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T a l k before Montana Bankers Convention
July 4, 1966
Hugh D. Galusha, Jr.
Federal Reserve Bank of M i n n eapolis

A few years ago, Clarence Randall, formerly President of Bethlehem
Steel, wrote a book called "The Folklore of Management."

Today I want to

direct my remarks to the myths about banking -- some held by bankers t h e m ­
selves, some by the public, and some by regulatory agencies.

A period like

the last ten months has been well calculated to test the v i t a l i t y of these
myths as the cross currents of our economy have swirled through the money

As one who believes something rich and colorful would go out of

our lives if we were to be stripped of our folklore, I am pleased to report
that none of the traditional myths of banking have been lost, and to the
contrary, a few exotic ones have been added.

If some of my remarks seem

flip, put them down to the skepticism and irreverence born of twenty-four
years of tax practice -- and surely those years spent in the m a rvelous world
of fact and fancy between the federal government and its unw i l l i n g and r e ­
sourceful contributors were well calculated to increase both qualities.


I hope this little exercise will do more than alt e r n a t e l y amuse and irritate

Never before have bankers been under such pressure to think seriously

about their industry and its directions.

This is more than the usual "I view

w i t h alarm" exhortation -- the future, properly charted, is one of immense
potential, as well as one of possible peril.
What are some of these myths?

Near the head of the list is this one -

"Banks are the bastions of free e n t e r p r i s e . "

This is held as an article of

faith by most bankers, a few of those in regulatory agencies, and almost none
of the public.

It has many of its finest supporters in some of the banks

located in the one-bank towns, wit h their strongest expression reserved for
the hearing on another c h arte r applied for by a would-be competitor.


thing which would disturb the even tenor of the local scene is fiercely r e ­

It is kind of an upside down Alice in Wonderland world inhabited by

these people, where mo n o p o l y becomes free enterprise; competition a
socialistic device; and the relentless evolution of banking, like that all
industry is underg o i n g at the hands of the computer programmer, a repudiation
of the A m e r i c a n way of. life.
A t t a c h e d to this myth is the one that the f community really wants a
locally owned b a n k . 1

The veloc i t y of savings accounts and customers in this

period of rate wars should have done much to dispel this illusion.

In a d i s ­

cussion of this point a few months ago in iMinneapolis, one corporate treasurer
confided in me that he was loyal to his bank - as long as the spread did not
get any w i d e r than an eighth.

In those cities in the district where it may

be a little more trouble to hunt up the better rates, the loyalty factor
may widen to a half.

But m o n e y rates and service capabilities have two-way

loyalties -- failure to keep even with competition is a defec t i o n from your
customers, a breach of loyalty on your part your customers will punish by
And the banker himself - given an o p p o rtunity to sell out at $300 per
share, or $400 per share, the sale und e r s t a n d a b l y takes place at $400 per

I say "understandably" - unless the buyer happens to be a holding

company or a banker from a n o t h e r town, in w h i c h case c o m p r ehension goes out
the window.

In that case, there are those local elements - u s u a l l y in the

competing bank or savings and loan - who can be heard to lament that "old
Bill" really turned his back on the town.

When this happens I remember the

time a certain area of the state woke up one day to find the third generation
rancher in their midst who had tried for a year to sell his ranch locally, had
sold his ranch to the Hutterites at just twice the highest price he had been
offered by neighbors.

Every hand was raised against him for having taken the

highest price offered - unfor t u n a t e l y he had wi s e l y removed himself from the
area, and making the highest profit legally possible is not yet an extradictable offense.
But there is the converse of these two myths.

Banking is a public

utility, a stable conservative industry, headed by statesmen, and wi t h an
assured profit.

This is believed by man y people in regulatory agencies, a

substantial part of the public, some Congressmen, and a few bankers.


ail hell broke loose last w i n t e r following the discount and Regulation Q
changes, there was c o n s t ernation among these believers at the unbridled
e n t h u s i a s m wi t h w h i c h bankers started to compete with everyone in sight each other, savings and loans - every savings institution became fair game.
I am not sure who in the financial sector profited, but there is no doubt
that this was a windfall for the advertising media not seen since the
Clark-Daly fight in Montana, and the criticism is still resounding in the
public forum.

And why?

For doing what comes naturally?

Once the Fed had

removed the artificial restraint in money markets, or to use Chairman Martin's
favorite analogy, once the boulders had been removed from the stream of money
and credit, new natural levels of e q u i l ibrium were sought by normal market

That this eq u i l i b r i u m has not been found - or that some of those

in the regulatory agencies and the industry have been caught in the deluge


with their w a t e r wings partially deflated - has been the focus of criticism
of the banking industry.

I use the term “
banking in d u s t r y 1 with some r e ­

luctance, for it connotes a m o nolithic structure wi t h a singleness of o b ­
jective and a u n animity about the means of attainment w h i c h I suspect simply
does not exist.

Granted a singleness of purpose - the ma k i n g of an honorable

profit - there is little or no unanimity in any other particular.

There are

those - and I am one - who would hate to see this una n i m i t y emerge.

In this

w orld you take y o u r lumps as they appear and are delivered in the inexorable
processes of the interplay of society.

The prize is worth the game - and

the chance of failure.
The banking institutions of the United States are of bewildering and
almost infinite variety.

This is as it should be, for they are shaped by not

only the communities in w h i c h they are located, but what in many cases are
specialized markets.

To force all banks into a common mold, a d ministratively

or legislatively, would be to destroy this flexibility so essential to economic
To reverse the coin, bankers are part of free enterprise.

They, large

and small, will react as w i s e l y and as foolishly as society permits.

And the

wide spectrum of possibilities had better be anticipated - plus a generous
allowance for the unexpe c t e d - or bankers and regulatory agencies alike will
be confounded.

There is a law, known as M u r p h y ’ Law, and not as well known

as it should be, that the unexpe c t e d always happens.

This is not a well

ordered world, nor is the banking industry a public utility.

It is made up

of over 14,000 units, big and small, with aspirations (if not deposits)
equally divided, wit h disparate political effectiveness, and at least 6000
different measures of economic effectiveness in their communities.


Big banks,

little banks, and regulatory agencies alike must recognize this variety and
exercise a modicum of tolerance.
Banking does not have an assured place in our society - at least in
the framework accepted many places in our d i s t r i c t .

The process of social and

economic change has made banking one of the most dynamic and exciting elements
of our changing world.

But this change is only part of the whole transforma­

tion of money and credit which has many more elements than banking in a con­
ventional sense.
Perhaps as part of this general division of the mythology belongs the
belief that Mbankers like tight money.1 This is held by most of the people,
a surprising number of the bankers, and a few of the regulatory agencies.
It is not an article of belief in the Federal Reserve System - particularly
in the district banks.

The firm support of tight money as an inflation hedge

undergoes a mysterious change somewhere between the ban k e r ’ desk and the
discount window.

I am reminded of my rancher friends who stoutly maintained

they had no territorial ambitions whatsoever; their only reason for buying the
additional property was to square up the ranch by getting the place next to

So it is with bankers.

their regular customers.

All they want is enough money to take care of

Close scrutiny of the word "regular1 sometimes

reveals a confusion between the present and future tense - - a hoped for
result than a cause.
The phrase "enough money1 is also a hard one to define.

The dampening

of credit demands of American industry, particularly for plant expansion, is
a prime target of monetary policy and has been for nearly a year.

We are in

an inflationary period and excess demand is hardly less*of a problem today
than it was twelve months ago.

A prime contributor to this excess demand

has been the rate of industrial spending for plant expansion and equipment.
The only way monetary policy can be effective is by constricting the supply
of money available for the entire economy, with the
constriction:will be fairly generally applied.
case, and has not been the case.
been done.


hope that the

Obviously this cannot be the

I question whether even rough justice has

Generally speaking, the best customers - the desirable banking

relationships - are the corporate customers, and it is these that are
contributing to the 17 per cent rate of growth in industrial spending.
Caught in between stockholder demands, board pressures, and the fierce
competition for these accounts, the bank officer understandably is going to
cut these customers last.

Unfortunately their demands are seemingly in­

With the limit of the average b a n k ’ resources today, all I can

say is don't expect the discount window to be administered in any different
manner today than it has been over the years since Regulation A was first

Whatever private sympathies we may feel for the difficulties

of your position in this time of stringency, you can take some comfort from
the plight of the Open Market Committee, which is currently and has been for
the past few months assaulted from a number of directions - militant members
of Congress, savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, the
construction industry, are just a few of the sectors of the public who feel
that the thrust of monetary policy has been misdirected.
" It can*t happen h e r e 1 is a myth of many areas of the United States
that regard themselves as outside the mainstream of change.

There has been

a measure of ill-concealed satisfaction at the plight of savings and loans
these last few months.

Well, the discomfiture of a part of the savings

industry as large as that occupied by S & %L's and mutual savings banks,

particularly when viewed against the role these segments play in a politically
sensitive sector like home building, cannot be disregarded.

Breezes blowing

about the halls of our government can reach hurricane strength when sent out
across the country;
Trends in the banking industry which usually surface in the top ten
or fifteen largest banks - but not always - are transmitted throughout the
country internally and externally.

Externally is important to remember.

sophistication of your customers is a factor to be reckoned with.



associations, national news letters, conventions, business gossip - all of
these are instruments of communication working rapidly and effectively to
spread the news of new banking services, rates, - in short, the whole range
of the most advanced elements of the credit industry across the United States.
The dazed banker in Everytown, U.S.A., can sympathize with the U. S. Cavalry
when confronted with the Sioux telegraph which operated invisibly, without
any apparent physical means, to signal shifts in the deployment of forces.
Banking is not a conservative industry.

It takes risks and pioneers

into uncharted areas - or at least the leaders do - with a seeming unconcern
and bravado that would do credit to the hardiest pre-World War I entrepreneur.
Commitments to hardware and system installations involving proportionately
enormous sums; credit cards; the checkless society; loans to esoteric industries
involving industrial developments and processes the banker often cannot pro­
nounce, let alone understand; these are made quickly, perhaps with some
misgivings, but made in any case.
niches any more.

Customers do not fall into comfortable

Even in livestock lending, bankers are gradually yielding,

slowly and reluctantly, to the patterns forced upon them by the PCAs and
other specialized livestock credit institutions.

Another myth akin to f It can't happen here" is the one that small
banks, or not so small country banks located outside the metropolitan centers
are in some way immune from the process of change.

Not only is this npt true,

but because of the subtle and insidious way in which economic change is
accomplished, there is a special dimension to the change when realization
finally comes.

Without the depth of staff, of training, of general awareness,

the banker who has been oblivious of the forces at work in the credit world
has had it.
From this myth logically follows the converse again - that the country
banker is doomed anyway, so why fight it.

This is simply not so.

a useful and important place for the country banker.

There is

In this district

particularly, the people are scattered over a wide area - an area so e x ­
tensive that the small banker has a locational advantage to be exploited if
he so wishes.

Sure, credit capacity is a problem.

So is the cost of banking

hardware and the expanded services demanded with a right of entitlement by
the customer.

I will not presume to tell you the solutions.

I have some

suggestions, but ultimate solutions for your bank will be conditioned by your
response to its problems.

Use of computer centers; pooling of bookkeeping

through cooperative enterprises; increased use of correspondent services which I might add will require some rather major adjustments from both sides
to the relationship; possibly more small holding companies; even basic legis­
lative changes looking towards modified forms of branch banking.

I don't know

which route or routes to take, and it would be presumptuous for me to speculate
from this platform.
Ninth District.

I am sure of this - bold changes are essential in the

But I have a faith - a conviction that answers will be found.
and profit are legitimate and wholly desirable spurs to the inquiry.

In a

free society these furnish both the carrot and the stick.
By this time, you have probably detected that I am a passionate
believer after all in the first myth I enumerated.
primary bastion of free enterprise.

American banking is a

It is said of Christianity that if

Christ had not lived, he would have had to be invented.

There are credos

of faith we must accept as the rationale upon which our reasoning processes
must depend - what the Thomists referred to as self-evident, articles of
faith from which we must start building.
of these.

I believe in it.

Faith in free enterprise is one

Most of you do, too.

of departure for an imaginative action program.

I think we can.

hands alone.

But it is only a point
We must start our building

But the proof is in each one of you - in your