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1

POPULATION

( 23 )

.
‘

P O P U L A T IO N

The population of the United States and its insular
possessions, June 1, 1900, was 81,233,069, and the gross
area 3,716,192 square miles, as shown in Table 1.

Table 3 .— A ccessions o f te rrito ry .

G R O S S A R E A (S Q U A R E
M I L E S ).

Date acquired.

A C C E S S IO N .

Table 1 .— U nited States.

Area o f
accession. Total area.
Aggregate
population.

Gross area
(square
m iles).

United States..............................................................

84,233,069

3,746,192

Area o f en u m era tion 1.........................................................
G u a m ......................................................................................
P hilippine Is la n d s ..............................................................
Porto R ic o ...............................................................................
S am oa......................................................................................

76,303,387
29,000
26,961,339
953,243
26,100

3,622,933
201
119,542
3,435
81

1 T w elfth Census, V ol. II, table i, page x v ii.

Original thirteen states........................................
Louisiana purchase1..............................................
F lo r id a .........................
T e x a s .........................................................................
Oregon territory 2 ...................................................
M exican ce ssio n .....................................................
Gadsden p u rch a se .................................................
A la sk a .......................................................................
H a w a ii..................................................................
G u a m ......................................................................... ]
Philippine Islan d s................................................. \
Porto R i c o ................................................................
S a m o a .......................................................................

1803
1819
1845
1846
1848
1853
1867
1898
1899

f
\

1900

2 Estimated.

The increase in population over the returns of the
census of 1790 was 80,303,855, or more than twenty
times the population returned at the First Census.
The area was extended from 813,799 square miles to
3,716,192 square miles, an increase of 2,902,393 square
miles, which is nearly three and one-half times the area
of the original thirteen states, as shown in Table 2, in
which is given the gross area, aggregate population,
increase, and percentage of increase at each census,
from 1790 to 1900.

1 Includes territory betw een the Perdido and Mississippi rivers; area, 10,920
square miles.
2 Claimed by discovery, 1792; exploration, 1805; Astoria settlement, 1811; Span­
ish cession, 1819; British claim s extinguished, 1846, and area in clu d ed at that
date.

Table 1 shows at each census the land area, popula­
tion, increase, percentage of increase, and number of
persons to a square mile for continental United States,
that is, the population of the United States, exclusive
of Alaska, the insular possessions, and persons in the
military and naval service of the United States sta­
tioned abroad.
T able 4 -— C on tin en tal U nited States.

T able 2 .— U nited States.

CENSUS.

1 7 9 0 .............................................................
1 8 0 0 ............................................................
1 8 1 0 ............................................................
1 8 2 0 ............................................................
1 8 3 0 ............................................................
1 8 4 0 ............................................................
1 8 5 0 ............................................................
I 8 6 0 ............................................................
1 8 7 0 ........................................... .............
1 8 8 0 ............................................................
1 8 9 0 ............................................................
1 9 0 0 ............................................................

Gross area
(square
m iles).

8 1 3 .7 9 9
8 4 3 .7 9 9
1 , 7 3 4 ,7 2 0
1 , 7 9 3 ,4 0 0
1 ,7 9 3 ,4 0 0
1 ,7 9 3 ,4 0 0
2 ,9 9 4 ,5 8 3
3 ,0 2 5 ,6 0 0
3, 6 1 6 ,4 8 4
3 ,6 1 6 ,4 8 4
3 ,6 1 6 ,4 8 4
3 ,7 4 6 ,1 9 2

A ggregate
population.

3 ,9 2 9 ,2 1 4
5 , 3 0 8 ,4 8 3
7 ,2 3 9 ,8 8 1
9 , 6 3 8 ,4 5 3
1 2 ,8 6 6 ,0 2 0
1 7 ,0 6 9 ,4 5 3
2 3 ,1 9 1 ,8 7 6
3 1 ,4 4 3 ,3 2 1
3 8 ,5 5 8 ,3 7 1
5 0 ,1 8 9 ,2 0 9
6 2 ,9 7 9 ,7 6 6
8 4 ,2 3 3 ,0 6 9

843,799
890,921
1,734,720
58, 680
1,793,400
389,616
2,183,016
285,123
2,468,139
526,444
2,994,583
31,017
3,025,600
590,884
3,616,484
6,449
3,622,933
201 1
119,542 l 3,746,111
3,435
81
3,746,192

Increase.

1 ,3 7 9 ,2 6 9
1 ,9 3 1 ,3 9 8
2 , 3 9 8 ,5 7 2
3 ,2 2 7 ,5 6 7
4 ,2 0 3 ,4 3 3
6 ,1 2 2 ,4 2 3
8 , 2 5 1 ,4 4 5
7 , 1 1 5 ,0 5 0
1 1 ,6 3 0 ,8 3 8
1 2 ,7 9 0 ,5 5 7
2 1 ,2 5 3 ,3 0 3

Percent­
age of
increase.

3 5 .1
3 6 .4
3 3 .1
3 3 .5
3 2 .7
3 5 .9
3 5 .6
2 2 .6
3 0 .2
2 5 .5
3 3 .7

Table 3 gives the gross area and date of annexation
of each accession of territory from 1790 to 1900. The
boundaries of the original thirteen states and the acces­
sions of territory prior to 1867 are shown on Plate 1.

CENSUS.

1790 ........................
1800 ........................
1810........................
1820 ........................
1830 ........................
1840 ........................
1850 ........................
1860 ........................
1870 ........................
1880 ........................
1890 ........................
1900 ........................

Land area
(square
m iles).

2819,466
819,466
»1 ,698,107
41,752,347
1,752,347
1,752,347
52,939,021
62,970,038
2,970,038
2,970,038
2,970,038
72,970,230

Population.1

3,929,214
5,308,483
7,239,881
9,638,453
12,866,020
17,069,453
23,191,876
31,443,321
38,558,371
50,155,783
62,622,250
75,568,686

Increase.

1,379,269
1,931,398
2,398,572
3,227,567
4,203,433
6,122,423
8,251,445
7,115,050
11,597,412
12,466,467
12,946,436

Number
Percent­ of per­
sons to a
age of
increase. square
mile.

35.1
36.4
33.1
33.5
32.7
35.9
35.6
22.6
30.1
24.9
20.7

4.8
6.5
4.3
5.5
7.3
9.7
7.9
10.6
13.0
16.9
21.1
25.4

1 E xclu sive of Indians in In dian Territory and on Indian reservations. (See
T w elfth Census, Y ol. I, table in , page x ix .)
2 Original thirteen states.
3 Louisiana purchase added; area, 878,641 square miles.
4 Florida added; area, 54,240 square miles.
5 Area added—Texas, 385,926 square m iles; Oregon territory, 280,680 square
miles; M exican cession, 520,068 square miles.
6 Gadsden purchase added; area, 31,017 square miles.
7 Area gained by drainage of Lake Tulare, California, 192 square miles.

(25)

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

26

The density o f population of the United States, con­
tained in Table 4, differs from that given in table x i i ,
Twelfth Census, Volume I, page xxxiii, owing to the
addition to the Louisiana purchase o f the territory be­
tween the Perdido and Mississippi rivers, in dispute
with Spain; the inclusion o f Oregon territory in 1846,
instead of 1803; as well as to slight changes in the areas
o f the different accessions.
Although the land area of continental United States
had increased nearly fourfold, the population per
square mile had increased over fivefold, showing that
in spite of the tremendous increase in area o f comparativety unsettled tracts the increase in population had
been so great as to more than balance the additions of
territory.
The absolute increase at each census was larger than
at the preceding census, except between 1860 and 1870,
when it fell below that o f the preceding decade. This
was due partly to the Civil W ar and partly to a deficient
enumeration in 1870. The greatest percentage o f in­
crease was from 1800 to 1810, after which date it dimin­
ished until the period between 1840 and 1850, when
the tide of immigration set in and raised the percentage
until it almost reached the maximum.
•The increase and decrease in density o f population,
as represented by diagram 2, Plate 17, has varied from
census to census, owing to the acquisitions o f sparsely
settled territory and the increase in population.
G row th

of

P o p u l a t io n .

In the discussion of the growth o f the population,
graphically represented on Plates 2 to 13, the area and
population of continental United States alone were
considered, and for 1880 and 1890 the population of
Indian reservations and Indian Terri tor}7 was not in­
;
cluded. In computing the density o f population for
this series of maps the county has, in general, been
taken as the unit and its population, less the number
of persons residing in cities o f 8,000 or more inhabitants,
divided by the land area in square miles. The counties
have then been grouped as follows:
Less than 2 persons to a square m ile (regarded as unsettled area).
2 to 6 persons to a square mile.
6 to 18 persons to a square mile.
18 to 45 persons to a square mile.
45 to 90 persons to a square mile.
90 or more persons to a square mile.

Certain large counties, especially in the W est, where
the density of population varies greatly in different
portions, were subdivided, the density for each part was
computed and each subdivision placed in the proper
group. Cities of 8,000 or more inhabitants are repre­
sented by circles o f solid color approximately propor­
tionate in size to the population.
The density groups are closety related to the indus­
tries of the country. The lowest group, less than 2 per­

sons to a square mile, which for census purposes is
regarded as unsettled, is inhabited principally by hunt­
ers, prospectors, or persons engaged in stock raising.
The next group, 2 to 6 persons to a square mile, includes
| the area o f sparse agricultural population, where irri­
| gation is relied upon for raising crops. Agriculture is
also the principal occupation in the group 6 to 18 per­
sons to a square mile. In the next group, 18 to 45
persons to a square mile, manufactures and commerce
have made considerable progress, but the principal
I occupation is agriculture; the farms, however, are much
j smaller than in the preceding group, and cultivation of
the soil is more thorough. In the last two grades,
where the population exceeds 45 persons to a square
mile, manufactures and commerce are of the greatest
importance, and the larger proportion of the people is
found in towns and cities.
D IS T R IB U T IO N

O F P O P U L A T IO N :

1790.

The First Census o f the United States, taken as of
the first Monda}7 in August, 1790, under the provisions
o f the second section o f the first article o f the Consti­
tution, showed the population o f the thirteen states
then existing and of the unorganized territory to be, in
the aggregate, 3,929,214. This population was distrib­
uted, as shown on Plate 2, almost entirely along the
Atlantic seaboard, extending from the eastern boundary
o f Maine nearly to Florida, and in the region known
as the Atlantic plain. Only a very small proportion of
the inhabitants o f the United States, not, indeed, more
than 5 per cent, was found west o f the Appalachian
mountains.
The average depth o f settlement, in a
direction at right angles to the coast, was 255 miles.
The most populous areas were to be found in eastern
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and about
New Y ork city. The population had also extended
north up the Hudson, so that the Hudson river valley,
as far north as Albany, had become quite thickly settled.
| The settlements in Pennsjdvania, which started from
Philadelphia, extended northeast, and formed a solid
body o f occupation from New Y ork, through Philadel­
phia, down to the upper part o f Delaware.
The Atlantic coast, as far back as the limits o f tide
water, was well settled at this time from Casco bay south
to the northern border o f North Carolina, also around
Charleston, South Carolina. In the “ district o f M aine”
sparse settlement extended along the entire seaboard.
The greater part o f New Hampshire and Vermont was
covered with settlements. In New Y ork, branching off
from t*he Hudson at the mouth o f the Mohawk, the line
o f population followed a broad gap between the Adirondacks and the Catskills, and even reached beyond the
center o f the state, occupying the whole o f the Mohawk
valley and the country about the interior New Y ork
lakes. In Pennsylvania population had spread north­
west, occupying not only the Atlantic plain, but, with

POPULATION.
sparse settlements, the region traversed by the numer­
ous parallel ridges of the eastern portion o f the Appa­
lachians. The general limit o f settlement was at that
time the southeastern edge of the Allegheny plateau,
but beyond this, at the junction of the Allegheny and
Monongahela rivers, a point early occupied for mili­
tary purposes, considerable settlements existed which
were established prior to the W ar of the Revolution.
In Virginia settlements extended west beyond the Blue
Ridge, and on the western slope o f the Allegheny
mountains, though very sparse. From Virginia, also,
a narrow tongue of settlement, which was almost as
populous as Vermont or Georgia, penetrated into the
“ Kentucky country,” and down to the head of the
Tennessee river in the great Appalachian valley, where
the “ state of Franklin” had been for four years a
political unit. In North Carolina settlements were
abruptly limited by the base of the Appalachians. The
state was occupied with remarkable uniformity, except
in its southern and central portions, where population
was comparatively sparse. In South Carolina, on the
other hand, there was evidence of much natural selec­
tion, apparently with reference to the character of the
soil. Charleston was then a city o f considerable mag­
nitude, and about it was grouped a comparatively dense
population; but all along a belt running southwest
across the state, near its central part, settlement was
very sparse. This area o f scattered settlement joined
that of central North Carolina, and ran east to the
coast, near the junction of the two states. Farther
west, in the “ up cou ntry” o f South Carolina, the den­
sity o f settlement was noticeable, due to the improve­
ment in soil.
A t that date settlements were almost
entirely agricultural, and the causes for variation in
their density were general. The movements o f popula­
tion at that epoch may be traced, in almost every case,
to the character o f the soil and to the facility o f trans­
portation to the seaboard; and, as the inhabitants were
dependent mainly upon water transportation, the set­
tlements also conformed very largely to navigable
streams.
Outside the area of continuous settlement, which has
been approximately sketched, were found a number of
smaller settlements o f greater or less extent. The
principal one was located in the northern part o f what
was known as the “ territory south o f the river Ohio,”
and comprised an area o f 10,900 square miles; another,
in western Virginia, upon the Ohio and Kanawha
rivers, comprised about 750 square miles; a third, in
the southern part o f the “ territory south of the river
Ohio,” upon the Cumberland river, embraced about
1,200 square miles.
In addition to these, there were a score or more of
small posts, or incipient settlements, scattered over
what was an almost untrodden wilderness— such as
Detroit, Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Prairie du Chien,

27

Mackinac, and Green Bay, besides the humble begin­
ning o f Elmira and Binghamton, in New Y ork— which,
even at that time, were outside the body o f continuous
settlement and embraced about 1,000 square miles.
The line which limited this body of settlement, fo l­
lowing all its undulations, was 3,200 miles in length.
In this measurement no account was made o f slight
irregularities, such as those in the ordinaiy meanderings o f a river which forms the boundary line o f popu­
lation; but an account has been made o f all the
prominent irregularities o f this frontier line, which
seem to indicate a distinct change in the settlement of
the country, either o f progression or of retrogression.
Thus the area o f settlement formed that territory em­
braced between the frontier line and the coast, dimin­
ished by such unsettled areas as lay within it and
increased by such settled areas as lay without it. These
are not susceptible o f very accurate determination,
owing to the fact that the best maps are, to a certain
extent, incorrect in boundaries and areas. The settled
area of 1790, as indicated by the line traced, was
226,085 uquare miles. The entire body of continuously
settled area lay between 31° and 45° north latitude and
67° and 83° west longitude. Beyond this were the
smaller areas previously mentioned, which, added to
the main body of settled area, gave as # total 239,935
square miles, the aggregate population being 3,929,214,
and the average density of settlement 16.4 persons to
the square mile.
The “ district of M aine” belonged to Massachusetts;
Georgia extended to the Mississippi river; Kentucky
and Tennessee were known as the “ territory south of
the river Ohio,” and Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan,
Wisconsin, and a part o f Minnesota, as the “ territory
northwest o f the river Ohio.” Spain claimed posses­
sion o f Florida, with a strip along the southern border
of Georgia, and all of the region west o f the Missis­
sippi river.
D IS T R IB U T IO N

O F P O P U L A T IO N :

1800.

A t the Second Census, that of 1800, the frontier
line, as it appears on Plate 3, had advanced, so that
while it embraced 282,208 square miles, it described a
course, when measured in the same manner as that of
1790, o f only 2,800 linear miles. The advancement of
this line had taken place in every direction, though in
some parts o f the country much more prominently than
in others.
In Maine and New Hampshire only a slight north­
ern movement of settlement was apparent; in Ver­
mont, on the other hand, while the settled area had not
decidedly increased, its density had become greater.
Massachusetts showed but little change, but in Con­
necticut the settlements along the lower course of the
Connecticut river had appreciably increased.
In New Y ork settlement had poured up the Hudson

3

28

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

to the mouth of the Mohawk, and thence, through the
great natural roadway, westward. The narrow tongue,
which before extended beyond the middle of the state,
had now widened until it spread from the southern
border of the state to Lake Ontario. A narrow belt
of settlement stretched down the St. Lawrence and
along all the northern border of the state to Lake Cham­
plain, completely surrounding what may be character­
istically defined as the Adirondack region.
In Penns}dvania settlements had extended up the
Susquehanna and joined the New York groups, leaving
an unsettled space in the northeast corner of the state,
which comprised a section of rugged mountain country.
With the exception of a little strip along the western
border of Pennsylvania, the northern part of the state
west of the Susquehanna was as yet entirely unin­
habited. Population had streamed across the southern
half of the state and settled in a dense bod}Tabout the
forks of the Ohio river, where the beginning of Pitts­
burg ma}' be noted, and thence extended slightly into
the “ territory northwest of the river Ohio.”
In Virginia there was but little change, although
there was a general extension of settlement, with an
increase in densitj^, especially along the coast. North
Carolina was at that time almost entirely populated;
the mountain region had, generally speaking, been
nearly all reclaimed to the service of man. In South
Carolina there was a general increase in density, while
the southwestern border of the settled area had been
extended to the Altamaha river. The settlements in
northern Kentucky had spread southward across the
state into Tennessee, forming a junction with the little
settlement on the Cumberland river, noted at the date
of the First Census. The group thus formed had
extended down the Ohio, nearly to its junction with the
Tennessee and the Cumberland, and across the Ohio
river, where the beginning of Cincinnati can be noted.
Other small settlements appeared at this time on that
side of the river. On the east side of the Mississippi
river was a strip of settlement along the bluffs below
the Yazoo bottom. Above this, on the west side, was
the beginning of St. Louis, not at that time within the
United States, and directly across the river a settlement
in what was known as “ Indiana territory,” while all the
pioneer settlements previous^ noted had grown to a
greater or less extent.
From the region embraced between the frontier line
and the Atlantic must be deducted the Adirondack
tract in northern New York, and the unsettled region
in northern Pennsylvania alread}7 referred to, so that
the actual area of settlement, bounded by a continuous
line, was 271,908 square miles. All this lay between
30° 45' and 45° 15' north latitude, and 67° and 88° west
longitude. To this should be added the aggregate
extent of all settlements lying outside of the frontier
line, which collectively amounted to 33,800 square miles, !

making a total area of settlement of 305,708 square
miles. As the aggregate population was 5,308,483, the
average density of settlement was 17.4 persons to the
square mile.
The early settlements- of this period had been much
retarded at many points by the opposition of Indian
tribes, but in the neighborhood of the more densely
settled portions of the northern' part of the country
these obstacles had been of less magnitude than farther
south. In Georgia, especially, the large and powerful
tribes of Creeks and Cherokees had stubbornly opposed
the progress of population.
During the decade, Vermont, formed from the New
Hampshire grants, territory claimed by both New York
and New Hampshire, had been admitted to the Union;
also Kentucky and Tennessee, formed from the “ terri­
tory south of the river O hio” ; Mississippi territory
had been organized, having, however, very different
boundaries from what was known later as the state of
that name; while the “ territory northwest of the river
Ohio” had been divided and Indiana territory organ­
ized from the western portion. The District of Co­
lumbia, comprising 100 square miles, was formed in
1791 from portions of Maryland and Virginia.
D IS T R IB U T IO N O F P O P U L A T IO N :

1810.

During the decade from 1800 to 1810 (Plate 4) great
changes will be noted, especially the extension of
sparse settlements in the interior. The hills of western
New York had become almost entirely populated, settle­
ments had spread along the south shore of Lake Erie
well over into Ohio, and effected a junction with the
previously existing body of population about the forks
of the Ohio river, leaving unsettled an included heartshaped area in northern Pennsylvania, which comprised
the rugged country of the Appalachian plateau. The
occupation of the Ohio river valley had now become
complete, from its head to its mouth, with the excep­
tion of small gaps below the mouth of the Tennessee.
Spreading in every direction from the “ dark and
bloody ground ” o f Kentucky, settlement covered almost
the entire state, while its southern border line had been
extended to the Tennessee river, into what was known
as ‘ ‘ Mississippi territory. ” In Georgia settlements were
still held back by the Creek and Cherokee Indians,
although in 1802 a treaty with the former tribe relieved
the southwestern portion of the state of their presence,
and left the ground open for occupancy by the whites.
In Ohio, starting from the Ohio river and from south­
western Pennsylvania, settlements had worked north
and west until they covered two-thirds of the area o f the
state. Michigan and Indiana were still virgin territory,
with the exception of a small strip about Detroit, in the
former, and two small areas in the latter, one in the
southeastern part of the territory extending along the
Ohio river, and one in the southwestern part extending

POPULATION.
up the Wabash from its mouth to and including the set­
tlement at Vincennes. St. Louis, from a fur-trading
post, had become an important center o f settlement,
population having spread north above the mouth of the
Missouri and south along the Mississippi to the mouth
of the Ohio. On the Arkansas, near its mouth, was a
similar body of settlement. The transfer of the terri­
tory o f Louisiana to our jurisdiction, which was effected
in 1803, had brought into the country a large body of
population, which stretched along the Mississippi river
from its mouth nearly to the northern limit o f what was
known as the “ territory o f Orleans” and up the Red
and Ouachita (Washita) rivers, in general occupying
.the alluvial regions. The incipient settlements noted
on Plate 3, in Mississippi territorj^ effected a junction
with those of Louisiana territory, while in the lower
part of Mississippi territory a similar patch appeared
upon the M obile river.
During this decade large additions were made to the
territory of the United States, and many changes effected
in the lines of the interior division. The purchase of
Louisiana, an empire in itself, had added 890,921 square
miles to the United States, and had given to the peo­
ple absolute control o f the Mississippi and its navigable
branches. Georgia, during the same period, had ceded
to the United States about two-thirds of its territory.
The state of Ohio had been formed from a portion o f
what had been known as the “ territory northwest of
the river Ohio.” Michigan territory had been erected,
comprising at that time the peninsula north of Ohio and
the lower part of Indiana territory and south o f the
straits. Indiana territory had become restricted in its
limits to the following boundaries: Lake Michigan and
Michigan on the north, Ohio on the east, the Ohio river
on the south, and Illinois territory on the west, with a
detached area between Lake Superior and Lake Mich­
igan. Illinois territory comprised all territory west of
Lake Michigan and Indiana territory, north o f the
Ohio, and east o f the Mississippi. The “ territory of
Orleans,” which was located west o f the Mississippi,
had been carved out o f the Louisiana purchase. The
remainder o f the territory acquired from France was
known by the name o f “ Louisiana territory.”
A t this date the frontier line was 2,900 miles long,
and the settled territory included between this imagi­
nary line and the Atlantic comprised 408,895 square
miles. From this must be deducted several large areas
o f unsettled land: First, the area in northern New
Y ork, somewhat smaller than ten years before, bu tb}r
no means inconsiderable in extent; second, the heartshaped area in northwestern Pennsylvania, embracing
part of the Allegheny plateau, in size about equal to
the unsettled area in New Y ork ; third, a strip along
the western part o f Virginia, extending south from the
Potomac, taking in a part o f eastern Kentucky and
southwestern Virginia, and extending nearly to the

29

border line o f Tennessee; fourth, a comparatively small
area in northern Tennessee upon the Cumberland pla­
teau. These tracts together comprised about 20,050
square miles, making the approximate area o f settle­
ment included within the frontier line 382,845 square
miles. A ll this lay between latitude 29° 30' and 45° 15'
north, and longitude 67° and 88° 30' west.
Beyond the frontier there were, in addition to the
steadily increasing number'of outposts and minor set­
tlements, several considerable bodies of population,
which have been already noted. The aggregate extent
o f these, and of the numerous small patches o f popula­
tion scattered over the W est and South, may be esti­
mated at 25,100 square miles, making the total area o f
settlement in 1810, 407,945 square miles. The aggre­
gate population was 7,239,881, and the average density
of settlement 17.7 persons to the square mile.
D IS T R IB U T IO N

j

O F P O P U L A T IO N :

1820.

The decade from 1810 to 1820 (Plate 5) witnessed
several territorial changes. Florida at this date (1820)
had not actually become a part o f the United States;
the treaty with Spain to transfer this territory to the
United States had been signed, but had not gone into
effect. Alabama and Mississippi, made from Missis­
sippi territory, had been organized and admitted as
states, Alabama having been made a territory in 1817.
Indiana and Illinois appeared as states, with restricted
limits. The “ territory of Orleans,” with somewhat
enlarged boundaries, had been admitted as a state and
was known as Louisiana. The “ district of M aine” had
also been erected into a state. Arkansas territory had
been cut from the southern portion o f the territory o f
Louisiana. The Indian territory had been constituted
to serve as a reservation for the Indian tribes. Michi­
gan territory included all area east of the Mississippi
river and north o f Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. That
part o f the old Louisiana territory remaining, after
cutting out Arkansas and the Indian territory, had
received the name o f “ Missouri territory.”
Again, in 1820, there was a great change in regard to
the frontier line. It had become vastly more involved,
extending from southeastern Michigan, on Lake St.
Clair, southwest into Missouri territory; thence, mak­
ing a great semicircle to the east, it swept west again
around a body o f population in Louisiana, and ended
along the Gulf coast in that state. The area east o f this
line had increased immensely, but much o f this increase
was balanced by the great extent of unsettled land
included within it.
Taking up the changes in detail, the great increase
in the population of central New Y ork will be noted,
a belt of increased settlement having swept up the
Mohawk valley to Lake Ontario, and along its shore
nearly to the Niagara river. A similar increase was
experienced about the forks of the Ohio river, and in

30

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

northern Pennsylvania the unsettled region on the Appalachian plateau had sensibly decreased in size. The
unsettled area in western Virginia and eastern Ken­
tucky had very greatly diminished, population having
extended almost entirely over the Allegheny region in
these states. The little settlements about Detroit had
extended along the shore of Lake Erie, until they had
joined those in Ohio. The frontier line in Ohio had
crept north and west, leaving only the northwestern
corner of the state unoccupied. Population had spread
north from Kentuckj- and west from Ohio into southern
Indiana, covering sparsely the lower third of that state,
The groups of population around St. Louis, which at
the time of the previous census were enjoying a rapid
growth, had extended widely, making a junction with
the settlements of Kentucky and Tennessee, along a
broad belt in southern Illinois; following the main
water courses, population had gone many scores of miles
up the Mississippi and the Missouri rivers. The settle­
ments in Alabama, which previously had been very much
retarded by the Creeks, had been rapidly reinforced and
extended, in consequence of the victory of General
Jackson over this tribe and the subsequent cession of
portions of this territory. Immigration to Alabama
had already become considerable, indicating that in a
short time the whole central portion of the state, embrac­
ing a large part of the region drained by the Mobile river
and its branches, would be covered with settlements, to
extend north and effect a junction with the Tennessee
and Kentucky settlements, and west across the lower
part of Mississippi, until they met the Louisiana settle­
ments. In Georgia the Cherokees and the Creeks still
held back settlement along the line of the Altamaha
river. There were, however, scattered bodies of population in various parts of the state, though of small
extent. In Louisiana is noted a gradual increase of the
extent of redeemed territory, which appeared to have
been limited almost exactly by- the borders of the allu­
vial region. In Arkansas the settlements, which in
1810 were near the mouth of the Arkansas river, had
extended up the bottom lands of that river, forming a
body of population of considerable size. Besides these,
a settlement was found in the south central part of the
territory, at the southeastern base of the hill region,
and another in the prairie region in the northern part.
The frontier line had a length of 4,100 miles, em­
bracing an area (after excluding all unsettled regions
included between it, the Atlantic, and the Gulf) of
504,517 square miles, all lying between 29° 30' and
45° 30' north latitude, and between 67° and 93° 45'
west longitude. Outside the frontier line were a few
settlements on the Arkansas, White, and Ouachita
(Washita) rivers, in Arkansas, as before noted, as well
as those in the Northwest. Computing these at 4,200
square miles in the aggregate, there was a total settled
area of 508,717 square miles, the aggregate population

[ being 9,638,453, and the average density of settlement
18.9 persons to the square mile.
D IS T R IB U T IO N

O F P O P U L A T IO N :

1830.

In the early part of the decade from 1820 to 1830
(Plate 6) the final transfer of Florida from Spanish
| jurisdiction was effected, and it became a territory of
; the United States. Missouri, carved from the south­
eastern part of the old Missouri territory, had been
admitted as a state; otherwise the states and terri­
tories had remained nearly as before. Settlement
j during the decade had spread greatly. The westerly
extension of the frontier did not appear to be so great
as in some former periods, the energies of the people
having been mainly given to settling the included areas.
In other words, the decade from 1810 to 1820 seems to
have been one of blocking out work which the succeeding
decade was largely occupied in completing.
During this period the Indians, especially in the
South, had still dekyed settlement to a great extent.
The Creeks and Cherokees in Georgia and Alabama,
and the Choctaws and Chickasaws in Mississippi, occu­
pied large areas of the best portions of those states and
successful^ resisted encroachment upon their territory.
Georgia, however, had witnessed a large increase in
settlement during the decade. The settlements which
heretofore had extended along the Altamaha had spread
westward across the central portion of the state to its
western boundary, where they reached the barrier of
the Creek territory. Stopped at this point, they had
moved south into the southwest corner, and over into
Florida, extending even to the Gulf coast. They
stretched toward the west across the southern part of
j Alabama, and joined that body of settlement which had
. previously formed in the drainage basin of the Mobile
river. The Louisiana settlements had but slightly
increased, and no great change appeared to take place
in Mississippi, owing largely to the cause previously
noted, viz, the occupancy of this area by Indians. In
Arkansas the spread of settlement had been in a strange
and fragmentary way. A line reached from Louisiana
j to the Arkansas river and along its course to the
I boundary of the Indian territory. It extended up
the Mississippi, and joined the body of population in
Tennessee. A branch extended northeast from near
Little Rock to the northern portion of the territory.
All the settlements within Arkansas territory were
as yet very sparse. In Missouri the principal exten­
sion of settlement had been in a broad belt along the
Missouri river, reaching to the state line, at the
mouth of the Kansas river, where quite a dense body
| of population appeared. Settlement had progressed
in Illinois, from the Mississippi river east and north,
covering more than half o f the state. In Indiana it
followed the Wabash river, and thence spread toward
the northern state line. But a small portion of Ohio
remained unsettled. The sparse settlements about

POPULATION.

31

Detroit, iii Michigan territory, had broadened out,
dense settlement. The Sac and Fox and the Potawatomi
extending toward the interior o f the lower peninsula,
tribes having been removed to Indian Territory, their
while isolated patches appeared in various other
country in northern Illinois had been promptly taken
localities.
I up and settlements had spread over nearly the whole
Turning to the more densety settled parts o f the
extent of Indiana and Illinois, also across Michigan
country, it will be noted that settlement was slowly
and Wisconsin as far north as the forty-third parallel.
making its way north ward in Maine, although discour­ Population had crossed the Mississippi river into Iowa
aged by the poverty of the soil and the severity of the territory and occupied a broad belt up and down that
climate. The unsettled tract in northern New Y ork
river. In Missouri settlements spread north from the
was decreasing, but very slowly, as was also the case Missouri river nearly to the boundary o f the state,
with the unsettled area in northwestern Pennsylvania.
and south until they covered most o f the southern por­
In western Virginia the unsettled tracts were reduced
tion, connecting (on the right and on the left) with the
to almost nothing, while the unsettled region in east­ settlements of Arkansas. The unsettled area found
ern Tennessee on the Cumberland plateau was rapidly
in southern Missouri, together with that in northwest­
diminishing.
ern Arkansas, was due to the hilly and rugged nature
In 1830 the frontier line had a length o f 5,300 miles,
of the country and to the poverty o f the soil, as com­
and the aggregate area embraced between the Atlantic
pared with the rich prairie lands surrounding. In
Ocean, the Gulf o f Mexico, and the frontier line was Arkansas the settlements remained sparse, but had
725,406 square miles. O f this, however, not less than
spread widely away from the streams, covering much
97,389 square miles were within the included unsettled
of the prairie regions of the state. There was, beside
tracts, leaving only 628,017 square miles as the settled
the area in northwestern Arkansas just mentioned, a
area east of the frontier line, all o f which lay between
large area in the northeastern part of the state, almost
latitude 29° 15' and 46° 15' north, and longitude 67°
entirely within the alluvial regions of the Black river,
and 95° west.
and also one in the southern portion, extending over
Outside the body of continuous settlement large
into northern Louisiana, which was entirely in the
groups were no longer found, but several small patches I fertile prairie section. The fourth unsettled region lay
o f population appeared in the states o f Ohio, Indiana,
in the southwestern part of the state.
and Illinois, and Michigan territory, aggregating about
In the older states we note a gradual decrease in the
4,700 square miles, making a total settled area in 1830 unsettled areas, as in Maine and New York. In north­
o f 632,717 square miles. As the aggregate population
ern Pennsylvania the unsettled section had nearly dis­
was 12,866,020, the average density o f settlement was appeared. A small portion o f the unsettled patch on
20.3 persons to the square mile.
the Cumberland plateau still remained. In southern
| Georgia the Okefenokee swamp and the pine barrens
D IS T R IB U T IO N O F P O P U L A T IO N : 1840.
' adjacent had thus far repelled settlement, although
During the decade ending in 1840 (Plate 7) the ter- j population had increased in Florida, passing entirely
ritoiy of Michigan had been divided; that part east of
around this area to the south. The greater part of
Lake Michigan and north o f Ohio and Indiana, together
Florida, however, including nearly all the peninsula
with the greater part o f the peninsula between lakes and several large areas along the Gulf coast, still
Superior and Michigan, had been created into the state
remained unsettled. This was due in part to the nature
of Michigan, the remainder being known as Wisconsin
of the country, being alternately swamp and hummock,
territory. Iowa territory had been created out of
and in part to the hostility of the Seminole Indians,
that part o f Missouri territory lying north of the M is­
who still occupied nearly all of the peninsula.
souri state line and east of the Missouri river, and
The frontier line in 1840 had a length of 3,300 miles.
Arkansas had been admitted to the Union.
This shrinking in its length was due to its rectification
In 1840 we find, by examining Plate 7, that the settle­ on the northwest and southwest, owing to the settle­
ments had been growing steadily and the frontier line
ment of the entire interior. It inclosed an area of
o f 1810 and 1820 advanced still farther. From Georgia,
900,658 square miles, lying between latitude 29° and
Alabama, and Mississippi the Cherokee, Creek, Choc­
46° 30' north and longitude 67° and 95° 30' west.
taw, and Chickasaw Indians, who, at the time o f the
The unsettled portions had, as noted above, decreased
previous census, occupied large areas in these states,
to 95,516 square miles, although they were still quite
and formed a very serious obstacle to settlement, had
I noticeable in Missouri and Arkansas. The settled area
been removed to Indian Territory, constituted under
outside the frontier line was notably small, and amounted
the act of June 30, 1834, and their country opened
in the aggregate to only 2,150 square miles, making
up to settlement.
Within the two or three years
which had elapsed since the removal of these Indians ! the approximate settled area 807,292 square miles in
the lands relinquished by them had been entirely : 1840. The aggregate population being 17,069,453, the
average density was 21.1 persons to the square mile.
taken up and the country covered with comparatively

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

32
D IS T R IB U T IO N O F P O P U L A T IO N :

1850.

Between 1840 and 1850 (Plate 8) the limits of our
country were further extended by the annexation of
Texas and of territory acquired from Mexico by the
treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The states of Florida,
Iowa, and Wisconsin had been admitted to the Union,
and the territories of Oregon and Minnesota created.
That portion of the District of Columbia south of the
Potomac originally ceded by Virginia was receded to
that state July 9, 1846. An examination of the map
shows that the frontier line had changed very little dur­
ing the decade. At the western border of Arkansas
the extension of settlement was peremptorily limited
by the boundary of Indian Territory; and, curiously
enough, the western boundary of Missouri also put
almost a complete stop to all settlement, notwithstand­
ing the fact that some of the most densely populated
portions of the state lay directly on that boundary.
In Iowa settlements had made some advance, moving
up the Missouri, the Des Moines, and other rivers.
The settlements in Minnesota at and about St. Paul,
which existed in 1840, had greatly extended up and
down the Mississippi river, while scattered bodies of
population appeared in northern Wisconsin. In the
southern part of the state settlement had made con­
siderable advance, especially in a northeasterly direc­
tion toward Green bay. In Michigan the change had
been very slight.
Texas, for the first time on the map of the United
States, appeared with a considerable extent of settle­
ment; in general, however, it was very sparse, most of
it lying in the eastern part of the state, and being
largely dependent upon the grazing industry.
The included unsettled areas now were very small
and few in number. There still remained one in south­
ern Missouri, in the hilly country; a small one in north­
eastern Arkansas, in the swampy and alluvial region;
and one in the similar country in the Yazoo bottom
lands in western Mississippi. Along the coast of Flor­
ida were found two patches of considerable size, which
were confined to the swampy coast regions. The same
was the case along the coast of Louisiana. The sparse
settlements of Texas were also interspersed with sev­
eral patches devoid of settlement. In southern Georgia
the large unsettled area heretofore noted, extending
also into northern Florida, had disappeared, and the
Florida settlements had already reached southward to
a considerable distance in the peninsula, being now free
to extend without fear of hostile Seminoles, the greater
part of whom had been removed to Indian Territory.
The frontier line, which now extended around a con­
siderable part of Texas and issued on the Gulf coast at
the mouth of the Nueces river, was 4,500 miles in
length. The aggregate area included by it was about
1,005,213 square miles, from which deduction must be
made for unsettled area, in all 64,339 square miles.

The isolated settlements lying outside this body in the
western part of the country amounted to 4,775 square
miles.
It was no longer true that a frontier line drawn around
from the St. Croix river to the Gulf of Mexico em­
braced all the population of the United States, except
a few outlying posts and small settlements. From the
Pacific a line could be made to encircle 80,000 miners
and adventurers, the pioneers of more than one state of
the Union soon to arise on that coast. This body of
settlement had been formed, in the main, since the
acquisition of the territory by the United States, and,
it might even be said, within the last year (1849-50),
dating from the discovery of gold in California. These
settlements may be computed rudely at 33,600 square
miles, making a total area of settlement of 979,249
square miles, the aggregate population being 23,191,876,
and the average density of settlement 23.7 persons to
the square mile.
D IS T R IB U T IO N O F P O P U L A T IO N :

1860.

In 1860 (Plate 9) the first extension of settlements
beyond the line of the Missouri river is noted. The
march of settlement up the slope of the Great plains
had begun. In Kansas and Nebraska population was
found beyond the ninety-seventh meridian. Texas had
filled up even more rapidly, its extreme settlements
reaching to the one-hundredth meridian, while the gaps
noted at the date of the previous census had all been
filled by population. The incipient settlements about
St. Paul, in Minnesota, had grown like Jonah’s gourd,
spreading in all directions, and forming a broad band
of union with the main body of settlement down the
line of the Mississippi river. In Iowa settlements
had crept steadily northwest along the course of the
drainage until the state was nearly covered. Following
the Missouri, population had reached out beyond the
northern border o f Nebraska territory. In Wisconsin
the settlements had moved at least one degree farther
north, while in the lower peninsula of Michigan they
had spread up the lake shores, nearly encircling it on
the side next to Lake Michigan. On the upper penin­
sula the little settlements which appeared in 1850 in the
copper region on Keweenaw point had extended and
increased greatly in density, as that mining interest had
developed in value. In northern New York there was
apparently no change in the unsettled area. In north­
ern Maine was noted for the first time a decided move­
ment toward the settlement of its unoccupied territory
in the extension of the settlements on its eastern and
northern border along the St. John river. The un­
settled regions in southern Missouri, northeastern
Arkansas, and northwestern Mississippi had become
sparsely covered by population. Along the Gulf coast
there was little or no change; in the peninsula of Florida
there was a slight extension of settlement south.

POPULATION.
Between 1850 and 1860 the territorial changes noted
were as follows: The territory of New Mexico had
been created, and the territory south o f the Gila river,
which had been acquired from Mexico by the Gadsden
purchase (1853), added to it; Minnesota admitted as a
state; Kansas and Nebraska territories formed from
parts of Missouri territory; California and Oregon
admitted as states; while in the unsettled parts of the
Cordilleran region two new territories, Washington
and Utah, had been created, the former out of part of
Oregon territory, and the latter from part of the M exi­
can cession.
The frontier line now measured 5,300 miles, and em­
braced approximately 1,126,518 square miles, lying be­
tween latitude 28° 30' and 47° 30' north and between
longitude 67° and 99° 30' west. From this, deduction
should be made on account o f unsettled portions,
amounting to 39,139 square miles, found mainly in New
Y ork and along the G u lf coast. The outlying settle­
ments beyond the one-hundredth meridian were now
numerous. They included, among others, a strip ex­
tending far up the Rio Grande in Texas, embracing
7,475 square miles (a region given over to the raising
of sheep); while the Pacific settlements, comprising two
sovereign states, were nearly three times as extensive
as in 1850, embracing 99,900 square miles. The total
area of settlement in 1860 was 1,194,754 square miles,
the aggregate population 31,443,321, and the average
density of settlement 26.3 persons to the square mile.

33

square miles in its northwestern corner. Through
Kansas and Nebraska the frontier line had moved
steadily west, following in general the courses of the
larger streams and of the newly constructed rail­
roads. The frontier in Texas had changed but little, that
little consisting of a general westerly movement.
In
the Cordilleran region, settlements had extended but
slowly. Those upon the Pacific coast showed little
change, either in extent or in density. In short, every­
where the effects of the war were seen in the partial
arrest of the progress of development.
Settlements in the West, beyond the frontier line,
had arranged themselves mainly in three belts. The
most eastern o f these was located in New Mexico, cen­
tral Colorado, and W yoming, along the eastern base of
and among the Rocky mountains. To this region set­
tlement was first attracted in 1859 and 1860 by the dis­
covery o f mineral deposits, and had been retained by
the richness of the soil and by the abundance o f water
for irrigation, which served to promote the agricultural
industry.
The second belt o f settlement was that of Utah, set­
tled in 1847 by the Mormons fleeing from Illinois. This
community differed radically from that of the Rocky
mountains, being essentially agricultural, mining hav­
ing been discountenanced from the first by the church
authorities, as tending to fill the “ Promised land” with
Gentile adventurers and thereby imperil Mormon in­
stitutions. The settlements of this group, as seen on
the map for 1870, extended from southern Idaho south
through central Utah, and along the eastern base o f
D IS T R IB U T IO N o f p o p u l a t i o n : 1870.
the Wasatch range to the Arizona line. They consisted
mainly o f scattered hamlets and small towns, about
During the decade from 1860 to 1870 a number of
which were grouped the farms of the communities.
territorial changes had been effected in the extreme
The third strip was that in the Pacific states and ter­
West. A great tract called Alaska, stretching into
ritories, extending from Washington territory south
Arctic regions and containing few people, was pur­
to southern California and east into western Nevada.
chased from Russia in 1867. Arizona, Colorado, Da­
kota, Idaho, Montana, and W yom ing had been organ­ This group of population owed its existence to the
mining industr}^; originated in 1849 by a great immi­
ized as territories. Kansas and Nebraska had been
gration movement, it had grown by successive impulses
admitted as states. Nevada was made a territory in
as new fields for rapid wealth had been developed.
1861 and admitted as a state in 1864. W est Virginia
However, the value of this region to the agriculturist
had been cut off from the mother commonwealth and
had been recognized and the character of the occupa­
made a separate state.
tions o f the people was undergoing a marked change.
In 1870 (Plate 10) a gradual and steady extension of
These three great western groups comprised ninethe frontier line west over the Great plains will be noted.
tenths of the population west o f the frontier line. The
The unsettled areas in Maine, New York, and Florida
remainder was scattered about in the valleys and the
had not greatly diminished, but in Michigan the extenmountains of Montana, Idaho, and Arizona, at military
sioh of the lumber interests northward and inward
from the lake shore had reduced considerably the unset­ posts, isolated mining camps, and on cattle ranches.
The frontier line in 1870 embraced 1,178,068 square
tled portion. On the upper peninsula settlements had
miles, between 27° 15' and 47° 30' north latitude, and
increased somewhat, owing to the discovery of rich
iron deposits destined to play so important a part in between 67° and 99° 45' west longitude. From this,
however, deduction must be made o f 37,739 square
the manufacturing industry o f the country.
Settlement had spread west to the boundary of the j miles on account of interior portions uninhabited.
What remains should be increased by 11,810 square
state in southern Minnesota, and up the Big Sioux
miles, on account of settled tracts east of the one-hun­
river in southeastern Dakota. Iowa was entirely
dredth meridian, lying outside of the frontier line, and
reclaimed, excepting a small area of perhaps 1,000

34

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

120,100 square miles on account of settlements in the
Cordilleran region and on the Pacific coast, making
the total area o f settlement for 1870 not less than
1,272,239 square miles. The aggregate population was
38,558,371, and the average density o f settlement 30.3
persons to the square mile.

ment, and the frontier line- o f population, instead of
returning to Lake Michigan, as it did ten years before,
met the boundary line of the British possessions west of
the ninety-seventh meridian. The settlements in Kansas
and Nebraska had made great strides over the plains,
reaching at several points the boundary o f the humid
region, so that their westward extension beyond this
point must be governed hereafter by the supply o f water
D IS T R IB U T IO N O F P O P U L A T I O N : 1880.
in the streams. As a natural result, settlements fo l­
During the decade from 1870 to 1880 Colorado had
lowed these streams in long ribbons o f population. In
been added to the sisterhood o f states. The first notice­
Nebraska these narrow belts reached the western bound­
able point in examining Plate 11, showing the areas of
ary o f the state at two points, one upon the South Platte
settlement at this date, as compared with previous ones,
and the other upon the Republican river. In Kansas,
is the great extent of territory which was brought
too, settlements followed the Kansas river, its branches,
under occupation during the decade. Not only had
and the Arkansas nearly to the western boundary o f
settlement spread west over large areas in Dakota,
the state. Texas also had made great strides, both in
Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas, thus moving the frontier
the extension of the frontier line o f settlement and in
line o f the main body o f settlement west many scores
the increase in the density o f population, due to the
of miles, but the isolated settlements o f the Cordilleran
building of railroads and to the development o f the cat­
region and of the Pacific coast showed enormous acces­
tle and sheep raising industry, and other agricultural
sions o f occupied territory.
interests. The heavy population in the prairie portions
The migration o f farming population to the north­
of the state is explained by the railroads which trav­
eastern part o f Maine had widened the settled area to a ersed them. In Dakota, besides the agricultural region
marked extent, probably more than had been done dur­ in the eastern part o f the territor}r, may be noted the
ing any previous decade. The unsettled portion o f the
formation o f a body o f settlement in the Black hills, in
Adirondack region of northern New Y ork had decreased
the southwest corner, which in 1870 was a part o f the
in size and its limits had been reduced practically to
reservation o f the Sioux Indians. This settlement was
the actual mountain tract. The most notable change,
the result o f the discovery of valuable gold deposits.
however, in the North Atlantic states, also in Ohio and
In Montana the settled area had been greatly extended,
Indiana, had been the increase in density o f population
and as it was mainly due to agricultural interests, was
and the migration to cities, with the consequent increase
found chiefly along the courses o f the streams. Mining,
o f urban population, as indicated by the number and
however, played not a small part in this increase in set­
tlement. Idaho, too, showed a decided growth from the
size of the spots representing these cities upon the map.
same causes. The small settlements which in 1870 were
Throughout the Southern states there is to be noted
located about Boise city and near the mouth o f the
not only a general increase in the density o f population
Clearwater river had extended their areas to many
and a decrease o f unsettled areas, but a greater approach
hundreds o f square miles. The settlement in the south­
to uniformity o f settlement throughout the whole re­
eastern corner o f the territory was almost entirely o f
gion. The unsettled area of the peninsula o f Florida
Mormons, and had not made a marked increase.
had decreased decidedly, while that previously seen
along the upper coast o f Florida and Louisiana had en- I O f all the states and territories o f the Cordilleran re­
tirely disappeared. Although the Appalachian moun­ gion, Colorado had made the greatest stride during the
tain system was still distinctly outlined by its general
decade. From the narrow strip o f settlement extending
lighter shade of color on the map, its density o f popu­
along the immediate base o f the R ocky mountains, the
lation more nearly approached that of the country on
belt increased so that it comprised the whole mountain
the east and on the west. In Michigan there was a region, besides a great extension outward upon the
plains. This increase was the result o f the discovery of
very decided increase of the settled region. Settle­
ments had surrounded the head o f the lower peninsula,
extensive and very rich mineral deposits about Leadand left only a very small bod}T o f unsettled country
ville, producing a “ stampede” second only to that of
in the interior. In the upper peninsula copper and
1849 and 1850 to California. Miners spread over the
iron interests and the railroads which subserve them
whole mountain region, until every range and ridge
had peopled quite a large extent o f territory. In W is­ swarmed with them. New M exico showed but little
consin the unsettled area was rapidly decreasing as rail­ change, although the extension of railroads in the ter­
roads stretched out over the vacant tracts. In Minne­ ritory and the opening up o f mineral resources prom ­
sota and in eastern Dakota the building o f railroads and
ised in the near future to add largely to its population.
the development o f the latent capabilities o f this region
Arizona, too, although its extent o f settlement had in­
in the cultivation of wheat caused a rapid flow o f settle- ! creased somewhat, was but just commencing to enjoy a

POPULATION.

35

period o f rapid development, owing to the extension of
miles. The population was 50,155,783, and the density
railroads and to the suppression o f hostile Indians.
of settlement 32.0 persons to the square mile.
Utah presented a ease dissimilar to any other of the ter­
D IS T R IB U T IO N O F P O P U L A T IO N ! 1890.
ritories— a case of steady growth, due almost entirely
to its agricultural capabilities and to the policy of the
During the decade from 1880 to 1890 a trifling change
Mormon church, which had steadity discountenanced
was made in the boundary between Nebraska and Da­
mining and speculation in all forms, and encouraged
kota which slightly increased the area of Nebraska.
in every way agricultural pursuits. Nevada showed a Dakota territory was divided and the states of North
slight extension o f settlement due mainly to the gradual
Dakota and South Dakota admitted. Montana and
increase in agricultural interests. The mining industry
Washington were added to the sisterhood of states.
was probably not more flourishing in this state than it
The territory of Oklahoma was created out of the
was ten years before, and the population dependent western half of Indian Territory, to which was added
upon it was, if anything, less in number. In California
the strip of public land lying north of the panhandle of
the attention of the people had become devoted more
Texas.
and more to farming, at the expense o f mining and
The most striking fact connected with the extension
cattle raising. The population in some o f the mining
o f settlement during this decade was the numerous
regions had decreased, while over the area o f the great additions which were made to the settled area within
valley and in the fertile valleys of the coast ranges it
the Cordilleran region, as defined on Plate 12. Settle­
had increased.. In Oregon the increase had been mainly
ments spread westward up the slope of the plains until
in the section east of the Cascade range, a region drained
they joined the bodies form erly isolated in Colorado,
by the Deschutes and the John Day rivers, and by the form ing a continuous body of settlement from the East
smaller tributaries o f the Snake, a region which, with j to the Rocky mountains.
Practically the whole of
the corresponding section in Washington territory, was I Kansas became a settled region, and the unsettled area
coming to the front as a wheat-producing district. In
of Nebraska was reduced in dimensions to one-third of
most of the settled portions here spoken of, irrigation
what it was ten years before. What had been a sparsely
was not necessary for the cultivation of crops, conse­ settled region in Texas in 1880, became the most popu­
quently the possibilities o f the region in the direction
lous part of the state, while settlements had spread west­
of agricultural development were very great. In
ward to the escarpment o f the Staked plains. The un­
Washington territory, which in 1870 had been scarcely
settled regions o f North Dakota and South Dakota were
touched by immigration, the valley west o f the Cascade
reduced to about one-half their former dimensions. Set­
mountains was fairly well settled throughout, while the
tlements in Montana spread until they occupied prac­
stream of settlement had poured up the Columbia into
tically one-third of the state. In New Mexico, Idaho,
the valleys of the Wallawalla and Snake rivers and the
and W yom ing considerable extensions of area were
great plain of the Columbia, induced thither by the
made. In Colorado, in spite o f the decline of the
facilities for cattle raising and by the great profits of
mining industry and the depopulation o f its mining re­
wheat cultivation.
gions, settlement spread over two-thirds o f the state.
The length of the frontier line in 1880 was 3,337
Oregon and Washington showed equally rapid progress,
miles. The area included between this line, the Atlantic
and California, although its mining regions had suf­
ocean, the Gulf coast, and the northern boundary was
fered, made great inroads upon its unsettled regions,
1,398,940 square miles, lying between 26° and 49° north
especially in the southern part. O f all the Western
latitude and 67° and 102° west longitude. From this
states and territories Nevada alone was at a standstill
must be deducted, for unsettled areas, a total o f 89,400
in this respect, its settled area remaining practically the
square miles distributed as follows:
same as in 1880. When it is remembered that the state
had lost over one-third of its population during the
decade, the fact that it held its own in settled area is
Square
•
STATE.
miles.
surprising, until it is understood that the state had
undergone a material change in occupations, and that
12,000
2,200
New Y o r k ..................................
..................................................
the inhabitants, instead o f being closely grouped and
M ich igan ............................................................................................................
10,200
W iscon sin .............................
................................................
10,200
engaged in mining pursuits, had scattered along its
34,000
M innesota..........................................................................................................
F lo r id a ...............................................................................................................
20,800
streams and engaged in agriculture.
Settlement was spreading with some rapidity in
To the remaining 1,309,540 square miles, must be Maine, its unsettled area having dwindled from 12,000
to about 6,000 square miles. The unsettled portion of
added the isolated areas of settlement in the Cordilleran
the Adirondack region in New Y ork had also dimin­
region and the extent o f settlement on the Pacific coast,
ished, there remaining but 1,000 square miles. The
which amounted, in the aggregate, to 260,025 square
frontier had been pushed still farther south in Florida,
miles, making a total settled area of 1,569,565 square

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

36

and the unsettled area reduced from 20,800 to about
15,000 square miles.
Lumbering- and mining interests had practically
obliterated the wilderness o f Michigan, and reduced
that o f Wisconsin to less than one-half o f its former
area. In Minnesota the area of the wild northern
forests had been reduced from 34,000 to 23,000 square
miles.
Up to and including 1880, the country had a frontier
of settlement, but in 1890 the unsettled area had been
so broken into by isolated bodies o f settlement that
there could hardly be said to be a frontier line. Its
extent and westerly movement can not, therefore, be
further discussed.
In 1890 the total population returned by the general
enumeration was 62,622,250, and the settled area
amounted to 1,947,280, making a density o f 32.2 per­
sons to a square mile.
D IS T R IB U T IO N

O F P O P U L A T IO N :

1900.

The Twelfth Census (Plate 13) marked one hundred
and ten years’ growth o f the United States, during which
period the population has increased more than twentyone times; the c o u n ty has grown from groups o f settle­
ments of less than 4,000,000 people to one o f the leading
nations of the world, with a population o f nearly
85,000,000. In the decade from 1890 to 1900, Idaho,
W yom ing, and Utah were admitted as states, and
numerous additions of territory were made, comprising
Hawaii, Porto Rico, Philippine Islands, Guam, and
Samoa, covering an area o f nearly 130,000 square miles
with over 8,000,000 inhabitants.
It is a peculiar fact that, in spite o f the great increase
in population of continental United States from 1890
to 1900, the unsettled area has also increased, princi­
pally in the Western states. In these states, however,
the population o f the settled area has increased suffi­
ciently to balance the loss in the sparsely settled
districts, and the density of population fo r the state or
territory, as a whole, has not decreased, except in
Nevada. The unsettled area has materially increased
in Arizona, Calif ornia, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nevada,
New Mexico, and Oregon, while in Nebraska, Montana,
Texas, and W yom ing slight increases are also noted.
The western portions o f Kansas and Nebraska show an
increase in unsettled area, although the density of pop­
ulation of the state, as a whole, has not decreased, owing
to the increase o f population in the eastern portions of
these states; this increase, however, is slight, being
but 1 person to 10 square miles in Nebraska, and 1 per­
son to 2 square miles in Kansas.
In May, 1890, the territory of Oklahoma was created,
and a month later the enumeration showed an area of
settlement o f 2,890 square miles, which, in 1900, had
increased to 32,432 square miles, an actual increase in
the settled area o f 29,542 square miles, a greater increase

than that o f any other state or. territory, due to the in­
crease in population during the decad e from 78,475 to
398,331, or 407.6 per cent.
Indian Territory also made a remarkable increase in
population, but, as it was not divided into counties, no
detailed computation o f the density of settlement or
comparison of the increase in settled area could be made.
The area o f settlement, computed by taking each Indian
reservation as a unit, showed that every portion o f the
territory had a density of more than 2 persons to a
square mile.
The unsettled area o f Maine remained practically
unchanged, although the second group, from 6 to
18 persons to a square mile, greatly increased. In
northern New Y ork the unsettled area o f the Adiron­
dack region has been entire^ obliterated by advancing
settlement. In Florida this area was practically un­
changed. Mining and lumbering enterprises and the
extension o f railroads have effaced the unsettled area in
Wisconsin. In Minnesota the opening of Indian res­
ervations, the growth of mining and lumbering enter­
prises, and the extension of railroads have caused a
great influx of settlement to the northern portion and
the unsettled area has been reduced 7,000 square miles.
North Dakota has decreased its unsettled area by
18,000 square miles and extended its area o f 2 to 6
persons to a square mile north and west to the Cana­
dian line and nearly to the border of Montana. The
eastern part of the state, especially in the valley of the
Red River o f the North, shows quite an increase in the
area of 6 to 18 persons to a square mile. In South
Dakota very little change is noted in the unsettled
area, but the group from 2 to 6 has increased, and in
the southeastern portion o f the state the group o f 18
to 45 has enlarged its area. The unsettled area in Texas
has shown a slight growth, the increase in population
being principally in the eastern half.
The unset­
tled area in the state o f Washington has decreased
since 1890, while in Montana, Oregon, and California
an increase is noted. Nevada shows a great decrease
in its settled area, the entire state having a popu­
lation o f 1 person to each 2| square miles o f area;
there were, however, patches o f settlement, as shown
on Plate 13, with a population of from 2 to 6 persons
to a square mile.
The total land area o f continental United* States, in
1900, was 2,970,230 square miles, and the aggregate
population, including Indians, 75,994,575, giving a
density o f 25.6.
Excluding the unsettled area of
1,044,640 square miles, the density of population o f the
settled area in 1900 was 39.5 persons to the square mile.
A fter studying the increase in population of the
United States from 1790 to 1900, it will be o f interest
to compare its growth in population during the past
century w;ith that o f the principal nations of Europe;
Plate 14 represents graphically the growth in popula-

POPULATION.
tion o f the United States and nine o f the most populous
countries o f E urope from 1800 to 1900. A s it was im ­
possible to obtain the population o f European countries
fo r many o f the decades shown, this diagram has been
based upon a chart prepared b y P rof. Fr. von Juraschek
fo r the “ Geographisch-Statistische Tabellen, 1901.”
O f the ten countries represented on the diagram, the
United States was ninth in 1800, but during the century
its population increased so rapidly that it passed Turkey,
Spain, the United Kingdom , Italy, A ustria-H ungary,
the German Em pire, and France, and in 1900 was
second, standing just below Russia.
Center

of

P

o p u l a t io n

and

it s

M

e d ia n

P

moments were procured, and from them a correction
to the longitude o f the assumed center was obtained.
The follow in g table and the map, Plate 16, show the
location and movement o f the center o f population
from 1790 to 1900:

Position o f the center o f population: 1790 to 1900.

CENSUS.

North
latitude.

West
longi­
tude.

A pproxim ate loca tion b y im portant
cities and towns.

Western
m ove­
m ent
in m iles
during

preced­
in g d ec­
ade.

o in t .

The location o f the center o f population and the de­
scription o f its movements from census to census,
during the past century, is a matter o f special inter­
est, as such movements summarize the net result o f all
the movements o f population during each decennial
period.
The center o f population is the center o f gravity o f
the population o f the country, each individual being
assumed to have the same weight. In order that the
result might be comparable with those obtained in 1880
and 1890, the population o f Alaska and Hawaii has not
been included.
The method used was in brief as
follow s:
The population o f the country was first distributed by
“ square degrees,” as the area included between consec­
utive parallels o f latitude and meridians o f longitude has
been designated. A point was then assumed, tentatively,
as the center, and corrections in latitude and longitude to
this tentative position were computed. In this case the
center was assumed to be at the intersection o f the paral lei
o f 39° north with the meridian o f 86° west o f Greenwich.
The population o f each square degree was assumed to
be located at the center o f that square degree, except
in cases where it was manifest that this assumption
would be untrue; as, fo r instance, where a part o f the
square degree was occupied by the sea or other large
body o f water, or where it contained a city o f consid­
erable magnitude which was situated “ off center.” In
these cases the position o f the center o f population o f
the square degree was estimated as nearty as possible.
The shortest distances between each such center o f
population o f a square degree (whether assumed to be
at, or at a distance from , the center o f the square degree)
and the assumed parallel and meridian were deter­
mined.
The population o f each square degree was
then multiplied by the shortest distance o f its center
o f population from the assumed parallel o f latitude,
and the sums o f the products, or moments, north and
south o f that parallel were obtained. Their difference,
divided by the total population o f the country, gave a
correction to the latitude o f the assumed center o f p op ­
ulation. In a similar manner the east and ..... <
■

37

o

/

1790.......... 39 16.5
1800......... 39 16.1
1810......... 39 11.5

o
,
76 11.2
76 56.5
77 37.2

1820.......... 39 5.7
1830......... 38 57.9

78 33.0
79 16.9

1841.......... 39

2.0

80 18.0

38 59.0

81 19.0

1860.......... 39 0.4
1870.......... 39 12.0

82 48.8
83 35.7

1880.........

39

4.1

84 39.7

1890.........
1900.........

39

11.9

39

9.6

85 32.9
85 48.9

1850.........

j

23 m iles east o f Baltim ore, M d .............
18 m iles west o f Baltim ore, Md
40 m iles northw est by west o f Wash­
ington, D. C.
16 m iles north o f W oodstock, V a .........
19 m iles west-southwest o f M oore­
field, in the present state o f West
Virginia.
16 m iles south o f Clarksburg, in the
present state o f West V irginia.
23 m iles southeast o f Parkersburg, in
the present state o f West Virginia.
20 m iles south of Chillicothe, O h io___
48 m iles east b y north o f Cincinnati,
Ohio.
8 m iles w est b y south o f Cincinnati,
Ohio.
20 m iles east o f Columbus, Ind
6 m iles southeast o f Columbus, I n d . . .

41

36
50

39
55
65
81
42
58
48
14

In 1790 the position o f the center o f population was
39° 16.5' north latitude and 76° 11.2' west longitude,
which a comparison o f the best maps available would
seem to place about 23 miles east o f Baltimore. D uring
the decade from 1790 to 1800 it appears to have m oved
almost due west to a point about 18 miles west o f the
same city, being in latitude 39° 16.1' north and lon gi­
tude 76° 56.5' west.
From 1800 to 1810 it moved west and slightly south
to a point in V irginia about 40 miles northwest b y west
o f W ashington, being in latitude 39° 11.5' north and
longitude 77° 37.2' west. The southerly movement
during this decade appears to have been due to the an­
nexation o f the territory o f Louisiana, which contained
quite extensive settlements.
From 1810 to 1820 it moved west and again slightly
south to a point about 16 miles north o f W oodstock,
Virginia, being in latitude 39° 5.7' north and longitude
78° 33.0' west.
This continued southerly movement
appears to have been due to the extension o f settlements
in Mississippi, Alabama, and eastern Georgia.
Fi om 1820 to 1830 it continued to m ove west and south
to a point about 19 miles west-southwest o f M oorefield,
in the present state o f W est V irginia, being in latitude
38° 57.9' north and longitude 79° 16.9' west. This is
the most decided southern movement that it has made
during any decade. It appears to have been due in part
to the addition o f Florida to our territory, and in part
to the great extension o f settlements in Alabama, Missis­
sippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas, or generally, it may be
said, in the Southwest.

38

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

From 1830 to 1840 it moved still farther west, but due to the large increase in the population of the North
slightly changed its direction north, reaching a point 16 Atlantic states. It also shows that the population of the
miles south of Clarksburg, in the present state of West Western states has not increased as rapidly as in former
Virginia, being in latitude 39° 2.0' north and longitude decades.
The closeness with which the center of population,
80° 18.0' west.
During this decade settlement had
made decided advances in the prairie states and in the through its rapid western movement, has clung to the
southern portions of Michigan and Wisconsin, the bal­ parallel of 39° of latitude can "not fail to be noticed.
ance of increased settlement evidently being in favor The most northern point reached was at the start, in
1790; the most southern point was in 1830, the preced­
of the Northwest.
From 1840 to 1850 it moved west and slightly south ing decade having witnessed a rapid development of
population in the Southwest and in Florida. The
again, reaching a point about 23 miles southeast of
Parkersburg, in the present state of West Virginia, in extreme variation in latitude has been less than 19
latitude 38° 59.0' north and longitude 81° 19.0' west, the minutes, while the movement in longitude during the
change of direction south being largely due to the an­ one hundred and ten years of record was a little over
9.5 degrees. Assuming the western movement to have
nexation of Texas.
been uniformly along the parallel of 39° of latitude, the
From 1850 to 1860 it moved west and slightly north,
western movement of the several decades has been as
reaching a point 20 miles south of Chillicothe, Ohio,
follows: 1790-1800, 41 miles; 1800-1810, 36 miles;
this being in latitude 39° 0.4' north, longitude 82°48.8'
1810-1820, 50 miles; 1820-1830,39 miles; 1830-1840,55
west.
miles; 1840-1850, 55 miles; 1850-1860, 81 miles; 1860From 1860 to 1870 it moved west and sharply north,
reaching a point about 48 miles east by north of Cin­ 1870,42 miles; 1870-1880,58 miles; 1880-1890,48 miles;
cinnati, Ohio, in latitude 39° 12.0' north, longitude 1890-1900,14 miles. This is a total western movement
83° 35.7' west. This northern movement was due in of 519 miles since 1790. The sudden acceleration of
part to the waste and destruction in the South, conse­ movement between 1850 and 1860 was due to the transfer
quent upon the Civil War, and in part, probably, to the of a considerable body of population from the Atlantic
fact that the census of 1870 was defective in its enu­ to the Pacific coast, twelve individuals in San Francisco
meration of the southern people, especially of the exerting as much pressure at the then pivotal point,
namely, the crossing of the eighty-third meridian and
newly enfranchised negro population.
In 1880 the center of population had returned south the thirty-ninth parallel, as forty individuals in Boston.
to nearly the same latitude which it had in 1860, being
The center of area of the United States, excluding
in latitude 39° 4.1' north, longitude 84° 39.7' west, 8 Alaska, Hawaii, and other recent accessions, is in north­
miles west by south of Cincinnati, Ohio. This south­ ern Kansas, in approximate latitude 39° 55' and approx­
ern movement was due only in part to an imperfect imate longitude 98° 50'. The center of population in
1900 was, therefore, about three-fourths of a degree
enumeration in some of the Southern states in 1870.
During the decade from 1870 to 1880 the Southern south and more than thirteen degrees east of the center
states made a large positive increase, both from natural of area.
growth and from migration south.
The median point is the point of intersection of the
In 1890 the center of population had moved north line dividing the population equally north and south
with the line dividing it equally east and w est. In
T
into practically the same latitude it occupied in 1870.
This northern movement was largely due to the great short, it is the central point of population and differs
development in the cities of the Northwest and in the from the center of population in the fact that distance
state of Washington, also to the increase of population from the center is not considered. Its movements from
in New England. Its position was in latitude 39° 11.9' census to census bear no relation to the movements of
north and longitude 85° 32.9' west, 20 miles east of j population, since only movements by which bodies of
I population are transferred across the median lines
Columbus, Indiana.
From 1890 to 1900 the center of population moved have any influence upon its position. To illustrate
west 16' 1" (a little over 14 miles), and south 2' 20" (a this, a million people may move from Minnesota to
little less than 3 miles)—the smallest movement that Washington state without affecting its position, whiie
has ever been noted—and was located at a point about 6 the movement of a hundred persons from Michigan to
miles southeast of Columbus, Bartholomew county, Indi­ Wisconsin might affect it appreciably. In 1900 the
ana, in latitude 39° 9.6' north and longitude 85° 48.9' meridian of 84° 51' 29" equally divided the population
west, as it appears on Plate 15. The southern move­ of the United States east and west, and the parallel of
ment was due largely to the great increase in population 40° 4' 22" equally divided it north and south. The
of Indian Territory, Oklahoma, and Texas, while the median point, therefore, was located at Spartanburg,
small western movement of the center was, undoubtedly,
Indiana.

POPULATION.

39

In order to make a comparison with the movement o f I also show large and steady increases in their population
the center o f population, computations were also made j from census to census.
fo r the Tenth and Eleventh censuses.
Plate 21 indicates the rank in population o f the states
The location o f the median point at the Tenth,
and territories at each census and graphically illustrates
Eleventh, and Tw elfth censuses is shown on Plate 16,
the rapid grow th o f those states form ed from the
and its position and movement in the follow in g table:
western territory, the most conspicuous being that o f
Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and Texas.
In 1790 Virginia was the most populous state and
North
West
Location.
CEN SU S.
latitude. longitude.
held this position until 1820, and, though increasing in
population at each census except in 1870, steadily lost
o
/
O
/
39 57.0
84 7.2 16.2 m iles nearly due w est o f Springfield,
1880..........
in rank until 1900 when it stood seventeenth, due prin­
M iami county, Ohio.
84 40.0 4.8 m iles southwest o f G reenville, Ohio.
40 2.9
1890.........
cipally to the separation o f W est Virginia in 1862.
84 51.5 In Spartanburg, Ind.
40 4.4
1900..........
Massachusetts, second in 1790, was fourth in 1800,
seventh in 1820, and, with slight changes at intervening
The movement o f the median point from 1880 to 1890
censuses, ranked seventh in 1900. Pennsylvania, the
was north 5' 51" and west 32' 49". F rom 1890 to 1900
third state in 1790, advanced to the second position in
it moved north 1' 31" and west 11' 28". The com pari­
1800, which it has held continuously, except in 1810 and
son o f the movements o f the center o f population and
1820. New York ranked fourth in 1790, but grew so
the median point shows that they do not m ove in parallel
rapidly that in 1820 it displaced V irginia, as the first
lines, as from 1880 to 1890 the median point m oved west | state, and still held first position at the Tw elfth Census.
27 miles and north 6.6 miles, while the center o f p opu ­
North Carolina, fifth in 1790, was fifteenth; Maryland,
lation moved west 48 miles and north 9 miles. From
sixth, was tw enty-sixth; South Carolina, seventh, was
1890 to 1900 the median point moved west 10.8 miles
tw enty-fourth; Connecticut, eighth, was twenty-ninth;
and north 2.4 miles, while the center o f population
New Jersey, ninth, was sixteenth; New Hampshire,
m oved west 14 miles and south 2.5 miles.
tenth, was thirty-sixth; G eorgia, eleventh in 1790, was
the only state that held the same rank in 1900; Rhode
G e o g r a p h ic a l D iv is io n s .
Island, twelfth, was thirty-fourth; and Delaware, thir­
F or purposes o f comparison continental United States
teenth, was forty-sixth.
was divided into five main groups or divisions which,
The loss in rank o f a number o f the original thirteen
with the states and territories included therein, are as
states was not caused by an actual decrease in their
follow s:
population, but b y the remarkable grow th o f new states
NORTH AT LA N T IC DIVISION.
carved out o f the western territory; as, fo r instance,
New York.
Massachusetts.
M aine.
Ohio in 1800 was seventeenth, and in 1900 was fourth.
R h ode Island.
New Jersey.
N ew H ampshire.
Pennsylvania.
Connecticut.
Verm ont.
Illinois, twenty-second in 1810, was third; M issouri,
SOUTH ATLA N TIC D IV ISIO N .
which first appeared in 1820 as the twenty-third state,
South Carolina.
Virginia.
Delaware.
had outgrown all o f the original thirteen states, except
Georgia.
W est Virginia.
M aryland.
Florida.
N orth Carolina.
D istrict o f Colum bia.
New Y o rk and Pennsylvania, and in 1900 ranked fifth;
Iow a, twenty-ninth in 1840, was tenth; and W isconsin,
NORTH CE N TRA L DIVISION.
holding the last place, thirtieth, at the same decade,
N orth Dakota.
W isconsin.
Ohio.
South Dakota.
Indiana.
M innesota.
was thirteenth. Texas, admitted to the Union in 1845,
Nebraska.
Iowa.
Illinois.
M ichigan.
Missouri.
Kansas.
ranked as the twenty-fifth state in 1850 and has had such
remarkable grow th that it outranked Massachusetts at
SOUTH CEN TRAL DIVISION.
the T w elfth Census, being the sixth state in population.
Indian Territory.
K entucky.
Mississippi.
Tennessee.
Alabama.

Oklahom a.
Texas.

Louisiana.
Arkansas.

D

e n s it y

of

P o p u l a t io n .

W ESTERN DIVISION.
M ontana.
Idaho.
W yom ing.
Colorado.

P o p u l a t io n

W ashington.
Oregon.
California.

New M exico.
Arizona.
Utah.
Nevada.

by

S tates

and

T

e r r it o r ie s .

Plates 18 and 19 show, by the length o f the bars, the
grow th o f the population o f each state and territory at
each census, and make clear the remarkable increase and
magnitude o f the population o f New Y ork and Penn­
sylvania, as compared with that o f New Hampshire,
Verm ont, Delaware, and other states. Ohio and Illinois

Diagram 2, Plate 24 and cartogram 1, Plate 27, show
the density o f population o f each state and territory in
1900, excluding the D istrict o f Columbia, which is
practically a city. The most densely populated states
were Rhode Island, with 407 persons to a square mile;
Massachusetts, with 349; New Jersey, with 250; and
Connecticut, with 188.
Plate 25 shows the decrease and the density o f
increase o f population from 1890 to 1900. The areas
colored in blue indicate those counties in which the
population has decreased, and the shades o f brown,

40

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

the urban element by the shaded portion, showing that,
the five different groups in which the density of
while the aggregate population has increased rapidly
increase of population ranges from less than one inhab­
from census to census, the urban element has increased
itant per square mile to twenty-five or more per square
proportionately much faster than the aggregate popu­
mile. The heaviest shade, denoting the greatest in­
lation. The follow ing table, and diagram 3, Plate 17,
crease, is found principally in the states having the
show the percentage of urban to total population at
greatest density of population, except in Oklahoma,
each census:
Indian Territory, and Texas, and counties containing
Urban population. 1
important cities.
Cartogram 5, Plate 27, shows, by states and terri­
Percent­
tories, the decrease in blue, and the density o f increase
Number Increase
age of
Total
Urban
in num­
CENSUS.
of
population. population.2 urban to
ber of
o f population from 1890 to 1900 in five shades of
total pop­ places.2
places.
ulation.
brown. The onty state indicating a decrease is Nevada,
the Atlantic coast states showing the greatest increase,
375,477,467
24,992,199
1900 ..............................
33.1
545
98
62,622,250
1890 ..............................
18,272,503
29.2
447
161
and the states of the Western and North Central
1880..............................
50,155,783
11,318,547
22.6
286
60
1870 ..............................
38,558,371
8,071,875
20.9
226
85
divisions the smallest.
31,443,321
1860 ..............................
5,072,256
16.1
141
56
2,897,586
12.5
85
41
Cartogram 3, Plate 27, shows the decrease and propor­ 1850 .............................. 23,191,876
1840 ..............................
17,069,453
1,453,994
8.5
44
18
1830 ..............................
12,866,020
864,509
6.7
26
13
tion o f increase o f total population from 1890 to 1900,
1820 ..............................
9,638,453
475,135
4.9
13
2
1810..............................
7,239,881
356,920
4.9
11
5
by states and territories. Maine, New Hampshire, V er­ 1800 ..............................
5,308,483
210,873
4.0
6
0
6
1790 ..............................
131,472
3,929,214
3.3
mont, Delaware, Nebraska, and Kansas had the smallest
increase, and Oklahoma and Indian Territory the great­
1 Figures taken from Twelfth Census, Vol. I, table x x ix , page lx x x iii.
2 Places having 8,000 inhabitants or more.
est. Nevada is the only state indicating a decrease.
3 Excludes Alaska, Hawaii, Indian Territory, Indian reservations, and persons
in the military and naval service of the United States stationed abroad.
Plate 28 presents in blue those counties in which the
population has decreased from 1890 to 1900, and, in
The greatest increase in the urban element is noted
four shades of brown, the percentage of increase in the
for the decade from 1880 to 1890, the number o f cities
remaining counties. Excluding the District of Colum­
having a population over 8,000 having increased during
bia, there are onty twelve states and territories without a the decade from 286 to 447, an increase of 161, or 56.3
county showing a decrease in population, namety: Rhode
per cent.
Island, Delaware, W est Virginia, South Carolina, M in­
Plate 20 shqws the proportion o f urban to total popu­
nesota, North Dakota, Indian Territory^ Oklahoma,
lation at each census, by states and territories, excluding
Montana, W yom ing, Arizona, and Utah. There are six
the District o f Columbia, which is practically a city,
states and territories having but one county with a and those states and territories having urban population
decrease— Connecticut, Wisconsin, Iowa, New Mexico,
for less than three decades. The growth of urban
Idaho, and Oregon.
population in the state o f Rhode Island since 1810 has
The largest areas of blue, indicating a decrease in j been amazing, having increased from 13.1 to 81.2 per
population, are found in Kansas, Nebraska, and South j cent, showing that in this state in 1900, 8 persons out
Dakota. The most extensive areas of shade iv, show­
o f every 10 resided in cities and towns o f over 8,000
ing an increase in population of 50 per cent or over, are
inhabitants. The increase o f urban population in Mas­
noted in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana,
sachusetts has also been remarkable; in 1790 about 5
Washington, Oklahoma, Indian Territory, and Texas.
per cent o f its population were found in cities o f 8,000
There are a number o f single counties in this class
inhabitants and upward, while in 1900 the urban element
scattered through the other states. The map shows,
was 76.0 per cent, an increase during the one hundred
in general, that those counties having the highest per­
and ten years o f nearly 71 per cent. A t the Twelfth
centage o f increase are found in the Northwest, South­
Census the urban element in New Y ork formed 68.5
west, and Gulf states.
per cent o f its population, in New Jersey 61.2 per cent,
and in Connecticut 53.2 per cent, these being the only
U r b a n P o p u l a t io n .
states in which more than half of the population resided
in cities o f 8,000 inhabitants or over.
The Census generally regards as the urban element
that portion of the population living in cities o f 8,000
Diagram 1, Plate 24, represents, by the length o f the
bars, the total population, and the black portion, the
inhabitants or more. In 1790 this element formed only
3.3 per cent of the population, but in 1900 it constituted
urban in each state and territory in 1900. New York,
33.1 per cent, or nearly one-third of the entire popula­ Pennsylvania, and Illinois had a greater urban popu­
tion (excluding Alaska, Hawaii, Indian Territory, In­ lation than Massachusetts, although the proportion to
dian reservations, and persons in the military and naval
total population was not as large. Cartogram 2, Plate
service of the United States stationed abroad). Dia­
27, also shows graphically, by shades o f color, the pro­
gram 1, Plate 17, represents the aggregate population
portion o f urban to total population in 1900 in each state
from 1790 to 1900 by the total length o f the bars and i and territory.

POPULATION.
Plate 22, similar to Plate 21, represents the rank of
the most populous cities at each census and marks their
change in rank according to population from census to
census. In 1790 only thirteen places were large enough
to be shown, but the growth in population of our cities
has been so great that, after 1840, it is impracticable to
indicate more than the fifty principal cities at each cen­
sus, consequently many of the cities appearing at one
census are not represented again. While few of these
cities have experienced an actual decrease in popula­
tion, they have lost their positions, owing to the more
rapid growth of other municipalities.
The most populous city in 1790 was New York, which
has held first position in every decade. Philadelphia
was second from 1790 until 1830, when it was displaced
by Baltimore, but in 1860 again reached second place
and held this position until 1890, when Chicago advanced
to second place, since which time Philadelphia has held
third position. Boston, which was third in 1790, was
fifth in 1900, having been passed by Chicago and St.
Louis. Charleston, fourth in 1790 and sixty-eighth in
order of size at the Twelfth Census, does not appear on
the diagram after 1880. Baltimore, fifth in 1790, ad­
vanced to second place in 1830, and held this position
until 1860, but was sixth in 1900. Northern Liberties
and Southwark, sixth and tenth in rank, respectively,
in 1790, were incorporated with Philadelphia after 1850.
Salem, seventh in 1790, does not appear after 1860.
Newport, eighth in 1790, does not appear after 1830.
Providence, ninth in 1790, was twentieth in rank in
1900. Marblehead, the eleventh, does not show after
1820. The changes in rank of the cities named repre­
sent, to a certain extent, the wonderful growth of our
principal cities in the last one hundred and ten years.
Some of the most conspicuous examples of rapid ad­
vance in rank of population noted on the diagram are
Troy, from thirty-seventh in 1820 to nineteenth in
1830; Lowell from forty-third in 1830 to eighteenth in
1840. St. Louis first appeared in 1840 as the twentyfourth city; in ten years it had grown so rapidly that
at the Seventh Census it ranked as the eighth city, and,
maintaining its rapid advance, reached fourth place in
1870, but-was displaced in 1880 by Chicago and-Boston.
In 1890 it had again passed Boston and was in the fifth
place, and in 1900, by the dropping out of Brooktyn, it
again ranked as the fourth city. Brooklyn, which first
appeared in 1820, rapidly increased in population until
in 1860 it ranked as the third city; in 1900, owing to
its annexation to New York city, it had disappeared.
San Francisco and Chicago appeared for the first time
in 1850, ranking twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth, respec­
tively. Chicago’s growth was so rapid that in 1860 it
had reached the ninth place; in 1870, the fifth; in 1880,
the fourth; and in 1890 was the second city, which
position it still retained in 1900. San Francisco also
advanced rapidly until in 1900 it ranked as the ninth city.

41

In 1850 a number of western cities appeared for the
first time, among them Milwaukee and Cleveland, both
of which have grown rapidly, the former ranking in 1900
as the fourteenth city, and the latter as the seventh.
From 1880 to 1890 Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Den­
ver made remarkable advances in rank. Seattle, Port­
land (Oregon), Los Angeles, and St. Joseph appear in
1900 for the first time among the fifty most populous
cities.
Plate 23 represents, by the length of the bars, the pop­
ulation at each census of the largest cities of the United
States (those having at the TwelftlTCensus a population
of more than 100,000), arranged in order of their size in
1900; the relative size and tremendous growth of New
York, Chicago, and Philadelphia as compared with the
other cities are well brought out. Diagram 3, Plate 24,
shows, by the length of the bars, the relative size of the
same cities in 1900.
Plate 26 shows, in five shades of brown, the proportion
of the population in each county in cities and towns of
more than 2,000 inhabitants in 1900; counties without a
municipality of this size are colored in blue. The first,
or lightest shade, represents counties.having less than 10
per cent of their population in cities, and is found prin­
cipally in the South Atlantic and North and South Cen­
tral states; the second, third, and fourth classes are
most numerous in the New England, Middle, and North
Central states. The fifth class, 75 per cent and over,
marks the counties in which are found the principal
cities.
E lem ents of

the

P o p u l a t io n .

Plate 42 represents, by a series of circles, the total
population and its'elements at each census, from 1790
to 1900. The circles represent by their entire area the
total population at each census, and the sectors into
which they are divided, the proportion of each ele­
ment. From 1790 to 1840 the only elements that could
be shown were the white and colored. In 1850 and 1860
the foreign white were added, and from 1870 to 1900
the native white of native parents and native white of
foreign parents were added. These circles show very
plairdy the tremendous increase of the foreign white
element. In 1850 this element is first represented as
nearly two-thirds the size of the colored; in 1860 it
was nearly equal to the colored. In 1870, including the
native white of foreign parents and the foreign white,
this element was double that of the colored. The cir­
cles for 1880 and 1890 also show the great increase of
the foreign element. In 1900 the native white of for­
eign parents and the foreign white compose 34.0 per
cent of the total population.
The three squares on Plate 41 represent the total
population and its three elements in 1900. The first
square shows the proportion of the native white, for­
eign white, and colored, by sex. The nearly equal

42

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

proportion of Chinese and Japanese, and North Da­
division of the sexes in the native white and colored
elements, and the excess of males in the foreign is kota, the greatest percentage of foreign white males of
clearly indicated. The second square shows the pro­ militia age.
portion of the native white and colored elements born in
Plate 46 shows the constituents of the total male pop­
the states in which they were enumerated and the pro­ ulation of voting age for 1900, the states following in
portion born in other states; on the rectangle for the almost the same order as in the preceding diagram,
colored is also indicated the proportion born in foreign
West Virginia having the greatest proportion of native
countries, which represents principally the Chinese and white of native parents and Hawaii the smallest.
Japanese. The rectangle representing the foreign
Plate 47, composition of the total population of states
white population shows the proportion of persons from and territories, including resident natives, native im­
each of the principal foreign countries. The third migrants, and foreign born, with per cent of native
square shows the proportion of each element living in emigrants in 1900, shows first, the percentage of per­
cities of 25,000 population and upward. Nearly one- sons living in the state who were born there; second,
the percentage of persons living in the state who were
fourth of the native white and about half the foreign
white population resided in cities of 25,000 or more born in other states; third, the percentage of persons
inhabitants. The proportion of colored in cities of this living in the state who were of foreign birth, these
i three making up the total population. South Carolina
class was 12.9 per cent, or about one-eighth.
Plate 43 represents for 1900 the constituents of pop­ had the largest percentage of resident natives and
ulation of each state and territory in percentages of the Oklahoma the smallest, while Hawaii had the greatest
total population (exclusive of persons in the military percentage of foreign born. The percentages of the
and naval service of the United States stationed abroad foreign born element in South Carolina, North Caro­
not credited to any state or territory), arranged in the lina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi were too small
order of the percentage of native white of native par­ to be represented on the diagram.
In order to compare the number of persons born in
ents. Under this arrangement, West Virginia is first,
having the largest percentage of native white of native each state who have emigrated to other states with the
parents in 1900, and North Dakota last, with the small­ population of the state in 1900, the bars colored yellow
est percentage. Oklahoma, Kentucky, Indiana, and were added on the right side of the diagram, and repre­
New Mexico follow West Virginia, each having over 75 sent graphically the proportion which persons born in
per cent of their total population native white of native the state but living in other states bore to the popula­
parents. The diagram also shows that in each of
tion of the state in 1900. Vermont shows the largest
proportion of persons born in the state who have emi­
twenty-nine states and territories the native white of
native parents constituted more than 50 per cent of its grated to other states; the proportion of emigrants from
total population. Owing to the large influx of foreign­ Nevada, Virginia, and Maine was also very large.
ers, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts had
Plate 48 represents the state of birth of the native
relatively small percentages of native white of native population in 1900, by states and territories arranged
parents. The preponderance of the negro element in in geographical order, and shows the percentage of the
the South is very clearly indicated by the black portion
native population of each state who were born in that
of the bar, the largest percentage being found in South state and the percentage who were born in the states
Carolina and Mississippi, which had almost equal pro­ indicated by the small figures in each bar. North
Carolina and South Carolina had the largest propor­
portions of native white of native parents. In North
Carolina the native white of foreign parents comprised tion o f residents who were born in the state, while
only 0.4 per cent, and the foreign white, 0.2 per cent Oklahoma had the smallest. It will also be noted that
of the population; therefore, the proportions were too
in all the states and territories, except ten, more than
small to be indicated on the diagram.
50 per cent of the native population were born in the
Plate 44 is made to show the constituents of the pop­ state or territory specified.
ulation of cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants in
N e g r o P o p u l a t io n .
1900. St. Joseph had the largest percentage of native
The movement of the negroes, as indicated by the
white of native parents, while Columbus, Indianapolis,
location of the center of this population and its median
Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, and Denver follow
with 50 per cent or more of their population of this point for three censuses, 1880,1890, and 1900, is shown
element.
on the sketch map, Plate 52. The method of obtaining
Plate 45 represents, by states and territories, in 1900,
the location of this center and the median point was
the constituents of the total male population of militia exactly the same as used for ascertaining the location of
age—that is, between the ages of 18 and 44, inclusive.
the center of total population, as described on page 37.
West Virginia leads with the greatest percentage of
In 1880 the center of negro population was located
native white of native parents, Oklahoma, Indian Terri­ in Walker county, Georgia, latitude 34° 42' 14” north,
tory, and Kentucky following. Hawaii had the greatest longitude 85° 6' 56” west. From this point, in ten

POPULATION.
years, it moved to latitude 34° 36' 18” north, longitude
85° 26' 49” west, a point in the same county, but 22^
miles southwest. In 1900 it had moved across the state
line into Dekalb county, Alabama, a southwestern
movement of 11 miles. The total western movement of
the center from 1880 to 1900 was 27 miles, and its
southern movement 14 miles, showing that the trend
of the negro population is toward the South and West,
although the number o f negroes in the Northern states
has increased. The median point at the three censuses
was located east and south of the center o f this element
o f population, and its movement may be said to have
been nearly the same both in distance and direction.
Diagram 1, Plate 53, represents, by the length of the
bars, the negro population in each state and territory
having over 1,000 negroes in 1900, Georgia leading with
1,034,813, Mississippi second, Alabama third, South
Carolina fourth, Virginia, Louisiana, North Carolina,
and Texas follow ing in order, each having over 500,000
negroes. The small number of negroes in the Northern
and Western states is clearly indicated.
Diagram 2, Plate 53, shows for 1900, by the length of
the bars, the percentage o f children under 1 year o f age
of the native white of native parentage, and o f the
negroes,the states and territories being arranged in the
order of the proportion of the native white o f native
parentage. Utah leads with the highest percentage of
the white element under 1 year o f age, Wisconsin,
Minnesota, and Idaho following in order. It will be
noted generally that the Western and Southern states
had much larger percentages o f children under 1 year of
age than the New England states. The portion o f the
diagram representing the negroes under 1 year o f age
has a very irregular appearance owing to the small pro­
portion of negro children in the Northern and Western
states as compared with the white. It will be noted
that those states showing the largest percentages of
negro children under 1 year o f age are in the South, and
in states in which the negro element formed a large proportion of tbe population. Hawaii, showing the highest
percentage, can not be accepted as representative, as
only 9 negro children under 1 year o f age were returned
by the enumerators, and the entire negro population was
very small. The diagram is also o f interest in showing
the states having the largest proportion o f white chil­
dren under 1 year, which, to a certain extent, indicates
a high birth rate. This is also true o f the negro popula­
tion, and points out the states in which the climatic
conditions are most favorable to this race.
Plate 54 represents the percentage o f white and negro
population in each o f fifteen states at the censuses for
which its population was returned. The shaded part
represents the proportion o f negro population and the
uncolored portion the white. South Carolina in 1880
showed the highest percentage of negroes, then 60.7 per
cent o f the total. In 1900 Mississippi had the highest
percentage, 58.5 per cent, South Carolina following

43

I very closely with 58.4 per cent. The proportion of
negro to white population, as represented on the dia­
| gram, has decreased since 1890 in Virginia and W est
Virginia, considered as one, Delaware, Maryland, Dis­
trict of Columbia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Texas,
while it has increased in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi,
and Arkansas.
Plate 55 shows by counties, in six degrees of density,
the distribution o f the negro population in 1900, the
heavy shades indicating the counties in which the great­
est numbers o f negroes were found. The South Atlantic
and South Central states had nearly nine-tenths o f the
j negro population, and, therefore, the most dense settle­
ments o f this race were found in those states, especially
South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. The counties
adjoining the Mississippi river in Tennessee, Missis­
sippi, and Louisiana also show a dense negro population.
| Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York,
Pennsjdvania, Missouri, and Kansas had considerable
areas o f negro settlements.
Cartogram 2, Plate 72, shows,in six degrees of density,
| the negro population in 1900, by states and territories,
the state being used as the unit. This map, compared
with cartogram 1, on the same plate, indicates that the
negro and foreign born elements generally are found in
different parts o f the United States.
Plate 56 brings out, in six shades o f color, the propor­
j tion o f negro to total population in 1900 in each county,
and therefore clearly outlines the areas in each state
upon which the negroes are most thickly settled. The
heavy shades, found principally in Alabama, Georgia,
and South Carolina, also along the Mississippi river
in Louisiana and Mississippi, indicate those counties
I in which the negroes formed more than 60 per cent
o f the total population. The lighter shades in the
Northern states show the relatively small proportion of
negro population in the colder regions.
Cartogram 4, Plate 72, shows the states and terri­
l
tories which had the greatest proportion o f negro to
total population in 1900, the state being taken as the
unit.
Cartogram 6, Plate 72, shows the proportional in­
! crease and decrease of negro to white population from
1890 to 1900, by states and territories, and brings out
| the fact that the negro population increased propor­
tionately in nineteen states and territories, only four
o f these being Southern states— Arkansas, Mississippi,
Alabama, and Florida. The negroes increased propor­
tionately in most of the New England and Middle
states, and a few of the North Central and Western
states.
M ig r a t io n .

The total native born population in 1900 was 65,767,451
(including Alaska and Hawaii, but excluding 75,851 na­
! tive born enumerated at military and naval stations

44

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

abroad). Of this number 51,979,651, or 79.0 per cent,
were born in the state or territory in which they were
found by the census enumerators. The remaining
13,787,800, constituting 21.0 per cent of the entire native
born element, had emigrated from the state or territory
in which they were born and were found in other states
and territories. The proportion living in the state or
territory of birth was slightly larger in 1900 than it
was in 1890. These figures show to some extent the
roving disposition of the native population, although it
is not a true measure, as many persons enumerated in
states other than those in which they were born have
probably resided in more than one state since leaving
their native states. It also takes no account of persons
who have left their native states and subsequently
returned.
Plate 49 is a very interesting diagram, as it shows, by
states and territories, the percentage of persons born in
each state who were living in other states and territo­
ries in 1900, the numbers in each bar corresponding
with the numbers preceding the names of the states.
For instance, in Maine that portion of the bar numbered
4 represents the percentage of persons born in Maine
who were living in Massachusetts; number 2, the per­
centage of persons born in Maine who were living in
New Hampshire; number 50, the percentage of persons
who were born in Maine, but were living in California;
and 24, the percentage of persons born in Maine who
were living in Minnesota. Over 50 per cent of the native
emigration of New Hampshire, New Mexico, and
Nevada have gone to an adjoining state—New Hamp­
shire to Massachusetts, New Mexico to Colorado, and
Nevada to California—and it will be noted generally
that adjoining states receive the greatest proportion of
native emigrants.
Plate 50 represents the net results of interstate migra­
tion and all migration in 1900, by states and territories,
and shows clearly their magnitude.
The states showing the greatest loss as a result of
interstate migration are New York, Ohio, Virginia,
and Pennsylvania; and those having the greatest gain
through interstate migration are Texas, Kansas, Cali­
fornia, and Oklahoma. The states showing the greatest
loss as a result of all migration are Virginia, Kentucky,
Tennessee, and North Carolina; and those showing the
greatest gain as the result of all migration are New
York, Massachusetts, Illinois, Texas, and California, in
the order given. There are, in fact, thirty-two states
and territories, including Utah and Nevada, which
gained in interstate migration, and nineteen states that
lost. Thirty-seven states gained and fourteen states,
including Delaware and Indiana, lost as a result of all
migration, while there are also fourteen states that
show a loss as a result of both interstate migration and
all migration. The large gain as a result of all migra­
tion for New York, Massachusetts, and Illinois is due

to the large number of foreigners who have settled in
these states.
Massachusetts shows a gain and New York a loss
through interstate migration, but both have gained as
a result of all migration, due to the large number of
foreign immigrants. Those states which have appar­
ently lost through all migration have, nevertheless,
increased in population during the decade from 1890 to
1900. Cartogram 3, Plate 76, representing for 1900 the
gain or loss as the result of all migration, indicates that
Maine, Vermont, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Missis­
sippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio have
lost in population as the result of all migration.
Plate 51 represents interstate migration in 1900, in
hundreds of thousands, and indicates very clearly the
states which have lost more population through emigra­
tion to other states than they have gained through
migration from other states. New York shows a loss
of 1,289,866 through emigration; Ohio, a loss of
1,114,165; and Illinois, 1,012,637. Illinois has been the
greatest gainer through immigration, having received
960,946 immigrants from other states. Missouri and
Texas have each gained over 800,000 persons as a result
of interstate migration.
Cartogram 5, Plate 76, shows the gain or loss as' the
result of interstate migration in 1900. With the excep­
tion of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New
Jersey, West Virginia, Florida, and Michigan, all the
states east of the Mississippi river have lost, while all
those west have gained.
Sex.

Plate 29 is a very interesting and instructive map,
showing the predominating sex in each county at the
Twelfth Census. The areas colored in blue indicate
where the females outnumbered the males, and the
shades of brown the percentage of excess of males in
accordance with the grouping in the legend. The areas
showing an excess of females are (found principally in
the North and South Atlantic divisions, and Alabama
and Mississippi of the South Central division, Massa­
chusetts and the District of Columbia having had the
largest proportion of females. The heavy shades of
brown, indicating the greatest excess of males, are
found principally in the Western states; South Dakota,
Kansas, Texas, and Utah, however, show a few counties
in which the females were in excess.
Cartogram 1, Plate 76, represents the predominating
sex, by states and territories, the state being taken as the
unit. The only states having an excess of females, as
indicated by the blue color, were New Hampshire, Mas­
sachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey,
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and
Georgia, densely populated states of the Atlantic coast.
The proportion of excess of males in the remainder of

POPULATION.
the states and territories is indicated by the differ­
ent shades o f brown, Montana, Wyoming-, and Nevada
showing- the greatest excess o f males.
A ge

an d

Sex.

The series of diagrams, Plates 30 to 32, represent the
distribution of the population o f continental United
States, by age and sex, in percentages of the whole num­
ber o f each element. The percentage of the population
in each age period is represented by the total length of
the bar, the portion on the left of the heavy vertical
line representing the proportion of males and that on
the right the proportion o f females. The lower bar
represents the percentage of the population under 5
years of age, and those for the remaining age periods
are superimposed in the order indicated by the figures
on the left o f the diagram. The age periods are the
same as those given in table x x i, page xlix, Twelfth
Census, Volume II.
P l a t e s 30 a n d 31 a r e a s e r i e s o f s m a l l d i a g r a m s s h o w ­
in g th e p e r c e n ta g e s

o f t h e t o t a l D o p u la t io n a n d

each

o f its e le m e n ts b y a g e a n d s e x .

The first three diagrams represent the distribution of
the total population in 1900, 1890, and 1880, by age
and sex. The lower horizontal bar, indicating the
greatest percentage, is for children less than 5 years of
age, the age groups gradually decreasing in size, ex­
cept in the group for 20 to 24 years in 1880. For 1900
and 1890 the length o f the bars is almost the same,
the only differences being slight decreases in 1900 for
eaeh age period below 25 }7
ears, and a slight increase
for 25 years and upward. Comparing the diagram for
1890 with that for 1880, we note that in the latter the
age periods below 15 years are much larger than in the
former, and, by comparison with 1900, a much larger
decrease in these age periods from 1880 to 1890 than
from 1890 to 1900 will be noted. In 1880 a larger per­
centage is shown for the age group from 20 to 24
years than from 15 to 19 years, a peculiarity not found
in 1890 or 1900, as the percentages for each age period
decrease as the age advances. The excess in this age
group is due principally to an excess in the colored
population. The two sexes appear to be nearly equal at
each decade, although the males slightly exceed the
females in a majority of age groups. In 1900 the females
were in excess in the following age groups: 15 to 19,
20 to 24, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and 85 to 89; in 1890, 15
to 19, and 80 to 84; in 1880, 15 to 19, 75 to 79, and 80
to 84 years. A ge groups above 89 are not considered
for 1900, while those above 84 are not shown for 1890
and 1880.
The three diagrams representing by sex the percentage
o f the white population in each age group for 1900,
1890, and 1880 show slight variations from the diagrams
of the total population. The age groups below 25 have
smaller percentages and those above 24 larger percent­
ages in most cases, due to the large proportion of adults

45

among the foreign white element. For 1880 the per­
centage for the age group from 20 to 24 years is not
larger than that for 15 to 19 years, as in the aggregate
population. The females exceed the males in the age
groups from 15 to 19 and 80 to 84 years for each o f the
three censuses; in the groups from 20 to 24 for 1900;
85 to 89 for 1900 and 1890; and 75 to 79 for 1880. Age
groups above 89 are not shown for 1900 and 1890, nor
above 84 for 1880.
The three diagrams representing the age and sex of
the colored population show marked differences, as,
comparing the two for 1880 and 1890, it will be noted
that a great decrease is indicated in the percentage o f
children less than 5 years o f age, both male and female.
In 1900 the percentages o f colored children less than 5
years of age and from 5 to 9 years were very nearly
the same, the former being only 0.1 per cent larger,
while in the other age periods the decrease was gen­
erally more rapid than for the white element, indicating
that the proportion of colored children was larger, due
to the greater birth rate and death rate o f the colored
population. For 1890 the percentage o f colored chil­
dren from 5 to 9 years o f age was greater than below 5
years, and would argue that there were fewer children
under 5 years of age than in the next group, 5 to 9
years. This irregularity is due to a slightly deficient
enumeration in 1890, especially in regard to colored
children under 5 years o f age. The diagram for 1880
shows a greater percentage o f colored males and females
in the age group from 20 to 24 }^ears than in the next
lower group, from 15 to 19 years, and, as the diagram
for the white population does not show an excess in the
group from 20 to 24, this peculiarity in the colored
element caused the same characteristic to appear in the
same age group in the pyramid representing the aggre­
gate population. The males outnumbered the females
in a majority o f the age groups for both 1900 and 1890,
but for 1880 they were nearly equal. A ge groups
above 84 do not appear in these diagrams. In 1900 the
females were in excess in each group below 30, with
the exception of 10 to 14; they were also in excess in
the age group from 80 to 84 years. In 1890 there were
more females than males in the age groups from 15 to
24, 40 to 44, and 80 to 84; they were also in excess in
the following groups in 1880: 15 to 24, 35 to 44, and 70
to 84.
The first three diagrams on Plate 31 represent age
and sex in percentages of the native white for 1900,
1890, and 1880, and show a regular decrease in the age
groups below 25 years from census to census with the
exception of the age group 15 to 19 years, in 1890, and
slight increases in the age groups from 25 to 69 years,
with the exception that the age group from 30 to 34
years shows a decrease in percentage from 1890 to
1900. The age groups from 70 to 84 show slight in­
creases from 1880 to 1890, and decreases from 1890 to
1900. The age periods in which the percentage o f males

46

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

exceeded that of the females were b}7far in the majority,
those above 84 years not being shown. The percentage
of females was the larger in the age groups from 15 to
19, and 75 to 84, at each of the three censuses; also 20
to 24 in 1900, and 35 to 44 in 1880.
The diagrams representing the foreign white popu­
lation for 1900, 1890, and 1880 show plainly that the
majority of immigrants who come to this country are
between 20 and 50 years of age, and that a very small
proportion are less than 15 }7
ears of age. The males
were largely in excess of the females in almost every
age period above 24, but in the periods below 25, the
sexes were nearly equal. The percentage of females
was greater than that of males at each census in age
groups 15 to 19, and 85 to 89; in 1900, age group 20 to
24; and in 1890 and 1880, in age group 80 to 84. Ages
above 89 are not shown.
The two diagrams representing the age and sex of
the native white of native parents in 1900 and 1890 are
the most symmetrical, showing a gradual and nearly
uniform decrease in percentage for each age group,
starting with the lowest, and may be considered the
normal distribution of age and sex. The proportion of
males was greater than that of females in nearly every
group, the only exceptions being the age groups from
75 to 89 in both decades shown, and 15 to 19 in 1890.
Ages above 89 do not appear.
The single diagram representing the age and sex of
Indians in 1900 shows that the two sexes were nearly
equal, but the proportion of children in the lower age
periods was larger than for the native white of native
parents, and nearly as large as the colored. The fe­
males were in excess in all age periods above 54, the
age periods above 89 not appearing in the diagram.
The first two diagrams on Plate 32 show the propor­
tion of males and females in each age period in 1900
and 1890, for the native white of foreign parents. This
element shows at both decades a large percentage of
children below 15 years of age and a very rapid de­
crease in the percentage of the age groups above 24
years, due to the fact that 46.2 per cent of the foreign
born have come to this country since 1870. A decrease
from 1890 to 1900 will be noted in the percentage of
the age groups below 25 years and an increase in per­
centage in all those above 24 }T
ears. In this element
of the population the males were in excess in nearly
every group, the only age periods in which the females
were in excess being 15 to 29 in both 1900 and 1890.
Age periods above 74 are not shown for 1900, nor
above 79 for 1890.
The diagram for negroes for 1900 brings out the fact
that the sexes were very nearly equally distributed at
all age periods, and is peculiar in that the percentage
of children under 5 years of age is almost the same as
from 5 to 9 years. The proportion of children below
15 years of age is, however, larger than for the native

white of native parents. The females were in excess
in a majority of age periods, under 5, 5 to 9, 15 to 44,
and 80 to 89 years. Age periods above 89 do not appear
on the diagram.
The group of diagrams on Plates 33 and 34 show the
distribution of the aggregate population of each state
and territory by age and sex groups in 1900. The
percentages in the age groups from 90 to 100, and above
100 were so small as to be of little importance and were
omitted on these diagrams. The states are arranged
in alphabetical order and the marked differences in the
proportion of the sexes for each age group in different
sections of the United States are very strikingly shown
where states or territories widely separated geographic­
ally are brought together.
The first two, Alabama and Alaska, present a most
startling contrast, Alabama being what might be con­
sidered an average state, the population having been
nearly equally divided between the sexes and the age
groups gradually decreasing, while Alaska shows a large
excess of males over females in each age group and
that its population was largely made up of adults— in
groups from 20 to 50 years of age. Arizona also had a
preponderance of males in all the age periods, and the
proportion of children was much larger than in Alaska.
Alabama and Arkansas may be considered as typical
Southern states, while Connecticut and Massachusetts
may be considered as types of the New England states.
A comparison of the diagrams for states of the North
Atlantic division with those of the South Atlantic and
South Central divisions shows that the females were
slightly in excess in the North Atlantic and South A t­
lantic divisions, and the males in the South Central
division, while in the North Atlantic, and especially in
the New England states, the small proportion of children
and comparatively large proportion of adults is indicated
by the shortness of the lower bar and the slight de­
crease at each age period. The large proportion of
persons of advanced age is especially noticeable.
The diagrams for the South Atlantic and South Cen­
tral divisions present a large proportion of children and
fewer persons in the mature age periods. The length
of the bar for the group from 20 to 30 years of age,
especially noticeable in the states of the North Atlantic
division and the District of Columbia, is due in the
former principally to foreign immigration and in the
latter to the large number of negro females.
The North Central division shows a larger proportion
of children and a smaller percentage of adults than the
North Atlantic states, the western portion of this divi­
sion showing an excess of males in the adult groups.
The diagrams for the Western division represent great
variations in age and sex conditions. New Mexico
and Utah had about the same proportions of children
and adults as the South Atlantic states— the sexes in
Utah being nearly equal, but in New Mexico the males

POPULATION.
being’ slightty in excess. The remaining states and terri­
tories in this division show an excess of males and a
large proportion of the population in the adult groups,
due to immigration both foreign and interstate.
The diagram representing Hawaii indicates an abnor­
mal percentage of males from 20 to 40 years of age, due
to the large number of Japanese and Chinese laborers.
The diagrams on Plates 35 and 36 show the percent­
age of the native white population, by age and sex, in
each state and territory at the Twelfth Census. The
diagrams representing Maine, New Hampshire, and
Vermont are narrow and regular, the sexes nearty
equally divided, the proportion of children being small
and of the advanced ages rather large. The diagrams
for the remaining states of the North Atlantic divi­
sion have broader bases, indicating a larger proportion
of children, the sexes being about equal.
The District of Columbia shows a very small pro­
portion of children and a large proportion of adults,
especially in the group from 20 to 30 years of age, the
males being in excess in a few of the groups.
The states of the South Atlantic division show slight
variations from New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylva­
nia, the sexes being equally divided, and the proportion
of children about the same.
In the North Central division, the diagrams for Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, and Missouri
are similar to New York and Pennsjdvania.
For the Northwestern group, Wisconsin, Minnesota,
North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska, the males
were in excess and the diagrams show extremely broad
bases and small tops, due to the large number of native
children of foreign parents, North Dakota especially
having an unusually large proportion of children in
the lowest age group.
The diagrams for the South Central division are simi­
lar to those of Illinois and Iowa, except that the propor­
tion of males and of children was a little larger for the
western South Central states.
In the Western division the state diagrams show
wide differences, Utah having a large proportion of
children with an almost equal division of the sexes.
Montana and Wyoming are very much alike, indicating
a preponderance of adult males in the groups from 20
to 40 years of age. Idaho and Washington are much
the same, each showing a fair proportion of children,
with the male adults in excess. The diagrams for Cali­
fornia, Colorado, and Oregon are similar to that of Con­
necticut, with the exception that the males are slightly
in excess. Hawaii is very much like Indian Territory,
both showing a large proportion of children under 5
years of age. Alaska, as represented in these diagrams,
has a very irregular and lopsided appearance, the males
from 20 to 50 years of age forming the largest propor­
tion of the element.
It will be noted in this series of diagrams that in every

47

state and territory, except Alaska and the District of
Columbia, the bar for the age group from 0 to 10 is the
longest.
The diagrams on Plates 37 and 38, representing for
1900 the foreign white population, by age and sex, are so
entirely different from the others that at first they seem
meaningless. The most prominent feature is the small
proportion of children under 10 years of age. The
largest proportion of this element is generally found
in the group from 30 to 40 years of age. The foreign
white males outnumbered the females in all the states
except Massachusetts and Rhode Island, the diagrams
for Alaska, Montana, and Wyoming, showing a very
large proportion of foreign white males.
The diagrams on Plates 39 and 40 represent the negro
population, by age and sex, at the Twelfth Census and
present a very irregular and unsymmetrical appearance,
except in the Southern states, where the negroes formed
a large proportion of the population. The diagrams for
these states are symmetrical, the proportion of children
large, and the sexes equally divided.
In Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the District of
Columbia the proportion of children was very small;
the largest proportion of negroes was found in the age
group from 20 to 30 years, the females greatly exceed­
ing the males in this age period.
In Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa the proportion
of negro children was nearly the same as for the North
Atlantic states, but the excess in the age group from
20 to 30 years is not so marked.
In the Western states a large proportion of the
negro population was between the ages of 20 and 40, and
the adult males were greatly in excess.
In the other states the negro population was very small;
the diagrams are irregular, and of value only in show­
ing the proportion of adults and the excess of males.
N a t iv it y

of

the

F o r e ig n

B orn.

Plate 57 represents, by the areas of the circles, the
number of foreign born at each census from 1850 to
1900, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, and by the sectors
the proportion of each of the principal nationalities.
In 1850 the Irish were the most numerous and formed
nearly half of the foreign born; then followed, in order,
the Germans, British, Canadians, and Scandinavians.
In 1860 the Irish still formed the largest proportion of
the foreign born, followed by the Germans, British,
Canadians, and Scandinavians, the proportion of the
Scandinavians having more than doubled. In 1870 the
proportion of the Irish, Germans, and British had
decreased, while that of the Canadians and Scandina­
vians had increased. In 1880 the Irish and British
elements showed further proportional decreases and the
Germans took the leading position. The proportion of
Canadians and Scandinavians increased, and the Slavs

48

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

appeared for the first time with a fair-sized sector. In total foreign born, each of .these states having had over
1890 the proportions of Irish, British, and Canadians 500,000 persons of foreign birth.
had decreased, while the Germans, Scandinavians, and
The double-page map, Plate 61, represents, by coun­
Slavs increased; the Italians then appeared for the first ties, the distribution of the foreign born element at the
time as one of the principal elements. In 1900 the Twelfth Census, and indicates that nearly nine-tenths of
Germans still formed the largest proportion of the for­ the foreign born element has settled north of the thirtyeign element, although the proportions of Irish, Ger­ ninth parallel of latitude, a v6ry small proportion of
mans, and British had decreased, while the Canadians,
this element being found in the Southern states.
Scandinavians, Slavs, and Italians had increased, the
Comparing the two maps, Plates 55 and 61, density
last two having more than doubled in number during , of negroes and density of foreign born population in
the decade. The Chinese, according to the census, re­ ! 1900, brings out the fact that the foreign element does
turns, increased from 1860 to 1890, and decreased from ; not settle in the regions having a large proportion of
negroes.
1890 to 1900.
Diagram 1, Plate 58, shows the foreign born and the
Cartogram 1, Plate 72, shows the density of the for­
number of each leading nationality, excluding Alaska eign born in each state and territory in 1900, the heavy
and Hawaii, at each census from 1850 to 1900. Plate shading of Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Jersey,
59 also represents the foreign born, excluding Alaska Connecticut, and New York indicating the large number
and Hawaii, of each leading nationality at each census of foreign born in these states.
specified. The rapid increase of the total foreign ele­
Plate 62 shows the proportion which the foreign
ment and the increase and decrease in each nationality1 born bear to the total population of the United States,
can be measured by the length of the bars. The Ger­ and, while in certain respects it is similar to the density
mans increased until 1900, at which date they showed | map, it brings out more clearly the counties and states
a decrease; the Irish increased in each decade except
in which the foreign born element formed a large pro­
from 1880 to 1900; the rapid increase of the Scandina­ portion of the population at the Twelfth Census. The
heaviest shade in the states of Wisconsin, Minnesota,
vians, Italians, and Slavs is well brought out, as well
North and South Dakota, and Michigan, and the coun­
as the decrease of the Chinese, from 1890 to 1900.
Diagram 2, Plate 58, represents the proportion which ties along the Rio Grande in Texas indicates the large
proportion of foreign born. Northern Illinois, Iowa,
each of the principal nationalities bears to the foreign
born, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, at each census, 1850 Nebraska, Montana, Washington, Massachusetts, Rhode
to 1900, and shows graphically their increase and de­ Island, and Connecticut also show a large proportion of
crease. In 1850 the Irish were the principal element of this element.
Cartogram 3, Plate 72, represents the proportion of
the foreign born, since which time the proportion has
gradually decreased until in 1900 they formed 15.6 per foreign born to total population in each state and terri­
oentof the foreign born, as compared with 42.8 per cent tory in 1900.
Cartogram 6, Plate 27, shows the numerical gain
in 1850. In 1860 the Germans formed a larger percent­
age of the foreign element than they have at any other or loss in foreign born population in 1900. There
decade. The natives of Canada and Newfoundland have are fifteen states showing a numerical loss in this
greatly increased, and in 1900 formed 11.4 per cent element, principally in the North Central and South
of the foreign born, as compared with 6.6 per cent in Central divisions, the remaining states showing an
1850. The proportion of British, 16.8 per cent, has increase.
Cartogram 5, Plate 72, the proportional increase and
gradually decreased since 1850, and in 1900 they formed
only 11.3 per cent of the foreign born. The proportion
decrease of the foreign to native born from 1890 to 1900,
shows that this element has increased proportionally in
of Scandinavians has increased, as has that of the Italians,
Russians, Poles, Bohemians, Austrians, and Hunga­ only nine states and territories.
rians. The actual increase is more clearly shown on
Plate 63 represents the proportion of foreign born of
Plate 59.
each leading nationality, in 1900, by states and territo­
Diagram 1, Plate 60, shows, by the length of the ries arranged in geographical order. Germans formed
bars, the total number of foreign born in each state the largest percentage of the foreign born element in
and territory. New York, the leading state in this ele­ twenty-two states, Kentucky, Indiana, Missouri, Mary­
ment, had nearly twice as many foreigners as Penn­ land, and Wisconsin having the largest proportions in
sylvania, the next state in order. The four states, New the order named. It is a peculiar fact that Kentucky
York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Massachusetts, con­ sho^s a larger proportion of Germans than either
tained 45.4 per cent of the total foreign born popula­ Missouri or Wisconsin.
The Irish were the leading element in Delaware, Dis­
tion of continental United States, while Michigan, W is­
consin, and Minnesota had 15.1 per cent, the seven trict of Columbia, and Connecticut.
Canadians formed the largest percentage of the foreign
states comprising 60.6 per cent, or three-fifths of the

POPULATION.

41)

born in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachu­ land, and Wales. This element also appeared in large
setts, Michigan, Rhode Island, and Montana, while proportions in Fall River and Providence. While the
Utah had the largest proportion of the natives of
Italians did not form the largest proportion of the
England, Scotland, and "Wales. This element also total foreign born in any of the cities specified in this
formed the largest proportion of the foreign born in diagram, in New Orleans they formed a larger propor­
Indian Territory, North Carolina, Alabama, Virginia,
tion of the foreign element than they did in any other
Wyoming, Colorado, and Nevada, in the order specified.
city, New Haven, Memphis, and Newark following in
Scandinavians formed the largest proportion of the order. In Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Omaha the
foreign element in Minnesota, South Dakota, North Scandinavians comprised the largest proportion of
Dakota, Washington, and Idaho.
the foreign element. Baltimore had the largest pro­
The Italians comprised the largest proportion of the portion of Russians to the total foreign born, New
foreign born in Louisiana, and a large percentage of York and New Haven each having over 10 per cent.
the foreign element in West Virginia, Nevada, Indian Milwaukee had the largest proportion of Poles, Alle­
Territory, and Mississippi.
gheny of Austrians, and Cleveland the largest per­
Oklahoma, South Dakota, North Dakota, Maryland,
centage of Bohemians and Hungarians. New Orleans
and Georgia had the largest percentages of Russians,
had the largest percentage of French, Los Angeles of
while Delaware, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Wisconsin,
Chinese and Mexicans, and San Francisco the largest
Michigan, and Connecticut show the largest percentages percentage of Japanese.
of Poles.
Map 1, Plate 65, shows, in six degrees of density, the
Those states having the largest percentages of Aus­ number of Germans to a square mile in each county in
trians were Pennsylvania, Colorado, and Wyoming.
1900. The large number of persons of this nationality
The largest percentages of Bohemians to total foreign in Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
born were found in Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, Illinois, ■ Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and eastern Missouri
and Iowa.
are plainly indicated by the heavy shades of brown. A
Those states having the largest percentages of Hun­ considerable area of German settlement is also noted
garians were Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and in Michigan and Texas.
New Jersey.
Map 2 on the same plate indicates, by five shades of
The West Indians formed the largest proportion of brown, the proportion of the natives of Germany to the
the foreign born in Florida, the proportion in other j total population in 1900, and shows that the German
states being trifling.
element was of importance in northern Illinois, Wiscon­
Natives of France were found principally in Louisi­ sin, Iowa, Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, Missouri, and
ana.
parts of Texas.
Mexicans comprised the largest proportion of the for­
Map 1, Plate 66, density of Irish per square mile,
eign born in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. The i represents, in six shades of color, those portions of the
Chinese formed the largest proportion of the foreign
country in which the Irish were the most thickly con­
born in Alaska, but were also found in large numbers in gregated in 1900. The heavy shades indicate that the
Hawaii, Oregon, Nevada, and California. The Japanese greatest density of Irish population was found in Massa­
comprised the largest proportion of the foreign born chusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Penn­
in Hawaii; Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and Montana sylvania, and New Jersey, with scattered settlements
appeared with smaller proportions of this element.
through Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and California.
Plate 64 shows, in 1900, what proportion the foreign
Map 2, Plate 66, shows, in four shades of color, the
born of each leading nationality formed of the total proportion of natives of Ireland to total population in
foreign born population in cities of 100,000 population 1900, and, like map 1, indicates that portion of the coun­
and upward. The Germans formed 50 per cent or more try where the Irish formed an important element of the
of the foreign born in six cities, .Cincinnati having the population.
Maps 1 and 2, Plate 67, show the density of the na­
largest proportion, Milwaukee second, Louisville third,
St. Louis, Columbus, and Indianapolis following in tives of Great Britain and the proportion of the British
to total population at the Twelfth Census. The states
order of the percentages of their German element.
of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New
The Irish comprised the largest proportion of the foreign
York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania have the greatest
born in Boston, New Haven, Providence, Philadelphia,
Jersey City, Washington, and Worcester, these cities density, while the largest proportion of this nativity
being arranged according to their proportions of this appears in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Mis­
element. Fall River is the only city shown in this dia­ souri, Colorado, Utah, Montana, and California. Utah
gram in which the Canadians constituted the principal shows a larger proportion of natives of Great Britain to
element of the foreign born population. In Scranton total population than any other state.
Maps 1 and 2, Plate 68, represent the densit3r of the
and Paterson the largest proportion of the foreign born
Sf
population was composed of natives of England, Scot­ natives' <> Canada and the proportion of the Canadians

50

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

to the total population in 1900. The states of Maine,
New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Is­
land, Connecticut, New York, Michigan, Wisconsin,
Minnesota, and North Dakota show the most dense set­
tlements of this element, as well as the largest propor­
tion to their total population.
Maps 1 and 2, Plate 69, show the density of the
Scandinavians and their proportion to the total popula­
tion at the Twelfth Census. The largest proportions of
this element to total population are noted in northern
Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North
Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska, with considerable
areas of settlement in Utah, Montana, and Washington.
The diagrams on Plates T and 71 present the geo­
O
graphical distribution of eight groups of nations in
1900 and 1890. This classification was made in order
to group the foreign born on a broader basis than the
simple countiy of birth, and the diagrams are of great
interest in showing where these foreign elements have
made their homes.
The number of each of these elements in 1900 and
1890, their increase, and percentage of increase are
given in the following table:
P O P U L A T I O N .1

Increase.

G RO U PS.

1900
Teutons...........................................
Irish..................................................
British Americans..........................
B ritish............................................
Slavs.................................. .............
Scandinavians...............................
Greco-Latins..................................
A siatics...........................................

1890

3,192,637
1,615,459
1,179,807
1,167,623
1,109,738
1,062,207
634,397
120,248

3,119,583
1,871,509
980,938
1,251,402
510,625
933,249
319,822
113,383

73,054
2256,050
198,869
283,779
599,113
128,958
314,575
6,865

Percent­
age of
increase.

2.3
213.7
20.3
2 6.7
117.3
13.8
98.4
6.1

1 Exclusive of Alaska, Hawaii, and persons in the military and naval service
of the United States stationed abroad.
2 Decrease.

Plate 70 represents the geographical distribution of
certain groups of nations in 1900 and 1890 for the states
in which they were numerical^ important. Diagram
1 shows the distribution of the Teutons, comprising
natives of Germany, Austria, Holland, Belgium, Lux­
emburg, and Switzerland; the Germans formed the prin­
cipal element of this class. The Teutons were found in
greatest numbers in the states of New York, Illi­
nois, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan, and
New Jersey. In New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania,
New Jersey, and Minnesota the number of Teutons had
increased since 1890, while in Wisconsin, Ohio, Michi­
gan, Iowa, and Missouri the number had decreased.
Diagram 2, Plate 70, shows the distribution of the
Greco-Latins, consisting of the natives of France, Itaty,
Spain, Portugal, and Greece. The largest numbers of
this element, which has almost doubled since 1890,
were found in New York, Pennsylvania, California,
Massachusetts, and New Jersey.
Diagram '3, Plate 70, represents the distribution of
the Irish, who were found principally in the North

Atlantic and North Central divisions; the states having
the largest numbers were New York, Massachusetts,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, and New Jersey, in the order
named. It is a noticeable fact that the number of Irish
has decreased since 1890 in every state shown on the
diagram, except Montana.
In diagram 4, Plate 70—distribution of Slavs, which
include natives of Russia, Hungary, Bohemia, and
Poland—New York also had the largest number, with
Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio following in order.
The Slavs, like the Greco-Latins, have increased greatly
since 1890. New York, Pennsylvania, and Illinois, and
a number of other states, have more than doubled this
element of their population in ten years.
Diagram 1, Plate 71, shows the distribution of Scan­
dinavians, composed of natives of Norway, Sweden,
and Denmark. Minnesota had the largest number,
Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa following in order. The
Scandinavian element has increased in all the states
shown on the diagram, except Iowa, Michigan, Ne­
braska, and Kansas, which show a decrease since 1890.
Diagram 2, Plate 71, represents the distribution of
the British, including the natives of England, Scotland,
and Wales. Pennsylvania had the largest number, with
New York, Massachusetts, Illinois, and Ohio following
in order. This element has decreased in a majority of
states since 1890.
In diagram 3, Plate 71, the number of British Ameri­
cans, comprising the natives of Canada and Newfound­
land, is shown. Massachusetts led in this element of
population; Michigan, New York, and Maine also had
large numbers. In the states of Iowa, Nebraska, Kan­
sas, and South Dakota this element had decreased,
although the total number in the United States had
increased.
Diagram 4, Plate 71, shows the number of Asiatics,
including the natives of China, Japan, and other parts
of Asia. California, Oregon, New York, Washington,
and Massachusetts were the only states in which this
element was not insignificant. California still had the
largest proportion of this element, although it has
decreased greatly since 1890.
Plate 73 shows the distribution of natives of certain
foreign countries in 1900. New York had the largest
number of natives of Germany, Ireland, Russia, and
Italy. Massachusetts led in the number of natives of
Canada and Newfoundland; Pennsylvania in natives of
Great Britain, and Poland; and Minnesota in the largest
number of natives of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.
Diagram 2, Plate 73, is of interest, as it shows, by the
length of the bars, the percentage of each of the prin­
cipal nativities living in cities of 25,000 inhabitants or
more in 1900,and indicates the elements of foreign im­
migrants who settle in our large cities. Nearly 75 per
cent of the Russians lived in cities—a larger proportion
than of any other foreign nationality. Poland, Italy,

P O P U L A T IO N .
and Ireland had over 62 per cent; Bohemia, Austria,
Hungary, and Germany followed in order, each having
over 50 per cent.
The distribution of the foreign born population, which
has been represented on the diagrams and maps pre­
viously referred to, does not include all of what may
be termed the foreign element, as natives of foreign
parentage have not been considered.
Diagram 1, Plate 74, represents, by the length of the
bars, the distribution of the white population of foreign
parentage, including foreign born whites, in each state
and territory. Of this element New York had 4,304,389,
forming 59.2 per cent of the total population. Illinois
had 2,462,705; Pennsylvania, 2,412,292; Massachusetts,
W isconsin, Ohio, Michigan, and Minnesota each had
over 1,000,000 persons of foreign extraction. The for­
eign element in the Southern states was very small.
The total number of whites of foreign parentage in
continental United States in 1900 was 25,850,980, form­
ing 34.0 percent of its total population. The distribu­
tion of this population is shown in detail on the map,
Plate 75, which indicates, in six shades of color, the
proportion of the whites of foreign parentage to the
total population in each county, the heavy shades show­
ing where the foreign element formed the greatest
proportion in 1900. The small proportion of the for­
eign element in the South and the preponderance of
persons of foreign parentage in Wisconsin, Minnesota,
and the Dakotas is clearly outlined. Massachusetts,
Rhode Island, and Connecticut also had large propor­
tions of this element.
Cartogram 4, Plate 27, shows, for each state and terri­
tory, the proportion of whites of foreign parentage to
total population at the Twelfth Census in six groups,
and was prepared in the same manner as Plate 75,
except that in the former the county was used as the
unit, and in the latter the state was the unit. The
North Atlantic, North Central, and Western divisions
bad the greatest proportion of whites of foreign parent­
age; and the South Atlantic and South Central the least.
Diagram 2, Plate 74, indicates, by the length of its
bars, the proportion of aliens to the total foreign born
males of voting age in each specified nativity in 1900.
The Chinese had the largest proportion of aliens, as they
are prohibited by law from becoming citizens of the
United States; the Japanese were second, and the Hun­
garians, Italians, Portuguese, and Austrians followed
in order; the Welsh had the lowest percentage of aliens
of the nativities shown on the diagram.
Diagram 2, Plate 60, represents the percentage of
aliens in the total foreign born of each specified nativity
in 1900. This differs from diagram 2, Plate 74, in that
the percentages are based on the total foreign born
instead of foreign born males of voting age.
Diagram 3, Plate 60, shows the percentage of aliens
among the foreign born males 21 years of age and over
in cities having 100,000 inhabitants or more in 1900. The

51

New England states led in this respect. In Fall River
and Worcester over 44 per cent of the foreign born
males 21 years of age and over were aliens; in Provi­
dence over 37.8 per cent; in Dos Angeles, Boston, San
Francisco, New York, New Haven, Pittsburg, and
Philadelphia between 30 and 35 per cent of the foreign
born males of voting age were aliens. Columbus had
the lowest percentage of aliens of voting age, 5.9.
Cartogram 4, Plate 76, presents, in six degrees of
density, the proportion of aliens to foreign born males
21 years of age and over in 1900. Maine and Arizona
had over 55 per cent of aliens among the foreign born
males 21 years of age and over.
C

o n ju g a l

C

o n d it io n

.

The diagrams on Plates 32, 77, and 78 show the con­
jugal condition of the population and its elements in
1900.
Diagram 2, Plate 32, represents graphically, by the
length of the bars, the number of single, married,
widowed, and divorced, by general nativity and color,
for continental United States. Single persons outnum­
bered the married and widowed in the total popula­
tion, native white of native parents, native white of
foreign parents, and negro. The foreign white element,
however, had more than twice as many married as
single; this is due, undoubtedly, to the fact that a
greater part of our immigration consists of married
adults.
It will also be noted that the number of
divorced is represented for the total population only,
as the numbers returned for the other elements were
too small to be indicated.
Plate 77 consists of a series of diagrams showing, for
continental United States, the conjugal condition of the
aggregate population for 1900 and 1890, and native white
of native parents and native white of foreign parents
for 1900, by age and sex, in proportions of the total
number in each age group. The proportion of persons
marrying before 15 years of age was so small as not to
appear on the diagrams for the aggregate population
at either census. In 1900,1.0 per cent of the males and
10.9 per cent of the females between the ages of 15
and 19 were married. From 20 to 24 years 21.6 per
cent of the males were married and of the females 46.5
per cent. In every age period, except 15 to 19, the
proportion of widowed to married for females was
larger than for males. It will also be noted that the
proportion of widowed to total in each age group for
females was more than double that for males. Com­
paring the two diagrams for 1900 and 1890, an increase
will be noted in the proportion of widowed to married
for nearly every age group for both sexes.
The diagram representing the conjugal condition of
the native white of native parents shows a slightly
larger proportion of married males and females in each
age group than the aggregate. The native white of for-

52

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

especially, show great decreases in illiteracy, while in
eign parents shows a much smaller proportion of mar­
a number of the North Atlantic states the decrease is
ried in each age group than the native white of native
slight, owing to a great influx of illiterate foreigners.
parents.
Plate 83 represents, for each state and territory, in
On Plate 78, the first diagram, representing the for­
1900 and 1890, the proportion of illiterates among the
eign white population for continental United States,
shows a slightly larger proportion of both married and native white population 10 years of age and over,
widowed persons in most of the age groups than the arranged in order of their illiteracy in 1900. New
native white of foreign parents. The Indians show I Mexico is first, having the largest proportion of native
white illiterates at both decades, due principally to the
larger proportions of married, both males and females,
in each age group below 35 years, than any of the large number of illiterates among the natives of Spanish
descent; Massachusetts had the smallest percentage of
other elements, except in the case of Chinese females.
illiterates in 1890, but in 1900 had been passed by five
The negroes show the largest proportions of widowed
Western states—Washington, South Dakota, Nevada,
females for each age group, except .15 to 19 37
ears, in
which the Indians lead. The last diagram, representing Montana, and Wyoming—Washington enjoying the
distinction of having the smallest percentage of native
the conjugal condition of the Chinese and Japanese,
indicates that a very small proportion of males (30.9 white illiterates in 1900. It will also be noted that the
percentage of native white illiterates has decreased in
per cent) and a very large proportion of females (62.9
each state and territory, except New Hampshire, which
per cent) were married.
shows an increase of only 0.03 per cent. The decrease
Cartogram 2, Plate 76, indicates, by shades of color,
in the illiteracy of the native white population in the
the proportion of divorced to married persons in 1900,
Southern states is much less than the decrease in illit­
in each state and territory. Nevada, Oregon, New
Hampshire, California, and Arizona show the largest eracy of the negro population in the same states.
percentage, the proportion generally being larger in
Plate 84 represents, for each state and territory, the
the West than in the East. The returns of the enum­ proportion of illiterates among the foreign white popu­
erators can not, however, be taken as an absolutely
lation 10 years of age and over for 1900 and 1890,
accurate statement of the number of divorced, owing
arranged in order of their illiteracy in 1900. Hawaii
leads with the greatest percentage of foreign white illit­
to the tendency of divorced persons to report as single
or widowed; and to the fact that no return is made of
erates, 43.1 per cent in 1900, Arizona and New Mexico
the divorced persons who have married again.
following with over 34 per cent, while Oregon appears
with the least percentage, 4.1.
I l l it e r a c y .
Plate 85 indicates, by states and territories, the pro­
portion of illiterates among the negro population 10
The enumerators of the Twelfth Census were required years of age and over, for 1900 and 1890, arranged in
order of their illiteracy in 1900. Louisiana had the
to secure data in regard to the illiteracy of every person
10 years of age and over. The inquiry called for an highest percentage, 61.1 per cent of the negroes 10
answer as to whether or not a person could read or write;
years of age and over of that state being illiterate.
therefore, the census classification of illiterates includes
Every state and territory except Montana shows a great
what might be termed two classes—first, those who
decrease in the proportion of negro illiterates from 1890
can neither read nor write, and, second, those who can to 1900, which is especially marked in New Mexico,
read but can not write. The enumerators returned a Utah, Nevada, and North Dakota. This diagram is of
total of 58,224,600 persons 10 years of age and upward; great interest as a measure of the decrease in illiteracy
of this number, 6,246,857, or 10.7 per cent, were reported
of the negroes, and is especially significant as compared
as illiterate. In 1890 the illiterates constituted 13.3 per with the diagram on Plate 83, which shows the propor­
cent of the population 10 years of age and upward, a tion of illiterates among the native white population.
decrease during the past decade of 2.6 per cent in the It will be noted that the decrease in the percentage of
proportion of illiterates.
illiterates among the negroes had been much greater
On Plate 82, the proportion of illiterates among the than the decrease for the native white population.
total population 10 years of age and over in 1900 and
Plate 79 shows, by shades of color, the proportion of
1890, the states are arranged in the order of the per­ illiterates among native white males of voting1
age in
centage of illiterates in 1900. Excluding Alaska, Loui­ each county in 1900. The heavy shades, indicating the
siana shows the largest percentage at both censuses, and largest proportions of illiterates, will be found in the
Nebraska the smallest. The only states and territories
South Atlantic and South Central states, and New
indicating an increase in percentage of illiterates are A ri­ Mexico, and the lightest shade, indicating the smallest
zona, South Dakota, Montana, Connecticut, Wyoming,
proportion, in the North Central and Western states.
Nevada, and Oklahoma, due principally to the inclusion The comparatively large proportion of illiterates in the
of Indians in 1900, as this class was not included in the North Atlantic division was due to the large number of
illiterate population in 1890. The Southern states,
illiterate native white males of foreign parentage.

POPULATION.

53

On Plate 80, the double page map representing the
Diagram 1, Plate 89, is a square representing the pop­
proportion of illiterates among negro males of voting ulation 10 years of age and over, in 1900, by sex, classi­
age in 1900, the heavy shades will be found in the fied as wage-earners and nonwage-earners. The large
South Atlantic and South Central states. It will also proportion o f male wage-earners, comprising fourbe noted that the percentage of illiterates among negro fifths (80.0 per cent) of the male population 10 years of
males of voting age was very large in all parts of the j age and over, as compared with the proportion of female
country, although the negro element in the Northern ; wage-earners forming less than one-fifth (18.8 percent)
states has made rapid progress in acquiring the elements j of the total number of females 10 }^ears of age and over,
of education.
is clearly shown.
On Plate 81, males of voting age by color and nativ­
Diagram 2, Plate 89, is a square representing the pop­
ity, and by illiteracy, for states and territories, in 1900,
ulation 10 years of age and over, by color and general
the shaded portion of each color represents the per­ nativit}^, classified as wage-earners and non wage-earners.
centage of illiterates in each element of the population,
The increasing proportion of wage-earners in each ele­
the colored showing the greatest percentage of illiter­ ment is clearly indicated by the shaded parts of the
ates in each state and territory where they formed a rectangles, the colored element showing the largest
fair proportion of the population.
proportion of wage-earners (62.1 per cent), and the
native white of native parents the smallest (45.8 per
I n a b il it y t o S p e a k E n g l is h .
cent).
Diagram 3, Plate 89, is composed of four squares,
Plate 86 represents, for 1900, by states and territories,
representing the native white of native parents, native
the proportion of white persons of foreign parentage,
white of foreign parents, foreign white, and colored
10 years of age and over, who could not speak English.
population 10 years of age and over. Each square is
New Mexico (33.8 per cent), Arizona (31.5 per cent),
divided into rectangles, representing males and females,
and Texas (28.0 per cent) had the largest percentages
! each rectangle being shaded to indicate the proportion
of this element, due principally to the large proportion
of wage-earners and nonwage-earners. The male wageof immigrants of Mexican birth.
earners largely outnumbered the female in each ele­
Cartogram 6, Plate 76, shows for 1900, in shades of
ment. The foreign white show the largest proportion
color, by states and territories, the proportion of for­
of male wage-earners to total foreign white males 10
eign born whites 10 years of age and over who could
I years of age and over, and the colored the largest pro­
not speak English; Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and
portion of female wage-earners. The smallest propor­
Florida had the greatest proportions (each of the first
tion of male wage-earners is shown for the native white
three having over 40 per cent) of this class of immi­
j of foreign parents, and the smallest proportion of
grants, who were principally of Spanish descent, the
j female wage-earners among the native white of native
slowest in learning to speak English.
parents.
Wage-earners are classified by the Census, prima­
O c c u p a t io n s .
rily, into five grand groups of occupations, as follows:
The enumerators of the Twelfth Census returned (1) agricultural pursuits; (2) professional service; (3)
29,287,070 persons 10 years of age and over as en­ domestic and personal service; (4) trade and transpor­
gaged in gainful occupations, more than one-half (50.3 tation; (5) manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.
per cent) of the population 10 years of age and upward,
These grand groups are subdivided into specified
and nearly two-fifths (38.4 per cent) of the total popu­ occupations.
lation.
Plate 90 shows, for continental United States, the
O f this number, 23,957,778 were males and 5,329,292 proportion of males and females in each class of occu­
females, or more than 4 males to each female. The male pations and in certain specified occupation groups in
wage-earners formed four-fifths of the total male pop­ 1900. The total length of each bar represents 100 per
ulation 10 years of age and over, while the female wage- | cent, the black portion indicating the percentage of
earners formed only 18.8 per cent of the total female | males and the white the percentage of females, those
j occupations in which each sex preponderates being
population 10 years of age and upward.
Plate 89 represents, by six small squares, the popula­ clearly marked by the difference in color. The first
bar shows that the males formed 81.7 per cent of all
tion, or its elements, 10 }^ears of age and over, by sex,
wage-earners.
classified as wage-earners and nonwage-earners, for
Taking up the occupation groups in order, we note
continental United States in 1900. The entire area of
each square, representing the population, or its ele­ that in agricultural pursuits males formed 90.6 per
ments, 10 years of age and over, is subdivided into cent of the total number employed. In the three speci­
rectangles showing the proportion of each sex, and so fied classes of occupations given under professional
shaded as to indicate the proportion of wage-earners service the males were in excess among artists and teach' ers of art, while in the other two the females preponand nonwage-earners in each sex.

54

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

derated. In the six classes given under domestic and
personal service there is only one in which the males were
in excess—laborers (not specified)—of which class they
formed 95.3 per cent; the females formed at least 82.3
per cent of each of the other five classes. Under trade
and transportation the males exceeded in ever}" group
except stenographers and typewriters, in which the
females formed 76.6 per cent. A great variation will
be noted in the proportion of the sexes for the occupa­
tions shown under manufacturing and mechanical pur­
suits. In several of the classes, as bleachery and dye
works operatives, printers, lithographers, and press­
men, also photographers, the males formed over 86 per
cent of the employees; while of dressmakers, milliners,
and seamstresses, the females formed over 96 per cent.
In ten of the twenty-six groups represented under
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, the females
formed over 50 per cent of the wage-earners.
The proportion which each of the principal elements
of the population formed of the total wage-earners, and
the relative proportion of each of the grand groups in
each element, for continental United States, is shown
by the square diagram on Plate 87. This square rep­
resents the classification of occupations by race and nativ­
ity in 1900, and, although it appears to be complex, is
really very simple in construction and easily understood.
The total area of the square, representing the number
of wage-earners, is divided by heavy horizontal lines
into rectangles indicating the native white of native
parents, native white of foreign parents, foreign white,
and colored. Each rectangle is subdivided by vertical
lines into sections representing each of the five grand
groups of occupations, each group being given a dis­
tinctive color—agricultural pursuits, blue; professional
service, pink; domestic and personal service, green;
trade and transportation, gray; and manufacturing and
mechanical pursuits, yellow.
Each grand group is subdivided by light horizontal
lines into small rectangles or sections, representing the
proportion of wage-earners in each specified occupation
as numbered and described below the square. Under
the grand group of agricultural pursuits, (1) represents
agricultural laborers; (2) farmers, planters, and over­
seers; (3) all others. The grand group representing
professional service is subdivided in a similar manner
into small rectangles or sections, showing the propor­
tion of (1) clergymen; (2) lawyers; (3) physicians; (4)
teachers; (5) all others. The other grand groups, are
divided in a similar manner.
This diagram shows that the native white of native
parents, with 13,875,329, had the largest proportion of
wage-earners (47.7 percent); the foreign white, with
5,736,818 (19.8 per cent); the native white of foreign
parents, with 5,300,924 (18.2 per cent); and the colored,
with 4,160,162 (14.3 per cent), following in order. The
colored show the largest proportion engaged in agricul­
tural pursuits (53.0 per cent), and the foreign white the

I smallest (18.7 per cent). In professional service the
native white of native parents had the largest propor­
, tion (5.8 per cent), and the colored the smallest (1.2 per
cent). The colored also had the largest proportion
employed in domestic and personal service (33.4 per
cent), and the native white of native parents the smallest
(13.3 per cent). In trade and transportation the native
white of foreign parents formed the largest proportion
(23.1 per cent), and the colored the smallest (5.4 per
cent), while in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits
the foreign white had the largest proportion (37.8 per
cent), and the colored the smallest (7.0 per cent). Taking
up each element of the population in order, it will be
noted that the native white of native parents had the
largest proportion engaged in professional service and
the smallest proportion in domestic and personal serv­
ice; the native white of foreign parents the largest
proportion engaged in trade and transportation; the
foreign white the largest proportion engaged in manu­
facturing and mechanical pursuits, and the smallest
proportion in agriculture; the colored the largest pro­
portion engaged in agricultural pursuits, and domestic
and personal service, and the smallest proportion in
professional service, trade and transportation, and
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.
Plate 88 represents the proportion, by general nativI ity and race, of persons engaged in the principal occu­
pations in 1900. The total length of the bar represents
100 per cent, and the portions colored the percentage of
each of the five elements engaged in the grand group or
specified occupation represented. The bars are arranged
in five groups, the first bar of each group representing
the proportion of each element for the grand group,
! followed by the bars for certain specified occupations o f
that group. The percentage of each element in all occu­
pations is indicated on the first bar, the native white o f
native parents showing the largest proportion, 47.7 per
cent, followed by the foreign white, with 19.8 per cent;
the native white of foreign parents, with 18.2 per cent;
the negro, with 13.7 per cent; and the Chinese, Japa­
nese, and Indians, with 0.6 per cent. The native white o f
I native parents predominated in agricultural pursuits,
professional service, and in trade and transportation,
forming more than half of the wage-earners in each o f
these groups. In domestic and personal service, and
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits the proportion
of the other elements combined is greater, although tho
native white of native parents formed the largest pro­
portion in each of the principal occupation groups. In
professional service it will be noted that the proportion
of native white of native parents is much larger than for
any other race or nativity, as they formed 64.1 per cent
of the total, 75.5 percent of the lawyers, 73.7 per cent of
the physicians and surgeons, 65.6 percent of the teachers
and professors in colleges and universities, and 52.4 per
cent of the clergymen. The foreign white and the
native white of foreign parents formed together a rela­

POPULATION.
tively small proportion of wage-earners in agricultural
M ININ G A N D Q U A R R Y IN G .
pursuits and professional service, but in manufacturing
In Alaska, Montana, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, and
and mechanical pursuits they were the leading element.
Idaho mining and quarrying was an important indus
The large proportion they formed of taiiors and taitry in 1900.
loresses (86.1 per cent) is especially noticeable. These
Cartogram 3, Plate 91, indicates that this class of oc­
two elements also formed the largest percentage of the
cupation was an important one in the Western division.
persons employed in domestic and personal service.
This industry was also of consequence in Pennsylvania
The largest proportion (23.6 per cent) of the negroes
| and West Virginia.
will be noted in domestic and personal service, and espe­
FISH IN G .
cially in the occupation of launderers and laundresses,
in which they formed 57.0 per cent of the workers.
In 1900 Alaska led in the proportion of persons en­
Plates 92 and 93 represent, by the different colors on gaged in fishing. For continental United States, Mary­
each bar, the proportion of persons engaged in each of land had the largest proportion of persons engaged in
seven classes of occupations in 1900 and 1890, by states this industry.
and territories, arranged in order of the percentage of
persons employed in agriculture. Comparisons may be
T R A D E A N D TR AN SP O R TAT IO N .
drawn from these two diagrams as to increases or
Nearly every state and territory shows a consider­
decreases in the proportions of persons engaged in the
able percentage of persons engaged in trade and trans­
several occupation classes shown.
portation.
Cartogram 1, Plate 91, represents, by shades of color,
A G R IC U L T U R A L PU RSU IT S.
the states and territories having the largest proportion
In 1900 Mississippi had the largest percentage (76.0
per cent) of persons employed in agriculture, Oklahoma of persons engaged in occupations connected with trade
and transportation, and evidences the fact that it was of
and Arkansas following with over 70 per cent.
The dark shades on cartogram 1, Plate 91, indicate importance in all the states, except a few in the South
the regions where agricultural pursuits formed the prin­ Atlantic and South Central divisions.
cipal occupation of wage-earners in 1900. This indus­
try was of great importance in nearly every state, but
especially so in the South Atlantic and South Central
divisions, and North and South Dakota, where the
greatest proportion of wage-earners was engaged in
agriculture. Plates 92 and 93 show that most of the
states have changed their positions since 1890, due to
slight decreases in the proportion of persons engaged
in this pursuit.
M A N U FA C TU R IN G A N D M E C H A N IC A L PU RSU ITS.

In the North Atlantic states (except Vermont), Dela­
ware, and Ohio, manufactures was the most important
industry, as shown by the proportion of persons engaged
therein.
Cartogram 2, Plate 91, represents the proportion of
wage-earners employed in manufacturing and mechan­
ical pursuits to all wage-earners in 1900. Rhode Island,
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire had
the greatest percentage of persons engaged in these in­
dustries, over two-fifths of all the wage-earners in these
states having been employed in this class of occupations.
This industry was also of great importance in New Jer­
sey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, over 30
per cent of their wage-earners following manufacturing
pursuits. Plates 92 and 93 show that the proportion
of wage-earners engaged in manufacturing pursuits in
the Southern states was very small, although it- has
increased since 1890 in certain states of the South A t­
lantic division.

D OM ESTIC A N D PE R SO N A L S E R V IC E .

The District of Columbia, Alaska, and Maryland had
a larger proportion of wage-earners employed in do­
mestic and personal service than in any other class of
occupations.
Cartogram 5, Plate 91, represents the proportion of
persons engaged in domestic and personal service. The
heaviest shade, indicating the largest proportion of
persons engaged in this class of occupations, is found in
every division, the Western division showing a large
proportion in each state.
PR O F E SS IO N A L S E R V IC E .

The number of persons employed in professional
service formed a very small proportion of the wageearners in each state.
On cartogram 6, Plate 91, illustrating the proportion
of persons engaged in this service, the heaviest shade is
scattered over the entire United States, with the excep­
tion of the South Central division, most of the states in
the South Atlantic and South Central divisions showing
a very small proportion of wage-earners employed in
professional service.
D IS T R IB U T IO N B Y P A R E N T A G E .

The series of diagrams on Plates 94, 95, and 96 rep­
resent the distribution of wage-earners of specified
parentage by their principal occupations in 1900, and

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

56

show the percentage of wage-earners of native, foreign,
and negro parentage, also by parentage for certain
specified nativities. Diagrams 1, 3. and 5 on Plate 94
indicate the principal occupations of persons of native,
foreign, and negro parentage. The leading occupations
for each of these elements were connected with agricul­
ture. Nearly 45 per cent of the wage-earners of native
parents were farmers, planters, and overseers, and agri­
cultural laborers; only 11.7 per cent of persons of for­
eign parentage were farmers, planters, and overseers,
and 7.2 per cent agricultural laborers. The negroes,
however, had a far larger proportion in agricultural
occupations than either of the other elements, 53.7 per
cent of the negro wage-earners following these pursuits.
The Norwegians (diagram 1, Plate 95); Danes (diagram
3, Plate 95): Bohemians (diagram 6. Plate 96); Swedes
(diagram 5. Plate 95); and Germans (diagram 4, Plate 94)
had the largest proportions of wage-earners employed
in agriculture, the Norwegians leading with 47,0 per
cent of this element, the Danes coming next with 39.2
per cent, the Bohemians with 30.1 per cent, the Swedes
with 27.2 per cent, and the Germans with 24.2 per cent.
These diagrams are very interesting in showing the
occupations followed by foreign immigrants and their
children. A close study of the diagrams will show that
of those persons of foreign parentage the Germans (dia­
gram 4, Plate 94); French (diagram 6. Plate 94): Scan­
dinavians (diagrams 1, 3, and 5, Plate 95); English
Canadians (diagram 2, Plate 95): British (diagram 6,
Plate 95); and Bohemians (diagram 6. Plate 96) had
larger proportions of their wage-earners engaged as
farmers, planters, and overseers, than were employed
in any other detailed occupation, although the number
engaged in agriculture was relatively small as compared
with those of native and negro parentage. The Irish
(diagram 2, Plate 94) showed a larger percentage of
laborers not specified, and servants and waiters than
that of any other occupation. The French Canadians
(diagram 4. Plate 95) attracted by the cotton mills of
New England, had a large proportion of cotton-mill
operatives. The Austrians, Hungarians, Poles, and
Italians (diagrams 1, 2. 3, and 5, Plate 96) showed large
percentages of laborers not specified, and miners and
quarrymen. The Russians (diagram 4, Plate 96) showed
the largest percentage employed as tailors and tailoresses.
F a m il ie s .

Family, as a census term, may stand for a group of
individuals who occupy jointly a dwelling place or part
of a dwelling place, or for an individual living alone in
any place of abode.
The following table, taken from Twelfth Census,
Volume II. page clviii, gives the population, number of
families, and the number of persons to a family at each
census from 1850 to 1900:

1
CEN SU S.

1900, entire area of enum eration................
1900, continental United States..................
1S90......................................: .................
1880....................................................
1870....................................................................
1860.................................................................
1S50....................................................................

• Total
population.

76,303,387
75,994,575
62,622,250
50,155,783
3^.556.871
127,189,561
119,987,563

Total
families.

16,239,797
16,187.715
12,690,152
9,945,916
7.576.368
15,210,931
13,598,240

Persons,
i to a
' family.
4.7
4.7
4.9
5.0
5.1
15.3
»5.6

1Families returned for free "population only.

Diagram 1, Plate 97, represents, by the length of its
bars, the average number of persons to a family at each
census from 1850 to 1900, as given in the preceding
table. No reliable data could be obtained in regard to
the size of families for the censuses prior to 1850, and
for 1850 and 1860 the data are for free population
only. In 1850 the average size of a family was 5.6;
since then it has steadily diminished, until at the census
of 1900 it was 4.7, a decrease of 16.1 per cent in the
past fifty years.
Diagram 2, Plate 97. shows the average number of per­
sons to aprivate family in each state and territory in 1900.
Texas leads with an average of 5.1 persons to a family,
with North Carolina, Indian Territory, and West Vir­
ginia closely following: Alaska, with only 3.3 persons
to a family, has the lowest average. It will be noted on
this diagram, also on Plate 98, that the Southern states
had the largest families and Maine, New Hampshire,
Vermont, and the far Western states, with the excep­
tion of Utah, the smallest. Nevada having the small­
est average of any state or territory appearing, except
Alaska.
Plate 98 shows the average size of private families at
the Twelfth Census in detail, as in preparing the map
the county has been taken as the unit, the average size
of a family computed in each, the couuties arranged in
five groups and colored in different shades, the lightest
tint, group i, representing those counties where the
average number of persons to a family was less than 4,
and the heaviest shade, group v, where the average
number of persons to a family was 5.5 or more. The
largest areas of group i are found in New Hampshire,
Vermont, New York, the southern part of Michigan,
and the far West, while large areas of group v are
found in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi. Kentucky,
West Virginia. North Carolina, Utah, and a few scatj tered counties in Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota
j and South Dakota.
P

r o p r ie t o r s h ip o f

H

o m es.

Plate 99 represents the proportion of homes owned
free, owned encumbered, and hired in 1900. With the
exception of Alaska, New Mexico had the largest pro­
portion of homes owned free and the District of Co­
lumbia the smallest: with the exception of Hawaii and

POPULATION.

57

Alaska, the District of Columbia had the largest propor­ age of farm homes owned free, with Arizona, Utah,
tion of hired homes and North Dakota the smallest.
and Alaska closely following, Indian Territory showing
Wisconsin, Vermont, and Michigan showed the largest the smallest percentage (25.3). Michigan, Wisconsin,
percentage of homes owned encumbered and Indian and Vermont, in the order named, had the largest
Territory the smallest, the percentage for Alaska proportion of farms owned encumbered, while New
being too small to be represented on the diagram.
Mexico and Arizona had the smallest, except Indian
Comparing the states by geographical divisions, the Territory, the percentage for which was too small to
Western division had the largest percentage of homes I appear upon the diagram. Indian Territory, Missis­
owned free and the North Atlantic the smallest. The sippi, and South Carolina had the largest proportion
states of the North Atlantic division had the largest of hired farms while Maine and Utah had smaller pro­
proportion o f hired homes and those of the North Cen­ portions than any of the other states. Compared by
tral division the smallest. The North Central division divisions, the Western states had the largest propor­
had the largest proportion of homes owned encumbered tion owned free, and the smallest hired; the North Cen­
tral states had the largest proportion owned encum­
and the South Central the smallest.
Plate 100 represents the proportion of farm homes bered, and the smallest owned free; while the South
Central states had the largest proportion hired, and the
owned free, owned encumbered, and hired in 1900.
New Mexico, with 88.9 per cent, led in the percent­ smallest owned encumbered.