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STATISTICAL ATLAS. 36 DEFECTIVE, D EPEN D EN T, AND D E L I N Q U E N T CLASSES. PR ISO N E R S. The prisoners of the United States numbered in 1890, 82,329, or 13 out of every 10,000 of the total population. Their distribution as regards sex is shown in Diagram 179, where it appears that 92 per cent are males and only 8 per cent females. Their classification by race and nativity is shown upon Diagram 180. Twenty-seven per cent of the whole number were native whites of native parentage, 20 per cent were native whites of foreign par entage, 21 per cent foreign whites, and 32 per cent were colored. The places of confinement are shown in Dia gram 181, from which it appears that 55 per cent of them were confined in penitentiaries, 24 per cent in county jails 12 per cent in workhouses, and the remainder were scattering, of which 4 per cent were confined in city pris ons, 3 per cent were leased out, and 1 per cent each were in military prisons and in insane hospitals. Diagram 182 shows the character of the offenses for which they were confined, showing that 46 per cent of these offenses were against property, 23 per cent against society, 21 per cent against the person, and the remainder were for miscel laneous offenses. The numbers of each race and nativity when reduced to proportions of the total population of each class, are shown in Diagram 183, where it seems that the native white pris oners of native parentage were but 6 out of every 10,000 of the native white inhabitants of native parentage. The native white prisoners of foreign parentage were 14, the foreign white were 17, and the colored no less than 33 out of every 10,000. In other words, the native whites of foreign parentage were two and one-third times as numer ous in proportion to their numbers as the native whites of native parentage, the foreign white were nearly three times as numerous, and the colored were five and one-half times as numerous. J U V E N IL E D E LIN Q U E N TS. This class, confined in reformatory institutions, num bered in 1890, 14,846, of which, as appears by Diagram 184, 78 per cent were males and 22 percent females. Their distribution as to race and nativity is shown in Diagram 185, from which it appears that 22 per cent were native whites of native parentage, 33 per cent native whites of foreign parentage, 9 per cent were foreign white, and 13 per cent were colored. P A U P E R S IN A LM SH O U SES. The number of paupers in almshouses in 1890 was 73,045, or 12 out of every 10,000 inhabitants. Of these, 56 per cent were males and 44 per cent females, as appears by Diagram 186. Their distribution as to race and nativity is shown by Diagram 187, where it appears that 30 per cent were native whites of native parentage, 23 per cent native whites of foreign parentage, 38 per cent were foreign white, and 9 per cent were colored. Reducing the numbers in these several classes to per centages of the total number of inhabitants of each class, it appears that out of every 10,000 native whites of native parentage 8 were paupers. Similarly, 9 out of every 10,000 native whites of foreign parentage were paupers, 31 of the foreign white, and 9 of the colored. These are set forth in Diagram 188. IN SAN E. The total number of insane in the United States in 1890 was 106,485, or 17 out of every 10,000 inhabitants. These were almost equally destributed between the sexes, as appears by Diagram 189. The next diagram, 190, shows their distribution as to race and nativity. Ninetyfour per cent of them were white and but 6 per cent colored; 62 per cent of the whole number were native whites and 32 per cent were foreign whites. Reducing the numbers of these classes to proportions of the total number of inhabitants of each class, it appears that of all the white inhabitants of the country 19 out of every 10,000 whites were insane and 9 out of every 10,000 colored. Of the native whites, 14 out of every 10,000 and 39 out of every 10,000 of the foreign born were insane. If these statistics are correct and complete, in sanity is less prevalent among the colored and far more prevalent among the foreign bom than among the native whites. Diagram 191 illustrates the tendency toward insanity among people of different nationalities. It represents the number of insane persons in every 100,000 of those whose parents were bom in certain foreign countries. The tendency toward insanity is greatest among the Irish, and next among the Hungarians. It is compara tively small among the Germans and British, and least of all among the Canadians. Diagram 192 shows the distribution of the insane by age and sex in percentages of the total number of the insane. It appears that insanity is about equally divided between the sexes, but that it is slightly more prevalent in the early adult ages among men than among women and later in life among women than men. The largest proportion of the insane is found among men between the ages of 30 and 40, and among women between 40 and 45. J uvenile Delinquents. Prisoners. 184. 185. By sex. By color and general nativity. NATIVE WHITE'OF NATIVE PARENTS MALE NATIVE WHITE OF FOREIGN PARENTS * FOREIGN W H IT E COLORED UNKNOWN FEMALE Paupers 181. By places of con em t. fin en 182. in A lmshouses . 187. By classes of offen ses. By color an general nativity. d N A T I V E W H IT E OF NATIVE PARENTS P E N IT E N T IA R IE S A G A I N S T PROPERTY NATIVE W H I T E OF FOREIGN PARENTS AGAINST SO C IETY COUNTY J A I L S FOREIGN WHITE WORK HOUSES OTHER PLACES AGAINST T H E PERSON OTHER C OLOR ED 188. Number op Paupers in each 10,000 P ersons : 18 90 . 37 STATISTICAL ATLAS. F f ekee Minded. . I nsane. 194. By color an general nativity. il N A T IV E W H IT E FOREIGN W H IT E COLORED 1 1 N 9 . umber of I nsane in each ico. o Persons having o o Parents Born 1 5 Number 9 . in the Persons Specified Countries : 1890. of F eeble M inded having P arents Born in in each the 100,000 Specified Countries : 18 . 90 Parents born in— Parents born in— [O IRELAND HUNGARY HUNGARY FRANCE RUSSIA IRELAND SCANDINAVIA GERMANY BOHEMIA GREAT BRITAIN FRANCE CANADA ITALY RUSSIA GERMANY BOHEMIA GREAT BRITAIN SCANDINAVIA CANADA ITALY 192. Insane, by A ge and Sex : 18 . 90 1 6 F 9 4 eeble M inded, FEEBLE-M IN D ED . The number of feeble-minded or idiotic reported by the census of 1890 was 95,609, or 15 out of every 10,000 inhabitants. Of these, 55 per cent were males and 45 per cent were females, as appears on Diagram 193. Their distribution as regards race and nativity is shown in Dia gram 194, where it appears that 89 per cent were white and 14 per cent were colored, 79 per cent were native whites and 10 per cent were foreign whites. Reducing the numbers in the above classes to propor tions of the total population of each class, it appears that of every 10,000 white inhabitants 16 were feeble-minded, and of every 10,000 of the colored 14 were similarly afflicted. Of the native whites, the corresponding num bers were 17, and of the foreign whites 10, which shows, if the figures are to be trusted, that idiocy is more com mon among the native whites than among the colored or foreign whites, and least of all among the foreign whites. The explanation of this is most probably to he found in the fact that idiocy was more fully reported by the native whites than by these other two classes. Diagram 195 illustrates the tendency toward idiocy among the people of different nationalities. The number of idiots among 100,000 persons whose parents were born in the countries represented in the diagram is indicated by the length of the black bar. It appears that the tendency toward idiocy is far greater among the Hungarians than the natives of any other of these countries, and is least among the Italians. Diagram 196 shows the prevalence of idiocy at different ages and sexes, expressed as percentages of the total number of idiots. From this it appears it is more prev alent among males than among females, that it is more prevalent between the ages of 15 and 25 than at other ages, and that below these ages it is much less prevalent. D E A F A N D DUMB. The number of the deaf and dumb, as reported by the Eleventh Census, was 40,592, or 7 out of every 10,000 inhabitants. This number was distributed among the sexes in the proportion of 55 per cent males and 45 per cent females, as appears in Diagram 197. Their classifi cation by race and nativity is shown in Diagram 198, where it appears that 92 per cent of them were white and 8 per cent colored, 82 per cent native white and 10 per cent foreign white. by A ge and Se x ! 1890. Reducing the nufnbers of these classes to proportions of the total number of inhabitants of each class, it appears that among the whites 7, among the native whites 7, among the foreign whites 5, and among the colored 4 out of every 10,000 of these classes were thus afflicted. These are set forth in Diagram 199. Diagram 200 shows the proportion which the number of deaf and dumb of the different nationalities bears to the total number of that nationality. The diagram represents not only those bom in other countries, but those whose parents were bom in other countries. It shows that out of every 100,000 persons in the country whose parents were bom in Hungary, 140 were deaf and dumb. This, as in the case of the feeble-minded, is a much larger pro portion than of the natives of any other country. The next in rank are the Russians, while the Irish, Scandina vians, British, and Italians are but little subject to this affliction. Diagram 201 shows the distribution of the deaf and dumb by age and sex, expressed by percentages of the total number of deaf and dumb. It appears that this imperfection is more common among males than among females, and that it is most prevalent between 15 and 20 years of age. 38 STATISTICAL ATLAS. Deaf 197. and Dumb. BLIND. By sex. 198. By color an general nativity. d M ALES N A T IV E W H I T E F EM A LE 5 FOREIGN W H IT E C OLOR ED 199. N umber of Deaf and D umb in each The number of blind reported in 1890 was 50,568, or 8 out of every 10,000 of the total population. Of these, 55 per cent were males and 45 per cent were females, as appears on Diagram 202. Diagram 203 shows the number of blind in 100,000 among those whose parents were born in certain foreign countries. This affliction seems to be most prevalent among those of Hungarians, Irish, and French origin, and least among those of Bohemian, Scandinavian, and Italian origin. Diagram 204 represents the distribution of the blind by age and sex in percentages of the whole number of blind. It appears that among males blindness is more preva lent than among females, especially at the younger ages. Furthermore, the greater proportion of the blind are of advanced age, the greatest percentage being among the males at 70 to 75 years, and among the females from 70 to 80 years. 10,000 Persons : 18 . 90 200. N umber Persons fied of Deaf having and Dumb in P arents Born each in the 100,000 Speci Countries : 1890. 203. Number of Bt ind . P arents having in 100,000 Persons each B orn in the Countries : 1 9 . 8 0 Parents born in— jo IRELAND FRANCE lllliiiii HUNGARY GREAT BRITAIN CANADA GERMANY BOHEMIA SCANDINAVIA ITALY 204. B l in d , bv A ge a n d Sex : 1890. 1 0 0 S pecified