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39

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

MORTALITY.

The census returns of mortality were in 1890 derived
from two sources— the registration returns in those states
and cities in which a registration of deaths is maintained
and from the returns of the enumerators.
In most of the large cities of the country and in the
states of Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, NewHampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont,
and the District of Columbia there is a registration of
deaths which is fairly accurate and complete. In these
regions, which contain about 21,000,000 people, or nearly
one-third of the population, the returns can be depended
upon as fairly reliable.
Throughout the rest of the country, comprising more
than two-thirds of its population, where the mortality
returns were obtained from the enumerators only, it is
probable that more than one-half of the deaths were not
reported. Moreover, these returns differ in fullness with
the age, sex, race, and nativity of the people reported
upon. The omissions were doubtless greater among
females than among males, among children than among
adults, among negroes than among whites, and among
foreign whites than among native whites. Necessarily,
therefore, the report of deaths from diseases incident to
childhood, or those diseases to which females, negroes, or
the foreign born are peculiarly subject, are affected in
like manner. The result is that the conclusions derived
from the returns of the enumerators in the regions not
covered by the registration records are more or less unre­
liable, and should be accepted with caution.
The death rate derived from the registration records,
that is, the annual number of deaths per 1,000 of the
population, is 22.27. This, however, is not a fair aver­
age to apply to the entire country, because the regis­
tration record includes a far larger proportion of urban
population than there is in the country at large, and the
urban death rate is well known to be in excess of the
rural death rate. The death rate in the various regis­
tration states is shown in Diagram 205.

205.

D

206. D
eath R ates,

eath

per

R

ates

,

1,000 o

f

p e r

1 ,0 0 0

Population,
a n d

T O T A L P O P U L A T IO N
M ALES
FEM ALES
N A T IV E W H IT E O F N A T IV E
P A R E S TS
N A T IV E W H IT E O F F O R E IG N
PA REN TS
F O R E IG N W H IT E
COLORED
URBAN
W H IT E
COLORED
RURAL

of

Po

p u l a t io n

in the

207. D
eath R ates

of the

W hite

and the

Colored,

From this it appears that the death rate of the District of
Columbia is far larger than that of any other subdivision
of the country, but in explanation of this large death rate
it should be said that it includes the deaths among the
colored as well as among the whites, and that the death
rate of the colored is about double that of the whites.
The death rates of most of the other states range from
18 to 22 per 1,000. Vermont, however, falls considerably
below this. In this state there was a comparatively small
proportion of children, among whom the death rate is very
high, and a small proportion of urban population.
The death rates of the various elements of the popula­
tion in the registration states are shown in Diagram 206.
That of the total population is 19.6 per 1,000. The death
rate of males is considerably greater than that of females.
As regards race, the death rate of native whites of native
parents is 17 per 1,000. That of the native whites of for­
eign parentage is greater, because this class contains so
large a proportion of young children. That of the foreign
white is less than the last, due doubtless to the large pro­
portion of adults. That of the negroes is the greatest of all.
The rural death rate is but 15, and is greatly exceeded
by the urban death rate, which among the whites is 23
and among the colored 34.5.
Diagram 207 shows the death rate of the white and col­
ored in certain southern cities where the negro popula­
tion is large. From this it appears that while the death
rate of the whites ranges from 18 to 25, that of the col­
ored ranges from 30 to 42, being in each case nearly
,

in

R

e g is t r a t io n

R egistration States,

General Nativity : 1 90
8 .

St

a t e s

by

: 1890.

Sex ,

a n d

by

Color

per

i ,o o of
o

Population,

208. Percentage

of

in

D eaths

Certain Cities : 18 .
90

from certain

tration

0

1

2

3

D iseases

in

the

R

egis­

States : 18 .
90

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

double that of the whites. It is not probable, however,
that this proportion between the two holds in the rural
districts, which are better suited to the development of the
negro than the environment of large cities.
The proportion of deaths from each of the principal
diseases to all deaths in the registration states is shown by
Diagram 208. Consumption is responsible for nearly 12
per cent of all deaths; pneumonia and diarrheal diseases
for 8.5 per cent each; diphtheria and croup jointly 5 per
cent of all diseases; and enteric fever 3 per cent; while, on
the other hand, measles, whooping cough, and scarlet fever
are each to be credited with only about 1 per cent of all
deaths.
The series of maps numbered 209 to 220, plate 41,
represent the proportions of deaths from certain selected
diseases to the whole number of deaths in different parts
of the country. The units of area for which these data
have been computed are uniform on all the maps, and
represent regions which are uniform in character within
themselves, but different in climate, elevation, and in
other physiographic features from one another.
Map 209 represents the distribution of deaths from con­
sumption, showing that the greatest mortality from this
disease occurs on the Pacific coast and in the eastern part
of the upper Mississippi valley. Secondarily, this disease
is more prevalent along the Atlantic coast from eastern
Maine to Florida, and in the southern Appalachian region.
The region bordering upon the Great Lakes, the entire
Rocky Mountain region, and the region of the southern
plains and prairies are singularly exempt.
Map 210 shows the prevalence of pneumonia. To some
extent this map is a counterpart of the last. The greatest
prevalence of this disease is in the Rocky Mountain region,
in eastern Texas, and the states lying immediately north
and east thereof. Secondarily, it is seen to be prevalent
in the -upper country of New England, on the Atlantic
coast from New York to North Carolina, and to a great
extent throughout the cotton region as far west as the
Mississippi river. Its visitations are light on the south
Atlantic and Gulf coasts and in most of Ohio, Indiana,
and Kentucky.
Map 211, illustrating the distribution of diarrheal dis­
eases, shows that they are mainly prevalent in the hot,
moist parts of the country, and that the high, dry portions
of the country are in great degree free from them.
Map 212, representing the distribution of diphtheria,
shows this disease to be most prevalent in the most

40

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

sparsely settled regions, the entire Rocky Mountain
region, with the plains and prairies, and the region bor­
dering on the Great Lakes being those in which it is most
prevalent.
Map 213 shows the distribution of croup. It is seen
to be the most prevalent in the southern Appalachian
region, in middle Texas, and the states lying north and
east thereof, while, generally speaking, upon the seacoast
there is little liability to this disease.
Map 214, showing the distribution of typhoid fever,
develops the fact that this disease is least prevalent in the
moist, thickly settled regions, and on the other hand is
most prevalent in those sparsely settled.
Map 215 shows the distribution of deaths from cancer
and tumor. This disease appears to increase relatively
with the increasing density of population, its victims
being in greater proportion in New England and the
northern states of the Mississippi valley than elsewhere.
This may, however, be due to the fact that in these
regions there is a greater proportion of mature persons
than in other parts of the country.
Map 216 shows the proportion of deaths from malarial
fever. The region in which this disease is most prevalent
is eastern Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Indian territory,
and the southern part of Missouri, while the states lying
east of these throughout the cotton region have this dis­
ease only in slightly less intensity. It is of little impor­
tance in the mountain region of the south, while in New
England, and in parts of other northern states and on the
Pacific coast, it is almost unknown.
Map 217 shows the proportion of deaths from measles.
The proportion of deaths from this disease seems to be
greatest in the southern mountain region and the Pied­
mont region outside of it. Second to this region is that of
central Texas, while on the other hand, in New England,
the disease, though a common one, appears to be by no
means as prevalent.
Map 218 shows the proportion of deaths from whooping
cough. On the south Atlantic and Gulf coasts, upon the
Pacific coast, and over the Rocky Mountain region, this
disease does not appear to be prevalent, but in the south­
ern Appalachian region, together with northern Georgia
and Alabama, nearly all of Kentucky and Tennessee, and
much of Indiana, the disease is comparatively very fatal.
Map 219 shows the distribution of deaths from scarlet
fever, from which it appears that the Rocky Mountains,
the plains and the prairie region are those in which the
disease is most prevalent.

221. Proportions

of

Deaths

due to certain

Colored,

Causes

and the

Map 220 shows the proportion of mortality from heart
disease and dropsy. This map shows that the greatest
mortality is in the upland country of New England and
upon the south Atlantic coast. In the former area the
large proportion of deaths from this cause are doubtless
due to the fact that the region contains a large proportion
of mature persons.
Diagram 221 shows the proportion of deaths from cer­
tain leading diseases among whites, negroes, and Indians.
It appears from this that deaths from consumption are far
more numerous than from any other cause, and that the
deaths from this cause among Indians are far in excess
of those among the other races, being more than double
that of the whites and nearly double that of the negroes.
The deaths among negroes are much more numerous than
among whites, although the negroes are found mainly in
the southern states, where this disease has less power
than in the north. From diseases of the nervous system
it is seen that the whites suffer far more than the negroes
or Indians, as is to be expected. From pneumonia the
mortality of the three races is about equal. From diar­
rheal diseases the whites suffer more than the negroes,
and the negroes more than the Indians. From accidents
and injuries there is not much to choose among the races.
From diseases of the circulatory system the whites suffer
the most. From diseases of the respiratory system there
is little to choose. From diphtheria the Indians suffer
more than the whites, and both these races far more than
the negroes. On the other hand, the negroes suffer vastly
more from malarial fever than the other races.
Diagram 222 shows the death rate in cities in registra­
tion states among the children under 15 and from 15 to 45
years of age of mothers of different nationalities. The
greatest mortality is apparently in the Italian blood, next
to that among the Bohemians and Hungarians, while the
United States stands quite low in the list. This diagram
should be read in connection with Diagram 223, which
represents similar facts in the rural districts of the regis­
tration states.
Diagram 224 shows that the death rate of married
females is greater, as a rule, than that of single females,
and that the death rate of the widowed is greater than that
of either of the other classes. The first of these facts is
probably due in part to the greater average age of mar­
ried women over single women, and second, to risks of
maternity. The latter fact is probably due to the greater
average age of those widowed.

per

I ndians

1,000 D
eaths
in the

from all

Causes

United States : 1890.

among the

W hites,

the

222. C
omparative Death R ates
from

1
5

States,

to

b y

45 Y ears

of

Birthplaces

per

A ge

of

the

1
5

to

the

Cities

in

the

under

1
5

and

R egistration

Mothers : 18 .
90

223. C
omparative D eath R ates
and from

1,000 of P opulation

in

45 Y ears

R egistration States,

per
of
by

1,000

A ge

i n

of

P opulation

the

Birthplaces

under

1
5

R ural D istricts

of

of

Mothers : 1890.

On the other hand, the death rate of the married males
is not as great in either of the classes as that of single
males, a phenomenon for which it is difficult to account.
Diagram 225 shows that the greatest mortality occurs
in the late winter and in the spring months.
Diagram 226 shows that among children under 5 years
of age, on the contrary, the greatest mortality occurs in
the warm weather, especially in July and August, and
the least mortality in the late fall and early winter.
Going to the other extreme of age, we see from Dia­
gram 227 that the greatest mortality for aged persons is,
as for the average of the population, in the late winter
and spring.
Passing to specific diseases and the distribution of
mortality from them throughout the year, we see from
Diagram 228 that scarlet fever is most prevalent in the
cities in June and least prevalent in the late summer and
early fall, while in the country it is most prevalent in the
late winter and in the spring months.
Diagram 229, relating to the distribution of deaths
from measles throughout the year, shows that the three
spring months— March, April, and May— are those in
which this disease is by far the most prevalent and fatal,
both in the cities and in the rural districts.
Diagram 230 shows relatively to one another the pro­
portion of deaths from diphtheria and croup, showing that
the latter disease is, in the main, confined to children
under 5 years of age, while diphtheria is more prevalent
at greater ages.
Diagram 231 shows the prevalence and mortality of
whooping cough at different times of the year in the cities
and in the rural districts. In the cities it is seen to be
most prevalent in the late summer and late winter, while
in the rural districts it is worse through the spring
months.
Diagram 232 shows that the mortality from typhoid
fever is not greatly different as between the sexes. The
greatest mortality occurs at ages between 15 and 25 years,
and below the age of 10 it is not of great importance.
The distribution of this disease through the year in cities
and rural districts, shown by Diagram 233, indicates that
the greatest mortality is in September, while it is very
prevalent from August to October.
Diarrheal diseases, illustrated by Diagram 234, are
most prevalent in the late summer months.
Diagram 235 shows that the mortality from malarial
fever is quite uniform in both sexes, and that the liability
to it diminishes with increased age. The distribution of
this disease throughout the year is illustrated by Diagram
236, whence it appears that the late summer and early
fall months are those in which it is most prevalent both
in city and country.

PLATE
209. NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM CONSUMPTION PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES.

210. NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM PN EU M O N IA PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES

212. NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM DIPHTHERIA PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES

213. NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM CROUP PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES.

215. NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM CANCER AND TUMOR PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES

216

218.

NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM MALARIAL FEVER PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES.

41

NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM WHOOPING COUGH PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES

219. NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM SCARLET FEVER PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES

l

211. NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM DIARRHEAL DISEASES PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES.

214 NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM TYPHOID FEVER PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES.

217. NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM MEASLES PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES.

220. NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM HEART DISEASE AND DROPSY PER 1000 DEATHS FROM KNOWN CAUSES.

Under A pei' 10 0
O
0

&0 am over
i

J U L IU S B IE N A CO. LIT H N Y

75~

41

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

224. C
omparative Death R ates
Registration A rea ,

by

of

Mates

and

F emales

Conjugal Condition,

with

from

1
5

45 Y ears

to

D istinction

of

of

Color

A ge

and

in

the

G eneral

Nativity : 1 9 .
S 0

MALES.

FEMALES.

CLASS

R a te .

A N D

CONJUGAL

CONDITION
2S

20

R a te .

IS

10

5

5___

IO

S IN G LE .
W H IT E .
F O R E IG N
COLORED.
M A R R IE D .
N A T IV E W H IT E .
F O R E IG N
u
COLORED
W ID O W E D .
N A T IV E W H IT E .
F O R E IG N
<
•
COLORED.
n a t iv e

225. P
roportion
Month ,

of
in

Deaths

the

at

all

A ges,

in

■

E ach

United States : 1 9 .
8 0
228. P
roportion

o'
p

Deaths

from

Scarlet F ever

Districts

o f

the

in

each

Month

in the

C itie s .

226. Proportion

of

Each Month ,

D eath Under 5 Y
in

the

ears

of

A ge

Cities

and in the

R ural

United States : 18 .
90
R u ra l.

in

United States : 1 9 .
S 0

229. Proportion

of

Deaths

from

Measles

in

each

U n it e d

Month

in

the

Cities

and in the

R ural Districts

of

the

States : 18 .
90
R u r a l.

MAR.

C itie s.

227. Proportion
Over

in

each

of

Deaths

Month

in

at

the

60 Y ears

of

A ge

and

United States : 1 9 .
8 0

230. P
roportions

of

Deaths

of

Males,

at each

U n it e d

DIPHTHERIA.
AGE.

A ge,

from

Diphtheria

and from

Croup

in

the

States : 1 9 .
8 0

CROUP.

R ate.
Rate.
yo_ _
|0_
1
__
50
1 5oo 1 Z50 I__2|30 __1>_ __IC0 __ 50 ___:_ __50__ __IC0 _IS0 _2C _2f50_ _3< _
_
— — — " ----__| |__
j
45
1 |_
25-45
b e I__
15-25
1 0 - 1 5 __ _
IZ I
—
■—
——
—- — — — — — — — —
_
5 —10
—
BBB
_
~ b i BEI _
e
4 - *> — ---B
E
3 - 4__ 1
■
__
2-3
■
1 - 2 _ __ ___ _ ___ ___ _ __
_
_
_
__
___
—
— —
0 - __Lj— — — — — — — —
55
mm
M lM i
E 3 t = j 1=3

*

42

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

231. Proportion

of

Deaths

from

W hooping Cough,
Districts

232. Proportions

of

Deaths

of

Males

o f

and of

the

in

each

Month ,

in

Cities

the

and i n

R ural

the

235. P
roportions

of

Deaths

of

Mates

F emales,

a t

each

A ge,

F emales,

and of

United States : 1890.

at each

A ge, from Malarial F ever

from

T yphoid F ever

in the

236. P
roportion

of

Deaths

from

United States : 1890.

Malarial F ever,

Districts

o f

the

in

each

Month,

in the

Cities

of

Deaths

from

T yphoid F ever,

Districts

of the

in

each

Month,

in

the

Cities

and in

the

Rural

237. P
roportions

of

M ales

and of

United States : 1 90
8 .

C itie s .

F emales,

at each

A ge,

m
~~mm
90 +
85 - 9 0
8 0 - 85
75 - 80
70 - 75
6 5 - 70
6 0 - 65
5 5 - 60
5 0 - 55
4 5 - 50
4 0 - 45
35 - 4 0
3 0 - 35
a s - 30
20 - 2 5
15 -2 0
IO — 15
5 — 10
4- 5
3 — 42 - 3
1 — 2
O
1

—

Deaths

from

Diarrheal Diseases,
Districts

C itie s .

from

E rysipelas

in

the

United

R u r a l.

AG E

of

R ural

States : 18 .
90

FE M A LES.

M A LE S .

234. P
roportion

the

R u r a l.

Deaths

of

and in

United States : 1890.

C itie s .

233. P
roportion

in the

United States : 18 .
90

of the

in

each

Month ,

in

the

Cities

and in the

R a t e .
Is
__1
1
__j_
___ _ —
_
1
___
_
_
___
__ _
___
___

t

ram
—1

z q

•

[

1

m

2

i ■ ■
■ r

w~

—

0

R a t e :.

0

—
i g m

■
—

_■ ■ n F O i —

OO

>2

—

—

—

■
1

—

_gg
i

___
1__

gg

|

■
n

_m i

1_
_

i

C Z

r~
1

E Z

m~ B B

J g g f i | jg g | g ^ g g g | H a m g m g g m

___!
.m

___ _ __
_

._
_

im

_m
gm m g

___

_ ___
_ ___

___

S Z
1

1
—

_

i

■

■ III

gj

___

■
—

■

——

1—
m i
H

___

y

1

1
~ m

'

T

—

M

__ __ ___ 1 n

— I
gm s
i

g m jjjg jjg m
1

i im

■ H m

im n gm gm

__
_
,__ ___ __ _ _ _______ __ _

■ s ■

__

R ural

United States : 18 .
90
R u r a l.

238. Proportions

of

Deaths

of

Males

and of

F emales,

at each

States : 1890.

A ge,

from

Consumption i n

the

United

STATISTICAL ATLAS.
Diagram 237, showing the liability of persons of differ­
ent sexes and ages to erysipelas, shows that the liability
to this disease increases with age up to 75 years, and
then rapidly diminishes. On the other hand, young chil­
dren below the age of 5 are also extremely subject to this
disease.
Diagram 238, illustrating the distribution by age and
sex of consumption, show's that up to the age of 15 or 20
there is little liability to this disease; that the greatest
liability is between 20 and 30 years, and from that age
onward the liability diminishes rapidly.

239. P
roportion

Deaths

of

from

Consumption
o f

the

in

U

each

n it e d

M onth

in

the

43

The distribution of deaths from this disease throughout
the year in cities and rural districts, illustrated by Dia­
gram 239, shows that in the cities the deaths are most
numerous in midwinter, while in the country they are
most numerous in the late winter and spring months.
Diagram 240, illustrating the prevalence among the
sexes and at various ages of scrofula and tabes, shows that
among young children these diseases are more common
among the males, but after maturity they become slightly
more common among females, and that the liability to
them diminishes with increasing age.

Cities

and in

the

R ural Districts

243. Proportions

of

Deaths

of

Diagram 241, illustrating similarly the prevalence of
cancer and tumor, shows that this is a disease of old age,
reaching its greatest mortality between 60 and 70 years,
while the proportion of children that suffer from it is
trifling.
Diabetes, also, as shown by Diagram 242, is much more
common among people of advanced age than children or
youths.
Deaths from apoplexy and paralysis are, as appears from
Diagram 243, most common at advanced ages, reaching a
maximum between 70 and 75 years of age.

Males

and of

States : 1890.

F emales, a

t

each

A ge,

from

Apoplexy

and

Paralysis

in

the

United States : 1890,

C itie s .

240. Proportions

of

Deaths

of

Males

and of

U

F emales,

n it e d

at each

A ge,

from

Scrofula

and

T abes

in the

States : 1890.

245. P
roportions

of

Deaths

of

Males

and of

F emales,

at

each

A ge,

from

Bronchitis

in the

United

States : 1 90
8 .

241. P
roportions

of

Deaths

of

Males

and of

U

F emales,

n it e d

at each

A ge,

from

Cancer

and

T umor

in

the

F E M A L E S ,

M A L E S .

States : 1890.
A G E .
E°__

63
60
*5
70
65
bO
65
60

'4 b

30

To

—

mm

+
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

R a t

R a t e .
io

90

■

KJO__ —

Um

■Bm BBj

of

Males

and of

F emales,

at each

States : 1890.

A ge,

from

D iabetes

in

the

United

___ z
—

—

—

—

"""

1 __
_

M

1

'

_ |
_
■

1
___
—

l
D

1
O

D eaths

mm

H Z

JH

—
r~
f
M

■
n r
■ t
1“

_

1
1

~ i
~ 1
— 1
1

■

wr~

—
—
Z J

—

—

P

—

— —

5 S H

of

Deaths

—
" 7

of

—
"

—
■

Males

—

-

5

■

and of

■

■

j
_____

— J

”
■~1

=

s

f 'M

F emales,

— —— —

S

1

at each

States : 1890.
of

—

.

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70
65
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246. P
roportions

242. P
roportions

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90
63

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the

United

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

4 4

very prevalent with children under 1 year of age, but dis­
appear almost entirely as age advances, increasing again
as maturity is reached, and attaining a second maximum
between 60 and 65 years of age.
Diagram 248 shows that the class of diseases therein
treated is vastly more prevalent among mature persons
than children and among men of advanced age far more
than among women.
Diagram 249 shows that Bright’s disease, common to
both sexes, is much more prevalent among men than
women.

Heart disease and dropsy are also diseases of old age,
reaching their maximum, as shown by Diagram 244, be­
tween 60 and 70 years of age.
Bronchitis, as appears from Diagram 245, is a disease
of children, a large proportion of the deaths under 1 year
of age being due to this cause. It is also a disease of old
age, a second maximum of deaths being reached between
70 and 75 years.
Mortality from pneumonia, as appears from Diagram
246, is common at all ages and to both sexes.
Diseases of the liver, as appears from Diagram 247, are

247. Proportions

of

Deaths

of

Mates

and of

F emaees,

at each

Age,

fro m

Diseases

of the

L iver

in

the

250. P
roportion

of

Deaths

from

Diagram 250 shows in the cities the greatest prevalence
of this class of diseases in the late winter and early spring,
while in the rural districts they are more prevalent in the
spring months.
Diagram 251 shows that suicides are more prevalent
among women between the ages of 15 and 25, while among
men they are much more prevalent at a more advanced age.
In the cities there is no marked difference in the number
of suicides at the different times of the year, but in the
country a marked increase is seen in the months of April
and May over any other part of the year, as shown in
Diagram 252.

A ffections

andin the

United States : 1 90
8 .

connected with

R ural Districts

of the

P regnancy,

in

System

and

Organs

249. P
roportions

of

of

Generation ( exclusive

Deaths

of

Males

and of

U

of

F emales,

n it e d

A ge,

from

Bright ’ s Disease)

at each

A ge,

Diseases

in the

from

of the

Urinary

in

the

in the

Cities

2 5 1 . Proportions of Deaths of Males and of F emales, at each A ge, from Suicide in the United

United States : 1890.

Bright ’s Disease

M onth,

R u r a l.

C
ities.

2 4 8 . P roportions of Deaths of Males and of F emales, at each

each

United States: 18 .
90

S

252. P
roportion

of

Deaths

from

tates

S
uicide,

in

ea c h

: 1890.

Month ,

in the

Cities

United States : 18 .
90

States : 18 .
90
C
ities.

R
ural.

and in

the

R ural Districts

of the


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102