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THE RELATIONS OF RACE AND NATIONALITY TO MORTALITY
IN THE UNITED STATES."
[PLATE XLTV, Fig. 3.]
B Y T H E C O M P IL E R O F T H E A T L A S .

• This paper is in substance identical with that read by the author before the American Public Health Association at its
meeting in New Y ork in 1873, and published in the Transactions of that year.

II

>3
II

13
28
8

F rench.

4

3

2
6
6
7
3
3
4
3
2
4
5
2

2
5
6
6
3
3
3

3
I

3
5
2

Bright's Disease of the K id n ey s...............................................................
A p o p lexy.........................................................................................................
Cancers........................ .................................................................................
Consum ption..................................................................................................
Rheum atism ...................................................................................................
Paralysis..........................................................................................................
Cerebro-Spinal, Enteric, and Typhus F e v e rs..........................................
Pleurisy and Hydrothorax...........................................................................
Bronchitis...................................................................................................... ..
Small P o x .......................................................................................................
P neum onia.....................................................................................................
Diarrhoea, Dysentery, and E n teritis..........................................................
E ry sip ela s.......................................................................................................
Intermittent and Remittent F ev ers...........................................................
Encephalitis and M eningitis.......................................................................
Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria.....................................................................
M e asles.................................................................... ....................................
Scrofula ...........................................................................................................
Hydrocephalus...............................................................................................
C r o u p ..............................................................................................................
Hooping C o u g h ............. ...............................................................................

IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IO O
O
IO O
O
IO O
O
IO O
O
IO O
O
IO O
O
IO O
O
IO O
O
IO O
O
IO O
O
IO O
O
IO O
O

438 253
259 99
253 104
226 108
>93 76
173 7>
144 43
142 54
>37 73
>3> 27
>>7 48
113 44
109 39
96 32
5> >7
8
44
42
7
34 IO
32
9
3
>9
2
>3

93
85
78
59
55
44
48
42
3>
58
33
3>
34
32
>5
>3
IO

7
7
7
3

48
36
30
>9
20
30
13
>4
12
5
>4
>3
>5
8

6
8
5
4
4
3
2

OM

21
ii

-

i i

6
3
3
6
8
2
>3
3
2
3
3
7
3
3
2
3

French.

4

Scotch.

557
735
745
772
805
823
853
857
859
860
881
885
887
902
948
955
957
c)66
968
981
987

E n g l i s h and
Welsh.

35
6?
61
III
157
63
>35
260
90
228
>93
123
36
255
144
27
223
266
.50
>53
>91

Germans.

522
672
684
661
648
760
718
597
769
632
688
762
851
647
804,
928
734
700
918
828
796

Irish.

Special D iseases.

Total Foreign.

Total Native.

I.— B.
Native Colored.

TABLE

5
7
5
4
6
3
5
3
2
1
2
7
3

>5
9
>9
29
30
12
12

Scotch.

A ll Diseases ............................................................................................... IOOO 726 137 863 >34 55 38
General Diseases— A ................................................................................... Icoo 772 >39 911 87 25 29
General Diseases— B ................................................................................ IOOO 662 122 784 214 97 59
Diseases of the Circulatory System......................................................... IOOO 684 96 780 217 94 60
Diseases of the Urinary System and Organs of Generation............. IOOO 599 125 724 274 121 79
Diseases of the Respiratory System....................... ................................. IOOO 711 >79 890 IO9 45 3>
Diseases of the Digestive System
.......................... ...................... IOOO 782 119 9°t| 97 37 27
Diseases of the Organs of Locomotion.................................................. IOOO 796 106 902 95 46 22
Diseases of the Nervous System ............................................................. IOOO 795 108 903 95 36 28
Diseases of the Integumentary S y stem .................................................. IOOO 751 182 933 6 6
27 15
63 34
Conditions not necessarily associated with general or local diseases
IOOO 741 124 865 130
Accidents and Injuries............................................................................... IOOO 582 178 760 222 94 56
Other and Unknow n................................................................................... IOOO 674 227 <)Ol
89 41 22

E n g l i s h and !
Welsh.
Swedes, Norwe­
gians,and Danes.

Germans.

Irish.

B
be
<

Total Foreign.

«
be

V

Total Native.

6
G r o u p s o f D is e a s e s .

Native Colored.

I.— A.
Native White.

TABLE

Native W'hite.

T

have been taken for our present consideration. The scale of the diagram will not allow'
the lines representing the Sw'edes, Norwegians, and Danes, the Scotch and the French to
be laid down. These proportions are also, for further convenience of comparison, expressed
in parts of 1000 in the following table, in which the nationalities omitted from the diagram
appear:—

Aggregate.

H E gross incompleteness of the Returns of Deaths, in a census of the United
States, is shown in Mr. Elliott’s paper, “ An approximate Life-table,” etc., which
accompanies Plates X X X V III and X X X IX (Part I I I ) ; and the Compiler has, in
a note to that paper (page i), sought to state the main reasons for the omissions which are
admitted to occur in enumeration.
What, it may be asked, can be the value of statistics confessedly so imperfect ? Can
any deductions be made with confidence from returns of mortality, which omit one-third
or more of the deaths which occurred within the period which the returns profess to
cover ? I shall attempt to answer this question only so far as relates to the immediate
subject of the present discussion, the Relations of Race and Nationality to Mortality in
the United States.
Can we assume that the omissions acknowledged occur so uniformly among the
several races and nationalities represented in a census of the United States, as to allow
conclusions to be founded with assurance upon the relations which are disclosed by the
body of deaths actually reported ?
I answer that the several elements of our population, with respect to race and
nationality, are not so placed that we can assume that error is quite as likely to occur in
the enumeration of one as of another, and consequently that, in covering so large a field,
errors may be relied upon to balance each other, leaving a result of substantial accuracy.
On the contrary, the tendency to omission in the enumeration of deaths varies with the
intelligence of the several communities, the density of settlement, the prevailing occupa­
tions of the people, and the habits of life, so far as these affect the permanence of residence.
It is notorious that the several elements of our population are, the country over, variously
placed with reference to these conditions. Hence we may not assume an equal liability to
omission in all. Undoubtedly, some of the elements we are to consider are more con­
cerned in the defects of the census law than others; and these differences I believe to be
sufficiently great to invalidate conclusions based on anything like a nice determination of
preponderance in the census statistics of mortality.
To enter into such a discussion of this subject as would serve to establish, even
provisionally,the order in which the several elements sustain loss from the causes indicated ;
much more, to seek to determine the exact degree of such loss within each such element,
would occupy more of space than remains at my disposal. I will, therefore, content
myself with expressing the conviction, arising out of a long and careful examination of
the subject, that in no case, the most extreme, do the proportions disclosed by the census
statistics of mortality by race and nationality depart, as between any one element and
another, to the extent of five per cent, from the real facts of mortality as they existed
during the census year; while in the great majority of cases, one, two, or three per cent,
would amply cover the margin of disturbance due to the causes indicated. If this belief
be correctly founded, the results arrived at in the following discussion may be accepted as
true, for I shall restrict myself at the present time to the exposition of those relations
which are determined by preponderances too large to come within any reasonable limits of
error.
The total number of deaths reported in the census of 1870, when reduced to thou­
sandths, was distributed as follows, among the several elements of population which it is
proposed in the present paper to take into account: Native white, 726; native colored,
137; total native, 863 ; total foreign, 134, of which there were, Irish, 55 ; Germans, 38;
English and Welsh, 15; Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes, 4; Scotch, 4; French, 3.
The total population of the United States at the date of the enumeration, when
likewise reduced to thousandths, was distributed as follows: Native white, 730; native
colored, 126; total native, 856; total foreign, 144, of which there were, Irish, 48; Germans,
44; English and Welsh, 16; Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes, 6; Scotch, 4; French, 3.
Comparing, now, the number of deaths returned for each enumerated element of
population, with the number of living inhabitants representing the same, we have the
number of deaths in each to each 1000 living persons, as follows: Native white, 12.7;
native colored, 13.9; total native, 12.9; total foreign, 11.8; Irish, 14.6; Germans, 11;
English and Welsh, 114 ; Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes, 9.2 ; Scotch, 12.5 ; French, 14.
Figure 3, Plate X L I V , exhibits to the eye the proportions above expressed, with
others which are deemed essential or advantageous for the discussion of the relations of
race and nationality to mortality.
The first four vertical lines, counting from the left, relate to the number of living
inhabitants on the 1st of June, 1870, the first representing the aggregate population ; the
second, third, and fourth, the population, respectively, above ten, above twT
enty, and above
thirty years of age. The fifth line represents the aggregate body of deaths reported as
occurring during the census year as above. The group of twelve lines next succeeding
represent the body of deaths occurring within each important group of diseases. The
group of twenty-one lines which complete the diagram represent the body of deaths occurring
within each of the enumerated special diseases or subordinate groups of diseases. The
thirty-eight vertical lines described are crossed by lines which show the division of each
of the thirty-eight subjects represented, among the larger elements of the population which•

12
3
7
9
IO 10
5 22
6
7
5
7
3
3
6
5
3- 4
3
3
3
3
3
3
5
2
4
2
1
I

II

2

3
*

I
I

1
1

I

2

I

* Less than one in each 1000.

W e have previously expressed the belief that the statistics of mortality as reported
in the census approximately represent the facts of mortality throughout the United States,
notwithstanding the considerable omission which is acknowledged to take place in the
aggregate number of deaths. It is a different question, however, whether the facts of
mortality as they exist in the country can, without important corrections, be held to
represent, even approximately, the relations of the several elements of the population, as
respects their vitality or their liability to specific forms of disease. Indeed, examination
will disclose that tw'o very important corrections require to be made before the several
elements of the population can fairly be put in comparison with each other as to their
respective vitality, or their liability to specific forms of disease. It is to the discussion of
these corrections that this paper will be mainly devoted. The necessity of the first
correction is discovered by observing the proportions in which the deaths from childrens
diseases, represented by the seven vertical lines on the extreme right of the diagram, are
divided between the native and the foreign population. The abruptness with which the
lines representing the foreign elements here rise and almost run out at the top of the
figure, w’ould convince the most casual observer, either that the returns of the census are
exceedingly defective in respect to deaths from these diseases, or else that some important
correction requires to be made before the several foreign elements can fairly be brought, in
these respects, into comparison w ith the native white and native colored elements of the
population. Reference to the series of figures on Plate X X X IX , show's that a most
important correction does require to be made on account of
T

he

E x c e s s i v e D is p r o p o r t io n
w it h in

between the
our

F

o r e ig n

N

umber of
P

A

o p u l a t io n

dults and of

C

h ildren

.

Giving our attention first to that disproportion as it exists with reference to children
under ten years of age, w'e have the following facts: Number of children under ten years
of age in each 1,000 of the total population, 268; number of children under ten in each

2

THE

R E L A T IO N S

OF

RACE

AND

N A T IO N A L IT Y

1.000 of the native population, 306 ; number of children under ten in each 1,000 of the
foreign population, 47.
If, now, the liability to death were observed to be the same in each period of life, no
correction on account of this relative deficiency of children of foreign birth would need to
be introduced in a comparison of the grand elements of native and foreign, in respect to
their relative vitality; but if there is observed to be an excessive liability to death at early
ages, we must either eliminate all deaths at such ages before making comparison of these
elements, or we must assume to add to the foreign population a corresponding number of
children and to the foreign deaths a corresponding mortality among such children. As
matter of fact we find that 414 per cent, of the whole body of deaths occur under five
years of age, and 46.7 per cent, under ten years of age, while of the total living inhabitants
only 14.3 per cent were found to be under five years of age, and only 26.8 per cent, under
10 years of age. VoL on “ \ ital Statistics,’ Ninth Census, 1870. C£ PI. X L III.
Let us seek to exclude the deaths occurring under ten years of age. W e do not
know the distribution of the deaths within this period of life betwe?n the native and
foreign elements; but the foreign population under ten is relatively so small that it makes
very little difference in the adult mortality what per cent, be taken (within reasonable
limits) for the unquestionably greater liability to fatal diseases of the children of foreign
birth. If we assume the proportion of deaths to living persons to be greater by 30 per
cent in the foreign than in the native population under ten, and thereupon reject from
consideration a ll deaths occurring in this period of life, we shall have the following
ratios:
Deaths to each 1,000 living inhabitants over ;o years of age:
N

a t iv e

F

o r e ig n

TO

IN

T H E U N IT E D

STATES.

these diseases occur, their share in the mortality from causes of this class is found to be
much greater than their share of the aggregate mortality, being not less than 286 in each
1,000.
O f the deaths from diseases of the digestive system, lastly, not less than 686 occur
under ten years, and the deaths within the foreign population from diseases of this group
sink to 98 in each 1,00a

For the purposes of this comparison, I have also taken nine special diseases or sub­
ordinate groups of diseases, in which the proportion of deaths under ten exceeds that of
the general body of deaths. The following table exhibits the proportions maintained in
these cases, the first sum against each title of disease representing the number in each
i.ooo deaths from such cause or causes which occur under ten years of age, the second
sum representing the number in each 1,000 which occur within the foreign populatioa

TABLE

II.
Number under Ten
Years of A ge. in each
1,000 Deaths.

Number within the
Foreign population,
in each 1,000 Deaths

All D iseases............................................................................

467

Small P o x ................................................................................................
B ron ch itis....................... .......................................................................
Diarrhoea, Dysentery, and Enteritis....................................................

134

564
577
761
804
854
906

•32

N am es

............................ 8.84
..................................... 11.2

But this correction on account of the number of children of foreign birth requires to
be made not alone in the aggregate of deaths from all causes as above, but is even more
imperatively demanded in treating of the body of deaths occurring within most special
diseases, and groups of diseases. Thus it is evident that where the distribution by age
and sex of the deaths occurring from any specified disease or group of diseases conforms
substantially to the distribution of the total body of deaths by age and sex, there the
correction already indicated wili serve approximately for such disease or group. But
where diseases or groups of diseases vary widely, as in fact most do, from the type afforded
by the aggregate of deaths from all causes, in respect to the proportion of deaths occurring
under ten years of age, the effect of the deficiency noted in the number of children of
foreign birth will be greater or less, according as such diseases or groups of diseases are
found to be more fatal or less fatal in the early periods of life than are the whole body of
diseases taken together. Thus,referring to the series of figures numbered 2 on FI. X L III,
while of all diseases, 467 deaths in each 1,000 are under ten years of age, of the deaths
from the Febrile Group of General Diseases (General Diseases “ A ”), not less than 603 in
each 1,000 occur under ten years of age. It is evident, therefore, that the share of the
foreign element in the deaths from these diseases should be less than its share in the whole
body of deaths from all diseases; and accordingly we find (PI. X L I V , fig. 3) that, while of
all diseases 134 deaths in each 1,000 occur among the foreign population, only 87 in each
1.000 deaths from this group of diseases occur among the foreign population.
On the other hand, of deaths from the Constitutional Group of General Diseases
(General Diseases “ B "), only 108 in each 1,000 occur under the age of ten years. Now,
as the foreign population consists much more largely than the native of persons within
that period of life, namely, above ten years, in which diseases of this group are found to
be more fatal, we should expect to find the share of the foreign element in deaths from
diseases of this group much greater than their share of the total body of deaths, and of
course much greater still than their share of deaths from General Diseases “ A.” Accord­
ingly we find that of 1,000 deaths from diseases of the Constitutional Group, 214 occur
among the foreign population. That, over and above the proper effect of the deficiency
in the foreign children, peculiarities of stock, breeding, and condition may tend to produce
a larger proportion of deaths from the diseases of the Constitutional Group than of the
Febrile Group, among the foreign population, I do not question; but it is evident that the
astonishing disproportion which appears at first sight between the deaths within the foreign
population from these two groups of causes (that is to say, 87 in each 1,000 from the
Febrile Group to 214 in each 1,000 from the Constitutional Group), does not wholly
represent real differences in the liability to peculiar forms of disease, but mainly this
abnormal distribution of the foreign population by periods of life.
Proceeding to examine in the same manner the most important remaining groups of
diseases in this respect, we find that of each 1,000 deaths from all diseases of the Nervous
Group, 591 occur under the age of ten years. Unless, therefore, the foreign population
have some very marked and urgent predisposition to diseases of this class, we should expect
to find their share of this body of deaths less than their share of the aggregate mortality
of the country; and accordingly we find that only 95 in each 1,000 of the deaths from this
group occur in the foreign population.
Strongly contrasted in this respect with the diseases of the nervous system, are the
diseases of the circulatory system, from which only 129 deaths in each 1,000 occur under
ten years of age. Unless there is some marked indisposition of the foreign population to
diseases of this class, we should expect to find their share of this body of deaths far greater
than their share of the deaths from all causes, and slightly greater than their share of the
deaths from General Diseases “ B,” in which, as we have seen, 108 deaths only in each
1.000 are under the age of ten years. The results correspond to the conjecture. O f 1,000
deaths from diseases of the circulatory system, 218 occur within the foreign population.
Again, of the deaths from the diseases of the respiratory system, 503 in each 1,000
are under the age of ten years, and the proportion of deaths from this class of causes
within the foreign population sinks to 109 in each 1,000.
On the other hand, of the deaths from diseases of the urinary system and the organs
of generation, including affections connected with pregnancy, only 40 in each 1,000 occur
under the age of ten years, and as the foreign population consists much more largely than
the native of persons within the period of life within which the great bulk of deaths from

M O R T A L IT Y

of

D is e a s e s -

Diphtheria
.....................................................................................
Scarlet F e v e r .............................................. ............................................
H ydrocephalus........................................................................................
Hooping-Cough .......................... .....................................................
Croup.........................................................................................................

»3 7

i >3
42

1

41
45
32
'3

925
985
988

•9

Now, if the reason of the comparatively small number of deaths occurring within the
foreign population from the above mentioned diseases, is found alone in the deficiency of
foreign children, it is evident that, inasmuch as the proportion of deaths under ten is here
greater than the proportion of deaths under ten from all diseases, the share of the foreign
population in the deaths from each and all such specified causes should be less, and less in
a degree corresponding generally to that excess of the total number of deaths under ten.
If, on the contrary, we find that, as the proportion of deaths under ten increases in respect
to any disease, the share of the foreign population in the whole body of deaths from that
cause remains nearly the same or becomes greater than the share of the foreign population
in the whole body of deaths from all causes, we have a very strong assurance that the
foreign population has a decided liability to this form of disease.
Applying this principle, it will be observed that in eight of these nine cases, the pro­
portion of deaths from such causes among the foreign population is less than the proportion
of deaths from all causes within the foreign population. This is as was to be expected,
except upon the assumption that the foreign population had a peculiar predisposition to
such forms of disease. In one case, however, that of bronchitis, while the proportion of
deaths under ten years of age is greater by 110 in each 1,000 than the proportion of the
whole body of deaths, the share of the foreign population in this body of deaths is greater
by three in the 1,000 than its share in the deaths from all causes, proving conclusively the
exceptional tendency of the foreign population to this form of disease in a fatal degree.
In two other cases, namely, those of small-pox and of the group, diarrhoea, dysentery, and
enteritis, while the share of the foreign population in deaths from these causes is less than
its share of deaths from all causes, it is not less in any such degree as to correspond to the
increased proportion of mortality under ten years of age; and I think it, therefore, per­
fectly safe to conclude from this exhibit, without further inquiry, that the foreign population
have also a very distinct predisposition to these forms of disease in a fatal degree.
Looking at the six remaining cases in the above table, we can, without deeper inves­
tigation, determine certain relations, as, for example, that scarlet fever is relatively more
fatal to the foreign population than measles or diphtheria; but we cannot with assurance
determine as to the comparative mortality of the native and of the foreign populations
from these forms of disease without additional information, which is given in the following
table, the analysis in respect to these diseases being carried down below the period of five
years, the several years under five being taken separately, and the figures relating to each
year under each title of disease being compared with the proportion of the total population
in each such period of life which is of foreign birth, and the figures being also given
separately for each five years upward to twenty.

TABLE

P

e r io d

of

L

if e .

U n d e r 1 .......................
I ....................................
2 ..........................
3 ..........................
4 .............................................

5 to 1 0 ........................
10 to 15 ................
15 to 2 0 ................

Proportion of
Foreign to
Total
Population.
.005
•OIO

015
020
.026
.036
•043
.082

III.
D

Measles.

Diphtheria.

202
241
>36
79
42
104
40

160
.58
126

39

i »7

87
206
53

22

eaths

in

Scarlet
Fever.

each

io o o f r o m

Hydro­
cephalus.

103

447

146
l6 l
144

259
99
43
26

•13

HoopingCough.

Croup.

492
23'
■ 18

45 5
■97
>3 °

59
33
52

88

239
56

5*

l8

9

l6

IO

53
65
O

2

Now, since 103 deaths in each 1,000 from scarlet fever, to take an instance from the
above table, occur under the age of one year, and as but .005 of the population \\ ithin that

N A T IO N A L IT Y

M O R T A L IT Y

D is e a s e s .

N u m b e r w it h in th e
F o r e ig n P o p u la t io n
in e a c h 1,000 D e a th s .

P o p u la tio n ..........................................
Consum ption.......................................
Diarrhoea, Dysentery, and Enteritis.
Intermittent and Remittent Fevers. .
Pneum onia...........................................

727
662
763
648
688

127
112
123
256
194

All D isea ses.............................................................................

541
58

he

N orth ern
St a t e s .

T

144
226
114
96
118 |

789
697
847
831
799

14
32
•3
18
27

197
271
140
>5t
>74

776
659
804
782
746

M id d l e
Sta te s.

he

>33
200
102
94

168

9>

> >
4
94
>24
86

T

he

So u t h e r n
St a t e s .

563
537
530
505
475

4>5
400
418
44i
501

22
63
52
54
24

134

C a n c e r s .......................................................................................................

T

Foreign.

am es o f

U n it e d
St a t e s .

he

Foreign.

T

V.

j Native Colored.

N u m b e r u n d e r 20
Y e a r s o f A g e in e a c h
1,000 D e a ih s .

3

Native Colored.

TABLE

IV.

D is e a s e s .

STATES.

Native White.

am es of

U N IT E D

Native White.

N

THE

relation* of these two elements of the population, before comparison is made between the
(aggregate) mortality of the colored and the foreign elements. But it is clear that the
apparent liability of these two elements to certain forms of disease may be very greatly
affected by this complemental location. If there are diseases which especially prevail at
the South, it is to be expected that the colored population, being so largely found within
that section, will suffer more from such diseases than the native white population which is
distributed with greater uniformity over the whole country, and still more, in a high degree,
than the foreign population which is scarcely represented in the lowest group of States
descrilied. On the other hand, the foreign population may, by the mere force of its loca­
tion, and not bv any constitutional liability, sustain a greater loss from diseases specially
characteristic of the northern group of States.
Let us compare the mortality from intermittent and remittent fevers with that from
consumption. The population of the northern group of States being 61 per cent, of the
total population of the country, we find 69.5 per cent, of the deaths from consumption
and 30.1 per cent, of the deaths from intermittent and remittent fevers occurring in this
group. The population of the middle group of States being 11.8 per cent, of the total
population of the country, we find 11.9 per cent of the deaths from consumption, and 14.1
per cent, of the deaths from intermittent and remittent fevers occurring within this group.
The population of the southern group of States being 24.6 per cent, of the total popula­
tion of the country, we find 16.2 per cent, of the deaths from consumption and 53.7 per
cent, of the deaths from intermittent and remittent fevers occurring within this group.
It is clear, therefore, that the diseases thus taken for comparison are in a high sense
complemental as to their range. There is a middle belt, in which the two are in a degree
found together, a northern group in which the first is found in a very high, and the second
in a very low degree, and a southern group in which these relations are reversed.
It is evident, therefore, that in respect to these diseases, the colored population of the
South ought to be compared with the foreign population of the South, and not with the
foreign population of the whole country; and, on the other hand, the foreign population
of the North ought to be compared with the colored population of the North, and not
with the colored population of the whole country.
I have treated according to this plan four important diseases and subordinate groups
of diseases, which are known to have exceptional relations to temperature,f with the
following results:—

N

TABLE

IN

Foreign.

period of life are of foreign birth, it will follow, if we assume no more than an equal
liability to this disease on the part of this element of the population, that of these 103
deaths, but .515 (fractions being preserved throughout this computation) occur among the
foreign children. A s 146 deaths additional in each 1,000 occur between the ages of one
and two, and as but .01 of the total population within this period are of foreign birth, it
would follow, that of these 146 deaths, but 146 occur among the foreign children. In the
same way we should find that, of the 161 deaths from this cause between the ages of two
and three, but 2415; of the 144 deaths between three and four, but 2.88; of the 113
deaths between four and five, but 2.938; of the 239 deaths between five and ten, but 8.604;
of the 56 deaths between ten and fifteen, but 2408; and of the 16 deaths between fifteen
and twenty, but 1.312 occur among the population of foreign birth, making the propor­
tionate share of the foreign population in the 978 deaths enumerated out of each 1,000
from this disease, but 22.532. If we assume the mortality among this element of the
population from this cause to be 30 per cent, greater than that of the native population,
the contribution of foreign children to the 978 deaths which occur under twenty years
out of each 1,000 deaths at all ages from scarlet fever, would still be but 29.6, leaving
even at this extreme assumption, out of each 1,000 deaths from this cause among all
classes not less than 154 deaths among the foreign population above twenty years of age.
But as only 22 deaths in each 1,000 from this cause occur above twenty years of age,
among all classes of the population, and as the foreign element constitutes but 24.6 per
cent, of the total population above twenty, it would follow that their proportional share of
this latter body of deaths would be but 5.412. Hence we must conclude either that the
mortality among the foreign population from this cause under twenty years must be
greater than that of the native population by much more than the 30 per cent, assumed,
or else that the mortality from this cause among the adult foreign population is excessive
in a most extraordinary degree.
Subjecting to the same analysis the figures relating, severally, to the remaining seven
diseases on our list, we have results which appear to establish a mortality among the
foreign population from croup and hydrocephalus, proportionally greater than that of the
native population, while measles, diphtheria, and hooping-cough would seem to be less
fatal to the foreign than to the native population.
On the other hand, there are eight special diseases which may be taken for the
purposes of this comparison, in which the proportion of deaths under twenty is less than
that of the general body of deaths, and the share of the foreign population is accordingly
greater, often in a very important degree, than its share of the aggregate of deaths from all
causes.
The following table exhibits the proportion maintained in these cases, the first sum
against each title of disease representing the number in each 1,000 deaths from such
cause which occur under twenty years of age, the second sum representing the number in
each 1,000 occurring within the foreign population.

TO

Native Colored.

AND

Native White.

RACE

Foreign.

OF

Native Colored.

R E L A T IO N S

Native White.
1 _______
_

THE

*53

59

•74

78

A poplexy......................................................................................................

260

Disease o f the K idneys...........................................................

140

440

C on su m p tion .............................................................................................

•74

226

H y d roth ora x ..............................................................................................

204

I 12

R h e u m a tis m

236

193

247

2 16

B r i g h t ’s

..

.

...............................................................................................................

P leu risy .......................................................................................................

Applying to the above figures a method of analysis similar to that applied to the
figures in Table II I, we seem to establish beyond controversy the excessive fatality among
the foreign population of Bright’s disease of the kidneys, the somewhat greater liability
of this element of the population to deaths from cancers, pleurisy, and apoplexy, and, on
the other hand, their comparative immunity from death from paralysis, rheumatism, and
hvdrothorax. In respect to consumption the foreign population of the country would
seem to stand in about the same relation as the native population within corresponding
periods of life.
A second important correction, however, requires to be introduced before we can
make satisfactory comparison between the reported mortality of the Colored and the
Foreign elements of our population. This correction is on account of
T

he

C

o m plem en tal

L

o c a t io n

of

th ese

T

w o

E

lem en ts

.

Speaking broadly, where the blacks are found in the United States, the foreigners are
not. There are only five (5) States in which the two elements, each in any considerable
degree, are found together. These are Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and West
Virginia (the District of Columbia falls in this group), with an aggregate population of
4,521,929, of whom 411,558 are foreign, and 599,850 are colored. South and southwest
of these lie eleven (11 ) States, with an aggregate population of 9487,386, of whom
210,684 are foreign, and 3,939,032 are colored. Again, to the north and northwest of the
first mentioned States are eighteen (18) States with an aggregate population of 23,544,365,
of whom 4,626,809 are foreign and 334,653 are colored. The Pacific States and the terri­
tories are excluded for the purposes of this comparison. I cannot satisfy myself from the
data given, whether any correction needs to be introduced on account of this complemental

The greater liability of the colored population to malarial than to intestinal diseases
in the northern and in the southern States, with the reversal of this proportion in the
middle group, the high rate of mortality among the colored population from consumption
in the northern States (32 : 14), being rapidly reduced as we pass through the middle belt
(200 : 133) until it falls below average (400 : 415) in the congenial climate of the South ;
the wider liability of the same race to the acuter form of lung disease, not so excessive in
the North, but more fully sustained through the transition southward (27: 14, 168: 133,
501 : 415) ; the increasing fatality of each specified form of disease as the foreign population
moves southward, most marked, however, as is natural, in the case of the two groups of
diseases especially characteristic of the South ; and finally the uniformity with which the
native white population contributes to the mortality from each specified cause in each
section of the country by turns, as contrasted with the fluctuations among the colored and
the foreign elements of the population,— these are the most noticeable features of this table.
As the diseases mentioned are the cause of 32.1 per cent, of all the deaths occurring in
the country, the importance of this discussion of their complemental relation cannot he
exaggerated.
In the use of the above table, it should be noted that while before comparing the
foreign population within any geographical section, with either the native white or the
colored population of that section, the correction heretofore noted as required on account
of the deficiency o f foreign children must be made, the foreign population in one section
may, without any such antecedent correction, be compared with the foreign population of
any other section,£ as the deficiency of foreign children may, for the purposes of so large
a comparison, be assumed to be uniform as between sections.
Such being the readiness and the (comparative) certainty of comparisons between
the several constituents of the foreign population, we present in the following table the
contributions, in parts of 1,000, made by each specified foreign nationality to the total
number of deaths from each enumerated cause, within the total foreign population.

* The correction on account of the deficiency in foreign children must, however, still be carried through in comparisons
between these two elements, as the colored population of the United States is of normal growth, and contains its due propor­
tion of persons of the early periods of life.
f The statistical proof that these diseases sustain important relations to temperature, is exhibited graphically in the appro­
priate figures in Series No. 2, PI. X L IV .
X The native white and the colored population may be compared with each other in any section, without any important
correction, both elements being of normal growth.

R E L A T IO N S

V I.— A.

IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO

410
2S2
454
431
442
408
379
477
378
417

282
329
276
279
289
287
280
231
202
236

108
IOI
90
134
108
1 12
121
108
142
160

34
78
2A
18
22
*9
51
28
21
17

27
22
26
26
25
27
28
38
36
27

25
23
23

IOOO
IOOO
IOOO

478
424
461

260
251
243

IOI
125
88

12
30
38

32
23
23

27
22
20

English
Swedes,
Total
Irish. Germans.
and
Norwegians,
Foreign.
Welsh. and Danes.

D iseases.

A ll D ise ase s................................................................................
General Diseases— A ...................................................................
General Diseases— B ................................................................
Diseases of the Circulatory System.........................................
Diseases of the Urinary System and Organs of Generation
Diseases of the Respiratoty System.
................................
Diseases of the Digestiye System ..........................................
Diseases of the Organs of Locomotion..................................
Diseases of the Nervous System ..............................................
Diseases of the Integumentary S ystem ..................................
Conditions not necessarily associated with general or local
diseases............................ ........................ .............................
Accidents and Injuries...............................................................
Other and Unknow n...................................................................

TABLE

S p e c ia l

N A T IO N A L IT Y

French.

of

AND

D is e a s e s .

Bright’s Disease of the K id n ey s.............................................
A po p lexy.......................................................................................
Cancers........................................................................... ............
Consum ption................................................................................
Rheum atism ..................................................................................
Paralysis........................................................................................
Cerebro-Spinal, Enteric, and Typhus F e v e rs........................
Pleurisy and Hydrothorax.........................................................
Bronchitis......................................................................................
Small P o x .....................................................................................
P neum onia...................................................................................
Diarrhoea, Dysentery, and E n teritis........................................
E ry sip ela s............................ ........................................................
Intermittent and Remittent F ev ers..........................................
Encephalitis and Meningitis.....................................................
Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria...................................................
M easles................................................................... ..................
S cro fu la ........................................................................................
Hydrocephalus.............................................................................
C r o u p ............................................................................................
Hooping C o u g h ..........................................................................

21
29
27
33
27
22

V I.— B.
English
Swedes,
Total
and
No. wegians,
Foreign. Irish. Germans.
Welsh. and Danes.
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO
IOOO

576
381
412
478
392
409
302
380
534

203
413
384
358
328

JI7

84
103

28
28

>3
9
II

4>
24

25

253

*73

3*»2

90

299
228

99
87

>9

441
284
271

36
Il6
118

309

> 33

335

83
121
189
123

30

88

287
277
163
153

254

>75

139

39
II

301
283
240
218
231
366

332
192

no

213
328
307
262
284

41

20
36

16

25
3
29

25
27

66
29

30
44
18

34

38
75

*

34
28
39

113

255
78

> 39
>59
l6l

>5
f>4
178

23
25
68

>7

French.

G roups

RACE

Scotch.

TABLE

OF

Scotch.

THE

4

8
34
39

20
36
26
24
43

31
24
29
28
23
45

21
7
8
26
3>
IO

*'

TO

M O R T A L IT Y

IN

THE

U N ITE D

STATES.

The following appear to be the most noteworthy features of this table:—
Among the Irish, a comparative exemption from all the General diseases of the
Febrile Group, and from diseases of the digestive and nervous systems; and, on the other
hand, a marked liability to General diseases of the Constitutional Group, including con­
sumption, but with exception of rheumatism, scrofula, and cancers, and to diseases of the
organs of locomotion and of the urinary system, with extraordinary mortality from
Bright’s disease of the kidneys.
Am ong the Germans, a reduced mortality from General diseases of the Constitutional
Group, and a decided liability to those, especially small-pox, of the Febrile Group (being
an exact reversal of the relations of the Irish thereto); a comparative immunity from
diseases of the organs of locomotion and of the integumentary system, and otherwise a
general evenness in the distribution of the body of deaths among the several groups of
diseases, and through the list of special diseases.
Among the E nglish and Welsh, a liability to the diseases of the nervous, circulatory,
digestive, and integumentary systems contrasted with comparative immunity from General
diseases, both of the Febrile and the Constitutional Groups; of the special diseases,scarlet
fever, diphtheria, hooping-cough, hydrocephalus, croup, erysipelas, apoplexy, and paralysis
being relatively most fatal, and consumption, intermittent and remittent, cerebro-spinal,
enteric, and typhus fevers, bronchitis, and small-pox, least fatal.
Among the Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes, a marked liability to diseases of the
digestive system, especially, dysentery, diarrhoea, and enteritis, and an extraordinary mortality
from General diseases of the Febrile Group, notably measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, and
typhus, enteric, and cerebro-spinal fevers, with comparative immunity from General diseases
of the Constitutional Group, and from diseases of the circulatory, nervous, urinary, and
integumentary systems, and of the organs of locomotion, the deaths from cancers, apoplexy,
paralysis, bronchitis, hydrocephalus, and Bright’s disease of the kidneys, being remarkably few.
Among the Scotch, an evenness in the distribution of the body of deaths among the
several groups with marked exception only of the diseases of the nervous system and of
the organs of locomotion, the most noticeable exemptions among the special diseases
being small-pox, scrofula, and the fevers; the most noticeable instances of liability, cancers,
paralysis, erysipelas, measles, and hooping-cough.
Among the French, a general evenness in the distribution of the body of deaths
among the several groups of diseases, with somewhat more of irregularity as to the dis­
tribution among the special diseases than among the Scotch.


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