View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

CLEMENCEAU AND FRENCH P O U C Y
*

SPEECH
OF

HON. ROBERT L. OWEN
OF O K L A H O M A

IN

THE

SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

NOVEM BER

27, 1922

W A S H IN G T O N
G O VER N M EN T

P R IN T IN G O F F IC E
1029

21508— 23341




I




-

.............. i

m

i

SPEECH
O
P

HON.

ROBERT

L.

OWEN.
1
9

CLEM ENCEAU

AND

FRENCH

P O L IC Y .

Mr. OWEN. Mr. President, M. Clemeneeau is a greatly hon­
ored former Premier o f France. He comes evidently with the
approval o f the French Government and with world-wide pub­
licity announcing his coming. He has arrived in New York and
been received with great cordiality by citizens of the United
States on a mission of importance.
He comes making an appeal to America. He thinks we left
Europe without sufficient cause and that we left too soon. He
desires the American Government, with the backing of the
American people, to take part in restoring distracted Europe,
and says that he does not know what he wants us to do, but
he wants our help, and he wants it at once, and lie thinks we
may have an armchair at Lausanne if we ask for a seat at that
conference.
It seems worth while to submit an observation upon this visit
of M. Clemeneeau and to call his attention and the attention of
the French people and o f the people o f Europe to what I believe
to be the principal causes of the present disturbed condition of
Europe and the only practical remedies by which their pros­
perity can be promptly restored.
The visit of M. Clemeneeau may be of great value if it shall
lead to the discussion of these matters frankly, honestly, and
fearlessly.
We keenly and deeply sympathize with the French people, with
their great sufferings. We have deplored the wanton invasion of
France by the German military dynasty in 1871 and the more
cruel invasion by the same forces in 1914.
We know how cruelly they have suffered from the German
invasion. We have walked over many places in the devastated
areas. We have seen the ruined cities and villages and are very
sympathetic with them in promoting their future security,
peace, and prosperity, and if mistakes in judgment are made
by leaders of French opinion it should be remembered that
similar mistakes are made by other leaders of all the nations
of the earth and that such mistakes should be considered with
patience and moderation. The French people, like the people
of other nations, should not be made responsible for the error
of their leadership if there be error, as we think there has
been, and Clemenceau’s visit will help to clear the atmosphere
because now we can discuss these questions more serenely than
when the differences occurred.
21508— 2334J
3




*

(




4
We make a wide distinction between the German people and
the military dynasty which governed the German people regard­
less o f the consent of the governed. We do not mean by this that
there was any open revolt of the German people against this
overwhelming, dominating governing power, because there was
little or none, but we can not help but think of the utterly help­
less attitude of the young men of Germany when they were
called to the colors by the order of mobilization of Wilhelm II.
A young German had his option of responding to this call
promptly, efficiently, faithfully, or facing a German court-mar­
tial and a firing squad. A German boy had no option except to
come, and when he came he had his choice of coming singing
or weeping. He chose to sing and to come and do his utmost
to win a victory under the German flag which he had been
taught to love and to revere as the badge o f a happy, honorable
fatherland. He answered the voice o f patriotism; he followed
the only leadership he knew, and with infinite pathos went to
his young death. Seven millions of the German youth fell in
battle, and the Imperial Government finally met with a crush­
ing defeat at the hands of those who loved justice and liberty
throughout the world.
With the young soldiers o f other lands—o f France, o f Britain,
of Italy— it was the same. The Fatherland called; they came,
they fought, they died for what they believed to be their duty
to Fatherland.
Clemenceau senses correctly that American opinion has been
slowly growing to be unsympathetic with the leadership of
France. There is a profound cause for it which ought to be
explained to the French people. For this reason these observa­
tions are submitted to the public records in order that French
leaders may realize why the United States has withdrawn from
Europe and does not wish to return until the European leaders
exhibit a heartfelt respect for the opinions of America.
The American opinion was expressed in the address o f the
President o f the United States of April 2. 1917, when he advised
the Congress o f the United States that the time had arrived
to enter the
orld War. This address to the Congress of the
United States was the culmination of German aggression and
of conferences which had taken place between the representa­
tives of the Entente Allies and the authorities of the United
States and the principles for whichwe entered this war were
then acquiesced in and applauded by the leaders
of the Entente
Allies and they are bound morally anil ethically and under the
principle of right to support these doctrines upon which we
entered the war in cooperation with them, they declaring at
the same time that they were moved by the same principles.
What were these principles, Mr. President? Woodrow Wil­
son stated them in his message o f April 2, 1917, when he said
( C o n g r e s s i o n a l R ecord , vol. 5 5 , p. 103) :
Our object now, as then, is to vindicate the principles of neace and
justice in the life of the world as against seldshnc's and autocratic
power and o set up amongst the really free and "eirgovern in g pJople
of the world such a concert of purpose and of action a s willh o n c t f o r t h
assure the o b se rv a n t of these principle.,
•* .
henctforth
We are at the beginning of an age in which it will be insisted that
sh«nSaJ°e standards of conduct and of responsibility for wrong done
shall be observed among nations and their governments that are
observed among the individual citizens of several states
21508— 23341

o
We have no quarrel with the German people.
We have no feelin®
toward them but one of sympathy and friendship.
It was not upon
their impulse that their Government acted in entering this war.
It
was not with their previous knowledge or approval.
It was a war
determined upon as wars used to be determined upon in the old, un­
happy days when peoples were nowhere considered by their rulers’ and
wars were provoked and waged in the interest of dynasties or of little
g oups of ambitious men who were accustomed to use their fellow men
as piw ns and tools.

Woodrow Wilson pointed out the impossibility o f friendship
with the Prussian autocracy, its secret methods, its spies, its
intrigues, its ambitious and greedy purposes, and he said •
i

W e are accepting this challenge of hostile purpose because we know
that in such a Government, following such methods, we can never
have a friend ; and that in the presence of its organized power, alwavs
lying in wait to accomplish we know not what purpose, there can be
no assured security for the democratic governments of the world
We
are now about to accept gauge of battle with this natural foe to
liberty and shall, if necessary, spend the whole force of the Nation to
check and nullify its pretensions and its power. W e are glad now that
we see the tacts with no veil of false pretense about them, to fight
thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its
peoples, the German peoples included ; for the rights of nations, great
and small, and the privilege of men everywhere to choose their wav of
life and of obedience.
The world must be made safe for democracv
Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political
liberty.
W e have no selfish ends to serve.
W e desire no conquests
no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material com­
pensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make.
W e are but one of
the champions of the rights of mankind. W e shall be satisfied when
those rights have been made as secure as the faith and the freedom, of
nations can make them.

We spent $40,000,000,000 and we asked no indemnities what­
ever. A e asked no territory. We lost tens of thousands of
\
our best beloved youth to establish these principles, and we
only asked justice for all peoples, Germans as well as French,
Turks as well as British. We have been disappointed.
We are not content to see them disregarded by the Entente
Allies in any respect. We had a right and we have a right
now to expect and to demand recognition of these broad prin­
ciples of justice as a condition of the further cooperation which
Clemeneeau now desires.
There should never be forgotten the conditions upon which
the armistice of November 11, 191S, was sought and obtained.
These conditions represented the views of the Government of
the United States, voiced by the President of the United States,
not only with the approval of the American people and of Con­
gress but approved by the British Government and the French
Government and the Entente Allies. These conditions were
transmitted to the German Government and the German people
through the Swiss minister by Robert Lansing, the Secretary
of State of the United States, on the 5th of November, 1918,
which I ask to have printed in the R ecord in 8-point type.
There being no objection, the matter was ordered to be
printed in the R ecord in 8-point type, as follow s:
“ Sir : I have the honor to request you to transmit the follow­
ing communication to the German Government :
“ In my note of October 23, 1918, I advised you that the
President had transmitted his correspondence with the German
authorities to the Governments with which the Government of
the United States is associated as a belligerent, with the sug­
gestion that, if those Governments were disposed to effect peace
2 1 5 0 8 — 2:5341




*




upon the terms and principles indicated, their military advisers
and the military advisers of the United States be asked to
submit to the Governments associated against Germany the
necessary terms of such armistice as would fully protect the
interests of the peoples involved and insure to the associated
Governments the unrestricted powT to safeguard and enforce
er
the details of the peace to which the German Government had
agreed, provided they deemed sueh an armistice possible from
the military point of view.
“ The President is now in receipt of a memorandum of ob­
servations by the allied Governments on this correspondence,
which is as follow s:
“ ‘ The allied Governments have given careful consideration
to the correspondence which has passed between the President
of the United States and the German Government. Subject to
the qualifications which follow, they declare their willingness to
make peace with the Government of Germany on the terms
of peace laid down in the President’s address to Congress of
January, 1918, and the principles of settlement enunciated in
his subsequent addresses. They must point out, however, that
clause 2, relating to what is usually described as the freedom
of the seas, is open to various interpretations, some of which
they could not accept. They must, therefore, reserve to them­
selves complete freedom on this subject when they enter the
peace conference.
“ ‘ Further, in the conditions of peace laid down in his ad­
dress to Congress of January 8, 1918, the President declared
that invaded territories must be restored as well as evacuated
and freed, and the allied Governments feel that no doubt ought
to be allowed to exist as to what this provision implies. By
it they understand that compensation will be made by Germany
for all damage done to the civilian population o f the Allies
and their property by the aggression of Germany by land, by
sea, and from the air.’ ”
Mr. OWEN, The allied governments gave careful consider­
ation to this correspondence between the President and the
German Government, and they declared to the President of the
United States that they were willing to make peace with the
Government o f Germany on the terms of the peace laid down
in the President’s address to Congress o f January 8, 1918. and
the principles of settlement enunciated in his subsequent ad­
dresses. Some of the 14 points and principles they did carry
out, but in many instances and in details they failed to carry
them out and pursued a contrary policy, a policy calculated to
injure the German people commercially and financially, and
violated the agreement to permit Germany to have “ a place of
equality among the peoples of the world.”
It was this address of the President of the United States o f
January 8, 1918, and the 14 points w hich appealed to the Ger­
’
man people as people, and we took infinite pains to have this
address of the President of the United States scattered by air­
planes behind the German lines and to give for it publicity
among the German people, and these German people had a
o £ ? L t0 re y’ no* on1y upon the
faith of the United States
J. ernrpent and the good faith of the people of the United
Stat- , : ut< ‘ ey had a right to rely upon the good faith of the
“

-

*

— 23341

e*»

A

7
G o v e r n m e n t s o f tlxe E n t e n t e A l l i e s a n d o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e
E n t e n t e A ll i e s to c a r r y o u t th e p r in c ip le s u p o n w h ic h th e a r m i s ­
tic e w a s b a se d .
T h e G e r m a n G o v e r n m e n t a n d th e G e r m a n p e o p le a c c e p te d
th e s e c o n d itio n s a n d la id d o w n t h e ir a r m s .
I t b e ca m e a b in d ­
i n g c o n t r a c t o f h o n o r m a d e u p o n t h e b a t t l e f ie ld , b i n d i n g F r a n c e
a n d th e E n te n t e A ll ie s a n d G e r m a n y a lik e .
A fa ilu r e to c a r r y
o u t th e te r m s o f th e c o n tr a c t h a s b een fo llo w e d b y e v il c o n s e ­
quence.
T h e P r e s id e n t ’s a d d r e s s to C o n g r e s s o f J a n u a r y 8 is o f s u c h
i m p o r t a n c e in c o n s t r u i n g t h i s a g r e e m e n t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e
U n ite d S ta t e s a n d th e E n te n t e A llie s w ith th e G e r m a n G o v e r n ­
m e n t th a t I th in k i t is p r o p e r to p r e s e n t it a g a in , a n d I a s k to
h a v e it p r i n t e d in t h e R ecord in 8 - p o i n t t y p e .

1heie being no objection, the matter was ordered to be
printed in the R ecord in 8-point type, as follows:
P R E S ID E N T

W IL S O N ’ S

AD D RESS

TO

CO NGRESS

JAN U ARY

8,

1918.

G e n tle m e n o f th e C o n g r e s s , o n c e m o r e , a s r e p e a t e d ly b e fo r e ,
th e s p o k e s m e n o f th e C e n t r a l E m p ir e s h a v e in d ic a t e d t h e ir d e s n e to d is c u s s th e o b je c t s o f th e w a r a n d th e p o s s ib le b a s e s o f
a

Pe a c e ‘
F a r l e y s h a v e b e e n in p r o g r e s s a t B r e s t r-d tw<^e n R u s s i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s
o f th e C e n t r a l P o w e r s , to w h ic h th e a t t e n t io n o f a l l th e b e l­
lig e r e n ts h a s b een in v ite d
fo r th e p u r p o se o f a s c e r ta in in g
w h e th e r it m a y b e p o s s ib le to e x te n d th e s e p a r le y s in to a g e u e r a l c o n fe r e n c e w ith r e g a r d to t e r m s o f p e a c e a n d s e ttle m e n t,
lh e
R u s s ia n r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s p r e s e n te d n o t o n ly a p e r fe c t ly
d e f in i t e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s u p o n w h i c h t h e y w o u l d b e
w illin g to c o n c lu d e p e a c e , b u t a ls o a n e q u a lly d e fin ite p r o ­
gram
o f th e c o n c r e te a p p lic a tio n o f th o s e p r in c ip le s .
The
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e C e n t r a l P o w e r s , o n th e ir p a r t, p re se n te d
a n o u t l i n e o f s e t t l e m e n t w h i c h , i f m u c h l e s s d e f in i t e , s e e m e d
s u s c e p t i b l e o f l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n u n t i l t h e i r s p e c if ic p r o ­
g r a m o f p ra c tic a l te rm s w a s a d d e d .
T h a t p ro g ra m proposed
n o c o n c e s s io n s a t a ll, e it h e r to th e s o v e r e ig n t y o f R u s s ia o r
t o t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h w h o s e f o r t u n e s it
d e a l t , b u t m e a n t , in a w o r d , t h a t t h e C e n t r a l E m p i r e s w e r e t o
k e e p e v e r y f o o t o f t e r r it o r y t h e ir a r m e d f o r c e s h a d o c c u p ie d —
e v e r y P r o v in c e , e v e r y c ity , e v e r y p o in t o f v a n ta g e — a s a p e r ­
m a n e n t a d d it io n to t h e ir t e r r it o r ie s a n d th e ir p o w e r .
I t is a
r e a s o n a b le c o n je c t u r e t h a t th e g e n e r a l p r in c ip le s o f s e t t le m e n t
w h i c h t h e y a t f ir s t s u g g e s t e d o r i g i n a t e d w i t h t h e m o r e l i b e r a l
s ta te s m e n o f G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r ia , th e m en w h o h a v e b eg u n
to

fe e l

th e

fo rc e

of

th e ir

ow n

p e o p le s ’

th o u g h t

and

p u rpose,

w h ile th e c o n c r e te te r m s o f a c tu a l s e tt le m e n t c a m e fr o m th e
m ilit a r y le a d e r s , w h o h a v e n o th o u g h t b u t to k eep w h a t th e y
h a v e g o t.
T h e n e g o tia tio n s h a v e b een b ro k e n o ff.
T h e R u s s ia n
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w e r e s i n c e r e a n d in e a r n e s t .
T h e y can not
e n te r ta in su c h p r o p o s a ls o f c o n q u e s t a n d d o m in a tio n .
“ T h e w h o le in c id e n t is f u ll o f s ig n ific a n c e .

I t is a ls o fu ll o f

p e r p le x ity .
W i t h w h o m a r e Che R u s s i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d e a l ­
in g ?
F o r w h o m a r e th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e C e n tr a l E m p ir e s
s p e a k in g ?
A r e th e y s p e a k in g fo r th e m a jo r it ie s o f th e ir re ­
s p e c tiv e p a r lia m e n t s o r
and

im p e r ia lis t ic

2 1 5 0 8 —-2 3 3 4 1




fo r th e m in o r ity p a r tie s , th a t m ilit a r y

m in o r ity

w h ic h

has

so

fa r

d o m in a te d

th e ir




w h o le p o lic y a n d c o n tr o lle d th e a ffa ir s o f T u r k e y a n d o f th e
B a l k a n States w h i c h h a v e f e l t obliged t o b e c o m e t l i e i r a s s o c i a t e s
in

th e w a r ?

The

R u s s ia n

r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s

have

in s is te d ,

very

j u s t l y , v e r y w i s e l y , a n d in t h e t r u e s p i r i t o f m o d e r n d e m o c r a c y ,

\

t h a t th e c o n fe r e n c e s th e y h a v e b een h o ld in g w ith th e T e u t o n ic
a n d T u r k i s h s t a t e s m e n s h o u l d h e h e ld w i t h i n o p e n , n o t c l o s e d .

doors, and all the world has been audience, as was desired.

To

w hom

th e

have

w e been

lis te n in g , t h e n ?

To

th o se w h o

sp eak

s p i r i t a n d i n t e n t i o n o f t h e r e s o l u t .o n s o f t h e G e r m a n R e i c h s t a g
o f t h e 9 t h o f J u l y l a s t , t h e s p i r i t a n d i n t e n t i o n o f t h e li b e r a l
le a d e r s

and

p a r tie s

of

G erm an y,

or

to

th o se

w ho

r e sist

and

d e fy th a t s p ir it a n d in te n tio n a n d in s is t u p o n c o n q u e st an d
s u b ju g a tio n ?
O r a r e w e l i s t e n i n g , in f a c t , t o b o t h , u n r e c o n c i le d
a n d in o p e n a n d h o p e l e s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n ?
T h e s e a r e v e ry s e r io u s
a n d p r e g n a n t q u e s tio n s .
U p o n th e a n s w e r to th e m d e p e n d s th e
p e a c e o f th e w o r ld .
“ B u t, w h a te v e r th e

r e s u lts o f

th e p a r le y s

at

B r e s t-L ito v s k ,

w h a t e v e r t h e c o n f u s i o n s o f c o u n s e l a n d o f p u r p o s e in t h e u t t e r ­
a n c e s o f th e s p o k e sm e n o f th e C e n t r a l E m p ir e s , th e y h a v e a g a in
a t t e m p t e d t o a c q u a i n t t h e w o r l d w i t h t h e i r o b j e c t s in t h e w a r
a n d h a v e a g a in c h a lle n g e d th e ir a d v e r s a r ie s to s a y w h a t th e ir
o b je c ts a r e a n d w h a t so rt

o f s e ttle m e n t th e y

w o u ld

deem

ju s t

an d s a tis fa c to r y .
T h e r e is n o g o o d r e a so n w h y t h a t c h a lle n g e
s h o u ld n o t b e r e s p o n d e d to , a n d r e s p o n d e d to w ith th e u tm o s t

y

can dor.
W e d id n o t w a i t f o r it .
N o t o n c e , b u t a g a in a n d
a g a in , w e h a v e la id o u r w h o le th o u g h t a n d p u r p o s e b e fo r e th e
w o r l d , n o t in g e n e r a l t e r m s o n l y , b u t e a c h t i m e w i t h s u f f ic ie n t
d e fin itio n to m a k e it c le a r w h a t s o r t o f d e fin itiv e t e r m s o f s e t ­
tle m e n t m u s t n e c e s s a r ily s p r in g o u t o f th e m .
W it h i n th e la s t
w e e k M r . L lo y d -G e o r g e h a s sp o k e n
in

a d m ir a b le * s p ir it

fo r

th e

w ith a d m ir a b le c a n d o r a n d

p e o p le

and

G overnm en t

of

G reat

B r ita in .
T h e r e is n o c o n fu s io n o f c o u n s e l a m o n g th e a d v e r ­
s a r ie s o f th e C e n t r a l P o w e r s , n o u n c e r t a in t y o f p r in c ip le , no
v a g u e n e s s o f d e ta il.
of

fe a r le s s

m en t

of

th e

a llie s .

The

tio n s.

No

o b je c ts
is s u e s
ought

tr a g ic a l

and

th e
of

of

sta te sm a n

s p o n s ib ility
th is

T h e o n ly s e c r e c y o f c o u n s e l, t h e o n ly la c k

fra n k n e ss,

o n ly

th e

fa ilu r e

w ar,

life

and

d e a th

who

has

th e

fo r a m om en t
a p p a llin g

to m a k e

lie s

to

d e fin ite

w ith

G erm an y

hang

upon

le a s t

o u tp o u rin g

th e s e

c o n c e p tio n

p e r m it
of

sta te ­

and

of

her

d e fin i­
h is

re­

h i m s e lf to c o n tin u e
b lo o d

and

tre a su re

u n l e s s h e is s u r e b e y o n d a p e r a d v e n t u r e t h a t t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e
v ita l

sa c r ific e

are

part

and

parcel

a n d t h a t th e p e o p le f o r w h o m
im p e r a tiv e a s h e d o e s.
“ T h e r e is , m o r e o v e r ,

of

th e v ery

life

h e sp e a k s th in k th e m

of

so c ie ty ,

r ig h t a n d
*

a v o ic e

c a llin g

fo r

th e se

d e fin itio n s o f

p r in c ip le a n d o f p u r p o s e w h ic h is . it s e e m s to m e . m o r e t h r illi n g
a n d m o r e c o m p e llin g th a n a n y o f th e m a n y m o v in g v o ic e s w ith
w h i c h t h e t r o u b l e d a i r o f t h e w o r l d i s f ille d .
I t is th e v o ic e o f
th e R u s s ia n p e o p le .
T h e y a r e p r o s t r a t e a n d a l l b u t h e l p l e s s , it
w o u ld s e e m , b e fo r e th e g r im p o w e r o f G e r m a n y , w h ic h h a s
h ith e r to k n o w n n o r e le n tin g a n d n o p it y .
T h e ir p o w e r, a p p a r ­
e n tly , is s h a t t e r e d .
A n d y e t t h e ir s o u l is n o t s u b s e r v ie n t .
They
w i l l n o t y i e l d e i t h e r in p r i n c i p l e o r in a c t i o n .
T h e ir co n cep ­
tio n o f w h a t is r ig h t, o f w h a t it is h u m a n e a n d

hoi

a b le f o r

th e m to a c c e p t, h a s b e e n s ta te d w ith a fr a n k n e s s , a la r g e n e s s o f
v ie w , a

g e n e r o s ity o f s p ir it, a n d

a

u n iv e r sa l

hum an

sy m p a th y

2 1508— 23341

I

9

which must challenge the admiration of every friend o f man­
kind : and they have refused to compound their ideals c desert
others that they themselves may be safe. They call to us to say
what it is that we desire, in what, if in anything, our purpose
and our spirit differ from theirs; and I believe that the people
of the United States would wish me to respond with utter
simplicity and franknesss. Whether their present leaders be­
lieve it or not, it is our heartfelt desire a id hope that some way
may be opened whereby we may be privileged to assist the peo­
ple of Russia to attain their utmost hope o f liberty and ordered
peace.
“ It will be our wish and purpose that the processes of peace,
when they are begun, shall be absolutely open and that they
shall involve and permit henceforth no secret understandings
of any kind. The day of conquest and aggrandizement is gone
b y ; so is also the day of secret covenants entered into in the in­
terest of particular governments and likely at some unlookedfor moment to upset the peace o f the worid. It is this happy
fact, now clear to the view of every public man whose thoughts
do not still linger in an age that is dead and gone, which makes
it possible for every nation whose purposes are consistent with
justice and the peace of the world to avow now or at any other
time the ob jects it has in view.
“ We entered this war because violations of right had occurred
which touched us to the quick and made the life of our own
people impossible unless they were corrected and the world
secured once for all against their recurrence. What we demand
in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is
that the world be made tit and safe to live in ; and particularly
that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like
our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institu­
tions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples
of the world as against force and selfish aggression. All the
peoples of the world are in effect partners in this interest, and
for our own part we see very clearly that unless justice be done
to others it will not be done to us. The program of the world’s
peace, therefore, is our program; and that program, the only
possible program, as we see it, is this:
“ I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at. after which
there shall be no private international understandings of any
kind, but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the
public view.
•
“ II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside
territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the
seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action
for the enforcement of international covenants.
“ III. The removal, so far as possible, o f all economic barriers
and the establishment o f an equality o f trade conditions among
all the nations consenting to the peace and associating them­
selves for its maintenance.
“ IV. Adequate guaranties given and taken that national
armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with
domestic needs.
“ V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjust­
ment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of
the principle that in determining all such questions o f sov2 1 5 0 8 — 2 3 3 4 1 ----------2







10
ereignty the interests o f the populations concerned must have
equal weight with the equitable claims o f the Government
whose title is to be determined.
“ VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settle­
ment of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and
freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining
for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the
independent determination of her own political development and
national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the
society of free nations under institutions o f her own choosing;
and, more than a welcome, assistance also o f every kind that she
may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded
Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the
acid test of their good will, of their comprehension o f her needs
as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelli­
gent and unselfish sympathy.
“ VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated
and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty
which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No
other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence
among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set
and determined for the government of their relations with one
another. Without this healing act the whole structure and
validity of international law is forever impaired.
“ VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded
portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in
1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the
peace of the world for nearly 50 years, should be righted, in
order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest
of all.
“ IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be ef­
fected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
“ X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the
nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be ac­
corded the freest opportunity of autonomous development.
“ XI. Rumania. Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated;
occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure
access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states
to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically
established lines of allegiance and nationality ; and international
guaranties of the political and economic independence and terri­
torial integrity o f the several Balkan states should be entered
into.
“ X II. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire
should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationali­
ties which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an
undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested oppor­
tunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should
be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and com­
merce o f all nations under international guaranties.
“ X III. An independent Polish State should be erected which
should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish
populations, which should be assured a free and secure access
to the sea, and whose political and ecouomie independence and
territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international cove­
nant.
21508— 23341

11
“ XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under
specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guaran­
tees of political independence and territorial integrity to great
and small States alike.
“ In regard to these essential rectifications of wrong and asser­
tions of right we feel ourselves to be intimate partners of all
the governments and peoples associated together against the
imperialists. We can not be separate in interest or divided
in purpose. We stand together until the end.
“ For such arrangements and covenants we are willing to fight
and to continue to fight until they are achieved; hut only be­
cause we wish the right to prevail ami desire a just and stable
peace such as can be secured only by removing the chief provo­
cations to war, which this program does remove. We have
no jealousy of German greatness, and there is nothing in this
program that impairs it. We grudge her no achievement or
distinction of learning or of pacific enterprise such as have
made her record very bright and very enviable. We do not
wish to injure her or to block in any way her legitimate influence or power. We do not wish to fight her either with arms
or with hostile arrangements of trade if she is willing to asso­
ciate herself with us and the other peace-loving nations of the
world in covenants of justice and law and fa r dealing. We
wish her only to accept a place of equal'ty among the peoples
of the world— the new world in which we now live— instead of
a place of mastery.
“ Neither do we presume to suggest to her any alteration or
modification of her institutions. But it is necessary, we must
frankly say, and necessary as a preliminary to any intelligent
dealings with her on our part, that we should know whom her
spokesmen speak for when they speak to us, whether for the
Reichstag majority or for the military party and the men
whose creed is imperial domination.
“ We have spoken now, surely, in terms too concrete to admit
of any further doubt or question. An evident principle runs
through the whole program I have outlined. It is the prin­
ciple of justice to all peoples and nationalities, and their
right to live on equal terms o f liberty and safety with one
another, whether they be strong or weak. Unless this prin­
ciple be made its foundation, no part o f the structure of inter­
national justice can stand. The people of the United States
could act upon no other principle; and to the vindication of
this principle they are ready to devote their lives, their honor,
and everything that they possess. The moral climax of this
the culminating and final war for human liberty has come, and
they are ready to put their own strength, their own highest
purpose, their own integrity and devotion to the test.”
Mr. OWEN. By every principle of common honesty the
United States and the Entente Allies were bound by the 14
points, which were not carried out in good faith. Clemenceau
himself was quoted as deriding the 14 points after the fruits
of this g gantic declaration of principle had been obtained
through the armistice and the German Government had sur­
rendered and was disarmed.
After the Germans were disarmed. Clemenceau was quoted in
the public press as saying that “ Moses only laid down Ten Com2 1508— 23341







mandments and Woodrow Wilson laid down 14 commandments.”
How witty and merry. How thoughtless and destructive. Moses
led the Children of Israel out of the wilderneas with the Ten
Commandments, and the American people would have led the
children of Europe out of the wilderness with the 14 points
if leaders like Clemenceau, Lloyd-George, and others had. in
perfect good faith, carried out these principles and covenants
on which the surrender of the Germans was obtained.
But the Entente leaders have not carried them out. They
wrote a treaty of victory and imposed conditions some of wh.ch
are now believed to be impossible of fulfillment, and others
which contain the seeds o# future war and which were and are
in fiat violation of various o f these pledges o f the 14 points.
It is not necessary to regard Clemenceau and Lloyd-George
as being willfully unfaithful because of this breach of faith in
carrying out the 14 points. They are merely human beings,
with human frailty, controlled by their environment, represent­
ing the leaders behind them and voicing the language o f the
old diplomacy o f Europe, the diplomacy o f strategic boundaries,
of brute force, and o f commercial advantages on land and sea.
Blind leaders of the blind, piling up disaster and war from
their failure to recognize the fundamental principles o f justice
between nations, every one of whom is equally entitled to life,
liberty, the pursuit o f happiness, the right to manage its own
affairs in its own way, and the right to international under­
standing and good will and the means to make these rights
effective.
We have no sympathy with the abuse of the German people,
the Russian people, the Turkish people by Clemenceau anv
more than of the British or French people by the Germans
The 14 points represented the new order of reliance on
justice and international good will rather than the old order,
a reliance alone upon brute force.
The group behind Clemenceau put their faith in brute force,
and therefore at Paris and Versailles they carried on a vigor­
ous, strenuous campaign for the purpose of building up material
forces which would strengthen France and weaken Germanv
regardless o f the principles o f justice, in carrying out the 14
points to which they were so solemnly pledged.
Against these gigantic forces of self-interest movin** the
leadership of the Entente Allies in so large a measure Wood
row Wilson stood isolated and alone at Paris, the most pa­
thetic, the most tragic figure the world has ever seen in the
most gigantic crisis o f all time. Woodrow Wilson went as
the advocate o f principles of international good will and un­
derstanding and justice and righteousness and self-government
among men. He not only had to meet these great forces o f the
old order at Paris and Versailles, but even in this gigantic
struggle in which he was engaged—and which has been so
graphically portrayed by Ray Stannard Baker in his recent
volumes of Woodrow Wilson and the World Settlement__Woodrow Wilson failed to receive the support from his own c o u n ­
try which might have made it possible for him to have fully
established the new order in writing this treaty His failure
was not due to his lack of effort, for his efforts brought him
even at Paris to the point o f physical collapse. At Paris his
hands were weakened by attacks from America
21508— 23341

13
In order to hold up the hands of the President in his great
struggle for justice on earth I offered the following Senate Con­
current Resolution No. 17, which, without reading, I ask to have
printed in the R ecord in 8-point type as an appendix.
The VICE PRESIDENT. Without objection, it is so ordered.
( S e e A p p e n d i x .)

Mr. OWEN. The Senate and the House of Representatives
acquiesced in the address of the President o f January 8, 1918,
with “ prolonged applause.”
Clemenceau and Lloyd-George and the Entente leadership
wrote the treaty of Versailles, ignoring some of the important
principles of the 14 points. They broke faith with the world
and occupy in America the attitude now of asking America to
come to Europe again to relieve them o f the results of their
own unwise conduct.
What do they want of America? We have a right to know.
Clemenceau and Lloyd-George wrote the treaty of Versailles
in such form and of such substance that it did not secure rati­
fication by the Senate of the United States. The concessions
which they wrongfully extorted from Woodrow Wilson brought
on a violent attack on the treaty itself in America, and Ameri­
can leaders asked themselves, Are we to pledge the powers of
America to carry out this treaty of greed and fear and force
framed in contravention o f the 14 points, in contravention of
the principles in which America believes? Are we to be made
the instruments by which the wrongs done the conquered
peoples shall be made permanent and effective?
No, Mr. President; Clemenceau, or rather the powers behind
Clemenceau, have made a bed of thorns for themselves, and. the
end is not yet.
Mr. President, we are more than anxious that America and
the American people, both for their own sakes and for the sake
of the people of Europe, should do everything in their power
to restore the European people to a condition of perfect peace
and happiness, but America can not make wrong right. Amer­
ica can not be of great service to Europe until the statesmen of
Europe are willing to recognize the fundamental principles upon
which the peace and welfare of the people of the world must be
founded. The evil consequences which have been brought
upon Europe are largely due to the obsession of fear of the
French people which was used by the French leaders to build
up a program o f French security by force and intrigue as
against the program of Woodrow Wilson—of international
justice and good will and the mutual guaranties of the cove­
nant of the League of Nations.
The French policy as opposed to the 14 points may be briefly
summarized as follow s:
(1) French military control of the Rhine.
(2) A permanent alliance o f the great powers to help France
to hold it.
(3) A group of smaller allies to menace Germany from the
east.
(4) Territorial revision of the German Empire.
(5) Crippling o f the German political organization.
(6) Disarmament o f Germany but not of the Allies.
(7) A crushing indemnity.
21508— 23341







14
(8) Deprivation o f economic resources.
(9) A set o f commercial agreements preferential to France,
prejudicial to Germany.
(10) Germany not allowed to enter the League of Nations.
(11) Cutting off German markets, and so forth.
The French people undoubtedly have been profoundly affected
by a fear of future German aggression, and they are proposing
to make sure their future defense by breaking Germany down
by the above program, by going heavily armed, and by promot­
ing the same spirit and policy in Poland, Rumania, Greece,
Belgium, and so forth. The British and the French have been
regarded as the real force behind the Greek-Turk war.
They have failed to carry out the treaty entered into at
Washington between the nations to reduce competitive naval
armaments. The French leadership is slowly isolating from the
French Government the sympathy of the world in spite of the
fact that the American people have felt a great and sentimental
friendship for the people of France. A wide distinction must
always be made between the people of a country and the govern­
ing forces of a country. France is pursuing a policy which
threatens Europe with war or Bolshevism, or both, and the
sooner the French statesmen realize the error of this short­
sighted policy, the better it will be for the world, and the better
it will be for the happiness and prosperity of the French
people.
If Europe receives American help it will be upon the basis
of absolute international justice, o f international understand­
ing. of nternational good will. Perhaps Clemenceau’s visit may
open the door. I wish this venerable statesman a welcome to
Amer ca, and hope h's visit will be pleasant and agreeable and
that it may be useful in leading to a better understanding be­
tween the people of America and the people of France. America
is not going to support a policy of greed and brute force and in­
justice between nations. America is going to stand for the new
order upon the face of God’s footstool. Clemenceau is believed
in America to have extorted much from Woodrow Wilson in the
treaty of Versailles in exchange for the League of Nations, but
he has not made the American people agree to the extortions,
although because of the covenant o f the League o f Nations a
large body of American opinion was willing to give support to
the treaty of peace, believing, as Woodrow Wilson seemed to
believe, that the principles o f the covenant would in time correct
the unjust features which had been written into the treaty, as
they did do in regard to Shantung and naval armaments.
Mr. President, every human being, I suppose, is a product
of his training and environment and it is easier for an Ameri­
can—living in the United States, where 48 sovereign States
live side by side in peace and happiness under a just and gen­
erous Government, a Government o f the people, by the people,
and for the people— to see the value o f such forces as are at
work in America than it is for Clemenceau or the French
leaders to believe that peace on earth can be maintained by
moral force and that moral force is greater than physical force
and that moral force can produce physical force which will
be triumphant even in war, and yet if they should reflect upon
it they would at last be driven to concede that it was the
21508— 23341

15

moral forces behind the Entente Allies that brought bayonets
from the ends of the earth in defense of liberty and justice
and actually won the late war. The old order of European
diplomacy believed alone in military force, in strategic bound­
aries, in secret covenants, in intrigue, in balances of power,
and so forth, and this doctrine has been so ground into the
mind of Cleinenceau it is difficult indeed, if not impossible, for
him to understand the conquering power of the new forces
which are going to govern and make safe the world and which
have been written in the covenant of the league under the in­
spiration, leadership, and sacrifice of Woodrow Wilson, whose
name, as time goes on, will rise in greater and greater dignity
and honor.
Cleinenceau believes in balances o f power, in alliances versus
alliances. He tells us the hope of the world is France, Great
Britain, and the United States versus Germany, Russia, and
Turkey.
l\'ot so, my dear Cleinenceau. The peace of the world is jus­
tice to all nations alike, great and small, and a recognition of
the doctrine “ Turkey for the Turks, Russia for the Russian,
as well as France for the French.” Political independence
and terr.tor al integrity for every nation. Let Great Britain
and France and Greece get out of Turkey and stay out.
Over oO nations are now members of the League of Nations.
The injustices of Versailles should be corrected at once. Ger­
many and Russia should be brought into the league. The
United States should enter the league or declare an approval
of its principles.
The principles of the 14 points should be written into the Ver­
sailles treaty as agreed— and especially disarmament—down to
the limit of domestic needs, should be speedily accomplished.
The budgets should be balanced. A Federal reserve system of
Europe adopted. Gold enough to supply the system should be
advanced by the European countries with the aid of $.">00.000,000
of American gold. An international conference of business men
should be annually assembled with a view to increasing pro­
duction and distribution o f commodities and teaching men of
all nations to know and trust each other. The economic barriers
should be removed between nations.
You can not hate a man you really know and who really
knows you.
The need of the world is mutual understanding, mutual faith,
and good will. It will lead to peace and to prosperity of all
men. The doctr ne o f Christ is the true doctrine. “ Thou
shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.” If dear Cleinenceau could
teach his people to turn their backs on fear and hate, even the
Germans would respond to these sentiments and America could
then do much to help Europe.
Mr. President, one of the most remarkable appeals for peace
has come with the signatures of the representatives of the
organization of European War Veterans after their participa­
tion in the last annual convention of the American Legion.
Among these resolutions are the following:
T h a t a ll in t e r n a t io n a l a g r e e m e n t s a m o n g G o v e r n m e n t s a ff e c t in g
e n t i r e p e o p le s h a ll b e o p e n a n d a b o v e b o a r d , w it h f u l l p u b li c i t y .
T o o p p o se te r r ito r ia l a g g r a n d iz e m e n t.
T h a t a n in te r n a t io n a l c o u r t b e e s ta b lis h e d to o u tla w w a r .

21508— 2.'5341




th e

16
To

proceed

as

r a p id ly

as

c o n d itio n s

o f ,su. ? h , co,u r t s b e c o m e o p e r a t i v e
a n d t h e ir fo r c e s a n d d e s t r o y th e

' "(




th e

decrees

e n t ir e ly d is a r m
a n d d is b a n d
im p le m e n ts o f w a r fa r e .

p e r m it,

and

w hen

a r m ie s

The organizations of the soldiers of the late World War can
do more to teach sanity to public leaders than, perhaps, any
other force, and I rejoice in these resolutions. They reflect the
principles o f the 14 points, and go further to outlaw war.
There should be international treaties by which the invasion
of the territory o f another country should be denounced as an
international high crime, punishable with death for the leaders
guilty of it, and the world ought to inflict this penalty and
teach by personal penalties stupid officials who bring about war
that they are responsible for the death of the men whom they
lead into aggressive, wrongful war, and they should suffer the
penalty of death as a righteous judgment.
The time has come for the new order, and if Clemenceau
really represents the better sentiment in France in saying,
Let us be good and let us be free,” the American opinion
might support America participating in the councils of Eu­
rope for the reconstruction of Europe— but when Clemenceau
talks about “ Turkish barbarism, German revenge, and Russian
anarchy” as the problems he wishes America to help him to
solve by an alliance with Great Britain and France to stop the
menace of a Moslem war, the reply of America will be unsympa­
thetic. We are not astonished nor shocked at the Turks driv­
ing the aggressive Greeks out of their country. We are in
favor of Turkey for the Turks, o f Russia for the Russians, of
Germany for the Germans, and o f France for the French, and
opposed to any one of them invading the territory or the
rights o f any other. We are in favor of the principles o f the
cague and the 14 points, which are binding on Clemenceau and
on the 1 rench leadership, and until they recognize these princiop^nioin
W* * *mve £reat difficulty in conciliating American
M i. President, we believe that the people of Europe are deeply
8^m°tU 0 f Peaf , Jt *8 the leadership o f Europe that does not
S
ceseem to understand the conditions upon which peace mav be obtained. They are pursuing policies which are stirring up hate.
If Clemenceau s visit to this country can make that perfectly
cl®ai‘ n , the IeadershiP of Europe, if they will be advised from
what Clemenceau is able to learn in the United States with
regard to the true principles of government which should obtain
between nations, his visit will not have been in vain We hope
his visit will accomplish that result.
A P P E N D IX .
S e n a te

C oncurrent

R e s o lu tio n

1 7 . s u b m itte d
28, 1918.

by

S e n a to r

Owen-

Jan u ary

Resolved by the Senate ( the Rouse of Representatives con­
curring), The Lmted States declared a state of war existing
between the Imperial Government of Germany and the I m n o r i a l
and Royal Government o f Austria and the United States beS^nle °nf S y T f S
willful violations of the rights of the
people of the Lnited States under the acknowledged principles
of international la w ; the sinking of unarmed merchant vessels
and of hospital and Red Cross ships; the destruction of the lives
of unoffending American citizens on their lawful business on the
21o08— 23341

17

high seas on many occasions; filling the United States with
spies and secret agents; conspiring the wholesale destruction of
American industries by arson, by explosions, and murder; sys­
tematically promoting sedition and treason among our citizens,
and the criminal violation of our laws by the German and Aus­
trian aliens residing in the United States; endeavoring to incite
the hostility and aversion of other nations against the United
States, and to persuade Mexico and Japan to make war upon the
United States, and many other wrongful acts contrary to the
laws of nations and in violation of justice and of humanity; and
for the further reason that it had finally become known to the
United States from indisputable evidence that the military mas­
ters of Germany and Austria had deliberately and secretly con­
spired to bring about an elaborately prepared offensive war by
which and through which they intended, first, to dominate
Europe, nation by nation, and then to dominate the other unpre­
pared nations o f the earth and establish a military world
dominion.
For many years past the governing powers of Germany and
Austria have by world-wide intrigue carried on a systematic
attempt to disorganize public opinion in the United States and
in the other nations of the world for the purpose of breaking
down the powers of resistance of other nations against this con­
spiracy for world dominion by exciting nation against nation
and internal disorders among the nations that might oppose this
sinister design.
The United States has not forgotten that the military rulers
of Germany and Austria deliberately prevented international
agreements at the various Hague conventions for arbitration of
international differences, abatement of armaments, and world
peace.
The United States recognizes this was as an offensive war o f
the completely prepared German and Austrian military autocra­
cies against the unsuspecting and inadequately prepared democ­
racies of the world in pursuance o f the policy laid down in the
first and second articles of the secret treaty of Verona of No­
vember 22, 1922, in which the autocratic rulers of Prussia and
Austria solemnly pledged their powers to each other to over­
throw all “ representative ” governments on earth, the consum­
mation of which design the Prussian and Austrian autocratic
group has steadily and secretly kept in view, and that this
war had for its objects the premeditated slaughter and robbery
of the innocent peoples of other nations for the sordid and base
purposes o f annexation, indemnity, robbery, and commercial
profit by military force and terrorism and ultimate world
dominion.
The United States finally recognized the unavoidable necessity
of meeting the forces o f this military conspiracy on the battle
fields of Europe in order to prevent the military rulers of Ger­
many and Austria succeeding in the first step o f mastering
Europe as a means to mastering and robbing America.
The United States can not be deceived by those military
leaders of Germany and Austria who now, before their own
people, pretend to be waging a war o f defense and to desire an
honorable peace, but whose every act has clearly demonstrated
to the whole world that they deliberately planned and are still
21508— 23341







18
persisting in this unspeakably brutal war, with their sinister
purposes unchanged, and which they are still attempting to
carry out by terrorism, intr.gue, and systematic falsehood and
deceit at home and abroad.
The United States can not confide in any statement or prom­
ise emanating from such a perfidious source until the .German
and Austrian people in fact and in sober truth can control the
conduct of their agents and compel them to observe the rules
o f morality and good faith.
The Un ted States did not enter this war for material advan­
tage or for any selfish purpose or to gratify either malice or
ambition.
The United States will not approve of forcible annexations
or mere punitive indemnities, even on the misgu ded people of
Austria or of Germany, but demands the complete evacuation
of all territory invaded during the present war by the German
and Austr an troops and the restoration and indemnity of
Belg'um, Serbia, Rumania, and Montenegro.
The United States believes that righting the wrong done to
the French people by the Prussian Government in 1871 in the
matter of Alsace-Lorraine will remove long-pending grievances
due to previous military aggression and vv.ll promote future
world peace.
The United States believes that a readjustment o f the
frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognized
lines of nationalilty; that an independent Polish State should
be established over territory indisputably occupied by Polish
people; that the peoples of Austria-Hungary, o f the Balkans,
and of the Ottoman Empire should have the right of autono­
mous development.
The United States will favor recognizing and protecting by
an international alliance the territorial integrity o f all nations,
great and small; the maintenance of the right of unembar­
rassed self-determination of all nations, and the right o f such
nations to manage their own affairs by internal self-govern­
ment; and safeguarding the rights of backward peoples by
international agreement.
The United States will favor extending international credits
for the restoration of all places made waste by war.
The United States will insist that the oceans and high seas
and international waterways and canals shall be open on equal
terms to the citizens o f all nations; that all nations shall have
the untaxed right of access to the sea of their goods in bond,
through any intervening territory to the seaports of other na­
tions, with equal access to shipping facilities.
The United States will favor the removal, as far as possible,
of all economic barriers and the establishment o f equal trade
conditions among all the nations of the world consenting to
peace and associating themselves for its maintenaee, without
interfering with the right of any nation to govern its own im­
ports and exports.
The United States will insist that adequate guaranties shall
be given and taken to the end that national armaments on land
and sea should be reduced to the lowest points consistent with
domestic safety.
21508— 23341

The unbounded ambition and deceit of the Prussian military
autocrats are again exposed in shameless nakedness before the
German and Austrian people, their allies, and the world at
large in their present demands of annexation of adjacent Rus­
sian territory and other demands contemplating the domination
of the Russian and Polish people in flat violation o f their own
Reichstag’s recent pledges against annexation and indemnity.
The United States feels for the Russian people the liveliest
sympathy in their great losses in life and property at the hands
of the German and Austrian autocrats, as well as their mag­
nificent and glorious struggles in behalf of freedom and demo­
cratic world peace.
Having passed through many severe tests and trials in estab­
lishing popular government in America, the people o f the
United States, through their own directly elected representa­
tives, desire to extend to the Russian people the cordial hand
of fellowship in their new-found freedom and to assure their
democratic brothers in Russia that we earnestly desire to
render them, so far as possible, every assistance they may
need and which they themselves desire.
The United States will favor an open-minded and absolutely
impartial adjustment of all colonial claims based upon a strict
observance o f the principle that in determining all such ques­
tions of sovereignty the interests o f the population concerned
must have equal weight with the claims of the Governments
whose titles are to be determined.
The United States recognizes that a general association of
civilized nations must be formed under specific covenants for
the purpose of affording mutual guaranties of political inde­
pendence and territorial integrity to nations, great and small
alike, and of maintaining world peace, and believes that under
such a system dissatisfied peoples now held under subjection to
dominating nations for strategical purposes could be safely
given their liberty and autonomy, as the rights of the dominant
nation would be made safe by the general association of na­
tions and the subject nation would cease to be a coveted asset
against future wur.
The United States believes that under such general associa­
tion of nations it should be a violation of international law and
the highest international crime for any nation, on any alleged
ground, to invade by military power the territorial limits of
another nation, and that the penalty for such invasions should
be the immediate international blockade o f the invading and
offending nation, an embargo on all mail, express, and freight
to and from such nation, and the suppression of such invasion
by the combined forces o f the general association of nations
organized for the protection o f world peace.
The United States believes that all future international
treaties should be made in the open, where all the world may
know of the proceedings in the framing o f such treaties, and
that secret diplomacy and international intrigue should end.
The United States desires to be on friendly terms, political,
commercial, and social, with the people of every1 nation, includ­
ing those now under the control of the German and Austrian
military autocracies, and to restore as speedily as possible these
21508— 23341







20

friendly relations with the German and Austrian people as soon
as they organize a Government responsible to the will of the
people of Germany and Austria and whenever they shall them­
selves demonstrate a willingness to deal with the other nations
of the world on a basis o f equality, justice, and humanity and
are willing to abandon the atrocious and detestable doctrine of
making war for annexation, indemnity, and profit.
The United States entered this war to protect the rights of
its own citizens to life and liberty, to protect its own future,
to make the world safe from the future menace of military
despotism, dynastic ambitions, or competing armaments, to
establish permanent world peace on a basis o f international
justice, righteousness, and humanity, and, in cooperation with
the self-governing belligerent nations, will maintain these prin­
ciples, whatever the cost, with firmness and resolution until
these ends are fully accomplished.
21508— 23341

o