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Kiwanis Club
Columbus, Georgia


Walking the Tightrope

It has not been so many months since I was last in Columbus, but
even so, the signs of change - of growth and progress - are remarkable.
And, of course, the end is nowhere in sight.

The new midtown shopping

center will change the face of the city, as will the new hospital and
mental health clinic to be built in Bradley Center.

The two big new

motels planned for the bypass in Phenix City represent a considerable
investment in the growth of the area.
We try to keep up as well as possible with developments in our
District and, while I don’t want to bore you with statistics, a few will
confirm in cold figures the impression one gets from a visit.

For ex­

ample, from 1960 to 1967, population increased nearly 20 percent.


1962 to 1966, payroll employment in the metropolitan area increased by
nearly 18 percent, and the unemployment rate went down from 5.7 percent
to 3.5 percent.

Retail sales in the same period went up by 33 percent,

as the increased employment, as well as higher wages, made possible
increased consumer spending.
Your banking community participated in this growth and helped to
make it possible.

Deposits at member banks rose 72 percent from June

1962 to June 1967, and loans increased by an impressive 105 percent.
Thus, over the past 5 years, the Columbus area has shared with
the rest of the country an almost unprecedented growth in output, employ­
ment, and income.

We all want this growth to continue, because it means

increasing prosperity for ourselves and increasing opportunities for our

Which brings me to the theme that I want to establish this /
our collective responsibility for maintaining stable economic
We all— the business community, labor, government and the


financial community— have large stakes in the maintenance of growth with

No one wants to return to the depressed conditions of the

thirties nor to the inflation of the years right after World War II.
But opportunity carries with it responsibility.

The Federal Reserve

System bears a large share, but by no means all, of this responsibility.
The Act which established the Federal Reserve System said that the




System s purposes were to provide an elastic currency, provide facilities


for discounting commercial paper, and improve the supervision of banking.
It was recognized, even from the beginning, that these purposes, although

desirable in themselves, were also means of helping to achieve the broader




goals of price stability, high levels of employment, and rising levels of
income and consumption.

These broader goals have come to be more and more

explicitly recognized, through legislation such as the Employment Act of
1946, as the ends to be sought by total national economic policy, of which
the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve System is a part.
The Federal Reserve System makes its influence felt by affecting the
amount of reserves available to member banks.

The more reserves the banks

have available, the more loans and investments they can make, thus increas­
ing the buying power available to business, consumers, and government.
less the reserve availability, the less credit banks can extend.


At any

given meeting of the Open Market Committee, policy makers have to decide which
of these courses to follow.

But this is not always an easy task.

If millions of people are out of work, prices are falling, and product­
ion is declining, there is no question of which direction monetary policy
should move: obviously the System should supply reserves to the banks and
do everything in its power to encourage credit expansion so as to put idle
resources to work.

If, on the other hand, prices are rising rapidly, job

vacancies are increasing, and production bottlenecks are widespread, the




obvious course is to restrict the growth of bank credit, perhaps, in ex­
treme cases, even to reduce total reserves.
no problem for policy makers.

At either extreme, there is

It is, paradoxically, when the economy is

behaving best that the policy maker's job is most difficult.

Any air-

plandpilot knows that it takes more skill to maintain a given course and
altitude in the face of variable winds than it does to get there in the
first place.

And unfortunately, no automatic pilot has yet been invented

to guide the economy safely on its course.
Just as the pilot must anticipate storms that might blow him off course
and prepare to make the necessary changes, so the monetary policy maker
must be able to foresee the disturbances the economy is likely to face in
the near future, because there is always some lag between action and res­

And economic forecasting, in spite of all the advances in computer

techniques, is still even less exact a science than weather forecasting.
Still, the record of the last six years is, we believe, pretty good.
From early 1961 to the middle of 1966 the Federal Reserve System supplied
increasing amounts of reserves to its member banks, chiefly through open
market operations.

As a result, all during the period there was a con­

sistent rise in bank credit.

This additional credit supplemented the saving

of consumers and businesses.

It helped to put men and resources to work and

added to our productive capacity.

The unemployment rate fell markedly from

the high levels of the 1960-61 recession, factory operations moved nearer
capacity, and at least until 1965, prices remained remarkably stable.
This was what we wanted-stable economic growth without inflation.
By the latter half of 1965, however, it became apparent that infla­
tionary pressures were building up.

The unemployment rate was rapidly

approaching the 4 percent rate that the Administration had set as a target;




factories were getting very close to capacity utilization; and, as a re­
sult, prices were rising too rapidly for comfort.

In particular, whole­

sale prices, which had been almost unchanged since 1958, rose about 4 per­
cent in a year.

Although production continued to increase, demand for goods

was increasing even faster and was outrunning the economy’s productive ca­

In these circumstances, the Federal Reserve had to make a decision.

It could continue to supply additional reserves in sufficient quantities to
permit the banks to satisfy all their loan applications at unchanged in­
terest rates-and, of course, there are always pressures to keep the cre­
dit tap open.

No one likes to stop a good thing, and inflation always gives

the illusion of prosperity.

People see their incomes increasing and businesses

see their sales going up, and they may not realize immediately that they
can’t buy any more with the extra money because everything costs that much
On the other hand, the System could restrict the amount of reserves
available to the banks.

This would tend to hold down the growth of pur­

chasing power and thus restrain the rise in prices, but it would also mean
a rise in interest rates, as borrowers competed for the available loan

It would, incidentally, also make it more difficult and expensive

for the Treasury to finance the Federal deficit, inflated because of the
war in Viet Nam.
The Federal Reserve chose the policy that seemed necessary in the
circumstances, although it was perhaps not the most popular one.

In De­

cember of 1965, the System raised the discount rate from 4 to 4^ percent.
This action was designed to make it more expensive for banks to borrow
from the System in order to expand their loans.

Twice during 1966, re­

serve requirements against time deposits were raised.

Open market operations

supplied less additional reserves to the banks than they would have liked,

- 5 -

although, until the second half of the year, total reserves actually con­
tinued to increase.
In the meantime, the Federal Government had also contributed to slow­
ing down the inflationary spiral through such actions as putting corporate
tax payments on a pay-as-you-go basis sooner than originally planned, re­
instating the excise taxes on automobiles and telephone charges that were
dropped at the beginning of 1966, reducing the under-withholding of per­
sonal income tax, and reducing non-defense expenditures.


the tax programs did not have their full effect until after a considerable
time lag and so, until September of last year, nearly all the strain of
holding inflation in check had to be borne by Federal Reserve monetary pol­

As a result, interest rates rose to record postwar levels and banks

found themselves caught in the tightest liquidity squeeze in many years.
In September, President Johnson asked Congress to suspend temporarily
the 7 percent tax credit on investment in machinery and equipment and the
accelerated depreciation provisions on new buildings, and announced that
the government would take whatever steps were necessary to combat infla­
These fiscal measures, taken together with monetary restraint, pro­
duced the desired result.

The price rise was moderated, the formerly

feverish pace of inventory acculumation slowed down, and in 1967, indus­
trial production actually declined slightly.

As soon as it became evident

that the boom had cooled off, the Federal Reserve reversed its policy of
restraint and began once more to supply additional reserves to the bank­
ing system.

It wasjjust as important to prevent a recession in economic

activity as it was to prevent the former inflationary excesses.


latest figures seem to show that this, too, has been successfully achieved.
Bank loans have resumed their upward climb and industrial production,


employment, and retail sales have all turned up.

Gross national pro­

duct, which actually declined in the first quarter of this year after
making allowance for price rises, rose a healthy $4 billion in the sec­
ond quarter.
But-worryingly-prices seem perhaps to be on the rise once more.

And there are enough indications of potential inflationary pressures to
ensure a continuing plentiful supply of gray hairs for monetary policy

Viet Nam is a constant drain that has repeatedly upset the cal­

culations and the best intentions of the Federal budget makers.


term interest rates, after falling in late 1966 and early 1967, are now
higher than they were a year ago, indicating a strong demand by business
for funds for expansion.

Can the growing productive capacity of the

economy keep pace with the demands - both military and civilian - being
put upon it?

This is the question that is most likely to absorb the

attention of Federal Reserve policy makers in the months to come.
On the other hand, if all our best hopes are realized, and a halt
can be brought to the fighting in Viet Nam, this will create problems
of readjustment.

Columbus businessmen must be acutely conscious of the

difficulties that Columbus would face if the world situation would allow
us to reduce significantly the size of our military establishment.


must all have, at the least, contingency plans to handle a period of

It seems to me there are two principal lessons to be learned from
the experience of the last two years.
be flexible.

One is that economic policy must

We must be prepared to counteract inflation, as in 1965,

and to reverse that policy, as in 1966, soon enough to prevent the neces­
sary cooling off period from developing into a recession.

This flexibility

is absolutely essential and, because tax changes by the Federal government


inevitably require a good deal of time for congressional consideration,
the monetary controls of the Federal Reserve System - and its freedom
of action - are vitally necessary weapons.
The other is that the Federal Reserve System cannot do the job alone.
It must work cooperatively with Federal policies on taxes and expenditures,
so that they reinforce one another and do not work at cross purposes.
The System must also have the willing cooperation of banks, of the business
community, and of labor.

We all have a great stake in continued prosperity

Let us balance that opportunity with a sense of prudence and responsibility