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V —M o r t a l i t y


YEARS.............................................................Plate 40

M EASLES................. Plate 45

R a t io o f D e a th s to A g g r e g a t e D e a th s.

R a t io o f T o ta l to A g g r e g a t e D e a th s.




A m o n g N a tiv e W h i t e M a le s , b y A g e s .

R a t io o f D e a th s to A g g r e g a t e D e a th s .

EASES .............................................................Plate 42

D e a th s fro m S e le c te d D is e a se s , b y S ta te s.

R a t io o f D e a th s to A g g r e g a t e D e a th s .


DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.............. Plate 43

SEXES)................................................... Plates 48-49

R a tio o f D e a th s to A g g r e g a t e D e a th s .


SCARLET FEVER............Plate 44

P r in c ip a l C a u s e s o f D e a th , b y Y e a r s o f In s u ra n c e .
A m e r ic a n a n d E n g lis h E x p e r ie n c e .

R a t io o f D e a th s to A g g r e g a t e D e a th s.

I l l G e n e r a l . — The total number of deaths

In the states of New Jersey and Massa­

reported by the Tenth Census, as occurring in

chusetts, in the District of Columbia, and in

the country during the year 1880, was 756,893,


making the death rate 15.1 in 1,000.


In 1870

DEATH RATE. . . Plate 46

cities of Baltimore,



the death rate shown by the reported number

Indianapolis, Louisville,

of deaths was 12.8, and in i860 it was 12.5.


T h is apparent increase in the death rate is due


simply to the fact that more effective measures

St. Louis,




New Orleans, New York, Phila­

among colored infants, that of colored adults
being only slightly in excess of the whites.
The death rate among males was slightly
greater than among females.



For every 1,000




deaths; showing a male death rate of 15.35


and a female death rate of 14.81 per thousand.

San Francisco and Wilmington,

This excess is probably .due, however, to the

were taken for securing full returns than by

registers of deaths are kept, which are pre­

greater number of unreported deaths of females.

preceding censuses.

sumably quite full and accurate.




O f the total number of deaths among males

According to

these returns with those of the enumerators,

whose ages were reported, those at less than

the estimate of Dr. J. S. Billings, under whose

Dr. Billings has arrived at the conclusion that

one year of age formed 24.80 per cent., while

direction the reports were compiled, not over

the actual average death rate in this country,

the deaths of females less than one year of

70 per cent, of the total number of deaths were

in 1880, was certainly between 17 and

age formed but 21.54 per cent, of the whole

reported. The deficiencies are probably greatest


in the more sparsely settled regions, and in the

18.2 per thousand.

H e contrasts this with

deaths of males under five years of age were

Southern states; they are doubtless greater

the death

England, 20.5,


41.95 per cent, of all male deaths, while the

among the colored race than among whites,

Scotland, 21.3 per thousand.

The reason for

deaths of females under five years were but

among females than among

males, among

the smaller annual death rate in this country

foreigners than

among infants

may be found in the abundance, cheapness

The returns for 1880 were,

however, still far from complete.

natives, and

The statistics of mortality reported by this
census are, of course, inadequate for such
purposes as forming life-tables, in which the












38.19 per cent, of all female deaths.
O f the whole number of deaths concerning


which the age at death was reported, 8.76 per

obtainable, and in the fact that the population

cent, were between the ages of five and fifteen;

is not overcrowded.

29.96 per cent, were between fifteen and sixty,


than adults.





of food

O f the whites, the death rate per thousand

and 17.24 per cent, over sixty.


was 14.74, according to the census returns.

comparative purposes, however, as illustrating

That of the colored race was decidedly greater,

T h e P lates .— The

the relative proportions of deaths by different

being not less than 17.28 per thousand.


40 to 45, inclusive, have been constructed on a

diseases, the relative prevalence of


the omissions were, doubtless, much greater in

plan different from that elsewhere employed in

diseases in different sections of the country,

the case of the colored than the white element,

the charts.

the relative mortality of the white and colored

the actual death rate would show a still greater


races, etc., they are of the greatest value,

disparity between the two classes.

one another in topography, climate and other

although the results are affected, to a minor

proportion of deaths among the colored race

conditions affecting mortality.

extent, by the omissions above mentioned.

is accounted for mainly by the great mortality

are sub-divided by state lines, and the divisions


number of deaths

is required.

The higher

maps given on Plates

The country has been divided into

characteristic regions, differing from
These regions



of the states, resulting therefrom, 111 in num­

most of which is yet unsettled, a Mississippi

settled, have the largest proportion of urban

ber, have been used as the units of the maps.

river belt, a small area lying between the two

population, and in this section the comforts and

just mentioned, together with the prairie region

refinements of civilization are most widely

Massachusetts and Connecticut are each divided

in the southwestern part of the state.


into two parts: that adjacent to the Atlantic

consists of narrow strips along the Mississippi


coast and the hilly or mountainous interior.

and Missouri rivers, with a large interior of

country, but this fact is sufficient to account

Vermont lies entirely in the hilly region, while


for only a very small part of the difference in

Rhode Island is wholly in the region subjected

strips bordering its two great rivers, a prairie

the rate of infantile mortality.

to direct oceanic influences.

region in the northern part and a timbered,

at hand corroborate the general law, that the

New Y ork has five sub-divisions, as follows:

broken country in the southern part of the state.

higher the degree of civilization the less the

A small area in the southeast corner, adjacent

Dakota and Nebraska contain, together with

birth rate, and the smaller the mortality among

to the coast, the Catskill and the Adirondack

the narrow strip along the Missouri, a prairie

regions, the more or less hilly interior, and the

region on the east, and a portion of the Great

The greater mortality among the young in

portion bordering Lakes Erie and Ontario.

Plains on the west, while Kansas is divided

the Southern states, is doubtless due in part to

Pennsylvania has three sections: that of the

between the last two named regions.

the preponderance of the colored element in the

Appalachians, in the middle of the state, with

comprises a coast section, an interior largely


the plateau and hill country on either side,

covered with forests, and the western portion

complete returns from this class, the number of

forming the eastern and western divisions.

of the state which corresponds to the western

deaths is probably understated.

New Jersey and Maryland have each a coast

sections of Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas.

The states of


New Hampshire,

and a mountainous section, while Delaware

the District of Columbia are



In Missouri there are, besides the


families is less

than elsewhere in the

A ll the facts

the young.

Owing to the difficulty of getting

The high ratio of infantile mortality in

The areas of Montana, W yoming, Colorado

It is true that here the average size

New Mexico, are divided between the

Utah is worthy of note, in connection with the
practice of polygamy.

In most of the other

Great Plains and the Cordilleran mountain

within the coast region.
The states of Virginia, North and South

territories and W estern states the proportion is


low, manifestly because of the small proportion

T o the latter belong also the entire

which children bear to the total population.

Carolina, Georgia and Alabama are each divided

areas of Idaho, Utah, Nevada and Arizona,

into three sections, comprising the low, and

with the eastern parts of California, Oregon

largely swampy coast, the hilly or mountainous

and Washington Territory.

portion, and the plain or plateau lying between

region includes the western parts of the three

D eaths fro m D ifferent Classes of
Diseases.— O f the total number of deaths


last named.

reported by the Census, the cause of death was

Florida as a whole belongs to the coast


Mississippi and Louisiana also are



The Pacific coast




given in 733,840 cases.

The following table

divided into three sections: the coast, the allu­

without direct reference to the prevalence of


vial lands of the Mississippi, and the upland

particular diseases, may or may not coincide

principal diseases, or groups of diseases, with


with areas of different shades of color.

the proportion which each bears to the total

Arkansas comprises the upland plains


number of deaths




.! S

In Tennessee there are five areas, compris­

the series of maps on Plates 41 to 45 inclusive,

ing the mountain region in the east, the central

which treat of the relative prevalence of princi­

basin-like area, the plateau in the western part

pal diseases, as shown by the census returns;

of the state, and a narrow strip of alluvial land

hence a given shade indicates on all these

on the Mississippi.

Kentucky has four sec­

maps the same proportion of the total deaths.

tions : the mountain region in the east, the

A deep shade, indicating a high proportion

central region of rolling, hilly country, and the
strips along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
W est Virginia comprises two sections: that of

number of deaths, of which the causes were—reported:
N umber of
D eaths .

C auses .

D is e a s e s o f th e r e s p ir a t o r y s y s t e m .............

10 7 ,9 0 4

P ercentage
of all

D eaths .
1 4 .7 0


The scale of color is the same throughout


and the alluvial lands bordering the Mississippi.

C o n s u m p t io n ..............................................................

9 I ,5 5 I

D is e a s e s o f th e n e r v o u s s y s t e m .....................

8 3 ,6 70

1 1 .4 0

of deaths, does not, however, necessarily imply

D ia r r h e a l d i s e a s e s ..................................................

6 5 ,5 6 5

8 .9 4

that a locality is especially favorable to the

D i p h t h e r i a ....................................................................

3 8 ,3 9 8

5 -2 3

prevalence of the disease.

D is e a s e s o f th e d ig e s t i v e s y s t e m ..................

3 4 ,0 9 4

4 .6 4

E n t e r i c f e v e r ..............................................................



It may indicate, on

the mountains and that bordering the Ohio

the contrary, that, on account of its real or

S c a r le t f e v e r ...............................................................

1 6 ,4 1 6

2 . 24


fancied healthfulness, the region is one fre­

W h o o p in g c o u g h ....................................................


!- 5 3

quented by invalids beyond recovery, whose

M e a s l e s .........................................................................

8 ,7 7 2




Indiana are sub-divided


three areas: that bordering on Lake Erie and

deaths unduly swell the proportion.

Lake Michigan, that of the Ohio valley, and a

noticeably the case with the California coast

Deaths from diseases of the respiratory

middle region which is level or rolling, in the

region, and parts of Minnesota, which have

organs were much less prevalent along the

latter state approaching the character of prairie.

been much sought by consumptives.

coast than in the interior of the country,

This is

Illinois is similarly divided into a lake region

showing that the uniform climatical conditions,

and a Mississippi river belt, with a larger cen­

M o r t a lit y o f In fa n ts .— The


induced by the presence of large bodies of

tral section of prairie.

upon Plate 40, show the proportion which the

water, are favorable to immunity from this

Michigan contains two areas, one bordering

deaths under the ages of one and of five years

class of diseases, while the extremes of a

on the lakes, and a heavily-timbered interior

respectively bear to the total deaths. It appears

continental climate are correspondingly un­


Wisconsin has, besides two areas

that the proportion of deaths in the earlier years

favorable. These affections were very prevalent

corresponding to those of Michigan, a prairie

is very much smaller in the northern than in


region in the southern part, and a narrow belt

the southern

Mississippi valley.

along the Mississippi.* Minnesota has four sec­

decidedly the smallest in the North Atlantic

Cordilleran region, in the Pacific states, and

tions: the heavily-timbered northern portion,

group of states.

especially in the coast region of California,

part of the

country, and


These are the most densely





parts of the

In the higher parts of the

the large

distributed over the country with great uni­

least mortality was in Rhode Island, w h ere,

troubles is doubtless due to the number of


only 0.02 per cent, of all deaths were chargeable

invalids, suffering from such diseases, who

to the total deaths reported, which was, in the

have resorted to these sections in the vain

country at large, 4.64 per cent., ranged among

One very important practical point has been

hope of recovery.

the different states only from 2.8 per cent, in

brought out forcibly by Dr. Billings’ discussion


Vermont, to 6.27 per cent, in South Carolina.

of these statistics.

The disease

W ith scarcely an exception, it was greatest in

due to blood poisoning, such as diphtheria and

was also very prevalent in New York, southern

the Southern states, owing to some extent to

enteric and malarial fevers, the mortality is

Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee. The Southern

the climate, and largely to disregard of proper

decidedly less in the large, well-sewered cities,

states, with the exception of the two above

diet and the prevalence of rude cookery.

which have general systems of water supply,


proportion of deaths from lung



region primarily most affected

consumption was New England.

The ratio of deaths from this cause

to this disease.

In the case of all diseases

Typhoid fevers appear to have been least

than in the rural districts and small towns

prevalent in the North Atlantic states, showing

where water is obtained from wells, and where

Diseases of the nervous system were most

that the attention given to drainage, sewerage,

excreta are stored in cess-pools and vaults.

prevalent in the North Atlantic states and in

etc., offsets the ill-effects which follow the

Thus, in the lake region, in the cities, 7.82 per

Ohio, where they accompany the large urban


In the South

cent, of all deaths were from diphtheria, while

population, the close settlement, and the pre­

Atlantic region, and in the Mississippi valley,

in the rural districts and small towns 8.41 per

ponderance of professional employments and

the disease was more prominent.

cent, w e r' due to this disease.

of manufactures.

Under these conditions the

speaking, it was less prevalent in the northern

enteric fever, in the same region, the corre­

struggle for a livelihood is more intense than

than in the southern parts of the country, a

sponding proportions were 1.72 and 2.73; in

in agricultural sections, and the result of the

warm climate appearing to be more favorable

the North Atlantic region, 1.63 and 2.00, and

greater wear of the nervous system is plainly

for its development than a cold one.

in the Gulf coast region 0.77 and 3.00 per cent.

mentioned, were comparatively exempt from
this scourge.

of population.


In the case of



These diseases are prevalent in a

Scarlet fever, so common and so fatal

secondary degree in the central part of the

among children, was confined in its range

quite as striking.

Mississippi valley, from the Gulf coast to the

almost entirely to the Northern states, where,

portions were 0.83 and 1.12; in the North

great lakes, and along the South Atlantic

as in the case of diphtheria, the facilities for

Atlantic region, 0.30 and 0.54, and on the Gulf

coast, as well as throughout California and

spreading, consequent upon dense settlement

coast 4.48 and 7.76 per cent.

western Oregon.

and more general intercommunication, are very

The proportion is small in

eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, in Alabama,
and in the inland portions of North and South

The results in the case of malarial fevers are
In the lake region, the pro­

The exhibits on Plate 46 of the “ expecta­
tion of life” among native white males, at

In the South the proportion of deaths from

different ages from birth up to one hundred

Carolina and Georgia.

It is still smaller in

this disease was trifling, amounting in nearly

years, an

most of the Cordilleran region and upon the

every state south of Mason and Dixon’s line

of each 100,000 of the same class, are based on

Great Plains.

and the Ohio river, to less than one per cent.

tables prepared by Levi W . Meech, actuary,

Diarrheal diseases appear to be relatively

The highest proportion in the country was in

from the mortality statistics of the census of

most prevalent in the prairie region and upon

W yoming, where, owing to an epidemic during

i860 and that of 1880.

the South Atlantic plain, with a marked tend­

the census year, it was 19.57 per cent, of all

ency also toward the Southern Central section.


Next to W yom ing was the crowded

increases up to the age of four years, the boy

The proportion is smallest in the W est and in

little state of Rhode Island, in which 11.48 per

who has reached this age having an expecta­

northern New England.

cent, of the deaths were due to this disease.

tion greater by over ten years than at birth.

The southern coast

of the death rate in successive years

The chart shows that the expectation of life

region, with the exception of that of Louisiana,

Deaths from whooping cough were rela­

does not appear to be especially subject to

tively more abundant in the South than in

advantage is gradually lost, and the youth of *

diarrheal disease; indeed, the reverse is the

the North, and least abundant in the North

twenty has only about the same chances of life


Atlantic states, although doubtless the disease

as the new-born infant.

Diphtheria is vastly more prevalent in the

was quite as prevalent there as elsewhere.

four and one hundred does the expectation

North, and particularly so in the Northwest,

W hile few children escape it, the proportion

diminish in an equal ratio with the number of

than in the South.

of deaths is very small.

years elapsed.

This is mainly the result

During the census

Between the ages of four and twenty this

A t no age between

Between the ages of twenty

of the severity of the climate, together with the

year it caused only 1.53

of all

and forty, for example, the expectation dimin­

facilities for spreading this contagious disease

deaths, the ratio ranging in the different states

ishes by about thirteen years, and a like amount

offered by the denser population of the former

'from 0.26 per cent, in New Hampshire, to the

between forty and sixty, while between sixty


unusually large proportion of 7.30 per cent, in

and eighty it decreases but 9.52, and between

New Mexico.

eighty and one hundred only 4.06 years, show­

In Utah nearly one-third of all deaths,

in Dakota nearly one-fourth, and in Nebraska,
Minnesota and Idaho, one-sixth, were caused
by diphtheria.

Passing to the other extreme,

per cent,

The distribution of deaths by measles was
very similar to that of whooping cough.


ing a much smaller rate of decrease for the
latter periods.

the deaths from this cause were less than one-

Southern states suffered the greatest mortality,

half of one per cent, in the District of Columbia

and the North Atlantic states the least.


than 16.2 per cent, die before reaching the age

and in New Mexico, while in but one of the

lines were not as closely drawn, however, as in

of one year; of those who survive, 6.41 per cent,

Southern states (W est Virginia) did the pro­

the case of whooping cough.

The greatest

die before reaching the age of two years, and

portion reach five per cent.

mortality was in New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado

of the remainder, 3.59 per cent, die before the

and Nebraska, while following them, in almost

age of three.

unbroken line, come the Southern states.

between the ages of thirteen and fourteen.




of the


system, as would naturally be expected, were


Out of 100,000 native white males, no less

The smallest death-rate occurs



Not until the age of seventy-two does the

These facts appear to disprove the oft-



For all diseases, the average

death-rate equal that between the ages of


statement and popular belief that

duration of the protective effect of examinations

one and two, and not until eighty-four does

Americans, especially those of mature years,

is about two and one-half years, in the case of

it exceed that of infants under one year of age.

and those engaged in occupations which tax

selected liv e s; while, if the rejected lives were

the brain and nervous system, live too fast and

included in the average death-rate for the

L ife In su ran ce E x p e rie n c e —The

wear out the vital energies early.

whole insurance period, it would be seen to be

Plates numbered from 47 to 49, inclusive,

remembered that this is the very class which



indulges in the luxury of life insurance, and this

American life insurance companies, comprising

comparison seems to indicate that, granting

insured persons was, by the American tables,

not far from 1,000,000 lives, as published in

that Americans live at high pressure, then that

for males, 10^ per thousand.

“ Systems and Tables of Life Insurance,” 1881,

condition is more favorable to longevity than

was somewhat greater, being 1 1£ per thousand.

by Levi W . Meech.

the slower life of the mother-country.

Am ong the causes of mortality, consumption


upon the

experience of

The statistics which they

present are those, not of the mass of the
population, but of selected

lives, and are,

It should be

Another popular belief is dispelled by the




For a generation American women

much greater.


mortality per year among
For females it

holds the first place among specific diseases,
causing 1^ deaths per thousand among males,
and 2^ among females.

The following table

therefore, much more favorable to longevity

Plate 49.

than the statistics of the census would be, were

have been derided for their alleged physical

shows the number of deaths per thousand

they complete.

inferiority to their English sisters, who have

persons insured, caused by each of the princi­

The following table exhibits the expectation

been held up as models of health and strength.

pal diseases:

of life, as given by seven different authorities.

In consequence reformers have urged upon

The first six columns, abstracted from the

American women the adoption

article on life insurance in the Encyclopaedia

modes of life as a means of attaining, in a

Britannica, ninth edition, are from English

larger proportion, to the health and long life

experience, while the seventh is taken from

popularly ascribed

Meech’s tabulation of the returns of the United

W hether the fact be reassuring or not, life

States census, mentioned

D eath s.

of English
F em ale.

to the


1 .8 6


English women.

4 8 .8 3

4 1 .4 6

4 1 .0 6

I n st it u t e of
A c t u a r ie s .

S e v en tee n
O f fic e s E x ­
p e r ie n c e . 1843.

4 8 .3 2

4 8 .3 6

5 0 .2 9


4 1 .4 9

4 2 .0 6

A m erican
M ales.
(M e e c h .)

4 8 .8 2


.6 6

tables appear to indicate that, of the two,


.6 4





A comparison of the diagrams on Plates

E nglish
N o. 3. M a l e s .

I O .......................
2 0 .......................

E q u it a b l e .
(M o r g a n .)

A ge.

E q u it a b l e .
(D a v ie s .)

C a r l is l e .



American women are the longer lived.

on the preceding



4 8 .4 4


4 0 .8 7

.2 8

48 and 49, develops the fact that deaths from
zymotic diseases, as well as from accidents

. 22

and injuries, present a striking exception to



3 4 .6 8

3 2 .7 6


4 ° ........................ 2 7 .6 1
5 ° ........................ 21 . I I

2 7 .4 0

2 7 .4 0

2 7 .2 8

2 7 .4 0


2 0 .3 6


6 0 ........................

14 -3 4

15 .0 6

I 3-9 I


7 ° ........................

9 .1 8

9 .8 4

8 .7 0


8 0 ........................

5 -5 i



4 .7 8

9 ° ........................

3 .2 8

2 .6 5

2 .5 6

2. I I

2 6 .0 6

2 7 .8 8

2 0 .3 1


2 1 .2 2

13 -8 3






3 ° ........................ 34-34


9 -5 1

4 .7 2


5 -4 i

2 .3 6

2 .8 4

2 .7 6

.2 1
. 20
.1 9

the rule that, during the early years of insur­
.2 7

.1 8

ance, medical examination serves as a material

.2 7

.1 8

protection to the companies.

. 26

.1 8

C a n c e r .............................................................................................

Thus the death-rate from the class of con­
stitutional diseases is .63 for the first year of

• 17
B r o n c h i t i s a n d p l e u r i s y ......................................................

. 16


• !5

insurance, 1.53 for the second, and 2.25 for the

.0 8


third year, per thousand males insured, as

. 16

. 11

It will be seen that the American expecta­

against an average of 2.35 for the entire period


. 11

tion of male life is greater at all ages, the

of insurance, showing that for these diseases

. 12

. IO

excess in several cases being more than a year,

medical examination is an effective protection

although the American expectation is computed

until after the third year.

for all

lives, while the English experience

deaths from zymotic diseases average 2.37 for

Aside from those causes of death peculiar

covers only selected lives, as above stated.

the first, 1.9 for the second, and 1.88 for the

to women, it appears that females are more

The comparison of selected lives in the two

third year, all being in excess of the average of

liable to diseases of the lungs and of the

countries, given in the diagram at the foot of

1.83 for the entire period of insurance.


digestive organs, while males are more subject

Plate 49, shows a still greater difference in

is a similar contrast between zymotic diseases

to accident, and more frequently victims to dis­

favor of American longevity.

and all other causes of death, except accidents

eases of the brain and the nervous system.

I .0 4
D is e a s e s o f th e b r e a s t a n d u t e r u s .............................


On the other hand,

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102