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STATISTICAL ATLAS.

51

INDUSTRIES.

The principal industries of the country which are
treated by the Eleventh Census are, in the order of their
importance, manufactures, agriculture, transportation,
mining, and the fisheries. Diagram 273 shows by its
total area the product of these branches of industry. In
manufactures only the net product is represented— that is,
the difference between the value of product and the cost
of material, this difference representing the increase in
value due to the manufacturing processes.
The products of agriculture include the value of all
agricultural products excepting meat. The addition of
meat would involve considerable duplication, inasmuch as
the hay and a large portion of the oats and other grains
which are already included are used in its production.
The products of transportation are taken as the gross
earnings of our railroads and vessels. The mining
products are the spot values at the mines.
A s is seen at a glance, the value of the manufacturing
industry, which in 1880 was less than that of agriculture,
has during the past decade reached and passed it, and is
now much larger. Our mines yield but a small fraction
of our annual income, while our fisheries are too small to
be represented upon the diagram.

2 4 P
7 . roportions

of

I mproved

and

U nimproved L and

in

the

United States : 1850 To 1890.

I860

1850

The proportion of land which is improved or cultivated
in the different states differs widely, as is shown by Dia­
gram 275. Of Illinois and Ohio, more than 70 per cent of
the area is cultivated; of Iowa nearly 70 per cent; of
Indiana, 65 per cent; of Delaware, 61 per cent; of Mary­
land and New York, 54 per cent. In most of the cotton
states of the south the proportion runs between 20 and 30
per cent, while the smallest proportion of cultivated land
is found in the sparsely settled states and territories of
the west.
The small map numbered 276 shows by states the
increase or a decrease in the amount of cultivated land
during the 10 years between 1880 and 1890. In all the
states of the north Atlantic group, without exception, and
in Illinois, there was less cultivated land in 1890 than in
1880. In the other states and territories the amount of
cultivated land increased.
276. G
ain

or

L oss

in

I mproved L and : 1880 to 18 .
90

1880

1870

The total value of our industries is estimated at
$8,535,000,000, which is distributed in the following
proportions among these different branches:
PER CEN T.

A g ricu ltu re...............................................
Manufactures................... .........................
Transportation...........................................
Mining ........................................

273. Relative V alue

of

the

I ndustries

o f the

28
52
I2
8

United States : 1 90
8 .

275. P
ercentage

of

I mproved L and

in the

T otal A rea ,

[P er cent.]
STATES.
IL L IN O IS
O H IO
IO W A
IN D IA N A
DELAW ARE
M ARYLAN D
NEW YO RK
KENTUCKY
P E N N S Y L V A N IA
VERM ONT
M IS S O U R I
C O N N E C T IC U T
K AN SAS
NEW JER SEY
RH ODE IS L A N D
V IR G IN IA
TEN N ESSEE
M ASSACH U SETTS
N EBRASKA
N E W H A M P S H IR E
W E ST V IR G IN IA

A G R IC U L T U R E .

W IS C O N S IN

This branch of industry is, in the number of persons
which it employs and supports and in the amount of
capital invested in it, the most important. In the value
of its product it is secondary to manufactures.
Of the area of the country about one-third is included
in farms. This farm land is again grouped as improved
and unimproved, the improved being the cultivated por­
tion, the unimproved being that devoted to pasturage and
timber purposes. The cultivated or improved land com­
prised in 1890 a little more than one-sixth the area of the
country. The proportion which it has borne to the total
area of the country at different times since 1850 is shown
by Diagram 274. In each case the area of the circle repre­
sents the area of the country, and the proportional extent
of the improved land is shown by the size of the sector
thus marked.

M IC H IG A N

SO U TH C A R O L IN A
D IS T . O F COL.
G E O R G IA
N O R T H C A R O L IN A
ALABAM A
M IS S IS S IP P I
M IN N E S O T A

j

ARKAN SAS
M A IN E

j SO UTH D A K O T A
1L O U I S I A N A
C A L IF O R N IA
TEXAS
N ORTH D A K O T A
OREGON
W A S H IN G T O N
F L O R ID A
COLORADO
OKLAH O M A
ID A H O
UTAH
NEVADA
M O NTANA
W Y O M IN G
N E W M E X IC O
A R IZ O N A

by

States

and

T erritories : 18 .
90

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

5 2

The number of farms, which was in 1850 but 1,500,00x3,
has increased to 4,600,000 in 1890. This increase has
been somewhat regular, as shown by Diagram 277. The
average size of farms has diminished during the past 40
)T
ears from a trifle over 200 acres to 137 acres, as is shown
by Diagram 278. During the past decade the average size
has increased from 134 to 137 acres.

279. A
verage Size

of

F arms,

by

States

an d

Territories : 1 9 .
8 0

[A c r e s .]
STA TES.
NEVADA

A R IZ O N A

W Y O M IN G
C A L IF O R N IA
277. Number

Farms : 1850 to 1 9 .
8 0

o f

M ONTANA
COLORADO

[M illio n s .]

NORTH DAKOTA
OREGON
W A S H IN G T O N
SOUTH D A K O TA
TEXAS
ID A H O
NEBRA SK A
OKLAHOM A
K A N SA S
N E W M E X IC O
M IN N E S O T A
IO W A
V IR G IN IA
G E O R G IA
278. A
verage Size

of

Farms : 1850 to 1 9 .
8 0

W EST V IR G IN IA
L O U IS IA N A

[H u n d r e d s o f a c r e s .]

1

VERM ONT
M IS S O U R I
N O R T H C A R O L IN A
IL L IN O IS
ALABAM A
UTAH
M IS S IS S IP P I
M ARYLAND
ARKANSAS
KENTUCKY
N E W H A M P S H IR E
TEN N ESSEE
W IS C O N S IN

The average size differs widely in different states, being
generally greatest in the new, sparsely settled states of the
west and smallest in the northeastern states, where popu­
lation is dense and where much of the farming takes on
the character of market gardening. The average size of
farms is shown by states by Diagram 279.
The value of farms, farm implements, and machinery—
in other words, farming capital— is shown by Diagram 280.
It appears that in 1850 it amounted to about three and a
half billions, and it has increased until in 1890 it amounted
to thirteen and eight-tenths billions of dollars. In 1850
nearly one-half the wealth of the country was invested in
agriculture. In 1890 only a little more than one-fifth of
it was thus invested.

280. Value

o f

F

arm

Im

plem en ts

an d

M

a c h in e r y

: 1850 To 18 .
90

[B illio n 8 o f d o lla r s .]

The average value of farms at different times is shown
by Diagram 281. It appears that this average value
increased from 1850 to i860; then it diminished during
two decades, and during the last decade has increased
again.

281. A
verage V

alue

o f

Farms : 1850 to

3 9 .
8 0
[T h o u s a n d s o f d o lla rs .]

1

2

3

S O U T H C A R O L IN A
DELAW ARE
F L O R ID A
IN D IA N A
M A IN E
N E W YORK
O H IO
P E N N S Y L V A N IA
M ASSA CH USETTS
C O N N E C T IC U T
N EW JE R SE Y
M IC H IG A N
R H O D E IS L A N D
D IS T . O F COL.

There are three forms of farm holdings in vogue in this
country. First, ownership by the occupant. A s shown
by Diagram 282, somewhat more than seven-tenths of
the farms of the country are owned by their occupants.
Second, rented for fixed money rental. One-tenth of the
farms of the country are of this class, and third, rented
for a share of the crop, in which class are one-fifth of
the farms. The distribution of these several forms of
holdings among the states is shown by Diagram 283,
where, out of every 100 farms in each state and territor}-,
the number which are owned is shown by the white
space, those which are rented for money are shown by
the black space, and those which are rented for a share
of the crop are shown by the shaded space.
In the far western states and territories and in the
northern states, ownership by the occupant is most
general, while in the southern states the renting of farms
is more prevalent than elsewhere. In the cotton states
generally nearly half the farms are rented either for
money or on shares.
Diagram 284 shows the average value of the farm
product per acre of improved land, the length of the bar
indicating the value in dollars. The highest value is seen
to be in the northeastern states, where market gardening
is most extensively carried on. Next are certain of the
cotton states, while low down in the column are the great
wheat and corn states, where the farms are large and
where profits are obtained, not by high cultivation, but by
cultivating large areas of land by wholesale methods and
with the utmost economy of labor.

282. C
haracter

CULTIVATED

REN TED

RENTED

FOR

of

F arm H oldings: 1 9 .
8 0

BY

OW NERS

T O R

M O N E Y

5HARE

OF PRODUCT

53

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

2S
4. A
verage V alue
283. C
haracter
o f

of

Farm Holdings, Expressed
T otal N umber

the

of

o f

Farm P roducts

per

A cre

of

I mproved L and ,

by

States

and

T erritories : 1 9 .
8 0

Percentages

in

D
ollars.

H oldings.

By States an Territories: .
d
1890
10

STATES.
OKLAHOMA

z
y

SO

20

50

40

20

60

90

80-

□
Z J

j

_

WYOMING

1

NEW MEXICO

i f

IDAHO

H

MONTANA

I F

UTAH

X

MAINE

X

NORTH DAKOTA

i n

NEVADA

X

ARIZONA

X

NEW HAMPSHIRE

m

WASHINGTON

1 1

MASSACHUSETTS

K

CO
LO
RAD
O

B .J
__J

WISCONSIN

______
1

CONNECTICUT

f

_

1 __

B U

O
REG N
O
! MINNESOTA

Z

m

l l

J

.

SOUTH DAKOTA

1
i

MICHIGAN

!

m
_

VERMONT
WEST VIRGINIA

m

J
H

■
~

i l

M

1

CALIFORNIA
RHODE ISLAND

_____

NEW YORK

§

W % b.

O
HIO

b

h

W M ,

PENNSYLVANIA
FLORIDA

W M .
I

NEBRASKA

W /M -,
1

KENTUCKY
T

INDIANA

Z m

MISSOURI

M

k

. Z H

k

I

1

VIRGINIA

D

I S H
1

NEW JERSEY
l

1IOWA

■

B

TENNESSEE

< 1 1

m

KANSAS

i n

T

MARYLAND

^ ^ 1
[

ARKANSAS

■

ILLINOIS

■

f

1
1

DIST. OF C L.
O

\

I I
n

TEXAS
LOUISIANA

1

i

DELAWARE

z
z

B ’______
■

■

' T

■
±

ALABAMA

_

II

1

*

1
r

MISSISSIPPI

*
1

1

1

1

GEORGIA

1
■

~

: "

1
*

2]

Cultivated by ow
ners.
Rented for sh
are in produ
ct.

B Rented for m ey.
on

Map 285, plate 44, shows the average size of farms in
different parts of the country, the county being used as
the unit of computation. T he great farms are found
mainly in the far west, in western Texas, Montana,
Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Idaho, and California,
and the smallest are found in the northeastern part of the
country.
Map 286, plate 44, shows the proportion which the
improved land bears to the total area in various parts of
the country. This proportion is greatest in the upper part
of the Mississippi valley, in parts of the states of Ohio,
Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska, where more than

three-fourths of the land is under cultivation. In the
greater part of these states, together with New York, Indi­
ana, southern Michigan, and Wisconsin and southeastern
Minnesota, together with areas in other northern states,
more than one-half is under cultivation. Areas in which
between a fourth and a half of the land is under cultivation
are scattered widely over the country, but principally in
the cotton states. In the far west but a small proportion
is under cultivation, in most of this area the proportion
being less than 10 per cent.
Map 287, plate 45, shows the value in dollars of the farm
products per acre of land cultivated. The highest value
is found in the neighborhood of the great cities, where the
land is largely devoted to market gardening; in Florida
and on the Gulf coast generally, where it is devoted
to fruits and sugar, and in southern California and in
Arizona, where fruits are largely cultivated. On the

other hand, the low values are found upon the plains,
where the farms are, in the main, devoted to the cultivation
of wheat and corn by wholesale methods.
Map 288, plate 45, shows the value of farm products as
compared with the total area, county by county. This
map differs in some respects materially from the last,
owing to the fact that it takes no account of the proportion
which the cultivated land bears to the total area. Here
the highest values are, as before, obtained from market
gardens in the neighborhood of the great cities. N ext to
that the highest values are obtained in the northern part
of the Mississippi valley and in the Lake states, where so
large a proportion of the laud is under cultivation. There
are high values obtained also in certain parts of the cotton
states. On the other hand, low values are obtained in the
far west, where but a small proportion of the land is under
cultivation.

54

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

W H EAT.
289. P
roduction

Diagram 289 shows the production of wheat in those
states ill which wheat is a crop of importance. It is seen
that Minnesota is the greatest wheat producer, followed
by California, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio in the order
named.
The average yield’ of wheat per acre devoted to that
crop is shown by Diagram 290, where it is seen that while
the average yield for the country is about 15 bushels per
acre that of Kansas exceeds 19 and New York 18, while
many states show an average yield between 14 and 17
bushels.
Map 291, plate 46, shows the production of wheat as
compared with the total area, county by county. This
map shows the importance of various regions as wheat
producers. From this we see that the upper Mississippi
valley and the southern parts of the Lake states, with
the Dakotas, constitute the principal wheat region of the
country; that in the northeastern, the southern, and
the far western states, excepting those on the Pacific
coast, the wheat crop is of little importance.
Map 292, plate 46, shows the distribution of wheat
production with relation to improved land. This map
expresses the relation which the cultivation of wheat bears
to that of all other crops. Here the deepest tint is seen
to be in the Dakotas and western Minnesota, and in the
great valley of California, besides scattered patches else­
where. Next to this, it is of greatest importance in
southeastern Pennsylvania, northern Maryland, Ohio,
Indiana, southern Michigan, Wisconsin, Missouri and in
certain parts of the Rocky Mountain region.
Map 293, plate 46, shows the average yield of wheat
per acre cultivated in that crop. The highest yield is in
certain parts of the Rocky Mountain region, where irriga­
tion is practiced, and on the Pacific coast, in Washington
and Oregon. A low yield is found in the Dakotas, where
land is cheap and where wholesale methods of cultivation
are employed.
Map 294, plate 46, shows the relation of the wheat
product to the population, expressed in the form of bushels
to the inhabitant. In this map the greatest production
per inhabitant is seen to occur in the Dakotas and Minne­
sota, in certain parts of the Rocky Mountain region and
in the great valley of California, while in the northeastern
and southern states the product per inhabitant is very
small, being much less than the needs of the population.

CO RN .

Diagram 295 shows the corn product of all the principal
corn producing states. In this product Iowa leads, followed
closely by Illinois, then Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri.
Diagram 296 shows the average yield of com per acre
by states. Iowa not only produced the most com, but its
yield per acre was greater than that of any other state,
followed by Nebraska, Illinois, Ohio, Kansas, etc., the yield
per acre being high in the northern states and low in the
southern states.
Map 297, plate 47, shows the yield per square mile of
Indian com by counties. It is a measure of the absolute
production in various parts of the country. W hile corn
is cultivated very generally in the United States from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Gulf to the Great
Lakes, its cultivation is of the greatest importance through­
out a broad belt running across Indiana, Illinois, Iowa,
Kansas, and Nebraska.
Map 298, plate 47, shows the production of Indian corn
compared with the extent of improved land. The results
presented by this map are quite similar to those preceding.
The region in which com is a crop of the greatest impor­
tance in proportion to other crops occupies the middle of
the Mississippi valley, extending from West Virginia and
eastern Ohio to western Kansas and Nebraska, and from
northern Mississippi and Alabama to southern Michigan,
Wisconsin, and Minnesota.

or

W heat ,

bv

States

an d

Territories : 1 9 .
S 0

[M
illions of bu els.]
sh

296. A
verage Y ield

of

Corn

per

[B ushels.]

290. A
verage Y ield

of

Wheat

States: 1890.

per

A cre,

by

A cre,

b y

S tates : 1 90
8 .