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State Minimum-Wage Laws
and Orders
AN ANALYSIS

II. S. DEPARTMENT OE LABOR . WOMEN'S BUREAU . BULLETIN 167




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
FRANCES PERKINS, Secretary

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

STATE MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS
AND ORDERS
AN ANALYSIS

By
FLORENCE P. SMITH

..
^TCS 0*.

Bulletin of the Women’s Bureau, No. 167

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1939

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.




Price 20 cents




CONTENTS

.




nx

1-

to <

Page

Letter of transmittal
Summary--------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------Analysis of State minimum-wage orders 3-34
Analysis of State minimum-wage laws (folders 1-5)facing
34




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United States Department op Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, November 22, 1938.

have the honor to submit a report presenting an analysis
of the State minimum-wage laws and orders now in effect. Compiled
with the closest attention to detail, these analyses are in great demand
among the persons interested in the expanding program of the mini­
mum wage.
This bulletin has been prepared by Florence P. Smith, research
assistant.
Respectfully submitted.
Madam: I

Mary Anderson, Director.

Hon. Frances Perkins,

»

Secretary of Labor.




STATE MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS AND
ORDERS
December 1938

SUMMARY

During the quarter of a century since the first minimum-wage law
in the United States was passed,1 the total number of such laws has
increased to 27—25 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico
having this type of legislation at the close of 1938. The States with
wage laws on their statute books are Arizona, Arkansas, California,
Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana,
Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin.
These laws are broad in their coverage of industries, most of them
being all-inclusive with a few listed exemptions, usually domestic
service and agriculture. Most of the laws apply to women and minors,
the exceptions being the laws of Arkansas, Louisiana, Nevada, South
Dakota, and Puerto Rico, which cover women and girls, and the
Oklahoma act, which applies to men as well as women and minors.2
All but a few of the minimum-wage laws provide for determination
of wage rates by conferences or wage boards appointed to study the
various industries and make recommendations to the State agencies
authorized to fix minimum wages and issue orders. In Nevada, South
Dakota, and Puerto Rico, however, the minimum wages to be paid
were determined by the legislatures and are specified in the laws.
While this is true also in Arkansas, the industrial welfare commission
of that State has power to revise and adjust the wage to the cost of
living.
_
t
Under the terms of the laws of Arkansas, California, Colorado,
Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon,
Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, and the District of Columbia, the
minimum-wage rates must be adequate to supply the necessary cost of
_
.
living.
In Connecticut, Illinois, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, and
Rhode Island the laws provide for setting wages “fairly and reasonably
commensurate with the value of the service or class of service rendered”
if there is evidence that wages paid are oppressive and unreasonable,
that is, less than the fair and reasonable value of the service rendered
and less than sufficient to meet the minimum cost of living necessary
for health. The Rhode Island law says also that the wage board may
consider what wages the industry can afford to pay. Arizona,
1 The first law was passed in Massachusetts in 1912 and became effective July 1,1913.
2 Court action is pending in Oklahoma, where a technical defect in the law may invalidate it in its applica­
tion to men and minors. Enforcement of wage orders is prevented at present by injunction.




1

2

STATE MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania provide for a fair wage
commensurate with the value of the service rendered and that the
wage board in determining a minimum wage may3 take into account
the cost of living; New York provides that the wage board may take
into account the value of the service rendered and the amount suffi­
cient to provide adequate maintenance and protect health. Wages
paid in the State for work of like or comparable character by employers
voluntarily maintaining minimum fair wage standards may be con­
sidered by the wage boards in Arizona, Connecticut, Illinois, Kentucky,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island.3
Though under most of the laws the minimum wage is determined for
each industry separately and orders have been issued in some States
for a wide coverage of industries, two States—Minnesota and Wis­
consin—have issued blanket orders applying to all industries in the
State.4
Minimum-wage rates in effect at time of writing (December 1938)
apply to approximately 1,000,000 women. With minimum-wage laws
operating in more than half the States, including the most important
industrial States, potential coverage extends to an estimated 4,000,000
women.5
In all, 108 wage orders have been issued, and—including the rates
set in laws—minimum-wage rates are in effect in 22 States,6 the Dis­
trict of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. These rates vary by State and
industry,7 but it is a significant fact that 87 percent of the rates set for
women in manufacturing industries exceed the 25-cent hourly mini­
mum fixed in the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act for persons em­
ployed in industries engaged in interstate commerce.8 In fact, 35
percent run from 35 to 40 cents an hour, 72 percent are 30 cents an
hour or more. Considering all rates set under State minimum-wage
laws for women—for intrastate as well as interstate industries—90
percent exceed 25 cents, 74 percent are 30 cents or over, and 29
percent are 35 cents an hour or more.
. Analyses follow of State minimum-wage laws and the wage orders
issued under authority of the laws.
3 The Arizona and Kentucky laws say shall.
* .T,he Minnesota blanket order, however, has been modified because of litigation involving 4 industries for
which separate orders will be issued.
6
* Estimates based on U. S. Census of Occupations, 1930.
6 The States that have laws but have not yet set rates are Kansas, Kentucky, and Louisiana. (Since this
report went to press Kentucky has adopted a blanket order and the single Utah order has been held void bv
the State Supreme Court on the basis of the procedure followed in setting the rates )
' mwr vanations allowed for locality, undertime, and overtime, see details in this report, pp. 3 to 34.
* The act sets minimum wages at 25 cents an hour for the first year, or until October 24, 1939; 30 cents for
the next 6 years; thereafter, 40 cents an hour, or the rate fixed by an industry committee, but not less than 30
cents an hour.




ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS
State, order, and effec­
tive date
Arizona:

Class of employees covered
Women and female minors:

Retail, i. e., all selling of merchandise to con­
sumer and not for purposes of resale in any
form. Exception: Area extending 5 miles from
port of entry at Nogales.

Manufacturing, mechanical or mercantile estab­
Arkansas:
lishment, laundry, express or transportation
Mar. 20,1915. (Wage
company, hotel, restaurant, eating place, bank,
fixed in law.) i *
3
building and loan association, insurance com­
pany, finance or credit business; company sup­
plying water or electricity; work in elevators.
Exceptions: Cotton factories; gathering of
fruits or farm products; railroad companies
whose hours are regulated by Federal laws.
California:
No. 5a, Apr. 8, 1923... Mercantile. Exceptions: Workers in food cater­
ing departments. (See Order No. 12a.)

Hours

Minimum-wage rates

$16 a week---------

--------------

Inexperienced:

Females:
Inexperienced (less than 6 months) _.
All
..................... .................

Women and minors:
inexperienced:
Women (2 periods, 6 months each).
Minors (4 periods, 6 months each). $10, $11, $12, $14 a week
Part-time (employed on hourly basis
less than 8 hours a day):
Minors (except errand boys)------- 30 cents an hour___ ______ •

48 a week (8 a day, 6 days), or
42 a week (6 a day, 7 days).
Less than 4 days a week, 8
hours each.
48 a week (8 a day, 6 days), or
42 a week (6 a day, 7 days).
Less than 4 days a week, 8
hours each.
48 a week (8 a day, 6 days), or
42 a week (6 a day, 7 days).
Less than 4 days a week, 8
hours each.
9 a day, 54 a week.3
Do.3
Over 9 a day.4
Less than 9 a day.

Standard week.4
Do.4
Do.4
Less than 8 a day.
Do.

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND OBDERS

Directory, Dec. 1,
1938.
Mandatory, Feb. 1,
1939.

Occupation or industry covered

i Provisions of flat-rate laws also included.
.
3 Digest of statutes 1921, secs. 7108, 7114; supplement 1927, secs. 7109-7110; session laws 1935, Act 150; 1937, Act 83.
s Legal maximum hours.
. .
.
..
* May be permitted by industrial welfare commission for 90 days a year only in industries such as canning and candy factories where it is shown that observance of the law would
work irreparable injury.
,
,
,,
_
,
4 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week. Standard week means regularly established number of hours of work in the place of employment.




OO

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Occupation or industry covered

Minimum-wage rates

Women and minors—Continued.
Special (employed on full-day basis
3 weeks or less):
8 a day.®
Do 6

Messenger and errand boys (minor):
No. 11a, May 8, 1923..

Hours

Part-time...

Standard week.®
Do 5
Less than 8 a day.

___... .............. .

Inexperienced:
First 2 weeks:

$9 a week; 18% cents an hour___
$9 a week; 18% cents an hour___

Do.3
Do.3
Do 3

Pait-time (employed on hourly basis
less than 8 hours a day):
Women. _ ... _______ ...

$14 a week; 29H cents an hour...
Less than 8 a day.
Do.

Messenger and errand boys (minor):
$10.56 a week; 22 cents an hour. _

No. 7a, July 23, 1923._

No. 12a, Sept. 14,1923. Hotel and restaurant, i. e., hotel, lodging, or
apartment house, restaurant, cafeteria, or other
place where food or drink is sold to be con­
sumed on the premises; food catering depart­
ment of any mercantile establishment; any
hospital except graduate nurses, nurses in
training, or other professional women.




Do.3
Do.6
Do.3
Less than 8 a day.

Inexperienced (3 months)__...
_
Part-time (eniployed on hourly
basis less than 8 hours a day).
Special (employed on full-day basis,
less than standard week.)

8 a day.6
38 cents an hour, but not to ex­
ceed $16 a week.
(Deductions allowed for meals or
lodging.)

8 a day, 48 a week.6
Less than 48 a week.

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

California— C ontinued.
No. 5a, Apr. 8, 1923_ Mercantile. Exceptions: Workers in food cater­
ing departments. (See order No. 12a.)

Class of employees covered

No. 15a, Sept. 14,1923. Nut cracking and sorting.
No. 6a, May 9,1923.. _ Fish canning.....................

Women and minors:
Experienced....................
Inexperienced (3 weeks).
Women and minors:
Experienced..................

No. 8a, Aug. 8,1923... Fruit and vegetable packing

Women and minors:
Dried fruit:
Experienced...............................
Inexperienced (4 weeks)_____
Citrus; green fruit and vegetable:
Experienced..............................
Inexperienced_______________
(Citrus, 3 months; green fruit
and vegetable, 2 weeks; cher­
ries, 1 season.)
Overtime (women except office
workers).

No. 3a, Sept. 14,1929.. Fruit and vegetable canning

Experienced (women; minors)
Inexperienced (women; minors) (2
weeks).
Overtime (women over 18, except la­
belers) .

8 a day, 48 a week.*
Do.8

8 a day, 48 a week. (Basic
except for minors under 18,
labelers, office woikers.)
28 cents an hour............................
Do.

33 H cents an hour.

1)4 times the minimum..............
Double the minimum
1)4 times the minimum_______
Double 1H times the minimum.

Over 8 and up to 12 a day.
Over 12 a day.
Day of rest—first 8 hours.
Day of rest—after 8 hours.

33H cents an hour.
25 cents an hour...

8 a day, 48 a week.*
Do.8

33 H cents an hour.

8 a day, 48 a week. (Basic
except for minors and office
workers.)
Do.

25 cents an hour.

25 cents an hour

Over 8 and up to 12 a day.
Over 12 a day.
Day of rest—first 8 hours.
Day of rest—over 8 hours.
8 a day, 48 a week. (Basic
except for labelers and mi­
nors under 18.)
Do.

in times regular rate-------------Double regular rate
in times regular rate-------------Double m times regular rate—
25 cents an hour____ ____ _____

Over 8 and up to 12 a day.
Over 12 a day.
Day of rest—first 8 hours.
Day of rest—over 8 hours.
8 a day, 48 a week.®

in times the minimum_______
Double the minimum
in times the minimum_______
Double VA times the minimum.
33)4 cents an hour

Male minors under 18 in occupations
where no females are employed.
8 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week. Standard week means regularly established number of hours of work in the place of employment.
* Legal maximum hours.
7 The order specifies $16 for the “standard week” (see footnote 5) but by resolution adopted May 24,1934, the industrial welfare commission requires 33)4 cents an hour if 8 hours
are worked in 1 day and 40 cents an hour for less than 8 hours a day, i. e., $16 only if 48 hours are worked.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Inexperienced (fancy packers, 3
weeks; all others, 1 week).
Overtime (not allowed for minors,
labelers, and office workers).

33H cents an hour.
25 cents an hour—

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Occupation or industry covered

Class of employees covered

a

Minimum-wage rates

Hours

Inexperienced:
18 years and over (2 periods, 3
months each).
Under 18 years (3 periods, 2
months each).
Overtime (women not covered by
hour law and who received less
than $30 a week).
Part-time:
Over 18 years or experienced un­
der 18.
Special (employed on temporary
basis less than 2 weeks):
Over 18 years or experienced un­
der 18.
Net. 10a, Sept. 14,1923. Unclassified occupations, i. e., all employment
not included in other orders. Exceptions:
Telephone and telegraph industries, profes­
sional occupations, domestic labor, harvesting,
curing or drying of fruits and vegetables.

8 a day, 48 a week.8
Do.*
Do.8

40 cents an hour (not over $2.67 a
day).
30 cents an hour (not over $2 a
day).

Less than 8 a day.

$2.67 a day

8 a day.
Do.
8 a day, 48 a week.8

Messenger and errand boys under
18.
Experienced:
Minors under 18 in occupations
where no adult women are em­
ployed.
Inexperienced (first 3 weeks in occupa­
tion) :

Do.8
Do.8

Part-time:
Colorado
No. 1, June 20, 1938--. Laumiry, i. e., all occupations directly concerned
with the cleansing, finishing, collection, and
distribution of laundry wares; washing, iron­
ing, or processing incidental thereto, for com­
pensation, of clothing, napery, blankets, bed
clothing, or fabric of any kind whatsoever; col­
lecting, sale, or resale or distribution at retail




Women and minors:
Zone A:10

Do.

Less than 6 a day.
Do.
$12.80 a week____ ___________
32 cents an hour_
_
. Over 40 to 45 a week.

Inexperienced (2 weeks).............. . _ 20 percent less than hourly rate.

Less than 24 a week.*2

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND OBDEBS

California—Continued.
No. 9a, Aug. 28,1933 _.

Zone Brio

Inexperienced (2 weeks)...
Women and minors:
Zone A (cities of 30,000 or more population and 5 miles beyond their
boundaries):
ExperiencedInexperienced:
Women (4 months)_________ _

40 a week or less.
28 cents an hour________ _____ Over 40 to 45 a week.
Time and one-half...
Over 45 to 48 a week.'*
28 cents an hour
Less than 24 a week.12
20 percent less than hourly rate.

$14 a week; 2914 cents an hour_
_

48 a week, 6 days.11

75 percent of minimum for ex­
perienced workers.

48 a week, 6 days.11

Minors under 18:
First 3 months......... ................. 75 percent of minimum for ex­
Do.11
perienced workers.
Second 3 months..................... 87H percent of minimum for exDo.11
perienced workers.
Overtime:
For 3 peak weeks in first 6 Regular hourly rate........... .......... Over 48 to 56 a week.11
months and 4 peak weeks in
second 6 months of calendar
year.
All other times___ ___________ Time and one-half the regular Over 48 a week.11
hourly rate.
Part-time
Hourly rate for full-time workers. Less than 48 a week.
Zone B (cities and towns of 5,000 and
under 30,000 population):
Experienced.................................... $13 a week; 27Ma cents an hour.. 48 a week, 6 days.11
Inexperienced:
Women (4 months)
75 percent of minimum for expe- 48 a week, 6 days.11
rienced workers.
Minors under 18:
First 3 months..
75 percent of minimum for expe­
Do.11
rienced workers,
Second 3 months............. ......... 8714 percent of minimum for ex­
Do.11
perienced workers.
5 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week. Standard week means regularly established number of hours of work in the place of employment.
• Legal maximum hours.
8 Legal maximum hours for minors under 18 and for women 18 and over in any manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel, public lodging house,
apartment house, hospital, barber shop, place of amusement, restaurant, telegraph or telephone establishment or office, the operation of elevators in office buildings, express or trans­
portation company. Exceptions: Nurses in hospitals; harvesting, curing, canning, or drying of any fruit, fish, or vegetable during period necessary to save products from spoiling.
8 The order says that women over 18 not subject to the houF law and who receive $30 or more a week may be employed over 48 hours in case of emergency.
10 Zone A.—Denver, Pueblo, and within a radius of 15 miles thereof; also, from June 1 to Sept. 1, Colorado Springs, Estes Park, and within a radius of 15 miles thereof. Zone B.—
Remainder of State, and from Sept. 2 to May 31, Colorado Springs, Estes Park, and within a radius of 15 miles thereof.
11 For women and minors under 18 the laundry order provides maximum hours of 8 a day, 6 days a week; the retail order provides a basic 48-hour week, and except during emer­
gency peak periods, 1 day’s rest in 7. The minimum-wage law allows for overtime in emergencies if the minimum wage is increased. The hour law, applicable to females 16 and over,
limits hours to 8 a day, without specifying a weekly limit of hours or days.
12 Applicable only to part-time workers defined as workers who request and are granted a permit by the industrial commission to work less than 24 hours a week. Other workers
employed any number of hours up to and including 40 a week must be paid $12.80 in zone A, $11.20 in zone B.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

or wholesale of laundry services; producing of
laundry service for their own use by business
establishments, clubs, or profit-making institutions. Exceptions; Charitable institutions
that pay no wages to workers in their own
laundries and in which only inmates are em­
ployed; employees in private homes doing em­
ployers’ work only.
Retail, i. e., selling of merchandise to the consumer, not for the purpose of resale, in any
form within the State.

-a

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Occupation or industry covered

Zone C (towns and communities
under 5,000 population):
Inexperienced:
Minors under 18:

Time and one-half the regular
hourly rate.
Hourly rate for full-time workers.
$11 a week; 2211/is cents an hour_. 48 a week, 6 days.11
75 percent of minimum for ex­
perienced workers.
87H percent of minimum for ex­
perienced workers.

Connecticut:

[No. 1]
* Directory, Mar. 21,
1934.
No. 2 Men’s single pants, i. e., men’s or boys’ single
pants, including long pants, knee pants and
1938.
slacks, of any material; operations incidental
to the manufacture of such products.




Hours

Women and minors—Continued.
Zone B—Continued.
Overtime:
months and 4 peak weeks in
second 6 months of calendar
year.

•

Minimum-wage rates

Do.11
Do.11
Do.11

Overtime:
For 3 peak weeks in first 6 Regular hourly rate.....................
months and 4 peak weeks in
second 6 months of calendar
year.
Time and one-half the regular
hourly rate.
Hourly rates for full-time work­
ers.
Women and minors (home workers)... $13 a week (12 cents per gross
yards, 1 thread; 18 cents per
gross yards, 2 threads).
Inexperienced:
Second 3 months__________ ____ 25 cents an hour..... ........... .........

40 a week.

9 a day, 48 a week.13
Do.13
Do.13

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Colorado—Continu ed.
No. 2, Jan. 16, 1939.-- Retail, i. e., selling of merchandise to the con­
(Continued)
sumer, not for the purpose of resale, in any
form within the State.

Class of employees covered

CO

No. 3........................
Directory, May 10,
1938.

District of Columbia:
No. 3, Feb. 14, 1938... Retail trade______________________________

Women and minors.

$10.50 a week_
_
30 cents an hour.
33 cents an hour.

32 to 35 a week.
Over 35 a week.13
31 or less a week.

35 cents an hour.
30 cents an hour.
$14.40 a week_
_
35 cents an hour.

9 a day, 48 a week.13
Do.13
41 to 48 a week.13
Less than 41 a week.

$17 a week.........

40 to 48 a week or standard
week.14
Do.14
Do.14
Less than 40 a week or less
than standard week.14

Women and minors:
Plant employees:

Experienced
Inexperienced (4 months)
Store, office, and delivery employ­
ees, i. e., receiving clerks and other
employees waiting on trade, book­
keepers and assistants, telephone
operators and other office workers,
employees checking out garments,
and delivery workers.

Women 18 years and over:
Experienced__________
Inexperienced:
First 6 months............
Second 6 months____
Part-time____________
Minors under 18 years:
Inexperienced:
First 12 months_____

$13 a week____
$15 a week____
40 cents an hour.
$13 a week..........

40 to 48 a week or standard
week.14
Do.14
Do.14
Less than 40 a week or less
than standard week.14
11 For women and minors under 18 the laundry order provides maximum hours of 8 a day, 6 days a week; the retail order provides a basic 48-hour week, and except during
emergency peak periods, 1 day’s rest in 7. The minimum-wage law allows for overtime in emergencies if the minimum wage is increased. The hour law, applicable to females
16 and over, limits hours to 8 a day, without specifying a weekly limit of hours or days.
13 Legal maximum hours 9 a day, 48 a week, for women and minors under 18. In cases of emergency and of seasonal or peak demand, commissioner of labor may allow 10 hours
r day, 55 a week, for not more than 8 weeks in any 12 consecutive months.
14 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week. Standard workweek means regular workweek fixed in any establishment.
13 For %girl who has reached her 18th birthday after 12 months’ experience, the minimum is $17; after 6 months’ experience, $15.




Next 6 months.
Thereafter 15__
Part-time______

$15 a week_____
$17 a week____
30 cents an hour.

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

No. 4
Directory, Jan. 9,
1939.

Laundry, i. e., washing, ironing or processing in­
cidental thereto, for compensation, of laundry
wares, including dry cleaning and all other
operations carried on in establishments whose
chief business is the above; collecting, sale, or
resale or distribution at retail or wholesale of
laundry service and the keeping of accounts,
billing, and any other clerical work in connec­
tion therewith; producing of laundry service
for their own use by business establishments,
clubs, or other public or private institutions.
Exception: State institutions.
Cleaning and dyeing, i. e., cleaning, dyeing,
redyeing, orpressing garmentsj;(including hats),
upholstery, rugs, or any other fabrics and any
process incidental thereto, including collecting
and receiving such articles for the above pur­
poses, or giving out or collecting such articles
after they have been cleaned, dyed, redyed,
or pressed. Exceptions: Establishments manu­
facturing textiles or garments, including hats.
Services included are productive, office, cleri­
cal, supervisory, repairing, delivery, store, or
any other service whatosoever.

CO

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date
1.

Occupation or industry covered




Women and minors:
Telephone operators, hat-check
girls, elevator operators, cashiers,
clerical workers, and all similar
workers.
Counter girls, salad girls, food check­
ers, cooks, bus girls, and all similar
workers.
Chambermaids, parlor maids, linenroom girls, cleaners, janitresses,
charwomen, vegetable girls, dish
and glass washers, kitchen help,
and all similar workers.
Waitresses

Minimum-wage rates

$17 a week........ ......... .................

40 to 48 a week or standard
week.16
Less than 40 a week or less
than standard week.16
$16.50 a week................................ 40 to 48 a week or standard
week.16
40 cents an hour.......................... Less than 40 a week or less
than standard week.16
$14.50 a week------------------------ 40 to 48 a week or standard
week.16
35 cents an hour....... ................... Less than 40 a week or less
than standard week.16
40 cents an hour...........................

$13.25 a week; $16.50 where tip­
ping is not allowed.
40 cents an hour.......... ...............
(Deductions allowed for meals
or lodging.)

Women and minors:
Productive plant workers and simi­
lar workers.

Hours

36 to 48 a week or standard
week.16
Less than 36 a week or less
than standard week.16

$14.50 a week_
_

Over 16 to 44 a week.

35 cents an hour.

Over 44 to 48 a week, or over
88 in 2 consecutive weeks.17
16 or less a week.

40 cents an hour.
Store clerks and similar workers:
E xperienced.......... ....................... . $17 a week..........
40 cents an hour.

40 to 48 a week or standard
week.14
Less than 40 a week or less
than standard week.

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

District of ColumbiaContinued.
No. 4, May 8, 1938,— Public housekeeping, i. e., waitresses, cooks,
counter girls, salad girls, food checkers, bus
girls, vegetable girls, dish and glass washers,
kitchen help, chambermaids, parlor maids,
linen-room girls, cleaners, jamtresses, char­
women, telephone operators, hat-check girls,
elevator operators, cashiers, clerical workers,
and all such nonprofessional workers as may be
properly classified in this occupation in (1)
restaurants, either licensed or unlicensed
whether operated as the principal business of
the employer or as a department or unit of
another business, (2) lunch counters, (3) cafe­
terias, (4) catering, banquet, or box-lunch
service, (5) curb service, (6) boarding houses
that offer meals for sale to 5 or more persons,
and (7) all other establishments whatsoever
where lunches, meals, or food in either solid
and/or liquid form are prepared for and served
to the public, (8) hotels, (9) apartment houses,
(10) rooming houses offering rooms for rent to
5 or more persons, (11) auto-camps, (12) clubs,
(13) hospitals, (14) private schools, (15) col­
leges, and (16) any other establishments offer­
ing rooms for rent to the public; and (17) wo­
men engaged in the care and servicing of apart­
ment houses, theaters, office buildings, retail
stores, and other similar establishments as
well as in those listed above.
No. 5, July 5, 1938.... Laundry, dry cleaning, and dyeing, i. e., cleans­
ing, dyeing, pressing or processing or any other
work incidental thereto, for compensation, of
clothing (including hats), household furnish­
ings, rugs, textiles, fur, leather, or fabric of any
kind whatsoever; the collection, sale, resale,
or distribution at retail or wholesale of these
services; and the producing of such services on
its own behalf by any establishment, business,
institution or club, or hospital, which services
may be incidental to its present business.

Class of employees covered

O

116196

Inexperienced (2 months)..............
Office workers, elevator and tele­
phone operators and similar
workers.

Women and minors:
Beauty culturists, cosmetologists,
manicurists, hairdressers, and
similar workers:
Experienced_______ __________

$14.50 a week_
_
$17 a week..........
40 cents an hour.

$18 a week------50 cents an hour.

Registered learners.

50 cents an hour.
$13 a week-------

Junior operator (for 4 months after
issuance of operator’s license).
Cashiers, telephone operators, ap­
pointment desk clerks, clerical
workers, and similar workers.

$17 a week.

$15 a week.

Maids and cleaners.

40 cents an hour.
$14.50 a week_
_

40 cents and hour.

35 cents an hour.

40 to 48 a week.1*
40 to 48 a week or standard
week.1*
Less than 40 a week or less
than standard week.14

36 to 48 a week or standard
week.18
Less than 36 a week or less
than standard week.18
Over 48 a week.18
36 to 48 a week or standard
week.18
Do.18
Do.18
Less than 36 a week or less
than standard week.18
Over 48 a week.18
36 to 48 a week or standard
week.18
Less than 36 a week or less
than standard week.18
Over 48 a week.18

35 cents an hour.
14 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week. Standard workweek means regular workweek fixed in any establishment.
18 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week, for women in most occupations and for minors under 18. Standard workweek means regular workweek in any establishment. For
workers whose hours are not limited by law, an additional 5 cents an hour must be paid for hours over 54 a week.
17 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week. The 44 hours a week may be averaged over 2 consecutive weeks, and the overtime rate shall apply only when more than 88 hours
are worked in 2 consecutive weeks.
18 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week, for minors under 18; the same for women if shop can be classified as a mercantile establishment, i. e., if it sells other than service.
Standard workweek means regular workweek fixed in any establishment.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Nonprofessional workers included are washers,
cleaners, dyers, sorters, classifiers, shakers,
starchers, markers, catchers, ironers, pressers,
flat-work operators, press operators, folders,
finishers, packers, wrappers, menders, fore­
ladies, solicitors, collectors, distributors,
sellers, office workers, elevator operators,
telephone operators, and all others engaged
directly or indirectly in washing, ironing,
processing, cleaning, dyeing, repairing, col­
lecting, selling, reselling or distributing laun­
dry, dry cleaning or dyeing services at retail or
wholesale, in laundry, dry cleaning, dyeing,
pressing establishments, department stores,
hotels, institutions or in any other type of
establishment where such work is performed.
No. 6, Sept. 26, 1938- Beauty culture or cosmetology, i. e., selling or
servicing in occupations such as shampooing,
waving, straightening, tinting, dyeing, bleach­
ing, cutting, trimming hair; eyebrow and eye­
lash care; manicuring; pedicuring; massaging;
removing superfluous hair, warts, or moles by
use of electric needle; health and beauty treat­
ments, including facial treatments, baths and
calisthenics; and any other phase of the busi­
ness.

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
Occupation or industry covered

District of Columbia—
Continued.
Recommendations of
wage board, Dec. 7,
1938.

Office and previously unclassified. Exceptions:
Manufacturing and wholesaling.

Class of employees covered

Women:
Experienced.
Inexperienced (6 months)
Elevator operators...........
Maids and cleaners.

Illinois:
No. 1___ __________
Directory, Feb. 11,
1935.
No. 2____________
Directory, July 15,
1935.
No. 1__________
Mandatory, Aug. 2,
1937.2®

No. 3_____ ______
Directory, Oct. 21,
1935.
No. 2____ ___
Mandatory, Mar.
21, 1938.




Women and minors.

Laundry, i. e., all processes directly concerned
with the cleansing, collection, or distribution
of laundry services. Exceptions: Plant main­
tenance; office work.
Laundry establishment, i. e., any place in which
one is engaged in any phase of the laundry
trade.

Beauty culture, i. e., shampooing, waving, or
straightening hair; scalp and facial treatments;
eyebrow shaping, eyelash and eyebrow dye­
ing; manicuring, hand and arm massage; hair
cutting or trimming, tinting, and bleaching;
removal ofsuperfluous hair, warts, or moles by
use of an electric needle; demonstrating cos­
metics, supplies, and equipment; desk ap­
pointment girls and those selling cosmetics;
cashiers and bookkeepers; managers; maids

Women and minors:
District I (Cook, Will, Lake, Du­
Page, and Kane Counties).
District II (except District I coun­
ties north of and including Cal­
houn, Jersey, Macoupin, Mont­
gomery, Shelby, Cumberland,
and Clark).
District III (counties south of and
including Madison, Bond, Fay­
ette, Effingham, Jasper, and
Crawford).
Women and minors:
Registered beauty culjurists, mani­
curists, desk clerks, and shop
managers.
Apprentices:
First year.

Minimum-wage rates

Hours

$17 a week................................. .
50 cents an hour.__.....................
_ do........ .....................................
_
$14 a week.......................... ..........
$17 a week.....................................
40 cents an hour____________
_ do............. .................................
_
$14.50 a week.................................
35 cents an hour___.......................

30 to 44 a week.
Over 44 a week.
Less than 30 a week.
30 to 44 a week.
40 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.
Less than 40 a week.
40 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.
—do........................................ Less than 40 a week.
. 35 cents an hour.............. -........ . 40 a week.
46?6 cents an hour
Over 40 a week.i®
38^ cents an hour (10 percent Less than 40 a week.
added to basic rate), not over
$14 a week.
28 cents an hour; $11.20 a week...
28 cents an hour 20
42 cents an hour20.......................
30Mo cents an hour
25 cents an hour, $10 a week____
25 cents an hour20........................
37H cents an hour20—......... ........
27 cents an hour....... .................

40 a week.
Over 40 to 44 a week.
Over 44.i®
Less than 25 a week.
40 a week.
Over 40 to 44 a week.
Over 44 a week.i®
Less than 25 a week.

23 cents an hour; $9.20 a week___
23 cents an hour 20........................
34J4 cents an hour20.....................
25Ho cents an hour......................

40 a week.
Over 40 to 44 a week.
Over 44 a week.i®
Less than 25 a week.

$16.50 a week................................
$16.50 a week...............................
55 cents an hour...........................
74 cents an hour...........................

45 a week.
Over 45 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.2i
Sundays and legal holidays.

$10 a week_____
$10 a week_____
33 cents an hour44 cents an hour.

45 a week.
Over 45 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.2*
Sundays and legal holidays.

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND OKDEKS

State, order, and effec­
tive date

to

and cleaning women; all females and male
minors employed by the owner or manager of a
beauty shop.

Directory, May 1,
1938.

Massachusetts:
No. 1
Directory, Oct. 1,
1935.
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
1937.

women’s and children’s cotton, rayon, and
linen dresses, aprons, and uniforms.

45 a week.
Over 45 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.**
Sundays and legal holidays.
45 a week.
Over 45 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.”
Sundays and legal holidays.
8 a day, 48 a week.”
8 a day or less.
Over 8 a day.”
40 a week.
Do.
Do.
Over 40 a week.*9

Laundry and dry cleaning, i. e., any activity Women and minors:
30 cents an hour---------- ---------- 35 or over a week.22
Experienced..........
concerned with the washing, ironing, or pro­
33 cents an hour; but not more Less than 35 a week.
cessing incidental thereto of any kind of fabric
than 35 times basic minimum
or laundry wares; collection, distribution, or
a week.
sale of laundry service; any activity directly
27V6 cents an hour--------- -------- 9 a day, 48 a week.22
Inexperienced (4 weeks).
concerned with the cleaning, refreshing, or
restoration of any fabric or article of wearing
apparel including pressing or other work inci­
dental thereto or performed in connection
therewith, collection, distribution, or sale of
dry-cleaning service. The producing or ren­
dering of any of the above activities or services
by the employer upon his own behalf or for
others.
No. 2.............. ............. Electrical equipment and supplies, i. e., incan­ Women and minors:
Do-21
Experienced 35 cents an hour..
descent lamps, electric-lighting accessories,
Directory, May 1,
Do.22
Inexperienced (6 months, 3 in 1 fac- 30 cents an hour
radios, radio parts, mica, insulated wire, fuses,
1936.
tory).
signal and protective systems, and various
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
kinds of electrical appliances and devices for
1937.
household and office use, telephone cords,
fire-alarm apparatus, electric-light sockets,
automobile lighting fixtures, spark plugs,
electric irons, and similar devices.
19 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week for females.
20 Rates for hours over 40 not yet mandatory.
..................
„
„
....
,
„ „
” Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week; in mercantile establishments 9 a day, 54 a week, allowed during 4 weeks a year.
...
, _ • ,. _
22 Legal maximum hours 9 a day, 48 a week, for women and minors 16 and under 18. Full time (where indicated) means the number of hours a week required by employer and
permitted by State law.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND OBDEKS

No. 4........................ Wash dress, i. e., production or manufacture of

$12.50 a week.................................
$12.50 a week.......... ...................
42 cents an hour--------------------56 cents an hour...........................
$15 a week....................................
Maids.
$15 a week
50 cents an hour............................
66 cents an hour........................ .
Cleaning women------------------------- 30 cents an hour..... ......................
Part-time, except cleaning women $3 a day......................................—
(less than 45 hours a week).
Overtime............................................. Same as rates for more than 48
hours a week.
Women and minors:
Experienced-.................................. - $14.80 a week; 37 cents an hour..
Inexperienced:
First 8 weeks.................... .............. $7.40 a week..................................
Second 8 weeks............................ . $11.10 a week------------------------Overtime............................. -........ — lHo times the hourly rates------Second year.

CO

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Directory, Mar. 1,
1937.
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
1937.
Directory, Mar. 1,
1937.
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
1937.

Class of employees covered

Retail store. Exceptions: Occupations covered
by other minimum fair wage orders.

Women and minors:
Experienced (age 19 or over, with 1
year in the occupation):
Class A (cities over 500,000 population).
Class B (cities over 30,000 and
under 500,000 population).
Class C (communities of 30,000
and under).
Inexperienced (age 18 or over, with
less than 1 year in the occupa­
tion; and 18 years irrespective of
experience):

Boot and shoe cut stock and findings, i. e.,
counters, innersoles, shoe trimmings and
ornaments, stays, wood and leather heels,
shanks, rands, and similar lines.
Men’s clothing and raincoat:
Men’s and boys’ wool clothing, i. e., suits,
topcoats, overcoats, and single pants.
Raincoats, work clothing, mackinaws, melton
and leather jackets, cotton slacks, ski suits.

No. 6.............. ...........
Directory, Mar. 1,
1937.
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
1937.




Minimum-wage rates

Full time, i. e., 36 a week or
over.22
Do.22
Do.22

Class B (see above).....................
Class C (see above).........................
Under 18 years:
Class A (see above)........ ......... ......
Class B (see above)______
Class C (see above)__________
Part-time.............................
Hourly rates based on hours of
full-time women workers.
Women and minors:
Experienced______ _________
Inexperienced (less than 3 months)—
Women and minors:
Experienced.............................
Inexperienced:
1 to 3 months.............................
3 to 9 months........................
Overtime__________ _______
Experienced.............................
Inexperienced:
1 to 3 months______
3 to 9 months.........................
Overtime..............................
Women and minors:
Experienced........................... .
Inexperienced:
Less than 6 months...............
6 to 12 months........................

Hours

Do 22
Do.22
Do.22
Do.22
Do.22
Do.22
Less than 36 a week.
Full time.22
Do.22

36 a week.
Do.
Do.

Do.
Do.
Over 40 a week.22
$14.40 a week; 30 cents an hour..
$9.60 a week; 20 cents an hour...
$12 a week; 25 cents an hour___

Do.22
Do.2»

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Massachusetts—Con.
No. 3___ ________
Directory, Oct. 1,
1936.
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
1937.

Occupation or industry covered

Men’s furnishings, i e., overalls, work shirts,
work pants, garters, suspenders, dress shirts,
neckwear, collars, underwear, and pajamas.
Brush......................................................................

Women and minors:
Experienced........................................ $14 a week; 35 cents an hour___ 40 a week.23
Inexperienced:
Do.22
Less than 3 months.-..................... $8.50 a week; 21H cents an hour.
Do.22
3 to 6 months.......... ....................... $10 a week; 25 cents an hour.
Women and minors:
9 a day, 48 a week.22
Do.33

Women’s clothing, i. e., coats, suits, skirts,
dresses, waists, and blouses.

Women and minors:

Corset, ie., corsets, girdles, corset-brassiere com­
binations, belts, bands, garters to complete a
garment, and all similar related lines.

Women and minors:
Experienced
Inexperienced (under age 17, less
than 1 year in industry).

Stationery goods and envelopes, including tab­
lets, blankbooks, tissue-paper products, greet­
ing cards, card-filing equipment, and miscel­
laneous paper goods.

Women and minors:
Experienced:

No. 12...................... . Toys, games, and sporting goods, i. e., toys,
Directory, Aug. 1,
games, kindergarten supplies, and sporting
1937.
goods.
Mandatory, Jan. 1,
1938.

Do.22
Do.22
$14 a week; 29^6 cents an hour... Full time.22
$10 a week; 20^ cents an hour...
Do.22

44 a week or less.
Over 44 a week.22
44 a week or less.
31 \i cents an hour...................... Over 44 a week.22
$11.50 a week....... ....................
44 a week or less.
26)4 cents....................................... Over 44 a week.22
33 cents an hour______ _______

Inexperienced (under age 18, less
than 9 months in 1 establishment
or on a specific operation).
Women and minors:

Inexperienced:
Less than 6 weeks............................ $11 a week; 27J4 cents an hour...
6 weeks to 1 year___ __________ $13 a week; 32Yi cents an hour__-

40 a week.
Do.
Do.
Over 40.22

No. 13.......................... Women’s and children’s underwear, neckwear, Women and minors:
Directory, Oct. 1,
and cotton garment, i. e., house dresses, aprons,
40 a week.22
1937.
underwear, neckwear, children’s clothing, and
Inexperienced:
Mandatory, July 1,
similar lines.
Less than 3 months
$8.50 a week; 21 cents an hour.
Do.22
1938.
Do.22
No. 14...................... Druggists’ preparations, proprietary medicines, Women and minors:
9 a day, 48 a week.22
Directory, Mar. 1,
and chemical compounds, i. e., salves, lini­
ments, emulsions, talcum powders, sachets,
1938.
Inexperienced:
Mandatory, Nov.
cosmetics, perfumes, toilet waters, cold
Do.22
creams, hair restorers, cough syrups, pills,
1, 1938.
Do.33
druggists’ supplies, headache powders, troches,
tooth powders, elixirs, ointments, tinctures,
and similar lines.
22 Legal maximum hours 9 a day, 48 a week, for women and minors 16 and under 18. Full time (where indicated) means the number of hours a week required by employer
and permitted by State law.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

No.7...........................
Directory, Mar. 1,
1937.
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
1937.
No. 8-........................
Directory, Mar. 1,
1937.
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
1937.
No. 9____ _________
Directory, Mar. 1,
1937.
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
1937.
No. 10.................. .
Directory, Apr. 1,
1937.
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
1937.
No. 11.___ ________
Directory, July 15,
1937.
Mandatory, Jan. 1,
1938.

Or

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

No. 16
Directory, May 1,
1938.
Mandatory, Nov.
1, 1938.
No. 17............ ..........
Directory, Aug. 1,
1938.
Mandatory, Nov.
2, 1938.
No. 18
Directory, Oct. 1,
1938.

Bread and bakery products, i. e., bread, cakes,
crackers, and all other bakery products.

Pocketbook and leather goods, i. e., pocketbooks,
bags, brief cases, leather and imitation leather
goods, suit cases, trunks, card cases, desk sets,
dog collars, and similar lines.
Paper box, i. e., set-up, folding and corrugated
trade as well as for their own consumption.

Millinery, i. e., the front shop which manufac­
tures ladies’, misses’, and children’s headwear
(trimmed or untrimmed, of any material) by
blocking, operating, cutting, moulding, mak­
ing, trimming, and similar operations, and the
finishing of men’s and women’s wool and furfelt hat bodies in the front shop; work on men’s
and women’s wool and fur-felt hat bodies in
so-called back shop; office employees and non­
productive workers.
No. 19............ ............ Canning and preserving, minor lines of confec­
Directory, Dec. 1,
tionery and food preparations, i. e., all occu1938
pations connected with manufacture of the
product, including nonproductive and clerical
workers.
No. 15,® July 1, 1920.. Knit goods, i. e., all branches except the staple
lines of hosiery and underwear, this exception
not applying to lines used for athletic purposes
nor to special lines such as bathing suits,
tights, and infants’ garments.
No. 18,® Feb. 1,1921No. 33,® Jan. 1, 1927.. Jewelry and related lines, i. e., jewelry, jewelry
findings, silver novelties, optical goods,
watches, and clocks. Exceptions: Flat of table
silver, jewelry and instrument cases.




Class of employees covered

Minimum-wage rates

Hours

Women and minors:
Cities of 100,000 population and over. $14 a week. ______ _____ ... Full time.23
Cities and towns of 25,000 and under $13 a week........ ........ ...................
Do.22
100,000 population.
Cities and towns of under 25,000 $12 a week................................
Do.22
population.
Women and minors:
35 cents an hour_____ _______ Over 40 a week.22
Inexperienced (less than 3 months).. 26)4 cents an hour; $10.50 a week. 40 a week.
26)4 cents an hour___ _____ ... Over 40 a week.22
Women and minors:
9 a day, 48 a week.22
Inexperienced (less than 6 months).. 30 cents an hour......... ..........
Do.22
Women and minors:
Front shop:

Do.22
Do.22
Do.22

Women and minors:
Experienced___ _______ _________ $14.25 a week; 32.4 cents an hour. 44 a week.22
Do.22
Females:
Experienced..... .............................

$13.75 a week................................

Full time.22
Do.22

37 cents an hour, but not over Less than 42 a week.
$15.40 a week.
Females:
Experienced (age 20 and 6 months $14.40 a week............................... Full time.22
in the occupation).
Inexperienced..................................... $12 a week....................................
Do.22

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Massachusetts—Con.
No. 15_____ _____
Directory, May 1,
1938.
Mandatory, Nov.
1, 1938.

Occupation or industry covered

Minnesota:
No. 13, July 11,193814. Any occupation, i. e., any industry, trade or
branch thereof.

Women and minors:
Class A:15
Experienced----Inexperienced 18 years and over:
First 3 months_____________

Minors between 16 and 18.
Class B: “
Experienced.
Inexperienced 18 years and over:
First 3 months_____________
Second 3 months.
Minors between 16 and 18-------Class C:15
Experienced----- ----------------- —
Inexperienced 18 years and over:
First 3 months.___ ______

36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.2®
Less than 36 a week.

112 a week------29 cents an hour.
29 cents an hour.
$13.50 a week—
32 cents an hour.
32 cents an hour.
$12 a week____
29 cents an hour.
29 cents an hour.

36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.29
Less than 36 a week.
36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.29
Less than 36 a week.
36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.29
Less than 36 a week.

$13.50 a week—
30 cents an hour.
30 cents an hour.

36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.29
Less than 36 a week.

$10.80 a week—
24 cents an hour.
24 cents an hour.
$12.15 a week—
27 cents an hour.
27 cents an hour.
$10.80 a week—
24 cents an hour.
24 cents an hour.

36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.29
Less than 36 a week.
36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.29
Less than 36 a week.
36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.29
Less than 36 a week.

$12 a week_____
27 cents an hour.
27 cents an hour.

36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.29
Less than 36 a week.

36 to 48 a week.
$9.60 a week___
Over 48 a week.29
22 cents an hour.
Less than 36 a week.
22 cents an hour.
36 to 48 a week.
$10.80 a week—
Second 3 months___________
Over 48 a week.29
24 cents an hour.
Less than 36 a week.
24 cents an hour.
!! Legal maximum hours 9 a day, 48 a week, for women and minors 16 and under 18. Full time (where indicated) means the number of hours a week required by employer
and permitted by State law.
21 Pe^dtag^doption'ofsepame^rders, made necessary by litigation, the blanket order of 1921 was revived in October 1938 for four industries—:a2m5!7tinsfe o7mmmunitv°are
l
and telegraph. Under this order experienced rates are $12 a week in cities of 5,000 or more population and $10.25 elsewhere; inexperienced rates, according to sue of community, are
$9.12 and $7.68 a week for women and minors 18 years and over, and $7.68 and $6.48 for minors under18.
___ s non
» Class A —Cities, towns, villages, boroughs, or townships having 50,000 or more inhabitants. Class B.—Cities, towns, villages, boroughs, or townships having more t a
,
and under 50 000 inhabitants. Class O.—Cities, towns, villages, boroughs, or townships having 3,000 to 5,000 inhabitants. Class D.—Cities, towns, villages, boroughs, or town ships
LegalmaSdmu^M-hou^week applies to females in public housekeeping, manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, orl sundry occupations; telephone operators in towns of 1,500
population and over. Industrial commission may allow longer hours during emergency periods not exceeding aggregate of 4 weeks a year.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Second 3 months.

$15 a week:_____
36 cents an hour.
36 cents an hour-

ANALYSIS OP STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
00
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Occupation or industry covered

Minnesota—C on t d.
No. 13, July 11, 1938-- Any occupation, i. e., any industry, trade or
branch thereof.

Class of employees covered

Minimum-wage rates

36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.28
Less than 36 a week.

Class D:25
Experienced________ _____
Inexperienced 18 years and over:
First 3 months_____
Second 3 months... __ __
Minors between 16 and 18____

Nevada:
May 28, 1937. (Wage Private employment. Exceptions: Domestic
fixed in law.) 27
service; State, county, city, or town employees.
New Hampshire:
Directory, May 1,
1936.
Mandatory, July 1.
1988.
No. 2--_....... .
Directory, Apr. 1,
1936.
No. 3___ ________
Mandatory, Nov.
1, 1938.




Laundry, i. e., any activity directly concerned
with the washing, ironing, or processing of
laundry wares; collection, distribution, or sale
of laundry services; producing of laundry serv­
ices on their own behalf or for others by business
establishments, clubs, institutions, and over­
night camps.
Laundry establishment, i. e., any place in which
any phase of laundry service is conducted.
Restaurant occupation, i. e., any activity di­
rectly concerned with the preparation and
serving of food to the public for pay, in any
establishment where at least 10 people are
served per day, where lodging is not also pro­
vided to the public for pay.
Restaurant establishment, i. e., any establish­
ment that prepares and offers for sale food for
consumption either on any of its premises, or
by catering and banquet service, box lunch

36 to 48 a week.
24 cents an hour___

.

19 cents an hour_______
22 cents an hour____ _____
22 cents an hour____ ____

Less than 36 a week.
36 to 48 a week.
Over 48 a week.28
Less than 36 a week.
36 to 48 a week.
Less than 36 a week.
36 to 48 a week.

19 cents an hour________
(Deductions allowed for meals
or lodging.)
Females............. ..................

8 a day, 48 a week.
Time and one-half regular rate... Over 8 a day; over 48 to 56 a
week; 7 days a week.26

Women and minors:
Experienced________________
Inexperienced (3 months)...........

Women and minors:
Service______ ...
Nonservice______
All (if meals are not furnished)

10J4 a day, 54 a week.31
Do.31

25 cents to be added far each
meal not allowed while on
duty.
(Deduction allowed for lodging.)

54 a week.
Do.
•

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Women and minors—Continued.
Class C—Continued.
Minors between 16 and 18_. - _ _.

Hours

Women and minors:
Experienced:
Winter outfits and men’s clothing. _
Handkerchiefs, aprons, gloves,
women’s house dresses, and
other similar accessories.

10 a day, 48 a week. 31
Do-31
Do.31

No. 4___ __________ Hosiery and knit goods, i. e., hosiery, underwear, Women and minors:
Directory, May 1,
berets, gloves, and other knitted articles; any
activity directly concerned with the manufac­
133"
ture of knit goods. Exceptions: Occupations
concerned with spinning and dyeing yarns;
plant maintenance; office work.
No. 5_____
Beautician occupation, i. e., any activity con­ Women and minors:
Directory, Mar. 15,
cerned with hairdressing, manicuring, or any
Licensed operators and hairdressers
other branch of cosmetology.
1938.
(less than 1 year).
New Jersey:
No. 1.............. ............
Directory, Sept. 6,
1937.
Mandatory, July
11,1938.

Do.3i

Do.31

10K a day, 54 a week.31
Do.31

Students working on customers........ 50 percent of charge for the service
Laundry, i. e., any activity in marking, sorting,
washing, ironing, assembling, packaging, and
all other operations in the laundering of articles
of clothing, napery, blankets, bgd clothing, or
fabrics of any kind or their collection or de­
livery, irrespective of the nature of the business
of the employer, and all occupations in estab­
lishments commonly known as laundries.
Exception: Office workers.

Women and minors:
Zone A (Bergen, Essex, Hudson,
Middlesex, Morris, Passaic, and
Union Counties).

$13.20 a week; 33 cents an hour.
36.3 cents an hour (10 percent
added to basic rate), not over
$13.20 a week.
$12 a week; 30 cents an hour___
33 cents an hour (10 percent
added to basic rate), not over
$12 a week.
$10.40 a week; 26 cents an hour..

Do.31
Do.31
40 a week.32
Less than 40 a week.

40 a week.32
Zone B (Burlington, Camden, Glou­
Less than 40 a week.
cester, Mercer, Somerset; and, from
June 1 to Oct. 1, Atlantic, Mon­
mouth, and Ocean Counties).
40 a week.32
Suburban zone (Cape May, Cum­
berland , Hunterdon, Salem,
Sussex, Warren; and from Oct. 1 to
June 1, Atlantic, Monmouth, and
Ocean Counties).
24 Class A.—Cities, towns, villages, boroughs, or townships having 50,000 or more inhabitants. Class B.—Cities, towns, villages, boroughs, or townships having more than 5,000
and under 50,000 inhabitants. Class C.—Cities, towns, villages, boroughs, or townships having 3,000 to 5,000 inhabitants. Class D.—Cities, towns, villages, boroughs, or townships
having under 3,000 inhabitants.
.
26 Legal maximum 54-hour week applies to females in public housekeeping, manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, or laundry occupations; telephone operators in towns of 1,500
population and over. Industrial commission may allow longer hours during emergency periods not exceeding aggregate of 4 weeks a year.
37 Session Laws 1937, ch. 207.
28 Minimum rates are not compulsory during a single probationary period of 3 consecutive months.
29 More than 8 hours a day, 48 a week, allowed only in emergencies.
30 Directory Order No. 1 for the laundry industry, effective Aug. 1, 1934, was revised and reissued as No. la.
31 Legal maximum hours for women and minors under 18. In manufacturing establishments, 10H hours a day, 54 a week, during 8 weeks in any 6-month period may be allowed
by labor commissioner.
32 Legal maximum hours, 10 a day, 54 a week, for females.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

No. 3........................ .
Directory, Dec. 1,
1936.
No. 1.......................... .
Mandatory, Oct. 1,
1937.

or curb service; the term “food” includes nutri­
tive material intended for human consump­
tion, in solid or liquid form, whether cooked
or uncooked, or otherwise prepared, exclud­
ing, however, medicinal or quasi-medical
preparations.
Clothing and accessories, i. e., men’s clothing,
women’s clothing, winter outfits, gloves,
handkerchiefs, aprons, and other similar
accessories.

CD

ANALYSIS OP STATE MINI MUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Occupation or industry covered

Class of employees covered

Minimum-wage rates

to
O
Hours

New York:

•
No. 2.............. ......... .
Directory, Aug. 1,
1938.

No. 3
Directory, Nov. 14,
1938.




Beauty shop, i. e., any place or establishment
where women or minors are employed for the
purpose of rendering beauty service.
Beauty service, i. e., all service or operations used
or useful in the care, cleansing, or beautification
of the skin, nails, or hair, or in the enhance­
ment of personal appearance; services or operations incidental to such care, cleansing, beauti­
fication, or enhancement, including the service
of maids, cashiers, receptionists, or appoint­
ment clerks.
Confectionery, i. e., preparation, processing,
manufacture, wrapping, packaging, or packing
of confections and candies of all kinds, includ­
ing inspissated honeys, sugars and syrups used
as sweetmeats, chewing gum, sweetened cough
drops, and chocolate and cocoa products. Ex­
ceptions: Preserved and candied fruits

Women and minors:
Zone A (New York City; Westchester and Nassau Counties).

$14 a week............................. ......
35 cents an hour
Time and one-half____
_
Zone B (cities outside zone A with $12.80 a week (to Dec. 31,1938);
a population of over 18,000; from
$13.20 a week (Jan. 1, 1939, to
June 15 to Se t. 15, resort coun­
July 1, 1939); $13.60 a week
ties 34).
(July 2,1939, to Dec. 30, 1939);
$14 a week (after Dec. 30,1939).
32, 33, 34, and 35 cents an hour,
respectively, for periods as in­
dicated above.
Time and one-half...... .................
Zone C (remainder of State including 30 cents an hour
resort counties 84 from Sept. 15 to Time and one-half
June 15).
Women and minors:
Full-time:
All

40 a week or less.
Over 40 to 45 a week.
Over 45 a week.33
40 a week or less.

Over 40 to 45 a week.
Over 45 a week.88
45 a week or less.
Over 45 a week.38

45 a week or less.
Do.
Double time ____________ . _ Over 48.34
8 a day or less.
Time and one-half...... ............... Over 8 a day.34

52^ cents an hour_._ ________
Sept. 1 to Apr. 1:
$10 a week.... ...................... .
$11.20 a week____ _ ___ _
35 cents an hour__ _______
Apr. 1 to Sept. 1:
$7 a week
_____
$8.40 a week_______ _____
35 cents an hour................... .

8 a day, 40 a week.
Over 8 a day or 40 a week.33 3®
3 days a week or less.
4 days a week.37
Over 4 days a week up to 40
hours, inclusive.37
2 days a week or less.
3 days a week.33
Over 3 days a week up to 40
hours, inclusive.38

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

No. 1 Laundry occupations, i. e., all occupations di­
Directory, Mar. 14,
rectly concerned with the cleansing, finishing,
collecting, and distributing of laundry wares.
1938.
Mandatory, Aug.
Exceptions: Occupations concerned solely
with plant maintenance or office work.
22,1938.

No. 2, Apr. 4,1922___

Manufacturing, i. e., all processes in the produc­
tion of commodities, including work in dress­
making shops, wholesale millinery houses,
workrooms of retail millinery shops, and in
the drapery and furniture-covering workshops,
the garment alteration, art needlework, furgarment making, and millinery workrooms in
mercantile stores; employees of creameries
and produce houses, and the candy-making
departments of retail candy stores and of res­
taurants; in bakery and biscuit-manufacturing
establishments, in candy manufacturing and
in book-binding and job-press-feeding estab­
lishments.

Women:
Waitress or counter girl

Board furnished (21 meals)--------Board and lodging furnished
Lodging furnished-------------------Chambermaids and kitchen help----Board furnished (21 meals)
Board and lodging furnished-------Lodging furnished............ ...............
Part-time________________
Women:
Biscuit and candy:
Experienced........ .......................... .
Inexperienced (3 periods, 3 months
each).
Bookbinding and job press feeding:
Experienced_______ __________
Inexperienced (4 periods, 3 months
each).
All other manufacturing:
Experienced----------- ------ ---------Inexperienced______ __________

Part-time. ..

$13.41 a week

$8.16 a week; $35.36 a month-----$6.16 a week; $26.69 a month-----$11.41 a week; $49.44 a month----$12.78 a week
$7.53 a week; $32.63 amonth-----$5.53 a week; $23.96 a month-----$10.78 a week; $46.71 a month---Ha of weekly wage for each hour
worked.
$14 a week; $60.67 a month
$9, $10.50, $12 a week; $39, $45.50,
$52 a month.
$14 a week; $60.67 a month
$9, $10.50, $12, $13 a week; $39,
$45.50, $52, $56.33 a month.

9 a day, 58 a week in towns
under 500 population; 814
a day, 48 a week else­
where.39
Do.39
Do.39
Do.39
Do.39
Do.39
Do.39

Do.39

40 to 48 a week.40
Do.40
Do.40
Do.40

$14 a week; $60.67 a month
Do.40
Rates and periods to be deter­
mined by department of agri­
culture and labor in conference
with employer and employee.
Ho of weekly minimum an hour.. 35 to 40 a week.
J48 of weekly minimum an hour.. 34 or less a week.

No. 3, Dec. 16, 1932... Mercantile, i. e., work in establishments oper­ Women:
$13 a week; $56.33 a month--------- 9 a day, 54 a week in towns
Experienced
ated for the purpose of trade in the purchase
under 500 population; 814
or sale of any goods or merchandise, including
a day, 48 a week else­
the sales force, wrapping force, auditing or
where.39
checking force, the shippers in the mail-order
Do.39
$10.80 a week; $46.80 a month----Inexperienced (1 year)
department, the receiving, marking, and stock­
14s of weekly minimum for each
Part-time.....................
room employees and all other women, except
hour worked.
those performing office duties solely.
33 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week, for women and minors under 18. Over 8 a day allowed only to make one short day in week.
34 Resort counties: Chautaqua, Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Greene, Jefferson, Orange, St. Lawrence, Saratoga, Suffolk, Sullivan, ulster, and V\ arren.
33 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week, for boys between 16 and 18, and for females over 16 in towns of 15,000 population and over.
_ .
,,
3« During 14-week peak period each year (or 2 periods aggregating not over 14 weeks) the rates are 3814 cents an hour for hours over 40 to 44, 5214 cents for hours over 44 to 48.
37 If called to work on fourth day, whether or not she works, employee must be paid for 4 days.
33 If called to work on third day, whether or not she works, employee must be paid for 3 days.
40 Leg^l^^aximum^hours 8J4 a day, 48 a week, in towns of 500 population and over; in telephone exchanges elsewhere, maximum hours a day and days a month to be fixed by
agreement between employer and employee.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

North Dakota:
No. 1, Dec. 16, 1932... Public housekeeping, i. e., the work of waitresses
in restaurants, hotel dining rooms, boarding
houses, and all attendants employed at ice
cream and light lunch stands and steam table
or counter work in cafetei ias and delicatessens
where freshly cooked foods are served and the
work of chambermaids in hotels and lodging
houses and boarding houses, and hospitals and
the work of janitresses and car cleaners and of
kitchen workers in hotels and restaurants and
hospitals and elevator operators.

to

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

North Dakota—Contd.
No. 4, Dec. 16, 1932.._ Laundry, i. e., any place where clothes are
washed or cleaned by any process, by any
person, firm, institution, corporation, or asso­
ciation; all processes connected with the re­
ceiving, marking, washing, cleaning, ironing,
and distribution of washable or cleanable
materials; work performed in laundry depart­
ments of hotels, hospitals, and factories.
No. 5, Apr. 4,1922.... Telephone............................................................. .




Class of employees covered

Women:
Experienced........... .............. ............
If laundry privileges allowed____
Inexperienced:
First 3 months---------------- -----Next 2 months........................ ........
Part-time
Women in towns of 1,800 or more
population:
Experienced____ ________________
Inexperienced:
First month
Next 4 months
Next 4 months............ ...... ...........
Part-time:
Experienced____________ _____
Inexperienced (3 periods as above) _
Women in towns under 1,800 popula­
tion:
Experienced________________ ____
Inexperienced:
First month____________ ______
Next 4 months
Next 4 months
Part-time:
Towns of 500 but under 1,800 pop­
ulation:
Experienced___________ ______
Inexperienced (3 periods as
above).
Towns under 500 population:
Experienced
Inexperienced (3 periods as
above).

to

Minimum-wage rates

Hours

$12.60 a week; $54.60 a month___ 38 to 48 a week.40
$12.10 a week
Do.40
$9.90 a week; $42.90 a month___
Do.40
$11.25 a week; $48.75 a month---Do.40
J4s of weekly minimum an hour. Less than 32 a week.
Hs of weekly minimum an hour. 32 to 38 a week.
$14 a week; $60.67 a month

Over 40 a week.40

$10 a week; $44.43 a month.........
$11.50 a week; $48.17 a month_
_
$12.50 a week; $54.16 a month_
_

Do.40
Do.40
Do.40

29 cents an hour
25, 26, 28 cents an hour

40 or less a week.
Do.

$12 a week; $52 a month...

Over 40 a week.40

$9 a week; $39 a month__
$10 a week; $43.43 a month.
$11 a week; $47.67 a month.

Do.40
Do.40
Do.40

25 cents an hour______
22, 23, 24 cents an hour.

40 or less a week.
Do.

20 cents an hour_____
17,18,19 cents an hour.

(40).

C40).

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND OBDEBS

4

Occupation or industry covered

to

No. 6, May 28,1936— Any occupation (i. e., occupations covered by
Orders nos. 1-5 for women).

Minors under 18:
Experienced—
Inexperienced—

Ohio:

Same as rates for women in Or­
ders nos. 1-5.
___ do......................................—

8 a day, 48 a week.”

27}4 cents an hour; $11 a week...
29 cents an hour
30H cents an hour (10 percent
added to 27}4 cents).
27J4 cents an hour
37 cents an hour (1H times basic
27H cents).

40 a week.
19 a week.
Less than 19 a week.

Do”




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Laundry, i. e., washing, ironing, or processing Women and minors.
incidental thereto, for compensation, of cloth­
ing, napery, blankets, bed clothing, or fabric
of any kind whatsoever; collecting, sale, resale,
Over 40 to 45 a week.
or distribution at retail or wholesale of laundry
Over 45.41
service; the producing of laundry service for
their own use by business establishments,
clubs, or institutions; all processes directly
concerned with the cleansing, collection, and
distribution of laundry wares. Exceptions:
Plant maintenance, office work.
No. 2____.................... Cleaning and dyeing, i. e., cleaning, dyeing, Women and minors:
35 cents an hour; $16.80 a week.. 48 a week.
Store clerks...........
pressing, or processing incidental thereto, for
Directory, Sept.
Over 48 a week.41
52 Yi cents an hour (l^j times
compensation, of clothing (including hats),
10, 1934.
minimum).
household furnishings, rugs, textiles, fur,
Mandatory, Jan.
35 cents an hour; $14 a week___ 40 a week.
leather, or fabric of any kind whatsoever; col­
All other.
7, 1935.
52Mj cents an hour (ljri times Over 40 a week.41
lecting, sale, resale, or distribution at retail or
minimum).
wholesale of cleaning, dyeing, and pressing
service by cleaning, dyeing, pressing establish­
ments, laundries, department stores, hotels, or
by any other type of establishment or institu­
tion; all processes directly concerned with the
cleaning, dyeing, pressing, soliciting, collec­
tion, and distribution of dry-cleaning wares,
Exceptions: Plant maintenance, office work.
39 Legal maximum hours.
40 Legal maximum hours 8H a day, 48 a week, in towns of 500 population and over; in telephone exchanges elsewhere, maximum hours a day and days a month to be fixed by
agreement between employer and employee.
......
41 Legal maximum hours for females over 16 and boys between 16 and 18,8 a day, 48 a week. For females 16 and over in laundry and dry-cleaning plants, 9 hours a day, 50 a week
allowed during weeks that include certain holidays. For mercantile establishments, 10 hours may be worked on Saturday and on days preceding certain holidays, and 10 hours a day,
50 a week, during 1 week in the first half of the year and 2 weeks in the second half; the law allows complete exemption for women over 21 in towns of under 5,000 population.
No. 1—.....................
Directory, Mar.
26, 1934.
Mandatory, July
26, 1934.

to

CO

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date




Hotel and restaurant, i. e., all restaurants, li­
censed or unlicensed, operated as the principal
business of the employer or as a unit of another
business; restaurants operated by governmen­
tal subdivisions, including boards of educa­
tion, wherein food in liquid or solid form is
prepared and served: catering and banquet,
tial, or apartment hotels, apartment bouses,
tourist homes, and tourist cabin reservations
that offer lodging or living accommodations;
boarding houses, serving 1 meal or more a day;
rooming houses; hospitals and institutions, un­
less exempted by special permit. Exceptions:
Inmates of institutions; members of religious
organizations who receive no compensation;
women taking a course of training for house­
work, or preparing and serving food, in train­
ing establishments.

Class of employees covered

Service, i. e., employees who serve
food at counters or food or bever­
ages at tables; duties incidental
thereto; bellboys; page boys:
Cities of 100,000 population or
over:

Cities of 5,000 and under 100,000
population:

Minimum-wage rates

15.62 cents an hour; $7.50 a week..

14.58 cents an hour; $7 a week___

Cities under 5,000 population:

Nonservice:
Cities of 100,000 population or
over:

48 a week.41
First 25 a week.

21.875 cents an hour; $10.50 a
week.
21.875 cents an hour.

Cities of 5,000 and under 100,00Upopulation:

Cities under 5,000 population:
Full-time41___

Service and nonservice (if meals not
furnished).
Resident, i. e., employees living on
employer’s premises and receiv­
ing full maintenance.

Hours

_

First 25 a week.
26 to 48 a week.

18.75 cents an hour; $9 a week___ 48 a week.41

16.66 cents an hour; $8 a week___

6.25 cents an hour more than
above rates.

48 a week.41

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Ohio—Continued.
No. 3
Directory, July 1,
1936.
Mandatory, Mar.
30, 1937.

Occupation or industry covered

L?

30 cents an nour; $14.40 a week.. 9 a day, 48 a week.
30 cents an hour; $16.20 a week.. 10 a day, 54 a week.
25 cents an hour; $12 a week----- 9 a day, 48 a week.
25 cents an hour; $13.50 a week.. 10 a day, 54 a week.
20 cents an hour; $9.60 a week... 9 a day, 48 a week.
20 cents an hour; $10.80 a week.. 10 a day, 54 a week.

30 cents an hour; $14.40 a week.. 9 a day, 48 a week.
36 cents an hour; $19.44 a week... 10 a day, 54 a week.
27jr<j cents an hour; $13.20 a week. 9 a day, 48 a week.
30 cents an hour; $16.20 a week.. 10 a day, 54 a week.
25 cents an hour; $12 a week___ 9 a day, 48 a week.
25 cents an hour; $13.50 a week.. 10 a day, 54 a week.

$15 a week.
$18 a week.

9 a day, 48 a week.
9 a day (12 on 1 day a week),
54 a week.

$12 a week.
$16 a week.

9 a day, 48 a week.
10 a day (12 on 1 day a week),
57 a week.

9 a day, 51 a week.
10 a day (12 on 1 day a week),
59 a week.
41 Legal maximum hours for females over 16 and boys between 16 and 18, 8 a day, 48 a week. For females 16 and over in laundry and dry-cleaning plants, 9 hours a day, 50
a week allowed during weeks that include certain holidays. For mercantile establishments, 10 hours may be worked on Saturday and on days preceding certain holidays, and
10 hours a day, 50 a week, during 1 week in the first half of the year and 2 weeks in the second half; the law allows complete exemption for women over 21 in towns of under
5,000 population.
.
,
.
.
4a Employer shall stipulate, at time of hiring or at beginning of workweek in case of change of status, whether worker is full-time or part-time, l. e., employed on basis of 48 hours
or of less than 48 hours a week.
43 Restraining order has prevented enforcement.
_»
44 Class A.—Cities and towns of 40,000 or more population and contiguous territory within 2 miles thereof, more or less, within the discretion of the commission. L lass B.
Cities and towns of not less than 10,000 nor more than 40,000 population and contiguous territory within 1 mile thereof, more or less, within the discretion of the commission. Class
C.—Cities and towns of less than 10,000 population and all unallocated territory outside thereof, within the discretion of the commission.




$11 a week.
$13 a week.

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Oklahoma:
No. 1, May 1, 1938 43_. Laundry, i. e., washing, ironing, or processing Class A: 44
Females.
incidental thereto, for compensation, of cloth­
ing, napery, blankets, bed clothing, or fabrics
Males.. _
of any kind whatsoever in private plants where Class B:44
labor is employed; laundry service for their
Females.
own use by business establishments, clubs,
Males...
hotels, hospitals, or institutions. Exceptions: Class C:44
Eleemosynary institutions, benevolent organ­
Females.
izations or institutions organized and sup­
Males...
ported wholly on a nonprofit basis, and Statesupported institutions; plant maintenance
men; drivers; office workers; a plant foreman
and superintendent in plants having more
than 5 employees. Laundry occupation, i. e.,
all processes directly concerned with the
cleansing, ironing, pressing, or finishing of
laundry wares.
No. 2, May 1,1938 43 __ Cleaning and dyeing, i.e., any place or vehicle Class A:44
Females.
where the service of dry cleaning, wet cleaning,
each a process incidental to dry cleaning, spot­
Males__
ting, or finishing any fabric that is rendered for Class B:44
hire or sold, resold, or offered for sale or resale.
Females.
Exceptions: Plant maintenance men; drivers;
Males—
office workers; delivery men; a plant foreman Class C:44
Females.
and superintendent in plants having more
than 5 employees; plants manufacturing fab­
Males__
rics. Fabric, i. e., any article of wearing ap­
parel including hats, household furnishings,
rugs, textiles, furs, and leather.
No. 3, May 1,1938
Retail mercantile, i. e., selling of merchandise to Class A:44
Females.
the consumer and not for the purpose of resale
Males...
in any form; servicing, purchase, or sale of any
goods, wares, or merchandise; includes the
sales, wrapping, auditing, or checking force, Class B:44
Females.
shippers in the mail-order department, and
Males...
outside delivery men. Exceptions: Office em­
ployees; janitors.
Class C:44
Females.
Males...

to
Ox

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Occupation or industry covered

No. 6, May 1, 1938

No. 7, May 1, 1938
No. 8, May 1, 1938




Office building, i. e., elevator operators, janitors,
janitresses, maids, and charwomen in any
building used for office purposes.

Wholesaling and distributing____ ___________
Automotive, i. e., retailing new or used motor
vehicles and servicing or repairing them, in­
cluding the sale and/or installation of new or
used parts or accessories; garages, storage and
parking, including washing, other cleaning,
lubricating, repairing, towing, and driving of
customers’ cars; filling stations (any place
whose principal business is selling at retail
gasoline, oils, greases, lubricants, and other
petroleum products, automobile equipment,
supplies and accessories).

Class A:44
Females.
Males. __
Class B:44
Females.
Males...
Class C:44
Females.
Males, __
Class A:44
Females_______
Males________
Class B:44
Females_______
Males________
Class C:44
Females_______
Males________
Class A:44
Females_______
Males________
Class B:44
Females_______
Males________
Class C:44
Females..............
Males_________
Males and females.
Class A:44
Females_______
Males________
Class B:44
Females---------Males____ ____
Class C:44
Females---------Males________

Minimum-wage rates

Hours

$15 a week
$20 a week

8 a day, 48 a week.
9 a day, 54 a week.

$15 a week_________________
$20 a week

8 a day, 48 a week.
10 a day, 56 a week.

$13 a week
$18 a week................ .................

8 a day, 48 a week.
10 a day, 58 a week.

(Deductions allowed for meals.)
$10 a week
$19 a week...___ ___________

8 a day, 48 a week.
9 a day, 54 a week.

$9 a week _
$17 a week

8 a day, 48 a week.
10 a day, 57 a week.

$8 a week
$15 a week---------------------------

8 a day, 48 a week.
10 a day, 59 a week.

$15 a week_ _______________
_
$15 a week---------------------------

8 a day, 48 a week.
8 a day, 48 a week.

$12.50 a week
8 a day, 48 a week.
$14 a week................ ................. . 9 a day, 54 a week.
$12 a week........ ...........................
$13 a week
$18 a week

S a day, 48 a week.
9 a day, 54 a week.
9 a day, 48 a week.

$18 a week
$18 a week

9 a day, 48 a week.
9 a day, 54 a week.

$16 a week--------------------------- 9 a day, 48 a week.
$16 a week_________________ _ 10 a day, 57 a week.
$14 a week
$14 a week_______________

9 a day, 48 a week.
10 a day, 59 a week.

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Oklahoma—Continued.
No. 4, May 1, 1938
Restaurant, i. e., any establishment that pre­
pares and offers for sale for profit, food for con­
sumption, either on any of its premises, or by
catering, banquet, box lunch, or curb service.
Food, i. e., nutritive material intended for
human consumption, in solid or liquid form,
whether cooked or uncooked, or otherwise pre­
pared. Exceptions: Medicinal or quasi-medicinal preparations, fountain products such as
carbonated and aerated drinks, ice cream and
its derivatives, bottled beverages and drinks.
No. 5, May 1,1938
Hotel, i. e., businesses that extend lodging to the
general public for profit and that have 10 or
more guest rooms.

Class of employees covered

to
cs

No. 9, May 1, 1938

Oregon:
Sept. 14, 1937.

Retail drug, i. e., selling to the consumer and not
for resale in any form of drugs, medicines, and
poisons required to be compounded or pre­
pared on the premises or to be sold by a regis­
tered pharmacist.

Registered pharmacists (men and
women):
Class A44................................. ...........
Class B44
Class C 44________ __________

$32 a week
$28 a week
$25 a week.

10 a day, 57 a week.
10 a day, 58 a week.
11 a day, 62 a week.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Mercantile, i. e., work in establishments oper­ Women:
ated for the purpose of trade in the purchase or
Experienced...................................... 30 cents an hour.-.
8 a day, 44 a week.4®
sale of goods or merchandise, including the
Inexperienced (less than 6months)... 2734 cents an hour.
Do.«
sales force, wrapping, auditing, or check inJunior employees (under 18 years) 27cents an hour.
Do.
pection force, shoppers in mail-order depart­
ment, the receiving and shipping department,
marking and stockroom employees, sheetmusic saleswomen, altering and tailoring de­
partment, soda-fountain and lunchroom em­
ployees, demonstrators, models for fashions,
counter cashiers, elevator operators and start­
ers.
Sept. 14, 1937.
Laundry, cleaning and dyeing, i. e., all places Women.
30 cents an hour____
8 a day, 44 a week.4®
where 2 or more persons are engaged in wash­
1J4 times regular rate.
Over 8 to 9 a day, over 44 a
ing, cleaning, or dyeing clothing, washable and
week.
cleanable materials, directly or indirectly con­
nected with such place of business; all work in
the process of receiving, marking, washing,
cleaning, dyeing, ironing, and distribution of
washable and cleanable materials.
Sept. 14, 1937.
Needlecraft, i. e., designing, cutting, stitching, Women:
weaving, inspecting, knitting, hemstitching,
Experienced.
30 cents an hour.
8 a day, 44 a week; 9 a day,
altering, sorting of rags or materials, etc.,
48 a week for 2 periods a
whether by hand or by machine, of materials
year, 6 weeks each.46
for clothing, wearing apparel, upholstering,
Inexperienced (3 periods, 4 months 22, 25, 27J4 cents an hour.
Do.4®
tents, awnings, draperies, and bags.
each).
Sept. 14, 1937.
Manufacturing, i. e., all processes of manufac­ Women:
ture and production of commodities, including
Experienced...
30 cents an hour_______
8 a day, 44 a week.4®
photographing, creamery products, bakery
Inexperienced (3 periods, 4 months 22, 25, 27}4 cents an hour.
Do.4®
products, canning of meat, poultry, and fish>
each).
the process of preparing meat and poultry for
market, nut cracking and sorting, and all other
processes in the production of commodities not
covered by any other special order.
43 Restraining order has prevented enforcement.
44 Class A.—Cities and towns of 40,000 or more population and contiguous territory within 2 miles thereof, more or less, within the discretion of the commission. Class B—Cities
and towns of not less than 10,000 nor more than 40,000 population and contiguous territory within 1 mile thereof, more or less, within the discretion of the commission Class C —
Cities and towns of less than 10,000 population and all unallocated territory outside thereof, within the discretion of the commission.
4® Special regulations, effective Sept. 14, 1937, and general in their application, provide that in case of business emergency the State welfare commission, upon application and
showing, may issue a special license for the employment of adult women beyond the regular legal hours if time and one-half the regular rate is paid.

to

^1

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Sept. 14, 1937.

Sept. 14,1937-

Sept. 14, 1937.

Sept. 14, 1937.

Oct. 6, 1937.

Jan. 30, 1938.




Class of employees covered

Minimum-wage rates

Personal service, i. e., work of manicurists, Women:
8 a day, 44 a week.*6
Experienced_______________ ____ 30 cents an hour_______
beauty-parlor operators, masseuses, assistants
Do.«
Inexperienced (3 periods, 4 months 22, 25, 27]/2 cents an hour.
in doctors’ and dentists’ offices and in labora­
each).
tories, demonstrators of products, cashiers and
ushers in theaters and places of amusement,
assistants in broadcasting and radio service,
matrons in public buildings or institutions,
elevator operators and starters, janitresses and
railroad car cleaners and work of like nature.
Telephone and telegraph. Exception: Rural Women:
Do.*6
Experienced.......... .............................. 30 cents an hour_______
telephone establishment not demanding unin­
Do.*6
Inexperienced (3 periods, 4 months 22, 25, 27H cents an hour
terrupted attention of operator may be granted
each).
a license by the commission for different wages
and daily hours.
Office, i. e., work of stenographers, bookkeepers, Women:
Do.*6
Experienced------------------------------ 35 cents an hour_______
typists, billing clerks, filing clerks, cashiers,
Do.*6
Inexperienced (3 periods, 4 months 22, 25, 27^6 cents an hour
checkers, invoicers, comptometer operators,
each).
auditors, library attendants, and all kinds of
clerical work.
Public housekeeping, i. e., work of waitresses, Women:
Do.*6
Experienced_______________ ____ 30 cents an hour_______
cooks, kitchen helpers, chambermaids, janDo.*6
Inexperienced (3 periods, 4 months 22, 25, 27Yi cents an hour
tresses, elevator operators, and general attend­
each).
ants in hotels, restaurants, boarding houses,
dormitories at institutions of learning, hos­
pitals, sanitariums, cafeterias, light-lunch
stands, retail candy, ice-cream and soft-drink
parlors, delicatessens, and beer parlors.
Any occupation................... ......................... ......... Minors under 18:
Do.*6
20 cents an hour--------- ----------14 years_______
Do.*6
25 cents an hour-------------------15 years______
Do.*6
Apprentice rates fixed for spe­
16-17 years....... .
cific occupation.
Women:
Cherry stemming and pitting.
Do.*6
32^ cents an hour..
Experienced___________
Inexperienced (96 hours):
Do.*6
22H cents an hour—----- ------Time workers....... ........
Do.*6
Same rate per pound as experi­
Piece workers....... ........
enced workers.
Women:
Beauty parlor or barber shop..
10 a day, 44 a week.*6
30 cents an hour-----------Experienced
Do.*6
Inexperienced (3 periods, 4 months 22, 25, 27Yi cents an hour.
each).

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Oregon—Continued.
Sept. 14, 1937____

Occupation or industry covered

to
GO

Hospitals, i. e., cooks, waitresses, kitchen help­
ers, janitresses, or general charwomen in hos­
pitals. Exceptions: Graduate nurses, dieti­
tians, laboratory workers; student nurses if
their work is confined to service to patients or
to work in the classroom.

May 1, 1938.

Fruit and vegetable packing, drying, preserv­
ing, or canning. Exception: Office force.

Aug. 21, 1938.

Fruit and vegetable packing. Exception: Office
force.

Nov. 16, 1938.

Nut processing, bleaching, grading, or packing
plants.

Pennsylvania:
No. 1
Directory, Oct. 1,
1938.

Women:
Experienced.

30 cents an hour.

Inexperienced (3 periods, 4 months 22, 25, 27H cents an hour.
each).
Females..... ........................................... . 35 cents an hour............ .
Time and one-half_____
Double time..... ...........
Time and one-quarter...
Time and one-half_____
Males. _.
Females,

Double time________
45 cents an hour_____
35 cents an hour.........
Time and one-half___
Double time________
Time and one-quarter.
Time and one-half___

Double time...............
Women and minors:
Cracking and shelling nuts------------ 30 cents an hour____
\Yi times regular rate.
Processing, bleaching, grading, and 30 cents an hour____
packing nuts.
I times regular rate.

9 a day, 44 a week with 36hour rest period following;
or 7 a day, 44 a week, if on
duty 7 days a week.46
Do.46
10 a day.4*
Over 10 to 12 a day.
Over 12 a day.
Seventh day, first 8 hours.
Seventh day, over 8 to 12 a
day.
Seventh day, over 12 a day.
(46).

10 a day.46
Over 10 to 12 a day.
Over 12 a day.
Seventh day, first 8 hours.
Seventh day, over 8 to 12 a
day.
Seventh day, over 12 a day.
8 a day, 44 a week.46
Over 8 a day, 44 a week.
10 a day, 60 a week.46
Over 10 a day, 60 a week.

Over 16 to 30 a week.
Laundry, i. e., all occupations concerned with Women and minors.
$9 a week______
Over 30 to 44 a week.47
cleaning, finishing, collection, and distribution
30 cents an hour.
of laundry wares, including plant maintenance,
16 a week or less.
33 cents an hour.
office workers, and store clerks; washing, iron­
ing, or processing incidental thereto, for com­
pensation, of clothing, napery, blankets, bed­
clothing, or fabric of any kind; collection, sale,
resale, or distribution at retail or wholesale of
laundry services; producing of laundry services
for their own use by business establishments,
clubs, or institutions.
Laundry establishment, i e., any place in which
an employee is engaged in any phase of the
laundry trade.
45 Special regulations, effective Sept. 14, 1937, and general in their application, provide that in case of business emergency the State welfare commission, upon application and
showing, may issue a special license for the employment of adult women beyond the regular legal hours if time and one-half the regular rate is paid.
46 Legal maximum hours for minors under 18, 8 a day, 44 a week.
47 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 44 a week, for females and for children under 18, but department of labor and industry may allow variations for females IS and over.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Mar. 15, 1938.

fcO
O

00
o

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Rhode Island:

Industrial occupations, commercial or publicservice undertakings. Exceptions: Agriculture
and agricultural industries.

Class of employees covered

Females (after 3 weeks):

Jewelry, i. e., jewelry of any material commonly
or commercially so known and articles of orna­
ment or adornment, except clothing, of any
material intended to be worn on apparel or
carried or worn on or about the person and
shall include parts of these articles.
All occupations that have any part in the mak­
ing, processing, or production of jewelry, in­
cluding tool making, hub and die cutting, card­
ing, boxing, and other preparations for ship­
ment or sale, including office workers and
errand boys.
No. 2____
_____ Wearing apparel and allied industries, i. e., gar­ Women and minors:
Experienced:
ments or garment accessories to be worn on or
Directory, Oct. 18,
about the person, including parts of such ar­
1937.
ticles, their repair and alteration, and occupa­
Mandatory, Apr. 25,
Inexperienced:
tions allied through like processes of manufac­
1938.
ture. Manufacture, repair, alteration of cot­
ton, rayon, silk, woolen, elastic, and rubber
garments, knit goods, men’s coats and suits,
raincoats, leather, rubber and fabric shoes,
handkerchiefs, handbags, hats and hat linings;
upholstering; curtain, rug, pillow and mattress
manufacture.
Laundry and dry cleansing occupations, includ­
ing helpers, employees of contractors, office
Directory, May 2,
workers, errand boys or girls, and casual em­
1938.
Mandatory, Sept.
ployees.
.
Laundry, i. e., any activity concerned with the
12, 1938.
washing, ironing, or processing incidental
thereto of any fabric or laundry wares; collec­
tion, distribution, or sale of laundry service;
producing or rendering of such activity or serv­
ice by the employer upon his own behalf or for
others, more specifically by hotels, overnight
camps, clubs, business establishments, fac­
tories, bakeries, and other like establishments.
Exceptions: Wards or charges of any charitable
organization.

Minimum-wage rates

Hours

8 a day (9 if double time is
paid), 48 a week.48
Do.48
9 a day, 48 a week.5#

Directory, Mar. 1,
1937.
Mandatory, Aug. 1,
1937.




Do.50
Do.50
Do.60
Do.40

Do.50

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Puerto Rico:
Sept. 7, 1919 (Wage
fixed in law).48

Occupation or industry covered

Utah:

#
wage board, Oct.
16, 1937.

wage board, Jan.
14,1938.
Recommendations of
wage board, Mar.
17,1938.

wage board, Apr.
12, 1938.

Factory, workshop, mechanical or mercantile
establishment, laundry, hotel, restaurant, or
packing house.

Experienced women and girls over 14
years,

10 a day, 54 a week.42

7 a day (7& on 1 day), 42H a
week.
Over 42H a week.54
.
Less than 42H a week.

consumer, not for purpose of resale in any form
within the State. Exception: Educational in­
stitutions offering merchandise for sale on
premises for accommodation of students.

8 a day, 44 a week.
Over 44 a week.54

of materials and products including candy,
clothing, foods (including poultry products,
dairy products), cosmetics and boxes; milli­
nery, bookbinding, job press feeding estab­
lishments.
ages in solid or liquid form.
Laundry, i.e., any place where washing, ironing,
cleaning, pressing, or processing incidental
thereto, of any kind of washable fabric is con­
ducted, including laundry departments in
hotels, hospitals, factories, and other places.

Part-time (less than standard day or
week).
Women and minors

31 Vi cents an hour ..
33 cents an hour____

pressing, or processing incidental thereto, for
compensation, of wearing apparel, household
furnishings, rugs, textiles, fur, leather, or
fabric of any kind; collection, sale, resale, or
distribution at retail or wholesale by cleaning,
dyeing, and pressing establishments, laun­
dries, department stores, hotels or by any
other type of establishment.
43 Session Laws 1919, Act. 45.
48 Legal maximum hours, except for telephone and telegraph operators, artists, nurses, and domestics.
40 Legal maximum hours for women and minors 16 and under 18.
Session laws, 1923, ch. 309.
42 Legal maximum hours.
m Restraining order has prevented enforcement. (Wage order held void by State Supreme Court, Dec. 14, 1938.)
64 Legal maximum hours 8 a day, 48 a week, for women; 8 a day, 44 a week, for children under 18.




7H a day, 45 a week.
First 2 hours.
After first 2 hours.
8 a day, 45 a week.
Over 45 to 48 a week.44
____ .. Less than 24 a week.
8 a day, 48 a week.44
Less than 8 a day.

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

South Dakota:
July 1, 1923. (Wage
fixed in law.) 51

Dry cleansing, i. e., any activity concernedwith
the cleaning, refreshing or restoration of any
fabric and/or of any article of wearing apparel,
including pressing or other work incidental
thereto or performed in connection therewith;
collection, distribution, or sale of dry-cleaning
service; producing or rendering of such activity
or service by the employer upon his own behalf
or for others, more specifically by hotels, clubs,
and like business establishments.

CO

CO

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Washington:
No. 24 (Minors).
Oct. 4, 1921.

Occupation or industry covered

Class of employees covered

Minimum-wage rates

Hours

Beauty culture, i. e., all processes concerned
with shampooing, waving, or straightening
hair, scalp or facial treatments; eyebrow shap­
ing; eyelash and eyebrow dyeing; manicuring
and hand and arm massage; hair cutting or
trimming; hair tinting and bleaching; removal
of superflous hair, warts, or moles by use of an
electric needle; demonstrating the use of cos­
metics, supplies, and equipment.

Women and minors (including desk
appointment girls and all other).

$16.50 a week..______ ________
Time and one-half
37H cents an hour __________

8 a day, 44 a week.
Over 44 a week.
Less than 8 a day, or 44 a
week.

Public housekeeping, i. e., work of linen-room
girls, chambermaids, cleaners, kitchen girls,
dishwashers, pantry girls, pantry servers,
waitresses, counter girls, bus girls, elevator
operators, janitresses, laundry workers (ex­
cept commercial laundry), and any other occu­
pation properly classified under public house­
keeping. Establishments include hotels,
rooming houses, boarding houses, restaurants,
cafes, cafeterias, lunch rooms, tea rooms, apart­
ment houses, hospitals (not nurses), philan­
thropic institutions, and any other properly
classified under this industry.

48 a week (6 days.)63
$2.50 a day...................... ............ 8 a day, 1 or more days a
week.56
35 cents an hour.................... ...... Less than 8 a day.
Minors under 18 years__ __________ $12 a week________________ _ 8 a day, 6 days a week.56
$1 a week increase until adult
Each 4 months
minimum of $14.50 is reached.

No. 25, Dec. 14,1921. _
No. 27, Dec. 14, 1921.. Telephone or telegraph or other public occupation other than public housekeeping, laundry,
dry-cleaning and dye works, mercantile, and
manufacturing.
No. 28, Dec. 31,1921..
No. 29, Jan. 22, 1922.. Manufacturing_________ ____ _______ _____




(Deductions allowed for meals
or lodging.)

Women over 18 years (other than
apprentices).

Women:
Experienced, i. e., having served an
apprenticeship at plant where em­
ployed, or an apprenticeship and 3
months at particular work at
which an apprentice.
Inexperienced:
Optional schedules:
(A) 4 periods, 3 months each___
(B) 4 periods, 2 months each___
(C) 4 periods, 6 weeks each____
(D) 4 periods, 1 month each___
(E) 4 periods, 1 week each-------Piece workers, after 60 days at
prevailing piece rates.

Do. •*
$13.20 a week... -------------------- 6 days a week.55

$13.20 a week

Do.55

$13.20 a week------------------------- 8 a day, 6 days a week.**

$9, $10, $11, $12 a week........ .......
$9, $10, $11, $12 a week
$9, $10, $11, $12 a week
$9, $10, $11, $12 a week___ ____
$9, $10, $11, $12 a week
$9...................................................

Do.55
Do.55
Do.55
Do.55
Do.66
Do.66

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Utah—Continued.
Recommendations of
wage board, June
15, 1938.

to

No. 31, Oct. 27, 1922.

No. 34, May 6, 1937... Cannery (fruit, vegetable, fish, shell fish, dog
foods ,or any other products preserved for food
purposes).
No. 35, Sept. 7, 1937.. Beauty culture, i. e., hairdressing, manicuring,
hair manufacturing, massage, marcel waving,
permanent waving, cosmetology, haircutting,
and other work performed in beauty parlors
and similar establishments.
No. S6, Dec. 7, 1937...
Wisconsin:
No. 1, June 10,1932.
Any occupation, trade or industry

minimum of $13.20 is reached.

Women and minors:

Do.6®
Do.5®

10 a day.

Inexperienced:

Do.
Do.
Over 10 to 12 a day.
Over 12 a day.
7th day, first 8 hours.
7th day, over 8 to 12.
7th day, over 12.
37cents an hour.
Regular week, i. e., not more
than 48 a week.
Full week.
Less than 48 a week.

Women and minors:
17 years and over:
Experienced:

i
Inexperienced (2 periods, 3 months
each).
16 and under 17 years:6*

Women: In general, 9 a day,
50 a week; hotels, 10 a day,
55 a week. Minors under
18, 8 a day, 40 a week.57
Do.57
Do.57

8 a day, 40 a week.
Do.
Inexperienced (6 months or part of
season).
11 Legal maximum hours.
55 Legal maximum h ours 8 a day in any mechanical or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel, or restaurant.
57 Legal maximum hours, but under the 9-50 hour provision woman may be employed 10 hours a day during emergency periods not exceeding 4 weeks a year, if time and a half is
paid and weekly hours dlo not exceed 55.
58 Minors producing the same output as employees in a higher wage classification must be paid the minimum rate for such class.




STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

No. 32, Oct. 1, 1934..

Mercantile, manufacturing, printing, launder­
ing, or dye-works establishment, sign-painting,
machine or repair shop, or parcel-delivery
service or any other industry than public
housekeeping; as stenographer, bookkeeper,
typist, billing clerk, filing clerk, cashier,
checker, invoicer, comptometer operator, or
any clerical office work whatsoever, including
assistants and helpers in doctors’ and dentists’
offices; any other occupation, trade, or indus­
try. Exception: Telephone or telegraph mes­
sengers in rural communities and cities of less
than 3,000 population who are not continu­
ously employed and who are paid piece rates.
Fresh-fruit packing, vegetable packing and
dried-fruit industries.

co
CO

CO

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE ORDERS—Continued
State, order, and effec­
tive date

Occupation or industry covered

Minimum-wage rates

Women and minors—Continued.
14 to 15 years:58

8 a day, 40 a week.
Do.

Inexperienced (1 year or season)...

Domestic servants:

Special orders, season
1938.

Pea canning; bean, cherry, corn, spinach, straw­
berry, and tomato canning.

(Deductions allowed for meals or
lodging.)

Women and minors:
17 years and over:
Experienced:
Inexperienced (1 season or part of
a season in the industry).

Women 18 years and over:
Minors:
16 and under 17:

58 Minors producing the same output as employees in a higher wage classification must be paid the minimum rate for such class.




Hours

50 a week or more.
Do.
Less than 50 a week.
Women and minors: 9 a day,
54 a week during season.
Exceptions for women over
18, 8 emergency days 11
hours each in pea canning,
10 in all other; 60 a week.
Before and after season, 9
a day, 50 a week for women
over 18; 8 a day, 40 a week
for minors under 18.
Over 9 to 11 a day—pea can­
ning; over 9 to 10—all other
canning. (See above.)
9 a day, 54 a week during
season; after season 8 a day,
40 a week.
Do.

STATE M INIM UM -W AGE LAWS AND ORDERS

Wisconsin—Contd.
No. 1, June 10, 1932... Any occupation, trade or industry

Class of employees covered

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS
State
Arizona:
Revised code 1928, sec.
1391; session laws 1937
(2d special session),
ch. 20.

Arkansas:
Digest of the statutes
(Crawford and
Moses) 1921, secs.
7108, 7111-7114; sup­
plement 1927, secs.
7109-7110; session laws
1935, ch. 150; 1937, ch.
83.

California:
Deering’s Labor Code
1937, secs. 61, 70-73,
1171-1203.

Colorado:
Statutes 1935, ch. 97,
secs. 5, 236-256; ses­
sion laws 1937, ch. 189.

Connecticut:
Cumulative supple­
ment to general stat­
utes 1931-35, pp. 374­
381, secs. 910c-923c;
1937 supplement, p.
286, sec. 577d.

District of Columbia:
U. S. Statutes at Large
1917-19, vol. 40, pt. 1,
pp. 960-964; Public,
No. 654, 1938.




Basis of wage rates

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Employees covered by law

Exceptions

Commission appoints wage board of 3 representa­ Noncomplience with manda­
tives each of employers and employees and 1
tory order a misdemeanor
industrial commissioner to be designated chair­
punishable by fine or impris­
man. After studying evidence and testimony of
onment or both. Employee
witnesses board must, within 10 days after its
may recover back wages, costs,
organization, submit a report recommending
and attorney’s fees.
minimum fair wage standards. W ithin 10 days,
commission must accept or reject this report.
If accepted, commission issues a directory order.
After 60 days, if no appeal has been taken, the
order becomes mandatory.

Wage sufficient to meet cost of
living necessary for health and
fairly and reasonably com­
mensurate with value of serv­
ice or class of service rendered.
In determining minimum fair
wage, the commission or wage
board shall consider the mini­
mum cost of living, and wages
paid in State for like or com­
parable work by employers
voluntarily maintaining mini­
mum fair wage standards.

Any occupation, i. e., any class
of work in any industry, trade,
business, or branch thereof.
Exceptions: Domestic service
in the home of the employer;
agricultural labor.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 21
years of age).

Any woman or minor, including
a learner or apprentice, whose
earning capacity is impaired by
age or physical or mental
deficiency or injury may be
granted license authorizing a
wage less than the minimum
for a fixed period.

Investigation at discretion of commission to deter­
mine necessity of raising or lowering the mini­
mum wage set by law.

Minimum wage set by law but commission has
power to raise or lower such wage in any occupa­
tion, trade, or industry after investigating and
holding public hearings.
Commission has power, after public hearing, to
establish regulations for hotels and restaurants
provided the wage rate is not lower than will
supply the cost of proper living and safeguard
health and welfare, and provided also that it
shall not exceed the rate established by law.

Noncompliance punishable by
fine.

Wage adequate to supply neces­
sary cost of proper living and
to maintain health and wel­
fare.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or
mercantile establishment,
laundry, express or transpor­
tation company, hotel, res­
taurant, eating place, bank,
building and loan association,
insurance company, finance or
credit business; company sup­
plying electricity or water;
work In elevators. Exceptions:
Cotton factories; gathering of
fruits or farm products; rail­
road companies whose hours
are regulated by Federal laws.

Females..

Industrial welfare commission
through division of industrial
welfare in department of indus­
trial relations. (Industrial wel­
fare commission is composed of
5 persons, at least 1 of whom shall
be a woman, appointed by the
governor for terms of 4 years.)

Investigation at discretion cf commission to as­
certain whether wages paid are inadequate to
supply the cost of proper living. Investigation
conducted by examining books, papers, pay
rolls, records, and witnesses and by holding
public hearings at which employers, employees,
and other interested persons may testify. If
convinced of need commission shall call a wage
board.

Commission calls wage board composed of an
equal number of representatives of employers
and employees in an industry with a representa­
tive of the commission as chairman. After
studying the evidence, the board recommends
minimum-wage rates to the commission, which,
after a public bearing, fixes the minimum rates
for the industry and issues a mandatory order.

Noncompliance a misdemeanor,
punishable by fine or impris­
onment or both. Employee
may recover back wages and
costs.

Any occupation, trade, or in­
dustry.

Women; minors (girls
under 21, boys under 18
years of age).

Any woman physically defective
by age or otherwise may be
granted license fixing a lower
wage. License must be renewed
every 6 months.
Apprentice or learner: Special
wage for fixed period.

Industrial commission. (Com­
mission is composed of 3 mem­
bers appointed by the governor,
with the consent of the senate,
for terms of 6 years. Not more
than 1 member may represent
employees, nor more than 1
employers.)

Investigation at request of not less than 25 persons
engaged in occupation or at discretion of com­
mission if there is reason to believe that substan­
tial number of employees are paid wages inade­
quate to supply necessary cost of living and
maintain health. Investigation conducted by
examining books, payrolls, papers, other records,
and witnesses, and by public hearings at which
employers, employees, or other interested per­
sons may testify. If convinced of need com­
mission either fixes minimum-wage rates or
appoints a wage board.

Commission sets minimum wage for occupation
and issues mandatory order; or commission
establishes a wage board composed of not more
than 3 representatives of employers, an equal
number of representatives of employees and of
the public, and, if it so desires, a representative
of the commission. The representatives of the
employers and the employees to be elected by
their respective groups; at least 1 member of
every group to be a woman. The wage board
investigates the occupation and reports to the
commission a minimum wage, which the com­
mission may accept or reject. After acceptance
and a public hearing, commission issues man­
datory order.

Noncompliance a misdemeanor,
punishable by fine or imprison­
ment or both. Employee
may recover back wages and
costs.

Wage sufficient for living wage.
Wage fair and reasonable, and
consistent with maintenance
of health and morals. Suit­
able wage for minors.

Any occupation, i. e., any and
every vocation, trade, pursuit,
or industry.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 18
years of age).

In an occupation in which only
time rates are established, a
woman physically defective or
crippled by age or otherwise or
less efficient than a woman
worker of ordinary ability may
be granted license authorizing
a wage less than the minimum.
Number so licensed must not
exceed Ho of the total number
of workers in an establishment.

Commissioner of labor and factory
inspection or director of mini­
mum-wage division which may
be set up in the department of
labor.

Investigation at discretion of commissioner, or on
petition of 50 or more residents of the State, to
ascertain whether substantial number of women
or minors in an occupation are paid oppressive
and unreasonable wages, i. e., less than fair and
reasonable value of services rendered and less
than sufficient to meet minimum cost of living
necessary for health. Investigation conducted
by examining books, registers, pay rolls, and
other records of employers. If convinced of need
commissioner shall appoint a wage board.

Commissioner appoints wage board composed of
an equal number of representatives, but not
more than 3, of employers and employees, and
not more than 3 of the public, 1 of the public
group to be designated chairman. After study­
ing evidence and testimony of witnesses, board
must, within 60 days of its organization, submit a
report, recommending minimum fair wage
standards. Commissioner, within 10 days,
must accept or reject this report. If accepted,
report must be published and public hearing
held. After final approval of wage-board re­
port, commissioner issues a directory order.
After 3 months and following a public hearing,
commissioner may make the order mandatory.

Publication of names of em­
ployers not complying with
directory order.
Noncompliance with mandatory
order punishable by fine or
imprisonment or both. Em­
ployee may recover back
wages, costs, and attorney’s
fees.

Wage fairly and reasonably com­
mensurate with value of serv­
ice or class of service rendered.
In determining minimum fair
wage commissioner and wage
board may consider wages
paid in State for like or com­
parable work by employers
voluntarily maintaining mini­
mum fair wage standards.

Any sweatshop occupation, i. e.,
an industry, trade, business,
or occupation paying an un­
fair and oppressive wage. Ex­
ceptions: Domestic service in
the home of the employer;
labor on a farm.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 21
years of age).

Any woman or minor, including
a learner or apprentice, whose
earning capacity is impaired
by age or physical or mental
deficiency or injury may be
granted license authorizing a
wage less than the minimum
for a fixed period.

Minimum-wage board. (Board is
composed of 3 members ap­
pointed by the District com­
missioners for terms of 3 years,
1 member each to represent em­
ployers, employees, and the
public.)

Investigation at discretion of board to ascertain
whether substantial number of women in an
occupation are paid wages inadequate to supply
the necessary cost of living and maintain health
and morals. Investigation conducted by exam­
ining books, registers, pay rolls, and other records
of employers and witnesses and by public hear­
ings at which any interested person may testify.
If convinced of need, board may convene a
conference.

Board appoints wage conference composed of an
equal number of representatives, but not more
than 3, of employers and employees, not more
than 3 of the public, and 1 or more members of
the board. After investigation the conference
submits a report, recommending minimumwage standards, which the board may approve
or disapprove. If approved, report must be pub­
lished and public nearing held. After final
approval of conference report, minimum-wage
board issues mandatory order.

Noncompliance a misdemeanor, Wage adequate to supply neces­
punishable by fine or imprison­
sary cost of living to women
ment or both. Employee
and to maintain them in
health and protect their
may recover back wages and
morals. Wage not unreason­
attorney’s fees.
ably low for minors.

Any occupation, i. e., any busi­
ness, industry, trade, or
branch thereof. Exception:
Domestic service.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 18
years of age).

In an occupation in which only
time rates are established, a
woman whose earning capacity
has been impaired by age or
otherwise may be granted
license authorizing a wage less
than the minimum.
Learner or apprentice for fixed
period.

Authority empowered to
administer law

Procedure preliminary to setting wage rates

Industrial commission.
(Com­
mission is composed of 3 mem­
bers appointed by the governor,
with the advice of the senate,
for terms of 6 years.)

Investigation at discretion cf commission, or on
petition of 20 or more residents of the State
engaged in any particular occupation, to ascer­
tain whether substantial number of women or
minors in that occupation are paid oppressive
and unreasonable wages, i. e., less than fair and
reasonable value of service rendered and less than
sufficient to meet minimum cost of living neces­
sary for health. Investigation conducted by
examining books, registers, pay rolls, and other
records of employers. If convinced of need on
basis of information in its possession, commis­
sion shall appoint a wage board without special
investigation.

Industrial welfare commission.
(Commission is composed of the
commissioner of labor and statis­
tics as chairman and 2 men and
2 women; 1 man and 1 woman
appointed by the governor, the
ethers by the commissioner of
labor, and 1 man and 1 woman
to represent employers, the
other man and woman to
represent employees. All mem­
bers appointed for terms of 2
years.)

Procedure for setting wage rates

Means provided for securing
enforcement

.do..

116196°—39

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No. 1

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS—Continued
State
Illinois:
Revised statues (Cahill)
1935, ch. 48, secs.
238-256.

Kansas:
General statutes 1935,
secs. 44-60la, 44-637,
44-639 to 44-650, 74­
704.

Kentucky:
Session laws 1938, ch.
105.

Louisiana:
Session laws 1938, Act
362.

Massachusetts:
Session laws 1937, ch.
401; 1938, ch. 237.

Procedure preliminary to setting wage rates

Procedure for setting wage rates

Means provided for securing
enforcement

Basis of wage rates

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Employees covered by law

Exceptions

Department of labor.

Investigation at discretion of department, or on
petition of 50 or more residents of any county,
to ascertain whether substantial number of
women or minors in an occupation are paid
oppressive and unreasonable wages, i. e., less
than fair and reasonable value of services ren­
dered and less than sufficient to meet minimum
cost of living necessary for health. Investiga­
tion conducted by examining books, registers,
pay rolls, and other records of employers. If
convinced of need, on basis of information in
possession of department, director shall appoint
a wage board without special investigation.

Director appoints wage board composed of an
equal number of representatives, but not more
than 2^ of employers and employees, and 1 repre­
sentative of the public to be designated chair­
man. After studying evidence and testimony
of witnesses, board must, within 60 days of its
organization, submit a report recommending
minimum fair wage standards. Within 10 days,
department must accept or reject this report. If
accepted, report must be published and public
hearing held. After final approval of wage-board
report, department issues a directory order.
After 9 months, and following a public hearing,
department may make the order mandatory.

Publication of names of em­
ployers not complying with
directory order.
Noncompliance with mandatory
order a misdemeanor punish­
able by fine or imprisonment
or both. Employee may re­
cover back wages, costs, and
attorney’s fees.

Wage fairly and reasonably
commensurate with value of
service or class of service
rendered.
In determining
minimupi fair wage, depart­
ment and wage board may
consider wages paid in State
for like or comparable work
by employers voluntarily
maintaining minimum fair
wage standards.

Any occupation, i. e., any in­
dustry, trade or business, or
branch thereof or class of
work therein.
Exceptions:
Domestic service in the home
of the employer; labor on a
farm.

Women; minors (females
under 18 and males un­
der 21 years of age).

Any woman or minor, including
a learner or apprentice, whose
earning capacity is impaired
by age or physical or mental
deficiency or injury may be
granted license authorizing a
wage less than the minimum
for a fixed period.

Commission of labor and industry.
(Commission is composed of 3
members appointed by the
governor, by and with the con­
sent of the senate, for terms of
4 years.)

Investigation at discretion of commission to ascer­
tain whether substantial number of women
and minors in an occupation are paid wa^ges
inadequate to supply the necessary cost of living
and maintain health. If convinced of need
commission shall publish notice of public
hearing.

Commission holds a public hearing and issues a
mandatory order.

Noncompliance a misdemeanor Wages reasonable and not det­
punishable by fine. Employee
rimental to health and wel­
may recover back wages,
fare.
costs, and attorney’s fees.

Any occupation.

Women; minors (females
under 18 and males
under 21 years of age1).

Commissioner of industrial relations.

Investigation at discretion of commissioner, or on
petition of 50 or more residents of the State, to
ascertain whether substantial number of women
or minors in an occupation are paid oppressive
and unreasonable wages, i. e., less than fair and
reasonable value of services rendered and less
than sufficient to meet the minimum cost of
living necessary for health. Investigation con­
ducted by examining books, registers, pay
rolls, other records of employers, and witnesses.
If convinced of need on basis of information in
his possession, commissioner shall request the
governor to appoint a wage board without
special investigation.

Governor, at request of commissioner, appoints
wage board composed of 9 members, 3 represen­
tatives each of employers, employees, and the
public, 1 of the public group to be designated
chairman. After studying evidence and testi­
mony of witnesses board must, within 60 days
of its organization, submit a report recommend­
ing minimum fair wage standards. Within 10
days, commissioner must accept or reject this
report. If accepted, report must be published
and public hearing held. After final approval of
wage-board report, commissioner issues a direc­
tory order.
After 3 months, and following a public hearing, the
commissioner may make the order mandatory.

Publication of names of em­
ployers not complying with
either directory or mandatory
order.
Noncompliance with mandatory
order a misdemeanor, punish­
able by fine or imprisonment
or both. Employee may re­
cover back wages, costs, and
attorney’s fees.

Wages fairly and reasonably
commensurate with value of
service or class of service ren­
dered. In determining mini­
mum fair wage, commissioner
and wage board shall consider
cost of living and wages paid
in State for like or comparable
work by employers voluntarily
maintaining minimum fair
wage standards.

Any occupation, i. e., any in­
dustry, trade, or business, or
branch thereof or class of
work therein.
Exceptions:
Domestic service in the home
of the employer; labor on a
farm; person, firm, or cor­
poration subject to regulation
by the State public service
commission.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 21
years of age).

Any woman or minor, including
a learner or apprentice, whose
earning capacity is impaired
by age or physical deficiency
or injury, may be granted
license authorizing a wage less
than the minimum for a fixed
period.

Commissioner of labor and direc­
tor of minimum-wage division
which shall be set up in the
department of labor.

Investigation at discretion of commissioner to
ascertain whether wages paid to female employ­
ees in an occupation are inadequate to supply the
necessary cost of living and maintain health.
Investigation conducted by calling for state­
ments and examining books, pay rolls, other
records of employers, and witnesses, and by
holding public hearings at which employers,
employees, and other interested persons may
testify. If convinced of need commissioner is
empowered to call a conferencfe.

Commissioner calls conference composed of an
equal number of representatives of employers
and employees in the occupation or industry in
question and 1 or more representatives of the
public, 1 of the public group to be designated
chairman, but public representatives must not
exceed the number in either of the other groups.
After studying evidence and testimony of wit­
nesses, the conference, on request of the com­
missioner, must within 60 days of its organiza­
tion, submit a report recommending minimumwage standards. The commissioner may
accept or reject this report. If accepted, public
hearing must be held. After final approval of
conference report, commissioner issues a manda­
tory order.

Noncompliance a misdemeanor
punishable by fine. Em­
ployee may recover back
wages, costs, and attorney’s
fees.

Wage adequate to supply neces­
sary cost of living and main­
tain health.

Any occupation, trade or indus­
try. Exceptions: Labor on a
farm, domestic service; munic­
ipalities having population of
10,000 or less.

Women and girls

Any woman or girl physically
defective or crippled by age or
otherwise, or any apprentice,
may be granted license au­
thorizing a wage less than the
minimum.

Minimum-wage commission es­
tablished in the department of
labor and industries under con­
trol of commissioner of labor and
industries and consisting of
associate commissioners of labor
and industries.

Investigation at discretion of commissioner, or on
petition of 50 or more residents of the Common­
wealth, to ascertain whether substantial number
of women or minors in an occupation are paid
oppressive and unreasonable wages, i. e., less
than fair and reasonable value of services ren­
dered and less than sufficient to meet minimum
cost of living necessary for health. Investiga­
tion conducted by examining books, registers,
pay rolls, and other records of employers. If
convinced of need, on basis of information in its
possession, commission shall appoint a wage
board without special investigation.

Commission appoints wage board composed of an Publication of names of employ­
ers not complying with direc­
equal number of representatives, but not more
than 3, of employers and employees, and not
tory or mandatory order.
more than 3 representatives of the public, 1 of Noncompliance with manda­
the public group to be designated chairman.
tory order punishable by fine
After studying evidence and testimony of wit­
or imprisonment or both.
nesses board must, within 60 davs of its organ­
Employee may recover back
ization, submit a report recommending mini­
wages, costs, and attorney’s
mum fair wage standards. Within 10 days,
fees.
the commission must accept or reject this report.
If accepted, report must be published and public
hearing held. After final approval of wageboard report, commissioner issues a directory
order.
After 3 months and following a public hearing
commissioner may make the order mandatory. I

Wage fairly and reasonably
commensurate with value of
service or class of service ren­
dered. In determining mini­
mum fair wage, commissioner
and wage board may consider
cost of living and wages paid
in State for like or comparable
work by employers voluntarily
maintaining minimum fair
wage standards.

Any occupation, i. e., any
industry, trade or business,
or branch thereof or class of
work therein. Exceptions:
Domestic service in the home
of the employer; labor on a
farm.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 21
years of age).

Any woman or minor, including
a learner or apprentice, whose
earning capacity is impaired
by age or physical or mental
deficiency or injury may be
granted license authorizing a
wage less than the minimum
for a fixed period.

Authority empowered to
administer law

l Decision of Stato attorney general, Aug. 13, 1938.




116196°—39

(Face p. 34)

No. 2

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS—Continued
Authority empowered to
administer law

Procedure preliminary to setting wage rates

Procedure for setting wage rates

Means provided for securing
enforcement

Industrial commission. (Commis­
sion is composed of 3 members
appointed by governor, by and
with the advice and consent of
the senate, for terms of 6 years.)

Investigation at discretion of commission, or on
request of at least 100 persons engaged in occupa­
tion, to ascertain whether one-sixth or more
women or minors are paid less than living wage.
Investigation conducted by examining papers,
books, witnesses, and by holding public hearings
at which employers, employees, or other inter­
ested persons may testify. If convinced of need
commission either fixes minimum-wage rates or
appoints an advisory board.

Commission sets a minimum wage and issues a
mandatory order;; or commission establishes an
advisory board of not less than 3 or more than
10 representatives of employers, an equal number
of representatives of employees, and 1 or more
of the public, the representatives of the public,
not to exceed the number in either of the
other groups. At least one-fifth of the members
of the board must be women and the public
group must include at least 1 woman. After
investigation the board recommends minimumwage rates which the commission may accept
or reject. After acceptance, or after commission
determines the minimum wage without ap­
pointing an advisory board, it issues a manda­
tory order.

Basis of wage rates

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Employees covered by law

Exceptions

Refusal to comply with law a
misdemeanor punishable by
fine or imprisonment. Em­
ployee may recover back
wages, costs, and attorney's
fees.

Wage sufficient to maintain
health and supply necessary
comforts and conditions of life.

Any occupation, i. e., any busi­
ness, industry, trade, or
branch of trade.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 21
years of age).

In an occupation in which only
time rates arc established, a
woman physically defective
may be granted license author­
izing a wage less than the
minimum. Number so li­
censed must not exceed onetenth of the total number of
workers in an establishment.

Minimum wage fixed by law.

Noncompliance a misdemeanor,
punishable by fine or im­
prisonment, or both.

Wage sufficient to maintain
health and welfare.

Private employment. Excep­
tions: Domestic service; State,
county, city, or town em­
ployees.

Any female.

Probationary period
exceed 3 months.

Investigation at discretion of commissioner, or on
petition of 50 or more residents of the State, to
ascertain whether substantial number of women
or minors in an occupation are paid oppressive
and unreasonable wages, i. e., less than fair and
reasonable value of service rendered and less
than sufficient to meet the minimum cost of liv­
ing necessary for health. Investigation con­
ducted by examining books, registers, pay rolls,
and other records of employers. If convinced
of need on basis of information in his possession,
commissioner shall appoint a wage board with­
out special investigation.

Commissioner appoints wage board composed of
an equal number of representatives, but not
more than 3, of employers and employees, and
not more than 3 representatives of the public, 1
of the public group to be designated chairman.
After studying evidence and testimony of wit­
nesses board must, within 60 days of its organi­
zation, submit a report recommending mini­
mum fair wage standards. Within 10 days
commissioner must accept or reject this report.
If accepted, report must be published and pub­
lic hearing held. After final approval of wageboard report, commissioner issues a directory
order.
After 5 months and following a public hearing the
commissioner may make the order mandatory.

Publication of names of employ­
ers not complying with direc­
tory order.
Noncompliance with mandatory
order punishable by fine or im­
prisonment or both. Em­
ployee may recover back
wages, costs, and attorney’s
fees.

Wage fairly and reasonably com­
mensurate with value of servi ce or class o f service rendered.
In determining minimum fair
wage, commissioner and wage
board may consider wages
paid in State for like or com­
parable work by employers
voluntarily maintaining mini­
mum fair wage standards.

Any occupation, i. e., any in­
dustry, trade, or business, or
branch thereof or class of work
therein. Exceptions: Domes­
tic service in the home of the
employer; labor on a farm.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 21
years of age).

Any woman or minor, including
a learner or apprentice, whose
earning capacity is impaired by
age or physical or mental defi­
ciency or injury may be
granted license authorizing
a wage less than the minimum
for a fixed period.

Commissioner of labor or the direc­ Investigation at discretion of commissioner, or on
tor of the minimum-wage divi­
petition of 50 or more residents of the State, to
sion which shall be set up in the
ascertain whether substantial number of women
department of labor.
or minors in an occupation are paid oppressive
and unreasonable wages, i. e., less than fair and
reasonable value of services rendered and less
than sufficient to meet the minimum cost of liv­
ing necessary for health. Investigation con­
ducted by examining books, registers, pay rolls,
and other records of employers. If convinced of
need on basis of information acquired by special
investigation or otherwise, commissioner shall
appoint a wage board.

Commissioner appoints wage board composed of
an equal number of representatives, but not
more than 3, of employers and employees, and
not more than 3 representatives of the public, 1
of the public group to be designated chairman.
After studying evidence and testimony of wit­
nesses board must, within 60 days of its organi­
zation, submit a report recommending mini­
mum fair wage standards. Within 10 days,
commissioner must accept or reject this report.
If accepted, report must De published and pub­
lic hearing held. After final approval of wageboard report, commissioner issues a directory
order.
After 9 months and following a public hearing the
commissioner may make the order mandatory.

Publication of names of employ­
ers not complying with direc­
tory order.
Noncompliance with mandatory
order a misdemeanor, punish­
able by fine or imprisonment
or both. Employee may re­
cover back wages, costs, and
attorney’s fees.

Wage fairly and reasonably com­
mensurate with value of serv­
ice or class of service rendered.
In determining minimum fair
wage, commissioner and wage
board may consider wages
paid in State for like or com­
parable work by employers
voluntarily maintaining mini­
mum fair wage standards.

Any occupation, i. e., any in­
dustry, trade or business, or
branch thereof or class of work
therein. Exceptions: Domestic
service in the home of the em­
ployer; labor on a farm; em­
ployment in a hotel.

Industrial commissioner.

Commissioner appoints wage board composed of
an equal number of representatives, but not
more than 3, of employers and employees, and
not more than 3 representatives of the public,
1 of the public group to be designated chairman.
After studying evidence and testimony of wit­
nesses board must, within 60 days of its organi­
zation, submit a report recommending mini­
mum-wage standards. Within 10 days com­
missioner must accept or reject this report. If
accepted, report must be published and public
hearing held. After final approval of wageboard report, commissioner issues a directory
order.
After 3 months and following a public hearing, the
commissioner may make the order mandatory.

Publication of names of employ­
ers not complying with either
directory or mandatory order.
Noncompliance with mandatory
order a misdemeanor punish­
able by fine or imprisonment
or both. Employee may re­
cover back wages, costs, and
attorney’s fees.

In determining minimum wage
for any service of class of serv­
ice, commissioner and wage
board may consider: (1) The
amount sufficient to provide
adequate maintenance and to
protect health; (2) the value of
the service or class of service
rendered; and (3) wages paid
in the State for like or compar­
able work.

Any occupation, i. e., any in­
dustry, trade, business or class
of work. Exceptions: Domes­
tic service in the home of the
employer; labor on a farm.

State
Minnesota:
General statutes 1927,
sees. 4033, 4210-4232;
session laws 1937, ch.
79.

Nevada:
Session laws 1937, ch.
207.

Labor commissioner.

New Hampshire:
Session laws 1933, eh. 87_ Labor commissioner.

New Jersey:
Revised statutes 1937,
vol. 2, secs. 34:1-1, 34:
11-34 to 34:11-56.

New York:
Cahill’s Consolidated
Laws, Supplement
1937, ch. 32, secs. 550­
566.




Investigation at discretion of commissioner, or on
petition of 50 or more residents of the State en­
gaged in or affected by an occupation, to ascer­
tain whether substantial number of women or
minors in the occupation are paid wages insuffi­
cient to provide adequate maintenance and to
protect health. Investigation conducted by
examining books, registers, pay rolls, and other
records of employers. If convinced of need on
basis of information in his possession, commis­
sioner shall appoint a wage board without special
investigation.

Do.

.do.

Do.

116190°—39

(Face p. 34)

No. 3

not

to

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS—Continued
State
North Dakota:
Supplement to com­
piled laws 1913-25,
secs. 396b3, 396b6396b9, 396bll-396bl6;
session laws 1935, ch.
/ 162.

Ohio:
General Code (Page)
1937, secs. 154-45d to
154-45t.

Oklahoma:
Session laws 1937, ch.
52.

Oregon:
Code 1930, vol. 3, secs.
49-304, 49-305, 49-307
to 49-319; supplement
1935, secs. 49-302a to
49-302C, 49-303, 49-306.

Pennsylvania:
Session laws 1937, Act
248.




Authority empowered to
administer law

Procedure preliminary to setting wage rates

Procedure for setting wage rates

Means provided for securing
enforcement

Easis of wage rates

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Employees covered by law

Exceptions

Commissioner of agriculture and
labor.

Investigation at discretion of commissioner to ascer­
tain whether substantial number of women in
any occupation are paid wages inadequate to
supply the necessary cost of living and maintain
health. Investigation conducted by examining
books, pay rolls, other records, and witnesses,
and by holding public hearings at which any
interested persons may testify. If convinced of
need commissioner may convene a conference.

Commissioner appoints conference composed of
an equal number of representatives, but not
more than 3, of employers and employees, and
not more than 3 representatives of the public,
and the commissioner. After studying evidence
and testimony of witnesses, the conference sub­
mits a report recommending minimum-wage
standards. Commissioner must accept or reject
this report. If accepted, notice must be pub­
lished and public hearing held. After final
approval commissioner issues a mandatory
order.

Noncompliance a misdemeanor,
punishable by fine or im­
prisonment or both. Em­
ployee may reoaver back
wages and attorney’s fees.

Wage adequate to supply neces­
sary cost of living to women
workers and to maintain
health. Wages not unreason­
ably low for minors.

Any occupation, i. e., any busi­
ness, industry, trade, or
branch thereof. Exceptions:
Agriculture; domestic service.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 18
years of age).

Any female physically defective
by age or otherwise, or any
apprentice or learner, may be
granted license authorizing a
wage less than the minimum.

Director of industrial relations or
the superintendent of the mini­
mum-wage division which shall
be set up in the department of
industrial relations.

Investigation at discretion of director, or on peti­
tion of 50 or more residents of the State, to
ascertain whether substantial number of women
or minors in an occupation are paid oppressive
and unreasonable wages, i. e., less than fair and
reasonable value of services rendered and less
than sufficient to moet minimum cost of living
necessary for health. Investigation conducted
by examining books, registers, pay rolls, and
other records of employers. If convinced of
need on basis of information in his possession,
director shall appoint a wage board without
special investigation.

Director appoints wage board composed of an
equal number of representatives, but not more
than 3, of employers and employees, and not
more than 3 representatives of the public, 1 of
the public group to be designated chairman.
After studying evidence and testimony of wit­
nesses board must, within 60 days of its organiza­
tion, submit a report recommending minimum
fair wage standards. Within 10 days director
must accept or reject this report. If accepted,
report must be published and public hearing
held. After final approval of wage-board report,
director issues a directory order.
After 3 months and following a public hearing the
director may make the order mandatory.

Publication of names of em­
ployers not complying with
directory order.
Noncompliance with manda­
tory order a misdemeanor,
punishable by fine or im­
prisonment or both.
Em­
ployee may recover back
wages, costs, and attorney’s
fees.

Wage fairly and reasonably com­
mensurate with value of serv­
ice or class of service rendered.
In determining minimum fair
wage, director, superintend­
ent, or wage board may con­
sider wages paid in State for
like or comparable work by
employers voluntarily main­
taining minimum fair wage
standards.

Any occupation, i. e., any indus­
try, trade or business, or
branch thereof or class of work
therein. Exceptions: Domes­
tic service in the home of the
employer; labor on a farm.

Women: minors (persons
of either sex under 21
years of age).

Any woman or minor, including
a learner or apprentice, whose
earning capacity is impaired
by age or physical or mental
deficiency or injury may be
granted license authorizing a
wage less than the minimum
for a fixed period.

Industrial welfare commission.
(Commission composed of gov­
ernor, commissioner of labor,
and chairman of State industrial
commission.)

Investigation at discretion of commission to deter­
mine whether wages paid employees in an occu­
pation are inadequate to supply necessary cost
of living and maintain health. Investigation
conducted by calling for statements, examining
books, pay rolls, or other records of employers,
and by holding public hearings at which any
interested persons may testify. If convinced of
need commission is empowered to call a con­
ference.

Commission appoints conference composed of
equal number of representatives of employers
and employees, and 1 or more representatives of
the public (but public representatives must not
exceed the number in either of the other groups),
and a member of the commission who shall act
as chairman. Conference recommends mini­
mum wage which the commission may accept
or reject. If accepted, the commission issues a
mandatory order.

Failure to pay minimum wage
a misdemeanor, punishable by
fine. Employee may recover
back wages, costs, and at­
torney’s fees.

Wage adequate to supply neces­
sary cost of living and to main­
tain health. Suitable wage for
minors.

Any industry or occupation.
Exceptions: Agriculture, horti­
culture, dairy or stock raising.

Men and women; minors
(persons of either sex
under 18 years of age).

Any employee physically defec­
tive or crippled by age or other­
wise or any apprentice may be
granted license authorizing a
wage less than the minimum
for a fixed period.

State welfare commission. (Com­
mission is composed of 3 un­
salaried members appointed by
the governor for terms of 4 years.
The commissioner of labor is to
serve as secretary and executive
officer.)

Investigation at discretion of commission to ascer­
tain whether substantial number of women are
paid wages inadequate to supply the necessary
cost of living and maintain health. Investiga­
tion conducted by examining witnesses, books,
pay rolls, and other records of employers and by
holding public hearings at which interested per­
sons may testify. If convinced of need commis­
sion may convene a conference.

Commission appoints conference composed of an
equal number of representatives, but not more
than 3, of employers and employees, not more
than 3 representatives Oi the public, and 1 or
more commissioners. Commission shall desig­
nate the chairman. After studying evidence and
testimony of witnesses, conference must submit
a report recommending minimum-wage stand­
ards. The commission must accept or reject
this report. If accepted notice must be pub­
lished and public hearing held. After final
approval commission issues a mandatory order.

Noncompliance a misdemeanor,
punishable by fine or im­
prisonment or both. Em­
ployee may recover back
wages and attorney’s fees.

Wage adequate to supply neces­
sary cost of living to women
workers and to maintain
health. Wage not unreason­
ably low for minors.

Any occupation, i. e., any and
every vocation, pursuit, trade,
or industry.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 18
years of age).

In an occupation in which only
time rates are established, a
woman physically defective or
crippled by age or otherwise
may be granted license au­
thorizing a wage less than the
minimum.

Department of labor and industry. Investigation at discretion of department, or on
petition of 50 or more residents of the State, to
ascertain whether substantial number of women
or minors are paid wages less than sufficient to
maintain health or efficiency. Investigation
conducted by examining books, registers, pay
rolls, and other records of employers. If con­
vinced of need on basis of information in posses­
sion of department, secretary of labor and
industry shall appoint a wage board without
a special investigation.

Secretary appoints wage board composed of an
equal number of representatives, but not more
than 3, of employers, employees, and the public,
1 of the public group to be designated chairman.
After studying evidence and testimony of wit­
nesses, board must, within 60 days of its organi­
zation, submit a report recommending minimum
fair wage standards. Within 10 days, the de­
partment must accept or reject this report. If
accepted, report must be published and public
hearing held. After final approval of wage-board
report department issues a directory order.
After 3 months, and following a public hearing,
department may make the order mandatory.

Publication of names of em­
ployers not complying with
directory or mandatory order.
Noncompliance with manda­
tory order a misdemeanor,
punishable by fine or impris­
onment or both. Employee
may recover back wages, costs,
and attorney's fees.

Wage fairly and reasonably
commensurate with value of
service or class of service ren­
dered. In determining a
minimum fair wage, secretary
and wage board may consider
cost of living and wages paid
in the State for like or com­
parable work by employers
voluntarily maintaining mini­
mum fair wage standards.

Any occupation, i. e., any in­
dustry, trade, business, or
class of work. Exceptions:
Domestic service in the home
of the employer; service in a
religious community or chari­
table institution; labor on a
farm; boys lawfully employed
in sale and delivery of news­
papers and magazines; persons
subject to provisions of Fed­
eral Railway Labor Act.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 21
years of age).

Any woman or minor, including
a learner or apprentice, whose
earning capacity is impaired by
age or physical or mental defi­
ciency or injury, may be
granted license authorizing a
wage less than the minimum
for a fixed period.

116196“—39

(Face p. 34)

No. 4

ANALYSIS OF STATE MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS—Continued

State
Puerto Rico:
Session laws 1919, Act
45; 1931, Act 15, sec.

Authority empowered to
administer law

Procedure preliminary to setting wage rates

Means provided for securing
enforcement

Procedure for setting wage rates

10.

Rhode Island:
Session laws 1936 (Janu­
ary session), ch. 2289.

South Dakota:
Compiled laws 1929,
secs. 10022-B to 10022E; session laws 1931,
chs. 173, 174.

Utah:
Revised statutes 1933,
secs. 42-1-1, 103-1-16;
session laws 1933,
ch. 38.

Employees covered by law

Women and girls..

Minimum wage fixed by law.............—..................

Secretary of agriculture-

industrial commission. (Com­
mission is composed of 3 mem­
bers appointed by the governor,
with the consent of the senate,
for terms of 6 years.)

Investigation at discretion of commission to deter­
mine whether wages paid to women and minors
in an occupation are inadequate to supply the
cost of proper living. Investigation conducted
by examining books, papers, pay rolls, or rec­
ords, and witnesses and by holding public hear­
ings at which employers, employees, and other
interested persons may testify. If convinced of
need commission shall call a wage board.

Commission calls wage board composed of an
equal number or representatives of employers
and employees with a representative of the com­
mission as chairman. After studying the evi­
dence the board recommends minimum-wage
rates to the commission, which, after a public
hearing, fixes the minimum rates for the industry
and issues a mandatory order.

Committee calls conference composed of an equal
Industrial welfare committee. Investigation at discretion of the committee to
number of representatives of employers and
ascertain whether wages paid to female employ­
(Committee is composed of the
employees in an occupation or industry, 1 or
ees in an occupation are inadequate to supply
director of labor and industries,
more representatives of the public, the number
the necessary cost of living and maintain health.
appointed by the governor with
not to exceed that in either of the other groups,
Investigation conducted by examining books,
the consent of the senate and
and a member of the committee to act as chair­
pay rolls, other records of employers, and wit­
holding office at his pleasure;
man. The conference recommends a minimum
nesses, and by holding public hearings at which
the supervisor of industrial insur­
wage, which the committee may accept or reject.
employers, employees, and other interested per­
ance and the supervisor of indus­
If accepted the committee issues a mandatory
sons may testify. If convinced of need commit­
trial relations appointed by the
order.
tee is empowered to call a conference.
director of labor and industries;
Committee may at any time after inquiry deter­
the supervisor of women in in­
mine suitable wages for minors and issue manda­
dustry and the industrial statis­
tory order.
tician appointed by the super­
visor of industrial relations with
the approval of the director of
labor and industries.)
Wisconsin:
Commission appoints an advisory wage board
Industrial commission. (Com­ Investigation at discretion of commission, or on the
Statutes 1937, secs. 101.01
selected to represent fairly employers, employ­
filing of a verified complaint of any person, to
mission is composed of 3 mem­
to 101.28, 104.01 to
ees, and the public. The living wage determined
ascertain whether wage paid to any woman or
bers appointed by the governor,
104.12, 319.01.
by the commission and this advisory board shall
minor is not a living wage.
with the advice and consent of
be the minimum wage.
the senate, for terms of 6 years.)

Apprenticeship
weeks.

period

of

3

Any woman or minor, including
a learner or apprentice, whose
earning capacity is impaired
by age or physical or mental
deficiency or injury may be
granted license authorizing a
wage less than the minimum
for a fixed period.

Women; minors (females
under 21, males under 18
years of age).

Any woman physically defective
by age or otherwise may be
granted license authorizing a
wage lower than minimum.
License must be renewed every
6 months.
Apprentice or learner: Special
wage may be set by commission
for specified period.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 18
years of age).

Any woman physically defective
or crippled by age or otherwise,
or any apprentice, may be
granted license authorizing a
lower wage.

Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 21
years of age).

Any woman or minor unable to
earn the living wage may ob
tain license fixing a lower wage.

-do.

Wage adequate to supply neces­
sary cost of proper living and
to maintain health and wel­
fare.

Any occupation, trade, or indus­
try.

Noncompliance a misdemeanor, Wage adequate to supply neces­
sary cost of living and main­
punishable by fine. Em­
tain health. Suitable wage
ployee may recover back wages,
for minors.
costs, and attorney’s fees.

Employer not complying shall
forfeit and pay into State
treasury.

Living wage, i. e., sufficient to
maintain worker under condi­
tions consistent with welfare,
welfare to mean and include
reasonable comfort, reasonable
physical well-being, decency,
and moral well-being.

Every person in receipt of, or en­
titled to, any compensation for
labor performed for any em­
ployer.

116196°—39

O

Exceptions

Wage fairly and reasonably com­ Any industry, trade or business, Women; minors (persons
of either sex under 21
or branch thereof or class of
mensurate with value of serv­
years of age).
work
therein. Exceptions;
ice or class of service rendered
Domestic service in the home
and not greater than the in­
of the employer; labor on a
dustry can afford to pay. In
determining a minimum fair
farm.
wage, the commissioner and
tho wage board may consider
(1) wages paid in this and other
States for like or comparable
work by employers voluntarily
maintaining minimum fair
wage standards and (2) what
wages the industry can afford
to pay.
Noncompliance a misdemeanor, A living wage.............................. Any factory, workshop, mechan­ Any woman or girl over
ical or mercantile establish­
the age of 14 years.
punishable by fine or imprison­
ment, laundry, hotel, restau­
ment or both. Employee may
rant, or packing house.
recover back wages and costs.

Director appoints wage board composed of an Publication of names of em­
Director of labor and commissioner Investigation at discretion of director or commis­
ployers not complying with
equal number of representatives, but not more
sioner, or on petition of 50 or more residents of the
appointed as chief of division of
than 3, of employers and employees, and not
directory order.
State, to ascertain whether substantial number of
women and children.
more than 3 of the public, 1 of the public group to Noncompliance with mandatory
women or minors in an occupation are paid op­
order a misdemeanor punish­
be designated chairman. After studying
pressive and unreasonable wages, i. e., less than
able by fine or imprisonment
evidence and testimony of witnesses board must,
fair and reasonable value of service rendered, less
within 60 days of its organization, submit a report
or both. Employee may re­
than the industry can afford to pay, and less than
cover back wages, costs, and
recommending minimum fair wage standards.
sufficient to meet minimum cost of living neces­
Within 10 days director shall accept or reject this
attorney’s fees.
sary for health. Investigation conducted by
report. If accepted, report must be published
examining registers, pay rolls, other records of
and public hearing held. After final approval of
employers, and witnesses. If convinced of need
wage-board report director issues a directory
on basis of information in his possession, director
order.
shall appoint a wage board without special inves­
After 3 months and following a public hearing the
tigation.
director may make tho order mandatory.

Washington:
Remington's Revised
Statutes 1931, secs.
7623-7641,10833,10835,
10840, 10893; session
laws 1935, ch. 176.




Occupations or industries
covered by law

Industrial occupations; com­
mercial or public-service un­
dertakings. Exceptions: Agri­
culture and agricultural in­
dustries.

Noncompliance a misdemeanor,
punishable by fine.

Minimum wage fixed bylaw..

Commissioner of labor.

Basis of wage rates

Any woman mentally or physi­
cally deficient or disabled may
be granted a permit authoriz­
ing a wage lower than the mini­
mum.
Apprentice or learner if employer
obtains permission to employ.

(Face p. 34)

No. 5