made,
Usually pays doctor .-...d o........................
and regular wages.

By employees..

1 85 per cent of employees on elevated lines; 59 per cent of employees on subway lines.
2 All white employees; per cent of total employees not^reported.
3 Or 65 per cent of motormen and conductors.




CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.

229

FOB STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYEES—Continued.
Benefit associations.
Ap­
proxi­
mate
per
cent
of all
em­
ploy­
ees
who
are
mem­
bers.

Line
No.

Dues and assessments.

Sick and accident benefits.

No. 4, 75 cents per month...

$3 per week for not over 8
weeks within 12 consecutive
months; not paid for less
than 2 weeks; drugs and
physician furnished mem­
ber and family.
$5 per week for not over 10
weeks in year; not paid for
less than 2 weeks.
$3 per week for not to exceed 13
weeks in year; drugs and
physician furnished member
and family.

Amount equal to 50 cents
for each member; for death
of wife, 25 cents for each
member.

$1 per day after 8 days’ ; maxi­
mum period for payment. 90
days in any one year; free
medical attendance.
$1 per day after first 7 days, for
not over 90 days in one year.

$200.

45

$100; $50 for death of mem­
ber’s wife.

46

Class 1, 75 cents per month

50 cents per day for 52 weeks,
then 25 cents per day. .

$250; additional benefits may
be secured by following
payments on each $250.

47

Class 2, $1.50 per month___

$1 per day for 52 weeks, then
50 cents per day.

Class 3, $3 per month.........

$2 per day for 52 weeks, then
$1 per day.
$1.50 per day after 5 days; from
first day in case of accident
or serious injury; maximum,
90 days in one' year; physi­
cian and medicine furnished.

$500; not over 45 years, 30
cents per month; over 45
and not over 60 years, 45
cents per month.
$1,000; over 60 years, 60 cents
per month.
$250; if insured by company,
applies on $1,000 poiicy.

No. 5, 25 cents per month...
No. 6, $1 per month..............

65

50 cents per month............. .

50 cents per month.............

0;

50 cents per month.............

67

(2
)

50 cents per month.
50 cents per month; assessed
50 cents for death of mem­
ber.

329 $1 per month. .

50 cents per month.
------ do........................




$1 per day after 7 days; not
to exceed 90 days in one
year.
For sickness, $1 per day after 4
days for 150 days, thep 50
cents per day for 100 days.
For accident, from first day,
not to exceed $200 for any
one disability or cause.
$4 for first week and $10 per
week for next 15 weeks;
limited to 16 weeks for one
disability or in one year.
$7 per week................................
$1 per day after 6 days; not to
exceed 182 days in one fiscal
year.

Death benefits.

No death benefits.
Amount equal to $1 for each
member; for death of wife,
25 cents for each member.

$300.

49

$500; $50 for death of wife or
for death of mother of
man.

50

$75..

$300
$100

52
53

230

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

33.—ACCIDENT, SICK, AND DEATH BENEFITS

Provision made by company for—

Line
No.

Benefit associations.

City.
Employees injured
while on duty.

Insuring lives of
employees.

Philadelphia, Pa

State compensation
act.
Pays wages and for
medical attention.

State compensation
act.
Insures for $500 after
2 years’ continu­
ous service.

Pittsburgh, P a ..

Pays wages.

Insures for 1 year's
w ages;
p a id
monthly.

Portland, Me..

Pays wages and for
medical attend­
ance;
provision
made for perma­
nent injury.
Pays regular wages
and p r o v i d e s
physician.

Beneficiary g i v e n
$300 by company
if employee had
served 1 year.

By employees..

P a y s beneficiary
$100.

Two associations; mem­
b e r s h i p compulsory:
No. 1, trainmen; No. 2,
mechanical.

Providence, R. I .

State compensation
act.

State compensation
act.

Jointly by company and
employees; c o m p a n y
guarantees benefits and
makes up deficits.

Pueblo, Colo..

If by unavoidable
a c c i d e n t , pays
wages, m e a i c a l
and hospital bills.
Pays for hospital
treatment a n d
expenses.
Employees in serv­
ice 10 years, and
totally disabled,
given pension of
$15 per month.

No provision made.

No association.

____do........................

By employees.

____do........................

Jointly by company and
employees; c o m p a n y
pays initiation fee of $1
for each member and
$250 on death of member.
Jointly by employees and
company.

Peoria, 111...........

58

Portland, Oreg.

Reading, P a ..
Richmond, Va

67

Rochester, N. Y . .

State compensation
act.

State compensation
act.

SacramentOj Cal..
Saginaw, M ich...
St. Louis, M o___

63

____do.
____do.
Pays

Usual!
and hospital bills
unless caused by
violation of rules.

Company pays running
expenses and contrib­
utes amount equal to
that paid by employees.
Jointly by company and
employees; c o m p a n y
pays running expenses
and contributes amount
equal to 50 per cent of
dues.

____do........................
____do........................
No provision made.

Salt Lake City Utah___

How managed.

No association.....................
....... do.....................................
Jointly by company and
employees;
company
pays salaries and ex­
penses and contributes
amount equal to dues
paid by members.
No provision m ade.. By employees......................

i All white employees; per cent of total employees not reported.




IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.
IT RAILWAY EMPLOYEES—Continued.
Benefit associations.

Dues and assessments.

u.

Sick and accident benefits.

Death benefits.

Not reported.........

None............................................ .

$1,000

54

25 cents per month.

$1 per day after 7 days; not to
exceed 100 days in any con­
secutive 12 months.

$150..

55

SI per month.

After 7 days, $1.50 per day for
first 6 months; 75 cents per
day for second 6 months; 37J
cents per day for second
year; benefits cease after
second year. If illness con­
tinues over 60 days, first 7
days are paid for.
After first week, $7 per week
for not more than 10 weeks
in any year.

$300.

56

$50.

57

No. 1, amount equal to $1
per member; for death of
wife, 25 cents per single
member and 50 cents per
married member.
No. 2, amount equal to $1
per member.

58

Class A, $500; class B, $750;
class C, $1,000.

59

50 cents per month.

75 cents per month and
assessed $1 for death of
member.

Class A, earning less than $9
per week, 10 cents per
month; class B, earning
less than $12 per week, 15
cents; class C, earning $12
or more per week, 20 cents.

13 cents per week.
50 cents per month; assessed
50 cents for death of mem­
ber.

75 cents per month.

No. 1, $10 per week after first
week, not to exceed 16 weeks
in year; physicians’ services
and medicine.
No. 2, $7 per week after first
week, not to exceed 10 weeks
in year; physicians’ services
and medicine.
Nos. 1 and 2, if illness con­
tinues over 4 weeks, then
first week is paid for.
Class A, $4 per week; class B,
$6; class C, $8.

60

$4 per week for 52 weeks, then $100; for death of wife, $50..
$2 per week during disa­
bility.
For sickness, $1 per day after 4 $500; $50 for death of wife or
for death of mother of
days for 150 days, then 50*
single man.
cents per day for 100 days.
For accident benefits are
paid from first day, not to ex­
ceed $200 for any one dis­
ability or cause.
$1 per day after first 3 days, $150.
but not to exceed $100 in •
any one year.

50 cents per month.

$1 per day after first 7 days, $300.
for 100 days; 50 cents per day
for next 100 days; not to
exceed $150 in any 12 months.

$1 per month; assessed $1 for
death of member and 50
cents for death of mem­
ber’s wife.

$7 per week after first week for
16 weeks, then $3.50 per
week for 16 weeks; limited
to 32 weeks for same illness.




$500; $100 for death of w ife..

61
62

63
64
65

66

67

232

STREET BAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

33.—ACCIDENT, SICK, AND DEATH BENEFITS

Provision nwle by company for-

Line
No.

68

Benefit associations.

City.
Employees injured
while on duty.

Insuring lives of
employees.

How managed.

San Antonio, Tex...........

No provision made.. No association.

72

Savannah, Ga..

Pays regular wages
and physicians’
and hospital bills.

State compensation
act.
State compensation
act.
State compensation
act; also insures
4th-year men for
$300; 5th-year men,
$500; and over 5thyear men, for$1,000.
No provision made..

73

Scranton, P a..

None.

No provision made.. By employees.....................

74

Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Trac­
tion,
Light
&
Power Co.

State compensation
act.

State compensation
act.

75

Seattle Municipal
Street Ry.

No provision made.

76

Seattle, Renton &
Southern Ry.
South Bend, Ind........... .

State compensation
act.
.. . . d o .......................

N o association......................

77

Full pay for 30 days
and half pay for
not over 6 months;
hospital
service
furnished.
State compensation
act.
No provision made.,

78

Sioux City, Iowa........... .

State compensation
act.

State compensation
act.

No association.....................

79

Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland
Empire R. R. Co.

69
70
71

80

Pays wages and rtiedical expenses.
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Ca­ State compensation
act.
ble R. R. Co.
Municipal Railways State compensation
act.
of San Francisco.
United Railroads of ------ do..........................
San Francisco.

The
Washington
Water Power Co.

____do........................

.do.

....... do..............
No association
------ do...............

By employees; company
contributes
amount
equal to dues paid by
members.

By employees; member­
ship compulsory unless
wages less than $25 per
month; company makes
up deficits.
No association.....................

Jointly by employees and
company; company pays
running expenses and
contributes $500 annu­
ally.

.do.

Jointly by company and
employees;
member­
ship compulsory; com­
pany makes up deficit
up to $250.

.do.

Jointly by company and
employees;
member­
ship compulsory.

81

Springfield, 111___

Pays hospital and
physicians’ bills.

No provisions made. By employees..

82

Springfield, Mass..

State compensation
act.

State compensation
act.




No association.

CHAB. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAE CREWS.

233

FOB STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYEES—Continued.
Benefit associations.
Ap­
proxi­
mate
per
cent
of all
em­
ploy­
ees
who
are
mem­
bers.

Line
Dues and assessments.

Sick and accident benefits.

Death benefits.

No.

68

69
70
71

50

50 cents per month.

25 cents per month.

87

75 cents per month.

$1 per day for 60 days, then 50
cents per day for 60 days;
first week not paia for unless
disability continues more
than 14 days.
$5jper week; not over 13 weeks
m any one year; free medical
attention.

$250.

$100; for death of wife, $50;
for death of mother of
unmarried man, $50.

73

After first week, $10 per week
for not to exceed $260 in any
one period of 12 months.

$250............................................

7
-J

75

76
Class A , 50 cents per month;
Class B, $1.

75

Class A, 50 cents per day for
illness and 75 cents for acci­
dent; Class B, $1 per day for
illness and $1.50 for accident;
benefits limited to 120 days
in any one year.

Class A . $200; Class B, $400.

Wages under $100 per month,
50 cents per month; wages
$100 to $200 per month, $1
per month; wages over
$200 per month, $2 per
month.
Wages under $75 per month
50 cents per month; wages
$75 to $100 per month, 75
cents per month; wages
$100 to $200 per month, $1
per month; wages over
$200 per month, $2 per
month.
50 cents per month............... .

Medical and surgical treat­
ment, hospital and nurse
provided.

$75.




.do.

$1.25 per day for maximum of
26 weeks; nothing paid for
less than 7 days’ disability.

77

$100.,

80

$75; $50 for death of wife or
child.

81

82

234

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

3 3 .—ACCIDENT, SICK, AND D E A T H BEN EFITS

Provision made by company for—

Line
No.

City.

Benefit associations.

Employees injured
while on duty.

.

.

Insuring lives of
employees.

How managed.

State compensation
act.

State compensation
act.

Compulsory membership..

84

Springfield, Ohio,

85
86
87

Superior, W is................... ........do.......................... ........do.......................... N o association...........
do
Syracuse, N. Y ................ ........do.......................... ........do..........................
do..........................
Tacoma, Wash................. Pays first aid and
hospital bill; also
State compensa­
tion act.
Toledo, O h i o .................. Pays medical and No provision made ........do.....................................
hospital expenses.
Topeka, Kans................... State compensation State compensation Company
contributes
act.
act.
amount equal to dues
paid by members.

88
89

90

91
92
93

94
95

.... ...............

....

Washington, D. C.:
Capital TractionCo.. Pays regular wages
if not fault of em­
ployee.

No provision made.

Washington Rail*
‘ way & Electric Co.

Pays for medical, ........do......................
surgical, and hos­
pital attendance.
Wheeling, W . V a ............ State compensation State compensation
act.
act.
Wichita, Kans................. ........do........................ ........do..................
Wilmington, Del.:
People's Ry. Co
Wilmington & Phil­
adelphia Traction
Co.




....

.

By employees......................

Jointly by employees and
company.
N o association__
Company
contributes
amount equal to dues
paid by members.

No provision made.. No provision m ade.. N o association__
Pays half wages........ ........do......................... By employees.

1 Or 100 per cent of motormen and conductors.

CHAP. IV.---- MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATIVE TO CAR CREWS.

235

FOR STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYEES—Concluded.
Benefit associations.
Ap­
proxi­
mate
per
cent
of all
em­
ploy­
ees
who
are
mem­
bers.

iCl

!

Dues and assessments.

50 cents per month.

Sick and accident benefits.

$5 per week, not to exceed $75
in one year; not paid for first
week unless disability caused
by mjury on duty or going
to or returning from work.

Death benefits.

$200.

Line
No.

84

85
86
87

Assessed 30 cents when re­
serve fund falls below $200.

$8 per week; not over 14 weeks
in one year; nothing for
first week unless disability
continues four weeks.

$1 per month; assessed $1
for death of member and
50 cents for death of mem­
ber’s wife.
$1 per month..........................

$6 per week first 6 months, $3 $500; $250 for death of wife..
per week second 6 months,
then benefits cease; no bene­
fits for first 6 days.
$3 for first week and $1 per day $250; for death of mother of
thereafter; not to exceed $200
single member or wife of
in any one year.
member, $50.

$100.

80

91
92

100

80

L30 cents when re­
serve fund falls below $200.

50 cents per month.




$8 per week, not to exceed 14
weeks in one year.

$ 100..

$5 per week for 13 weeks, then
$2.50 for 13 weeks; maxi­
mum, $150 in one year.

$100; for death of wife or
mother of member, $30.

94
95

CHAPTER V,— EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN CAR CREWS.

While the major portion of this report is devoted to the considera­
tion of motormen, conductors, and other car-crew occupations, data
as to rates of wages and regular working hours are given in Table
E, Chapter VIII, for such other occupations as are distinctively
found in street railway operation, and also for certain other occu­
pations employed in large number in street railway work, necessary
in street railway operation, though not distinctive therein. The
table does not include the various power-plant employees or those in
a variety of miscellaneous trades and occupations who, while em­
ployed by street railway companies, were engaged in work not
materially differing from what they would have done had they worked
at their trade or occupation in any other industry. The several trades
and occupations were found on the pay rolls of the several companies
expressed in many different terms, which has made it necessary to
group them under more general titles, in order to reduce the tabular
space and permit comparison between companies.
The occupations in Table E are arranged in alphabetical order under
three general classifications: Track and line occupations; transpor­
tation occupations; barn and shop occupations. On pages 11 to 16 a
list is given of all occupations for which data are presented in the
several tables of this report together with brief definitions thereof.
The list shows the grouping of terms under the occupation desig­
nations that appear in Table E.
To illustrate the use that can be made of Table E and to afford a
ready comparison for three of the leading occupations—laborers,
line and track; linemen, line and track; and car repairers—Table 34
has been prepared. The table shows the number of persons employed
at each classified wage rate per hour. The classification is made in
1-cent groups.
236




CHAP. V .---- EMPLOYEES OTHER TH A N CAR CREWS.

237

Reading the table for laborers, line and track, it is seen that the 2 2
men in the occupation in Altoona were paid 17 and under 18 cents per
hour. In Atlanta 59 were paid 1 2 and under 13 cents per hour, 113
were paid 14 and under 15 cents per hour, etc. With these illus­
trations it is believed the table is clear.




STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED ST
A L 34.—NUMBER OF LABORERS AND LINEMEN (LINE AND TRA<
.B E
L ABO R ER S: LINE AN D T R A C K .

Under
City.

N.
U

1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10
1
1
12
13

14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

12

cents.

Altoona, Pa................................................
Atlanta, Ga................................................
Augusta, Ga...............................................
Binghamton, N. Y ...................................
Birmingham, Ala.....................................
Boston, Mass.:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines.................................
Elevated lines.............................
Brockton, Mass.........................................
Buffalo, N. Y .............................................
Butte, Mont...............................................
Charleston, S. C.........................................
Charlotte, N. C..........................................
Chattanooga, Tenn...................................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways.............
Chicago Surface Lines......................
Cincinnati, Ohio.......................................
Cleveland, Ohio.........................................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation............
Northern Texas Traction Co.,
Oak Cliff division of Fort Worth
lines.
Davenport, Iowa.......................................
Denver j Colo..............................................
Des Moines, Iowa.....................................
Detroit, Mich.............................................
Evansville, Ind.........................................
Grand Rapids, Mich................................
Houston, Tex............................................
Indianapolis, Ind......................................
Jacksonville, Fla.......................................
Kansas City, Mo.......................................
Lincoln, Nebr............................................
Little Rock, Ark.......................................
Los Angeles, Cal.......................................
Louisville, K y ...........................................
Lowell, Mass..............................................
Manchester, N. H .....................................
Memphis, Tenn.........................................
Milwaukee, W is........................................
Minneapolis & St. Paul, Minn................
Mobile, A la................................................
Nashville, Tenn........................................
Newark, N. J .............................................
New Bedford, Mass..................................
New Orleans, La.......................................
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.............
New York & Queens County Ry.
Co.
New York Rys. Co............................
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx...................................
Manhattan...................................
Interborough Rapid Transit C o .Elevated lines.............................
Subway lines...............................
Norfolk, V a ................................................
Oakland, Cal..... ........................................
Oklahoma City, Okla..............................
Omaha, Nebr.............................................
Peoria, 111...................................................
Philadelphia,Pa.: Philadelphia Rapid
Transit Co. (surface lines).
Pittsburgh, Pa..........................................
Portland, Me..............................................
Portland, Oreg..........................................
Providence, R. I .......................................
Pueblo, Colo..............................................
Reading, Pa...............................................
Richmond, V a ...........................................
Rochester, N. Y ........................................
Sacramento, Cal........................................




1
2

and
under
13
cents.

13
and
under
14
cents.

14
and
under
15
cents.

15
and
under
16
cents.

113

12

161

**i6

10

427

36

8

104
141

4

100

2

CHAP. Y.---- EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN CAR CREWS.

239

REPAIRERS (BARN AND SHOP) EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED' RATE OF WAGES,
CITIES.
LABORERS: LINE AND TRACK.
22
25
24
20
23
18
19
21
27
26
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under
19
20
26
24
21
25
22
23
28
27
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

28
and
under
29
cents.

29
and
under
30
cents.

30
cents
and
over.

Line
No.

1
i

150
21
2
391

1
i
........... i............
........... !............
i
i

12

1
17

214
329

610

25
238

63

' *' -

1
1
1

____
.

..

U

I.

13

149

32

2

16

51

1
0
1
1
1
2

3

1

3

14
15
16
17
18
19

1

11
100
54
532

4

1

1

16
142

1

1
i

25

29

I
113

20
2
1
22

7
5

20
75

142

6i

15

2

5

3

6
735

35

4
14
381

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

1

16

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

10

44
45

2

32
58
130
14

19
125
6

36
47
48

2
30

1

14
14

94
15

28
9
571

89

42

71

5

8
56

33
16
110
48
15

3

27

6

7

8

1
9
7
42

1

2

2
2
2

5
85




5
76

7

49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED
,E 34.—NUMBER OF LABORERS AND LINEMEN (LINE AND r
LABORERS: LINE AND T R A C K — Concluded.

Under
!U.

66
68

67

69

70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85

86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94

City.

12

cents.

Saginaw, Mich.....................................
St. Louis, Mo.......................................
Salt Lake City, Utah..........................
San Antonio, Tex................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
California Street Cable R y . Co...
MunicipalRailwaysof SanFrancisco
United Railroads of San Francisco.
Savannah, Ga............................................
Scranton, Pa..............................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light &
Power Co.
Seattle Municipal Street R y...........
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry.
- Co.
Sioux City, Iowa.......................................
South Bend, Ind.......................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland Empire R.R.Co.
The Washington Water Power Co.
Springfield, 111...........................................
Springfield, Mass......................................
Springfield, Ohio......... ............................
Syracuse, N. Y ..........................................
Tacoma, Wash..........................................
Toledo, Ohio..............................................
Topeka, Kans............................................
Washington, D. C.:
Capital Traction Co..........................
Washington Railway & Electric
Co.
Wheeling, W . V a......................................
Wichita, Kans...........................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. C o.................................
Wilmington & Philadelphia Trac­
tion Co.




12

and
under
13
cents.

13
and
under
14
cents.

14
and
under
15
cents.

15
and
under
16
cents.

167

39

2

19

'm

CHAP. V.---- EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN CAR CREWS.

241

REPAIRERS (BARN AND SHOP) EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES,
CITIES—Continued.
LABORERS: LINE AND T R A C K — Concluded.
22
21
23
24
26
27
20
25
19
18
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under unier under
24
27
25
26
28
22
21
23
20
19
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

1

999

3

28
and
under
29
cents.

29
and
under
30
cents.

30
cents
and
over.

Line
No.

66
68

1

67

69

2

6

9

1

203

1

1

6

8

i6
4

28

5
3
35

5
5
1

1
18

1

80
81
82
83
84
85

86

87

20
11
6

76
77
78
79

42
130
1
28
1

75

1

18

55

3

70
71
72
73
74

6

245

3
20

88
1

S9
90

1
4
42
2

10
1

91
92

9
3
1

1

39749°—Bull. 204—17------16




94

I

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STA

able

34.—NUMBER OF LABORERS AND LINEMEN (LINE AND TRAC]
L IN EM EN : LINE AND T R A C K .
26
24
22
25
20
21
23
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under
26
27
21
22
24
25
cents.
23
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

Under
City.

S o.
T

1
2

3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10
1
1
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

Altoona, Pa................................................
Augusta, Ga...............................................
Binghamton, N. Y ...................................
Birmingham, Ala.....................................
Boston, Mass..............................................
Boston Elevated Ry. Co. (surface lines)
Brockton, Mass.........................................
Buffalo, N. Y ............................................
Charlotte, N. C..........................................
Chattanooga, Tenn...................................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways...........
Chicago Surface Lines....................
Cleveland, Ohio.........................................
Dallas, Tex.: Dallas Electric Corpo­
ration.
Davenport, Iowa......................................
Denver, Colo..............................................
Des Moines, Iowa.....................................
Detroit, Mich.............................................
Evansville, Ind.........................................
Grand Rapids, Mich................................
Houston, Tex............................................
Indianapolis, Ind......................................
Jacksonville, Fla.......................................
Kansas City, Mo.......................................
Lincoln, Nebr............................................
Little Rock, Ark.......................................
Los Angeles, Cal.......................................
Louisville, K y ...........................................
Lowell, Mass..............................................
Manchester, N. H .....................................
Memphis, Tenn........................................
Milwaukee, W is........................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn...........
Mobile, A la................................................
Nashville, Tenn.............. \ ......................
Newark, N. J.
New Bedford, Mass..................................
New Orleans, La.......................................
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co...........
New York & Queens County Ry.
Co.
New York Rys. Co...........................
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx...................................
Manhattan...................................
Norfolk, V a ................................................
Oakland, Cal..............................................
Oklahoma City, Okla..............................
Omaha, Nebr............................................
Peoria, 111...................................................
Philadelphia, Pa.: Philadelphia Rapid
Transit Co. (surface lines).
Pittsburgh, Pa..........................................
Portland, Me.............................................
Portland, Oreg..........................................
Providence, R. I ......................................
Pueblo, Colo..............................................
Reading, Pa...............................................
Richmond, V a . . .......................................
Rochester, N. Y ........................................
Sacramento, Cal........................................
St. Louis, Mo............................................
Salt Lake City, Utah...............................
San Antonio, Tex.....................................




20

i1

124

1 15 cents per hour.
2 1 at 16 cents and 2 at 17£ cents per hour.
3 56J cents per hour.
* 2 at 15.1 cents, 3 at 17.8 cents, and 2 at 19.2 cents per hour.
5 42$ cents per hour.
6 45 cents per hour.
712 at 41§ cents, and 1 at 42J cents per hour.
8 53J cents per hour.

CHAP. Y .---- EMPLOYEES OTHER T H A N CAR CREWS.

243

REPAIRERS (BARN AND SHOP) EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES,
CITIES—Continued.
LIN E M E N : LINE AND T R A C K .
39
34
32
38
37
30
31
36
28
29
33
35
27
40
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and and and and
and
Line
under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents No.
and
32
40 over.
39
38
30
28
29
33
31
37
34
35
36
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.
*

1
2

4
2

2
14

3

i

4
1

3
4
5

2
2

1

7
2

2

7

1

1
2

2

2

1

1

s
I
I
72 1
1
6

3
1

1

2

5
3 38

3

2

2

2

1

i

3

I

1

13
14

1

1

4
3

51
!
,

4

9

6 14

4
1

1

2
6

1
11

5
2
1

4

5

3
1

1

1

1
1
1

1
2
4

7

2
1
23
9

2

2
19

1

7 13

2
1

1
1

4

4

1

6

7

41

2
i
i
i

5

1

1
12
3
7

8 13
93
10 1

2
1
2

1
2
2

4

9
2

17

3
2

4

116

6
2

3
3




i

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

. . 1
!

1

15
16
17
18
19

20
2
1
22

3

4

1
6
1
1

4
1

6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
12

2

1
1 1
3

13
15 3
16 5

9 42 cents per hour.
1 40 cents per hour.
0
1 2 at 53.1 cents, and 4 at 56.3 cents per hour,
1
i* 2 at 17 cents, and 2 at 19 cents per hour.
13 56£ cents per hour.
w 1 at 17 cents, 8 at 19.2 cents, and 3 at 19.4 cents per hour,
is 54 cents per hour,
is 43.8 cents per hour.

42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

244

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

T able

3 4 .—N U M B ER OF L A B O R E R S AN D LIN E M E N (LIN E A N D TR A CK ) A N D CAR
BY
LINEMEN: LINE AND TRACK—Concluded.

Line
No.

62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82

22
24
20
21
25
26
23
and
and
and
and
and
Under and
and
20
under under under under under under under
26
24
21
22
27
25
cents.
23
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

City.

San Francisco, Cal:
Municipal Railways of San Fran­
cisco.
United Railroads of San Francisco.
Savannah, Ga............................................
Scranton, Pa ...........................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light &
Power Co.
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry.
Co.
Sioux City, Io w a .....................................
South Bend, I n d .....................................
Spokane, Wash.:
Spokane & Inland EmpireR. R. Co
The Washington Water Power Co
Springfield, 111
.....................................
Springfield, Mass ...................................
Springfield, Ohio......................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..........................................
Tacoma, W a s h .........................................
Topeka, Kans
.......................................
Washington, D. C.: Washington Rail­
way & Electric Co.
Wheeling, W .V a ......................................
Wichita, Kans .......................................
Wilmington, Del.:
People’s Ry. Co
............................
Wilmington & Philadelphia Trac­
tion Co.
159§ cents per hour.




i
3

1

i
2
2

1
2

1

11

2
1

1

a 3 at 41f cents, and 8 at 44$ cents per hour.

i
i
1
........... i
i
t
i

5
1
1
6

1
1

3 52.7 cents per hour.

CHAP. V.---- EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN CAR CREWS.

245

R E P A IR E R S (BAR N AN D SHOP) EAR N IN G EACH CLASSIFIED R A T E OF W AG ES,
CITIES—Continued.
LINEMEN: LINE AND TRACK—Concluded.
34
38
35
36
37
32
39
30
29
33
28
27
31
40
and and and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
Line
under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents No.
and
35
37
40 over.
34
39
28
36
38
30
32
29
33
31
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

11
1

7 1
7

1

i
I

1
1

62

2 11

63
64
65

36
41

1

1

67
68

5
3
52
64

f
1
>
6
1

1

3
4

54

5
1




79
80
81
82

1

4 42.6 cents per hour.

70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78

5 44| cents per hour.

6 45 cents per hour.

7 17^ cents per hour.

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED ST
B E 34.—NUMBER OF LABORERS AND LINEMEN (LINE AND TRA'
L
CAR REPAIRERS: BARN AND SHOP.

City.

Iu .

1
2
3
4
5

6

7
8
9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21

22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

Altoona, Pa...........................................
Atlanta, Ga...........................................
Augusta, Ga.........................................
Binghamton, N . Y ..............................
Birmingham, Ala................................
Boston, Mass:
Boston Elevated Ry. Co.—
Surface lines..........................
Elevated lines........................
Brockton, Mass....................................
Buffalo, N . Y .......................................
Butte, Mont..........................................
Charleston, S. C...................................
Charlotte, N. C.....................................
Chattanooga, Tenn.............................
Chicago, 111.:
Chicago Elevated Railways___
Chicago Surface Lines.................
Cincinnati, Ohio..................................
Cleveland, Ohio...................................
Dallas, Tex.:
Dallas Electric Corporation.............
Northern Texas Traction Co., Oak
Cliff division of Fort Worth lines.
Davenport, Iowa.......................................
Denver, Colo..............................................
Des Moines, Iowa......................................
Detroit, Mich.............................................
Evansville, Ind.........................................
Grand Rapids, Mich................................
Houston, Texas.........................................
Indianapolis, Ind......................................
Jacksonville, Fla.......................................
Kansas City, Mo.......................................
Lincoln, Nebr............................................
Little Rock, Ark.......................................
Los Angeles, Cal........................................
Louisville, K y ...........................................
Lowell, Mass..............................................
Manchester, N . H .....................................
Memphis, Tenn.........................................
Milwaukee, W is........................................
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn...........
Mobile, Ala.................................................
Nashville, Tenn........................................
Newark, N. J.............................................
New Bedford, Mass..................................
New Orleans, La.......................................
New York, N. Y .:
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co...........
N ew York & Queens County R y . Co.
New York Rys. Co.............................
Third Avenue Ry. Co.—
The Bronx...................................
Manhattan...................................
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines.............................
Subway lines...............................
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (ele­
vated lines).
Norfolk, V a................................................
Oakland, Cal..............................................
Oklahoma City, Okla..............................
Omaha, Nebr.............................................
Peoria, 111...................................................




Under
18
cents.

18
and
under
19
cents.

19
and
under
20
cents.

20
and
under

21

cents.

27

33
<3

65

10 14

42

45
*fi"4

18

121

1 80
5
41
*2

16 1

13
5
19
7
' V2

2 at 16J cents, and 2 at 17^ cents per hour.
1 at 12§ cents, 1 at 13 cents, and 5 at 15 cents per hour.
1 at 16 cents, and 2 at 17 and under 18 cents per hour.
* 17^ cents per hour.
5 43$ cents per hour.
e 3 at 15 and under 16 cents, and 2 at 16£ cents per hour.
* 1 at 16 cents, and 3 at 17£ cents per hour,
s 2 at 15 cents, and 1 at 17£ cents per hour.
» 37 cents per hour.
1
2
3

CHAP. V.---- EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN CAR CREWS.

247

REPAIRERS (BARN AND SHOP) EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES,
CITIE S—Continued.
CAR REPAIRERS: BARN AND SHOP.
34
32
33
35
31
36
30
28
24
29
27
26
25
37
and and and and cents
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under and Line
No.
35
33
34
36
32
37
31
29
25
26
30
28
27
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.

2
41

2

4

1

6

2

1

2

1

11
5
1

49
1

1

1

1

1

I
4
i

118
23
1
1

2

1
1

1.
1

10
!

24
3
53

23
6
22
3

16
65
2
6

9
7
4
5

10

223

15
3

13
131

1
4

1

3
2
15

2

3
7

4
1

9
1
8

17

6
2
2
147

21

1
16

14
4
12
5

6

1
93

1

1

5
27

1
6
17

20

1

21

1

22

1
2

1

l
i
1 I-.1
...........

1

l
.........
2 |

1

1

1

I
1

1

2
1

1

U

1
!

1

1
2

2

1

38
1
1

1

5
I

10

1

1
50
1
17

1
1

2

9

2
4
7

1

4
13

1

47
48

6

49
50
51

6

9
1

5
1
1 5 at 15 cents, and 9 at 17^ cents per hour.
0
1 1 at 13f cents, 2 at 15 cents, and 1 at 17$ cents per hour.
1
1 2 17 cents per hour.
13 40 and under 41 cents

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

1

1
15




2

2

3
6
41

1
13
1

2

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

1 1
3

1

1
2
3
1

14
15
16
17
18
19

1

5
1

1
12
1

1
7
2

12
13

1

2
2

11

19
40

2
9
4
1

1
2

3

12

8
5

10
11

1

I

2
5

12

&10

1

1

........... t............ !............
1
i

per hour.
i* 1 at 14£ cents, 1 at 15 cents, and 2 at 171 cents per hour.
15 17$ cents per nour.
1616 cents per hour.
17 17 and under 18 cents per hour.
is 21 at 37 and under 38 cents, and 2 at 39 cents per hour.

1 23
8

52
53
54
55
56

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED
T able

34^-NUMBER OF LABORERS AND LINEMEN (LINE AND
CAR REPAIRERS: BARN AND SHOP— Concluded.

u.

City.

Philadelphia, Pa.:
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.—
Elevated lines.............................
Surface lines................................
Pittsburgh, Pa..........................................
Portland, Me.............................................
Portland, Oreg..........................................
Providence, R . I .....................................
Pueblo, Colo..............................................
Reading, Pa.............................................
Richmond, V a.........................................
Rochester, N. Y .......................................
SacramentOj Cal........................................
Saginaw, Mich.........................................
St. Louis, Mo........................................... .
Salt Lake City, Utah............................. .
San Antonio, Texas................................
San Francisco, Cal.:
72
California Street Cable R. R. Co___
Municipal Railways of San Fran­
73
cisco.
United Railroads of San Francisco
74
75 Savannah, Ga..........................................
76 Scranton, Pa............................................
Seattle, Wash.:
Puget Sound Traction, Light &
77
Power Co.
78
Seattle Municipal Street R y ..........
79 Seattle, Renton & Southern R y. C o...
80 Sioux City, Iowa.....................................
81 South Bend, Ind.....................................
Spokane, Wash.:
82
Spokane & Inland Empire R .R . Co.
The Washington Water Power Co.
83
84 Springfield, 111.........................................
85 Springfield, Mass.....................................
86 Springfield, Ohio.....................................
87 Superior, W is...........................................
88 Syracuse, N . Y ............................. ..........
89 Tacoma, Wash.........................................
90 Toledo, Ohio............................................
91 Topeka, Kans..........................................
Washington, D. C.:
92
Capital Traction Co..........................
93
Washington Railway & Electric Co.
94 Wheeling, W . V a.................................... .
95 Wichita, Kans..........................................
Wilmington, Del.:
96
People’s Ry. Co............................... .
Wilmington & Philadelphia Trac­
97
tion Co.

57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71

Under
18
cents.

18
and
under
19
cents.

19
and
under
20
cents.

20
and
under
21
cents.

21

and
under
22

12

1

14

57

10

124

31

»1
13
6
16 6

14
7

ir; cents per hour,
23- cents per hour,
31 cents per hour,
1
4 6 it 15 cents, 1 at 16 cents, and 2 at 17J cents per hour,
& it 15 cents, and 1 at 17J cents per hour.
6
64 c \cents per hour.
7 5 it 14 and under 15 cents, 1 at 15 and under 16 cents, 2 at 16 and under 17 cents, and :

3 ce: ts per hour.

8 3 ' £ cents per hour.




CHAP. V.---- EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN CAR CREWS.

249

REPAIRERS (BARN AND SHOP) EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF WAGES,
CITIES—Concluded.
CAR R EPAIRERS: BARN AND SHOP— Concluded.
35
32
33
34
24
36
31
28
25
30
29
27
26
37
and
and
and and and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents Line
and No.
35
34
26
36
37
31
32
33
28
27
25
30
29
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.

5

11

15
11

7

1
1

17

4
9

6

10

1
2

5

3

2

1

3

1

1
1

43
1

1
1

4

11

9

1

1

13

1

26

1

1
2

3

1

1

64

1

1

1

8

5
9

21

8
2

2

68

56
2

1

1

8

12

1

81

1

92

2

10 2 2

2

1
1

3
4

7

1

1

38

50

w

1

4

2

114

5

20

1

4

2

1

2

4
4
2
2
3

1 1
3

72
73
74
75
76

78
79
80
81
82
83
84

85
86
87

1
1
5
5

7
1

2
4

8

69
70
71

77

3

2

6

84

i

57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

3
1

1
7
1

1
4
4
1
1

1
1
3
2

1 1
4

1

1
1

4

3
1

1

1

2

i




89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97

1

9 39f cents per hour.
1 6 at 37| cents, 14 at 43| cents, and 2 at 50 cents per hour.
0
1 1 at 38^ cents, 2 at 39A cents, and 1 at 42ft cents per hour.
1
1 2 1 at 15 cents, and 3 at 17| cents per hour.
13 38-& cents per hour.
14 39^ cents per hour.
1 5 1 at 13 cents, and 2 at 17 cents per hour.
161 at 12! cent's, 1 at 15 cents, 1 at 1&& cents, and 3 at 17x cents per hour.
%
17 1 at 16 cents, and 3 at 17£ cents per hour.

88

CHAPTER VI.— ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND
EMPLOYEES.
AMERICAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY ASSOCIATION,

The American Street Railway Association (now the American Elec­
tric Railway Association) was organized at Boston on December 13,
1882, by 56 street railway men of the United States.
The plan of organization was conceived by about a dozen interested
street railway officials scattered throughout the country, who had
been considering the idea for more than a year prior to the formation
of the association. Just prior to the Boston convention much
missionary work had been done by the original promoters through­
out the Middle West in the interest of closer relationship between
street railway companies, and the following letter had been mailed to
all street railway companies throughout the United States and
Canada:
L o u i s v i l l e C i t y R a i l w a y C o .,
L o u i s v i l l e , K y ., N ov em b er 8, 1882.

: Permit me to call your attention to a matter which has for some time been
considered by a number of street railroad men, viz.: The formation of an association
based upon well established principles governing similar organizations, the object of
which shall be the promotion and advancement of knowledge, scientific and practical,
in all matters relating to the construction, equipment and management of street
railways; the establishment and maintenance of a spirit of fraternity among the
members of the association, by social intercourse and friendly interchange of informa­
tion and ideas, to the end that the best service may be obtained at the least possible
cost.
With this object in view I have been requested by a number of street railway
officials both in the East and the West to issue this circular, and urge that your com­
pany send a representative to a convention to be held in the city of Boston, on the
12th day of December, 1882, for the purpose of organizing and adopting a constitution
for the government of such an organization.
It is expected that most of the prominent street railroad companies in the United
States will be represented. Will you be kind enough to notify Mr. J. E. Rugg,
superintendent, Highland Street Railway Co., Boston, Mass., at once whether your
company will send delegates, in order that adequate accomodations for the convention
may be made in advance? As soon as replies are received arrangements will be made,
and you will be notified of the location and the hour the convention will meet.
Very respectfully,
( S i g n e d ) ------------------- ,
Superintendent, Louisville City Railway Co.
D e a r S ir

250




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES.

251

The growth of the association as well as the growth of the industry
are set forth in the journal of the association—Aera, of April, 1915
(pp. 980-983), as follows:
There was at that time [1882] in the United States and Canada an
investment of $150,000,000 in street railway properties, while 3,000
miles of track and 35,000 employees composed the total mileage
and employees of the companies who carried for that year 1 ,2 1 2 ,400.000 passengers. To-day [1915], however, instead of an invest­
ment of $150,000,000 there are more than $4,000,000,000 so invested;
instead of 3,000 miles of track there are 43,000 miles— 37,000 miles,
or 86 per cent, being mileage of association companies; instead of
35.000 employees there are 300,000 and instead of a billion and a
quarter passengers being carried more than 1 2 ,000 ,000,000 passen;ers are carried, or an equivalent of more than seven times the popuation of the globe. Further, of the $533,000,000 gross earnings of
electric railway companies of the United States and Canada, $500,000,000, or 94 per cent, is earned by companies who are members
of this association. Instead of there being 62 companies represented
in the association as in 1882 there are now 400. Substantially every
street railway company in the United States and Canada of any size
is a member of this association. * * * There can be little doubt,
therefore, that the American Association with its affiliated associa­
tions, including the manufacturers, does substantially represent the
entire electric railway industry in North America.
The association first opened offices in Brooklyn. In 1896 they
were transferred to Chicago and later moved to New York City.
The present location is No. 8 West Fortieth Street, New York City.

f

THE ERA OF HORSE RAILWAYS.

During the first few annual conventions of the association much
time was spent in discussion of such problems as what were the
best remedies for numerous horse diseases.
Those were the days of the horse railway, and members were
then all “ hoss-car” men and naturally interested in matters con­
cerning the care of horses. A most instructive as well as interesting
report to one of those early conventions was that made by the Com­
mittee on Stables and Care of Horses to the third annual meeting
of the association held at New York City October 15, 1884.
ADOPTION OF THE CABLE SYSTEM.

During the transitional period from animal to electric power on
the street railways of the country the proceedings of the annual
meetings of the association were largely taken up with the considera­
tion of the application of electricity t o .transportation purposes.
It was believed that the substitution of electricity for animal
power would elevate the business to a higher plane. Attention
became directed to the application of better methods, better service,
and generally better appliances.




252

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

The apparent attitude of the association in this regard was very
aptly expressed by Mr. C. Densmore Wyman in a response to “ Our
Association’ ’ at the thirteenth annual meeting held at Atlanta, Ga.,
October 17-19, 1894, in which he said:
We soon found we wanted something better for our use in the
conduct of our roads, and questioning each other we discovered
that our longing for growth and development was mutual and allabsorbing. So with one accord we placarded the walls of our con­
vention hall with great interrogation points and to them we called
the attention of the inventive genius and intelligence of our country.
We said to them, “ Come and help us.”
The cable men responded and the electric inventor said “ Here!”
and to our meetings by invitation came such experts and skilled
workers in the departments of science and engineering as Van Depoele
and Edison, Westinghouse and Short, Sprague and a host of others,
who sat down and told the story of what might be and predicted
what was to come. We were eager seekers, earnest listeners and
honest believers, and we were hungry for help.
* * * Our sole aim, as so well expressed in our constitution,
is the “ acquisition of experimental, statistical, and scientific knowl­
edge relating to the construction, equipment, and operation of street
railways and the diffusion of this knowledge among the members of
the association, with the view of increasing the accommodation of
the passengers, improving the service, and reducing its cost.
Among the earlier reports to the annual meetings of the associa­
tion and at the time of the first period of transition from animal
power to endless cables there was issued a report by the Committee
on The Cable System of Motive Power. This report occasioned
much discussion, as did a subsequent report on the “ Progress of the
cable system as a motive power, for the reason that there was serious
doubt as to its universal application as a motive power.” The first
report was made to the third annual meeting held in New York
City October 15, 1884.
As showing the problems before the association at that time and
the development of the cable system, the following extracts are
quoted from the report of the Committee on the Cable System of
Motive Power, as published in the proceedings of the third annual
meeting of the association, held in New York City, October 15, 1884,
pages 145 to 148.
* * * The fertile genius of Mr. A. S. Hallidie conceived the idea
that transportation, which could not be accomplished by animal
power, might be secured by endless ropes, and to him and his asso­
ciates all credit is due for the first successful construction and opera­
tion of the system, 11 years ago [1873].
What seems so easy and natural in the retrospect lay before those
men an untried, and in the opinion of many, a foolhardy under­
taking. The money invested was regarded as squandered, and the
whole scheme a trifling with the impossible. But through innumer­
able difficulties and trials they persevered, until intelligent experi­




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES.

253

ment and dauntless courage wrought success. Clay Street Hill (San
Francisco) became world-renowned for its novel and ingenious rail­
way, the advantages of which soon caused parallel lines on steep
grades to be constructed on Sutter Street, California Street, Geary
Street, Union Street, and recently one on the more level line of Market
Street and its branches.
After the first four lines had been built, covering short distances
and carrying few people, a road was constructed in Chicago in 1881.
The latter city claims not one iota of credit for the invention of the
cable system, but did undertake the somewhat serious task of demon­
strating:
First, that the system could be utilized in a region of harsh winters,
deep snow, and frost, the antipodes of the balmy climate and per­
petual summer of California; and
Second, that it could be expanded into a suitable system for moving
the vast population of our largest cities.
The former could not be accomplished by any fragile construction,
but required great strength and compactness to resist the strains
inevitable in a large commercial city and the powerful pressure of the
frost in a northern winter. The latter could not be accomplished by
any mile, or mile and a half, of timid trying; but with unshaken faith
in its method of construction and the possibilities of the system,
20 miles of track were constructed, and the daily transportation
of 10 0,00 0 people attained, with the ability to move five times as
many.
In addition to the lines indicated above, cars have been moved by
cable for 15 months over the New York and Brooklyn Bridge; an
extensive system is building in Philadelphia; a line in New York; one
in Kansas City, and one in Hoboken, and comprehensive systems
have been proposed for New York and Brooklyn. Recently, under
the superintendence of American engineers, this purely American
system has been introduced and short lines constructed in London,
England, South Wales, and New Zealand.
* * * In Chicago a speed of S i miles an hour is attained over
one-half the lines, and 9J miles over the other half, except in a few
places, where the speed is one-half the above rates, and can be made
as much less at any point, as may be desired.
* * * In hilly sections, where horses and locomotives would be
useless for the purpose, the cable system can move cars as quickly
and swiftly as on a level road; and on level roads it is found to be only
one-half as expensive in operation as the ordinary horse railway sys­
tem, while its capacity for moving vast numbers of people is prac­
tically unlimited.
* * * As regards humanity for horses and consideration for the
nerves of passengers, it commends itself to all. In point of cleanli­
ness, a system which saves the use of thousands of animals in a city
is of great sanitary value, and the comparative quietness of its opera­
tion is highly appreciated by those who reside beside it.
ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVE POWER.

The possibility of electricity as a motive power was the leading
topic presented and discussed at the meetings of the association
beginning with the year 1885. Little progress had been made in the




254

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

application of electricity to the moving of cars prior to 1888, although
the solution of the problem was deemed not far distant. A t the
annual meeting in 1890 the president of the association stated that
there were 1,600 miles of electric street railways in the country, and
he predicted that electricity would be the coming power for street
railways (except on heavy grades, where cable is best suited), which
would prove so effective as a means of rapid transit for cities that
later conventions of the association never would seriously consider
horses for the operation of street railways
In the 1 1 years from 1890 to 1901 the mileage of electric street
railways increased from about 1,600 miles to approximately 25,000
miles.
Probably the greatest activity displayed daring the years 1901 and
1902 was the development of the suburban and interurban proper­
ties, as distinguished from the purely local service of city companies.
The development became notable not only in increased mileage, but
in equipment and volume of business transacted, plus the extent of
the field occupied and the service rendered. Another striking devel­
opment was toward consolidation of the street railway properties in
the smaller cities with electric and gas lighting companies.
The electrification of certain portions of some of the great steam
railroads had begun to show progress by 1906. A campaign for the
consolidation of small street railway properties into large and strong
organizations was undertaken b y the steam railroads. It was claimed
that these larger organizations had the means to employ men of
greater skill and experience in the mechanical and operating depart­
ments, to provide better tracks and equipment, and to give better
service than would be possible for small and financially weak com­
panies.
The extension of electric railway service introduced new problems
for discussion into the annual meetings, such as fares; transporta­
tion of freight; operating expenses; the most advanced electrical
engineering methods, not only in the transmission of the power at
high voltage necessary to operate cars, but in the car equipment as
well; electric-welded joints; and right of way. The papers presented
on these subjects at the annual meetings became highly technical,
and often were read by men of note in the scientific world.
The growth of the association, as presented elsewhere, seems to
have kept pace with the development of the industry. The history
of the association is similar to that of the industry itself, which has
been one of constant growth and development, from the original
small group of 56 street-railway men meeting in Boston in 1882, to
the present huge association of electric railway men in 1915, with a
membership representing 94 per cent of the gross earnings of all
electric railway companies of the United States and Canada.




CHAP. V I.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. 2 5 5

The development of the industry was summed up by the president
of the American Electric Railway Association at the 1908 convention
as follows : 1
First. The old horse car carrying from 16 to 20 passengers, with one
man serving in the dual capacity of driver and conductor, the pas­
senger depositing his fare in a box provided for that purpose.
Second. The discarding and consigning to the scrap pile of the
original horse cars and light track and the substitution of larger and
more modern cars and heavier track.
Third. The discarding and consigning to the scrap pile of the entire
horse railway system and the substitution of the underground cable
railway system, requiring power houses and new cars, as well as the
entire reconstruction of roadbed and track.
Fourth. The discarding and consigning to the scrap pile of the
entire underground cable railway system, with all its expensive con­
struction and appliances and the substitution of the originally invented
system of street railways propelled by electric power.
Within a short time .following these changes began the discarding
of the original equipment of electric street railways, including powergenerating apparatus and machinery, tracks and cars, and the sub­
stitution continuously thereafter, from year to year, of the latest type
of electric apparatus manufactured with high power and large capac­
ity, heavier track and construction, as well as modem street cars.
EDUCATION OF STREET RAILWAY LABOR.

As the street railway became more necessary to the public a higher
standard was required of employees. More attention was paid to
their qualifications and training. The instruction car and other edu­
cational apparatus became regular features of the equipment of many
of the larger companies. All motormen were required to demonstrate
their ability to operate a car before they were assigned to cars. In
addition, in some instances, such instruction was supplemented by
schools where lectures were given on technical and popular subjects
by men of prominence in the street railway world. It w^s believed
that as the conditions attending street and interurban railway employ­
ment were continually being improved, the business becoming firmly
established, standardized, and recognized as one offering solid and
substantial rewards, men would take it up as a life work.
In the report of the Committee on Labor and the Graduated System
of Compensation made to the meeting of the association in 1884 a sug­
gestion was made as to the attitude a company should assume toward
its employees and the graduated system of compensation, now so
general, was advocated. Extracts from the report follow:
LABOR AND THE GRADUATED SYSTEM OF COMPENSATION.

The labor system of street railway companies has this peculiarity,
viz: It is intimately connected with metropolitan society, and is con­
sequently much exposed to disturbing influences; it is also distin­




i Volume III of the Annual Meetings, p. 99.

256

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

guished by the fact that the entire income of the corporation is col­
lected in small amounts by a numerous set of employees. These fea­
tures render its regulation a matter of considerable perplexity and
make it all the more important that it should be systematized on
simple, practical principles.
Street railways are public carriers running through dense popu­
lations, their relations to the public being determined in a large meas­
ure by their employees. Hence it is that at the outset of an inquiry
as to the best means of regulating their labor system arises the obvious
necessity for mutual good will between the companies and the labor
they control.
* * * From a purely business standpoint it is true of all forms
in which invested capital depends for returns on regular, continuous
labor that to awake in the employees an interest in their duties and a
personal friendliness toward the corporation employing them is the
best basis for permanent profits.
* * * It should be a settled principle that discharges, as far as
possible, shall not be capricious or without cause and that promotions
will be made on the basis of length of service and personal merit.
The labor system of an ordinary line is not sufficiently varied or exten­
sive to embrace a regular scale of promotions, but the principle should
be recognized and established that the management is influenced by
the relative merits of their employees, that there is no favoritism
tolerated, and that a faithful and efficient man will not be overlooked
nor unfairly treated. When the men are educated or understand this,
an esprit du corps will gradually spring up and a guaranty of good
work secured obtainable in no other way. In enforcing a system of
fair promotions and a strictly equitable treatment of labor much
dependence must necessarily be placed upon the reports of under­
officers. It is therefore of essential importance that they should be
honorable and just men, as well as energetic and vigilant, and that
their reports should be reviewed carefully by the chief executive
officer, through whose individuality flows the inspiration of manage­
ment. A graduated system of compensation regulated according to
length of service and general efficiency would also, if judiciously intro­
duced, be productive of beneficial results. Such a system could not
be created summarily, but by establishing conditions as to the filling
of vacancies and fixing a lower rate of pay for new appointees and the
terms upon which their advancement will take place a complete sys­
tem may soon be created, the features of which can be adjusted to suit
the particular circumstances surrounding the operation of each indi­
vidual line. A man who possesses experience and whom the company
has tested and found reliable and competent is certainly worth more
wages than a comparatively new appointee. His services are more
pecuniarly profitable, and there is a corresponding loss when a new
man is placed upon the same footing.
A graduated system of compensation should be based upon a
permanent and well known classification of the men, and b y this
means there might be, if desirable, a saving of wages and a oetter
recognition of individual merit and demerit. The system once estab­
lished would tend to promote fidelity and self-respect among the
employees. Seeing its justice, they would cooperate in its main­
tenance; and at the same time, it would improve the relation of




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES. 2 5 7

capital to labor, and give to the men a stronger personal interest
in the permanency of their employment.
The use of all kinds of registers and other detective arrangements
and contrivances simply expresses distrust; all of them represent
the same efforts of experience and ingenuity to devise a substitute
for personal honesty; all of them are imperfect and irritating, tending
to blunt moral sensibilities, and foster want of confidence.
It is true, undoubtedly, that these devices can not be dispensed
with under the conditions that now exist, and the views here expressed
have reference rather to general principles of the regulation of labor,
than to the details of detective measures; yet we can not fail to see
in their introduction a great disturbing element. We will not, there­
fore, discuss the relative values of the various contrivances, but insist
that, were it an established fact, that these artificial means were
indispensable, yet even then the principles herein set forth ought to
control the labor system of street railways. The losses incurred by
strikes, from which we have not been exempt; the ceaseless dis­
cussion of the relation between labor and capital, incident to modern
times; and the increasing sensitiveness of capital to social disquiet,
all unmistakably suggest that, so far as possible, corporations em­
ploying large forces of men should ground their policy on equity,
avoid unnecessary antagonism, and consequent hostile legislation.
We owe this duty to society, and we owe it to the large interests con­
fided to our charge. It may be impossible to prevent occasional dis­
putes, but when they arise, we should not be found evidently in the
wrong, and bearing the stigma of oppressing labor, or of neglecting
wise and just rules for its employment and control.
REORGANIZATION PERIOD

In 1903 there began, among those interested in electric transporta­
tion, an effort to broaden the scope of the activities of the association.
Prior to 1904 the association was known as the American Street
Railway Association and held meetings annually. The work of this
association consisted mainly of the presentation of reports and of an
exchange of opinions or experiences regarding the handling of the
problems on the different street railway properties, but no plan had
been developed to establish an association which would embrace the
numerous allied electrical railway activities.
The president of the association in his address to the twenty-first
annual meeting held at Detroit, Mich., in 1902, pointed out that— .
It may seem desirable to welcome the participation of all com­
panies engaged in electric railway transportation for the reason that
there is no organization in the country which has accomplished so ,
much, or at its annual conventions and exhibitions can aiford any­
where near the same opportunity for instruction to those interested
in electric transportation in its different phases. Heretofore no
manager or engineer of a trunk line company which is contemplating
or has installed a system of electric traction, could join this associa­
tion except as a representative of some street railway company; but
in view of the interest which is being taken in electric railway equip39749°—Bull. 204r—17------ 17




258

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

ment by some of the large trunk line interests and the undeniable
future which electric power will have for such transportation, es­
pecially for terminal and suburban work, the question will arise in
the near future, if it has not already done so, whether the benefits
which this association can confer are available for companies which
are not now eligible to membership.
At the St. Louis convention, held in 1904, it was felt that the asso­
ciation would be placed upon a much firmer basis by the formation
of a parent organization surrounded by affiliated and allied associa­
tions interested in the upbuilding of the electrical street railway
industry.
The convention of the association, held in 1903, had already
appointed a committee of five manufacturers, and it was empowered
to add five others, for the purpose of reporting on a plan of organiza­
tion, under which the annual exhibit should be taken charge of by the
manufacturers. On February 29, 1905, the plan of organization
reported by this committee was accepted by the American Street
Railway Association, which appointed a subcommittee to act with the
manufacturers. The first exhibition under the direction of the
Manufacturer's Association was held at the Philadelphia convention
in 1905. In 1906 a constitution and by-laws were adopted by the
manufacturers, who thus formed a permanent organization.
At the convention held in Philadelphia in 1905, the present form
of organization was adopted. At the same meeting the name of the
association was changed to the American Street and Interurban
Railway Association. In September, 1905, a secretary was appointed
to devote all his time to the association's affairs. At the 1910 con­
vention of the association the name was changed to The American
Electric Railway Association and the names of the affiliated and
allied associations altered to comply with such change.
The constitution as amended to January 1 , 1914, here quoted in
part, sets forth the objects and character of membership of the associ­
ation.
CONSTITUTION.
NAME AND LOCATION.

I. (a) The name of the association shall be the “ American Electric Railway Asso­
ciation.”
(6) The headquarters of the association shall be located in the city of New York.
o b je c ts.

II. The objects of the association shall be as follows:
(а) The discussion and recommendation of methods of construction, management,
and operation of urban and interurban railways and the electrified sections of steam
railways, and of safeguarding the interests of the same.
(б) The establishment and maintenance of a spirit of cooperation among the mem­
bers, and the encouragement of friendly relations between the companies and the
public.




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. 2 5 9

(c) The acquisition of experimental, statistical, and scientific knowledge relating
to the construction, equipment, and operation of urban and interurban railways, ana
of the electrified sections of steam railways and the diffusion of this knowledge among
the members.
MEM BERSHIP.

III. The membership of this association shall consist of two classes, as follows:
(a) Company members^ consisting of American urban and interurban railway com­
panies, or lessees, or individual owners of urban and interurban railways or steam
railways having electrified sections. Each member company shall be entitled to one
vote, which shall be cast by the properly accredited delegate.
(b) Members, consisting of individuals, copartnerships, and corporations who are
actively identified with urban and interurban railway interests, or with those of steam
railways having electrified sections, and other persons who, in the opinion of the
executive committee, have had experience of such a nature as to render desirable
their connection with the association. Members may ally themselves either directly
with the American Association or with its Engineering Association, its Claim Agents’
Association, or its Transportation and Traffic Association, provided such membership
conforms to the constitution and by-laws of the designated organization. Only those
eligible, as determined by its executive committee, to the^ executive sessions of the
American Association conventions may be allied directly with the American Associa­
tion. Excepting that they shall not be entitled to vote or hold office, the privileges
of the members shall be similar to those of the company members. * * *
(c) Associations of electric railway companies, or of individuals engaged in or
affiliated with the electric railway business in the United States or other countries,
organized for the purpose of the advancement and protection of the interests of the
electric railway industry and for the purpose of dealing with specific local problems
affecting their respective countries, sections, or localities, may, upon application,
become sectional associations of this association, and the relationship between such
associations and this association shall be governed and controlled as follows:
1. The membership of such sectional associations shall be composed of company
members, or individual members, who are members of this association.
2. A committee of this association shall be appointed to promote the welfare
of such sectional associations, and is to be known as the committee on sectional
associations. * * *
3. Sectional associations shall be entitled to all the benefits and privileges enjoyed
by members of this association, except the right to vote, without the payment of any
membership dues other than those paid by the company or individual members of
such sectional association as members of this association.
(d) Foreign members consisting of urban and interurban railway companies or
lessees or individual owners of urban and interurban or steam railways having elec­
trified sections, located outside of the United States of America and its possessions,
Canada, and Mexico. Each member shall be entitled to one vote, which shall be cast
by the properly accredited representative. * * *
THE EXEC U TIVE COMMITTEE.

VI. (a) The entire charge and management of the affairs of the association shall be
in the hands of an executive committee. * * *
AFFILIATED ASSOCIATIONS.

X II. This association shall do all in its power to promote the welfare of other asso­
ciations organized with its approval to investigate technical matters connected with
street and interurban railway construction and operation. To this end it will, in the
following ways, and in others which may be determined by the executive committee,
assist in the work of such affiliated associations:
(a) By authorizing the formation and approving the constitutions of such associa­
tions.
(b) By admitting to the executive committee a member from each of such associa­
tions.
By granting financial assistance to such associations.
By editing, printing, and binding the*reports of the proceedings of such associa­
tions.
(e) Through its secretary and executive committee it will assist in arranging for
conventions, suggesting suitable subjects for investigation; it will file information for
reference and distribution and in every way endeavor to stimulate interest in all of
the affiliated associations.

S




260

STBEET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
FEES.

The association has an admission fee of $ 1 0 for each company
joining and annual dues depending on the gross receipts of the com­
pany represented, varying from $25 to $750. The dues of individual
members are $5 per year.
CODE OF PRINCIPLES.

The attitude of the association on the relations of street railways
to the public is set forth in a code of principles adopted at the con­
vention held in 1914.
CODE OF PRINCIPLES.

1. The first obligation of public utilities engaged in transportation is service to the
public. The first essential of service is safety.
Quality of service must primarily depend upon the money received in fares. For
this reason it is necessary that the rate of fare should be sufficient to permit the com­
panies to meet the reasonable demands of patrons and to yield a fair return on a fair
capitalization.
2. Regulated private ownership and operation of electric railways is more conducive
to good service and the public welfare than Government ownership and operation
because the latter are incompatible with administrative initiative, economy, and effi­
ciency, and with the proper development of cities through the extension of trans­
portation lines. The interests of the public are fully protected by the authority
given to regulatory bodies.
3. In the interest of the public and good service local transportation should be a
monopoly and should be subject to regulation and protection by the State rather than
by .local authorities.
4. Short-term franchises are detrimental to civic welfare and growth because they
ultimately check the extension of facilities and discourage good service.
5. In order to render good service, electric railways must be allowed to earn a fair
return on a fair capitalization^ and the foundation for this result will be obtained if
the issuance and sale of securities representing such fair capitalization shall be legally
authorized on such terms as will produce the requisite funds.
6. Securities which have been issued in accordance with the law as it has been
interpreted in the past should be valid obligations on which an electric railway is
entitled to a fair return.
7. The relation of adequate wages to efficient operation should always be recognized,
but electric railways, being public servants regulated by public authorities, should
be protected against excessive demands of labor and strikes.
8. The principle of ownership of securities of local companies by centralized hold­
ing companies is economically sound for the reason that the securities of the latter
have protection against the varying business conditions of a single locality or company
and because money for construction and improvements can thus be more readily
obtained.
9. In the appraisal of an electric railway for the purpose of determining reasonable
rates, all methods of valuation should have due consideration.
10. Full and frank publicity should be the policy of all transportation companies
to the end that proper information may be available to the investor and the public.
SCOPE AN D W O RK OF ASSOCIATIONS.

Individual members may affiliate with such association as they choose or may, upon
payment of dues to each, affiliate with two or more associations. In general, the scope
of the various associations is:
^American Association.—In general the fulfillment of the object set forth in the Sec­
tion B of Clause II of the constitution, as follows: “ The establishment and mainte­
nance of a spirit of cooperation among the members and the encouragement of friendly
relations between the companies and the public, and in particular the consideration
of matters concerning general welfare, public policy, fares, taxation, insurance, gen­
eral policy, and kindred subjects.’ ’
Accountants' Association.—The consideration of questions relative to the standardi­
zation of accounts and reports and other matters relating to accounting for electric
railways.




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES. 2 6 1
Engineering Association.—The consideration of engineering questions covering con­
struction and maintenance of electric railway equipment and apparatus, standardiza­
tion, block signals, multiple-unit operation, etc.
Claims Association.—The consideration of work for the prevention of accidents, the
reduction of the damages account, the maintenance of an index bureau service, and
other matters relating to the claims department of an electric railway.
Transportation and Traffic Association.—The consideration of general operating
methods in detail, rules, freight and express, time-tables, the hiring and training of
employes, block signals, multiple-unit operation, and other matters relative to traffic
and transportation.
Sectional associations.—To avoid duplication of work and to knit together all organi­
zations having as their general purpose the advancement of electric railway interests,
and to establish cooperation between the American Electric Railway Association and
other organizations, representing sections of the United States and foreign countries,
provision for close relationship with such organizations is made. When membership
in such association is confined to member companies and individual members of the
American Electric Railway Association, such organizations may become affiliated
with the parent association, and their presidents, in this event, become ex officio
members of the committee on sectional associations.
Company sections.—Company sections may be formed on the property of any mem­
ber company or group of member companies, provided the membership be confined
to company and individual members of the parent association. A committee of the
parent association looks after the organization and interest of such sections.
THE W O R K OF COMMITTEES.

The work of the parent association and its affiliated associations is largely done
through committees. As the constitution of each of these bodies leaves their man­
agement to their executive committee, it is the practice to have the working com.
mittees appointed by the presidents with the approval of the executive committeesW O R K OF H EA DQ U AR TE RS.

.

Supplementing the work of the committees is that performed by the various bureauseither under the direction of committees or under the personal supervision of the
secretary and by the office force at the association’s headquarters. Among the most
important of these activities are:
Information bureau.—It is the function of this bureau, which is under the direction
of the secretary, to collect and compile information on subjects relating to manage­
ment, operation, and other subjects of interest to member companies.
Insurance bureau.—The work of the insurance bureau is in charge of an insurance
expert, under whom is a chief engineer. The bureau is under the direction of the
committee on insurance. It began its labors by collecting data which proved that
basic rates and deficiency charges on electric railway properties were excessive; it
worked out plans and specifications for the protection of electric railway properties
and it formed, ready for operation, an insurance company among electric railway and
light companies, for the purpose of carrying the insurance on their own properties.
The committee on insurance cooperated with the National Fire Protection Associa­
tion in improving conditions surrounding electric railway property and the old line
companies offered their cooperation and organized the Central Traction and Lighting
Bureau, which had charge for the insurance companies of insurance on electric railway
and lighting properties and through which negotiations could be conducted for better
conditions and rates.
The insurance bureau, through its experts, conducts such negotiations; it examines,
recommends, and oversees changes and improvements in conditions surrounding the
property of its members and suggests and oversees the installation of fire protective
apparatus; it is in touch and acts for its members in arranging for rates and conditions
with the old line insurance companies, factory mutual companies, State rating bureaus;
represents the association in the National Fire Protection Association and in fact
assists in every way its members in all matters connected with insurance.

The cost of membership in this bureau varies with the gross receipts
of the company.
Educational courses.—Two educational courses for officers and employees of electric
railway companies are conducted under the auspices of committees of the association.
The courses for shopmen and others connected with the mechanical and electrical
departments are conducted by a correspondence school with the committee on education
of the American Association acting in an advisory capacity.




262

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

The following courses are offered to electric railway employees:
A.
B.
C.
D.

Mechanical shop course. (1) Forge and blacksmith work; (2) machine work.
Electrical shop course.
Line and track work course. (1) Outside line work; (2) track work.
Power house and substation course.

Varying fees are charged for these courses.
The course for accountants is conducted by John R. Wildman, C. P. A., professor
of accounting, New York University School of Commerce, Accounts, and Finance,
under the auspices of the committee on education of the Accountants’ Association.
The topics for the first year are as follows:
1. The purpose and scope of accounting.
2. The relation of accounting to allied subjects such as economics, law, finance, and
organization.
3. The method of keeping books and the media for recording financial transactions.
4. Accounts; their philosophy, construction, and classification.
5. Discussion of the balance-sheet accounts.
6. Discussion of the revenue and expense accounts.
7. Preparation, interpretation, and use of balance sheets, income statements, etc.
8. Graphs, charts, and statistics as aids to operation and management.
The topics for the second year embrace the following subjects:
1. Organization and development.
2. Operation.
3. Merger.
4. Consolidation.
5. Holding company.
6. Receivership.
7. Reorganization.
8. Dissolution.
Identification bureau.—This association is a member of the --------- Information
Bureau, and through this membership the services of this concern are thrown open to
every member company.
T h e ---------Information Bureau is a clearing house for the exchange between trans­
portation and accident insurance companies of information concerning claimants for
personal-injury damages.
Bureau of fare research.—This bureau began operation in 1914. Its province is to
study the problems of rates and fares. It has to do with the costs of service, the
relation between revenues received and services rendered, and fare and rate read­
justments. The bureau receives monthly reports of operating statistics from the
companies.

Bureau of public relations.— At its convention in 1914 the associa­
tion authorized its committee on public relations to proceed with
the establishment of a bureau of public relations, under the super­
vision of a director, whose appointment is in the hands of the commit­
tee which has general charge of the bureau’s activities.
The work of the bureau was outlined in the report of the committee
as follows:
I. The dissemination of information and literature on subjects of general importance
to public service corporations, including particularly:
(a) Relations with employees.
(b) Public relations.
(c) Regulatory laws and commissions.
(d) Publicity concerning facilities, service, and accounts.
(e) Rate making.
(/) Depreciation and reserve accounts.
(g) Taxation.
(h) Franchises.
The above contemplates close association between the bureau and member com­
panies of the association as to the furnishing and distribution of reports, information,
and statistics, and it is suggested that each member company be requested to designate
a representative through whom correspondence with the bureau may be conducted.
II. Cooperation with similar committees of other public service associations.




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. 2 6 3

III. Influencing the sources of public education, particularly by:
(a) Lectures on the Chautauqua circuits.
( b) Formation of a committee of prominent technical educators to promote the for­
mulation and teaching of correct principles and public service questions in technical
and economic departments of American colleges through courses of lectures and other­
wise.
(c) Formation of a similar committee in each of the great technical societies, such
as the electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, civil engineers, chemists, hydraulic
engineers, telephone engineers.
(d) Formation of a similar committee to work in connection with the various civic
and economic societies.
(e) Discussions at institutions of learning and Young Men’s Christian Associations
on subjects pertinent to the relations between the public and service corporations.
IV. The publication in magazines and periodicals of signed popular articles on
public service questions by prominent workers in the electric railway industry.
Y. Newspaper advertising when desirable and financially possible.
Monthly magazine.—A era is the'monthly magazine of the association. Its publica­
tion is under the direction of the secretary of the association and an advisory com­
mittee, upon which each affiliated and allied association is represented.

ORGANIZATION OF STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYEES.

It is not the purpose here to trace in minute detail the history of
organization among street railway employees, but tq presen-t as
accurately as possible the salient features in the development of the
aims and objects of the association.
The composition of the organization of street railway employees
is singularly different from that of any other industrial association.
The membership is peculiar to itself. Acquisition is made from all
crafts and callings in the world of industry. Few continue in the
service and grow old as street railway men. The great majority who
engage in these occupations soon leave to take up active careers in
other lines.
During the past 40 years occupations in street railway service have
undergone a tremendous change. The occupation commonly known
as "street car man” had its origin in November, 1832, contemporary
with the actual operation of the* first street railway line built in
America, the horse car line running from Fourteenth Street to
City Hall in the city of New York. The equipment comprising the
early systems was known as the one-horse “ pay-box” systems,
there being no one but a driver in charge of the car, fares being
deposited by passengers into a box arranged in the front end of the
car. As street railways developed this style of car was changed to
what was known as the “ two-horse ” car. The street car man of those
days was engaged more particularly for his skill in the handling and
care of horses than for his ability to handle traffic. The terms
familiar to the public in the old horse-car days were conductors,
drivers,, truck drivers, head changers, hostlers, hitchers, tow boys,
snow-plow drivers, sweeper drivers, harness cleaners, car cleaners,
lamp men, feed men, and helpers.
With the advent of the “ two-horse” car, carrying a conductor,
came the abolition of the pay-box, system. Following this came




264

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

the introduction of large, heavy, double-truck cars, subways, and ele­
vated systems, electric power, and air brakes. With this approach
of modern electric street railroading came the development of responsi­
bility and necessarily the requirement of a higher type of skill in its
operation.
Consistent with the transition in street railway equipment and serv­
ice there naturally developed a change in the types of membership
of the organization of street railway men. Originally only drivers
and conductors were enrolled as members of the association; the
organization now embraces the entire range of street railway employ­
ments, including repair-shop and power-house men.
EARLY ORGANIZATION UNDER THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR.

The first horse railroad employee to join the Knights of Labor in
New York was initiated in a printers' local assembly. A printer
riding up and down on the cars entered into conversation with the
driver, and showed him the advantages of b^ing a knight. The
driver was convinced, made application, was initiated, and finally
persuaded 13 more drivers to join. Thev then obtained transfer
cards, and started the first local assembly 01 horse railroad employees,
in September, 1883. Owing to the opposition of the railroad officials,
great caution at first was necessary. By December the membership
was increased to about 500, and another local assembly was formed
in East New York. Then assemblies were formed in Flatbush in
January, 1884; and in Greenwood and at Greenpoint in February.
A traitor to the cause obtained entrance to the first assembly
organized, and gave to the company's officials a copy of the consti­
tution, the names of the officers of the assembly, and of those most
active in its interests. Soon after this information was given, 3 of
the officers and about 20 members were discharged by the company.
This caused a panic in the organization and the railroad employees
feared to visit any assembly, knowing they would be discharged if
such visits were found out. The company's inspectors and superin­
tendents followed the men after they were through work for the day
to see where they went and where the meetings were held, and
those seen attending the meetings were discharged. This caused
the assembly, which numbered 600, to drop to 13 members in good
standing in three months. These, however, determined to carry on
the cause they had espoused, and to form a district assembly of their
own. In July, 1884, a district charter was procured from the
Knights of Labor. At first it was impossible to procure mem­
bers, owing to the terrible boycott of the companies. But in Septem­
ber 1 1 men were socured to start the first assembly in New York.
This assembly prospered until January, 1885, when 40 of its members
were discharged by their employers, and the work of organization
was checked .1
The next attempt was made on the “ East Side," where 3 drivers met
in a basement, knowing well what would become of them if the com­
pany knew they had joined the Knights of Labor. Working cau­
1 The Labor Movement—The Problem of To-day. George McNeill, Ch. XIV, pp. 383,384.




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. 2 6 5

tiously they secured 3 more within a week. In another week these
6 secured 2 2 , who started the assembly which conducted the strike
on the Third Avenue line. The second assembly on the “ East Side”
started with 9 members, who worked so carefully that none were
discharged for being members of the order. Another assembly was
formed on the “ West Side” in July, 1885. These four assemblies
each initiated some 200 members weekly, until, by January, 1886,
nearly all the horse-car drivers in New York had been initiated.
After this was accomplished they began to initiate the conductors, and
in a few weeks succeeded in getting all of them.
Following the victory of organization in New York City and the
general agitation for the 8 -hour workday by the organized forces of
labor throughout the country, in May of the same year, 1886, the
street car men of the various cities were encouraged to organize, and,
as a result, organizations sprang up in most of the leading cities of
the country, and through these organizations the 16 and 18 hour
workdays which had universally prevailed previous to this time were
wiped out, and the 1 2 -hour day was established.1
ORGANIZATION UNDER THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR.

Notwithstanding the conspicuous successes of organization many
of the local assemblies were immediately abandoned. This is
accounted for by the fact that many of the members of the hastily
organized assemblies of the Knights of Labor knew comparatively
little of the aims and objects of the labor movement, and therefore
believed that when a single victory had been won there was no need
for further continuance of an organization. Moreover, the methods
of handling grievances of street railway men by the Knights of
Labor were unsatisfactory, inasmuch as men unacquainted with
street railway conditions or street railway occupations were often
delegated to meet the companies in an endeavor to adjust grievances.
Coupled with the decline in membership of street railway men in the
Knights of Labor, came a vigorous campaign of organization among
members of.this craft by the American Federation of Labor. In
the spring of 1888 the work of organizing street railway employees
into federal unions of their craft was undertaken by the American
Federation of Labor and pushed forward rapidly. The success
achieved apparently warranted the Federation of Labor at its Bir­
mingham convention December, 1891, in concentrating its efforts
to further organize the street railway employees into a national or
international union, and in accordance with instructions of the con­
vention a meeting for this purpose was held at Indianapolis, Ind.,
September 1 2 , 1892.
i The Labor Movement—The Problem of To-day.




George McNeill, Ch. XIV, pp. 383, 384.

266

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

In the call issued for the Indianapolis meeting, President Gompers,
of the American Federation of Labor, cited the necessity for solidarity
in the following language:
Many efforts have been made to organize the men who are employed by the street
railway companies, but only to a very limited extent have they been successful; and
then mainly upon the lines of local interests. Experience has demonstrated that
singly and alone unions have too often been defeated in the contests with concentrated
capital, and that if the toilers are seriously inclined to disenthrall themselves from the
slavery of long hours of burdensome toil, to improve their conditions, and participate
in some of the progresses and advantages of modern life, it is essential that they must
not only organize unions of their respective localities, but to have these unions formed
into a national organization, thus enabling all to concentrate their efforts upon a given
point to obtain success, where otherwise by isolated action defeat would necessarily
ensue.1

In response to the call, issued July 1 1 , 1892, representatives of 40
local organizations met at Mansur Hall, Indianapolis, Ind. There
were 51 delegates present, representing local organizations of the
Knights of Labor, federal unions of the American Federation of
Labor, and several who represented independent organizations of
street railway employees. After several inharmonious sessions, dur­
ing which the representatives of the Knights of Labor of New York
and Chicago argued against affiliation with the American Federation
of Labor, it was decided to form a national organization independent
of the American Federation of Labor or the Knights of Labor. It
was finally decided that the organization should be known as the
Amalgamated Association of Street Railway Employees of America.
During the first year of the life of the new national organization
little attention or direction was given to its growth by the general
officers. Considerable effort, however, was made to build up and
keep intact the local divisions, but by the time the second convention
assembled in Cleveland, Ohio, October 9, 1893, only 15 divisions were
represented. A complete change of front was announced by the
president of the national association and his recommendation of
affiliation with the American Federation was unanimously agreed
to by the convention. In accordance with this decision a telegram
was forwarded from the convention to the president of that body,
and a charter was issued by the American Federation of Labor to
the Amalgamated Association of Street Railway Employees of Amer­
ica November 8 , 1893.2
Among the many resolutions adopted by the second convention
was one which “ requested that each local division should set apart
one-half hour each meeting for a school of instruction in their duties
1 History of Organization Among the Street Railway Employees of America, by W . D. Mahon in the
Motorman and Conductor, March, 1909, p. 36.
2 In 1903 the name of the association was changed by adding the words “ and Electric ” after the word
“ street.”




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. 2 6 7

of properly operating and conducting their cars.” Probably the
most important action of this convention was the selection of a presi­
dent and the fixing of his salary at $800 per year, a reduction of $ 1 0 0
from that fixed for the president the previous year .1
During the year 1895 an official organ of the association, known as
“ The Motorman and Conductor,” was established. The objects
of this magazine are to act as a medium of communication between
the association and its members and between members of the associa­
tion and the labor movement in general, the education of electric
railway employees by imparting a practical knowledge of modern
and improved methods and systems of transportation and trade
matters generally, and the presentation of official records of the
association.
GROWTH OF THE ORGANIZATION.

During the spring of 1896 efforts were made to organize the eastern
cities. The president of the association and a eorps of organizers
took up the work in New York City, Buffalo, Syracuse, Pittsburgh,
Reading, and Baltimore. Their undertakings met with varying
success, but subsequent events would seem to indicate that the seed
sown developed later on into several comparatively healthy organiza­
tions.
The growth of organization was most rapid in the Middle West.
During the period of four years covering the existence of the
Amalgamated Association, or from September, 1892, to May, 1896,
there had been granted 77 charters for the institution of local divi­
sions. Only 1 1 of these charters were granted to eastern cities.
However, the association had up to this time invaded 20 different
States.
The instituting convention of 1892 comprised representatives from
Detroit, Mich.; Toledo, Canton, Columbus, Cleveland, and Youngs­
town, Ohio; Colorado Springs, Colo.; Milwaukee, Wis.; Indianapolis,
Fort Wayne, and Terre Haute, In d .; St. Louis, Mo.; Wheeling, W. Ya.;
Topeka, Kans.; Duluth, Minn.; Memphis, Tenn.; Chicago and Stony
Island, 111.; New Orleans, La.; New York, N. Y .; Tacoma, Wash.;
street and electric railway systems of 21 different cities with 51 dele­
gates representing various independent, Knights of Labor, and
American Federation of Labor federal unions.
At the founding of the organization, September 15, 1892, its
affiliated membership was 2,368. A year later, or October, 1893, the
association affiliated with the American Federation of Labor with a
membership reduced to 1,893. During the succeeding three years
its membership growth was irregular, but from the year 1896 the
i In 1913 the convention fixed the salary of the president at $6,000 per year.




268

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

growth has gradually increased until the year 1914 shows a member­
ship of 82,498. The divisions represented in the association in 1915
number 206, distributed through 33 different States.

Graphic Chart Showing
the

Membership Growth
of the

**

Association **

Dec.31,1914 ..82498
Dec.31,1913.. 76.112
Dec.51,1912.. 68,023.
Dee 31,1911.. 51*112
Dec.31,1910.. 52628
Dec.31.1909.. 50318
Dec.31,1908.. 44,837.
Dec.31,1907. .42219.
Dec.31,1906. .38563.
Dec.31,1905. ,36484
Dec.31.1904. .34,486-..
Dee.31,1903..33£26
Dec.31.1902..29.841
Dec.31,1901.. 16.267........................... ,
Dec.31,1900... 9579
Dec.31,1899... 8156
Dec.31.1898... 3.687.________
Dec.31.1897... 2846
Dec.31,1896.. 1.766...........
Dec.31.1895.. 3*964....... ,
Dec 31.1894.. lj667.
Dec. 31,1893.. 1396..,
September ~ 1892,
members represe­
nted in convention,

1893
J*

<r»

The constitution and general laws of the street railway employees’
association, which is here quoted in part, shows the object and
methods of the organization.




CHAP. V I.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES.

269

CONSTITUTION AND GENERAL LAWS.
NAM E.

Section 1. This organization shall be known as the Amalgamated Association of

Street and Electric Railway Employees of America, and shall consist of division
associations composed of street and electric railway employees.
S e c . 2. The following abbreviations, when used in the Amalgamated Association
of Street and Electric Railway Employees of America, shall have these meanings, viz:
A. A. of S. and E. R. E. of A.—Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric
Railway Employees of America.
I. P.—International president.
I. T.—International treasurer.
G. E. B.—General executive board.
L. D.—Local division.
R. S.—Recording secretary.
F. S.—Financial secretary.
L. T.—Local treasurer.
L. C.—Local correspondent.
M. & C.—Motorman and Conductor.
o bjects.

Sec. 3. The objects of this association shall be to organize division associations.
Sec. 4. To place our organization upon a higher plane of intelligence, efficiency,

and skill; to encourage the formation in division associations of sick and death benefit
funds in order that we may properly care for our sick and bury our dead; to establish
schools of instruction for imparting a practical knowledge of modern and improved
methods and system of transportation and trade matters generally; to encourage the
settlement of all disputes between employees and employers by arbitration; to secure
employment and adequate pay for our work; to reduce the hours of labor and by all
legal and proper means to elevate our moral, intellectual, and social condition.
ADM ISSION OF LOCAL DIVISIO NS.

Sec. 36. A local division may be formed by ten (10) or more street or electric rail
vray employees, who must apply to the I. P. and send $10 for a charter fee, outfit and
seal, which will be forwarded, providing the applicants are qualified according to the
constitution.
Sec. 37. No new charter shall be granted in cities where an L. D. in affiliation with

this organization already exists, except with consent of the G. E. B.
Sec . 38. The by-laws and rules for L. D .’s must be adopted by a two-thirds vote of
the members voting and submitting to the I. P. for approval.
FINANCES A N D D U E S.

Sec. 47. The initiation fee of a member shall be no less than one dollar ($1). Dues
shall be no less than one dollar ($1) per month. Upon the initiation of a member the
financial secretary of the L. D. shall forward to the general office twenty-five (25)
cents, in payment of the member’s registration fee and certificate of membership.
The certificate of membership shall be filled out in the general office, and returned
to the financial secretary of the L. D., who, in turn, shall see that it is delivered to
the member. A member losing his certificate of membership may secure a duplicate
by forwarding, through the financial secretary of the L. D., to the general office, the
sum of 25 cents to cover the cost of inspection of the records and issuance of a dupli­
cate certificate. No registration fee shall be charged to the ten charter members.
Their certificates shall be made out and forwarded to them with the charter and sup­
plies of the L. D. when instituted. No officer or member shall be exempt from the
payment of dues and assessments, nor shall any dues or assessments be remitted or
canceled in any manner to any member.
Sec. 49. Each L. D. shall pay, through its financial secretary, monthly, to the inter­
national office the sum of 50 cents per member. This amount shall be to cover all
per capita tax, covering the general expense of the Association, the defense fund, the
death, disability, and old-age benefit fund,-and “ M. & C.” Eleven (11) cents per
month of said moneys received shall be used as a fund for the general management of
the association; twenty-six (26) cents per month shall be used to create a fund for the
payment of death, disability, and old-age benefit claims; nine (9) cents per month




270

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

shall be used to create the defense fund of the association for the protection of the mem­
bership of the various divisions in case of lockouts and strikes; four (4) cents per month
shall be paid to the “ M. & C.” for the purpose of furnishing and forwarding said journal
to each and every member in good standing in the association.
S e c . 50. For the purpose of protecting its members and defraying the legitimate
expenses of members on strike and locked out and for conducting strikes and lockouts
authorized by the proper authority of the A. A. of S. and E. R. E. of A., there shall
be established and maintained a fund to be known as the defense fund, in which all
members shall participate as provided by section 49, and which shall be used as here­
inafter provided.
Sec. 51. For the maintenance of the defense fund there shall be set %side nine (9)
cents per member, each month, from the regular per capita tax, as provided in sections
49 and 50 of this constitution. The I . P. shall keep a correct record of all receipts from
local divisions for this purpose, and make regular report in connection with the general
reports of the association of the amount received from each L. D. When this fund has
reached one million dollars ($1,000,000), that part of the per capita tax applied to the
defense fund shall be discontinued until such time as the fund falls below that amount.
Sec. 52. The L. T. of the L. D., through the financial secretary of the L. D., shall
send per capita tax to the I. P. on the first of each month for the month preceding. All
moneys shall be payable by post-office order, bank draft, or express money order to the
I. P., who shall receipt for the same.
QUALIFICATION OF M EM BERSHIP.

Sec. 56. A candidate, to be admitted to membership in any L. D. of the A. A. of S.
and E. R. E. of A., must be of good moral character and a competent workman in his
line of work. He shall be working at the occupation in some capacity in which he is
eligible to membership at the time he applies and is initiated into the association.
Sec. 57. No manager, superintendent, foreman, or other officer of a street railway,
having the working rules and regulations of the company to enforce over the employes,
can become a member of this association. Where members of this association are
are appointed to such official position, as above described, they shall withdraw from
membership in this association by taking out a withdrawal card. Should they return
to the service again and desire to renew their membership they can do so by depositing
their withdrawal card, subject to the provisions of this constitution, and with the con­
sent of the L. D. become members again. When members of this association are hold­
ing, or are appointed to such minor positions as starter, dispatcher, timekeeper, inspec­
tor, street man, or barn, shop, and track foremanship, working with their fellow workers,
and having not the power of discipline, in the way of suspending or discharging of
employees, they may retain their membership by paying their dues and keeping
themselves in good standing as the laws of this association require. But, while holding
such positions, they shall not attend the meetings of the division, nor participate in,
nor take any part in the work of the association, in so far as its negotiations or dealings
with the company are concerned. Any violation of this provision by members holding
these minor positions shall subject them to suspension by the L. D. Former members
qualified ior reinstatement under the provisions of this section, the date of whose with­
drawal cards is subsequent to January 1, 1912, may return to membership with full
seniority respecting death, disability, and old-age benefits by making application for
reinstatement on or before January 31,1914, and paying back dues and assessments for
the number of months representing the period of withdrawal. Former members, the
date of whose withdrawal is prior to January 1, 1912,' and qualified for reinstatement
under the provisions of this section may return to membership as new members by
filing their withdrawal card^as applications on or before January 31,1914.
FU N ER AL , O LD -A G E , AN D D ISABILITY B ENEFITS.

Sec. 82. In order to establish a funeral benefit for the proper burial of members in
case of death, a disability benefit to aid them in cases of total disability, and an old-age
benefit to assist them in old age, these laws are hereby adopted by this association, and
will go into effect on the first day of January, 1912, and all former laws on funeral and
total disability benefits and old-age pension are hereby repealed.
S e c . 83. Members of this association shall be entitled to one of the following benefits:
Funeral, total disability, or old-age, providing they and their local divisions are in good
financial standing and have complied with the rules laid down in the constitution and
laws of this association.
Sec. 84. A member to be entitled to a funeral, total disability, or old-age benefit of
this association shall be when he joins this organization in sound health, and not




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. 2 7 1

afflicted with any disease likely to injure his health or cause permanent disability,
Provided, however, That when a member is over two (2) years in continuous member­

ship in this association there shall be no question relative to the condition of his health
at the time he became a member of this association.
Sec . 91. A member of this organization in good standing as provided in this consti­
tution and general laws, will be entitled to any one of the following claims: Funeral,
total disability, or old-age benefit, but he will be entitled to only one of these benefits.
Should a member receive his funeral benefit, he will not be entitled to any other
benefit. Should a member receive a disability benefit, he will not be entitled to any
other benefit. Should a member receive an old-age benefit, he will not be entitled
to any other benefit.
S e c . 92. Should the funds providing for payment of death, disability and old-age
benefit claims become exhausted because of any unusual increase of deaths to the
membership of this association, the G. E. B. is hereby authorized to levy a special
assessment of fifty cents (50c.) per member to be placed upon the monthly working
cards of the membership of this association for such month as the board may determine,
but the membership shall be assessed not to exceed two assessments amounting to one
dollar ($1) in any one calendar year. Such assessments shall be applied solely to the
death, disability, and old-age benefit fund.
S e c . 9 4 . On the death of a beneficiary member the funeral benefit shall be paid as
follows: First, it shall be the duty of the L. D. to see that the deceased member is
respectfully buried and the expenses of the funeral properly paid, for it must be dis­
tinctly understood that this is not an insurance fund, but a funeral benefit, created
for the express purpose of giving to our members a proper and respectful burial, and
none of the moneys for funeral benefits must be used for any other purpose or con­
verted to any other use until all expenses in connection with the funeral have been
paid. If the funeral arrangements are looked after by the family or friends of the
deceased, the L. D. shall see that all financial expenses are or will be properly paid
before paying the benefit to anyone. If the division had charge of the funeral arrange­
ments, it shall pay the funeral expenses, receiving receipted bills for the same, and
then turn over to the person entitled thereto the balance of the benefit, together with
the receipted bills for all expenses paid in connection with the funeral, and receive
therefor a receipt in behalf of the association for the full amount of the claim.
S e c . 9 5 . Payment of funeral benefits shall be made as follows:
1. To the widow of the deceased; such widow to receive any and all balance due
upon said benefit. The widow shall be the sole beneficiary, subject to the provisions
of section 94.
2. There being no surviving widow, payment shall be made to the lineal descending
heirs, who are the children and grandchildren of the deceased, share and share alike.
3. There being no lineal descending heirs as above described, payment shall be
made to the following ascending lineal heirs, in order—mother, father, grandmother,
and grandfather.
4. There being no surviving lineal heirs as above described, payment shall be made
to collateral heirs, brothers and sisters.
5. In case there survives no lineal or collateral heirs, as herein provided, to whom
payment may be made, the local division to which the deceased belonged shall pro­
vide a respectful burial of the deceased, and for the erection of a tombstone at the
grave of the deceased; such tombstone or monument not to exceed forty dollars ($40)
in cost. The local division shall then submit to the international president jan item­
ized statement of the funeral and tombstone expense, said statement and itemized
account to bear the approval of an authorized committee of the local division, attested
by the local president and financial secretary. The international association shall
then pay the accounts shown to be due by such itemized statements, and payment
of such funeral and tombstone expenses shall be a settlement in full of the claim,
subject to the provision that in no case shall the said accounts exceed the benefits due
upon the deceased member. Any residue of the benefit shall remain as of the death,
disability, and old-age benefit fund of the association. Neither shall the Amalgamated
Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees of America be held responsible
for any further benefits in the name of the deceased.
S e c . 96. The amounts of funeral benefit to which the association is responsible for
payment in case of death of members shall be:
In the event of death of a member during the second consecutive year of continuous
membership, one hundred dollars ($100).
In the event of death during the third consecutive year of continuous membership,
one hundred and fifty dollars ($150).
In the event of death during the fourth consecutive year of continuous membership,
two hundred and fifty dollars ($250).




272

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

In the event of death during the fifth consecutive year of continuous membership,
four hundred dollars ($400).
In the event of death during the sixth consecutive year of continuous membership,
five hundred dollars ($500). ^
In the event of death during the seventh consecutive year of continuous member­
ship, six hundred dollars ($600).
In the event of death during the eighth consecutive year of continuous membership,
seven hundred dollars ($700).
In the event of death during the ninth consecutive year of continuous membership,
or thereafter, eight hundred dollars ($800).
Sec. 97. A member legally in benefit according to this constitution and general laws
and suffering the loss of a hand at or above the wrist, the loss of a foot at or above the
ankle joint, the loss of the sight of both eyes, or receives an injury through sudden
accident, or is suffering from any affliction, the cause of which can be traced directly
to the occupation while in the service as a street and electric railway employee, that
will totally disable him from ever following occupation as a street and electric railway
worker, shall be entitled to disability benefit in accordance with his term of member­
ship in this association, as follows:

For disability sustained during the second consecutive year of continuous mem­
bership, the afflicted member shall receive one hundred dollars ($100).
When said disability is sustained during the third consecutive year of continuous
membership, the afflicted member shall receive one hundred and fifty dollars ($150).
When said disability occurs in the fourth consecutive year of continuous member­
ship, the afflicted member shall receive two hundred and fifty dollars ($250).
When said disability is sustained in the fifth consecutive year of continuous mem­
bership, the afflicted member shall receive four hundred dollars ($400).
When said disability is sustained in the siscth consecutive year of continuous mem­
bership, the afflicted member shall receive five hundred dollars ($500).
When said disability is sustained in the seventh consecutive year of continuous
membership, the afflicted member shall receive six hundred dollars ($600).
When said disability is sustained in the eighth consecutive year of continuous
membership, the afflicted member shall receive seven hundred dollars ($700).
When the affliction is sustained in any consecutive year of continuous membership
after eight years, the member shall receive eight hundred dollars ($800).
OLD-AGE BEN EFITS.

Sec. 102. A member of this association who has been in continuous membership
for twenty (20) years and over and has complied with the constitution and laws of
this association, and has reached the age of sixty-five (65) years, and because of his
age is totally disabled from following the occupation of a street and electric railway
employee, shall be entitled to the old-age benefit of eight hundred dollars ($800), as
prescribed by the constitution.
STRIKES AN D LOCKOUTS.

Sec. 107. When any difficulty arises between the members of any L. D. of this
association and their employers, regarding wages, hours of labor, or any other question
that may result in a strike or lockout, the dispute shall be first taken up by the execu­
tive board of the L. D., or by a committee appointed by the L. D. for that purpose,
and they shall make a thorough investigation, and seek, through conferences with the
company, to get the matter satisfactorily adjusted. The committee, after having fin­
ished the work of negotiating with the company, shall submit a full report to a meeting
of the L. D.
Sec.108. If by compliance with sec. 107, the committee has been unable to secure a
settlement of the matters in dispute satisfactory to the L. D., and the L. D. believes
that the matters in dispute are of such importance that a strike should be ordered, the
question of a strike shall be submitted to a secret ballot vote of the entire member­
ship of the L. D. If necessary to reach the entire membership of the L. D. the ballot
shall be taken by referendum, ballots being prepared and so distributed to give every
member an opportunity to vote. If two-thirds of the membership voting upon the
question decide in favor of suspending work, the L. D. shall at once notify the I. P.
The I. P .s upon receipt of such notice, shall proceed to the scene of dispute in person
or by deputy, and in conjunction with the committee of the L. D. shall make a thor­
ough investigation and attempt to settle the matter in dispute. In case of failure thus
to secure a settlement he shall then, in conjunction with the local committee, prepare
propositions of arbitration defining the points in dispute and the basis upon which




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES.

273

they shall be arbitrated. If the company refuses to accept arbitration as tendered, the
I. P. or his deputy shall then communicate with the membership of the B. E. B. in
writing or by telegram and obtain the consent of a majority of the G. E. B. before in­
dorsing the strike.
S e c . 109. In case the international representative, who is handling questions in
dispute between an L. D. and the employing company, has propositions that he
believes should be considered by the entire membership, he shall acquaint the
membership with such propositions, either through a circular carefully outlining and
explaining the propositions, or through a general meeting of the L. D. After having
acquainted the membership with the proposition or propositions, he shall then have
a referendum vote of the entire membership of the L. D. taken upon the same. If
the L. D. has by-laws providing for a referendum vote of its membership, he shall
follow such provisions. If the L. D. has no by-laws governing such vote, he shall
then make arrangements and have such vote taken in the best and easiest manner
possible—either by appointing a special election day and having the membership
come to the hall or headquarters of the L. D. and cast their vote, or through a com­
mittee who shall take the vote of the members at the different stations or barns.
Every member shall be given an opportunity to vote upon said propositions and the
majority of the votes cast by the membership of the L. D. shall decide the question.
S e c . 110. The G. E. B. shall have the power to sustain or refuse to sustain the
action of the L. D., providing the L. D. has complied with this constitution. The
I. P. shall notify the L. D. of the decision without delay.
Sec. 111. In case the G. E. B. refuses to sustain the L. D. in its application for
support, the L. D. can appeal for a vote of all L. D .’s in request for support, and it
shall be the duty of the I. P. to submit the appeal and facts in the case to a vote of
the general membership, which vote shall be returned to the I. P. within thirty (30)
days, and if the appeal is sustained the L. D. making the same shall be notified and
shall be entitled to all support in accordance with the constitution.
S e c . 112. L. D .’s going on strike without the consent of the G. E. B. shall forfeit
all right to assistance and be subject to expulsion from the association.
S e c . 113. A lockout is where the members of a division are discharged for member­
ship in this association. It shall not apply to a member or members suspended or
discharged for any other cause. No lockout can take place in divisions recognized
by the respective employing companies and having provisions for settling grievances
and disputes. Lockout must be officially declared to exist by the G. E. B. before
lockout benefits will be paid.
AM OUNTS OF BEN EFIT AN D W H E N P A YA B L E .

S ec . 114. The defense fund is the only fund available for the support of strikes and
lockouts. The I. P. shall notify the L. D .’s going on strike or involved in a lockout
in a legal manner of the exact amount that there is available for the support of the
strike or lockout, which shall be paid in accordance with the provisions herein pro­
vided, until the fund is exhausted. The G. E. B. is also empowered to transfer from
time to time, either in cases of emergency or when it feels the general fund will warrant
it, such amounts from the general fund to the defense fund as the G. E. B. deems
advisable.
S e c . 115. When, in accordance with the rules herein provided, the members of
this association have inaugurated a strike or lockout and a settlement is effected within
two (2) weeks thereafter, the said members shall receive no financial benefit; but if
the strike or lockout shall continue for a longer period they shall receive benefits from
the beginning of the second week of the strike or lockout.
Sec. 116. The striking or locked-out members, subject to the provisions of sections
119 and 120, shall be paid at the rate of five dollars ($5) per week, payable weekly.
The secretary of the L. D. on strike or involved in lockout shall forward to the I. P.
each week a list of each and every member entitled to strike or lockout benefits.
These lists shall be made out in ink and approved by, and bear the signature of the
local executive board. The I. P. shall, upon receipt of the list of members entitled
to strike or lockout pay, make out pay roll for that week and return to the F. S. of the
L. D. the pay roll with the amount of funds sufficient to pay the members. The
F. S. of the L. D. shall receipt him upon receiving the fund for the men. He shall
then disburse the same to the members and have each one sign the pay roll as they
are paid and then return the receipted pay roll to the I. P. Each F. S. shall keep a
correct account of all moneys received and disbursed by him.
S e c . 117. In case a division or divisions are on strike or involved in a lockout and
the money in the defense fund becomes exhausted, the I. P. may then appeal to all
39749°— Bull. 204— 17------- 18




274

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

the local divisions of the association for donations to assist them in continuing the
struggle, such donations to be distributed in accordance with the laws herein pro­
vided.
S e c . 118. In case an L. D. is on strike or involved in a lockout and the money in
the defense fund becomes exhausted, the G. E. B. is hereby authorized to assess all
local divisions not less than ten (10) nor more than twenty-five (25) cents per member
per week; and all L. D .’s shall, upon such assessment being levied, forward to the
international headquarters the necessary sum to cover their assessment at least every
fifteen (15) days. Any L. D. failing to make good such assessment within said period
of fifteen (15) days shall be considered delinquent, and shall be fined or suspended,
or both (fine to be not less than double the amount of that portion of the assessment
for which such L. D. may be delinquent), subject to the decision of the G. E. B.,
which decision shall stand, unless reversed by the next regular convention.
S e c . 119. It shall be the duty of all members of an L. D. on strike or involved in a
lockout to report once each day and answer roll call. They shall report and answer
roll call either to the secretary of tJie L. D. at a headquarters designated by the L. D.,
or to the captains of their barns, as the L. D. may determine at the time of going on
strike or being involved in a lockout. Any member refusing to answer to roll call
and do picket duty, as prescribed by the L. D., shall be debarred from his strike or
lockout benefits.
S e c . 120. Should any member of an L. D., while on strike or lockout, work at other
employment over two days in any one week, said member shall not be entitled to
strike or lockout benefits for that week. Should a member secure permanent employ­
ment and remain at the same over seven days, such member shall not be restored to
the pay roll without approval of the G. E. B.
OUR PRINCIPLES.

Resolved, That we hold it as a sacred principle, that trades-union men above all
others should.set a good example as good and faithful workmen, performing their
duties to their employers with honor to themselves and to their organization.
Resolved, That we hold a reduction of hours for a day’s work increases the intelli­
gence and happiness of the laborer and also increases tne demands for labor and the
price ot a day’s work.
Resolved, That we hold a liberal education of the young to be a preeminent prepara­
tory to life’s social and industrial work, and that the principles and purposes of
organized labor demand free and compulsory education.
LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITIES AND LEGISLATION SECURED.
INCLOSED-VESTIBULE CARS.

The first important work undertaken in the direction of securing
legislation was carrying out the policies of the association as regards
legislation for vestibule cars. In the spring of 1895, in accordance
with instructions of the Milwaukee convention, bills were drafted and
presented to the Legislatures of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Indiana.
The work of securing the passage of this legislation was vigorously
pushed. The campaign during this first year resulted in having the
measures enacted by the Legislatures of Michigan, Indiana, and
Wisconsin.
Twenty-nine States in the Union have enacted laws which are
commonly known as inclosed-vestibule laws for the protection of
street-railway employees, and this legislation, the officials of the
organization claim, was largely due to the activities of the organiza­
tion. The general intent of such laws is to guard the health and
provide for the safety of the employees in the course of their em­
ployment, and they are therefore within the general scope of the




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES.

275

police power of the State. The gist of these laws is found in the
provision which prescribes that the platform of street-railway cars
shall be protected by means of a shield or inclosure during
certain months of the year, usually from December 1 to April 1.
The list of States having such legislation and the dates of enactment
are as follows:
Colorado................. ......... 1901
Ohio..............................
1893
Connecticut................. ......... 1897
Delaware...................... ......... 1911
District of Columbia .. . 1904,1905
Illinois.......................... ......... 1903
Indiana................... ....... 1895
Iowa............................. ......... 1898
Kansas.......................... ...... 1909
Louisiana..................... ......... 1904
Maine............................ ......... 1905
Massachusetts.............. ......... 1906
Michigan...................... ......... 1895
Minnesota................ ....... 1893
Mississippi................... ......... 1912
Missouri........................ ......... 1899

Nebraska......................
New Jersey..................
New Hampshire..........
New Y ork ...............
North Carolina............
Oregon.........................
South Carolina............
Tennessee....................
Utah.............................
Virginia........................
West Virginia ..........
Washington..................
Wisconsin.....................

1897
1897
1899
1903
1901
1901
1902
1901
1901
1902
1901
1895
1895

The brief summary of these laws which here follows aims merely to
point out some of the common provisions included in all of these
laws as well as some of the more striking differences in them. Prac­
tically all the States having inclosed-vestibule laws require such in­
closures only during the months of December, January, February, and
March, although some laws require them during the month of Novem­
ber. The Washington act merely requires them to be installed “ dur­
ing the rain or winter season/’ while West Virginia makes no speci­
fication as to the period of time, this being left to the discretion of
the railroad commission of that State. Failure to comply with the
law is usually a misdemeanor punishable by fine or imprisonment, or
both, and each day’s failure to comply is considered a separate offense;
in New York the fine is $25 for each separate offense, while some
States prescribe as high as $50. The provisions of the law are not
made applicable as a rule to those cars termed “ trailers” where such
are mentioned; some States explicitly exempt from the operation of
the law the rear platforms of cars. Only one State, Ohio, requires the
maintenance of a specified temperature (60° F.) within the inclosed
vestibule, while the Kansas law directs that the inclosed platform
shall be heated in the same manner at all times as the interior of the car.
Maine makes exception to the requirement of the law possible in

the case of temporary service in emergency, and also gives to the
railroad commissioners authority to grant exceptions as to any line
where it would be consistent with safety to permit the operation of
a car without an inclosed platform; such exception, however, may




276

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STATES.

be granted only after hearing and investigation. The Maine law
requires an inclosed platform during the months of December, Jan­
uary, February, and March only.
The law of Mississippi applies to municipalities of 5,000 and over
only; it also requires that the company shall “ provide some means of
heating the cars."
The act of Montana excepts from the provisions of the law “ summer
or open cars," and provides merely that a shield of glass shall be
installed across the whole front, not requiring a complete inclosure of
the platform. A similar provision is contained in the laws of North
Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. The New York law specifies that
both vestibules of the car must be inclosed.
North Carolina permits of an exception to the requirements of its
law on fair days falling within the months designated in the law,
but then only in case of emergency, no such exception to be per­
mitted for a longer period than four days in any one month.
The legislation of Oregon, in addition to the usual requirements,
provides for the installation of seats for the motormen, and directs
that the motormen “ shall be permitted to occupy said seats at least
one-half the time while operating said cars."
Utah has inserted in its law a provision which exempts from its
operation trailing cars, construction or repair cars, and open or summer
cars.
The act of Virginia contains the following provision: 1 That such
‘
vestibule fronts need not be used upon open summer cars, run,
operated, or transported by them [the electric railway companies]
during the months of November and April."
In connection with these vestibule laws attention is called to the
fact that seats for motormen are required by the legislation of six
States: Connecticut, Louisiana, Missouri, New Jersey, Oregon, and
Vermont.
H O U R S OF LABOR.

Next in importance was the promotion of legislation for a shorter
workday. The aim of the organization was to secure legislation
by which the workday should be fixed at not to exceed 10 hours, with a
view to ultimately fixing it at 9 hours. Prior to the legislative
campaigns for the shorter day efforts were made to secure voluntary
concessions from street railway companies for what was known as the
1 two-turn system," which in reality was a 9 and 10 hour day.
1
The proceedings of the sixth convention, held at Louisville, Ky.,
May 6 , 1899, would seem to indicate that but few local divisions had
secured the “ two-turn system "; instead, the system generally in use
was what was known as the swing system. This system is illus­
trated as follows: “ Two cars, each scheduled at 18 hours, the two




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. 2 7 7

making 36 hours per day, or 72 one-man hours per day, should be
allotted to three crews so designed that the workday of the six men
would average 1 2 hours each. Not being enabled to make an equal
division of these 72 hours among the six men, any marginal time in the
division of the hours was accorded to the early and late runs, leaving
the swing-run crew with the least number of hours, so that the hours
of the service day of the early and late men ofttimes far exceeded 1 2
hours, and to the swing-run men the service day would be less than 1 2
hours, making the service day range anywhere from 10 to 13 or 13J
hours per day, as the circumstances required, to meet the pleasure of
the operative management in the division of the hours among the
three classes of crews— early, late, and swing.”
The tenacity with which the railway companies generally held to
this system occasioned bitter arraignment by the delegates to this
convention, and inspired the enactment of resolutions directing the
officers of the association to seek legislative remedy. It was pointed
out that, in all probability, in securing the shorter workday through
legislation an increase in wage rates would ultimately follow. Efforts
to secure the enactment of this type of legislation were vigorously
opposed by street railway companies. In fact, the first attempts'
were ignored or defeated, but by persistent efforts on the part of the
officers of the association and friendly legislators 10 States have
enacted measures bearing on the hours of labor of street railway
employees.
The true intent or purpose of these laws is to provide against long
and continuous hours of service of street railway employees; or, in
other words, to limit the usual hours of labor within a stated number
of hours in a given day in the absence of agreements as to such hours
between employers and employees.
The most advanced step taken in regulating the number of hours of
street railway men has been by the State of Massachusetts, where the
law provides that a day’s work shall not exceed 9 hours, and so
arranged that it must be performed within 1 1 consecutive hours.
The law of New York makes provision for 10 consecutive hours’
labor, including within that time one-half hour for dinner. Rhode
Island makes 10 hours a day’s work, to be performed within 1 2 con­
secutive hours. New Jersey provides that 1 2 hours’ labor be per­
formed within 1 2 consecutive hours, with not less than one-half hour
for meals.
The States of Louisiana and Washington make 10 hours constitute
a day’s work, the former within 12 hours, and the latter within 24.
California makes an exception in the requirement by providing that
1 2 hours’ labor be within 1 2 hours, and regulating the pay for over­
time beyond that of a regular day’s work by a provision of 30 cents




278

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

per hour for said overtime. Pennsylvania, Maryland, and South
Carolina permit service of 1 2 hours to be performed within 24 hours.
A brief summary of these laws shows that practically all of the
States make failure to comply with the provisions a misdemeanor,
punishable by fine or imprisonment, or both. In California a penalty
of $50 is provided in case of a violation of this law, and a contract for a
greater number of hours per day “ shall be and is considered void at
the option of the employee.” There is also a provision for a penalty
of $50 for nonpayment of overtime at the rate of 30 cents per hour.
Failure to comply with the law in Louisiana makes the company liable
to a fine of $50. In Massachusetts a similar provision makes the
company liable to a fine of $ 10 0 . The same penalty is prescribed in
Maryland for the same offense, but the company is liable to a for­
feiture of its charter for misuse. Violation of the law of New Jersey
is considered a misdemeanor, but no penalty is attached. Pennsyl­
vania makes a violation of the act a misdemeanor, punishable by a
fine or imprisonment of from 30 days to 6 months. Khode Island,
while considering a violation of the act a misdemeanor, punishable
by a fine of from $100 to $500, does not forbid a contract between
street railway employers and employees to work a greater number of
hours. In Washington a violation of the provisions of the act is
considered a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of $25 to $100. South
Carolina makes a violation of the act a misdemeanor, punishable by a
fine of $ 10 0 , but permits employees to work a greater number of
hours if they so desire.
California , 1887.— Twelve hours’ labor constitutes a day’s work
on the part of drivers and conductors and gripmen of street cars for
the carriage of passengers. Any contract for a greater number of
hours’ labor in one day shall be and is void, at the option of the em­
ployee, without regard to the terms of employment, whether the
same be by the hour, day, week, month, or any other period of time,
or by or according to the trip or trips that the car may, might, or can
make between the termini of the route, or for any shorter distance.
Any and every person laboring over 1 2 hours in one day as driver or
conductor or gripman on any street railroad shall receive from his
employer 30 cents for each hour’s labor over 1 2 hours in each day.
Louisiana , 1886, 1902.— Ten hours’ labor in 24 shall constitute a
day’s labor in the operation of all street railroads owned or operated
by corporations incorporated under the laws of this State, whatever
motive power may be used in the operation of such railroads; the
said 10 hours7 work to be performed within 1 2 consecutive hours.
Maryland , 1886, 1898.— No street railway company incorporated
under the laws of this State shall require, permit, or suffer its con­
ductors or drivers, or any of them, or any employees in its service,




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. 2 7 9

or under its control, to work more than 1 2 hours during each day of
24 hours, and shall make no contract or agreement with such em­
ployees which stipulates that they shall work more than 1 2 hours
during each or any day of 24 hours.
Massachusetts, 1912.— A day’s work for all conductors, guards,
drivers, motormen, brakemen, and gatemen who are employed by
or on behalf of a street railway or elevated railway company shall
not exceed 9 hours, and shall be so arranged by the employer that it
shall be performed within 1 1 consecutive hours.
New Jersey , 1887.— Twelve hours’ labor to be performed within
1 2 consecutive hours, with reasonable time for meals, not less than
half an hour for each, shall constitute a day’s labor in the operation
of all cable, traction, and horse-car street surface railroads, and of
all cable, traction, and steam elevated railroads.
New Y o rk , 1907.— Ten consecutive hours’ labor, including onehalf hour for dinner, shall constitute a day’s labor in the operation
of all street, surface, and elevated railroads, of whatever motive
power, owned or operated by corporations in this State, whose main
line of travel or whose routes lie principally within the corporate
limits of cities of the first and second class.
Pennsylvania, 1887.— It shall be unlawful for the president, board
of directors, superintendent, or other agents of any horse, cable, or
electric railway company to permit or suffer any conductor, driver,
or any other person in the employ of any such company to work
more than 1 2 hours on any one day in the service of such company;
provided, that all necessary labor over and above the time set by
this section shall be considered overtime, for which the laborer
shall receive additional compensation.
Rhode Island, 1902.— A day’s work for all conductors, gripmen,
and motormen now employed or who may hereafter be employed
in the operation of all street railways, of whatever motive power,
in this State shall not exceed 10 hours’ work, to be performed within
1 2 consecutive hours.
South Carolina, 1897.— No incorporated horse railway company,
or other street railway company, shall require, permit, or suffer its,
his, or their conductors, motormen, or drivers or other such employees,
or any of them, in its or his service, or under his, its, or their control,
to work more than 12 hours during each day or any day of 24 hours,
and shall make no contract or agreement with such employees, or
any of them, providing that they or he shall work for more than 1 2
hours during each day or any day of 24 hours.
Washington, 1895.— No person, agent, officer, manager, or super­
intendent or receiver of any corporation or owner of street cars shall
require his or its gripmen, motormen, drivers, or conductors to work
more than 10 hours in any 24 hours.




280

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING.

The question of agreements in the early history of the organiza­
tion was left to the local divisions. Some of the agreements were in
writing; others were oral, the policy being left entirely to the local
organization. In 1901 this policy was changed, and the interna­
tional union adopted a policy of having all agreements in writing
and having the local divisions, before making their agreements, submit
copies of their demands to the international office for approval or
disapproval, as the case might be, before submitting them to the
companies, and from that time on the policy of the international
union has been to secure from the operating companies written
contracts, making them as nearly uniform as possible, and to have
adopted wherever possible the provisions of arbitration.
In 1901, when the latter policy was adopted, there were 2 2 written
agreements. In 1907 there were 114; in 1913 there were 186, and
on July 2 1 , 1915, there were 203 written agreements.
These contracts usually determine wages, hours of labor, and work­
ing conditions for a given period of time. The thirteenth conven­
tion, held at Salt Lake City, Utah, September, 1913, indorsed the
policy of the previous convention by the inclusion of the following
section in the constitution and general laws:
S e c t io n 141. The only agreements that are accepted as binding upon this asso­
ciation are those that are in writing, specifying the association, giving the division
number, and legally signed by the officers of the same. It shall be the aim of the
local division to make short-term contracts, and no contract of any kind shall be
entered into to exceed a period of three years by any division of this association, and
when the continuous contract form is used it shall be so provided as to open every
year, if possible, and in no case shall it exceed the provisions of three years without
being opened up for revision.

In late years almost invariably the agreements have included pro­
visions for mediation and arbitration. The international president
in his report to the thirteenth convention took issue with those who
advocated the abandoning of the laws of the association which pro­
vided for arbitration. He expressed the belief that whatever success
had been attained by the association could be attributed to the fact
that—
Arbitration was the corner stone upon which the association had
been built.
The assurance to the employer and to the public that in cases of
disputes between us there will be no strike but that the matters in
dispute will be submitted to arbitration has been the means by which
you have secured your agreements and through which you have
established this splendid organization. You are not only the employ­
ees of a corporation, but you are also the servants of the public, and
you must take that fact into consideration. You must also remember
that the public sentiment is more necessary to you in your contests




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES.

281

than it is to almost any other class of workers in their contests. If
we sum up the entire situation and measure the disappointments
we have had by the conditions that we have gained through arbitra­
tion we will find that we have not been the losers, but that we have
been heavy gainers by the same, and to abandon that principle now
would be to change the entire policy of your organization and leave
you practically without an anchor, and I repeat you can not afford
to take that position. It would spell disaster and destruction to
this magnificent organization.
I agree that there are drawbacks and disappointments in arbitra­
tion. One of the dissatisfactions is the selection of a third arbitrator,
but that we have been unable to overcome and it is a situation that
we have to meet.
My recommendation to this convention would be for you to say
to the membership of this association * * * they must maintain
arbitration in the future as we have in the past, and to show to the
world that we have no demands but what are just, and are not asking
for anything but what we consider is fair and honorable, and that
we are willing to leave all of these questions to an unbiased board of
arbitration composed of our fellow citizens and to abide by their
decision.
AGREEMENTS AND ARBITRATION CLAUSES IN PUBLIC FRANCHISES.

The first attempt to secure an arbitration clause in any public util­
ity franchise was made in Toledo in 1896. The street railway com­
pany was then seeking an extension of its franchise. In conformity
with the policy of the Amalgamated Association of Street Railway
Employees its president presented to the city council a clause pro­
viding for the arbitration of differences between the employees and
the employing company. The section submitted to the city council
to be embodied in the proposed franchise was as follows:
Should any difference arise at any time during the limits of this
franchise between the street railway company and their employees
regarding wages, hours, or any other disputes that can not be settled
by the company and its employees, the matter in dispute shall be
submitted, at the request of either party, to a board of arbitrators com­
posed of five aldermen then serving in the city council; two of said
aldermen to be chosen by the employees, two to be chosen b y the
company, and the four thus chosen to choose the fifth one. The
five shall constitute a board of arbitration to hear complaints and
render a decision which shall be binding on both parties for at least
six months.
This amendment was defeated.
It is worthy of note that such provisions now exist in franchises in
four municipalities in the United States— Detroit, Mich.; Wheeling,
W. V a .; Monroe, La.; and East Liverpool, Ohio. The provision in
three of these cities is here given.




282

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
M O N R O E , LA .

O r d in a n c e N

o

. 2020.

Authorizing the mayor to enter into and sign an agreement and con­
tract with the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric
Railway Employees of America, Division No. 667, of Monroe,
Louisiana.
S e c t i o n 1. Be it ordained by the council of the city of Monroe, in regular session
convened: That the mayor be and is hereby authorized, directed, and empowered
to make, sign, and execute for and on behalf of the city of Monroe, Louisiana, a con­
tract with the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees
of America, Division No. 667, of Monroe, Louisiana, in the following form, substance,
letters, and terms, to wit:
This agreement, made and entered into by and between the Municipal Street Rail­
way Company, their successors and assigns, party of the first part, hereinafter called
* The Department,” and the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Rail­
'1
way Employees of America, Division No. 667, of Monroe, Louisiana, party of the
second part, hereinafter called “ The Association.”
Witnesseth: That in the operation of the lines of the party of the first part, both
parties hereunto mutually agree that for and in consideration of the covenants and
agreements hereinafter stated further the party of the first part agrees with the party
of the second part as follows:
A. Wages of motormen and conductors:

For the 1st six months............................................... ........... 17 cents per
For the 2d six months............................................... ........... 18 cents per
For the 3d six months............................................... ........... 19 cents per
For the 4th six months.............................................. ........... 20 cents per
For the 5th six months.............................................. ........... 21 cents per
For the 6th six months............................................. ........... 22 cents per
For the 7th six months.............................................. ........... 23 cents per
For the 8th six months............................................. ........... 24 cents per
For the 9th six months............................................ ........... 25 cents per
For the 10th six months............................................ ........... 26 cents per
Thereafter................................................................... ........... 27 cents per

hour.
hour.
hour.
hour.
hour.
hour.
hour.
hour.
hour.
hour.
hour.

B. Time and one-half time for all overtime after 12 o’clock midnight.
C. Any regular man missing his run at barn for three (3) days during any one month,
except b y permission of the superintendent of transportation, or for sickness or death
in his immediate family, shall be placed at bottom of extra board at his present salary.

D. All passengers not paying cash fares must have employees’ ticket or employees’
badge in full view.
E. When car, on road, has been reported in bad order, all responsibilities of motor­
men and conductors cease until same has been fixed.
F. All headlights must be cleaned and adjusted in barn by barn men.
G. All doors and windows in cars must be kept in good order.

H. Motormen and conductors to be promoted to best runs, in accordance with the
length of time they have been in continuous service of the company.
S ec . 2. All business matters arising between the parties hereto shall be transacted
between the properly accredited officials of the department and the properly
accredited officials of the association or duly appointed committee thereof.
Sec . 3. All motormen and conductors, or other employees, shall be entitled to free
transportation, subject to the rules of the company.




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. 2 8 3
S ec. 4. Where employees are laid off to look up evidence or to act as witnesses in
court, in behalf of the city of Monroe, such employee or employees shall be paid full
time for the time consumed in attending court or looking up evidence in behalf of
said city of Monroe, payment to be made at the next regular pay day.
It is further agreed that any motorman or conductor, member of the association, who
shall be elected to office or assigned to any duties by the association which require his
or their temporary absence from runs shall be granted leave of absence at any time his
or their attention is required, except during special occasions, without pay, and upon
their return shall be entitled to their respective runs or place on the board.

Sec . 5. An employee suspended, but upon investigation found not guilty of charge
for which said employee was suspended, shall be reinstated to his former position and
paid the wages he would have earned had be been working.
Sec . 6. No employee, serving time,1 shall be asked to report, and any employee

serving time and called back to work before said time has expired, shall be considered
to have served his full time.
Sec . 7. Where leave of absence is granted to a regular man, and he is off for a period
exceeding five (5) days, his time shall be so divided between the extra men as to
give each five days’ regular work, in so far as is possible.
Sec . 8. There shall be no sympathetic strike, or no strike of any kind, provided the
department is willing to submit any and all grievances to arbitration where an ad just^
ment can not be secured in conference.
Sec. 9. Except in cases of discharge on account of irregularities in registering fares
or transfers, an employee of the department who may be a member of the association,
feeling that he has been unjustly treated, may ask the superintendent for a review of
his case; and, on his failing to secure satisfactory adjustment, may appeal to the asso­
ciation for consideration, and if the officials of the association feel that such employee
is entitled to further consideration, then such question or grievance shall be submitted
to a temporary board of arbitration, one member thereof to be selected by the proper
officials of the department and one by the executive committee of the association,
and the two so chosen before entering upon the performance of their duties shall select
a third in case they do not agree, and the decision of the majority of said board sub­
mitted in writing to the department and to the association shall be binding upon the
parties hereto.
The association and the department shall select their arbitrators within five (5)
days* from the time either party shall notify the other in writing that an arbitration is
desired, and shall state in said writing the points to be arbitrated. Failure of either
the department or the association to name an arbitrator within five (5) days shall con­
stitute a default and cause the defaulting party to lose the case. Said two arbitrators
so chosen shall hold daily meetings to adjust the matter referred to them, and if they
fail to agree shall immediately call the third arbitrator already selected as above, and
said board of three (3) arbitrators shall likewise meet daily to consider the matter so
submitted, unless by mutual consent the time shall be extended.
The executive board shall first hear and pass upon all grievances before they are
submitted to the department.
Should the department desire arbitration of any such question the same ruling as
above shall apply.
Sec . 10. The committee of the association shall have the privilege of examination
of the report of an inspector on any conductor or motorman discharged for irregular
registering of fares or transfers.
Sec . 11. Any member expelled from the association, pursuant to the rules of the
association, shall be discharged by the department upon the request of the association
in writing, accompanied by a copy of the resolution, certified by the mayor and city
council and attested by the seal of the association.




284

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

Sec. 12. All motormen and conductors who are members of the association shall
remain members in good standing, according to the rules of the association.
The department further agrees that all new employees shall become members of the
association within thirty (30) days from the date of employment.
It is understood by both parties hereto that such new employees are on probation
for thirty (30) days, and the purpose of this clause is that such new employee shall not
have the right to the protection of the association in matters of discharge or other
grievances.
S e c . 13. There shall be suitable closets, and motormen and conductors given
reasonable time to visit same.
Sec . 14. All regular men after six (6) months’ service shall provide at their own
expense, and wear constantly while on duty, a uniform composed of material, color,
and pattern prescribed b y the superintendent.
Sec . 15. Should negotiations be necessary for a new contract at the expiration of
this one, it is mutually agreed that said renewal shall be executed at least thirty (30)
days previous to the expiration of the contract then existing.
S e c . 16. This agreement shall be binding upon the department, their successors,
transfers, and assigns, and the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Rail­
way Employees of America, Division No. 667, and the members of said association,
individually, and the employees of the Municipal Street Railway Company for a
period of three (3) years from the 1st day of January, 1915, to the 1st day of January,
1918, at Monroe, Louisiana.
E A ST L IVE R P O O L , O H IO .

The East Liverpool, Ohio, franchise provision is as follows:
It is a condition of the granting of this franchise that in case said company and its
employees are unable to amicably settle without strike, or other interference with the
public rights, any controversy or difference which may arise between them, at the
request of either the company or its employees, or if they refuse at the request of the
mayor or president of council, such controversy shall be submitted to a board of
arbitration consisting of five disinterested persons, one of whom may be selected by
said company, one by the employees, and three of whom shall be appointed by the
judge of the court of common pleas of Columbiana County. In case any of the arbi­
trators thus chosen shall refuse to act his place shall be filled by such judge of the
court of common pleas. The finding of a majority of this board shall be final and
binding upon all parties to the controversy.
D E T R O IT , M IC H .

Franchise provision adopted at a special election held on April 7 ,
1913, to revise the city charter:
S e c t i o n 19. In case of dispute over wages or condition of employment, said board
[the board of aldermen] is hereby authorized and directed to arbitrate any question or
questions," provided each party shall agree in advance to pay half the expense of such
arbitration.

DEATH, DISABILITY, AND OLD-AGE BENEFITS.
CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH BENEFITS ARE PAID.

The year 1896 is marked by the introduction of death and disability
benefits. The old-age benefit fund did not become operative until
January 1 , 1912.




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES. 2 8 5

Each member is entitled to only one of the three benefits. A member
to be entitled to a funeral, total-disability, or old-age benefit of this
association shall be, when he joins this organization, in sound health
and not afflicted with any disease likely to injure his health or cause
permanent disability; provided, however, that when a member is over
two years in continuous membership in this association, there shall
be no question relative to the condition of his health at the time he
became a member of this association. (See page 270.)
In order to be entitled to any of the benefits he must be in good
standing, that is, must have all dues, fines, and assessments paid up
on or before the 15th of each month, in compliance with the laws of
the association. He also must be a member of a local division in good
financial standing, as required by the laws of the association or the
international organization.
According to section 87 of the constitution of the association,
members belonging to divisions in bad financial standing with the
international organization may at once communicate with the inter­
national president and place their membership with the international
association.

Section 88 of the constitution specifies that no death or disability
claim be allowed or paid to members whose death or disability has
been caused while on duty as a volunteer militiaman, policeman, or
paid city fireman, or engaged in any other hazardous occupation.
DEATH AND DISABILITY BENEFITS.

The amount of benefit, which depends on the length of member­
ship, is identical in cases of death and of total disability. In the
former the legitimate heirs of. the deceased— widow, lineal or col­
lateral heirs— receive the compensation. The provisions and scale
of benefits are set forth on page 271.
OLD-AGE PROVISIONS.

Any member of the association who has had a continuous member­
ship for twenty years and over and has complied with the constitution
and laws of the association, and has reached the age of 65 years, and
because of his age is totally disabled for following the occupation of a
street and electric railway employee, is entitled to a lump-sum ben­
efit of $800.
FILING CLAIMS.

The procedure of filing claims is as follows: When death or dis­
ability occurs to any member, or when a member desires to make
application for total-disability benefit, the person applying for the
benefit is required to present to the local division concerned a cer­
tificate of the facts from the attending physician, upon approval of




286

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

facts presented by the authorities of the local division. The claim is
forwarded by the financial secretary of the local division to the
international president. The benefit is then paid out of the treasury
of the international organization.

AGGREGATE PAYMENTS.
The payments that have been made by the Amalgamated Asso­
ciation are set forth below.
3 5 .—AM OUNT OF D E A T H , D ISA B IL IT Y , AN D OLD-AGE B E N E FITS PAID EACH
Y E A R B Y TH E AM ALG A M ATED ASSOCIATION OF ST R E E T AN D ELECTRIC R A IL W A Y
EM PLO YEES OF AM ER ICA, 1896 TO 1914.

T able

Death
claims.

Year.

Disability
claims.

Old-age
benefit
claims.

Total.

1896...........
1897...........
1898...........
1899...........
1900...........
1901...........
1902...........
1903...........
1904...........
1905...........
1906...........
1907...........
1908...........
1909...........
1910...........
1911..........
1912...........
1913...........
1914...........

$200
375
400
550
675
1,000
1,375
6,275
15,175
12.900
12,300
16.900
16,700
17,500
22,100
24.900
109,750
134,000
189,793

$150
150
925
675
400
1,600
1,200
1,300
800
600
500
5.200
4.200
8,700

$1,600

$200
375
400
550
675
1,150
1,525
7,200
15,850
13.300
13,900
18,100
18,000
18.300
22,700
25,400
114,950
138,200
200,093

Total. .

582,868

26,400

1,600

610,868

*

LOCAL DIVISION BENEFITS.

In addition to the benefit provisions of the international associa­
tion, many local divisions pay sick and death benefits. Reports
from 37 local divisions state the total of death benefits paid in 1913 as
$59,841.50. In the same year 70 local divisions reported payment of
$59,692.85 in sick benefits.
D E A T H B E N E FIT S O F LO CA L D IV IS IO N S.

The amounts of the death benefits paid by the local divisions inde­
pendent of the amount paid by the international organization, so far
as reported, are as follows:
Division No. 2 2 , Worcester, Mass., pays a death benefit of $50 after
6 months’ membership.
Division No. 26, Detroit, Mich., pays a death benefit of $2 , 000 ,

raised by an assessment on the membership of $1 each. This di­
vision also pays a benefit of $2,0 00 in case of total disability and
$1,000 for partial disability.
Division No. 85, Pittsburgh, Pa., pays a death benefit of $150.




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES. 2 8 7

Division No. 98, Akron, Ohio, pays $25 to a member who loses his
wife or child.
Division No. 99, Winnipeg, Manitoba, pays a death benefit of $25.
Division No. 103, Wheeling, W. Va., pays a death benefit of $250
after 6 months’ membership, by assessing each member $ 1 .
Division No. 125, East St. Louis, 111., makes a special assessment
of 25 cents per member and pays the amount received as a death
benefit.
Division No. 132, Troy, N. Y., pays a death benefit of $ 1 0 0 after
1 year’s membership.
Division No. 164, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., pays a death benefit of $ 10 0 .
Division No. 168, Scranton, Pa., pays a death benefit of $50.
Division No. 169, Easton, Pa., pays a member $25 on the death of
his wife.
Division No. 194, New Orleans, La., pays a death benefit of $ 1 0 0
on a membership of 1 year or less, and $ 2 0 0 on a longer membership.
Division No. 241, Chicago, 111., which comprises all the men em­
ployed on the surface lines, pays a death benefit of $ 1 0 0 during the
first 2 years 7 membership and $2 0 0 thereafter.
Division No. 256, Sacramento, Cal., assesses the membership 50

cents each and pays $100 death benefit after 6 months’ membership.
Division No. 265, San Jose, Cal., levies an assessment of $ 1 each on
the membership and pays the amount received as a death benefit.
Division No. 268, Cleveland, Ohio, levies an assessment of 25 cents
each upon the membership, and pays the amount received as a death
benefit to the beneficiary of a deceased member.
Division No. 272, Youngstown, Ohio, levies an assessment of $ 1
each upon the membership and pays the amount received as a death
benefit to the beneficiary of a deceased member.
Division No. 282, Rochester, N. Y., pays a death benefit of $ 1 , 000 ,
raised by special assessment of $ 1 .
Division No. 308, Chicago, 111., pays a death benefit of $2 0 0 after
1 year’s membership.
Division No. 312, Davenport, Iowa, pays a death benefit as follows:
On a membership of less than 6 months, an assessment of 50 cents;
over 6 months, an assessment of $ 1 . On death of a member’s wife
there is an assessment of 50 cents, and on death of a member’s child,
of 25 cents.
Division No. 313, Rock Island, 111., on the death of a man who has
been a member over 30 days and less than 6 months, assesses the
membership 50 cents each, or, if the deceased has been a member
over 6 months, $ 1 , to be paid as a death benefit.
Division No. 329, Dubuque, Iowa, pays death benefits; amount
not given.




288

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

Division No. 343, Kalamazoo, Mich., pays death benefits; amount
not given.
Division No. 379, Niles, Ohio, levies an assessment of $ 2 each on
the membership and pays the amount received as a death benefit to
the beneficiary of a deceased member.
Division No. 380, Elyria, Ohio, pays a death benefit of $ 10 0 .
Division No. 382, Salt Lake City, Utah, pays a death benefit of
$500, also $100 on death of a member’s wife and $10 on death of a
member’s child.
Division No. 441, Des Moines, Iowa, pays $300 on death of a mem­
ber, $150 on death of a member’s wife, $75 on death of a members
child, and $150 on death of a mother or father of a single member.
Division No. 456, Madison, Wis., pays death benefits; amount not
given.
Division No. 519, La Crosse, Wis., on the death of a member levies
an assessment of $ 1 each on the membership, on the death of the wife
of a member an assessment of 50 cents, and on the death of a child
of a member an assessment of 25 cents, to be paid as a death benefit.
Division No. 576, Schenectady, N. Y., levies an assessment of $ 1
each on the membership and pays the amount received as a death
benefit to the beneficiary of a deceased member.
Division No. 580, Syracuse, N. Y., levies an assessment of $ 1 each
on the membership and pays the amount received as a death benefit.
Division No. 582, Utica, N. Y., levies an assessment of $ 1 each on
the membership and pays the amount received as a death benefit to
the beneficiary of a deceased member.
Division No. 589, Boston, Mass., pays a death (or disability) benefit
of $100 on a membership of under 6 months, $150 on a membership

of 6 months and under 12 months, and $200 thereafter.
Division No. 590, Columbia, S. C., levies an assessment of 50 cents
each on the membership and pays the amount received as a death
benefit.
Division No. 592, Fredonia, N. Y., levies an assessment of $ 1 each
on the membership and pays the amount received as a death benefit.
Division No. 618, Providence, R. I., assesses the membership an
amount which, with what is paid from the international office, will
amount to $ 1,0 0 0 and pays this as a death benefit.
Division No. 645, Indianapolis, Ind., pays a death benefit of $50
after a membership of 6 months.
S IC K B E N E FIT S OF LO CA L D IV IS IO N S .

The figures, so far as available, of the amounts of the sick benefits
paid by local divisions, are as follows:
Division No. 103, Wheeling, W. Va., pays a sick benefit of $ 2 for the
second week, $3 for the third week, $4 for the fourth week, and $5 for
not exceeding 10 more weeks.




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES.

289

Division No. 168, Scranton, Pa., pays a sick benefit of $ 3 per week.

Division No. 235, Brockton, Mass., pays a sick benefit of $ 5 per
week for 6 weeks in any 6 months.
Division No. 280, Lowell, Mass., pays a sick benefit of $5 per week
for 10 weeks in any 1 year.
Division No. 281, New Haven, Conn., pays a sick benefit of $5 per
week for 10 weeks in each of 3 consecutive years.
Division No. 312, Davenport, Iowa, pays a sick benefit of $ 7 per
week for 10 weeks in 1 year.
Division No. 382, Salt Lake City, Utah, pays a sick benefit of $ 7 *
per week for 16 weeks, and $3.50 per week for the second 16 weeks in
any year, and $1.50 per month thereafter, as long as a sick member is
unable to work.
Division No. 441, Des Moines, Iowa, pays a sick benefit of $ 7 per

week for not exceeding 10 weeks in any consecutive 12 months.
Division No. 448, Springfield, Mass., pays a sick benefit of $ 7 per
week after the first week for a period of not more than 13 weeks in
any 1 year.
Division No. 618, Providence, R. I., pays a sick benefit of $ 5 per
week for 13 weeks in any consecutive 1 2 months.
Division No. 623, Buffalo, N. Y., reports a sick-benefit association
which pays a sick benefit of $7 per week and provides free medical
attendance after the first 7 days of sickness for a period not exceeding
1 2 weeks. The dues of this association are 50 cents per month.
Division No. 645, Indianapolis, Ind., reports having a sick and acci­
dent association which pays $ 1 per day after the first week for 10
weeks and then $3 per week for 3 months.
Division No. 662, Pueblo, Colo., pays a sick benefit after 30 days’
membership of $6 per week after the first week for a period of 1 U
weeks.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.

The following tabular statement presents the number of strikes
and lockouts, by years, from 1893 to 1914, the number of persons
affected each year, total number of lockouts each year, and the num­
ber of strikes and lockouts won or lost during each year. The num­
ber of persons affected represents only those who were eligible to
strike benefits from the union.
The data of the strikes or lockouts tabulated were obtained from
the records.in the office files of the Amalgamated Association of
Street and Electric Railway Employees of America.
In recording strikes and lockouts as won or lost, the method of
determination has been that with the return of locked out men to
their former positions without submitting to the proposed changes in
conditions of employment by the employing companies, the lockout
is considered as having been won.
39749°— Bull. 204—17------ 19




290
T

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

3 6 .—N U M BER OF STRIK ES AN D LOCKOUTS, N U M BER W O N OR LOST, A N D NU M ­
B ER OF PERSONS AFFEC TED , AS R EPO R TED B Y T H E AM ALG A M ATED ASSOCIATION
OF STREET A N D ELECTRIC R A IL W A Y EM PLO YEES OF AMERICA, FOR TH E Y E A R S
1893 TO 1914.

able

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Year.

1893
1894
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897
1898 .................
1899.......................
1900....................... }
1901.......................
1902....................... j
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................
1907.......................
1908.......................
1909.......................
1910.......................
1911.......................
1912.......................
1913.......................
1914.......................

Total.

..

6
1
1
2
2
6
4

Strikes and
lockouts.
Persons
affected.1

Lock­
outs.

Won by
em­
ployees.

Lost by
em­
ployees.

2
1
1
2
2
5
4

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2
)
(2)

4

1

20

2,546

10

10

3 23

2,000

12

6

4
3
13
4 19
14
11
15
18
9
26
16

2,626
275
2,850
6,955
2,730
9,832
8,000
3,673
8,270
7,272
1,008

11
3
9
6
4
16
10

3
1
10
10
5
7
13
8
5
13
10

1
2
3
7
9
4
2
10
4
13
6

5 213

58,037

61

124

82

2

1 Includes only those eligible to strike benefits from the union.
2 Not reported.
3 Including 5 strikes pending at time of reporting.
4 Including 2 strikes pending at time of reporting.
6 Including 7 strikes pending at time of reporting.

NOTABLE STRIKES.

The following data relates to the most notable street railway
strikes that have occurred in the United States between 1883 and
1915. The test of importance of such strikes is, first, the settlement
of a specific issue as between the employing company and the men;
second, the amount of apprehension aroused by its occurrence, as
regards violence and the apparent necessity for calling out the militiathird, the amount of publicity given to it by reason of the disregard
of either or both parties of a public demand for arbitration; fourth,
number of men involved; fifth, losses resulting to the company and
the men in consequence of a suspension of operations; sixth, the
serious inconvenience to the public; and seventh, its general signifi­
cance for capital and labor.
New Y o rk City— Strikes of December, 1885, and A p ril 15, 1886.—
The first difficulty to occur between the street car men, organized by
the Knights of Labor in 1884, and the street railway companies in
New York City and Brooklyn was in consequence of the Sixth
Avenue company refusing to recognize the organization. Recogni­
tion had been granted previously by the Third Avenue company,
when the men had presented a list of grievances, which were satis­
factorily adjusted by that company.




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES. 2 9 1

A list of grievances were submitted to the Sixth Avenue company
on December 18. They were ignored by the company for a period
of 3 weeks, whereupon the men ordered a strike. After 5 hours the
company consented to sign an agreement and the men returned to
work. The next strike was ordered on the Broadway line. It
lasted only 1 0 hours, the company then signing an agreement. A
strike on the Fourth Avenue line followed. The company readily
signed an agreement, but broke it within 2 weeks. After a series
of conferences, which lasted 5 days, it refused to make another
agreement. A strike was then ordered, and the men gave up their
cars,but after 16 hours the company consented to sign an agreement.

The Dry Dock company, which was considered by the men the
/most formidable corporation in New York City, was left until the
last. It was believed that the successes attained with the other com­
panies would be helpful in adjusting the difficulties expected with this
company. -However, being unable to secure even recognition from
the company, a strike was ordered. At the expiration of 5 days the
company agreed to a settlement.
An agreement with the Bleeker Street and Twenty-third Street
Railroad was next sought, but the president of the road said, “ I
do not propose to allow any labor organization to dictate to me how
much I shall pay my employees nor how many hours they shall
work." A strike was ordered which lasted 1 day and resulted in
the signing of an agreement, which was to become effective in 1 0 days.
Negotiations were then undertaken with the Brooklyn companies, and
no trouble was experienced except with the Broadway company and
the Atlantic Avenue company. The former company agreed to a
settlement, after a strike-had been ordered against the company and
it had been in effect for a period of 24 hours. An agreement was
secured with the Atlantic Avenue company without recourse to a
strike.
April 15, 1886, the men on the Third Avenue company’s line pre­
sented a list of grievances, 14 in all, 13 relating to hours of labor, and

1 asking for the discharge of 6 men. To these the president of the
company demurred. Later an appeal was made to the executive
officers of the company to effect a settlement but without results. A
strike was then determined upon as the only means left to the men.
The strike after several hours' duration was settled.
Chicago, E l . — Strike of Ju n e , 1885.— “ Against the discharge of 16
of our leading members and an attempt to break up our organization.
We used every means possible to avoid a strike and asked repeatedly
for arbitration through a committee; our communications were
destroyed in presence of our representatives and arbitration refused.
We had the full sympathy of the public. At the time we organized
our union we were paid about 1 2 J cents per hour for the trip; if it




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STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T’ IN THE UNITED STATES.

required 10 hours to make two trips the men only received 25 cents
pay; now we receive 20 cents per hour from the time we report for
duty; this, with many other advantages, we owe to our being organ­
ized. The strike terminated successfully in eight days.”
Brooklyn , N. Y . — Strike of Jan u a ry 14,1895 .— What was considered
the most notable strike of the decade (1885-1895) took place in
Brooklyn, January 14, 1895. Its importance engaged the attention
of the Assembly of the State of New York to the extent that on the
7 th day of February the assembly adopted the following resolution
relative to the strike of the employees of Jcie surface railroads in
that city:
Whereas the city of Brooklyn is now in a state of siege and under martial law,
arising from the disturbances incident to the great trolley strike; and whereas the
First and Second Brigades of the National Guard of the State have been summoned
to perform active duty to protect the lives and property of the residents of that city;
and whereas as the railroad companies refuse to accede to the demands of their
employees, and the men are firm in their determination to hold out for what they
claim are but just and reasonable demands and fair compensation for service rendered;
and whereas the lives of the citizens of Brooklyn have been and are being imperiled
in consequence, property has been destroyed and the city put to untold expense for
the maintenance of military forces to enforce the laws of our common people: Now,
therefore, be it resolved, for a better protection of the lives and property of our citizens,
this legislature appoint a special committee of five of its members to examine into
the causes leading up to the strike, fix the basis of responsibility therefor, and report
to this legislature at the earliest possible moment their conclusions, with such recom­
mendations as will prevent a recurrence of the same. That said committee shall
have full power and authority to investigate all and singular the aforesaid matters
and charges, and that such committee have full power to prosecute its inquiries in
any and every direction in its judgment necessary and proper to enable it to obtain
and report the information required by this resolution.

Under this resolution, the committee proceeded to investigate; it
endeavored to discover the true cause of the strike, its extent and
duration, its consequences, and those things which contributed to
its prolongation; to fix the responsibility, not only for the strike
itself, but for the disorders consequent upon it, and particularly for
the calling out of an armed force of about 7,500 men to maintain the
public peace.
The strike began on the 14th of January, 1895, and continued
until tfie 24th day of February, 1895. During the greater part of this
time about 5,000 men left their employment. The operation of the
surface railroads upon which the strike occurred was, for the time
being, more or less completely paralyzed, and the fear of serious
breaches of the public peace led to the calling out of the First and
Second Brigades of the National Guard of the State.
“ There was no time during the strike when the railroad companies
so wholly failed to perform their duty as carriers as to justify a for­
feiture of their charters; but from the 13th and 19th of January such
performance was technical and nominal rather than actual, owing to




CHAP. V I.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES.

293

the inability on the part of the roads at that time to secure men to
act as motormen and conductors in sufficient number to run the
customary number of cars and the customary number of trips without
submitting to the terms of their late employees.” 1
For m any years the employees of these roads were organized into
a district assembly of the K nights of Labor, and the contracts
entered into between the Brooklyn City Railroad Co. and the com­
panies merged into it, on the one part, and their conductors, drivers,
or motormen, had been made, not between the companies and the
employees individually, but between the companies and the employees
through the intermediation of the executive board of the Knights of
Labor, and these contracts so made governed the companies and the
men in their relations to each other.
The contracts sought to be entered into with each of these roads
were practically the same in all respects, save that the contract with
each company made special provisions with regard to the number
and proportion of regular cars and so-called tripper cars to be oper­
ated upon particular lines.

The chief points in the contracts submitted were: First, the pro­
visions with regard to the length of the working day; second, the
agreement between the companies and the men as to how many
trips should be run daily over each line to constitute a full day’s
work; third, that the company agreed with its men as to the pro­
portion of so-called tripper to so-called regular cars; fourth, the
recognition of the principle of seniority among the employees them­
selves; fifth, that the employees should have the right to hearing
before discharge; sixth, that the cleaning of the cars and the chang­
ing of the horses should be done by persons other than conductors
and drivers, thus relieving the former while on “ stand” ; seventh,
the provision as to the meal time; and, eighth, the establishment of
the $ 2 rate for conductors and drivers on full-day cars, and $1.50 for
those on tripper cars or cars running a part of the day.
“ A careful estimate by the committee shows that the loss to the
employees who went out on the strike, and who were wholly out of
employment from the 13th of January to the 24th day of February,
was not less than $350,000. Cost to the city for the pay and mainte­
nance of an armed force of 7,500 men, $20 0 ,000 . Extra cost to the
city for police service during the strike, $75,000.” 1
The committee reported to the assembly that it had very carefully
investigated, “ among other subjects, the question of compulsory
arbitration, the licensing of railway employees, of the amendment of
the 10-hour law, the enlargement of the duties of the State Board of
Mediation and Arbitration, and other cognate questions.”
1 Report of special committee of the Assembly of New York, p. 3.




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STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE U NITED STATES.

The committee concluded that no radical legislative remedy for
such conditions and disorders was necessary, but expressed the
belief that “ such disorders grew out of social facts and economic con­
ditions which are too deep for radical cure by legislation, and the only
ultimate cure must come naturally from better relations and a greater
feeling of sympathy between employers and employed.’ ’
Milwaukee, Wis.— Strike of May 4, 1896.— Strike of the employees
of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. The causes of the
strike in part were occasioned by a demand for an increase in wages
to 20 cents per hour; the running time of cars to be equally divided
among day and night crews; preference in runs to men in order of
their seniority; men working 2 hours or less in any one day to be
paid at the rate of 25 cents per hour; time of all men to begin from
the time of reporting; 8 hours to constitute a day’s work in power
houses; 10 hours in repair shops, with time and a half for overtime;
free transportation for all employees; the right to procure uniforms
wherever the men desire; that a grievance committee be received by
the company and matters discussed, and that all differences which
can not be settled b}^ voluntary agreement of both parties be sub­
mitted to arbitration.
The company in its communication to the men considered the most
important demands to be “ that motormen or conductors be paid 20
cents per hour, and that differences which can not be settled by vol­
untary agreement of both parties be submitted to an arbitration
board of disinterested persons.” To all other demands the company
demurred. The company reminded the men that wages of conductors
and motormen had been increased on May 1 , 1893, from 18 cents to
19 cents per hour, and that they considered the scale just and rea­
sonable, judged by the standards prevailing in other cities. As to
arbitration, “ we can not under any circumstances yield the right of
deciding for ourselves all questions as to the executive management
and policy of the company.”
The State board of arbitration met with the committee of the
strikers, as well as the officers of the company, several times, finally
prevailing upon the men to withdraw all their demands except that
the men who had already left the company be restored to their former
places without exception. In view of the fact that the company had
secured new men and promised them permanent employment, they
declined to assume responsibility for this state of affairs and refused
the request. A conference was arranged between a committee of the
strikers and officials of the company the day preceding the strike;
but on account of exceptional activities on the part of the company
officials in regard to the importation of new men, for which the men
charged the company with bad faith, the conference was broken off
and a strike ordered. The strike involved 700 men, lasted several
weeks, and was accounted as lost to the employees.




CHAP. V I.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES.

295

Cleveland, Ohio— Strikes of June 10 and J u ly 17, 1899.— The first
strike was inaugurated on Saturday morning, June 1 0 , and resulted
in a complete tie-up of the entire system. The number of men
involved was approximately 900.
The issue between the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. and the
men, which was formally presented early in June, had been preceded
by a spirit of general discontent among the employees for several
months prior to that time.
During the progress of their meetings the executive board repre­
senting the organization of the employees presented for the signature
of the company a memorandum which contained, among other pro­
visions, the following:
Complete recognition of the union.
That whenever an employee is discharged or laid off a full report
shall be filed with the organization, which shall indicate its acquies­
cence or otherwise in the proposed action, and that failure on the
part of either party to notify or answer shall constitute a forfeiture
of the right of said party to demand arbitration as provided in the
agreement.
That all time schedules which may be adopted or changed shall
first be submitted to the union.
That in order to dismiss any employee for interfering with or dis­
turbing the service of the company the proof must be satisfactory
to the organization as well as to the company.
That free transportation shall be provided the business agent of
the union, and that all members thereof shall be permitted to ride
free, while not on duty, without wearing their badges on their hats.
That in case the representatives of the union and the company fail
to adjust any differences that may arise the former may order the
case to arbitration, the decision thereof to be binding upon the respec­
tive parties.
That if any member of the union is laid off and investigation shows
that he was not at fault he shall be paid in full for time thus lost.
That upon the request of the union any employee shall be suspended
without pay until such time as the association requests his reinstate­
ment.
That any member of the association who upon being elected to
office therein is required to absent himself from work shall be rein­
stated by the company, upon his retirement from office, without
prejudice to his rights as an employee.
That all conductors and motormen shall be members or be permit­
ted to become members of the association within 60 days from date
of employment, and that where learners are to be instructed the
company shall obtain a permit from the union, for which it shall pay
$ 1 for each man.




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STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

T hat runs shall be in consecutive order and be completed in less
than 12 hours, with dinner relief of not less than one hour.

That all conductors or motormen who have been in the service 1 2
months or over shall receive 20 cents per hour; those employed less
than 1 2 months, 18 cents per hour; service of short duration in any
one day shall be paid at a higher rate.
That no employee shall be held personally responsible for any dam­
age inflicted or obligation incurred while in the operation of his car.
That the first run of less than nine hours shall be considered as
“ first e x tra /’ and where a man misses his run he shall lose that day
only ; where he misses his run in the middle of the day he shall lose
the balance of that day and the day following; where he does not
show up for two hours after his run goes out he shall be laid off seven
days, and where he misses twice in 30 days he shall be laid off for
seven days only.
That when a regular man asks off before the board is “ marked u p ”
the first extra man shall have the privilege of his run.
T hat mistakes in conductors’ reports shall be reported to the office
of their division within three days, and that upon the delivery of a
conductor’s report at the division office he shall be given a receipt
showing that such report has been deposited in the safe.
The Ohio State Board of Arbitration visited Cleveland im m ediately
after the strike was called and put itself in com munication with the
officers of the street railway com pany and the executive board rep­
resenting the striking railway employees.

On Sunday evening, June 1 1 , the board of arbitration held separate
conferences with the contending parties. The board learned from the
men that although they had presented to the company a form of
agreement for its signatures, they would not exact the demands at
that time, provided the company would acknowledge the executive
board of the union and permit all employees to return to work.
The company declined to accede to the proposition of the men,
declaring “ that while its employees had the right to organize as they
may desire, it can not and will not enter into any contract with such
organization.” The company expressed its willingness to meet its
employees to discuss and redress any reasonable complaint, but
beyond that it would not go. Later, however, out of deference to
the board of arbitration the officers of the company met with the rep­
resentatives of the union. The board presented a plan which seemed
a fair and reasonable method of adjustment, but it failed because
of inconsiderate expressions and actions of a few representatives of
the company. The board continued its efforts for a period of a week
with varying results, but was unable to bring about a settlement.
Thus matters continued until June 19, when the city council ap~




CHAP. V I.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES.

297

pointed a committee of five members to confer with the railway
company with the aim of bringing about a settlement of the strike.
The committee appointed began its conferences with the contending
sides on June 19 and continued to meet from day to day until June 24;
when the following agreement 1 was entered into, and the strike
declared at an end:
The committee appointed b y the city council to aid in adjusting, if possible, the
strike between the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. and its late employees can to-day
obtain such an adjustment upon the following terms, to which the said company on
its part assents:
1. The restoration of former schedules to stand, as publicly announced to the city
authorities.
2. Upon questions of wages of the men working short hours, the distribution of extra
runs and the pay therefor, as well as upon other grievances, the company will receive
a committee of its own employees for the purpose of considering the same, and if unable
to reach a conclusion with such employees or their committee as to the reasonableness
thereof the company will submit these differences to disinterested arbitrators, to be
chosen in the usual way.
3. In order that the men in the company’s employ may have a proper sense of
security in their employment the company shall not discharge any man except for
cause, which cause shall, at his request, be given him, and he shall be given a full and
fair opportunity to explain or disprove the same, by himself or a committee of said
company’s employees, to be selected by said discharged employee.
4. Questions of schedules and of wages shall not be submitted to arbitration. The
company shall have the ultimate right to hire and discharge men, contracting with
them individually and not collectively. It shall take back into its employment such
of its former employees as its business demands, aggregating at the present time 80 per
cent of such employees, and as other vacancies occur shall give preference to such
former employees, excepting always those who have committed unlawful acts against
the company, its property, or its employees during the present strike; but the rehiring
of all men shall be upon the express condition that their service with the company’s
present employees must be loyal and the latter must not be subject to annoyance or
abuse by them, and any violation of this condition shall be deemed cause for discharge.
5. The service of the employees shall be distributed as equitably as possible under
existing conditions. The company shall at once upon the return of its former em­
ployees to its service give 80 per cent of the runs to the former employees and 20 per
cent of the runs to its present employees; the remainder of its former and present em­
ployees to be placed on the extra list in the same proportion. The method of appor­
tioning these runs between former and present employees shall be as follows:
The first four runs on the time table of each line shall go to the former employees,
the fifth run to the present employees, the next four runs to the former employees, and
the tenth run to the present employees, and so on through the time table with the day
runs, late runs, and extra list.
Temporarily this adjustment may work some inequalities to some men, but the same
will be adjusted as equitably and promptly as possible on these lines.
These propositions the committee deem equitable to both present and former em­
ployees and to the company, and recommend the same for your acceptance. Unless
acted upon and accepted at once the committee believes its service will be of no
further avail. The committee is fully aware that the public service can not longer
await the adjustment of this difficulty. Some means will have to be adopted at once
to provide for the public needs on this company’s lines.




1Report of Ohio State Board of Arbitration for 1899, p. 36.

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STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

The second strike occurred on the morning of July 17, just three
weeks after the settlement of the first strike and for substantially the
same reasons as the first strike, plus the declaration made by both
parties that each were violating the agreement signed June 24. In
addition it was declared that the superintendent had publicly an­
nounced that he would break up the union within 60 days. The
State Board of Arbitration endeavored to bring the parties together
and by mediation or conciliation effect a settlement or persuade them
to submit the matters in dispute to arbitration. In this they failed.
The union declared its intention of fighting the strike out to the
bitter end. The com pany publicly announced its regret for the tem ­
porary inconvenience which m ust accom pany the strike, but at the
same time declared itself entirely blameless.

The strike continued for a period of about five weeks. The civil
authorities claimed they could not control the situation, and on July
25 the militia was called to protect life and property, restore and
maintain public order. Gradually order was restored, and on or
about February 1 , 1900, the street car men’s organization declared
the strike at an end.
St. Lo u is , Mo.— Strike of May 8 , 1900.— On May 8 , 1900, a strike
was declared by the employees of the St. Louis Transit Co., involving
approximately 3,500 employees who had become members of the
Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees
of America.
On May 7 the union’s officials demanded that such of their fellow
employees as would not join the Amalgamated Association of Street
and Electric Railway Employees of America be discharged. They
further demanded that thereafter no one but members of that asso­
ciation be employed. To these demands the directors of the railway
company refused to accede.
The street railway officials and the unions were importuned b y the
State commission of labor to subm it their differences to arbitration,
but without avail.
The attorney for the transit com pany in reply to the commissioner
of labor concerning the submission of differences between the com pany
and the men to arbitration expressed his regrets at the unwillingness
of the president of the com pany to subm it to arbitration. Concerning
his reply to the commissioner, it is, in part, as follow s:
There may be no dispute between the company and those recently employed by it,
but there is a serious difficulty between the company and some 3,500 men who were
engaged in its employment at the time this controversy arose, some three weeks ago.
This army of men engaged in the service of the company had what they deemed just
causes of complaint against the company. They made known their complaints to
the officers of the company, and respectfully requested that their causes of grievance
should be removed. Out of these requests differences arose between the company and
its employees which they were unable, or at least failed, to settle between themselves.




CHAP. V I.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES.

299

Thereupon the employees expressed a willingness and proposed to submit the questions
of difference to arbitration. The company refused either to correct the abuses com­
plained of or to submit the differences between it and and its employees to arbitration,
and in consequence thereof the strike from which the public has since been suffering
was precipitated. Since then efforts have been made to bring about a compromise
and settlement of the questions at issue between the parties. But upon two or three
of these questions they were unable to bring about an agreement. One of these ques­
tions relates to the recognition of the labor union to which the employees belong, and
another relates to the reinstatement of the employees to their positions in the service
of the company. The employees submitted to the company certain tentative propo­
sitions upon these subjects, which were rejected by the company, and the company
in turn made certain counter propositions which were not acceptable to the men.
Again, the men proposed to submit these questions to arbitration, agreeing to abide by
the award of the arbitration whether it should be wholly or in part for or against them;
and again the company refused to take the judgment of just and impartial men.1

The chief executives of the Merchants’ Exchange, the mayor and
the president of the board of police held many conferences in an effort
to develop means by which a settlement could be reached, but without
results. Meanwhile the governor of the State was importuned to
call out the State Guards. This he refused to do.
The strike continued in its most aggressive phase for nearly three
months, during which time it is estimated by the commission of labor
that the transit company lost over $ 10 0 ,000 , the employees over
$225,000, and the business public more than $25,000,000. There were
14 people killed and approximately 200 wounded during that time.
San Francisco , Cal.— Strike of A p ril 19, 1902.— The cause of the
strike and the demands of the union briefly enumerated are as follows:
Recognition o f the union; the right to present for consideration all
grievances of the men; reinstatement of former employees who were
discharged for adhering to union principles; the hours of duty not to
exceed 10 within 12; minimum wage of 25 cents per hour; time and
one-half for overtime; company to abolish the system of insurance
of its employees; full liberty of employees on days off; that employees
be granted the right to ride on cars on their badges; that employees
shall not be marked off their runs oftener than 1 day in 10 unless by
request or because of infringement of the rules by an employee; the
company to agree that all motormen, conductors, gripmen, and drivers
shall become members of the union prior to the expiration of 30 days
from the time their course of instruction is completed; pending nego­
tiations the company to agree not to attempt to run cars except mail
cars, and the men to keep a constant patrol of their members for the
protection of all cars, barns, and other property of the company; that
no agreement be effective till the Geary Street Railroad signs a similar
agreement; the interpretation of any signed agreement to be decided
by arbitration; pending such arbitration the company not to declare
1 Twenty-second Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Inspection of the State of Missouri,




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STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

lockout nor men to order a strike; the terms of any agreement to be
for 1 year.
Upon presentation of the demands a strike was declared and all of
the company’s lines were “ tied u p /’ involving approximately 1,850
men. For a period of seven days the company resisted the demands,
but finally granted all except one, which it subsequently granted,
to wit: The company declined to recognize the union as such, but
agreed to treat with committees of its own employees.
Chicago j III.— Strike of November 12,1903 .— About 2,600 men in the
service of the Chicago City Railway Co., working under an agreement
which expired September 30, 1903, demanded an increase of 4 cents
an hour for men on the electric lines, so as to make the minimum wage
28 cents an hour. The wages under the old contract were at the rate
of 24 cents an hour, except on the cable lines on State Street and Cot­
tage Grove Avenue, where the men were paid by the trip, averaging
about 28 cents an hour. In addition demands were made on the
company for a complete unionization of the lines and some minor
concessions in the shape of fewer hours on duty for the extra men or
men on tripper runs and some changes in the running schedules. The
State Board of Arbitration endeavored through the tender of its
services to avoid a strike, but to no avail. The strike went into
effect Thursday, November 1 2 , completely tying up the train service
of the company. The city council of Chicago at once instructed
Mayor Harrison to name a committee to confer with both sides in an
effort to bring about a settlement.
The conferences between the committee of the city council and rep­
resentatives of both sides continued for several days, until common
ground f<?r settlement was reached.
The terms of the agreement were in the nature of a compromise,
both sides making concessions, the question of wages and hours to
be settled by a committee representing the trainmen and the company,
and the company agreeing not to discriminate against members of the
union. Future grievances were to be disposed of by properly accredited
officers of the company and a committee of the union. The strike
terminated November 25, having lasted 13 days.
Cleveland, Ohio— Strike of May 16, 1908.— The apparent cause of
the Cleveland strike was the determination of the Municipal Traction
Co. to ignore or modify the then existing agreement between Division
No. 268 of the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Rail­
way Employees of America and the Cleveland Electric Railway Co.
Briefly, a repudiation of the wage provision of the agreement was
demanded by the company. The men accepted a wage reduction
of 1 cent per hour, but almost immediately a large number of men
were discharged and new men employed to take their places on the
best early runs. This had the effect of forcing men from 3 to 1 2




CHAP. V I.---- ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES.

301

years in the service back on the late runs and upon the extra list,
destroying the seniority rights provided by common practice in Cleve­
land and b y the agreement.

It was evident from the first that the people of Cleveland believed
they were interested partners in the Municipal Traction Co. and that
an effort was being made to give them transportation at no more than
the actual cost, based upon expenses of operation and 6 per cent
income upon the actual investment.
The strike was conceded a failure industrially at the end of the
second week and was declared off b y the officials of the association.

Philadelphia, P a .— Strikes of May 28, 1909, and February 19,
1910.— The strike of February 19, 1910, had its origin in the discharge

of 40 Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. employees in November, 1908.
These men claimed they were discharged from the service for “ union
activity ” in the attempts, then seriously begun, to organize the men
into a local of the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric
Railway Employees of America. The discharged men were rein­
stated through the intervention of the mayor and others of the city
upon the promise that their efforts at organization in the future
should not be a disturbing element among the company’s men and
destructive of discipline.
Organization of the men slowly continued and on May 28, 1909, a
mass meeting was held and a strike called. The membership of the
union at this time was reported to be “ about 425 paid-up members.”
Notwithstanding this, two-thirds, or 4,500, of the motormen and
conductors responded to the strike order. After a strike lasting
seven days, an agreement was signed and the men returned to work.
The men had demanded the abolition of the “ swing-run system,”
a 3-cent-an-hour increase in wages, that there should be at least one
union firm from which they should be free to buy their uniforms,
and that grievances should be adjusted at regular meetings with
“ accredited representatives” of the employees.
The com pany conceded the first demand, refused the increase of
pay, specified five firms, one union, from which uniforms m ight be
bought, and agreed to m eet representatives of the men for the
adjustment of grievances.
The agreement which was drawn up between the com pany, as
party of the first part, and the “ accredited representatives” of the
employees, party of the second part, was signed b y men (acting as
individuals) who were actually elected b y the union as their “ accred­
ited representatives.”

Under this agreement more or less friendly relations were main­
tained for a period of about five months. In the autumn of 1909
complaint was made that the company was violating the agreement
of June 24 by meeting for the adjustment of grievances a committee




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STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

composed of employees other than thoso who had signed the agree­
ment. The committee to which objection was made was selected
from an association of about 2,500 men commonly known as the
“ Keystone men.” The union men claimed that this was an outlaw
organization, fostered by the company, and that there was gross
discrimination by minor officials and division superintendents in
favor of the Keystone men. It was the fostering of this organi­
zation by the company which formed the real issue that brought
about the strike of 1910.
During the conferences which were held between the com pany’s
officers and representatives of the Am algam ated Association efforts
were made b y the men to get the com pany to agree to give recogni­
tion to members of their association, but the com pany declined, sug­
gesting that the agreement then in operation be modified b y the
insertion of the following clause:
Employees shall be free to join or not to join any organization and may present
their grievances to the company individually, or, if members of any organization of
employees, by a committee of the representatives thereof, and there shall be no
intimidation or discrimination against any employee so doing by any official of the
company or their subordinates.

This proposed amendment became the crucial point in the negotia­
tion. The conferees on the part of the Amalgamated Association
declined to enter into an agreement that recognized the existence of
two unions. This action, and the discharge of 174 union men,
brought about a deadlock in the proceedings, which later resulted in
the ordering of a strike on February 19. Subsequently 76 of the 174
discharged men were reinstated.
The strike lasted approximately 9 weeks, 3,400 of the 4,800 men
returning to work April 24 without an agreement and at the wages
offered just prior to the beginning of the strike (23 cents an hour,
increasing to 25 cents for men who remained in the service until 1914).
The strike, which cost the Rapid Transit Co. $2,395,000 and the
men approximately $800,000, was considered a draw.1
Columbus, Ohio— Strike of A p ril 29 , 1910.— This strike was called,
first, in accordance with the belief that the Columbus Railway &
Light Co. had discharged 35 of its men for joining the union; second,
because of a violation of an agreement to reinstate discharged em­
ployees with a promise that in the future no discrimination would
be made against employees because of membership in any union. A
subsequent agreement to reinstate all employees, giving them the
freedom of joining any union, ended the strike, which lasted four
days.
The second strike (July 26), which was called because of an alleged
violation of the April agreement, was declared off, after having con* Daniel T. Pierce in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 1, No. 37, p. 99.




CHAP. VI.---- ASSOCIATIONS OP EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES.

303

tinued 13 weeks. It was the longest strike in the history of the city,
and cost the State $ 200,000 for military service. The estimated cost
to the company in extraordinary expenses was $450,000. The loss in
wages to the employees was Estimated at approximately $ 7 5 ,000 .
In support of the strike the unions expended $35,000/
Boston, Mass.— Strike of June 7, 1912.— It appears that about the
first of May, 1912, an organizer of the Amalgamated Association of
Street and Electric Railway Employees of America was sent to Bos­
ton in response to a call from one of the employees of the Boston
Elevated Railway Co. to organize the men in the employ of said
company. Activities in connection with the perfection of such an
organization, such as obtaining a charter and the election of officers,
were communicated by minor officials of the company to superior
officers.
Men active or identified with the formation of the union were
advised by the company’s officials not to join the union. Subse­
quently a statement submitted by counsel for the company to the
Massachusetts Board of Arbitration showed that during the six weeks
prior to the 7th day of June 262 men were discharged for various
offenses, and of this number 149 were discharged without explanation
other than “ unsatisfactory service.” The men discharged under this
designation declared that the reason given was only a subterfuge,
and assumed that the action of the company was an unwarranted
restriction or an invasion of their lawful rights, as set forth in sec­
tions 18 and 19 of chapter 514, Acts of 1909, as follows:
S e c t i o n 18. No person shall, by intimidation or force, prevent or seek to prevent a
person from entering into or continuing in the employment of any person or cor­
poration.
S e c . 19. No person shall, himself or by his agent, coerce or compel a person into a
written or oral agreement not to join, or become a member of a labor organization as
a condition of his securing employment or continuing in the employment of such
person.

The State Board of Arbitration, after an investigation, commented
as follows: “ These laws make for industrial freedom alike for the
individual and for organized labor. The discharge of men, if for the
reason that they had become members of a labor organization or
contemplated such membership, is contrary to the spirit of the law.
The controversy seriously affects the public, and the board recom­
mends to the parties that in conference they endeavor by agreement
to accomplish an amicable settlement, which shall be alike just to
the company and its employees and the public which it is its duty
to serve.” Subsequently the parties met in conference and agreed
to terminate the controversy. The agreement in part contained the
following: “ The company shall restore to their former positions and
ratings such employees as desire to return who were discharged from
i Ohio State Board of Arbitration, Eighteenth Annual Report, pp. 25-44.




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STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

May 1 to June 7, 1912, for the reason designated as 1unsatisfactory
service/ and those who voluntarily left its service on June 7, except
such as have been charged before the court with the offense of being
guilty of a breach of peace or acts ‘of violence against persons or
property and have not been acquitted, or, if convicted and appeal
taken, have not been acquitted by the superior court.” The board
suggested that all who were to be reemployed should be returned
to their employment in order of their seniority, but all prior to
August 19, 1912.
The strike, which terminated in favor of the union, involved
approximately 2,0 00 employees and lasted from June 7 to July 30,
1912. The subsequent arbitration proceedings occupied nearly three
months.
Cincinnati, Ohio— Strike of May 10, 1913.— The strike was for
recognition of the union. The company sought to disrupt the union
by discharging a number of union men. The strike, which began
May 1 0 , terminated on May 19, the company signing an agreement
granting recognition, covering wages, working conditions, and arbi­
tration of all disputes.




CHAPTER VH.— AGREEMENTS BETWEEN EMPLOYERS AND
EMPLOYEES.
BETWEEN COMPANIES AND THE AMALGAMATED ASSOCIATION
(UNION OF EMPLOYEES),

This chapter presents a study of contracts between certain street
railway companies of the United States and their employees, collec­
tively, as expressed in agreements between the companies and local
divisions of the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric
Railway Employees of America, which agreements were furnished to
this bureau by the officials of the international association for this
purpose. Agreements applying to employees in strictly interurban
service are not included in the study, but only those applying to
employees on city lines, or city and interurban lines combined; those
sections of the agreements referring solely to interurban employees
or conditions are omitted. The basis of presentation is the agree­
ment itself, without regard to the number of employees or miles
of trackage within its scope. Eighty-four agreements, applying to
the members of 108 local divisions of the Amalgamated Association
in 119 cities, are represented. Between 13,000 and 14,000 miles
of city trackage are operated by the companies who are parties to
the agreements. Each of these 84 agreements was in effect in 1914.
In the following discussion the word “ company" refers to the
street railway company and the word “ association ” to the local
division of the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Rail­
way Employees of America, parties to the agreements examined.
PURPOSE, SCOPE, AND DURATION OF AGREEMENTS.

Nine of the agreements contain a clause setting forth the purpose
of their existence, the clause appearing in four of the agreements
being as follows:
Whereas it is agreed by both parties that it is for their mutual interest and the con­
venience of the public that there should be continuous and uninterrupted street
railway service, and there being no disposition on the part of the association to make
unjust and vexatious demands on the company, and it being the desire of the com­
pany to treat its employees fairly, justly, and without prejudice or discrimination, it
is hereby mutually understood and agreed:

Clauses in three agreements state that their purpose is to provide the
best and most satisfactory service to the public, to provide the best
possible working conditions for the men, at the same time having
39749°— Bull. 204— 17------- 20




305

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STREET RAILWAY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

due regard to the economical operation of the company’s cars.
other two are similar to this, specifying in addition as follows:

The

Believing it is to the best interest of the parties hereto and of the patrons of such
street railway system that there is no interruption of traffic by reason of misunder­
standing upon the part of either party hereto, and believing it to be to the best inter­
est of the parties hereto and to the public generally that fixed terms as to the rela­
tionship of the parties to this agreement be agreed upon and specified, whereby the
relations of the parties may be known in advance and the circumstances under which
they are to operate be definitely fixed, it is hereby agreed:

As a rule the agreements cover all employees who are members of
the local divisions of the association, without regard to the nature
of their employment. One agreement, however, is limited in its
application to such employees of the company as are engaged in the
employments for which wage schedules are set out and fixed by it
(motormen, conductors, and barn men), while in five instances agree­
ments apply to members of the association except dispatchers, inspec­
tors, foremen, clerks, and timekeepers.
Agreements are made for periods of time varying from 1 to 10
years, or for indefinite periods. Of the 84 agreements studied, 23
are for a period of 1 year, 12 for 2 years, 35 for 3 years, 4 for 4 years,
3 for 5 years, 1 for 6 years, 1 for 10 years, and 5 for no definite period.
Fifty of these agreements contain a clause providing for continuing
the agreement under certain stipulated conditions after the expiration
of the period for which it was drawn. This clause is found in prac­
tically the same form in 30 of the agreements, as follows:
This agreement and provisions thereof shall continue in force and bo binding upon
the respective parties hereto until ---------- and from year to year thereafter, unless
changed b y the parties hereunto. Either of the parties hereunto desiring to change
any section or sections of this agreement shall notify the other party, in writing, of the
desired change thirty (30) days prior to the ending of each year, which is the first day
0f ---------- , Under such notice the agreement shall be open to consider whatsoever
change or changes are desired.

A variation is made in several instances by the addition of a clause
providing for the submission to arbitration of any disagreements
arising in considering desired changes which can not be amicably
adjusted between the parties, the decision of the arbitration board
to become a part of the agreement. It seems that under the terms
of those agreements which contain a general section providing for
arbitration, as well as one for the continuation of the contract from
year to year, disputes as to desired changes could be referred to arbi­
tration without a specific clause to that effect. However, a specific
clause removes all doubt that might arise as to whether such disputes
are subject to arbitration.
In three of the agreements 15 days’ notice only instead of 30 days’
notice of desired changes is required. Two agreements having a term
of 3 years, and continuing from year to year thereafter, provide that




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEM ENTS: EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

307

desired changes, except matters relating to the wage scale, may be
taken up at the end of 1 and 2 years, respectively, from their date.
The same provision is found in a third 3-year agreement, with the
addition that matters referring to hours of labor are exempt from
changes until after 3 years, other matters being subject to change at
the end of the second year.
Two agreements which contain the section quoted above, and which
continue from year to year after May 1 , 1916, also contain the fol­
lowing clause:
Either party hereto may terminate this agreement on January let, 1920, or at the
expiration of any five (5) year period thereafter by giving the other party thirty (30)
days’ written notice.

Sections in other agreements which provide for a continuation
after the date of expiration are, in effect, as follows: “ Until termi­
nated by either party upon 2 years’ notice” ; “ until terminated by
either party upon 30 days’ notice” ; “ as long as * * * has the
management of the com pany” ; “ until changed by mutual consent of
parties” ; “ until a new agreement is made and entered into by and
between the parties.”
In two cases it is provided that the agreement shall continue for 1
year after the date of its expiration, under a stated optional wage
scale, unless either party gives 60 days’ notice that it is desirable that
changes should be considered. Two others are similar to these, the
difference being that there is no optional wage scale for the fourth year;
and one requires only 30 days’ notice. Another provides that if at the
date of termination a new agreement has not been made, and nego­
tiations are pending, the old agreement is to remain in effect for a
further period of 10 days.
It is doubtful whether the following section, which is found in
three agreements running for 2 , 3, and 5 years, respectively, with
no provision for a continuation thereafter, could be construed as
continuing such agreements after their expiration:
Should negotiations be necessary for a new contract at the expiration of this contract,
it is mutually agreed that said renewal shall be executed at least 30 days previous to
the expiration of the contract then existing.

The effect of a section found in one contract—
This agreement shall be in force and effect until January 1, 1915, and any change or
alteration desired by either party to this agreement must be submitted to the other at
least thirty (30) days previous to its expiration—

is also doubtful. The language indicates
the contract after January 1 , 1915, but it
effect had not been produced.
Two agreements, one for 4 and one for
from the others in that the former provides




an intention to continue
would seem that such an
10 years, vary somewhat
that either party may ask

308

STREET RAILWAY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

for a revision of the wage schedule 2 years from the date of the
contract, and the latter grants permission to take up wage questions,
or any other grievance that may be in contention, 3 years and 6 years
from the date of the contract. Each of these contracts terminates at
a definite period.
One contract, terminating in 3 years, provides that “ in order to
guarantee the public uninterrupted street car service the negotiation
of a new agreement shall be taken up by the parties hereto at least 60
days prior to the expiration of this agreement.” If the parties fail
to agree within 10 days before the old agreement terminates the
matter is referred to arbitration.
CONFERENCES.

A provision to the effect that the company, through its properly
accredited officers, will meet and treat with the properly accredited
officers and committees of the association upon all questions, differ­
ences, or grievances that may arise is found in 77 agreements. In
some instances new employees on probation, who have not yet become
members, are not given the right to appeal through the association
and are not entitled to its protection in matters of discharge or other
grievances. The probationary period varies from 30 to 90 days. Some
companies limit the matters upon wiiich they will treat with the
association to those covered by the agreement, and in one contract
the matter of wages is exempted on the ground that wages are fixed
by the agreement itself. The last-mentioned agreement provides
for conferences with members of the international executive board of
the association in case the company’s representatives can not agree
with the representatives of the local division of the association, and
the same provision is found in another agreement with the variation
that the international president or vice president, as well as members
of the international executive board, may be called in conference.
MEMBERSHIP IN ASSOCIATION.

The matter of employees becoming members in the association is
referred to in 67 agreements. Membership is compulsory as a con­
dition of employment under the terms of 30 agreements, while the
other 37 contain optional clauses only. A summary of the sections
which require membership in the association, with the number of
agreements containing each section, is shown below.
1. Three agreements: All motormen and conductors employed by
the company to become and remain members in good standing. One
of these states also that all cars are to be operated by members of
the association, and one contains a time limit of 15 days within which
new employees must make application for membership.
2. Seven agreements: No person allowed to act as motorman or
conductor who is not a member of the association or a recognized




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEM ENTS: EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

309

student. A time limit of 30 days in which new employees must join
is found in one of these, while three specify that motormen and con­
ductors must have a permit card from the association before being
allowed on a car.
3. Two agreements: No person allowed to act as a regular on car
or in barn who does not become a member of the association within
30 days from date of employment.
4. One agreement: All motormen, conductors, car movers, and
placers are to make application immediately for membership upon
entering service of company.
5. Four agreements: All motormen and conductors to be members
of the association, new men to be turned in for initiation (a) within 90
days (3); ( b) within 60 days (1); but to procure a permit card from the
association, paying $1 for the same, (a) within 48 hours after being
employed (2 ); within no specified time (2 ).
6. One agreement: All employees, except trackmen and laborers on
emergency work, who are eligible for membership, to become mem­
bers within 30 days after being hired. Must secure permit card from
the association before being put to work.
7. One agreement: All employees except construction gang to file
application for membership before entering employ of company. If
not accepted as a member within 30 days, company may refer case
to arbitration. All cars to be operated by members of the association.
8. One agreement: All motormen and conductors to be members of
the association, old employees to become members upon execution of
agreement and new employees to become members within 60 days
after date of their employment. Car-barn and power-house men free
to elect whether they become members.
9. One agreement: All motormen, conductors, and employees of
crafts and trades affiliated with the association to become members.
10. One agreement: All employees to secure a permit from the asso­
ciation within 5 days from date of employment, and become mem­
bers at the end of 30 days’ probationary period, if retained in service
of company.
11. One agreement: Motormen, conductors, barn men, and substa­
tion operators entering the service of the company to secure per­
mits from the association and become members within 30 days.
New men not allowed on any car to learn road without permit from
association.
12. One agreement: All motormen, conductors, sprinkling and
freight car men, pitmen, pitmen’s helpers, doper pitmen’s helpers, car
washers, and present curve oilers who are members of the association
to remain members in good standing. All new men entering above
employments, except curve oilers, to become members of the asso­
ciation within 3 months from date of employment.




310

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

13.
Three agreements: All motormen and conductors who are mem­
bers to remain members and new motormen and conductors to become
members after 00 days’ probationary service. One contains an addi­
tional clause to the effect that the company recommends that all
motormen and conductors become members, notices to that effect to
be posted.
14- One agreement: All motormen, conductors, and car repairers
who are members to remain members while employed by the
company. New employees of these classes to become and remain
members.
15. One agreement: Motormen and conductors now members to
retain membership, new men to become members within 60 days.
Students pay $ 1 for permit from the association.
16. One agreement: No student motorman or conductor to receive
instruction without first securing permit card from the association.
Copy of application blank filed by each motorman and conductor to
be furnished the association when motorman or conductor is placed
as a student. Must become member at termination of 30 days’ pro­
bationary period.
From the above it will be seen that each of the 30 agreements re­
quires motormen and conductors to become members of the associa­
tion, while but 1 1 refer to employees in other occupations. Of those
referring to motormen and conductors, 2 1 require that they become
and remain members while in the service of the company, 6 that
present members shall retain and new employees procure and retain
membership, and 3 that new employees shall become members.
*
One agreement providing that the company is to employ only
motormen and conductors who are members of the association, pro­
vides also that—
The association on its part agrees that it will not refuse membership to any person
whom the company sees fit to employ as regular or extra motormen or conductors
except to such as have been expelled or suspended from or rejected by any local
division of the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees
of America or other local union. Neither will the association suspend or expel any
person from membership in the association except for a good and sufficient cause.
Causes for rejection, suspension, or expulsion of any regular or extra motorman or
conductor shall be stated to the company in writing when so requested.
OPTIONAL MEMBERSHIP.

The following section taken from one agreement is representative
of 1 2 having sections giving employees the right to elect whether they
shall become members of the association, without discrimination on
the part o f either the company or the association:
The railway company agrees that it will not oppose any of its employees in joining
the Amalgamated Association, and the Amalgamated Association agrees that it will
not coerce or use any undue influence to compel any such employees to join the union;




CHAP. V II.---- AGREEMENTS : EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION,

311

that is, it is understood that the men are to be free in their election to join the union
or not, and that it shall not be construed as “ using undue influence” for any member
of the Amalgamated Association to endeavor, b y argument or persuasion, to induce
the employees to join the union.

Two of these 1 2 agreements provide also that the company will not
discriminate against employees for performing duties imposed by
the association. The employees of one company recognize the right
of the company to operate as it deems best, provided there are no
violations of the agreement, while two companies reserve the right to
employ, dismiss, and discipline employees as seen fit, except for
membership in the association. A restriction upon the activities of
the association is found in one agreement which provides that if a
nonmember is once requested to join the association and refuses to
do so, he shall not be requested again to join.
The following shows provisions found in agreements not mentioned
above, with the number of agreements in which each is found :
To be no discrimination on the part of the company favorable to
employees who are nonmembers, or against those who are members
(10 agreements).
To be no discrimination for performing duties imposed by the asso­
ciation (1 agreement).
The company not to oppose employees belonging to the associa­
tion (3 agreements).
The company to furnish the association with names of new em­
ployees (1 agreement).
All employees may become and remain members at their option
(2 agreements).
No distinguishing badge or emblem of the association to be worn
by employees on the company’s cars or property (1 agreement).
The company reserves the right to employ whom it chooses (1
agreement).
The company reserves the right to retain men who make proper
application to join the association, but are not permitted to do so,
unless furnished with proof that such men are not fit and proper
persons to act as motormen or conductors (1 agreement).
The company recommends that all employees now in the associa­
tion remain members, and it also recommends that all new men that
may enter the service and who are eligible to membership in the
association become and remain members, as it prefers to deal with
employees through the association (2 agreements).
COLLECTION OF DUES.

Three agreements permit officers of the association to collect dues
from members in car houses and other places without interference
on the part of the company. In one of these is the restriction that




312

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

collections in shops and car houses are not to interrupt men in the
performance of their work. Sections from two other agreements
which relate to dues and their collection are as follows:
1. The company hereby guarantees the payment to the association by its employees
of all regular dues.
2. The business agent will be allowed at all times during working hours to visit
*any member of the association, providing he notifies the superintendent or foreman
in charge of the various departments of his desire to interview such member. Said
interview to be held in the building where the department is located, in some suitable
place as may be designated by the superintendent or foreman and to be private.
NOTICES OF ASSOCIATION.

The association is permitted to maintain bulletin boards in car
houses and shops for use in posting its notices under the terms of
seven agreements. Two of these provide that notices must be
approved by the general manager of the company before being posted.
SUSPENSION, DISCHARGE, AND GRIEVANCES.

All but three of the 84 agreements examined deal with the ques­
tion of suspending and discharging employees. The basis of a
majority of the sections relating to this topic is the provision that
a member of the association suspended or discharged, and after
investigation found not guilty of charges on which the action was
based, is to be reinstated in his former position and paid for all time
lost by reason of such suspension or discharge at the same rate as
if he had been operating his car. A clause to this effect is found in
70 agreements, although five of these agreements provide that the
employee shall be paid for such time lost as may be decided upon
by the officials of the company and of the association. If the
employee is an extra man, he is paid an amount equal to that earned
by the extra man who took his place (2 agreements), the average
amount earned by all extras during the period of suspension
or discharge (1 agreement), or, if the last extra man, the same
amount earned by the extra man ahead of him on the list (1 agree­
ment). Two other agreements provide for reinstatement as above,
but in one instance pay for time Jost is not allowed when the suspen­
sion or discharge was caused by irregularity in registering fares,
tickets, or transfers, while the other makes no mention of pay for
lost time. B y another agreement pay for time lost is not granted
if the conduct of the employee was such as to give reason to believe
him guilty.
Sixteen agreements provide that a member of the association sum­
moned to the office to answer charges is to be summoned as soon as
possible after the alleged offense is committed. Two others fix the
time in which employees are to be summoned as 24 and 72 hours,
respectively. Under twenty-two agreements members of the asso­




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEMENTS : EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

313

ciation are entitled to receive a copy of the charges preferred against
them, and in nine instances they are allowed time in which to make
answer. A number of agreements, however, provide that an adjourn­
ment may be had to enable an employee to answer charges and
prepare his defense, at the option of the superintendent of the
company.
Five agreements provide that members suspended or discharged
are. to be notified of the reason for the action and length of suspen­
sion, the time in which this is to be done varying up to within three
days. The same information must be furnished the association
upon request under the terms of 1 1 agreements, with no time limit
stated in 5, and with a limitation of 24 or 48 hours in the others.
Employees are required to answer the specific charges only on
which they were summoned, under 7 agreements. If found guilty,
the right to appeal to a higher official is granted in 14 instances, but
this clause might properly be held to apply to all of those agreements
which provide for an investigation after suspension or discharge.
Other features found in the agreements are that notices of appeals
and requests for investigations must be made within a specified
time; that employees are entitled to advisers while answering charges;
that petty charges are to be answered without loss of time; that either
the company or the association may have the accused employee
present at the investigation; that the investigation must be made
within a certain time after being requested or the employee returns
to work.
Sections taken from typical agreements are as follows:
The railway companies agree that any of their employees who are members of the
Amalgamated Association, believing themselves to be aggrieved, shall have the right
to appeal to the president or general manager of the railway companies or either
of them and to state such grievance orally, in writing, in person, or by representative,
and the railway companies agree that the said grievance or supposed grievance shall
have a full and complete investigation by the president or general manager, or either
of them, and if members are found not at fault they shall be reinstated and paid for
all lost time.
When a member of the association is summoned before the superintendent or official
in charge to answer a charge it must be as soon as possible after the alleged offense
was committed. He shall lose no more time than is actually necessary, and after a
fair and impartial hearing before the official of the company and committee of the
association, if not found guilty of the alleged offense shall be reimbursed for all time
lost. When any member is summoned before the superintendent or official in charge
for the violation of rules, he shall upon request have time after hearing the charge
against him to present any defense which he may have to the charge. He shall, if
he so desires, be entitled to adviser or advisers, and an adjournment for a reasonable
time of the hearing for the purpose of enabling him to present his defense shall be
granted. This time to be mutually agreed upon at the time of such adjournment.
Whenever a member of the association is summoned to appear before the superin­
tendent or official in charge to answer a charge he is to be handed a written copy of
the charges if he so desires, to which charge he shall be given five (5) hours to answer.
In case he is not satisfied with the decision of the superintendent or official in charge




314

STREET R AILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN

THE UNITED STATES.

will

he shall have the right to appeal to the general manager, and in this appeal he
be entitled to adviser or advisers and final decision shall be given within a week,
and if the member is not found guilty of the charge alleged he shall be reinstated in
his former position and paid for all time lost. When any member is summoned to
answer charges before the superintendent or official in charge and has been excused
or has not been proved guilty of the alleged offense, no other charge shall be preferred
against him and he shall be paid for all time lost.
That where any member of the association employed by the company has been
suspended or discharged and the association feels after a careful investigation on its
part (the company cooperating to a reasonable extent) that an injustice has been
done him, the association shall have the right to take the case up first with the divi­
sion superintendent, and if it can not reach a satisfactory adjustment with the divi­
sion superintendent it shall have the right to appeal the case to the general super­
intendent, and if it can not reach a satisfactory adjustment with the general superin­
tendent it shall have the right to appeal the case to the general manager. If it is
determined that such conductor, motorman, or employee was unjustly laid off or
discharged he shall be reinstated in his former position and paid for all time lost.
Should any motorman or conductor have any grievance in connection with his
work for the company, he shall bring same to the attention of the manager, himself
or by committee, and will always receive a hearing.

Eight agreements provide that nothing is to be placed against an
employee’s record until he has been given the right to a hearing,
while 1 1 have a provision that on the records of the company show­
ing violations of its rules the defense made by an employee as well as
the offense with which he is charged is to be made a matter of record.
Some companies reserve the right to discharge employees for any
cause except membership in the association and to administer dis­
cipline as they deem proper for infraction of their rules, while one
company agrees that employees are not to be discharged except for
violations of its rules and regulations. Failure to render faithful
service and to cooperate with the company in making relations be­
tween the association and company mutually agreeable and profit­
able is sufficient cause for dismissal under 1 agreement, while in 13
others the following provision is found in practically the same form:
Any member of the association by act or word interfering with or disturbing the
course of negotiations between the association and company, upon any subject what­
soever, or interfering with or disturbing the service in any manner contrary to the
spirit and conditions of this agreement, shall upon proof of the same be dismissed
from the service and from the association.

The time within which discipline must start after investigation
shows an employee to be guilty is given in some agreements, while
1 provides that no employee is to be discharged without two weeks’
notice or two weeks’ pay, unless dismissed for dishonesty. A clause
canceling an employee’s suspension when it is deferred on account of
a shortage of men is found in 1 agreement. Each of the clauses
given below is found in 1 agreement only:
A committee of the association has the right to examine report of
inspector on any member discharged for irregularity in registering
fares.




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEM ENTS: EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

315

Complaints regarding fares to be passed upon by tlie general man­
ager of the company and a committee of the association.
Conductor discharged for irregularity in registering fares to have a
hearing before association and company officials.
All orders and reprimands to be given employees in private.
Employees to have merit marks for meritorious service as well as
demerits for wrongdoing, record to be open to employees.
No man to bo given more than 7 days at foot of extra list unless
offense is sufficient for dismissal.
No suspension or discharge of a motorman or conductor to be made
public.
DISCHARGE AT REQUEST OF ASSOCIATION.

Twenty-six agreements contain a provision under which members
who are suspended or expelled by the association are suspended or
expelled by the company upon request of the association. The cause
of suspension or discharge must be a violation of the agreement (3
agreements), violation of the laws or rules of the association ( 1 2
agreements), or misconduct (6 agreements), although in some instances
(5 agreements) the cause of suspension or discharge is not mentioned.
After an employee has been suspended or discharged from the associ­
ation he is to be suspended or discharged by the company, when
requested by the association, upon satisfactory proof of the mis­
conduct, etc., which was the basis of the association’s action ( 1 2
agreements), or merely upon request, without proof of misconduct,
etc. (14 agreements). Two of the agreements which provide that
the company is to suspend or discharge upon request of the associa­
tion, and without proof of misconduct, also provide that the company
may submit the case to arbitration if it feels that the suspension is
unjust. By the terms of one of these the suspended employee also
may refer his case to arbitration. When the association requests the
suspension or discharge of an employee the request must be accom­
panied by a copy of the resolution suspending or expelling the
employee from the association, certified to by the officials of the
association and attested by its seal, under some of the agreements.
The sections from three agreements quoted below illustrate the
wording of a majority of those outlined above:
In cases of suspension or expulsion of any member of the association the company
agrees to suspend or dismiss such member on satisfactory proof of misconduct for
which such suspension or expulsion is made.
Any member expelled from the association pursuant to the rules of the association
shall be discharged by the railway company upon the request of the association, in
writing, accompanied by a copy of the resolutions certified by the president and
secretary and attested by the seal of the association.
If any member of the association is expelled or suspended from his membership
therein for violation of any of the provisions of this agreement, the company, being
satisfied that such expulsion or suspension was for such reason and was justifiable,
shall dismiss such employed from its service.




316

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

If an employee refuses to pay dues or assessments for which ho
became liable to the association during his membership, and before
he notified the association of his withdrawal therefrom and the sur­
render of his membership, 3 companies agree to discharge or suspend
such employee from service until all dues and assessments for which
he is liable are paid.
Under the provisions of 9 agreements employees are to be dismissed
from the service of the company at the end of their probationary
period, usually 30 days, if they are unsatisfactory to the association.
ARBITRATION.

Sixty-nine agreements provide for the arbitration of differences
arising between the association and the company. The clause gen­
erally used is to the effect that all differences, grievances, or matters
in controversy not amicably adjusted between the officials of the
company and association are to be submitted to arbitration upon
request of either party (54 agreements), with a modification in some
instances that questions must arise under the agreement to be subject
to arbitration (8 agreements). In 2 agreements arbitration is lim­
ited to questions arising over desired changes in the agreements
themselves at the end of each year, and in 1 each, to the establish­
ment of a new wage scale at the termination of the agreement;
whether a member was suspended, discharged, or disciplined on
account of his membership in the association; to differences not
specifically covered by the agreement; to misunderstandings as to
the interpretation of the contract; and to the performance of the
agreement, i. e.; whether either party has or has not lived up to the
agreement.
Questions of discipline; hours of labor, except as to observance of
the agreement itself; complaints as to irregularities in collecting
fares; the wage scale; and matters affecting the organization of the
company, or general policy to which the company may be obligated
when not affecting the employment of members of the association,
are exempted from those questions listed above as being subject to
arbitration, in 2 , 2 , 7, 2 , and 3 agreements, respectively.
In several instances the matter in dispute is referred to the presi­
dent or general manager of the company before being sent to arbitra­
tion, and 3 agreements require a reference to the president of the
company and the international president of the association. One
agreement covering several locals of the association provides that
arbitration is not to be requested on any question before the various
locals have passed upon it, 1 requires reference to the international
association before the local asks for arbitration, and 1 that both the
officials of the company and the executive committee of the associa­
tion must consider differences before arbitration is requested. An




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEM ENTS: EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

317

interesting feature is disclosed by 2 agreements which, show that the
company’s franchise requires differences to be submitted to arbitra­
tion, the mayor or president of common council having authority to
order arbitration if the parties to the agreement refuse to do so.
The method of bringing about arbitration is practically the same in
all the agreements. Either party desiring arbitration advises the
other party to that effect, in writing. Usually the arbitration board
consists of 3 persons, 1 selected by the company, 1 by the association,
and the third chosen by the 2 thus selected (65 agreements). Some
of these agreements provide that the arbitrators must be disinterested
persons (17 agreements), or persons skilled in the matters and things
to be determined (2 agreements), while 1 requires that the arbitrator
appointed by the company be its president or some person connected
with it other than an attorney, and that of the association its inter­
national president or member of the international executive board.
The third arbitrator is not chosen unless the first 2 selected can not
agree and decide the matters submitted to them after a single con­
ference or adjournment thereof, under the terms of 16 agreements.
Four of the agreements provide for an arbitration board of 5
members, 2 appointed by each party and 1 by the 4 thus appointed
(1 agreement); 1 selected by each party and 3 by the judge of a
designated court (2 agreements); or 1 selected by each party and 3
by the mayor or president of the city council (1 agreement).
A time limit varying from 2 days to 15 days, within which each
party must name its arbitrator after being notified that arbitration
is desired, is found in 41 of the agreements. Twenty-eight of these
provide that the,, party failing to name its arbitrator within the
prescribed time forfeits its case.
The method of choosing a third arbitrator if the arbitrators
named by the company and association fail to do so, varies in the
different agreements. A summary of the methods employed in
such cases follows:
Failure to agree within 10 days, arbitrators discharged and new
ones appointed.
Either party may, on the third Tuesday of month, remove arbi­
trator appointed by other, provided third arbitrator has not been
appointed.
Failure to select within 10 days, discharged and receive no pay.
Selected by governor of State, but not to be a member of or an
attorney for a labor union, or stockholder, officer, or attorney for
any traction company.
Appointed by judge of designated court.
If not selected within 10 days, representatives of company and
association confer with 2 arbitrators and these 4 select a third




318

STREET RAILW AY EM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

arbitrator. Upon failure to do so within 10 days, third to be appointed
by judge of designated court, or 2 discharged and new ones appointed.
Third arbitrator selected from list of 5 names prepared by arbi­
trator named by party requesting arbitration. If no selection made
within 3 days, other party prepares list of 5 names. Alternate in
preparing list of 5 names every 3 days until third arbitrator is agreed
upon, the same name not to be submitted twice.
If not selected within 10 days, representatives of company and
association confer with 2 appointed and select a third arbitrator or
make arrangements that will result in his selection.
Some of the agreements prescribe how and when hearings shall
be held, but usually this is left to the discretion of the arbitration
board. Others require that questions submitted for arbitration
must be specified in writing. The decision of a majority of the board,
in writing, is final and binding upon the parties to the agreement.
That each party shall pay its arbitrator and an equal proportion of
other arbitration expenses, is provided in 48 agreements, while 3
which provide for 5 arbitrators require each party to bear half the
expense. The others contain no provision for paying expenses of
arbitration.
Sections from 3 agreements which contain the principal features
relating to arbitration are given below:
1.
Upon failure of adjustment of any case * * * , either party hereto is hereby
authorized to order such case or cases to arbitration by written notice. Such written
notice for arbitration shall specify the subject matter to be submitted to arbitration
and contain the names and addresses of the arbitrator of the choice of the party sub­
mitting such notice. Upon receipt of such notice, written by either party the party
receiving such notice shall, within five (5) days from receipt of-same, make acknowl­
edgment in writing of receipt of such notice, such acknowledgment to bear the
name and address of the arbitrator of the responding party. Neglect in acknowledg­
ment as herein provided and within said five (5) days, shaU be forfeiture of case by
respondent. The two arbitrators thus chosen, one each by the parties hereto, shall
meet from day to day for the purpose of the selection of a third arbitrator to complete
the board of arbitration. In the event that within ten (10) days from the date of the
appointment of the arbitrator by the respondent there shall have been no third
arbitrator chosen by the arbitrators selected by the parties hereto, then immediately
upon expiration of said ten (10) days there shall be a meeting of the properly author­
ized representatives of the parties hereto in conjunction with the two arbitrators
already selected. Such meeting is provided for the purpose that a joint endeavor
shall be made to select a third arbitrator or adjust the case. Immediately after an
arbitration board is created by the provisions hereto such board of arbitrators shall
meet and receive all of the evidence to be submitted for arbitration. After all of
the testimony and evidence have been submitted in the case, the said board of
arbitrators shall submit their findings in writing to both parties hereto, and the
decision of a majority of such board shall be final and binding upon the parties hereto
during the life of this agreement. Each party hereto shall bear the expense of its
own arbitrator and both parties shall share and share alike in paying the expense of
the third arbitrator and such other necessary expenses incurred by order of the board
of arbitration.




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEM ENTS: EMPLOYEES AND ASSOCIATION.

319

2. Any differences between the company and the association concerning the per­
formance of the terms of this agreement, shall be adjusted as follows:
Any such differences, which can not be adjusted between the employee and the
head of his department, shall be submitted to the general manager of the company
by the properly accredited officers of the association, and if they can not agree, the
case shall be submitted to a board of arbitration as soon as possible. The board of
arbitration shall be constituted as follows: A temporary board of three (3) disinterested
persons; one selected by the company, one by the association, and the two so chosen
shall choose the third arbitrator; said third arbitrator shall be an impartial party.
Either party failing to appoint its arbitrator within five days after agreeing to arbitrate
shall forfeit its case.
The arbitrators shall meet daily until the third arbitrator is chosen, and in case the
two arbitrators chosen can not agree in five (5) days on the third arbitrator, then the
company, the executive committee, and the two arbitrators shall meet and try to
adjust the matter, and if they can not agree then both arbitrators shall be dismissed
and two new ones chosen in the manner aforesaid. The board shall receive all
evidence desired to be submitted by either party, and a majority decision of the
board shall be final and binding on both parties hereto. Each party shall pay its
own arbitrator and the parties hereto shall jointly pay the third arbitrator.
3. In case there should be any serious difference or differences between the parties
hereto in respect to matters not covered by this agreement, or in respect to the true
intent and meaning of any provision hereof * * * , and after a consideration
of the difference or differences by the association and a determination by said associa­
tion that the difference or differences is or are sufficiently serious to be called to
the attention of the company, and after notice to the company and consideration by
the association and the company, if the parties find that the difference or differences
can not be amicably adjusted between them, the said difference or differences shall
be submitted,upon request of either party to the other in writing, to a special board
of arbitration to consist of three disinterested persons.
The said special board of arbitrators shall be appointed as follows: The company
shall select one member, the association shall select one member, and the two mem­
bers so selected shall select a third member, and the finding or decision of the said
board, or of the majority thereof, shall be binding upon the company and upon the
association.
In case a difference or differences be submitted to arbitration, the question or ques­
tions to be determined by the board of arbitration shall be specified in writing and
each party shall select its arbitrator within five days after such specification of differ­
ence or differences shall have been given by either party to the other, and the two
arbitrators shall meet daily until the third arbitrator has been by them selected,
and the failure of either party to select its arbitrator within five days shall warrant
a hearing and finding by the arbitrator selected by the other party on the difference
or differences submitted in the written specifications.
The cost and expense of arbitration to be paid by each of the parties to its own
arbitrator and both parties jointly pay the third arbitrator.
STRIKES.

Twenty agreements contain provisions relative to strikes and
lockouts. Each of these also contains a provision for referring differ­
ences to arbitration. The provisions referring to strikes and lockouts,
and the number of agreements in which each provision is found, are
given below:
To be no sympathetic strike, 10 agreements.
To be no sympathetic lockout, 1 agreement.




320

STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

To be no strike during life of agreement, 4 agreements.
To be no lockout during life of agreement, 3 agreements.
To be no strike pending matters submitted to arbitration, 15
agreements.1
To be no lockout pending matters submitted to arbitration, 7
agreements.
To be no strike unless company refuses to arbitrate, 2 agreements
To be no strike except for violation of agreement, 1 agreement.
RESIGNATIONS.

Closely related to the question of strikes are the following clauses
from three separate agreements:
Employees are to give 48 hours’ notice before resigning, not more
than 25 conductors and 25 motormen to resign within 24 hours,
resignations to take effect in the order of receipt of application, in
writing.
No regular employee to leave the service of the company, unless
by mutual consent, except on 10 days’ written notice to the general
superintendent.
No employee to quit the service without 2 weeks’ notice to the
company, except in case of accident, sickness, or unavoidable cause.
Quitting without notice forfeits 2 weeks’ pay.
HOURS OF LABOR.

Seventy-four agreements contain some reference to hours of labor
for trainmen or other employees. The sections referring to hours of
labor can not be combined to any extent on account of the many
variations found in them. The provisions relating to motormen and
conductors and to other employees are shown separately below, the
number of agreements to which each provision refers being given.
M O TO R M EN AND COND UCTO R S.

One agreement: Scheduled run is any run of 8 to 9| hours of plat­
form time; platform time of not less than 40 per cent of scheduled
runs not to exceed 9 hours., remainder not to exceed 9J hours; not
less than 80 per cent of these runs to be completed within 1 2 hours;
40 per cent to be completed within 11 hours.
Outside time of 20 per cent of scheduled runs may exceed 1 2 hours
but not 16 hours, but actual platform time of not less than one-half
of these runs must not exceed 9 hours and of remainder 9J hours.
Company to arrange as many runs as possible of 8 § to 9§ hours’
platform time, balance to be not less than 8 hours.
All platform work other than scheduled runs shall be considered
as extra runs, which are to be completed within 14 hours, except
i One agreement makes exception when strike is ordered b y international president or executive board.




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEM ENTS: EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

321

limit may be exceeded on Saturday, Sunday, emergency, or unusu­
ally heavy traffic, as circus week, etc.
One agreement: Eight to 1 0 J hours to be a day’s work on regular
runs, divided equally, as near as possible, into early and late runs.
One agreement: Eight to 1 GJ consecutive hours to be a day’s work
on regular runs, divided equally between early and late runs as near
as possible.
^
One agreement: All regular runs: Maximum of 10 hours, minimum
of 8 hours; completed within 1 2 consecutive hours.
One agreement: “ All regular runs shall be early and late straights,
known as the two-turn system, with minimum 8 hours.”
One agreement: Minimum 9 hours, maximum 10 hours, with leeway
of i hour to complete schedule when necessary; except that of freight
crews, which may be 10 J hours.
One agreement: Regular runs to average 9 hours per day as near as
possible, with minimum of 8 hours and maximum of 1 1 hours.
One agreement: Runs to conform to 9-hour day as near as possi­
ble.
One agreement: “ Nine consecutive hours, not exceeding 10 hours,
shall constitute a day’s work.”
One agreement: Nine consecutive hours a day. Distribution of
regular runs— one week early and one week late shifts.
One agreement: Hours for early and late straight runs and swing
runs to be on basis of maximum of 1 1 hours and minimum of 9 hours
(except on all-night or owl cars), but to be made as near 10 hours as
possible.
All early and late straight runs to be completed as nearly as practi­
cable within 1 2 consecutive hours and in no case to exceed 13 hours.
All swing runs to be completed as nearly as practicable within 15
hours and in no case to exceed 16 hours.
Owl-car and all-night car runs not to exceed 8 hours.
One agreement: Maximum of 9 i hours to constitute a day’s work
on regular runs.
One agreement: Runs to be as near 9 hours as possible.
One agreement: Regular runs to be divided into 2 runs of 9 hours
or 9 | hours, each to be known as day runs and late runs, with leeway
of 30 minutes for completion. Week’s work, 7 days.
One agreement: Regular runs to be, as nearly as possible, 1 1 hours,
with a minimum of 9 hours (except Sundays and holidays or because
of discontinuance of service where cars are operated in factory serv­
ice or unless legislative action necessitates rearrangement of runs.)
One agreement: Regular motormen and conductors, 9 to 10 hours,
with one-half trip leeway, to be day’s work; completed within 1 2
consecutive hours, excepting where absolutely necessary for service
it may be 1 2 J hours.
39749°— Bull. 204—17------ 21




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STREET RAILW AY EM PLO YM EN T IN THE UNITED STATES.

Regular run is run of 8 hours or over completed within 1 2 to 1 2 \
hours. No schedule to show less than 52 per cent regular runs, nor
more than 48 per cent swing runs.
Swing run is scheduled run of 6 hours or over, not completed within
1 2 hours. Swing runs to be made in shortest number of hours pos­
sible. Company to reduce percentage of swing runs and increase
regular runs whenever possible.
One agreement: Runs to be divided into a. m. and p. m. runs, each
as near 9 hours as possible.
One agreement: Nine hours to constitute a day’s work.
One agreement: All runs based on two-turn system, “ straight
early and straight late.” No scheduled run to be less than 9 hours.
One agreement: Nine hours’ work in not more than 1 2 consecutive
hours to constitute a day’s work.
One agreement: All regular runs to be as nearly as possible 10 hours,
with minimum of 9 hours, except Sundays and holidays, or discon­
tinuance of factory service where cars are not required, unless rear­
rangement of runs is made necessary through legislative action.
One agreement: Maximum, 1 1 hours; minimum, 9 hours (except
Sunday and night cars). All runs to be as near 10 hours as possible.
Present percentage of week-day straight time runs (Nov. 7, 1912),
is 27.5 per cent. Company not to decrease percentage but to endeavor
to increase it.
Percentage of week-day swing runs completed in 13 consecutive
hours, 17 per cent; completed within 13 to 15 hours, 36 j>er cent; 15
to 16 hours, 4.5 per cent. Percentage of week-day runs which may
be swing runs, 14 per cent.
Company not to increase consecutive hours for these runs but to
endeavor to decrease such hours. All swing runs requiring 16 con­
secutive hours or over (at present 14 per cent) to be brought down
to 16 hours or under within a period not to exceed one year (by Sept.
5, 1913).
All runs on Sunday to be straight time, as near 8 hours as practi­
cable. Company to comply with this provision within a period of
not to exceed 1 year from date of agreement (by Sept. 5 , 1913).
Same rules regarding hours of service to govern night and day cars.
One agreement: Forty per cent .of scheduled runs to be completed
within not to exceed 1 1 hours; 20 per cent within 1 1 to 1 1 J hours;
and 40 per cent within 12 to 16 hours.
Sixty per cent to have platform time not to exceed 9 hours; remain­
ing 40 per cent not to exceed 9J hours.
Company to arrange scheduled runs as far as possible with platform
time of 84 to 9J hours, rest of scheduled runs to have not less than 8
hours platform time.




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEM ENTS: EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

323

Extra runs to be completed within 14 hours, except on Saturdays,
holidays, and occasions of unusually heavy traffic.
One agreement: Day men, 9^ hours completed in 1 1 hours.
Night runs commence at expiration of day runs, and continue until
relieved or excused.
One agreement: Working day to be not less than 9 nor more than
1 1 hours; runs to be as near 10 hours as possible.
Two agreements: D ay’s work not to exceed 9 hours, completed
within 1 1 consecutive hours as nearly as practicable, except as here­
after provided;
At least 60 per cent of scheduled runs to be not more than 9 hours;
not less than one-third to be completed in 1 1 consecutive hours; not
more than one-third in 1 2 consecutive hours; and the remainder in
1 1 consecutive hours.
Not more than 40 per cent of scheduled runs may be as much as
9 i hours, and no run may exceed 9J hours; not less than one-hali to
be completed within 1 1 consecutive hours; not more than one-half,
within 1 2 consecutive hours.
One agreement: Regular runs to be as near 10 hours as possible,
with a minimum day of 9 hours, except Sundays, holidays, and dis­
continuance of factory service cars not required, and unless legisla­
tive action makes rearrangement necessary.
One agreement: Cars to be operated in 2 shifts of 9 hours each as
near as possible; 1 shift a day’s work.
One agreement: Minimum, 9 hours; maximum, 10 hours; with halfhour leeway to complete schedule when necessary.
Straight runs to be completed within 1 2 consecutive hours.
Swing runs completed within 14 hours; in no case to exceed 15
hours.
Number of swing runs not to exceed 45 per cent of number of regu­
lar runs.
Two agreements: All runs to be of 10 consecutive hours as nearly
as practicable.
One agreement: Company to arrange week-day schedule so as to
make as many runs of 10 hours as possible. Remaining runs to be
8 hours or more, as nearly as possible.
Ten hours to constitute day’s work except on Saturdays, Sundays,
and holidays, when extra time will be worked. Extra time to be
worked also in case of accident, storm, unavoidable delays and fail­
ure of reliefs to appear.
One agreement: Ten hours with 30 minutes’ leeway to constitute
a day’s work, except under unusual conditions.
Runs to be divided into day and night runs as nearly equal as
practicable.
Run of 7 hours or less considered an extra run.




324

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

One agreement: D ay’s work not to exceed 10 hours.
Not over 5 per cent of runs to require longer period than 14J
hours; all other runs to be completed in 14 consecutive hours, except
straight runs, which shall be completed in 1 1 i hours.
One agreement: Runs early and late, two-turn sj^stem, divided as
nearly equal as practicable. No runs to be scheduled to exceed 1 0 1 hours and to be completed within 1 0 ^ consecutive hours.
Two agreements: Runs to conform to as near 1 0 -hour work day as
possible ; no run to exist that can not be completed inside of 1 1 hours.
Men to shift to equalize hours, subject to approval of officials in
charge of car service.
One agreement: All runs to be early and late, two-turn system,
equally divided as nearly as possible.
No runs to be scheduled to exceed 1 0 | hours.
Eleven hours a day’s work on all line, sand, freight, and work cars.
Gne agreement: Straight runs to consist of 10 hours’ work in 1 1
consecutive hours.
None of present straight runs of 8 hours to be changed to swing
runs y
Swing runs to consist of not more than 10 hours’ work, completed
in 1 2 consecutive hours, except in extreme cases.
One agreement: Runs not to exceed 1 0 ^ hours.
One agreement: All runs to conform to 1 0 -hour workday as nearly
as possible; no straight runs to exist that can not be completed
within 1 2 consecutive hours, with leeway of half a trip to complete
schedules. Swing runs to be completed in shortest hours possible.
One agreement: Early and late runs to conform as nearly as possible
to 1 0 -hour day. All regular runs to be completed in 1 2 consecutive
hours.
One agreement: As nearly as possible all runs to be 10 hours, com­
pleted within 1 2 consecutive hours. When impossible to complete
in 1 2 hours, longer runs not to be considered violation of agreement.
One agreement: Ten hours with 30 minutes’ leeway, completed
within 1 2 hours, to constitute a day’s work. When runs of less than
10 hours $nd not under 8 hours have been completed, crews are not
to be called on for extra work, except in emergency.
Runs divided into day and night runs equally as nearly as possible.
Runs less than 8 hours, extra runs.
One agreement: Regular hours based upon not to exceed 20 hours
of two shifts. Day cars operating less than regular hours may be
operated by shifts most advantageous to company, provided service
does not exceed 10 hours.
Regular runs to conform as nearly as practicable to 9-hour day
and not to exceed 10 hours, except in emergency or unusual occasions.




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEMENTS: EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

325

One agreement: Ten hours per day as nearly as practicable, to be
completed within 1 2 consecutive hours.
One agreement: Runs to conform as nearly as possible to 10 -hour
workday, to be completed within 1 2 consecutive hours.
One agreement: Ten hours per day as nearly as practicable, to be
completed within 1 2 consecutive hours.
No regular runs to be less than 8 hours.
One agreement: All regular runs to be as nearly as possible 10 hours
and not over 1 2 hours. Short runs operated as extra runs.
Three agreements: Schedules for regulars as near to 10 hours as
practicable, to be completed within 14 consecutive hours.
One agreement: Hours to conform to as near 10 -hour workday as
possible. No run to exist that can not be completed within 15 con­
secutive hours. Run of less than 8 hours to be placed as extra run,
unless some regular man chooses it.
One agreement: Runs to be completed within 1 1 consecutive hours
as nearly as possible.
One agreement: Workday to be 1 1 hours or as near thereto as
possible.
One agreement: Outside time to be within 1 2 consecutive hours
when possible, including meal time. No regular run to be less than
8 hours, except by mutual consent.
One agreement: Twelve hours shall constitute a day’s work.
One agreement: A day’s work shall be made, when possible, within
1 2 consecutive hours, including time for meals.
No regular run shall be less than 8 hours except by mutual consent.
Two agreements: All runs to be divided into two equal shifts as
nearly as possible.
One agreement: To remain same as present. (Present hours not
stated in agreement.)
One agreement: To be fixed as required by laws of State.
One agreement: Thirteen hours to constitute extra man’s day.
Following are miscellaneous provisions relating to hours of labor
which are not included above:
A motorman or conductor going off duty after 1 2 midnight is not
required to report before time of regular run next day (1 agreement)
or before 9 a. m. next day (3 agreements). After a trainman has
worked 16 hours he must have 8 hours’ rest before being marked up
again for work (2 agreements). All runs are called according to the
clock in the barn, according to 1 agreement, and motormen and
conductors must report in person 10 minutes before leaving time.
When regular men are allowed to change runs to get through earlier,
they are not to be compelled to work later than the schedule time of
the run traded for, or the time agreed upon (1 agreement). Schedules




326

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

to be arranged to allow 2 minutes lay over at one terminus, and at
both if possible (1 agreement).
One company agrees that its officials will meet “ with the properly
accredited officers of the association, and will make the hours of
service as near as practicable to suit the said officers of the associa­
tion, so far as compatible with satisfactory service to the public and
economical operation of the company's cars. * * * The company
shall have the right to fix the number of cars running at all hours,
and the length of time they shall be on the street." The latter part
of this section is found also in another agreement.
*
OTHER EM PLOYEES.

One agreement: Eight-hour day for all power-house men; 1 0 -hour
day for day car-barn men, linemen, linemen's helpers, drivers, track­
men and switchmen; 1 2 hours for night car-barn men.
One agreement: Towermen, 8 hours per day.
One agreement: Towermen, 8 hours per day, 5 stations; 10 hours
per day, 1 station.
One agreement: Towermen, 8 hours per day, 1 station; 10 hours
per day, 2 stations.
One agreement: Barn men, 9 hours per day; power-house repair
men, 9 hours per day.
One agreement: Barn men, 9 hours, completed in 10 consecutive
hours; Sundays, 8 hours, completed in 9 hours. Company may
reduce Sunday working force at its discretion.
One agreement: Car-station employees, 9 hours per day, to be com­
pleted within 10 hours.
One agreement: Shops, 9 hours per day, completed in 1 0 , 6 days in
week. Car house, maximum, 10 hours; minimum, 9 hours; com­
pleted in 1 hour more. Track, 10 hours, to be completed within 1 2
hours. Power house, 8 hours and 1 2 hours “ as at present." In case
of sickness power-house men telephoning 2 hours before reporting
time are excused from duty, men on duty in such cases to remain
on duty not to exceed 3 hours.
Four agreements: Shop department, 9 hours per day; 8 J hours,
Saturday. During June, July, and August, main repair shop 9 J
hours per day; 5 hours, Saturday.
Two agreements: Shop and shed men, 9J hours per day.
One agreement: Road and track department, 56 hours per week.
Shops, 51 hours per week.
One agreement: Shopmen, 54 hours per week, ending at noon Sat­
urday, except watchmen. Barn men, 10 hours per day, completed
in 1 1 consecutive hours; also switch tenders, curve greasers, and
electric-shovel men.
Two agreements: Ten hours per day for all except car-service men.




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEMENTS: EMPLOYEES AND ASSOCIATION.

327

One agreement: Ten hours for shop, bam, line, and track men.
One agreement: Ail employees mentioned in agreement, outside of

train service, to have 10 hours for day’s work.
One agreement: Shopmen to work 10 hours per day; inspectors, 1 2
hours per day.
One agreement: Shopmen, 10 hours completed in 1 0 j hours; 5
hours Saturday. Linemen, 1 0 hours completed in 1 1 hours.
Three agreements: Substation men, 10 hours per day after June 1 ,
1913 (12 hours before).
Four agreements: Trackmen, 10 hours per day.
Four agreements: Car cleaners, 10 hours per day.
Three agreements: Power-house men, 10 hours per day.
Three agreements: Battery men, 10 hours per day.
Four agreements: Lamp men, 10 hours per day.
One agreement: Towermen, 10 hours per day; 8 hours on Sunday
with 10 hours’ pay.
One agreement: Watchmen, 10 hours per day, no heat on cars; 1 2
hours per day, heat on cars.
One agreement: Car repairers, workday to be 1 1 hours or as near
thereto as possible.
One agreement: Power house and substation, 2 shifts 1 2 hours each.
Bam men, 10 hours per day.
Two agreements: Flagmen, 1 2 hours per day.
One agreement: Bridgemen, 1 2 hours per day.
Three agreements: Watchmen, 1 2 hours per day.
Five agreements: Station porters, 1 2 hours per day.
One agreement: Platform men, 1 2 hours per day; 1 1 hours on
Sunday.
One agreement: Towermen, 1 2 hours per day with 8 hours on Sun­
day, receiving 10 hours’ pay.
Five agreements: Ticket agents, men, 1 2 hours per day; women, 10
hours per day.
One agreement: Guards, to be completed within 14 consecutive
hours.
One agreement: Hours of substation operators to be adjusted by
company and association.
Twelve hours per day for crews operating emergency trucks.
One agreement: Thirteen hours to constitute night barn man’s day.
One agreement: For shopmen, pitmen, and car cleaners to remain
as at present (not given).
E X T R A M EN.

Motormen and conductors on regular runs are to be called for
extra work only when extra men are not available, according to the
provisions of 31 agreements. Holidays, circus days, and special oc~




328

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

casions are excepted by 3 of these and 2 provide that a regular who is
able to secure a substitute when called for extra work shall be al­
lowed to do so. A provision that regulars are not to be required to
work overtime unless necessary by reason of the failure of the relief
crew to appear is found in 5 agreements. Two of these limit the
extra work in such cases to 2 trips; 1 , to 1 trip; and 1 , to such time
as may be necessary to furnish relief. Two agreements make it op­
tional with regular crews as to whether they shall work in excess of
their regular scheduled hours; 1 provides that men required for a. m.
and p. m. tripper runs shall be assigned to bench duty in preference
to other men; and 1 , that men operating night or owl cars are not
to be required to work extra runs or tripper runs when extras are
available.
Extra men are usually given work in the order of “ first in, first ou t”
(14 agreements). An exception is made in 2 agreements which pro­
vide that an extra man is to remain at the top of the list until he
receives 5 hours’ work, and in 1 containing a similar provision pro­
viding for 8 hours’ work before rotating to the bottom of the list.
Working the extra list according to seniority of service is provided
for in 3 agreements. One of these limits the amount of work to be
given to 1 man in any 1 day to 10 hours when other extras are idle;
1 states that the extra list is not to be reversed on Sunday, and the
other contains the following provision:
The oldest extra man in point of continuous service of company shall head the
list on the 1st of each, month, and thereafter each extra man shall hold his place in
the following way: The first extra man completing a full day’s work shall be the first
man to drop to the bottom of the list and work up. If an extra man refuses to accept
a run in his turn on any day, he shall drop to the bottom of the list for that day only,
retaining his place on the list for the next and following days.

Extras are given preference for work each day in the order of re­
porting for work by 1 agreement, and 1 provides that no subextra
is to be given work until regular and extra men are supplied.
References to the hours extras are required to work are found in
the following provisions:
All extras but first 3 conductors and 3 motormen allowed off from
7 a. m. to 10 a. m. and from 1 2 noon to 3 p. m. (1 agreement); extras
to report at 5 a. m. for roll call unless excused or marked up for work.
Those not working to report again at 2.30 p. m. Extras held for
first tripper runs, if regular men do not report, and receiving no
regular work, to be given last 5 tripper runs (1 agreement); extras
working after midnight (a) not required to report before 9 a. m.
next morning (1 agreement), (b) to be excused when possible when
requested of car-house night clerk (1 agreement;) extras working 14
hours per day or over, or who have reported 2 days in succession at
first morning report and were required to work later than 1 1 o ’clock
p. m., not to be deemed as missing if not reporting at first next regular




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEMENTS: EMPLOYEES AND ASSOCIATION.

329

report (1 agreement); extras to derive work from late runs (1 agree­
ment); reporting time to be decided upon by company and associa­
tion (1 agreement).
One agreement requires that the company shall keep “ sufficient
extra men” ; 1 , an “ adequate and proper extra list” ; 1 , that there
shall be at least 1 subextra for every 3 regular crews on each line; and
2 designate the number of extra men to be employed.
Extra men laid off for lack of work have the privilege of reinstate­
ment to first vacancy that occurs on the line, under the terms of 1
agreement.
Wages guaranteed to extra men who report for duty and answer
roll calls as required, are as follows: $50 per month (1 agreement);
$19 each half month, for first 3 months (1 agreement); $10.50 per
week (2 agreements); $10 per week (1 agreement); $1.25 per day (1
agreement).
SCHEDULES.

Schedules of runs are to be arranged by the division superintendent
and a committee o£ the association, under the terms of two agree­
ments. Two others provide that schedules shall be made by the
company, but under the terms of one of these, are to be submitted to
the association before going into effect. If the “ association can show
where swing runs can be consolidated into a regular run without
interference with the demands of the traffic, or the regular scheduled
runs, the same will be put into effect.” The following section taken
from one agreement gives the association a voice in the making of
schedules:
Whenever it can be shown that the schedule of any line can be improved in the way
of shortening the hours and bettering the runs, giving the same service desired by the
company and required by the traffic, the association shall have that right and such
alteration shall be made in the schedule.
CHOICE OF RUNS.

Of 75 agreements which refer to the assignment of runs, 74 provide
that seniority of service shall prevail in such assignments. The other
provides that “ the company shall assign runs according to a pre­
arranged schedule of rotation for each month, alternating between
night and day.”
The following sections, taken from 3 different agreements, are
fairly representative as showing the methods by which runs are
assigned:
1.
In the assignment of runs, men shall be given the privilege of choosing the same
in accordance with their seniority rights, and based upon their continuous service
and qualifications at the car house where they report.
The oldest man in the ssrvice shall be given first choice oi! runs, and so on down
through the entire list.




330

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

The officials at the various barns shall place at least four (4) days ahead of the “ Third
month’ ’ a list showing the run number and the hours and minutes each run works; also
route number for which runs are scheduled.
Also a list of names shall be placed in the crews’ room starting with the oldest man
in service, and so on, in rotation through the entire list. These shall be posted one
day before choosing begins.
The early straight man, or others whose seniority would entitle them to an early
straight run will choose between the hours of 2 p. m. and 6 p. m., on the second day
after the list has been posted. The late straight men, or others whose seniority would
entitle them to a late straight run, shall choose between the hours of 11 a. m. and
3 p. m. on the third day.
Any man failing to sign up within the specified time, the division superintendent
shall be empowered to sign him upon the highest and best run that may be open.
This choosing or picking of runs shall take place every three months, or at such
other times as the operating conditions make it necessary for another selection of runs.
2. Seniority rights shall prevail in the adjustment of all runs on general choice days
semiannually, except where men are incompetent to hold such runs. In such event
the company will take up the case with the proper committee of employees and after
a mutual satisfactory understanding has been reached, then the employee next in
seniority shall choose.
3. The narpes and numbers of all runs will be posted and each man will bid for his
choice of runs, but the oldest man in the service of the company who bids for the run
will be assigned to it. All vacancies in regular runs will be assigned to the first regular
extra men, except when more than one run is open at the same time. In such case,
the first regular man entitled to a run will bid for the run he desires, and the preference
will be given to the oldest man in the service of the company. At the end of each six
months from the date of this agreement, or within a few days from such date, all runs
on all lines will be declared vacant and new bids will be received for all runs in the
same manner as described above. When the number of runs on any line are reduced,
the last extra men assigned to runs will be placed first on the regular extra runs and
the last regular extra men will be placed first on the extra list, and the men whose runs
were taken off will replace the ones who were put back on the regular extra runs.
They will remain on these runs until the next semiannual adjustment of runs, when
they can again bid for any run they desire.
The object of this method of assigning men to runs is to permit the oldest men in the
service of the company to have the choice of working on whatever runs they most
desire. The method of bidding for runs will be as follows:
1st: I prefer No. — & No. — runs.
2nd: I prefer No. — & No. — runs.
3rd: I prefer No. — & No. — runs.

.

Bidding for runs he prefers until all runs are exhausted. If a man bids for runs that
an older man in the company’s service bids for he will not be given the runs, but will
be considered for his next choice of runs, and so on until his length of service entitled
him to a run. A man who does not bid for runs inside of three days from the time notice
is posted that bids will be received may be assigned to any runs that bids have not been
received for.

The time in which schedule changes must be posted in advance in
order to give employees an opportunity to examine them before
choosing runs is 1 day in 1 agreement, 2 days in 8 agreements, 3 days
in 6 , 4 days in 1, 5 days in 5, 6 days in 3, 8 days in 1, and 10 days in 2.
The frequency of choosing or picking runs is as follows:




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEMENTS: EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

331

Yearly, 4 agreements; twice a year, 14 agreements; twice a year,
if requested by association, 2 agreements; 3 times a year, 1 agree­
ment; 3 times a year, if requested by association, 1 agreement; 4
times a year, 13 agreements; when schedules change or runs are
added or taken away, 16 agreements; when vacancies occur, 2 1 agree­
ments. Of the 2 1 last mentioned 6 provide that the choice of runs
shall be limited to those employees who are listed on the seniority list
below the employee who held the run made vacant. Several of the
agreements contain a provision that a general choice of runs may be
made at certain designated times or when necessary, and the use of
emergency schedules without a general choice of runs is permitted by
4 agreements for not to exceed seven days.
Five of the agreements permit a representative of the association
to be present when runs are chosen. If an employee is absent, his run
is chosen for him by the representative of the association (4 agree­
ments); or he is assigned to the earliest finishing run open by the
superintendent (2 agreements). If an employee fails or refuses to
choose a run, he is assigned to one by the representative of the asso­
ciation (3 agreements), by the superintendent (3 agreements), or
placed at the foot of the extra list until runs are again chosen (4 agree­
ments).
The right of motormen and conductors to choose their runs is
limited by 16 agreements, which provide that they must be compe­
tent to hold the run chosen, such employees not being allowed to
choose a run which they are unfit to operate by reason of age or other
disability. In such cases the officials of the company, either alone or
after conference with the officials of the association, place employees
on runs which they are competent to operate. One agreement pro­
vides that the choice of runs shall be based upon seniority of con­
tinuous service, “ coupled with the satisfactory physical and mental
qualifications determined according to proper medical examinations
and fair and reasonable standards.”
That employees shall choose both a day and a night run, alternating
in work one week on day run and one week on night run, is a provision
of one agreement. Another provides that motormen and conductors
off duty shall be notified when runs are to be chosen.
RUNS TEMPORARILY VACANT.

Runs temporarily vacant by reason of regular employees being
absent from duty usually are held by the first man on the extra list.
This is the provision of 23 agreements, while 5 others provide that
such runs are to be taken by extras in turn for periods of 5 days. If
the vacancy is to continue for two weeks or longer, it is filled by a tem­
porary move-up or choice by men younger in seniority than the man
on leave, according to one agreement. The same provision is found




332

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

in 6 other agreements with a time limit of 10 days in 1 and 30 days
in 5. Two agreements provide that if the vacancy is a day run and
is to continue for over 1 week the senior night man takes the vacant
run, the night run being held by the senior extra. Vacancies of less
than 1 week are filled by assignment by the superintendent. In an­
other agreement the same method is adopted if the vacancy is for
1 month or longer, while still another provides that a vacancy in an
early run is to be filled by the senior late man, extra men deriving
work from late runs. One agreement provides that .temporary vacan­
cies only shall be filled from the extra list, while another states that a
car man, in case of sickness, shall be allowed to secure the services of
the first available competent man employed by the company.
A provision that the run of an employee who has been discharged
shall be filled by choosing within 15 days is found in 1 agreement,
limited by the clause, “ provided that if the association shall claim
he was unjustly discharged his run shall remain open until such time
as his case has been fully investigated in accordance with the provi­
sions of this agreement.”
PROMOTIONS.

Seniority of service, coupled with efficiency and competence, is
observed in filling vacancies other than in train service under the pro­
visions of 16 agreements. Five of these refer to members of the asso­
ciation in all occupations, 4 to employees on track and line, 4 to shop
and barn employees, and 3 to power-house employees. An interest­
ing feature in connection with promotion in power houses is found in
one agreement, as follows:
In case of a vacancy in the power house other than chief engineer that oiler shall
be promoted who passes most satisfactorily an examination before the chief engineer
of the company and two other competent engineers, one of ivhom is selected by the
association, and he and the chief engineer of this company are to select the third.
These three are to constitute the examining board.

Three agreements provide that all promotions and reductions shall
be based upon efficiency and ability; another, that lay offs are to com­
mence with the youngest employee unless an older employee is less
capable; and, three, that increases in force are to be filled first by
those who have been laid off.
LEAVE OF ABSENCE.

Several clauses taken from one agreement are given below to illus­
trate the principal features which refer to leave of absence, each clause
being followed by a summary of similar clauses found in the other
agreements examined.
The committees of the association who desire leave of absence shall have such
leave of absence at any time when the business of the association demands their
absence.




CHAP. VII.— AGREEMENTS : EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

333

A clause similar to this is found in 18 agreements. Of these, 3 re­
quire a reasonable notice to the company, 7 are limited by the pro­
vision that the application must be made in a reasonable time and
the number applying for leave not great enough to be detrimental to
the service, 1 that such leave will be given upon reasonable notice
when it can be conveniently granted, and 1 grants leave providing
the extra list will permit. Fifteen agreements give members of the
association preference over other employees in obtaining leave of ab­
sence, when such leave is desired to do work of the association, leave
being granted at the option of the company and not as a matter of
right under the agreements.
The company agrees to permit any member of the association to be absent for not
exceeding thirty (30) consecutive days in any year, providing that the extra list is
sufficiently large to permit of such leave of absence, without interfering with his
position on the seniority list until after the expiration of that time, and the member
will have the right to ask for an extension of such leave of absence, either by letter
or person. Such extension shall be requested at least five (5) days prior to the expira­
tion of his first leave of absence.

The provision quoted above is found in practically the same form
in 1 other agreement. Under the terms of 4 agreements leave of ab­
sence is limited to 30 days, illness (4 agreements) and absence from
co u n ty (1 agreement) excepted. One of these provides that the
employee’s service will be presumed to have terminated and the run
will be filled at the expiration of 30 days. The same provision is
found in another agreement with a limitation of 60 instead of 30 days.
Other provisions granting leave to employees are as follows:
Employees to have 2 weeks’ vacation each year, providing extra
list is sufficient to grant request (1 agreement).
Men granted 10 days’ leave each year, except during lake season
and fair week, and then if possible (1 agreement).
Men to have 10 days’ vacation each year, provided not more than
5 motormen and 5 conductors are on leave at the same time. More
excused at one time at option of company (1 agreement).
Motormen and conductors in continuous service 1 year to be al­
lowed 10 days off with full pay during each succeeding year (1 agree­
ment) ; all regulars to be given leave when extras are available (2 agree­
ments) .
Motormen and conductors to have 1 day off each week, at conven­
ience of company (2 agreements).
Motormen and conductors entitled to 3 days’ leave each month
when extras are available (3 agreements).
Each of the following clauses is found in 1 agreement only:
Employees to be given reasonable leave when consistent with
company service, regulars to have 2 days off each month, if desired.
Regulars may lay off at barns in morning if extras are available,
but subject to call for extra work unless excused by company.




334

STREET RAILWAY EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

Regulars to have 1 day’s rest in every 1 0 ; extras, 1 day in 15.
Trainmen to have 1 day off in 15, upon request.
Any member desiring any more than a five (5) day leave of absence for vacation
purposes, shall sign his name on a book provided for that purpose, stating days he
desires leaves of absence, and shall notify the official in charge ten (10) days prior to
the time he desires his leave of absence to begin, and the official in charge shall notify
the member at least three (3) days prior to the date that the member’s leave of absence
is to commence.
An open book shall be established at each car house for the purpose of allowing
men to sign for day or days that they wish to be absent, and the first man registered
for a particular day or days shall have first preference. Members registering in this
book must sign in person and in ink, to be dated ten (10) days ahead, that is, a man to
have the privilege of asking time off ten (10) days ahead of any time he desires to be
absent, shall place the date opposite his-name on the book at the time his application
for leave of absence is made.
Where members are granted leave of absence, such leave of absence shall not be
interfered with by being recalled back into service until such leave of absence has
expired. Nothing in this section shall prohibit a member reporting for work at an
earlier period than that for which he has asked leave of absence. But when return­
ing before the expiration of his leave of absence he shall work upon the extra list
until the expiration of such leave of absence.

Nine agreements other than the one quoted above provide that a
book shall be kept for the purpose of registering requests for leave.
The number of days that books are dated ahead— that is, the number
of days in advance in which leave may be requested— is as follows:
30 days, 1 agreement; 14 days, 1; 10 days, 1; 7 days, 4; 5 days, 1 ;
no time specified, 1 . Men registered first on any particular day have
preference over all others, except over those desiring leave to per­
form duties imposed upon them by the association, as noted above.
One makes an exception of Sundays, which are apportioned equitably
instead of giving preference to the person signing up first; while an­
other provides that no one is allowed more than 1 Sunday off in 3
consecutive Sundays if other men desire to get off. One contains a
provision that members on leave are not to be recalled for service
before the expiration of their leave, and that men returning before
the expiration of their leave are to go on the extra list during the
period for which leave was granted.
Any employee of the company appointed to any other position than motorman or
conductor, may, at the discretion of the company, be allowed to take his former posi­
tion, upon retirement from such appointed position, and any member of the associa­
tion selected or appointed to any office in the association whereby his duties take
him from his work with the company, shall be allowed, upon his retirement from such
office, to take his former position with the company.

Provisions similar to the above are found in 47 agreements.
Twenty-five of these provide that members elected or appointed to
office in the association, the duties of which require them to be ab­
sent from the service of the company, are to be given leave of absence
and reinstated to their respective positions upon retirement from




CHAP. VII.---- AGREEMENTS: EMPLOYERS AND ASSOCIATION.

335

office. These agreements contain no reference to employees placed
temporarily in other positions by the company. One of the 25
limits the number to be granted leave for such purposes to 15.
Seventeen agreements contain the above provision that members
are to be reinstated to their former positions upon retiring from
office, and also a provision as to the reinstatement of men placed in
other positions by the company.^ These provisions are as follows:
Members placed in another position in the service of the company
temporarily are to be reinstated to their former positions when such
position terminates (8 agreements).
A member whose service is required in the operating department
of the company to have leave not to exceed 30 days and reinstated
to his former position at end of this period. Second leave not
granted without the consent of the association (3 agreements).
A motorman or conductor taking an official or other position, ex­
cept as substitute for a regular company official, loses his seniority
rights after 30 days (4 agreements).
A member accepting an official or other position with the company,
except as a substitute, to retain seniority number but not to advance
in seniority while holding such position (1 agreement).
A motorman or conductor accepting official position with company,
the duties of which require him to enforce the rules of the company,
to relinquish his seniority rights after 3 months if he continues to
hold such position (1 agreement).
One agreement provides that motormen and conductors absent on
leave to perform work for either the company or association are to
hold their seniority rights until reinstated, but not to be advanced
on the train list while off duty; while 4 do not refer to the rein­
statement of members on leave on account of holding office in the
association, but contain a reference to absence for other reasons.
One of these provides that any motorman or conductor who accepts
a promotion such as acting inspector, dispatcher, or foreman shall,
after 6 months, turn in his badge and relinquish all seniority rights
as a trainman; 1 that a trainman transferring to another depart­
ment by his o