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LI3.3-250

State Hour Laws
For Women
WOMEN’S BUREAU BULLETIN 250

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary

2So




WOMEN’S BUREAU
S. Miller, Director

Frieda

State Hour Laws
For Women
i^NTo^

■ m™
JjresdJ,

WOMEN’S BUREAU BULLETIN 250

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary




WOMEN’S BUREAU
Fbieda

S.

Miller, Director

WASHINGTON 11953

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C.
Price 40 cents




Letter of Transmittal
United States Department of Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, October 15, 1953.

I have the honor to transmit a report showing the provisions of
State hour laws for women as of October 1, 1953. The laws covered
deal with daily and weekly hours of work, day of rest, requirements as
to meal and rest periods, and the employment of women at night.
This report is the most recent in a series of bulletins on State labor
laws for women published by the Women’s Bureau over a period of
three decades. When the first such report (Women’s Bureau Bulletin
16: 1921) was issued, efforts to establish an 8-hour maximum work­
day for women had gained legislative support in only 9 States. The
most common legal hour standard for women was 10 hours a day, in
effect in 19 States. Only 12 States and the District of Columbia had
day-of-rest laws; only 14 States and Puerto Eico required a meal
period of specified minimum length. Thirteen States and Puerto
Rico prohibited the employment of women at night.
The present report shows the significant gains in legal hours stand­
ards for women which have been made in the intervening years. The
data contained in this report are in constant demand by labor law
administrators in the various States and by employers and workers.
The lapse of more than 8 years since the last printed report on this
subject (Women’s Bureau Bulletin 202, Part I: 1944) makes the
publication of the present edition especially urgent.
The report was prepared in the Bureau’s Division of Women’s
Labor Law and Civil and Political Status. The material contained in
it was sent to the State administrators for consideration and approval,
and 1 wish to express my appreciation of their generous cooperation
and assistance.
Respectfully submitted.
Sir:

Frieda S. Miller, Director.

Hon. James P. Mitchell,




Secretary oj Labor.

iii

STATE HOUR LAWS FOR WOMEN
SUMMARY

,

In 45 States, the District of Columbia, Alaska, and Puerto Rico,
laws are in effect regulating the hours of employment of women. The
following types of standards are established by these laws: (1) Maxi­
mum daily and weekly hours; (2) day of rest; (3) meal and rest peri­
ods; and (4) nightwork. Not every State has all types of hour stand­
ards. However, only Hawaii1 and three States—Alabama, Florida,
and Iowa—have not set legal standards governing at least one aspect
of women’s hours of employment.
Maximum Daily and Weekly Hours

¥

Forty-three States, the District of Columbia, and Alaska have laws
limiting women’s daily and/or weekly hours of employment in one or
more industries.
Five States—Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, and West Virginia—
do not have such laws. The laws of Hawaii and Puerto Rico set no
maximum, but require payment of premium rates for time worked
beyond specified daily and/or weekly hours.
One-half of the States (24) and the District of Columbia have laws
regulating the employment of women which establish a maximum of
8 hours a day and/or 48 hours a week or less for one or more indus­
tries.2 All but one of these—Kansas—cover manufacturing estab­
lishments. The 8-48 hours law in Kansas applies to public-house­
keeping occupations and telephone exchanges; in manufacturing es­
tablishments, the maximum is 9 hours a day and 49% hours a week.
In Connecticut the maximum workweek is 48 hours for several indus­
tries including manufacturing, but daily hours may not exceed 8 in
mercantile establishments or 9 in other types of employment, includ­
ing manufacturing. Ohio’s law sets 8-48 hours as the maximum for
industries other than manufacturing, 9—45 for manufacturing.3
1 Although Hawaii’s “wage and hour law” does not place a limit on hours of employment, it requires pay­
ment of time and a half worker’s regular rate for hours over 48 in private employment.
3 If a State has set different legal maximum-hour standards for different industries, the law establishing
the highest standard, i. e., the lowest maximum hours, is shown.
3 An emergency measure suspends the 45-hour maximum and permits 48 hours a week in manufacturing
until Sept. 1, 1955. The same measure prohibits employment of women as taxi drivers between 10 p. m.
and 6 a. m. Under the suspended section, taxi driving was a prohibited occupation for women.




l

Arizona__
_____
Arkansas. _
California_
_ _
•
Colorado__ ______
Connecticut__________
District of Columbia_
_
Illinois _____
_____
Kansas. _____
....
Louisiana.. .
Massachusetts___
. _,
Montana___ __
__
Nevada________ __
.
New Hampshire .. . .
»

8-48
8-(‘)
8-48
8—(0
8-48
8-48
8-48
8-48
8-48
9-48
8-(2)
8-48
10-48

New Mexico__
___ _____
New York___
_ ._____
North Carolina____
._____
North Dakota_________ _____
Ohio__ ______
._____
Oregon__
Pennsylvania
_ _
Rhode Island
Utah___________ __________
Virginia_____________
Washington___________ . _ _
Wyoming_____________ _____

8-48
8-48
9-48
8^-48
8-48
8-44
10-48
9-48
8-48
9-48
8—
8-48

1 Day-of-rest law provides, in effect, for a 48-hour week.
2 By statute, 48 hours constitutes a week's work for men and women employees in certain specified
industries.

Nine States have set a maximum 9-hour day for women and all
but one of these (Idaho) have a weekly maximum of 50 or 54 hours.
Maine’s law sets 50 hours for production workers in manufacturing
and mechanical establishments and 54 hours for women workers in
a number of other establishments and industries.
Idaho.. .
Maine____..
Michigan
Missouri_
_
Nebraska. _ .

_
.

._________
._________
._________
._________
_________

99-50
9-54
9-54
9-54

Oklahoma .
... _________
Texas____
.
_________
Vermont __________ _________
Wisconsin_______ _ _________

9-54
9-54
9-50
9-50

Nine States have set a maximum day of 10 hours and a week of
from 50 to 60 hours. In Georgia and South Carolina the law is
limited to one type of manufacturing only—cotton and woolen goods.
Delaware--------------------------------Georgia*---------------------------------Kentucky-------------------------------Maryland-------------------------------Mississippi* 10-60

10-55 New Jersey 10-54
10-60 South Carolina* 10-55
10-60 South Dakota 10-54
10-60 Tennessee 10-50

*Men and women.

Minnesota has fixed no daily limit in its statute, having only a
54-hour weekly limitation for manufacturing and several other in­
dustries.
Alaska has set 60 hours as the maximum week for household or
domestic employees.
Day of Best4

Nearly half the States (22) and the District of Columbia establish
a 6-day week for women in some or all industries. In 2 of these
States—Colorado and Utah—the law does not apply to manufac­
turing establishments.
4 A number of States still have on their statute books the so-called “blue laws” which prohibit labor on
Sunday other than work of necessity or charity. Since such laws do not regulate the employment of one
person by another, they are not considered labor laws within the scope of this bulletin.
2




Arizona
Arkansas
California*
Colorado
Connecticut*
Delaware
District of Columbia
Illinois*

Kansas
Louisiana
Massachusetts*
Nevada
New Hampshire*
New Jersey
New York*
North Carolina

North Dakota
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
Utah
Wisconsin*

•Men and women.

In addition, Puerto Rico has a law which provides for a day of
rest but permits work during such day on payment of double the
employee’s regular rate. Also, Rhode Island has a law, enforced by
the department of labor, which prohibits employment on Sundays
and holidays except to perform work absolutely necessary. Kentucky
law requires payment of time and one-half for work on the seventh
consecutive day.
Meal and Rest Periods

Meal periods varying from 20 minutes to 1 hour must be allowed to
women hi some or all industries in over half of the States (27), the
District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The States are as follows:
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Delaware
District of Columbia
Illinois
Indiana*
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana

Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Nebraska*
Nevada
New Jersey*
New Mexico
New York*
North Carolina
North Dakota

Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Utah
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Puerto Rico

•Men and women.

Rest periods are provided for in one or more industries by 8 States.
Most of these set a 10-minute rest period within the half-day’s
work.
Arizona
California
Colorado

Nevada
Oregon
Utah

Washington
Wyoming

Nightwork

Twenty States and Puerto Rico place some limitation on the
hours adult women may be employed at night. An additional 3
States and the District of Columbia limit the nightwork of persons
18 to 21 years of age only.
In 13 States and Puerto Rico, nightwork for adult women is pro­
hibited in certain industries or occupations. In North Dakota and




3

r

Washington the prohibition applies only to elevator operators; in
Ohio,6 only to taxicab drivers.
Connecticut
Delaware
Indiana 1
Kansas
Massachusetts

Nebraska
New Jersey
New York
North Dakota
Ohio

South Carolina
Washington
Wisconsin
Puerto Rico

1 Suspended until 1961.

In 7 additional States—California, Maryland, New Hampshire,
New Mexico, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Utah-—as well as in several
of the States already listed, the employment of adult women at night,
while not prohibited, is regulated either by provision for a lower
maximum hour limit for nightwork than for daywork or by the
establishment of specific working-conditions standards.
In the District of Columbia and in 3 States that do not prohibit or
regulate nightwork for adult women—Arizona, Rhode Island, and
Virginia—nightwork is prohibited only for persons under 21 in
messenger service (in Virginia for girls under 21).
‘ See footnote 3.

4




<>

LAWS GOVERNINGJMAXIMUMfHOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHT WORK
Variations

Hour provisions
Coverage

State

Daily Weekly

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defense*
related

ALABAMA:
1. Maximum Hours.
No law.
2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No
law.
ALASKA:
1.^Maximum Hours.
Compiled Laws
Annotated
(1949), vol. 2,
sec. 43-2-34.
2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No
law.
ARIZONA:
1. Maximum Hours.
(1039), vol. 4,
sec. 56-320.

cn

ployment.

60

(Females.)

\

Any labor. (Females.) Ex­
emptions: Domestic work;
nurses; telephone or tele­
graph office or exchange or
railroad-yard office employ­
ing 3 ortfewer women.

18

48

For women engaged in harvesting, curing, canning,
or drying of perishable
fruits or vegetables during
period necessary to save
product from spoiling,
hours’ provisions not ap­
plicable.
If daily hours do not exceed
6, adult women may be
employed 7 days a week.
(For variations in laundry
establishments, see foot­
note 2.)

6

See footnotes at end of table.




i

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHT WORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

ARIZONA—Continued
2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
State Industrial
Commission
Minimum Wage
Order, Manda­
tory Order, No.
2-A, Laundry
and Dry Clean­
ing Industry
(1948).

4. Nightwork.
Code Annotated
(1939), vol. 4,
sec. 56-311.




Laundry and Dry-cleaning In­
dustry includes: (1) Clean­
ing, dyeing, pressing, proc­
essing, or any other work
incidental thereto, of cloth­
ing (including hats), house­
hold furnishings, rugs, tex­
tiles , fur, leather, or fabric of
any kind; (2) the collection,
sale, resale, or distribution
at retail or wholesale of these
services; (3) the producing of
such services on their own
behalf, by establishments,
businesses, institutions,
clubs, or hospitals which
services may be incidental to
their present business; (4)
self-service laundries, auto­
matic laundries, help-yourself laundries, U-Do laun­
dries, and any type of rental
laundries.
(Women and
minors.) Exemptions: Work­
er under 21 whose chief occu­
pation is that of a student
actually attending public or
private school.
Messenger for telegraph or mes
senger company in incorpo­
rated city. (Persons under
21.)

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

One 10-minute rest pe­
riod during each half
day worked, or two
10-minute periods dur­
ing any full work­
ing shift at employee’s
regular rate of pay.

General

War- or defenserelated

✓

10 p. m. to 5 a. m.

t

ARKANSAS:
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes Anno­ Manufacturing, mechanical or
tated (1947), vol.
mercantile establishment,
7, secs. 81-601 to
laundry, express or trans­
portation company, hotel,
81-603, 81-614,
81-617,81-619, as
restaurant, eating place,
amended session
bank, building and loan as­
laws 1953, Act
sociation, insurance com­
pany, finance or credit busi­
217.
ness, or work in any capacity
other than occupations ex­
pressly exempted by law.
(Females.) Exemptions:
Domestic, agricultural, or
horticultural employment;
cotton factory; gathering of
fruits or farm products;
switchboard operators in
public telephone exchanges
having less than 750 stations
to the extent they are ex­
empt under FLSA; and rail­
road employees whose hours
are regulated by Federal
law.

2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Statutes Anno­
tated (1947), vol.
7, sec. 81-609.

For coverage, see Maximum
Hours. (Females.) Appli­
cable only where 3 or more
females employed.

See footnotes at end of table.




Time and a half must be
paid for hours over 8 a day
and for work on 7th con­
secutive day.
For work on 7th day or for
employment of perma­
nent nature in excess of 9
hours on other days, per­
mit must be obtained
from commissioner of la­
bor.
Permit for employment on
7th day is limited by the
statute to 90 days.
Women executives or mana­
gers who exercise real su­
pervision and managerial
authority andwhose
weekly salaries are $35 or
more may be exempted
from day-and-hour provi­
sions of the statute by
labor commissioner follow­
ing a hearing of all parties
interested.
Banks and trust companies,
complying with wage-andhour provisions of FLSA,
shall be held in compli­
ance with wage-and-hour
provisions of female labor
laws of the State.

Not less than % hour for
lunch.
Interval of H hour re­
quired if employment
covers a period of 6
consecutive hours.

Work period of 6M consecu­
tive hours permitted if
employment ends not later
than 1:30 p. m. and work­
er is dismissed for the day.
Labor commissioner may
grant exemption on such
terms and conditions as
he in his discretion may
prescribe.

00

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Variations

Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

Days
per
week

ARKANSAS—Con.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods—Con.
Ibid., sec. 81-410... Factory, manufacturing estab­
lishment, workshop, or
other place of employment.
(Women.) Exemption: Es­
tablishments employing
fewer than 6 men and
women.

Meal periods; rest
periods

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

If lunchroom not pro­
vided on premises, 1
hour must be allowed
for meals during
which time women
must be free to leave
building if they so de­
sire.

4. Nightwork. No law.
CALIFORNIA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Labor Code (Deer- Manufacturing, mechanical, or
mercantile establishment or
ing, 1943), secs.
industry; laundry, cleaning,
1350 to 1352, as
dyeing, or cleaning and dye­
amended 1951
supplement, as
ing establishment; hotel,
public lodginghouse, apart­
amended session
ment house, hospital,
Iawsl953,ch.l254.
beauty shop,barbershop,
General Laws
(Deering, 1943),
place of amusement, restau­
rant, cafeteria, telegraph or
vol. 2, 1951, sup­
telephone establishment or
plement, Act
office; express or transporta­
4052, as amended
tion company; operation of
session laws 1953,
elevators in office buildings.
ch. 300.
(Females.3) Exemptions:
Executives, administrators;
and professional women,
i. e., (a) those engaged in
work predominantly intel­
lectual, managerial, or cre­
ative, requiring exercise of
discretion and independent
judgment for which remu­
neration is not less than
$350 per month, or (b) those
licensed or certified by the




i8

48

(See
Day
of
Rest
law.)

During period necessary to Until termination
of the existing
save product from spoil­
emergency or the
ing, hours’ provisions not
91st day after fi­
applicable to (1) women
nal adjournment
engaged in harvesting, cur­
of the 1955 regu­
ing, canning, or drying of
lar session of the
perishable fruit, fish, or
legislature, upon
vegetables; (2) employees
application of
actually engaged in the
employer to the
processing of biologicals
State enforcing
in laboratories under li­
cense of U. S. Depart­
agency, governor
may issue a de­
ments of Treasury or Ag­
fense production
riculture.
permit authoriz­
ing employment
of females at or
for such hours
and at such type
of work and un­
der such condi­
tions as may be
helpful in in­
creasing produc­
tion and further­
ing the current

I

State and practicing law,
medicine, dentistry, archi­
tecture, engineering, or ac­
counting, and graduate
nurses, clinical laboratory
technologists, and techni­
cians in hospitals during an
emergency.

Industrial Welfare Motion-Picture Industry, i. e.,
any industry, business, or
Commission
establishment operated for
Minimum Wage
the purpose of motion-pic­
Order, No.l7-R,
ture production, including
Motion Picture
but not limited to motion
Industry (1949).
pictures for entertainment,
commercial, religious, or
educational purposes.
(Women and minors.) Ex­
emptions: Women who act,
sing, dance, or otherwise
perform; or who are em­
ployed in administrative,
executive, or professional
capacities (as defined in
order).
Extras who act, sing, dance, or
Ibid., No. 16-A,
otherwise perform at a wage
Motion pictures
of not more than $15 a day or
(1931).
$65 a week. (Women and
minors.)

See footnotes at end o'f table.
NO




In emergencies, women 18
and over may be employed
in excess of 8 hours a day
or 6 days a week, provided
overtime rate of VA times
regular rate is paid. Wom­
en employed at a guaran­
teed weekly rate must be
paid for hours worked in
excess of 40 a week.

8

8

(See
Day ol
Rest
Law.)

In emergencies, employment
may be up to 16 hours a
day,
including
meal
periods, and on the
seventh day if the over­
time rates specified in the
order are paid.

defense program
without un­
reasonably in­
creasing the risk
of impairing the
health or safety
of said employees.
On proper cause,
the governor may
at any time re­
voke, modify, or
suspend existing
permit. In case
of extreme de­
fense production
emergency, gov­
ernor may issue
temporary per­
mit pending
processing of reg­
ular permit ap­
plication.
Do.

Do.

©

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

CALIFORNIA—Con.
1. Maximum Hours—
Continued
Ibid,, No. 1-52, Manufacturing Industry, i. e.,
Manufacturing
any industry, business, or
and Mercantile
establishment operated for
industries (1952);
the purpose of preparing,
No. 2-52, Per­
producing, making, altering,
sonal Service In­
repairing, finishing, process­
dustry (1952);
ing, inspecting, handling,
No. 4-52, Pro­
assembling, wrapping, bot­
fessional, Tech­
tling, or packaging goods,
nical, Clerical,
articles, or commodities in
and Similar Oc­
whole or in part. (Women
cupations (1952) ;3
and minors.) Exemptions:
No. 5-52, Public
Canning, preserving, and
Housekeeping
freezing industry; industries
Industry (1952) ;*
handling farm products after
No. 6-52, Laun­
harvest; women employed
dry, Dry Clean­
in administrative, executive,
ing, and Dyeing
or professional capacities
Industry (1952);
(as defined).
No. 9-52, Trans­ Mercantile Industry, i e., any
portation (1952);«
industry, business, or estab­
No. 10-52, Amuse­
lishment operated for the
ment and Rec­
purpose of purchasing, sell­
reation Indus­
ing, or distributing goods
tries (1952).
or commodities at wholesale
or retail. (Women and min­
ors.) Exemptions: Women
employed in administrative,
executive, or professional
capacities (as defined).
Personal Service Industry,
i. e., any industry, business,
or establishment operated
for the purpose of rendering,
directly or indirectly, any
service, operation, or process
used or useful in the care,
cleansing, or beautification




8

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

6

General

For employment not pro­
hibited by secs. 1350-1354
of Labor Code (maximum
hour statute), women 18
years and over may be
employed in excess of 8
hours and on the 7th day
if overtime is paid at not
less than 1^ times em­
ployee’s regular rate, pro­
vided that such overtime
need not be paid for work
on 7th day occurring in a
week when total employ­
ment does not exceed 30
hours and daily total does
not exceed 6 hours.

v

War- or defonserelated

Do.

f

of the body, skin, nails, or
hair, or in the enhancement
of personal appearance or
health. (Women and min­
ors.) Exemptions: Women
employed in administrative,
executive, or professional
capacities (as defined).
Professional, Technical, Clerical
and Similar Occupations; i. e.
professional, semiprofession­
al, managerial, supervisorial,
laboratory, research, techni­
cal, clerical, and office-work
occupations. (Women and
minors.) Exemptions: Work
which is predominantly in­
tellectual, managerial, or
creative, requiring exercise
of discretion and independ­
ent judgment, and for which
the remuneration is not less
than $350 per month; em­
ployees licensed or certified
by the State to practice the
professions specified; ex­
change operator of a tele­
phone company having less
than 150 stations operating
under the jurisdiction of the
State’s public utilities com­
mission and employee’s du­
ties as operator are incidental
to other duties.
Public Housekeeping Indus­
try; i. e., any industry,
business, or establishment
which provides meals, hous­
ing, or maintenance services
whether operated as a pri­
mary business or when inci­
dental to other operations
in an establishment not
covered by another mini­
mum-wage order. (Women
and minors.) Exemptions:
Graduate nurses in hospi­
tals; student nurses in a
school accredited by ex­
aminers in the State; women
employed in administrative,
executive, or professional
capacities (as defined).
See footnotes at end of table.




t

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

CALIFORNIA—Con.
1. Maximum Hours—
Continued
Ibid.—Continued
Laundry, Dry Cleaning, and
Dyeing Industry; i. e., any
industry, business, or estab­
lishment operated for the
purpose of washing, ironing,
cleaning, refreshing, restor­
ing, pressing, dyeing, fumi­
gating, mothproofing, water­
proofing, or other processes
incidental thereto, on arti­
cles or fabrics of any kind.
Includes self-service laun­
dries and the collection, dis­
tribution, sale, or resale at
retail or wholesale of the
foregoing services. (Women
and minors.) Exemptions:
Women employed in admin­
istrative, executive, or pro­
fessional capacities (as de­
fined) .
Transportation Industries; i.
e., any industry, business,
or establishment operated
for the purpose of conveying
persons or property from 1
place to another whether by
rail, highway, air, or water,
and all operations and serv­
ices in connection therewith.
Includes storing or ware­
housing of goods or property,
and the repairing, parking,
rental, maintenance, or
cleaning of vehicles.
(Women and minors.) Ex­
emptions: Women employed
in administrative, execu-




v

General

War- or defenserelated

•f

259312 — 54fed

Ibid., No. 3-52,
Canning,^Freez­
ing and Preserv­
ing Industry; No.
8-52, Industries
Handling Farm
Products 'After
Harvestli(1952).

CO




tive, or professional capaci­
ties (as defined).
Amusement and Recreation
Industries; i. e., any indus­
try, business, or establish­
ment operated for the pur­
pose of furnishing entertain­
ment, or recreation to the
public. (Women and
minors.) Exemptions:
Women employed in admin­
istrative, executive, or pro­
fessional capacities (as de­
fined).
Canning, Freezing, and Pre­
serving Industry, i. e., any
industry, business, or estab­
lishment operated for the
purpose of canning soups;
and of cooking, canning,
curing, freezing, pickling,
salting, bottling, preserving,
or otherwise processing any
fruits, vegetables, or sea­
food when the purpose of
such processing is the pres­
ervation of the product and
includes all operations inci­
dental thereto. (Women and
minors.) Exemptions:
Women employed in admin­
istrative, executive, or pro­
fessional capacities (as de­
fined).
Industries Handling Farm
Products After Harvest,
i. e., any industry, business,
or establishment operated
for the purpose of grading,
sorting, cleaning, drying,
packing, dehydrating,
cracking, shelling, candling,
separating, slaughtering,
plucking, pasteurizing,
ripening, molding, or other­
wise preparing any agricul­
tural, horiticultural, egg,
poultry, rabbit, or dairy
products for distribution.
(Women and minors.) Ex­
emptions: Women employed
in administrative, executive,
or professional capacities (as
defined).

g

............................................................................... For employment not pro­
hibited by secs. 1350-1354
of Labor Code (maxi­
mum-hour statute), in
periods when it is neces­
sary to prevent deteriora­
tion or spoilage of the
product handled, women
18 years and over may be
employed as much as 72
hours in any 7 consecutive
days if employer grants a
24-hour rest period there­
after, provided that em­
ployee is compensated for
overtime at not less than
lYi times her regular rate
of pay for hours over 8 in­
cluding 12 on any 1 day,
and for the first 8 hours on
the 7th day; and not less
than double such regular
rate for hours in excess of
12 per day and in excess of
8 on the 7th day.

Do.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hoar provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

CALIFORNIA—Con.
2. Day of Rest.
Labor Code (Deering, 1943), secs.
510, 550-556, as
amended 1951
supplement.

3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Industrial Welfare
Commission
Minimum Wage
Order, No. 17R.

Ibid., Nos. 1-52 to
6-52 and N os.
8-52 to 10-52.

4. Nightwork.
Industrial Welfare
Commission
Minimum Wage
Order, No. 17R.




Any occupation of labor.
(Men and women.) Exemp­
tions: Work performed in
care of animals, crops, or
lands; protection of life or
property; common carrier
engaged in or connected
with movement of trains;
employees working under
collective-bargaining agree­
ments.
For coverage, see Maximum.
Hours, Motion Picture In­
dustry.

For coverage, see Maximum
Hours, Manufacturing and
Mercantile; Personal Service;
Canning, Freezing, and
Preserving; Professional,
Technical, Clerical, and
Similar; Public Housekeep­
ing; Laundry, Dry Clean­
ing and Dyeing; Handling
Farm Products After Har­
vest; Transportation;
Amusement and Recreation.
For coverage, see Maximum
Hours, Motion Picture In­
dustry.

Days
per
week

6

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

................................................ .............................. In cases of emergency and
in employment which does
not exceed 6 hours a day
or 30 hours a week, work
on the 7th day permitted.
If nature of work requires
that employee work 7 or
more consecutive days,
days of rest may be accu­
mulated and equivalent
time o£E allowed during
calendar month.
Minimum meal period
of Yl hour and maxi­
mum of 1 hour after 6
hours’ work.
10-minute paid rest pe­
riod for each 4 hours of
worktime, insofar as
practicable, in middle
of work period.
At least ^-hour meal
period after 5 hours’
work. 8
At least 10-minute paid
period per 4 hours or
major fraction thereof,
and insofar as practi­
cable, in middle of
work period.*

War- or defenserelated

See entry in Maxi­
mum Hours.

Under certain circumstances
exemptions from meal and
rest periods may be ob­
tained by making appli­
cation to commission; ex­
emptions revocable after
reasonable written notice.
If 6 hours completes day’s
work waiver permitted.
On application of employer
commission may issue
written exemption after
investigation and finding
that specified conditions
are met.

(■> <9>

Do.

Do.

Do.

4

wt

Ibid., Nos. 1-52 to
6-52 and Nos. 8­
52 to 10-52.

COLORADO:
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes Annotat­
ed (1935), vol.
3, ch. 97, sec. 112,
1951 supple­
ment.

No woman may
be required to
report for work
or may be dis­
missed from
work between 10
p. m. and 6 a.
m. unless suit­
able transporta­
tion is avail­
able.10

For coverage, see Maximum
Hours, Manufacturing and
Mercantile; Personal Serv­
ice; Canning, Freezing, and
Preserving; Professional,
Technical, Clerical, and
Similar; Public Housekeep­
ing; Laundry, Dry Cleaning
and Dyeing; Handling Farm
Products After Harvest;
Transportation; Amusement
and Recreation.

Manufacturing,! mechanical,
or mercantile establish­
ment,2 laundry, hotel, or
restaurant. (Females.) 3

8

Laundry Industry, i. e.,
any trade, business, indus­
try, club, institution, or
branch thereof engaged in
(1) washing, ironing, or proc­
essing incidental thereto,
for compensation, of cloth­
ing, napery, blankets, bed
clothing, or fabric of any
kind whatsoever; (2) the col­
lecting, sale, resale, or dis­
tribution at retail or whole­
sale of laundry services; (3)
the producing of laundry
service for their own use
by business establishments,
hospitals, clubs, or profit­
making institutions; (4)
self-service laundries. (Wo­
men and minors.)
See footnotes at end of table.

8

Industrial Com­
mission Mini­
mum Wage Order, N o. 6,
Laundry Indus­
try (1951).

Qi




6

In case of emergencies or con­
ditions demanding im­
mediate action or in case
of processing of seasonal
agricultural products, over
8 hours’ work in a calen­
dar day permitted on pay­
ment of time and one-half
employee’s regular hourly
rate, provided that a per­
mit is first obtained from
the industrial commis­
sion.
For hours over 8 a day (al­
lowed only on permit in
emergencies) or over 44 a
week, time and one-half
employee’s regular rate
must be paid.
Work on more than 6 days a
week permitted in emer­
gencies.

O*

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

COLORADO—Con.
1. Maximum Hours—
Continued
Ibid., No. 7, Retail
Trade Occupa­
tions (1951).

Ibid., No. 8, Pub­
lic Housekeep­
ing Occupations
(1951).




Retail Trade Occupations,
i. e., the performance of any
and every type of work con­
cerned with or incidental to
the selling or offering for sale
any commodity, article,
goods, wares, or merchan­
dise, to the consumer, not
for the purpose of resale in
any form. (Women and
minors.)
Public Housekeeping includes
hotels, restaurants, motels,
roominghouses, cottage
camps, clubs, hospitals, con­
valescent homes, sanitar­
iums, private schools, col­
leges, and any establish­
ment that prepares and
offers for sale food or refresh­
ments for consumption, either
on or off its premises; any
business which offers lodg­
ing accommodations for hire
to the public, to employees,
or to members, whether
such service is the principal
business of the employer or
merely incidental to another
business. Exemptions: Reg­
istered nurses; student
nurses; female interns; dieti­
tians; laboratory techni­
cians, and student employ­
ees in sororities, fraternities,
college clubs, or dormitories.
(Women and minors.)

*

8

8

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

For hours over 8 a day (al­
lowed only on permit in
emergencies) or over 48 a
week, time and one-half
employee’s regular rate
must be paid.

War- or defenserelated

Ibid., No. 9, Beau­ Beauty Service, i. e., all serv­
ices or operations used or
ty Service Oc­
useful in the care, cleansing,
cupations
or beautification of the skin,
(1951).
nails, or hair, or in the en­
hancement of personal ap­
pearance, and also services
or operations incidental
thereto, including the serv­
ice of maids, cashiers, re­
ception or appointment
clerks. (Women and mi­
nors.)
2. Day of Rest.
(See Orders 6 and
9 in Maximum
Hours.)
J.5M e a 1 and Rest
Periods.
Industrial Com­ For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Laundry Industry.
mission Mini­
mum Wage Or­
der No. 6.

Ibid., No. 7.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Retail Trade Occu­
pations.

Ibid., No. 8.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Public Housekeep­
ing Occupations.

Ibid., No. 9..........

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Beauty Service
Occupations.

4. Night-work. No
law.




For hours over 8 a day (al­
lowed only on permit in
emergencies) or over 44 a
week, time and one-half
employee's regular rate
must be paid.

Not less than 30 and not
more than 9u minutes
for meal pei iod on em­
ployee's time.
At least 10 minutes’ rest
on employer’s time for
each 4 hours of em­
ployment or major
fraction thereof.
Hours worked shall be
consecutive,
except
that an interval of not
less than 30 and not
more than 90 minutes
must be allowed for
each meal period on
employee’s time.
See laundry order for
rest-period provision.
Meal period (length not
stated) on employee’s
time.
See laundry order for
rest-period provision.
Not less than 30 minutes
on employee’s time.
See laundry order for
rest-period provision.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

CONNECTICUT:
1. Maximum Hours.
General Statutes
(1949), vol. 3,
sec. 7344, as
amended
ses­
sion laws 1953,
Act 279.

Mercantile establishments.1
(Females.)
Exemptions:
Permanent salaried em­
ployees in executive, mana­
gerial, or supervisory posi­
tions excepted from the pro­
visions of the minimum
wage law who receive a
regular salary of not less
than the minimum fixed for
such employment in any
wage order or administra­
tive regulations issued under
the minimum wage law.

Ibid., sec. 7343, as
amended 1951
supplement,
sec. 1286b.

Manufacturing2 or mechani­
cal establishment.
(Fe­
males.)

Ibid., sec. 7349_
_

Public restaurant, cafe,
diningroom, barbershop,
hairdressing, or manicuring
establishment, or photo­
graph gallery. (Females.)
Exemption: Hotels.




Days
per
week

48

(See
Day

of

Rest
law.)

48

Meal periods; rest
periods

v ariauons
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

To provide 1 shorter work­
ing day in a week, 10
hours’ employment per­
mitted on 1 day in that
week.
If employer grants at least
7 holidays with pay
annually, overtime per­
mitted during Dec. 18-25.
In cases of emergency and of
seasonal or peak demand,
commissioner of labor may
allow 10 hours a day, 52
hours a week, for not
more than 4 weeks in any
12 months.
In cases of emergency and of In the event of
seasonal or peak demand,
war or other na­
commissioner of labor
tional emergency,
may allow 10 hours a day,
commissioner
55 hours a week, for not
after investigamore than 8 weeks in any
gation may, with
12 months.
approval of the
governor, extend
the number of
weeks per year in
which 10 hours a
day, 55 hours a
week, may be
worked to meet
scheduled produc­
tion of war or
critical material.
To provide 1 shorter work­
ing day in a week, 10 hours’
employment permitted on
1 day in that week.

4

Ibid., sec. 7348---2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
General Statutes
(1949), vol. 3,
sec. 8608.

3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork.
General Statutes
(1949), vol. 3,
secs. 7350, 7351,
as amended 1951
supplement,
sec. 1287b.
Administrative
Regulations,
Department of
Labor (1948).

Bowling alley, shoeshining
establishment, billiard or
poolroom. (Women.)

Any commercial occupation
or the work of any industrial
process. (All employees.)
Exemptions: Farm or per­
sonal service; druggists;
watchmen, superintendents
or managers; janitors; per­
sons engaged solely in trans­
portation; sale or delivery
of milk, food, or newspapers;
commercial occupations or
industrial processes required
to be continuous; necessary
work of inspection, repair, or
care of any manufacturing
or other plant or of any mer­
chandise or stock.

In cases of emergency, work
permitted on 7th day.

Public restaurant, cafe, din­
ing room, barber shop, hair­
dressing, or manicuring es­
tablishment, or photograph
gallery; manufacturing,2 me­
chanical, or mercantile
establishment. (Females.)
Exemptions: Hotel, physi­
cians, surgeons, nurses,
pharmacists, attorneys,
teachers, social service work­
ers, display workers en­
gaged chiefly in arranging
and displaying merchandise
in accordance with their
own designs and receiving
at least $150 a month, wom­
en over 21 employed solely
as musicians or other enter­
tainers provided such enter­
tainers are not employed
more than 40 hours a week.

1 a. m. to 6 a. m___ Employer may be granted
permit to employ females
between 1 a. m. and 6
a. m. when in compli­
ance with regulations of
labor commissioner pro­
tecting the health and
welfare of such females
and prescribing adequate
transportation for them.
Specific administrative reg­
ulations promulgated by
the labor commissioner
include: No female shall
be employed or permitted
to work as sole occupant
of any establishment be­
tween 1 a. m. and 6 a. m.;
all establishments em­
ploying women between
1 a. m. and 6 a. m. shall be
open to inspection of the
commissioner or his agent
at all times.

See footnotes at end of table.
VO




g

LAWSJGOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHT WORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

CONNECTICUT—Con.
4. Nightwork—Con.
General Statutes Bowling alley, shoeshining es­
(1949), vol. 3,
tablishment, billiard or pool
sec. 7348.
room. (Women.)
DELAWARE:
1. Maximum Hours.
Revised Code
(1935), ch. 90,
sec. 3592.

2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods.
Revised Code
(1935), ch. 90,
sec. 3594.
4. Nightwork.
Revised Code
(1935), ch. 90,
sec. 3592, as
amended session
laws 1943, ch.
160.




Mercantile, mechanical,1 or
manufacturing establish­
ment; laundry, baking, or
printing establishment; tele­
phone and telegraph office
or exchange; restaurant, ho­
tel, place of amusement,
dressmaking establishment,
or office. (Females.2) Ex­
emptions: Canning or pre­
serving perishable fruits and
vegetables.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours.

Mechanical or manufacturing
establishment; laundry, bak­
ing, or printing establish­
ment; office or dressmaking
establishment. (Females.2)
Exemptions: Canning or pre­
serving of perishable fruits
and vegetables; establish-

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

After 10 p. m.

10

55

12 hours may be worked on
1 day a week, provided
weekly maximum is not
exceeded.

At least H hour for
meals.
An interval of at least
% hour must be al­
lowed if work period
is 6 consecutive hours.

Work period of 6M hours
permitted if employment
ends not later than 1:30
p. m. and worker is dis­
missed for the day.
11 p. m. to 6 a. m.

War- or defenserelated

Idem.

Revised Code
(1935), ch. 90,
sec._3607.

DISTRICT OF CO­
LUMBIA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Code; (1951), vol.
2, sec. 36-301.

2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods.
Code. (1951), vol. 2,
sec. 36-303.

ments where continuous op­
erations are necessary.
Mercantile establishments, tele­
phone and telegraph office or
exchange, restaurant, hotel,
place of amusement. (Fe­
males.2)

Messenger for telephone, tele­
graph, or messenger com­
panies in the distribution,
collection, transmission, or
delivery of goods or messages
in towns or cities having a
population of over 20,000
persons. (Persons under 21.) \
Manufacturing, mechanical, or
mercantile establishments;
laundry, hotel, restaurant,
telegraph, or telephone es­
tablishment or office; or ex­
press or transportation com­
pany. (Females.)

Manufacturing, mechanical, or
mercantile establishment;
laundry, hotel, restaurant,
telegraph, or telephone es­
tablishment or office, or ex­
press or transportation com­
pany. (Females.) Exemption: Establishments in
which 2 or fewer females are
employed.

4. Nightwork."*^'
(Females
Code (1951), vol. Messengers.
tween 18 and 21.)
2, sec. 36-206.
See footnotes at end of table.




If any part of day’s
work is per­
formed between
11 p. m. and 7 a.
m., employment
may not exceed
8 hours in any
24.
10 p. m. to 6 a. m..

be­

48

6

If employment ends not
later than 1:30 p. m. and
employee is dismissed for
the day, continuous work
period of not more than
6H hours permitted.

No female shall be em­
ployed or permitted
to work more than 6
hours continuously
without an interval of
at least % hour.

7 p.m. to 6 a. m.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periodsj

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

FLORIDA:
1. Maximum Hours.
No. law.
2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No
law.
GEORGIA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Code Annotated
(1937), vol. 16,
sec. 54-201.

Cotton or woolen manufacturing establishment. (All
employees.) Exemptions:
Engineers, firemen, watch­
men, mechanics, teamsters,
yard employees, clerical
force, cleaners, repairmen.

10

Mechanical or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel,
or restaurant, telegraph or

9

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No
law.
HAWAII:
1. Maximum Hours.
No law.i
2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No
law.
IDAHO:
1. Maximum Hours.
Code Annotated
(1947), vol. 8,
sec. 44-1107.




60

More than 10 hours a day
permitted if weekly hours
are not exceeded.
Time lost because of acci­
dent or other unavoid­
able circumstance may be
made up, not to exceed 10
days.

War- or defenserelated

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No
law.
ILLINOIS:
1. Maximam Hours.
Statutes Anno­
tated (SmithHurd, 1950), ch.
48, secs. 5, 5a,
8.1, as amended
session laws
1953, H. B. 813.

telephone establishment, of­
fice, express or transporta­
tion company.i (Females.*)
Exemptions: Harvesting,
packing, curing, canning, or
drying perishable fruits or
vegetables.

Mechanical or mercantile establishment; factory, laundry, hotel, restaurant, barbershop, beauty parlor, telegraph or telephone estab­
lishment or office thereof;
place of amusement; express
or transportation or public
utility business; common
carrier; public or private in­
stitution or office thereof.1
(Females.2) Exemptions:
Graduate nurses; opera­
tors for a telephone com­
pany in an agency in a pri­
vate residence or place of
business other than an ex­
clusive telephone establish­
ment.

See footnotes at end of table.
t£
CO




8

48

(See .
Day
of
Rest
law.)

In mercantile establishments Unti termination
of the national
during 4 weeks in calendar
year, 9 hours a day, 54
emergency pro­
hours a week, permitted
claimed Dec. 16,
1950, the director
by statute.
of labor on appli­
In other than mercantile es­
cation showing
tablishments, 9 hours may
be worked on 1 day a week
wartime neces­
sity may grant
if weekly hours do not ex­
ceed 48.
emergency per­
mits authorizing
In canneries between June
employment of
1 and October 15,10 hours
females in wara day, 60 hours a week,
work up to 10
permitted.
hours a day, 54 a
In public emergencies, em­
week, for as
ployments necessary to
much as 10 weeks
furnish essential public
services such as communi­
inAyear.
cation, sewage disposal,
water supply, light, gas,
and transportation are
exempt from provisions of
hour law for a period not
to exceed 48 hours.
Telegraph or telephone oper­
ators may be employed
not more than 10 hours be­
tween 7:30 p. m. and 8 a.
m. if sleeping facilities are
provided and operator is
allowed at least 4 hours
sleep.

to
if*

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

ILLINOIS—Continued
2. Day of Rest.
Statutes Anno­
tated (SmithHurd, 1950), ch.
48, secs. 8b, 8c,
8h, as amended
session laws
1953, H. B. 812.

Meal periods; rest
periods

Factory (including cannery,
bottling plant, laundry, and
cleaning plant), mercantile
establishment, transporta­
tion or public service com­
pany, hotel, apartment
hotel, restaurant, hospital,
laundry, telephone or tele­
graph establishment, bank­
ing institution, brokerage
business, theater, freight or
passenger elevator, or any
employer engaged as a con­
tractor to furnish labor upon
contract to any person,
municipality, or county in­
stitution, or any office
thereof. (All employees.)
Exemptions: Janitors, watch­
men, superintendents, or
foremen; employees engaged
for not more than 3 hours on
Sunday setting sponges in
bakeries, caring for live ani­
mals, maintaining fires or
electrical current, or neces­
sary repairs to boilers, ma­
chinery, equipment, or
power.3

3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods.
Department of La­ Beauty Culture Occupations,
bor Minimum
including desk appointment
Wage Order,
girls. (Women and minors.)
Mandatory Or­
der
No.
2,
Beauty Culture
Occupations
(1941).
4. Nightwork. No law.




Days
per
week

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

Until termination
of the national
emergency pro­
claimed Dec. 16,
1950, the director
of labor on appli­
cation showing
wartime neces­
sity may grant
emergency per­
mits authorizing
employment of
persons in warwork on 7 days a
week for 2 con­
secutive weeks,
but not more
than 8 weeks in
year.

Not less than % hour for
lunch after not more
than 5 hours of em­
ployment.

INDIANA;
1. Maximum Hours.
No law.
2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Statutes Anno­
tated (Burns,
1952), vol. 8, pt.
1 sec. 40-1007.
4. Nightwork.
Statutes Anno­
tated (Burns,
1952), vol. 8, pt.
1, sec. 40-903;
and vol. 11, pt.
2, Appendix,
Temporary
Measure 8, p.
1522.

Manufacturing or mercantile
establishment, mine, quarry,
laundry, renovating works,
bakery, or printing office.
(All employees.)

Not less than 1 hour for
noonday meal.

In special cases and for good
cause shown, chief labor
inspector may permit
shorter time.

Manufacturing establish­
ment.* (Women and female
young persons.8)

10 p. m. to 6 a. m_. In establishments operating
2 shifts of not more than 8
hours each and not more
than 5 days a week, em­
ployment of females per­
mitted # until 12 o’clock
midnight.

Laundry occupations, i. e.,
work in laundry, dyeing,
dry-cleaning, and pressing
establishment. (Women;
minors.)

Overtime of 2J^ hours a
week allowed but daily
hours may not be ex­
ceeded.

IOWA:
1. Maximum Hours.
No law.
2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No
law.
KANSAS:
1. Maximum Hours.*
Labor Depart­
ment Indus­
trial Welfare
Order No. 1,
Laundry (1939).

See footnotes at end of table.




Act of 1943, as
amended and ex­
tended, suspends
until Mar. 15,
1961, laws re­
specting number
of hours per day
or per week, the
number of days
per week and the
hours within
which any fe­
males, 18 years
old or over, may
be employed in
industry.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

K A NS AS—C ontinued
L Maximum Hours—
Continued |
Ibid., No. 2, Man­
ufacturing (1939).




Manufacturing occupations,
i. e., all processes in the pro­
duction of commodities in­
cluding work in florists’
shops, and candymaking
departments of confec­
tionery stores and bakeries.
(Women; minors.)

9

49H

Days
per
week

6

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

Overtime of 4Vi hours a
week allowed in cases of
emergency.
In seasonal industries han­
dling perishable food prod­
ucts, such as canneries,
creameries, condenseries,
ahd poultry houses, the
full amount of overtime
is allowed for 6 weeks
during their peak season
or for 2 periods a year not
to exceed 3 weeks each.
Cream testers may work 63-3
days a week between May
1 and September 1, if
weekly hours do not ex­
ceed 54.
In a poultry dressing and
packing business, during
the season from October 15
to December 24, 11 hours
a day and 58 hours a week
are permitted for 4 of
the 6 weeks’ peak season
and 11 hours a day and 60
hours a week for the re­
maining 2 weeks, pro­
vided 1 of these latter
weeks falls between No­
vember 1 and Thanksgiv­
ing Day and the other
between
Thanksgiving
Day and Christmas.
Millinery workrooms, dress­
making establishments,
hemstitching and button
shops, and alteration, drap- 1

War- or defenserelated

V

Ibid., No. 3, Mer­
cantile (1939).

Ibid., No. 4, Pub­
lic housekeeping
(1939).

<1




Mercantile occupations, i. e.,
work in establishments op­
erated for the purpose of
trade in the purchase or sale
of goods or merchandise, in­
cluding the sales force, wrap­
ping employees, auditing
and checking force, shippers
in the mail-order depart­
ment, receiving, marking,
and stockroom employees,
sheet-music saleswomen and
demonstrators, and all em­
ployees in such establish­
ments in any way directly
connected with the sale, pur­
chase, and disposition of
goods, wares, and merchan­
dise.
(Women: minors.)
Exemption: Regularly regis­
tered pharmacists.
Public housekeeping occupa­
tions, i. e., the work of
waitresses in restaurants,
hotel dining rooms, and
boardinghouses; attendants
in ice-cream parlors, soda
fountains, light-lunch
stands; steam table or
counterwork in cafeterias
and delicatessens where
freshly cooked foods are
served; confectionery stores
where lunches are served;
chambermaids in hotels,
lodging
and
boarding
houses, and hospitals; janitresses; car cleaners; kitchen
workers in hotels, restau­
rants, and hospitals; women
elevator operators and cigarstand and cashier girls con­
nected with such establish­
ments. (Women; minors.)

9

8

54

ery, and upholstery de­
partments of mercantile
establishments may ob­
tain permission from the
women's division of the
labor department to oper­
ate under the mercantile
order.
10-hour working day allowed
once a week, but maximum
weekly hours may not be
exceeded.

00

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

Days
per
week

•

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

K A NS AS—C ontinued

1. Maximum Hours
Continued
Ibid., No. 5, Tele­
phone Exchange
or Office (1939).

2. Day of Rest. (See
Maximum Hours.)
3. Meal and Rest
Periods.
Labor Department
Industrial Wel­
fare Order, No. 1.

Ibid., No. 2.

Ibid., No. 3..




Telephone exchange or office:
Operators. (Women; minors.)
Telephone exchange or office:
Employees other than oper­
ators.
(Women; minors.)
Exemptions: Small ex­
changes requiring not more
than 2 operators on duty at
1 time; exchanges in resi­
dences operated by mem­
bers of household.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Laundry.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Manufacturing.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Mercantile.

8
(bas­
ic)
8

48

6
(bas­
ic)
Longer hours permitted in
emergencies if and when
restrictions would result
in interruption or impair­
ment of service to the
public.

Relief for lunch 1 hour.
Not more than 6 con­
secutive hours may
be worked without
relief for meals.

On application of both em­
ployer and employees,
women's division of de­
partment of labor may re­
duce the 1-hour lunch
period to H hour.
Shorter lunch period may
be granted by department
of labor. If particular in­
dustry Is operated on an
8-hour basis, lunch period
may be H hour.
Women’s division of the de­
partment of labor, on
application of both em­
ployer and employees,
may reduce the 1-hour
meal period to % hour.
A

be not less than %
hour. Not more than
5 consecutive hours
may be worked with­
out relief for meals.
hour. No woman or
minor may be em­
ployed for more than
5 consecutive hours
without relief for
meals.

<

<«■*«
War- or defensem related ^ ^

258312— 64

Ibid., No. 4.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Public Housekeep­
ing.

Ibid., No. 5, Tele­
phone Exchange
or Office (1939).

Telephone exchange or offices:
Operators. (Women; minors.)

4. Nightwork.
Labor Department
Industrial Wel­
fare Order, No. 1.
Ibid., No. 2........
Ibid., No. 3

Ibid., No. 4.
Ibid., No. 5, Tele­
phone Exchange
or Office (1939).

KENTUCKY:
1. Maximum Hours.
Revised Statutes
(1948), sec. 337,
380.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Laundry.
For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Manufacturing.
For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Mercantile.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Public Housekeep­
ing. (Women under 21.)
Telephone exchange or office:
Operators. (Women; mi­
nors.)

Laundry, bakery, factory,
workshop, store, mercantile,
manufacturing, or mechani­
cal establishment, hotel,
restaurant, telephone ex­
change, or telegraph office.
(Females.)
Ibid., sec. 337.370. Any occupation. (Females
under 21.) Exemptions: Do­
mestic service; nursing.
See footnotes at end of table.

tO
VO




Relief for each meal to
be not less than H
hour. Not more than
5 consecutive hours
may be worked with­
out relief for meals.
Day operators shall per­
form in 2 shifts or
“tours”—one of which
shall not exceed 5
hours.

12 midnight to 5
a. m.

The women’s division of de­
partment of labor may
permit mercantile estab­
lishments in agricultural
communities to remain
open until 10 p. m. on 1
day a week during a speci­
fied number of weeks be­
tween June 1 and Sept. 15.

Total hours-worktime plus rest
and sleep timeshall not exceed
12 for all opera­
tors regularly
employed after
11 p. m.
10

60

10

60

1

1

w

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHT WORK—Continued

o

Variations

Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

KENTUCKY—Con.
2. Day of Rest.1
3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods.
Department of In­ All occupations. (Women and
minors.) Exemptions: Labor
dustrial Rela­
on a farm; domestic service
tions Minimum
in home of the employer;
Wage Order,
firms subject to regulation
Mandatory
by the State public service
Order, All In­
commission; employment
dustries and Oc­
under any special State
cupations (1947).
wage order. (The 2 cur­
rently in effect are shown in
the entries which follow.)
Ibid., Mandatory Laundry, Dry Cleaning, and
Dyeing Industry, i. e., all
Order, Laun­
places where persons are
dry, Dry Clean­
engaged in washing, clean­
ing, and Dyeing
ing, or dyeing clothing,
Industry (1942).
washable and cleanable ma­
terials, directly or indirectly
connected with such place of
business; all work in the
process of receiving, mark­
ing, washing, cleaning, dye­
ing, ironing, and distribu­
tion of washable and cleanable materials.
(Women
and minors.)
Ibid., Directory Hotels, i. e., establishments
having more than 10 guest
Order, Hotel and
rooms, which offer lodging
Restaurant In­
accommodations for hire to
dustry (1951).
the general public and have
transient guests. (Women
and minors.)
Restaurants, i. e., establish­
ments preparing and offer­
ing for sale food for consump­
tion. (Women and minors.)
4. Nightwork. No law.




Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

for more than 6 hours
without a rest period
of at least X hour.
A

Employment prohibited
for more than 5 hours
without a rest period
of at least X hour.
A

for more than 6 hours
without a rest period
of at least X hour.
A

If rest periods of 5 or 10
minutes each, provided
and paid for by employer,
amount to X hour for each
A
shift, this is deemed to be
compliance with the restperiod requirement.

War- or defenserelated

LOUISIANA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Revised Statutes
(West, 1950),
vol. 16, secs. 23:
291, 23: 331-332,
23:337.

Ibid., secs. 23:'291,
23: 311/23: 313.

2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
3.|Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Revised Statutes
(West, 1950), vol.
16, sec. 23: 333.

In communities of 6,000 population or more, manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment; laundry,
hotel, theater, restaurant,
telegraph or telephone es­
tablishment; transportation
company; or operator of a
freight or passenger elevator.
(Females.1) Exemptions: Fe­
males employed in agricul­
ture, or domestic service, or
in an executive capacity;
processing, packing, and
canning of fish, seafood,
fruits, and vegetables; fish­
ing industry; processing of
sugarcane or sorghum into
sugar, molasses, or syrup;
office and clerical work
except when such work is
performed for laundries, ho­
tels, or restaurants; file,
route, or information clerks;
multiplex, teleprinter, tele­
phone, telegraph, or switch­
board operators.3
Mine, packinghouse, bowling
alley, bootblack establish­
ment; distribution of mer­
chandise; place of amuse­
ment where intoxicating liq­
uors are made or sold; or any
other occupation not cover­
ed by the 8-48-hour law.
(Females.1) Exemptions: Fe­
males employed in agricul­
ture, or domestic service, or
in an executive capacity.

Females employed in any
place or occupation enumerated in coverage of 8-48
maximum-hour law in which
3 or more females are em­
ployed.
See footnotes at end of table.




During emergencies, in
packing plants, canning
plants, and factories
handling fruits, seafoods,
vegetables, and perish­
able foods, not more than
10 hours daily and 60
hours weekly.

At least H-hour interval
after 6 consecutive
hours of work.

-----------

6H consecutive hours may
be worked if employ­
ment ends immediately
thereafter and worker is
dismissed for the day.

M

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued

to
Variations

Hour provisions
Coverage

State

Daily Weekly

LOUISIANA—Con.
3. Meal and Rest
Periods—Con.
Ibid., sec. 23: 312.
4. Nightwork.
law.
.

Meal periods; rest
periods

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu• lated

General

War- or defenserelated

At least H-hour meal
period such period not
to be included as part
of working hours.

Female employed in any place
or occupation enumerated
in coverage of 9-54 maxi­
mum-hour law.

No

MAINE:
1. Maximum Hours.
Revised Statutes
(1944), vol 1, ch.
25, secs. 22, 24,
28, as amended
session laws:
1945, ch. 278;
1949, ch. 283,
ch. 290, and ch.
349; 1951, ch. 159
and ch. 266;
1953, ch. 42.




Days
per
week

Workshop, factory, manufacturing, or mechanical estab­
lishment. (Females.i) [See
entry below for production
workers.) Exemptions:
Manufacturing establish­
ment or business, the mate­
rials and products of which
are perishable and require
immediate labor thereon;
any females working in an
executive, administrative,
professional, or supervisory
capacity or to those
employed as personal office
assistants to such persons
and who receive an annual
salary of more than $1,560,
and to those employed in
offices of common carriers
subject to the Federal Rail­
way Labor Act.

9

54

For sole purpose of making
1 short workday, 1 day’s
employment of 10 hours
permitted in weekly maxi­
mum of 54.
Relaxation also permitted
on written employer-em­
ployee agreement, ap­
proved by commissioner,
for not more than 15 days,
singularly or consecu­
tively, in calendar years;
approval must be based
on proof of necessity, ex­
traordinary requirements,
or emergencies.
In cases of emergency in­
volving danger to prop­
erty, life, public safety, or
public health, and in cases
of extraordinary public re­
quirement, public service
employers are exempted.

During war or any
national emer­
gency declared
by the President,
employment in
manufacturing
plants permitted
up to 10 hours in
any 1 day. Em­
ployment in ex­
cess of 10 hours
permitted in any
1 day but not to
exceed 56 hours a
week on em­
ployer-employee
agreement
re­
ported to the
commissioner
within 48 hours
thereafter; com­
missioner
ap­
proval may be
granted only in
case of necessity,
extraordinary
business require­
ment, danger to
property or life,

«

Ibid., secs. 22, 23,
24, as amended
session laws:
1945, ch. 278;
1949, ch. 290;
1951, ch. 159.
Ibid., secs. 22, 24,
as amended ses­
sion laws: 1945,
ch. 278; 1949, ch.
290; 1953, ch. 42.

Production workers in any
workshop, factory, manu­
facturing, or mechanical es­
tablishment.
(Females.1)
Exemptions: (As listed in
coverage for 9-54 hour maximums.)
Mercantile
establishment;
beauty parlor, hotel, res­
taurant, dairy, bakery,
laundry, dry-cleaning estab­
lishment; telegraph office,
any telephone exchange em­
ploying more than 3 oper­
ators, or any express or
transportation
company.
(Females.) Exemptions: Fe­
males working in an execu­
tive, administrative, pro­
fessional, or supervisory
capacity, or to those em­
ployed as personal office
assistants to such persons
and who receive an annual
salary of more than $1,560,
and to those employed in
offices of common carriers
subject to the Federal Rail­
way Labor Act.

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
See footnotes at end of table.

09
09




See second and third para­
graphs in Maximum Hours.

Between Dec. 17-24, inclu­
sive, and in millinery
shops or stores during the
8 days prior to Easter
Sunday, provisions not
applicable.
In cases of emergency in­
volving danger to prop­
erty, life, public safety, or
public health, and in
cases of extraordinary
public requirement, pub­
lic service employers are
exempted.

or emergency in­
volving the pub­
lic peace, health,
or safety.
Do.

CO

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL A

EST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued

Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Weekly

MAINE—Continued
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Revised Statutes
(1944), vol. 1,
ch. 25, sec. 25, as
amended ses­
sion laws: 1949,
ch. 290; 1953, ch.
42.

4 Nightwork. Nolaw.




Workshop, factory, manufac­
turing, mechanical, or mer­
cantile establishment,
beauty parlor, hotel, res­
taurant, dairy, bakery,
laundry, dry-cleaning estab­
lishment, telegraph office,
telephone exchange, express
or transportation company
in which 3 or more females
are employed. (Females.)
Exemptions: Manufacturing
establishment or business,
the materials and products
of which are perishable and
require immediate labor
thereon; any females work­
ing in an executive, admin­
istrative, professional, or
supervisory capacity or to
those employed as personal
office assistants to such per­
sons and who receive an
annual salary of more than
$1,560, and to those em­
ployed in offices of com­
mon carriers subject to the
Federal Railway Labor Act.

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Not more than 6 con­
secutive hours may be
worked without an
interval of at least 1
hour.

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

If employment ends not
later than 1:30 p. m. and
worker is dismissed for
the day, work period of
6Vi hours permitted.
If work shift is more than
6J4 hours in workshops,
factories, manufacturing
or mechanical establish­
ments, an unbroken J4hour rest period must be
granted for each 6H con­
secutive hours of work on
any shift.
In cases of emergency in­
volving danger to prop­
erty, life, public safety, or
public health, and in
cases of extraordinary pub­
lic requirement, public
service employers are ex­
empted.
Provision not applicable to
telephone exchange opera­
tors who may sleep during
the major part of the night.

War- or defenserelated

*

MARYLAND:
1. Maximum Hours.
Annotated Code
(Flack, 1951),
vol. 3, art. 100,
sec. 52. *

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Annotated Code
(Flack
1951),
art. 100, sec. 52.

4. Nightwork.
Annotated Code
(Flack, 1951),
art. 100, sec. 52.

Manufacturing, * mechanical,
mercantile, printing, bak­
ing, or laundering estab­
lishment. (Females. 3) Ex­
emptions: Establishments
employing! ewer than 3 fe­
males; canning, preserving,
or preparing for canning or
preserving of perishable
fruits and vegetables.*
Manufacturing, mechanical,
mercantile, printing, bak­
ing, or laundering establish­
ment. (Females.) Exemp­
tions: Canning, preserving,
or preparing for canning or
preserving of perishable
fruits or vegetables.3

See footnotes at end of table.




In retail mercantile estab­
lishments outside of Balti­
more City, up to 12 hours
may be worked on Satur­
days, Christmas Eve, and
the 5 working days before
Christmas Eve, if 2 rest
periods of not less than 1
hour each are granted
on each day overtime is
worked and if the work­
ing day during remain­
der of the year does not
exceed 9 hours.

Manufacturing, mechanical,
mercantile, printing, bak­
ing, or laundering estab­
lishment. (Females. 2)
Exemptions: Canning, pre­
serving, or preparing for
canning or preserving of
perishable^ fruits or vege­
tables. *

At least ^-hour] nterval
after no more than 6
consecutive
hours’
work.

6J4 hours permitted if em­
ployee is not permitted to
work in said employment
during remainder of the
day.
See entry in this colum
under Maximum Hours.

If any part of work
is performed be­
tween 10 p. m.
and 6 a. m. not
more than 8
hours in any 1
day permitted.

09
o\

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHT WORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

MASSACHUSETTS:
1. Maximum Hours.
Annotated Laws
(1949), vol. 4a,
ch. 149, secs. 1,
56, 58; and ses­
sion laws_1953,
ch. 236.




Factory or workshop, or any
manufacturing, mechanical,
or mercantile establishment
(including premises used for
a restaurant or for publicly
providing and serving
meals, and premises used in
connection with cleansing,
dyeing, laundering, or press­
ing fabrics or wearing ap­
parel), hospital (other than
professional personnel), tele­
graph office or telephone ex­
change (including switch­
board operator in a private
exchange), express or trans­
portation company, pri­
vate club, office, letter shop,
financial institution, laun­
dry, hotel, manicuring or
hairdressing establishment,
motion-picture or other
place of amusement, garage,
or as an elevator operator.
(Women and minors.) Ex­
emptions: Persons declared
by commissioner to be em­
ployed in a supervisory
capacity or persons serving
exclusively as personal ^sec­
retaries.

48

Days
per
week

(See
Day
of
Rest
law.)

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

Commissioner of labor and
industries is authorized to
suspend3 application or
operation of any provision
of any statute regulating,
limiting, or prohibiting
the employment of women
or of minors over 16, or
both, or any rule or regu­
lation made thereunder,
when he feels that an
emergency or conditions
of hardship exist in any
particular industry or es­
tablishment.
Commis­
sioner shall appoint in­
dustry advisory commit­
tees, equally representing
employers and employees,
to advise and consult with
him on matters relating to
such suspensions.
In manufacturing establish­
ments and hotels where
employment is deter­
mined by department of
labor and industries to be
seasonal, 52 hours a week
allowed if average for year
does not exceed 48 a week,
except that in fish process­
ing 52 hours a week per­
mitted only during months
of June through October.
In extraordinary emergen­
cies overtime allowed in
public service or other busi­
nesses requiring shifts.

See first paragraph
in General varia­
tions.

Ibid., secs. 1, 60, Factory, workshop, manufac­
67; and session
turing or mechanical estab­
laws 1953, ch. 236.
lishment, or any mercantile
establishment
(including
premises used for a restaurant
or for publicly providing and
serving meals, and premises
used in connection with
cleansing, dyeing, launder­
ing, or pressing fabrics or
wearing apparel), barber­
shop, bootblack stand or
establishment, pool or bil­
liard room, stable elsewhere
than on a farm, garage, brick
or lumber yard, telephone
exchange, telegraph or mes­
senger office, place of amuse­
ment, or in the construction
or repair of buildings, or in
any contract or wage-earning
industry carried on in tene­
ment or other houses, or in
any radio broadcasting sta­
tion except as talent. (Girls
between 16 and 21; boys
between 16 and 18.)

See footnotes at end of table.
09




Department of labor must
be notified.
Overtime permitted to make
up time lost on a previous
day of the same week due
to stoppage of machinery
on which worker is depend­
ent, provided stoppage is
not less than 30 consecu­
tive minutes. Depart­
ment must be notified
within 48 hours.
Ofice workers may be per­
mitted by commissioner to
exceed 9 but not 48 hours.
Hospital employees in emer­
gencies may work over­
time if commissioner au­
thorizes such overtime.
See first paragraph in Maxi­
mum Hours.

Cu
09

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

MASSACHUSETTS—
Continued
2. Day of Rest.
Annotated Laws
(1949), vol. 4a,
ch. 149, secs. 1,
47 to 50a, 58; and
sessionlawsl953,
ch. 236.




Workshop, or manufacturing,
mechanical, or mercantile
establishment
(including
premises used for a restau­
rant or for publicly providing
and serving meals, and
premises used in connection
with cleansing, dyeing, laun­
dering, or pressing fabrics or
wearing apparel); watchmen
(including guards in banks);
employees maintaining fires;
and elevator operators in
the establishments covered
by this law. (All employees.)
Exemptions; Manufacture or
distribution of gas, electric­
ity, milk, or water; hotels,
drugstores, livery stables or
garages; the transportation
of food, or the sale, or de­
livery of food by establish­
ments other than restaurants;
janitors; employees whose
duties include no work on
Sunday other than (1) set­
ting sponges in bakeries, (2)
caring for live animals, (3)
caring for machinery; the
preparation, printing, pub­
lication, sale, or delivery of
newspapers; farm or per­
sonal service.

Days
per
week

6

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

See first paragraph in Maxi­ See first para­
graph in Maxi­
mum Hours.
Work on seventh day is per­
mum Hours.
mitted if called for by an
emergency that could not
reasonably have been antic­
ipated.

3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods.
Annotated Laws
(1949), vol. 4a,
ch. 149, secs. 1,
58, 100, 101; and
session laws 1953,
ch 236.

Factory, workshop, mechani­
cal or mercantile establish­
ment (including premises
used for a restaurant or for
publicly providing and serv­
ing meals, and premises used
in connection with cleansing,
dyeing, laundering, or press­
ing fabrics or wearing ap­
parel); elevator operators
in such establishments.
(Women; minors under 18.)
Exemptions: Ironworks,
glassworks, papermills, let­
terpress establishments,
printworks, bleaching works,
dyeing works.

4. Nightwork,
Annotated Laws Manufacturing or mechanical
establishments, including
(1949), vol. 4a,
elevator operators in such
ch. 149, secs. 58,
establishments.
(Women
69; and session
21 and over, girls between 18
laws 1953, ch. 236.
and 21.)




Where employment pe­
riod is more than 6
hours at 1 time, an in­
terval of at least %
hour must be allowed
for a meal in establish­
ments operated on a
1-shift basis; an inter­
val of at least 14 hour
must be allowed in
establishments oper­
ated on a multipleshift basis.

See first paragraph in Maxi­
mum Hours.
Work period may be 6J4
hours if employment ends
not later than lp. m. and
worker is dismissed for the
day.
Period of 714 hours may be
worked if sufficient oppor­
tunity is given for worker
to eat lunch on duty and
such employment ends
not later than 2 p. m. and
worker is then dismissed
for the day.
Commissioner of labor and
industries may exempt a
factory or a workshop from
statute’s meal-period pro­
visions if he determines
that continuous nature of
plant’s processes or special
circumstances affecting a
plant warrant such dis­
pensation. He must be
satisfied that employee's
health will not suffer.

Do.

11 p. m. to 6 a. m_. See first paragraph in Maxi­
mum Hours.

Do.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Weekly

MASSACHUSETTS—
Continued
4* Nightwork—Con.
Ibid., secs. 1, 60,
66; and session
laws 1953, cb.
236.

Ibid.,rsec.£68; and
session laws
1953, ch.[236.




Factory, workshop, manu­
facturing or mechanical
establishment, or any mer­
cantile establishment (in­
cluding premises used for a
restaurant or for publicly
providing and serving
meals, and premises used in
connection with cleansing,
dyeing, laundering, or press­
ing fabrics or wearing
apparel), barbershop, boot­
black stand or establish­
ment, pool or billiard room,
stable elsewhere than on a
farm, garage, brick or lum­
ber yard, telephone ex­
change, telegraph or
messenger office, place of
amusement, or in the con­
struction or repair of build­
ings, or in any contract or
wage-earning industry car­
ried on in tenement or other
houses, or in any radio­
broadcasting station except
as talent. (Girls between
16 and 21; boys between 16
and 18.)
Messenger for telegraph, tele­
phone, or messenger com­
pany. (Minors.4) Exemp­
tion: Delivery of messages
directly connected with
conducting or publishing of
a newspaper to a newspaper
office or directly between
newspaper offices.

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

10 p. m. to 6 a. m__ See first paragraph in Maxi­
mum Hours.
Operators in regular service
telephone exchanges or
telegraph offices may work
until 11 p. m.

10 p.m. to 5 a. m___ See first paragraph in Maxi­
mum Hours.

War- or defenserelated

See first para­
graph in Maxi­
mum Hours.

Do.

MICHIGAN:
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes Annotat­
ed (1950 Re­
vised Volume),
vol. 12, sec.
17.19.

Department
of
Labor—Regula­
tions affecting
employment of
adult females
and
minors.
(Season of
1948.) *
2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.5
4. Nightwork.
No
law.

Factory, mill, warehouse,
9
workshop, quarry; clothing, (av­
dressmaking, or millinery er­
establishment; any place age)
where the manufacture of
goods is carried on, or where
goods are prepared for
manufacturing;
laundry,
store, shop,1 or other mer­
cantile establishment,
office,* restaurant, theater,
concert hall, music hall,
hotel, hospital, street or
electric railway; elevator
operator. (Females.) Ex­
emptions: Fruit and vege­
table canning or fruit-pack­
ing establishments engaged
in preserving and shipping
perishable goods; student
and graduate nurses in
hospitals or nurses in fra­
ternal or charitable homes.
(Exempted employments
must be approved by labor
department as not being
injurious to worker's
health.)
Canning industry. (Females a 12
18 and over.)

See footnotes at end of table.




54

10 hours a day permitted if
weekly hours are not ex­
ceeded.

70

In emergencies, 14 hours a
day permitted if weekly
maximum not exceeded.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

MINNESOTA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes
Annotated
(1945),
vol. 13, sec.
181.18.

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork.
No
law.
MISSISSIPPI:
1. Maximum Hours.
Code Annotated
(1942), vol. 5,
sec. 6993.1

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.




Public housekeeping, manufacturing, mechanical, mer­
cantile, or laundry occupa­
tion, or telephone operator.1
(Females.2)
Exemptions:
Employees engaged in the
seasonal occupation of pre­
serving perishable fruits,
grains, or vegetables if such
employment does not con­
tinue for more than 75 days
in year; telephone operators
in towns under 1,500 popu­
lation; night employees who
are at their place of employ­
ment for not more than 12
hours and have opportunity
for at least 4 hours of sleep.

Laundry, millinery, dressmaking store, office, mer­
cantile establishment, the­
ater, telegraph or telephone
office, or any other occupa­
tion. (Females.2)
Ex­
emptionDomestic service.

Days
per
week

54

*

10

60

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

In cases of emergency which
may affect the safety,
health, morals, or wel­
fare of the public, over­
time permitted.
On application of employer,
industrial
commission
may for cause shown
exempt employer or class
of employers from pro­
visions of the act.
In emergency periods not ex­
ceeding 4 weeks' aggregate
in calendar year, indus­
trial commission may al­
low overtime and pre­
scribe rules therefor.

Overtime permitted in cases
of emergency or of public
necessity.

War- or defenserelated

4. Night work,

No

law.
MISSOURI:
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes Anno­
tated (Vernon,
1949), vol. 15,
sec. 290.040.

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No law.
MONTANA:
1. Maximum Hours.1 2
Revised Codes
Annotated
(1947), vol. 3,
sec. 41-1118.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or
mercantile establishment,
factory, workshop, laundry,
bakery, restaurant, place of
amusement, stenographic or
clerical work of any kind in
the above industries, ex­
press, transportation, or
public-utility business, com­
mon carrier, or public insti­
tution. (Females.1) Ex­
emption: Telephone com­
pany.

In establishments canning
or packing perishable farm
products and located in
places of less than 10,000
population, overtime per­
mitted for 90 days of year.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or
mercantile establishments,
telephone exchange room, or
office, or telegraph office,
laundry, hotel, or restaurant.
(Females.)

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Peri|r
ods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No law.
NEBRASKA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Revised Statutes
(1943), vol. 3,
sec. 48-203, as
amended session
laws 1953, L. B.
No. 511.

Employment (a) in any man­
ufacturing, mechanical or
mercantile establishment,
laundry, hotel, restaurant,
or office,1 in metropolitan,
primary, and cities of first
class or (b) for any employer
of 25 or more people within
the State. (Females.2) Ex­
emption: Public service cor­
porations.

See footnotes at end of table.



In emergency periods, plants
processing seasonal agri­
cultural products may em­
ploy women 11 hours a
day, not to exceed 20 days
at any one time. Permit
must be obtained from
labor commissioner.

£

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

NEBRASKA—Con.
2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods.
Revised Statutes
(1943), vol. 3,
sec. 48-212.

4. Night work.
Revised Statutes
(1943), vol. 3,
sec. 48-203, as
amended ses­
sion laws 1953,
L. B. No. 511.
NEVADA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Compiled Laws,
1943-49 supplem e n t,
secs.
2825.41, 2825.42,
2825.42a, 2825.46,
2829, 2829.02 as
amended ses­
sion laws 1953,
A. B. No. 160.




Days
per
week

Assembling plant, workshop,
or mechanical establish­
ment. (All employees.) _

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

Not less than 30 consecutive minutes between
12:00 noon and 1:00
p. m. or during any
other suitable hour
for lunch. EmployeesTmust be free to
leave work premises
during such time.

For coverage seej [Maximum
Hours.

Private employment. (Females.i) Exemption: ^Do­
mestic service.4

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations

a. m. and 6 a. m. permitted
in manufacturing, mechan­
ical, or mercantile establish­
ment, laundry, hotel or
restaurant, if employer
obtains permit from
labor commissioner.
■8

48

6

In event of illness of employ­
er or other employees or
an unforeseen temporary
increase in employer’s
business, if no additional
persons are available, any
female may be employed
not more than 12 hours a
day, 56 hours in any 1
week of 7 days, provided
that time and a half em­
ployee’s regular rate is

(»)

paid for each additional
hour over 8 a day or 48 a
week.

2 5 9 3 1 2 -5 4 -

2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Compiled Laws,
• 1943-49 supple­
ment, sec.
2825.47.

At least H-hour meal
period after the 3d
hour and before the
end of 6 hours' work.
No period of less than
30 minutes is deemed
to interrupt work per­
iod.*
Two 10-minute rest
periods, 1 in 1st 4-hour
work period, 1 in last
4 hours of work.®

Private employment.
(Fe­
males.) Exemption: Females
engaged in communication
industry and domestic ser­
vice.4

4. N i g h t w o r k. No
law.
NEW HAMPSHIRE:
1. Maximum Hours.
Revised Laws
(1942), vol. 1,
ch. 212, secs. 1,
and 4-7; session
laws 1943, ch. 31.

CS1




Manual or mechanical labor in
any manufacturing estab­
lishment. (Females.)

(See
Day
of
Rest
law.)

During 8 weeks in any 6month period, 10M hours
a day and 54 hours a week
permitted if labor commisioner, after a hearing,
grants a special license,
copy of which must be
posted in workroom.

When country is at
war with any
other nation,
hours’ law does
not apply to la­
bor performed
entirely in the
manufacture of
munitions or
supplies for the
United States or
the State.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

NEW HAMPSHIRE—
Continued
1. Maximum Hours—
Continued
Ibid., secs. 1, and
4-6; session laws
1943, ch. 31.

Manual or mechanical labor
in any employment other
than manufacturing. (Fe­
males.) Exemptions: House­
hold labor and nursing; do­
mestic, hotel, and cabin
labor, including dining and
restaurant service operated
in connection therewith and
incidental thereto; boarding­
house labor; operators in
telegraph and telephone of­
fices; farm labor; canning of
perishable fruits and vege­
tables.

2. Day of Rest.
Revised Laws
(1942), vol. 1,
ch. 212, secs. 36­
39, as amended
session laws
1951, ch. 225.




i

Any occupation. (All employees.) Exemptions: Es­
tablishments used for man­
ufacture or distribution of
gas, electricity, milk, or
water; transportation, sale
or delivery of food; janitors,
watchmen, firemen em­
ployed at stationary plants,
or caretakers; employees
whose duties on Sunday in­
clude only setting sponges
in bakeries, caring for live
animals, or caring for ma­
chinery and plant equip­
ment; preparation, printing,
publication, sale, or delivery
of newspapers or periodicals

10J4

54

Days
per
week

(See
Day
of
Rest
law.)

6

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

Regular employees in mer­
cantile establishments, for
the 7-day period immedi­
ately preceding Christmas
Day, may be employed
overtime, but weekly av­
erage for year may not ex­
ceed 54 hours.
Workers in laundries may be
employed, for 3 months of
the year, up to 60 hours a
week if, following a hear­
ing, special license is grant­
ed by labor commission­
er. Daily hours may not
be exceeded. Copy of li­
cense must be posted in
rooms where females are
employed.

War- or defenserelated

with definite on-sale news­
stand dates; farm or personal
service; labor due to an
emergency that could not
reasonably have been an­
ticipated; work connected
with retail stores in resort
areas, cabins and inns, and
in theaters, motion-picture
houses, hotels and restau­
rants; employees engaged in
canning of perishable goods
and in telegraph and tele­
phone offices.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork.
Revised Laws
(1942), vol. 1,
ch. 212, secs. 3,
4, 7, as amended
session laws
1943, ch. 31.

NEW JERSEY:
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes Annoted
(1937), secs. 34:
2-24.

Manual or mechanical labor
in any employment. (Fe­
males.) Exemptions: House­
hold labor; nursing; do­
mestic, hotel, and cabin la­
bor, including dining and
restaurant service operated
in connection therewith and
incidental thereto; boarding­
house labor; operators in
telegraph and telephone of­
fices; farm labor; canning of
perishable fruits and vege­
tables.
Manufacturing or mercantile
establishments, bakery,
laundry, or restaurant. (Fe­
males.1) Exemptions: Can­
neries engaged in packing
perishable products such as
fruit or vegetables.

2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
See footnotes at end of table.




When females are
employed or
permitted to
work for any
time between 8
p. m. and 6 a. m.
on more than 2
nights a week, it
is considered
nightwork, and
such work may
not exceed 8 hours
in any 24 nor 48
hours in any
week.

Regular employees in mercantile establishments, for
the 7-day period imme­
diately preceding Christ­
mas Day, are exempted
from the statute, but
weekly average for year
may not exceed 54 hours.

If daily working hours do
not exceed 8 in hotels or
other establishments of a
continuing business na­
ture, hour provisions do
not apply.

See entry in Maximum Hours,

09

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

NEW JERSEY—Con.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Statutes Anno­
tated (1937),
see. 34: 6-63,
1951 supple­
ment.

4. Nightwork.
Statutes Anno­
tated (1937), sec.
34: 2-28, 1951
supplement.

NEW MEXICO:
fc 1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes Annota­
ted (1941), vol. 4,
secs. 57-401, 57­
404, 57-405, 57­
407.




Days
per
week

Factory, workshop, mill,
mine, or place where goods
are manufactured. (All em­
ployees.)

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

At least l hour for mid­
A
day meal after 6 con­
secutive hours of em­
ployment on any
workday except Satur­
day. Meal period must
be fixed with regard to
health and physical
welfare of employees.

Manufacturing establishment,
bakery, or laundry. (Fe­
males.*) Exemptions: Can­
nery engaged in packing
perishable products, such as
fruits or vegetables; glass
manufacturing establish­
ment.

Industrial or mercantile establishment, hotel, restaurant,
cafe or eating house, laundry,
office (as stenographer, book­
keeper, clerk, or in other
clerical work), place of
amusement, public utility
business.* (Females.*) Ex­
emptions: Interstate com­
merce where working hours
are regulated by act of the
Congress of the United

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations

48

7

War- or defenserelated

If any such place is operated
at night or in 8-hour shifts,
the meal period shall be
fixed with regard to mu­
tual interests of employer
and employee.

12 midnight to 7
a. m.

18

General

For variation during a seri­
ous national emergency
see “War- or defense-re­
lated'’ column.

In emergencies, 2 hours oi
overtime a week may be
worked if time and a half
is paid for such hours.*

In time of war or
other serious na­
tional emergency
governor may
suspend restric­
tions of the night­
work law for
women. Gover­
nor’s suspension
order must be
limited to a par­
ticular manufac­
turing plant and
to a particular
period of time.*

States; hospitals or sani­
tariums, registered or prac­
tical nurses, midwives,
domestic servants.*
Ibid., secs. 57-401, Telephone or telegraph office
where hours of work are be­
57-404,57-406. [
tween 7 a. m. and 10 p. m.
(Females.4) Exemptions: Es­
tablishments employing 5 or
fewer females; interstate
commerce where working
hours are regulated by act
of the Congress of the United
States.
Telephone or telegraph office
Idem.
where hours of work are be­
tween 10 p. m. and 7 a. m.
(Females.4)
Exemptions:
Establishments employing 5
or fewer females; interstate
commerce where working
hours are regulated by act of
the Congress of the United
States.
2. Day of Rest. No
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Statutes Anno­ Industrial or mercantile estab­
lishment, hotel, restaurant,
tated (1^41), vol.
cafe or eating house, laun­
4, secs. 57-401,
dry, office (as stenographer,
57-404.
bookkeeper, clerk, or in
other clerical work), place of
amusement, telegraph or
telephone office. (All fe­
males.) Exemptions: Inter­
state commerce where work­
ing hours are regulated by
act of the Congress of the
United States; hospitals or
sanitariums, registered or
practical nurses, midwives,
domestic servants.
4.'Nightwork.
(See Maximum
Hours—T e 1 e phone and Tele­
graph Offices, 2d
entry.)

See footnotes at end of table.




Overtime allowed in emer­
gencies resulting from fire,
flood, storm, epidemic of
sickness, or other like
cause.

.do.

7

Not less than ^hour for
mealtime.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

NEW YORK:
1. Maximum Hours.
Consolidated laws
Annotated (Mc­
Kinney, 1948),
Labor Law, secs.
2,172,173,173-a,
1952 supplement;
and State De­
fense Emergency
Act (1951), secs.
3,70, 71,73 to 75,
as amended ses­
sion laws 1953,
ch. 61.




Factory, i. e., mill, workshop,
or other manufacturing es­
tablishment. (Manufactur­
ing to include making, alter­
ing, repairing, finishing,
bottling, canning, cleaning,
or laundering any article or
thing in whole or in part,
except: (1) Drydock plants
repairing ships; (2) power­
houses, generating plants, or
other structures owned or
operated by a public-service
corporation or a municipal
corporation other than con­
struction or repair shops,
subject to the jurisdiction of
the public service commis­
sion; and (3) structures, op­
erated as refrigerated ware­
houses for the handling,
packing, refrigeration, and
storage of fruits and vege­
tables and which are subject
to the jurisdiction of or
licensed by the department
of agriculture and markets.)
(Females over 16.) Exemp­
tions.*
(For seasonal cannery vari­
ations, see next 2 entries.)

8

48

Days
per
week

6

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or reguated

General

War- or defenserelated

In order to make a shorter
workday, workdays, or a
holiday, 10 hours may be
worked on any 1 day of
the week. If the shorter
workday is not more than
4H hours, the other 4 days
may be up to 9 hours each,
total weekly hours not to
exceed 48.

By act effective
until July 1, 1954,
industrial com­
missioner may
grant, upon ap­
plication of em­
ployer in defense
work, a dispen­
sation (not to
exceed 6 months)
from require­
ments preventing
or interfering with
maximum pos­
sible production
in defense work
and may permit
employment: (1)
on a 7-day basis;
(2) on a multipleshift basis; (3)
under waiver of
such other pro­
visions of law as
may regulate or
restrict operation
or hours of em­
ployment, etc
Continuance of a
d i spensati o n
granted upon re­
consideration of
facts and circum­
stances of a par­
ticular case.
If defense need is
immediate, com­
missioner may
grant a 1-montn

Establishments canning or
preserving perishable prod­
ucts between June 15 and
Oct. 15.2 (Females over 18.)

cn

Sauerkraut canneries between
Sept. 1 and Dec. I.3 (Fe­
males over 18.)

See footnotes at end of table.




10

60

6

60

6

____do
Industrial commissioner may
grant permits allowing
these employees to work
12 hours a day, 66 hours
6 days a week between
June 25 and Aug. 5, if he
finds that needs of the in­
dustry require such over­
time and that the health
of the women so employed
will not be seriously in­
jured.

provisional dis­
pensation, revokable on notice, if
issuance unwar­
ranted; others are
revokable after
hearing upon due
notice.
In granting a dis­
pensation, com­
missioner must
consider health
and welfare of
workers, as well
as the need of ob­
taining maxi­
mum possible
production in de­
fense work.
Appeal of any de­
termination
made by the
commissioner
with respect to a
dispensation
may be made to
the New York
State board of
standards
and
appeals, board
being authorized
to affirm, reverse,
or modify any
such determina­
tion.
Do.

Do

S

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

NEW YORK—Con.
1. Maximum Hours—
Continued
Ibid., sec. 181, Mercantile establishment;
beauty parlor.
(Females
over 16.)
Exemptions:
Beauty parlors in cities and
villages under 15,000 popu­
lation.!

IbicL,




sec.

182,

Hotel or restaurant (including
employees over 18 having
the care, custody, or opera­
tion of a freight or passenger
elevator in these industries).
(Females over 16.) Exemp­
tions: Those employed
solely as singers and per­
formers; resort or seasonal
hotel and restaurant em­
ployees in rural communi­
ties and in cities and villages
of less than 15,000 popula­
tion, excluding that portion
of the population of a 3d-

Days
per
week

8

48

6

8

48

6

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

In order to make a shorter
workday or workdays, 10
hours may be worked on
any 1 day of the week.
If the shorter workday is
not more than 4^s hours,
the other 4 days may be
up to 9 hours each, total
weekly hours not to ex­
ceed 48.
From Dec. 18 to Dec. 24,
inclusive, and for 2 addi­
tional periods a year for
inventory, overtime per­
mitted; 3 no period may
be of more than 1 week’s
duration; under 8-48
schedule, the additional
hours may not exceed 6,
and under alternative
schedule, 5.

See first entry in
MaximumHours

workday, workdays, or a
holiday, 10 hours may be
worked on any 1 day of the
week. If the shorter work­
day is not more than 4^
hours, the other 4 days
may be up to 9 hours each,
total weekly hours not to
exceed 48.

Ibid.,'see/183.

Ibid., sec. 184.
Ibid., sec.[185.

See footnotes at

ca

w




class city residing outside of
its corporation tax district
where such city embraces
the entire area of a former
township.4
Care, custody, or operation of
a freight or passenger eleva­
tor.
(Females over 18.5)
Exemptions: Elevator em­
ployees in hotels or restau­
rants. (See preceding entry.)
Conductor or guard on any
street surface, electric, sub­
way, or elevated railroad.
(Females over 21.®).
Messenger for a telegraph or
messenger company in the
distribution, transmission,
or delivery of goods or mes­
sages. (Females over 21.®).
end of table.

Do.

Do.

Do.

cn

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

NEW YORK—Con.
2. Day of Rest.
Consolidated
Laws
Anno­
tated (McKin­
ney, 1948), Labor
Law, secs. 161,
181,1952 supple­
ment.




Factory, mercantile estab­
lishment, hotel, restaurant,
freight or passenger elevator
in any building or place;
projectionist or operator of
motion-picture
machine;
engineer and fireman in
place where motion pictures
are shown; place in which
legitimate theater produc­
tions, such as dramatic and
musical productions, are
shown or exhibited, includ­
ing performers, engineers,
and
firemen;
building
watchmen, janitors, super­
intendents,
supervisors,
managers, engineers and fire­
men. (All employees.) Ex­
emptions:
Foreman in
charge; employees in dairies,
creameries, milk condenseries, milk-powder facto­
ries, milk-sugar factories,
milk-shipping stations, but­
ter and cheese factories, ice­
cream-manufacturing plants
and milk-bottling plants,
having 7 or less employees;
employees (if board of
standards and appeals ap­
proves) engaged in an indus­
trial or manufacturing proc­
ess necessarily continuous,
in which no employee is per­
mitted to work more than
8 hours in any calendar day;
certain specified employees
working not more than 3

Days
per
week

'6

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

If practical difficulties or
unnecessary
hardship
would ensue, board of
standards and appeals
may make a variation
from law’s provisions if
the spirit of the act be ob­
served and substantial
justice done.

See entry in Maxi­
mum Hours.

3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Conslidated Laws
Annotated (Mc­
Kinney, 1948),
Labor Law, sec.
162.
Idem..-................

Idem

hours on Sunday; resort or
seasonal hotel and restau­
rant employees in rural com­
munities and in cities and
villages of less than 15,000
population, excluding that
portion of the population
of a 3d-class city residing
outside its corporation tax
district where such city
embraces the entire area of a
former township; * em­
ployees in drydock plants
engaged in making repairs to
ships.
Factory (for definition see
entry und6r Maximum
Hours). (All employees.)

Mercantile or other establish­
ment or occupation covered
by the labor law. (All
employees.)
Factory, mercantile, or other
establishment or occupation
covered by the labor law.
(All employees.)

Idem.......... .......... Conductor or guard, as speci­
fied in sec. 184. (See entry
in Maximum Hours.)
Ibid., sec. 203-a — Passenger elevator operated
and maintained for use of
public.
(All employees.)
Exemption: Factory build­
ing or any other building
having only 1 passenger
elevator.
See footnotes at end of table.




At least 60 minutes shall
be allowed for the
noonday meal or mid­
way during a shift of
more than 6 hours
starting between 1
p. m. and 6 a. m.
At least 45 minutes shall
be allowed for the
noonday meal or mid­
way during a shift of
more than 6 hours
starting between 1
p. m. and 6 a. m.
If shift starts before
noon and continues af­
ter 7 p.m.,an additional
meal period of at least
20 minutes shall be
allowed between 5
p. m. and 7 p. m.
At least 60 minutes
shall be allowed for
noonday meal.
Unless seats are pro­
vided for their use,
operators must be
allowed a 15-minute
recess period every 3
hours in addition to a
45-minute lunch
period.

Commissioner may grant
written permit for a
shorter meal period, such
permit to be conspicu­
ously posted at main
entrance of establishment.

Do.

___ do..................................

Do.

do.

Do.

do.

Do.

ca

Q\

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

NEW YORK—Con.
4. Nightwork.
Consolidated
Laws Anno­
tated (McKin­
ney, 1948), La­
bor Law, sec.
172, as amended
session laws
1953, ch. 708.

Idem.....................
Consolidated
Laws Anno­
tated (McKin­
ney, 1948), La­
bor Law, sec.
181,1952 supple­
ment.
Idem..... ................

Meal periods; rest
periods

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

Factory. (Females over 21.)
Exemptions: Proofreaders,
linotypists,
monotypists,
and bindery workers in
newspaper publishing or
commercial printing estab­
lishments or in book bind­
eries or pamphlet binderies.’

10 p. m. to 6 a.
m.; 12 p. m. to
6 a. m. in plants
with multiple
shifts.

Factory.’ (Females 16 to 21.)...
Mercantile establishment,
beauty parlor. (Females 16
to 21.)

9p. m. to 6a. m__
10 p. m. to 7 a. m.

Mercantile establishment,
beauty parlor. (Females
over 21.)
Ibid., sec. 182,1952 Restaurant. (Females 21 and
supplement.
over.) Exemptions: Hatcheck girls, cigarette girls,
or flower girls, attendants in
ladies’ cloakrooms and
parlors; females employed in
or in connection with the
diningrooms and kitchens
of hotels; females employed
solely as singers and per­
formers; resort or seasonal
hotel and restaurant em­
ployees in rural communi­
ties, and in cities and vil­
lages of less than 15,000 pop­
ulation, excluding that por-




Days
per
week

Variations

General

War- or defenserelated

Employment of females over
21 between 12 midnight
and 6 a. m. allowed in
multiple-shift plants on
permits from industrial
commissioner, if he finds
that satisfactory condi­
tions exist including ade­
quate transportation and
safeguards for protect­
ing the health and welfare
of such females.

See entry in Maxi­
mum Hours.

12 p. m. to 7 a. m.
12 midnight to 6
a. m.

Do.
Do.

Do.
If satisfactory conditions ex
ist (including adequate
transportation and safe­
guards for protecting the
health and welfare of fe­
males), employment of
females over 21 in dining­
rooms and kitchens of
restaurants between the
prohibited hours may be
permitted upon applica­
tion to industrial com­
missioner.

Do.

Idem__

Ibid., sec. 183..

Ibid., sec. 184^

Ibid., sec. 185.

tit n of the population of a
3d-class city residing out­
side of its corporation tax
district where such city em­
braces the entire area of a
former township.*
Hotel or restaurant (including
employees over 18 having the
care, custody, or operation
of a freight or passenger ele­
vator in these industries).
(Females 16 to 21.) Exemp­
tions: Those employed solely
as singers and performers;
resort or seasonal hotel and
restaurant employees in
rural communities and in
cities and villages of less
than 15,000 population, ex­
cluding that portion of the
population of a 3d-class city
residing outside of its corpo
radon tax district where such
city embraces the entire
area of a former township.*
Care, custody, or operation of
freight or passenger elevator.
(Females over 18.) Exemp­
tion: Elevator operators in
hotels and restaurants are
covered by the statutory
provisions applicable to
those industries. (See pre­
ceding entries.)
Conductor or guard on any
street surface, electric, sub­
way, or elevated railroad.
(Females over 21.*)
Messenger for a telegraph or
messenger company in the
distribution, transmission,
or delivery of goods or mes­
sages. (Females over 21.*)

See footnotes at end of table.

CA
-I




10 p m. to 6 a. m.

Do.

10 p- m. to 7 a. m._ If elevator is used in connec­
tion with a business or in­
dustry in which women
may be employed before 7
a. m., women may begin
work at 6 a. m.

Do.

10 p. m. to 6 a. m.

Do.

10 p. m. to 7 a. m.

Do.

cn

00

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

NORTH CAROLINA:
1. Maximum Hours.
General Statutes
(Recompiled
1950), vol. 2c,
sec. 95-17; * and
vol. 3b (Recom­
piled 1952), secs.
147-33.1 to 147­
33 7, as amended
session laws
1953, H. B. No.
174.




Any occupation (Females.1)
Exemptions: Employers of
8 persons or fewer in each
place of business; laundries
and dry-cleaning establish­
ments; seasonal industries
in the process of condition­
ing and preserving perish­
able or semiperishable com­
modities; agricultural occu­
pations; ice plants; cotton
gins and cottonseed-oil mills;
domestic service in private
homes and boarding houses;
work of persons over 18 in
bona fide office, foremanship, clerical, or supervisory
capacity; executive posi­
tions; learned professions;
commercial travelers; mo­
tion-picture theaters; sea­
sonal hotels and clubhouses;
commercial fishing or to­
bacco-redrying plants; to­
bacco warehouses; chari­
table institutions; hospitals;
railroads, common carriers,
and public utilities subject
to jurisdiction of Interstate
Commerce Commission or
North Carolina utilities
commission, and utilities
operated by municipalities
or transportation agencies
regulated by the Federal
Government; State or mu­
nicipal employees; hotels.4

«9

48

Days
per
week

6

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

In mercantile establish­
ments 10 hours a day may
be worked from Dec. 18
to 24, inclusive, and dur­
ing 2 1-week inventory
periods annually.
Longer hours may be
worked by florists and
employees of florists 1
week prior to and includ­
ing: (1) Christmas Day,
(2) Easter, (3) Mother's
Day.

In accordance with
the authority
conferred by the
Emergency War
Powers Act, the
governor, with
approval of the
council of State,
has authority, at
any time when
general assembly
is not in session,
to suspend» or
modify, in whole
or in part, any
law, rule, or regu­
lation with ref­
erence to labor
and industry, if
he finds, after
investigation or
hearing, that the
operation, en­
forcement, or
application of
such laws, etc.,
materially hin­
ders, impedes,
delays, or inter­
fere with the
proper conduct
of the war. Com­
missioner of la­
bor must certify
suspension or
modification as
necessary, pro­
vided that any
change resulting

Seasonal industries in the proc­
ess of conditioning and pre­
serving perishable and semi­
perishable commodi­
ties. (Females.)
Retail or wholesale mercan­
tile establishment or other
business employing females
as clerks, salesladies, or wait­
resses, and other employees
of public eating places.5
(Females.1)
Exemptions:
Bookkeepers, cashiers, office
assistants; establishments
employing fewer than 3 per­
sons at any one time.
Ibid., sec. 95-26---- Laundry, dry-cleaning estab­
lishment, pressing club;
workshop, factory, manu­
facturing establishment, or
mill.8 (Women over 16.)
Exemptions: Seasonal indus­
tries in the process of condi­
tioning and preserving per­
ishable or semi-perishable
commodities; agricultural
work.
2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
2. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
. General Statutes Retail or wholesale mercan­
tile establishment or other
(Recompiled
business employing females
1950), vol. 2c,
as clerks, salesladies, or
sec. 95-27.
waitresses, and other em­
ployees of public eating
places. (Females.1) Exemp­
tions: Bookkeepers, cashiers,
office assistants; establish­
ments employing fewer than
3 persons at any 1 time.
4. Night work. No law. I
General Statutes
(Recompiled
1950), vol. 2c,
secs. 95-17 and
95-27.

01
VO

See footnotes at end of table.




10

55

11

in an increase in
hours of employ­
ment over exist­
ing statutory
provisions shall
carry provision
for adequate ad­
ditional compen­
sation.
Do.

65

Longer hours may be
worked by florists and em­
ployees of florists 1 week
prior to and including:
(1) Christmas Day, (2)
Easter, (3) Mother’s Day.

hour must be allowed
after 6 consecutive
hours.

Do.

Period of 6J4 hours may be
worked if terms of employment do not call for a day
longer than this.

Do.

g

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

NORTH DAKOTA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Revised Code,
(1943), vol. 4,
sec. 34-0606.

Days
per
week

Manufacturing, mechanical, or
mercantile establishment;
hotel or restaurant, tele­
phone, or telegraph estab­
lishment or office, or express
or transportation company.*
(Females.2)
Exemptions:
Villages or towns of less than
500 population; rural tele­
phone exchanges; small tele­
phone exchanges and tele­
graph offices if commissioner
after a hearing determines
that work is too light to
justify application of the act.

48

48

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

6

Public Housekeeping, 1. e.,
the work of waitresses in
restaurants, hotel dining­
rooms, boardinghouses, bars
and taverns, and all attend­
ants employed at ice-cream,
light-lunch, and refreshment
stands; steam table or coun­
terwork in cafeterias and
delicatessens where freshly
cooked foods are served; the
work of chambermaids in
hotels, lodging houses, and
boardinghouses; the work of
janitresses, car cleaners, and
kitchen workers in hotels
and restaurants; elevator
operators. (Women.2)*
Idem....................... Public housekeeping establishments (see coverage
above) in towns of less than
500 population. (Women.2)*.

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations

6

Department of
Agriculture and
Labor, Mini­
mum Wage Or­
der No. 1, Pub­
lic Housekeep­
ing Occupation
(1951).




9

58

10 hours a day, 7 days a
week, permitted in emer­
gencies, provided weekly
hour limit is not exceeded.
Emergency deemed to ex­
ist: (1) in the case of sick­
ness of more than 1 female
employee;* (2) employ­
ment required in connec­
tion with a banquet, con­
vention, or celebration or
because the legislative as­
sembly is in session; (3)
employment as reporter in
any of the courts of the
State.*
Temporary suspension or
modification may be per­
mitted by department of
agriculture and labor in
cases of emergency.

m
1

War- or defenserelated

Ibid., No. 3, Mer­
cantile Occu­
pation (1951).

250312 — B4r
Ol
2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Department of
Agriculture and
Labor, Mini­
mum-Wage Or­
der, No. 2, Man­
ufacturing Occu­
pations (1949).

Manufacturing Occupations, i.
e., all processes in the pro­
duction of commodities, in­
cluding work in dressmaking
shops, wholesale millinery
houses, workrooms of retail
millinery shops, and in the
drapery and furniture-cover­
ing workshops; the garment
alteration, art, needlework,
fur-garment-making and mil­
linery workrooms in mer­
cantile stores; creameries;
produce houses; the candy­
making departments of re­
tail candy stores and of res­
taurants; bakery and biscuit
manufacturing
establish­
ments; candy manufactur­
ing; bookbinding and jobpress-feed ing establishments.
(Women.*).

See footnotes at end of table.

ON




Temporary suspension or
modification may be per­
mitted by department of
agriculture and labor in
cases of emergency.

Mercantile Occupations in
towns of less than 500 pop­
ulation, i. e., work in estab­
lishments operated for the
purpose of trade in the pur­
chase or sale of any goods or
merchandise, including the
sales force, wrapping force,
auditing or checking force,
shippers in the mail-order de­
partment, the receiving,
marking, and stockroom
employees, and all other
women. (Women.2) Exemp­
tion: Women who perform
office duties solely.

At least ¥i hour must be
allowed for the noon
meal.
No woman shall be em­
ployed for more than
5^ hours of continuous
labor without a rest
period.

___do_
_

O'

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

NORTH

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

DAKOTA—

Continued

3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.— Cont.

Ibid., No. 1______ For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Public Housekeep­
ing.

Ibid., No. 4, Laun­ Laundry Occupations, i. e., all
dry, Cleaning,
processes connected wih the
and Dyeing Oc­
receiving, marking, wash­
ing, cleaning, ironing, and
cupation (1953).
distribution of washable or
cleanable materials; work in
laundry departments in ho­
tels, hospitals, and factories.
(Women.2).
Ibid., No. 5, Tele­ Telephone exchanges. (Wom­
phone Occupa­
en. *)
tion (1953).
4. Nightwork.

Department
of
Agriculture and
Labor,
Mini­
mum-Wage Or­
der, No. 1, Pub­
lic Houskeeping
(1951).




Elevator operators. (Women.*)

At least H-hour period,
free from interrup­
tion, for each meal
furnished employee on
premises; 1 hour, if
employee must leave
premises for meals.
Time for meals eaten on
premises during work­
ing shift considered
working time.
No woman shall be em­
ployed for more than
4 hours of continuous
labor without a rest
period.
At least H hour must be
allowed for the noon
meal.
No woman shall be em­
ployed for more than
5 hours of continuous
labor without a rest
period.

Temporary suspension or
modification may he per­
mitted by department of
agriculture and labor, in
cases of emergency.

do.

Adequate time and pro­
vision at seasonable
hours must be given
to
employees for
meals.

.do.

11 p. m. to 7 a. m.

do.

War- or defenserelated

OHIO:1

1. Maximum Hours.

General Code An­
notated (Page,
1946 Replace­
ment), vol. 1,
secs.
1008-2,
1008-2a,
1951
supplement, as
amended session
laws 1953, H. B.
274; and vol. 11,
1951 supplement,
Appendix P-5,
as amended ses­
sion laws 1953,
S. B. 160.

Idem..

0\

Any employment. (Females.)
Exemptions: Manufacturing
establishments and financial
institutions, (see next en­
tries), agricultural field oc­
cupations, domestic service
in private homes, females
over 21 in mercantile estab­
lishments and communica­
tions companies in cities
under 5,000 population; fe­
males over 21 earning at least
$35 a week in executive, pro­
fessional, supervisory, or ad­
ministrative positions re­
quiring a certain amount of
discretion; women in the
professions of medicine, reg­
istered nursing, pharmacy,
law, teaching, and social
work; professional employ­
ees in hospitals, such as grad­
uate and student nurses,
anesthetists,
technicians,
graduate and student dieti­
tians, and interns.

88

48

6

Manufacturing
establishments. (Females.3)2 Ex­
emptions: Females over 21
earning at least $35 a week in
executive, professional, su­
pervisory, or administrative
positions requiring a certain
amount of discretion.

89

1 45

6

See footnotes at end of table.




In mercantile establish­ Under emergency
ments 10 hours' employ­
law
effective
ment permitted on any 1
Sept. 16, 1951 to
day of calendar week and
Sept. 1, 1955:1
on day before May 30,
Females employ­
July 4, Thanksgiving,
ed by a public
Christmas, and New
utility company
Year's Day. Also during
and any carrier
3 weeks in the year (1 week
subject to Part I
in the 1st 6 months and
of the Interstate
2 in the 2d six months), 10
Commerce Act
hours on any 1 day and 50
are exempt. Of­
hours a week permitted.
fice workers may
(Females over 18.)
be employed 10
In laundry and dry-cleaning
hours on any 1
establishments, 9 hours a
day of the calen­
day may be worked on
dar week.2 (Fe­
any 2 days of the week if
males over 18.)
48-hour maximum is not
exceeded; a 50-hour maxi­
mum permitted in weeks
preceding or including
Labor Day, Good Friday,
and the 5 other holidays
mentioned above.
In cases not otherwise cover­
ed in this act, 9 hours in
any 1 day permitted, pro­
vided 48-hour, 6-day week
not exceeded.
During emergency periods
caused by public disaster,
hour provisions not applimunications company,
cable to employees of comDuring harvest season, Under emergency
hours’ provisions not ap­
law effective
plicable to canneries or es­
Sept. 16, 1951 to
tablishments preparing
Sept. 1, 1955 i; 48
perishable foods.
hours maximum
per week permit­
ted. Office work­
ers may be em­
ployed 10 hours
on any 1 day of
the calendar
week.2 (Females
over 18.)

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Variations

Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

OHIO i—Continued
1. Maximum Hours—

Continued
General Code An­
notated (Page,
1946
Replace­
ment), vol. 1,
sec. 1008-2a, as
amended session
laws 1953, H. B.
274.

Financial institutions, includ­
ing Federal Reserve banks
and home loan banks. (Fe­
males.)

9

48

10 hours a day may be work­
ed on any 1 day of the
week provided work is
divided into 2 or more
periods which fall within
12 consecutive hours. (Fe­
males over 18.)
During periods of extraordi­
nary conditions caused by
preparation of reports for
any department of the
State or the Federal gov­
ernment, the daily maxi­
mum of 9 hours shall not
apply to those actually
engaged in report prepara­
tion.

6

2.r Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
3. Meal and Rest Peri­

ods.
General Code Anno­
tated (Page, 1946
Replacement),
vol! 1, secs. 1008-2,
1008-2a, as a­
mended session
laws 1953, H. B.
274; and vol. 11,
1951 supplement,
Appendix P-5,
as amended ses­
sion laws 1953,
S. B. 160.




Any employment, including
manufacturing and financial
institutions. For exempttions see first entry under
Maximum Hours,
(Fe­
males.)

At least H-hour meal
period after 5 consec­
utive hours of work.
(Period of less than H
hour not deemed in­
terruption to continu­
ous work.)

Under emergency
law effective
Sept. 16, 1951, to
Sept. 1, 1955: *
Females over 21
employed by a
public trans­
portation com­
pany to oper­
ate street cars,
trackless trol­
leys, or motor
coaches are per­
mitted to work
and operate

such vehicles
for same hours
and periods as
permitted by
law for male
employees.
General Code An­
notated (Page,
1946 Replace­
ment) , vol. 1,
sec. 1008.

4. Nightwork.
General Code An­
notated (Page,
1937), vol. 10,
1951 supple­
ment, secs. 12993
and 12996; and
vol. 11, 1951
supplement,
Appendix P-5,
as amended ses­
sion laws 1953,
S. B. 160.

General Code An­
notated (Page,
1937), vol. 11,
1951 supple­
ment, Appendix
P-5, as amended
session laws 1953,
S. B. 160.

Factory, workshop, business
office, telephone or telegraph
office, restaurant, bakery,
millinery or dressmaking es­
tablishment, mercantile or
other establishment. (Fe­
males.)

Mill; factory; workshop; oil
well or pumping station;
cannery or bottling or pre­
serving establishment; mer­
cantile or mechanical estab­
lishment; tenement house;
garment making or dress­
making or millinery estab­
lishment or working room;
store; office; office building;
laboratory; restaurant;
hotel, boardinghouse, or
apartment house; bakery;
barbershop; bootblack stand
or establishment; public
stable; garage; laundry;
place of amusement; club;
as a driver or chauffeur; in
any coalyard or brick, lum­
ber, or building-material
yard; construction or repair
of buildings; transportation
of merchandise. (Females
under 21.)
Taxi drivers.............................-

See footnotes at end of table.




Not less than M hour for
mealtime in establish­
ments providing lunch­
rooms; if suitable
lunchroom is not pro­
vided, not less than 1hour meal period dur­
ing which time em­
ployees may leave es­
tablishment.

In canneries or establish­
ments engaged in prepar­
ing perishable foods, hours
of labor are not restricted
during canning season.

10 p.m. to 6 a. m... In canneries^or establish­
ments engaged in pre­
paring perishable foods,
hours of labor are not restrictedj_during canning
season.

Inftime of national
| emergency, night
work^restrictions in effect
only forIf girls
under 18 (9 p.
m.-7 a.*m.).

Females permitted
to work as taxi
drivers except
during! hours of
9 p. m. to 6
a.[m.<

0\

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHT WORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

OKLAHOMA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes Annotated (1937),
title 40, secs.
81-82.

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest
Periods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No law.
OREGON:
1.(Maximum Hours.
Compiled Laws
Annotated
(1940), vol. 7,
sec. 102-323.1




Manufacturing, mechanical,
or mercantile establishment,
laundry, bakery, hotel, res­
taurant, office building,
warehouse, telegraph or
telephone establishment or
office, printing establish­
ment, bookbindery, theater,
showhouse, place of amuse­
ment, or any other estab­
lishment.! (Females.2) Ex­
emption: Registered phar­
macists, nurses, agricultural
or domestic service; estab­
lishments employing fewer
than 5 females in places of
less than 5,000 population.

9

Meal periods; rest
periods

54

Any manufacturing, mechani- ! 10
cal, or mercantile establish­
ment, laundry, hotel, res­
taurant, telegraph or tele­
phone establishment or
office, or express or trans­
portation company. (Fe­
males.) Exemptions: Har­
vesting, packing, curing,
canning, and drying of
perishable fruits, vegetables,
or fish.2

Days
per
week

1 60

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

Telephone operators in time
of great disaster or calam­
ity or epidemic may be
employed longer hours if
consent of employees is
secured and double time
paid.
Hotel and restaurant em­
ployees in emergencies
may work 1 hour over­
time a day if consent of
employee is^ secured and
double timefpaid.

•

War- or defenserelated

Wage and Hour
Commission
Minimum Wage
Order No. 1,
Beauty Opera­
tors and Mani­
curists (1941).

Ibid., No. 3,
Cherry Stem­
ming and Pit­
ting (1941).
Ibid., No. 13, Per­
sonal Service
(1941).

Beauty and manicuring occu­ 310
pations, i. e., all processes in
beauty parlors and barber­
shops pertaining to shampoo­
ing, waving, or straightening
the hair; scalp or facial treat­
ments; eyebrow shaping;
eyelash and eyebrow dyeing;
manicuring; hand and arm
massage; hair cutting and
trimming; hair tinting and
bleaching; removal of super­
fluous hair, warts, or moles
by use of electric needle;
demonstrating use of cos­
metics, supplies, and equip­
ment. (Women and mi­
nors.)
8
Stemming and pitting brine
cherries. (Women and
minors.)

Personal service occupations,
8
i. e., work as masseuses; doc­
tor, dental, and laboratory
assistants; maids in mortu­
aries; cashiers, ushers, and
checkroom attendants in the­
aters and other places of
amusement; assistants in
radiobroadcasting stations
and wired-music operators
and service stations. (Wom­
en and minors.)
Ibid., No. 17, Stu­ Student nurses in places such .......
as hospitals and sanitariums.
dent Nurses
(Women and minors.)
(1941).
8
Ibid., No. 18, Tele­ Telephone or telegraph establishment.
(Women and
phone and Tele­
minors.)
graph (1941).

See footnotes at end of table.
0\




44

6

........do......................................

44
44

In emergencies, commission
may grant special over­
time permit. Time-anda-half worker’s regular rate
must be paid for all time
in excess of regular hours.

6

........do------------- ---------------

48
44

In emergencies, commission
may grant special over­
time permit. Time-anda-half worker’s regular rate
must be paid for all time
in excess of regular hours.
Rural telephone establish­
ment not demanding un­
interrupted service of op­
erator may be granted a
special license for different
hours by the commission.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OP REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

OREGON—Continued
1. Maximum Hours—
Continued
Ibid., No. 4, Fruit Fruit and vegetable packing
and Vegetable
industry.
(Women and
Packinghouse
minors.)
(1942). *
Ibid., No. 11, Nut Processing, bleaching, grading,
Processing and
and packing nuts (Women
Cracking (1942).
and minors.)
Ibid., No. 8, Manufacturing
(1948).




Cracking and shelling nuts.
(Women and minors.)
Manufacturing industry, i. e.,
any industry, business, or
establishment operated for
the purpose of preparing,
producing, making, alter­
ing, repairing, finishing,
processing, inspecting, hand­
ling, assembling, wrapping,
bottling, or packaging goods,
articles, or commodities, in
whole or in part. (Women
and minors.) Exemptions:
Any such activity covered
by another minimum-wage
order of the State; women
employed in administrative,
executive, or professional
capacities, defined as: (1)
Work predominantly intel­
lectual, managerial, or crea­
tive, which requires exercise
of discretion and independ­
ent judgment and for which
the remuneration is not less
than $200 a month; or (2) em­
ployees licensed or certified
by the State who are engaged
in the practice of any of the
recognized professions.

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

War- or defenserelated

General

w

10

60

8

44

8

• 44

mitted provided time-anda-half worker's regular
rate is paid.
6

In emergencies, commission
may grant special over­
time permit; issued only
on condition the mini­
mum overtime rate speci­
fied in the order is paid.

1

Public housekeeping occupa­
tion includes work of wait­
resses, cooks, counter and
salad workers, food checkers,
bus and vegetable workers,
dish and glass washers,
kitchen help, maids, cham­
bermaids, housekeepers,
barmaids, linen-room girls,
cleaners, janitrcsses and jan­
itors, charwomen and house­
men, checkroom attendants,
matrons, elevator operators,
and all others employed in
hotels, restaurants, board­
inghouses offering meals for
sale to the public, roominghouses offering rooms for
rent, apartment houses,
auto camps, cafeterias, lightlunch stands, retail candy,
ice-cream and soft-drink
parlors, delicatessens, beer
parlors, and clubs (private
and public), as well as ma­
trons and car cleaners in
transportation
industries
and other work of like
nature.
Ibid., No. 7, Laun­ Laundry, cleaning, and dye­
ing occupation includes all
dry, Cleaning,
and Dyeing
places where 2 or more per­
sons are employed in the
(1950).
process of receiving, mark­
ing, washing, cleaning, dye­
ing, ironing, and distrib­
uting clothing and ma­
terials. (Women and
minors.) Exemptions: Em­
ployees in administrative
or executive capacities re­
quiring exercise of discre­
tion and independent judg­
ment, for which remunera­
tion is not less than $250 a
month.
See footnotes at end of table.
Ibid., No. 14, Pub­
lic Housekeep­
ing (1948).

ON
VO




8

8

44

In emergencies, commission
may grant special over­
time permit; issued only
on condition the appli­
cable minimum overtime
rate specified in the order
is paid.

44

In emergencies, commission
may grant special over­
time permit; issued only
on condition overtime is
paid for at time-and-half
worker’s base pay.

<1

©

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

OREGON—Continued
1. Maximum Hours—
Continued
Ibid., No. 5, Hospitals, Sani­
tariums, Con­
valescent and
Old People’s
Homes (1951).

Ibid., No. 10,
Minors (1951).

Ibid., No. 2, Can­
ning, Dehydrat­
ing, and Barrel­
ing Operations
(1952). •

Ibid., No. 9, Mercantile (1952).




Hospitals, sanitariums, con­
valescent or old people’s
homes: Cooks, kitchen help­
ers, waitresses, janitors,
charwomen, and all other
women and minors em­
ployed therein.
(Women
and minors.) Exemptions:
Trained nurses, student
nurses, or other professional
or executive help.
Industries for which the State
wage and hour commission
has not established by indi­
vidual or special order a dif­
ferent wage. (Minors under
18.) Exemptions: Minors
employed at domestic work
and at chores in or about
private residences; news­
paper carriers and news­
paper vendors.
Canning, dehydrating, and
barreling operations, i. e.,
work in the canning or
processing of fresh fruit,
vegetables, fish, shellfish, or
Crustacea, or in the barreling
or preserving of fresh fruit
and berries. (Women and
minors.) Exemption:
Farmer who processes only
the product of his own farm.
Mercantile establishment, i. e.,
any business or establish­
ment operated for the pur­
pose of purchasing, selling,
or distributing goods or

Days
per
week

8

44

6

8

44

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

6

(•>

8

the community, these
hours regulations not ap­
plicable.

(«)

44

6

In emergencies, commission
may grant special over­
time permit; issued only
on condition the appli­
cable minimum overtime

War- or defenserelated

Ibid., No. 6, Prep­
aration of Poul­
try,
Rabbits,
Fish, or Eggs,
for Distribution
(1953).

Ibid., No. 12, Of­
fice (1953).

commodities at wholesale
or retail.
(Women and
minors.)
Any industry, business, or
establishment operated for
the purpose of grading, sort­
ing, cleaning, packing,
candling, separating,
slaughtering, plucking, or
otherwise preparing poul­
try, rabbits, fish, or eggs for
distribution. (Women and
minors.) Exemptions: Can­
ning of fresh fruits, vege­
tables, fish, shellfish, or
Crustacea; barreling or pre­
serving of fresh fruit and
berries; operations incident
to marketing of farm prod­
ucts in their raw, live or
natural state; women em­
ployed in administrative,
executive, or professional
capacities, such work being
defined as predominantly
intellectual, managerial, or
creative, requiring exercise
of discretion and independ­
ent judgment, for which
remuneration is not less
than $250 per month.
Office occupations, i. e., work
as stenographers, book­
keepers, typists, billing
clerks, filing clerks, cash­
iers, checkers, invoicers,
comptometer operators, au­
ditors, library attendants,
and all types of clerical work
not covered by other orders.
(Women and minors.)

See footnotes at end of table.




|

rate specified in the order
is paid.
In emergencies, commission
may grant special over­
time permit for hours
over 8 and 44; time and a
half worker’s regular rate
must be paid for hours
over 40.

In emergencies, commission
may grant special over­
time permit. Time-anda-half worker’s regular
rate must be paid for all
time in excess of regular
hours.
If employees desire a greater
number of consecutive
days off, they may work
not to exceed 10 days with­
out a day off if such ar­
rangement is agreeable to
the employer and the em­
ployees in the department.

<1

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

OREGON—Continued
2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.),9
3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods.
Wage andUHour
C ommission
Minimum Wage
Orders: Nos. 1,
12,13,18. i
Ibid., No. 8

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Beauty Operators
and Manicurists; Office; Per­
sonal Service; Telephone
and Telegraph.
For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Manufacturing.

Ibid., Nos. 14’and

For coverage see^Maximum
Hours, PublicBHousekeeping; Hospitals, Sanitariums,
Convalescent and ».01d
People’s Homes.

Ibid./No/7...........

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Laundry, Cleaning,
and Dyeing.




Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Prohibits employment
for more than 5 con­
secutive hours without
a rest period of at least
45 minutes.
Prohibits employment
for more than 5 con­
secutive hours without
a meal period of at
least 30 minutes.8
Paid rest period of at
least 5 minutes in
every 4 hours’ working
time or major fraction
thereof, insofar as
practicable in middle
of such work period.
Prohibits employment
for more than 5 con­
secutive hours without
a meal period of at
least 30 minutes.8
Paid rest period of at
least 10 minutes in
every 4 hours’ work­
ing time or major
fraction thereof, inso­
far as practicable in
middle of such work
period.
Prohibits employment
for more than 5 con­
secutive hours with­
out a meal period of
at least 45 minutes.

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

Ibid., No. 10

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Minors.

Ibid., No. 2.......... For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Canning, Dehy­
drating, and Barreling Op­
erations.

Ibid., No. 9...........

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Mercantile.

Ibid., No. 6

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Preparation of Poul­
try, Rabbits, Fish, or Eggs
for Distribution.

See footnote at end of table.




Paid 10-minute relief
period after no more
than 2Yi consecutive
hours’ work.
No minor may be em­
ployed for more than
5 consecutive hours
without a meal period
of at least 30 minutes.
10-minute rest period as
nearly as possible in
the middle of every
4-hour work period.
Not less than 30 consec­
utive minutes for meal
period, with relief from
all duties, after 5
hours’ work; no meal
period required if
day’s work completed
within 6 hours.
Paid 10-minute relief
period after 3 consecu­
tive hours’ work.
Not less than a 45-min­
ute meal period after
5 consecutive hours
after reporting for
work.8
Paid 10-minute rest, pe­
riod in 4 hours’ work­
ing time or major frac­
tion thereof.9
Prohibits employment
for more than 4 con­
secutive hours with­
out a meal period of
not less than 30 min­
utes; no meal period
required if day’s work
completed within 5
hours.
Paid 10-minute rest pe­
riod on basis of 4
hours’ working time,
or major fraction
hereof, and insofar
as practicable in mid­
dle of work period.

<1

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHT WORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

OREGON—Continued
4. Nightwork.
Wage and Hour
Commission
Minimum Wage
Order, No. 10,
Minors (1951).

Ibid., No.G
PENNSYLVANIA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes Anno­
tated (Purdon,
1941), Title 43,
ch. 4, sec. 103,
1952 supple­
ment.
Department of La­
bor and Industry
Regulations
Governing the
Hours Provi­
sions of the
Women’s Law
(1948): G-l, G-2,
G-4, G-5, G-7,
G-8, G-10; S-l,
S-2, S-5.




Minors employed in any place
of public recreation, includ­
ing but not limited to bowl­
ing alleys, theaters, amuse­
ment parks, nightclubs, and
dancehalls.
Minors in telegraph or mes­
senger company or other
such business engaged in the
distribution, transmission,
or delivery of goods or mes-

Meal periods; rest
periods

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

After 10:30 p. m_

10 p. m. to 5 a. m_

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Preparation of Poul­
try, Rabbits, Fish, or Eggs
for Distribution.
Any establishment, i. e., any U0
place where work is done for
compensation of any sort to
whomever payable. (Fe­
males.) Exemptions: Agri­
cultural field occupations;
domestic service in private
homes; nurses in hospitals;
executives over 21 years of
age earning at least $35 a
week. By regulation, ex­
emption applies to secre­
taries to executives, pro­
vided they earn at least $35
weekly (G-5); outside rep­
resentatives (G-10).

Days
per
week

Variations

10 p. m. to 6 a. m.io

48

. If strict application of law
imposes unnecessary hard­
ship, department of labor
and industry, with ap­
proval of industrial board,
may make general and
special rules prescribing
variations.
For employees 18 years and
over (G-l), regulations of
industrial board permit
the following variations:
GENERAL
In emergencies, defined as a
situation resulting from
fire, flood, storm, epi­
demic, act of God, public
disaster, or Government
order which requires labor
longer than 10 hours a day
or 48 hours a week to pre­
serve life, property, health,
or the public service, em-

War- or defenserelated

ployees whose duties areairectly connected with
such emergencies may be
permitted to work more
than the daily and weekly
maximums prescribed. If
emergency exists for more
than 24 hours, permission
for overtime must be ob­
tained from the secretary
of labor, who shall deter­
mine the duration of the
emergency. (G-2.)
Office employees having a
regular schedule of 40 hours
a week or less, on an an­
nual salary basis and not
laid off in slack periods,
may be employed 10 hours
in any day, 54 hours in any
week, if employment in
quarterly period of 13 con­
secutive weeks does not
exceed 520 hours. (G-7.)
If Ms hour or more is lost be­
cause of breakdown of ma­
chinery on which employee
is engaged and dependent
for employment, maxi­
mum hours may be ex­
tended 2 hours a day to
make up time lost. Week
may not exceed 48 hours.
Written report must be
sent to department of la­
bor. (G-8.)
SPECIFIC INDUSTRIES
Canning, processing or
packing perishable fruit or
vegetables during canning
season. Employment be­
yond hours specified per­
mitted provided: (1) Mihour lunch period allowed
for each 5 hours of work;
(2) no more than 6 con­
secutive hours without a
lunch period; and (3) ap­
proval of labor depart­
ment is obtained before es­
tablishment puts into ef­
fect any schedule of hours
at variance with the strict
provisions of the statute.
(S-l.)
See footnote at end of table.




LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
Coverage
Meal periods; rest
periods

Daily Weekly
PENNSYLVANIA—
Continued
2. Day of Rest.
(See Maximum
Hours.)
Statutes Anno­ Motion-picture theaters. (All
tated (Purdon,
employees.)
1941), Title 43,
ch. 9, sec. 483.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­ For coverage see Maximum
riods.
Hours.
Statutes Anno­
tated (Purdon,
1941), Title 43,
ch. 4, see. 107,1952
supplement.
Department
of
Labor and In­
dustry Regula­
tions Governing
the Hours Pro­
visions of the
Women's Law
(1948): G-6, G-ll;
S-l, S-3.




Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu
lated

General

War- or defense
related

Six consecutive hours of
work permitted if em­
ployee is then dismissed
for day, provided a 15minute rest period is
allowed. (G-ll.)
In retail trade a 6-hour work
period is permitted if a
meal period of at least 1
hour is granted. (S-3.)
In industries where manu­
facturing processes in­
volve continuous oper­
ation or where processes
once begun must be com­
pleted to avoid spoilage,
or where an employee’s
duties require her to be
away from the factory,
office, or depot, the regu­
larly scheduled meal or
rest period may be elimi­
nated, provided that ap­
proval of labor department
has been obtained and
employees are permitted
to eat and rest at such
intervals as not to en­
danger their health. (G-

If strict application
of specific provi­
sions of the stat­
ute impedes or
interferes with
the war effort,
department of
labor and indus­
try, with appro­
val of industrial
board, is author­
ized to suspend
this provision.

6

At least 34-hour meal
or rest period must be
granted after 5 con­
secutive hours of work.
(Interval of less than
M hour not to be
deemed interruption
of work period.)
Employees shall not be
required to remain in
workroom during
meal or rest period.

6.)2

During the canning season, i
plants canning, processing, !

259312 — 8405

or packing perishable
fruit or vegetable products
may employ persons for a
period of 6 consecutive
hours without a lunch
period.!! (S-l.)
Department of La­ Elevator operators. (Females.)
bor and Indus­
try Regulations
Affecting Em­
ployment of
Women (1948):
W-4.
4. Nightwork. No
law .3
PUERTO RICO:
1. Maximum Hours.
No maximum.^
2. Day of Rest.
Session laws: 1946,
Act 289; 1960,
Act 130.

-4
•4

Any commercial or industrial
establishment, enterprise, or
lucrative business not sub­
ject to sec. 553 of the Penal
Code,2 i. e., sugar and al­
cohol factories, shops for the
repair of the machinery of
sugar factories; factories for
the packing, canning, and
refrigeration of fruits and
vegetables; coffee-cleaning
mills; cement; crystal con­
tainers; paper and ceramic
product factories; textile in­
dustry, and any other indus­
try which must be continu­
ously operating; public mar­
kets; printeries; garages;
bakeries;
establishments
where refreshments and
coffee are sold—restaurants;
cafes; hotels; inns; confec­
tionery and pastry stores;
stands selling only candy,
matches, tobacco, news­
papers; flashlights and ac­
cessories; bulbs for domestic
use; plug fuses and fuses;
casinos; billiard rooms; ice
depots; meat stands; milk
depots;
slaughterhouses;
dairies; livery stables; piers

See footnotes at end of table.




Unless seats are pro­
vided &for their use,
women must be al­
lowed H-hour rest
period in every tour
of duty exceeding 3
hours. (W-4.)

Employees employed or per­
mitted to work on day of
rest shall be paid double
the salary rate for regular
working hours.

<1

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued

CO

Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

PUERTO RICO—Con.
2. Day of Rest—Con.

Session laws: 1946,
Act 289; 1950,
Act 130—Con.

8. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.

Session laws:
1919, Act 73, as
amended 1930,
Act 28; 1947, 5th
spec, sess., Act
6; 1949, Act 364.

Idem.,,.




Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

or docks; undertaking estab­
lishments; public and quasi­
public utilities; and emer­
gency work necessary to pre­
vent danger and considerable
financial loss; theaters, race­
tracks, and other places de­
voted exclusively to amuse­
ment or charity; pharma­
cies; commercial establish­
ments operating within air­
ports. (All employees.) Ex­
emptions: Occasional or piece
work, and professionals, ex­
ecutives and administrators.
Any lucrative occupation, i. e.,
work in any factory, mill,
centrale, machine shop or
establishment or place of
any kind where a factory or
mechanical enterprise exists;
storehouse, store, establish­
ment or place of any kind
where mercantile transac­
tions are carried on; farms,
plantations, rural properties
or places of any kind where
agricultural, horticultural,
or pasturing pursuits are fol­
lowed; mining and fishing
undertakings.
(Females.)
Exemption: Textile indus­
try.
Textile industry. (Females.).

At least 1 hour shall be
allowed for meals.
Work period may not
exceed 4 consecutive
hours.

At least Yi hour between
the 2 periods in 8-hour
shifts, provided fac­
tory establishes a cafe­
teria on its premises

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

4. Night work.
Session laws:
1919, Act 73;
1930, Act 28;
1947, 5th spec,
sess., Act 6; 1949,
Act. 364.
Session laws:
1931, Act 80, as
amended 1935,
Act 24; 1947.
Act 418; and
1949, Act 188.




where workers may,fif
desired, take their
meals at reasonable
prices.
Any lucrative occupation.
(For definition see Meal and
Rest Periods.) (Females.)
Exemptions: Women over 18
employed as telephone oper­
ators, telegraphers, artists,
nurses, and houseworkers.

lOfp.'m. to 6 a. m._ In the textile industry and
in the packing, canning, or
refrigeration of fruits or
vegetables, if woman is not
pregnant and does not
work more than a total of
8 hours in the 24-hour pe­
riod preceding 6 a. m. and
provided work shift is
rotated so that no woman
shall work consecutively
in night shift more than 3
weeks, employment be­
tween 10 p. m. and 6 a. m.
permitted.
In cases of emergency or ne­
cessity, for the purpose of
permitting employers or
owners to complete urgent
or necessary works which
must be finished within a
determined time in shops,
factories, or any other
commercial or industrial
establishments, a permit
may be granted by secre­
tary of labor to employ
women between the hours
of 10 p. m. and 6 a. m.,
provided the conditions
noted above in connection
with textile and packing,
canning, and refrigeration
of fruits and vegetables are
complied with. Compen­
sation to be paid for in ac­
cordance with Act 379 of
1948. (See footnote 1.)

CO

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued

o

Hour provisions
Coverage

State

Daily Weekly

RHODE ISLAND:
1. Maximum Hours.
Session laws 1943,
ch. 1312, secs. 4
and

6 ,

as

amended 1945,
ch. 1625 and ch.
1659.
2. Day of Rest.
General Laws
(1938), ch. 298as
amended session
laws 1945, ch.
1658.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Session laws 1943,
ch. 1312, sec. 4,
as amended 1945,
ch. 1659.

4. Nightwork.
Session laws 1943,
ch. 1312, sec. 7.




Factory, or manufacturing,
mechanical, business, or
mercantile establishment.
(Women and minors 16 and
over.) Exemption: Women
working by shifts during
different periods or parts of
the day, in the employ of
a public utility.

9

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

If a 5-day week is worked,
daily hours may be 9H*

48

Store, mill, factory, or any
commercial occupation or in
the work of industrial proc­
ess. j
Factory, workshop, mechan­
ical, or mercantile establish­
ment. (Women and minors.)
Exemptions: Women work­
ing by shifts during different
periods or parts of the day in
the employ of a public
utility; telephone exchange
where operator during the
night is not required to op­
erate at the switchboard
continuously but may sleep
during a considerable part
of the night.

Messenger for telegraph, tele­
phone, or messenger com­
pany in the distribution.

General

Employment on Sunday
permitted where work is
absolutely necessary.

Work period of 6H hours al­
lowed if employment ends
not later than 1 p. m. and
worker is dismissed for the
day.
If employment ends not
later than 2 p. m. and
worker is dismissed for the
day, period may be 7%
hours, provided worker is
allowed sufficient oppor­
tunity for eating on the
job.
Employees beginning work
at an hour later than other
employees may be allowed
a different mealtime.
In no case may an employee
tend the machines of other
employees in addition to
her own during the regular
lunch hour.

At least H hour must be
allowed for a meal
after 6 consecutive
hours of employment.
In factories employing
5 or more women and
children, employees
must be allowed their
mealtimes at the same
hour.

10 p. m. to 6 a. m.

War- or defenserelated

transmission, or delivery of
goods or messages. (Persons
under 21.)
SOUTH CAROLINA:
1. Maximum Hours.1
Code (1952), vol.
4, secs. 4-61, 40­
62.

Ibid.,rsec. 40-81.

2. Day of Rest.
Code (1952) ,*>01.
6, secs. 64-5, 646,^ as ^ amended
session laws 1953,
Acts 254 and 418.

Cotton and woolen mills en- io
gaged in manufacture of
merchandise. (All opera­
tives and employees.) Ex­
eruptions: Mechanics, en­
gineers, firemen, watchmen,
teamsters, yard employees,
and clerical force.
Mercantile establishments. 12
(Females.)

Manufacturing establishment,
i. e., any plant or place of
business engaged in manu­
facturing; mercantile estab­
lishment, i. e., any place
where goods or wares are
offered or exposed for sale,
not including, however, a
cafeteria or restaurant.
(Women and children.) Ex­
emptions: Manufacturing es­
tablishments involving man­
ufacturing processes requir­
ing continued and uninter­
rupted operation for normal
production.3

See footnotes at end or' table.



55

(See

Day

of
Rest
Law.)

60

Time lost by accident or
other unavoidable cause,
up to 60 hours in calendar
year, may be made up
within 3 months of the
time loss was incurred.

(See

Day

of
Rest
law.)
During times of
national emer­
gency, employ­
ment of women
on Sunday per­
mitted when and
if employment is
by industries en­
gaged in produc­
ing or processing
goods for na­
tional defense
and under Gov­
ernment con­
tract, provided
industries have
submitted proof
sufficient to es­
tablish their na­
tional-defense
status to the de­
partment of labor
and received a
permit from the
commissioner au­
thorizing em­
ployment on
Sunday. No em­
ployee who is
conscientiously
opposed to Sun­
day work may be
required to work
on Sunday.

03

to

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

SOUTH CAROLINA—
Continued.
Day of Rest—Con.
Ibid., sec. 54-4,
as amended ses­
sion laws 1953,
Acts 253 and 418.

Textile manufacturing, finish­
ing, dyeing, printing, or proc­
essing. (Regular employ­
ees, i. e., those who usually
work 20 hours or more a
week.) Exemptions: Watch­
men, firemen, and other
maintenance and custodial
employees.3

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro*
hibited or regu­
lated

War- or defenserelated

Employment on Sunday
permitted only if “of ab­
solute necessity or emer­
gency.” Overtime at 1H
times regular rate required
for any such employment.

*6

General

During times of
national emer­
gency, commis­
sioner may issue
permits to oper­
ate on Sunday
when proof is
furnished that in­
dustries are en­
gaged in produc­
ing or processing
goods for na­
tional-defense
purposes and un­
der Government
contract, pro­
vided no em­
ployee conscien­
tiously opposed
to Sunday work
shall be required
to work on Sun­
day.

3. Meal andRest Peri­

ods. No law.
4. Nightwork.
Code (1952) vol 4,
sec. 40-81.
SOUTH DAKOTA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Code, (1939), vol.
1, sec. 17.0601.




Mercantile establishments,
(Females.)

Any occupation. (Females.)
Exemptions: Farm laborers,
domestic servants, telegraph
or telephone operators, per­
sons engaged in the care of
livestock.

After 10 p. m.

10

54

On the 5 days preceding
Christmas, employment
may be 12 hours a day.

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No law.
TENNESSEE:
1. Maximum Hours.
Annotated Code Workshops or factories, i. e.,
(Williams, 1941
manufacturing, mills, me­
chanical, electrical, mercan­
Replacement),
tile, art, and laundering es­
vol. 4, secs. 5322
tablishments, printing, de­
to 5324,1952 sup­
plement.
partment stores, or any kind
of establishment wherein
labor is employed or ma­
chinery used. (Females.^)
Exemptions: Domestic serv­
ice, agricultural pursuits,
fruit and vegetable canning
factories, telegraph and tele­
phone offices (see second
entry).

Ibid., sec. 5323, as
amended session
laws 1953, ch.
242.
2. Day of Rest. No

Telegraph and/or telephone of­
fices. (Females.!)

3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No
law.
See footnote at end of table.




In seasonal employment, 54
hours may be worked in
any 8 weeks of the calen­
dar year.
In cases of emergency affect­
ing ^the operation of com­
mon carriers, public utili­
ty companies, and other
industries which affect the
health and well-being of
State citizens, provisions
of the hour law may be
suspended for the duration
of such emergency.

See proceeding paragraph
above.

During any na­
tional emergen­
cy, commissioner
of labor with con­
sent of the gov­
ernor may ex­
tend the hours a
womanmay
work in indus­
tries engaged in
manufacturing
supplies, equip­
ment, or mate­
rial for the Unit­
ed States Gov­
ernment.
On written request
of representative
of the Army or
Navy of the
United States,
the commission­
er and governor
may suspend the
hour law in man­
ufacturing
plants.

03

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

TEXAS;
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes (Vernon,
1948), vol. 15,
sec. 5172a as
amended session
laws 1953, H. B.
249.




Factory, mine, mill, work­
shop, mechanical or mercan­
tile establishment; laundry,
cleaning, and pressing es­
tablishment; hotel, restau­
rant, roominghouse, theater,
moving-picture show, bar­
bershop, beauty shop, road­
side drink- or food-vending
establishment; telegraph,
telephone, or other office;
express or transportation
company; State institution,
or any other establishment,
institution, or enterprise
where females are employ­
ed.* (Females.*) Exemp­
tions: Stenographers;8 phar­
macists;5 mercantile estab­
lishments and telephone and
telegraph companies in rural
districts and in towns of less
than 3,000 population; super­
intendents, matrons, nurses,
and attendants employed
by, in, or about such or­
phans’ homes as are charita­
ble institutions not run for
profit and not operated by
the State; and employees
engaged in the first process­
ing of, or in canning or
packing, perishable or sea­
sonal fresh fruits or vege­
tables; bank employees.

9

54

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

In laundries and cleaning
and pressing establish­
ments, 11 hours’ work
permitted on any day if
weekly maximum is not
exceeded and overtime at
double employee’s regular
rate is paid for hours over
9 a day.
In woolen, worsted, and cot­
ton mills and factories
making articles out of cot­
ton goods, 10 hours’ work
permitted daily and 60
hours weekly, if overtime
at double employee’s reg­
ular rate is paid.
In cases of extraordinary
emergencies, such as great
calamities, or when neces­
sary for the protection of
human life or property,
longer hours may be work­
ed, but for such hours dou­
ble time must be paid.

tilnme of war and/
or when the Pres­
ident proclaims
a national emer­
gency to exist,
industries com­
ing within the
jurisdiction
of three Federal
acts * and, in
time of war, any
industry desig­
nated by the
commissioner of
labor statistics *
may employ fe­
males not exceed­
ing 10 hours a
day provided
these hours (1)
are not injurious
to the women's
health or morals;
(2) do not add to
the hazards of
their occupa­
tions; and (3) are
in the public in­
terest. Any such
overtime must
be authorized by
an order of the
labor commission­
er based on com­
missioner's own
private investi­
gation, or pursu­
ant to an appli­
cation filed by

employers or by
J4 of the female
employees ofsuch
employers. Ex­
emption: In time
of war or pro­
claimed national
Emergency, office
employees of em
ployers coming
under the three
Federal acts are
expressly exemp­
ted from the hour
limitations of the
State act.
Ibid—

Bank employees. (Females) - _

c 12

Any industry, trade, or occu­
pation. (Females.2) Exemp­
tions: Domestic service and
executive positions; picking,
cleaning, processing, or pack­
ing of fowls.

18

Retail Trade, i. e., any indus­
try or business operated for
the purpose of selling, offer­
ing for sale, or distributing of
goods, wares, and merchan­
dise at retail to selected in­
dividuals or to the general
public and rendering serv­
ices incidental to such opera­
tions. (Women and minors.)

<8

54

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork. No law.
UTAH:
1. Maximum Hours.
Code Annotated
(1953), vol. 4,
sec. 34-4-3.

Industrial Com­
mission Mini­
mum Wage Or­
der, No. 1, Re­
tail Trade Occu­
pations (1952).

00

See footnotes at end of table




If life or property is in im­
minent danger, overtime
permitted.
In emergencies or peak pe­
riods in the business of an
employer, industrial com­
mission may permit longer
hours.3
During the packing season,
hour provisions are not
applicable to packing or
canning of perishable fruits
or vegetables nor to man­
ufacturing of containers
for such industry.
48

6

05

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

UTAH—Continued
1. Maximum Hours—
Continued
Ibid., N o. 3, Pub­
lic Housekeeping
Industry (1952).

Ibid., iso. 2, Res­
taurant Occupa­
tions! (1953).

Ibid., No. 4, Laun­
dry and Clean­
ing, Dyeing, and
Pressing Indus­
tries (1953).




Public Housekeeping Indus­
8
try, i. e., hotels, boarding­
houses, roomingnouses, mo­
tels, apartment houses, re­
sort hotels, hospitals, insti­
tutions, building space to
rent for business, manufac­
turing, commercial enter­
prises, and other public
service. Includes linenroom girls, maids, cleaners,
elevator operators, and any
other female or minor em­
ployee connected with the
establishment unless or until
their specific occupation is
governed by another mini­
mum-wage order. (Women
and minors.) Exemptions:
Registered nurses, licensed
practical nurses, and resi­
dent managers.
Restaurant, i. e., any place
selling food or beverages in
on
solid or liquid form to be split
consumed on the premises. shift
(Women and minors.) Ex­
emptions: Retail ice-cream
or retail soft-drink (nonal­
coholic) establishments
where as much as 90 percent
of the business is from ice­
cream or soft-drink sales.
Laundry, i. e., any place («)
where washing, ironing,
cleaning, pressing, process­
ing incidental thereto, of
any kind of washable fabric
is conducted. (Women and
minors.)

Days
per
week

48

(•)

6

(•)

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

In an emergency, for females
over 21, work on 7th con­
secutive day permitted,
provided employer obtains
permission from industrial
commission.

War- or defenserelated

2. Day of Rest. (See
Retail Trade,
Public Housekeep­
ing, Restaurant,
and Laundry and
Cleaning, Dyeing,
and Pressing
Occupation Or­
ders under Maxi­
mum Hours.)
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Industrial Com­
mission Welfare
Regulations, ef­
fective 1937, as
amended 1948:
Standards for
Women and Mi­
nors tin Indus­
try.

Industrial Com­
mission Mini­
m u m Wage
Order, No. 1.

Cleaning, Dyeing, and Press­
ing Industiies include those
places or divisions of estab­
lishments where the cleaning
or dyeing or pressing of
particular fabrics and all
processes incident thereto
are conducted as a process
aside from usualllaundry
practices. (Women
and
minors.)

Any occupation, trade, or in­
dustry.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Retail Trade Occu­
pations.

See footnotes at end of table.




At least yi hour for
meals for adult
women; employment
prohibited for more
than 5 hours without
rest and food.
At least 10-minute rest
period in each 4 hours
or fraction thereof, pe­
riod to be made avail­
able to employee after
no more than
con­
secutive hours of work.
Not less than 30 con­
secutive minutes for
meal period not later
than 5 hours after
starting work.’’
Paid 10-minute rest pe­
riod after 2% consecu­
tive hours for em­
ployees whose work
requires standing.
At least 10-minute rest
period for each 4 hours
or fraction thereof.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK— Continued
Hoar provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

UTAH—Continued
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods—Con.
Ibid., No. 3

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Public Housekeep­
ing Industry.

Ibid., No. 2.

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Restaurant Occupa­
tions.

Ibid., No. 4.

For coverage see Day of Rest,
Laundry and Cleaning,
Dyeing, and Pressing In­
dustries.

4. Nightwork.
Industrial Com­
mission Mini­
mum Wage
Order N o. 1.




For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Retail Trade Occu­
pations.

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

H-hour meal period in
every 8-hour day.8
At least 10-minute rest
period in every 4
hours or fraction
thereof, to be pro­
vided after work of no
more than 2H consec­
utive hours.
H-hour meal period in
every 8 consecutive
hours without food
and rest.
At least 10-minute rest
period, not deductible
from employee’s
working time.
Employment prohibited
for more than 5 con­
secutive hours with­
out a meal or rest pe­
riod of at least 30 min­
utes.
At least 10-minute rest
period in every 4 hours
or fraction thereof, to
be provided after work
of no more than 2H
consecutive hours.
Between 10 p. m.
and 6 a. m. no
woman required
to report for
work or be dis­
missed unless
the following
are made avail­
able: (1) suita­
ble transporta­
tion at no extra
cost, (2) suitable
facilities for se-

General

War- or defenserelated

Ibid., No. 2.

VERMONT:
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes (Revi­
sion of 1947),
secs. 8053, 8174,
8175.

09

VO

For coverage see Maximum
Hours, Restaurant Occu­
pations.

Labor in mine or quarry,
manufacturing or mechancal establishment. (Women;
minors 16 to 18.) Exemp­
tions: Telephone exchange
where hours of actual labor
of operator do not exceed 9
hours daily, 50 hours
weekly, or where operator
during the night is not re­
quired to operate switch­
board continuously but is
able to sleep the major part
of the night.1

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods. No law.)
4. Nightwork.Nolaw.

See footnotes at end of table




curing or mak­
ing hot food and
drink.
N o female required
to work a split
shift after mid­
night.
No female under
21 required to
work after 10
p. m.
In cases of emergency or While the United
where seasonal or peak de­
States is at war,
the commissioner
mand places unusual and
of industrial re­
temporary burden on a
lations with ap­
manufacturing or mechan­
proval of gover­
ical establishment, 10
nor may suspend
hours a day, 60 hours a
operation of the
week, may be worked if
laws relating to
commissioner of indus­
hours of employ­
trial relations is notified
ment of women
and grants permission in
and children.
advance for such over­
time, the period of which
may not exceed 10 con­
secutive weeks in any 1
year.
In a manufacturing estab­
lishment or business, the
materials and products of
which are perishable and
require immediate labor
to prevent decay or dam­
age, any provision of the
statute regulating employ­
ment of women and
minors may be suspended
by commissioner of indus­
trial relations with ap­
proval of the governor for
a period not to exceed 2
months in year.
In cases of extraordinary
emergency or extraordi­
nary public requirement,
employer engaged in pub­
lic service may be ex­
empted.

VO

o

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

VIRGINIA:
1. Maximum Hours.
Code (1950), vol.
6, secs. 40-34,
40-35, 40-39M to
40-41.




Factory, workshop,* laundry,
restaurant, mercantile, or
manufacturing
establish­
ment. (Females.) Exemp­
tions: Bookkeepers, stenog­
raphers, office assistants or
cashiers, buyers, managers,
or assistant managers, office
executives; mercantile estab­
lishments in towns of less
than 2,000 inhabitants or in
country districts.

9

48

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

War- or defenserelated

During fruit and vegetable
seasons, hour provisions
do not apply to factories
engaged exclusively in can­
ning, processing, or pack­
ing of fruits or vegetables.
10 hours a day may be
worked for a period of 90
days annually in the:
(1) handling or redrying
of leaf tobacco during the
tobacco market seasons,
(2) shelling and/or clean­
ing of peanuts, (3) shuck­
ing and packing of oysters.
In florist shops and green­
houses women may be
ployed 10 hours a day on
the 3 days preceding and
on Valentine's Day,
Christmas Day, Easter
Sunday, and Mother's
Day.

During period of
war between the
United States
and a foreign
nation, commis­
sioner of labor
may grant tem­
porary permits
to employers en­
gaged on warwork, allowing
the particular
plant, establish­
ment, or depart­
ment or division
of the establish­
ment to employ
females, 18 years
of age and over,
up to 10 hours a
day, 56 hours a
week.
Permit may be
granted only
when it is rea­
sonably clear
that longer hours
are necessary to
obtain maximum
production on
warwork, and
that the workers'
health,efficiency,
and general well­
being will be
safeguarded.

2. Day of Rest# No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods. No law.
4. Nightwork.
Code (1950), sec.
40-108.
WASHINGTON:
1. Maximum Hours.
Revised
Code
(1951), vol. 4,
sec. 49.28.070.

Ibid.,

49.28.080.

Warwork is work in
producing arti­
cles or materials
or
performing
services on or
for contracts for
the Army or
Navy or any
other agency of
the United
States authorized
to let contracts
for work neces­
sary for the suc­
cessful waging of
war and which
necessitates im­
mediate produc­
tion.

Messenger for telegraph or
messenger company or serv­
ice. (Girls 18 and under 21.)
Mechanical or mercantile
establishment,
laundry,
hotel, or restaurant. (Fe­
males. i) Exemptions: Har­
vesting, packing, curing,
canning, or drying of perish­
able fruits or vegetables;
canning fish or shellfish.

sec. Household or domestic [em­
ployees. (Males
males.)

See footnotes at end of table.




10 p. m. to 5 a. m.

and

fe­

In cases of emergency, em­
ployment may be for “a
longer period.”

Defense produc­
tion permits re­
laxing
certain
State practices or
standards in or­
der to increase
defense and war
production may
be issued by a
tripartite com­
mission.2
Per­
mit to cover a
designated place
of employment
valid only dur­
ing the existence
of the specific
emergency
for
which issued.

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

WASHINGTON—Con.
2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Industrial
Wel­
fare Committee
Minimum Wage
Order, No. 43,
Officej&Workers
(1949).




Office Workers includes, but
is not limited to, all types of
clerical work, general office
workers, typists, stenogra­
phers, secretaries, any and
all office machine operators,
bookkeepers (hand and
machine),
accountants,
accounting clerks, statisti­
cians, tellers, cashiers, col­
lectors, telegraph and tele­
type operators, PBX and
office telephone operators,
office messengers, ticket
agents, appraisers, librar­
ians and their assistants,
physicians’ and dentists’
assistants and attendants,
research, x-ray medical or
dental laboratory techni­
cians and their assistants,
office checkers, invoieers,
and similar occupations.
(Women and minors.) Ex­
emptions: Employees of
common carrier railroads,
sleeping-car companies, and
freight or express companies
subject to regulations of
Federal law; nurses and
nurses’ aides not engaged in
officework; telephone opera­
tors employed directly by a
telephone company who are
not engaged in officework;
occupations in an industry
covered by another mini­
mum-wage order.

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

Not less than j^-hour
meal period in each
and every 8-hour shift.
At least a 10-minute rest
period in every' 4
hours worked.

I

4

War- or defenserelated

259312 — 54
VO
W

Ibid., No. 44, Mer- I Mercantile Industry, i. e., any .
cantile Industry,
industry, business, or estab­
Wholesale and
lishment operated for the
Retail (1949).
purpose of purchasing, sell­
ing, or distributing goods or
commodities at wholesale or
retail. (Women and minors.)
Exemptions: Employees of
common carrier railroads,
sleeping car companies, and €
freight or express companies
subject to regulations of Fed­
eral law; nurses and nurses’
aides and also telephone op­
erators employed directly
by a telephone company,
who are not engaged in pur­
chasing, selling, or distrib­
uting goods or commodities
at wholesale or retail; “occu­
pations in an industry cov­
ered by another minimumwage order.
Ibid., No. 45 These amusement and recrea- _.
Theatrical
tion orders include any in­
Amusement and
dustry, business, or estab­
lishment operated for the
Recreation In­
dustry, and No.
purpose of furnishing enter­
45-A, General
tainment or recreation to
Amusement and
the public.4
Recreation In­ Theatrical Amusement and
dustry (1949).
Recreation Industry in­
cludes both moving-picture
and legitimate theaters and
food and drink dispensaries
operated in connection
therewith.
General Amusement and
Recreation Industry in­
cludes, but is not limited to,
dancehalls, theaters, bowl­
ing alleys, billiard parlors,
skating rinks, riding acade­
mies, shooting galleries,
racetracks, amusement
parks, athletic fields, pub­
lic swimming pools, private
and public gymnasiums,
golf courses, tennis courts,
carnivals, wired-music stu­
dios, and concessions in any I

See footnotes at end of table.




Not less than H-hour
meal period on em­
ployee’s time in every
regularly scheduled
full-time shift.
Not less than a 10-min­
ute paid rest period in
every continuous 4
hours of employment.

Not less than H-hour
on employee’s time in
every regularly sched­
uled full-time shift.5
Employee not re­
quired to work more
than 5 consecutive
hours without a meal
period.
Paid rest period of at
least 10 minutes in
every 4-hour work pe­
riod, and insofar as
practicable, in middle
of such work period.

If afternoon shift is 4 hours,
and forenoon less than 4,
a 15-minute period must
be allowed in afternoon.

vO

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

WASHINGTON—Con.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods—Con.
Ibid., No. 45
Theatrical
Amusement and
Recreation In­
dustry-Con.

and all amusement estab­
lishments, but excluding the
Theatrical Amusement and
Recreation Industry.
(Women and minors.) Ex­
ceptions: Occupations spe­
cifically covered by another
wage order; cashiers (cov­
ered by the Office Workers’
Order); employees of common
carrier railroads, sleepingcar companies, and freight
or express companies subject
to regulations of Federal law;
telephone operators em­
ployed directly by a tele­
phone company.
Ibid., No. 46, Pub­ Public Housekeeping Indus­
try includes but is not lim­
lic Housekeeping
ited to: Restaurants; lunch
(1950).
counters; cafeteries; cater­
ing, banquet, or box-lunch
service; curb service; board­
inghouses; all other estab­
lishments where food in
either solid or liquid form
is prepared for and served to
the public to be consumed on
the premises; hotels and mo­
tels; apartment houses; roominghouses; camps; clubs
(public and private); hos­
pitals, sanitariums, rest
homes, or maternity homes;
building or housecleaning or
maintenance services.
(Women and minors.) Ex­
emptions: Occupations spe-




«

Not less than Ys hour on
employee’s time in
every regularly sched­
uled full-time shift.
Employee not required
to work more than 5
consecutive hours
without a meal pe­
riod.
Paid rest period of at
least 10 minutes com­
puted on basis of 4
hours’ working time,
or majority fraction
thereof —insofar
as practicable in the
middle of each work
period and not in rush
periods.

The 5-hour limitation not
applicable to nurses’ aides
employed on the 11 p. m.
to 7 a. m. shift.

War- or defenserelated

Ibid., No. 47,
Beauty Culture
(1950).

Ibid ., No. 48,
Laundry, Dry
Cleaning, and
Dye Works In­
dustry (1950).

vO
Lfi




cifically covered by another
wage order; cashiers (covered
by the Office Workers’ Order);
employees of common carrier
railroads, sleeping-car com­
panies, and freight or express
companies subject to regula­
tions of Federal law; tele­
phone operators employed
directly by a telephone com­
pany, nurses, student nurses,
female interns, dietitians,
laboratorians.
Beauty Culture includes hair­
dressing; hair coloring and
bleaching; manicuring; hair
manufacturing; massage;
marcel or permanent wav­
ing; cosmetology; haircut­
ting; body massage and
weight reducing; selling and
demonstrating or applying
beauty preparations, cos­
metics, and supplies either to
the demonstrator or to other
persons; instructing students
in any of the foregoing occu­
pations, and all services or
operations incidental to such
occupations, including the
services of instructors in
beauty schools. (Women
over 18 licensed by the State
to practice beauty culture.)
Laundry, Dry Cleaning, and
Dye Works Industry in­
cludes but is not confined to:
(1) The marking, sorting,
washing, cleaning, collect­
ing, ironing, assembling,
packaging, pressing, receiv­
ing, shipping, or renovating
in any capacity directly con­
cerned with sale or distribu­
tion at retail or wholesale of
any laundry or dry-clean­
ing service; (2) the work per­
formed by clerical workers
and telephone operators (not
employed directly by a tele­
phone company) in connec-

Employee entitled to a
minimum lunch pe­
riod of X hour in every
A
regular full-time shift.
Such period to be on
employee’s time. (No
rest-period provision.)

Not less than A hour on
employee’s time in
every regularly sched­
uled full-time shift.
Employee not re­
quired to work more
than 5 consecutive
hours without a meal
period.
Paid rest period of at
least 10 minutes in
every 4-hour work pe­
riod.

Employee entitled, upon re­
quest, to a lunch pe­
riod of not in excess of 1
hour.

VO
ON

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

WASHINGTON—Con.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods—Con.
Ibid., No. 48—
Continued

Ibid., No. 5 0,
Manufacturing
and General
Working Con­
ditions (1950).




tion with the production
and furnishing of these ser­
vices; (3) the production of
laundry, dry-cleaning, or
dyeing services on its own
behalf by any establish­
ment, which services may
be incidental to its princi­
pal business; (4) the clean­
ing, pressing, finishing, re­
freshing, dyeing, or process­
ing of any article of wearing
apparel, including hats,
household furnishings, rugs,
textiles, fur, leather (in­
cluding shoes), or any fab­
rics whatsoever, when such
activity is not performed in
the original process of manu­
facture. (Women and mi­
nors.) Exemptions; Same as
those shown for the Amuse­
ment and Recreation Or­
ders on p. 94 and the follow­
ing additional exemptions:
Minors engaged in voca­
tional education, work ex­
perience or apprentice train­
ing program, when such pro­
gram is properly supervised
by school personnel or in
accordance with written
agreements or approved
training schedules.
Manufacturing Industry, i. e.,
any industry, business, or
establishment, wholesale or
retail, operated for the pur­
pose of making, remodeling,
repairing, or fashioning by

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Not less than l hour on
A
employee’s time in
every regularly sched­
uled full-time shift.
Employee not
required to
work

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

Shorter lunch period may be
authorized by supervisor
of women and minors in
industry if application is
made and good cause
shown.

War- or defenserelated

VO
-a

preparing and combining
materials by nature or ma­
chinery, or producing goods,
wares, and merchandise by
some industrial process, in­
cluding but not being con­
fined to work performed in
dressmaking, millinery,
drapery, and furniture-cov­
ering houses, garment, art
needlework, fur-making op­
erations, shoe manufactur­
ing and repairing, cream­
eries, candy, floral, bakeries,
biscuit-making, and book­
binding establishments.
(Women and minors.) Ex­
emptions: Processing by
canning, freezing, or other­
wise of fruits and vegetables,
fish or other agricultural or
marine products: any indus­
try or occupation specifi­
cally covered by another
minimum-wage order; em­
ployees covered by Office
Workers Order; nurses, stu­
dent nurses, female interns,
dietitians, and laboratorians; newspaper vendors or
carriers; telephone or tele­
graph operators employed
directly by a telephone or
telegraph company; em­
ployees of common carrier
railroads, sleeping-car com­
panies and freight or express
companies subject to regu­
lation by Federal law; mi­
nors engaged in vocational
education, work experience
or apprentice training pro­
gram under conditions spec­
ified in the order; employ­
ees covered by a certificate
of the Wage and Hour Divi­
sion of the Department of
Labor, permitting employ­
ment of learners, appren­
tices, messengers, or handi­
capped persons at wage rates
lower than the minimum
fixed by this order.

See footnote at end of table.




more than 5 consecu­
tive hours without a
meal period.
10-minute relief period
in every continuous
half shift and as near­
ly as practicable in
middle of such shift.6

VC

09

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly'

WASHINGTON—Con.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods—Con.
Ibid., No. 49,
Minors (1950).

Ibid., No. 51,
Food Processing
Industry (1951).

Ibid., No. 52,
Fresh Fruit and
Vegetable Pack­
ing Industry
(1951).




Minors employed in any in­
dustry or establishment
who are not expressly
covered by a special indus­
trial welfare order. Exemp­
tions: Agricultural labor;
domestic work or chores per­
formed in or about private
residences; specific occupa­
tions listed in the order such
as newspaper venders and
newspaper carriers.
Food Processing Industry, i.
e., any industry, business,
or establishment operated
for the purpose of processing
by canning, freezing, cook­
ing, or otherwise of food for
human or other consump­
tion, including the process­
ing of fruit, vegetables, fish,
shellfish, dogfood, or any
other products for the pur­
pose of preserving them for
food purposes, for human or
other consumption. (Women
and minors.) Exemptions:
(Same as the 4 last exemp­
tions shown for the Manu­
facturing Order.)
Fresh Fruit and Vegetable
Packing Industry, i. e., any
industry, business, estab­
lishment, person, firm, as­
sociation, or corporation
engaged in handling, pack­
ing, packaging, grading,
storing, or delivering to I

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

No minor may be em­
ployed more than 5
hours without a meal
period of at least l
A
hour on employee’s
time.
Paid rest period of 10
minutes in every 4hour work period.

At least A hour on em­
ployee’s time for lunch
after no more than 5
consecutive hours of
work.
Paid rest period of not
less than 15 minutes
in each 4- or 5-hour
work shift and as
nearly as practicable
in middle of shift.7

Shorter lunch period may
be authorized by super­
visor of women and
minors in industry if
application is made and
good cause shown.

Not less than A-hour
meal period on em­
ployee’s time after no
more than 5 consecu­
tive hours of work.
Paid rest period of not
less than 15 minutes

Shorter lunch period may
be authorized by super­
visor of women and minors
in industry if application
is made and good cause
shown.

War- or defenserelated

Ibid., No. 53,
Telephone and
Telegraph In­
dustry (1951).

4. Nightwork.
Industrial Welfare
Committee
Minimum

storage or to market or to a
carrier for transporation to
market, any agricultural or
horticultural commodity in
its raw or natural state as an
incident to the preparation
of such products for market.
(Women.) Exemptions:
(Same as the 4 last exemp­
tions shown for the Manu­
facturing Order.)8
Telephone and Telegraph In­
dustry includes any busi­
ness
or
establishment
operated primarily for the
purpose of transmitting
messages for the public by
telephone or telegraph for
hire. (Women and minors.)

in each 4- or 5-hour I
work shift, and as
nearly as practicable
in middle of shift.7

Not less than H*hour
meal period on em­
ployee’s time in each
8-hour shift after no
more than 5 horns
worked.5. Paid rest
period of at least 10
minutes in every con­
tinuous 4 hours’ work­
ing time.5 9

Elevator operators. (Females
18 or over.)

After 12 midnight.

Wage Order
No. 46, Public
Housekeeping
(1950).
WEST VIRGINIA:
1. Maximum Hours.
No law.
2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Department of La­
bor, regulations
for the protec­
tion and preser­
vation of life,
health, and
safety of women
in industry
(1943).
4. Nightwork. No
law.

Any industry. (Women.).

See footnotes at end of table.




Meal period may be waived
by employees, with em­
ployer’s consent, on Satur­
day, Sunday, holiday,
and night tours of duty.
Night tour defined as one
in which the major por­
tion is between 6 p. m.
and 7 a. m.

At least 14 hour must be
allowed as a lunch
period, i

100

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Variations

Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

WISCONSIN:
1. Maximum Hours.
Statutes (1951),
secs. 103.01,
103.02.
Industrial Com­
mission, Gen­
eral Orders Nos.
3a and 6, issued
thereunder.

Days
per
week

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

10 hours a day, 55 hours a
week, may be worked dur­
ing emergency periods,
not to exceed 4 weeks in
year, if time and a half
regular rate is paid for ex­
cess time. General Order
No. 3a requires that the
industrial commission be
notified of such overtime
within 24 hours.
Industrial commission is au­
thorized to issue general
or special orders fixing
such period or periods of
time (day, night, or week)
during which work may
be done, as shall be neces­
sary to protect the life,
health, safety, or welfare
of women workers.
Until such orders have been
issued by the commission,
the hours specified in the
statute prevail.

Place of employment, i. e.,
any manufactory, mechan­
ical, or mercantile estab­
lishment, beauty parlor,
laundry, restaurant, confec­
tionery store, telegraph or
telephone office or exchange,
or express or transportation
establishment. (Females.1)
Exemptions: (By General
Order No. 6.) Registered
pharmacists and registered
assistant pharmacists.

9

50

Statutes (1951), Hotel.2 (Females.*)
sec. 103.02.
Industrial Com­ Conductors, motormen, or
mission, General
flagmen on streetcar lines.
Order No. 4.
(Females.) Exemption: 1stclass cities and their sub­
urbs.
Ibid., Special Or- Canning or first processing of
perishable fresh fruits and
d er (Season
vegetables. (Women and
1953).
minors.)

10

55

(2)

50

During season of actual can­
ning of product, women
and minors may be em­
ployed 54 hours a week,
but not over 9 hours a day.




(See
Day
of
Rest
law.)

Meal periods; rest
periods

--------------- --------

8

9

War- or defenserelated

Ibid., Special Or­
ders Nos. 2, 4 to
11.

2. Day of Rest.
Statutes (1951),
sec. 351.50.

Telephone operators in ex­
changes having:
2.000 telephones or over.. _
1.000 to 1,999 telephones
500 to 999 telephones
Under 500 telephones
(Females.)

Factory or mercantile estab­
lishment. (All employees.)
Exemptions: Janitors, watch­
men; manufacture of butter,
cheese, or other dairy prod­
ucts; distribution of milk
or cream; canneries, bak­
eries, flour and feed mills;
hotels and restaurants; em­
ployees whose duties require
no work on Sunday other
than caring for live animals
or maintaining fires; any
labor called for by an emer­
gency that could not reason­
ably have been anticipated.

See footnotes at end of table




In emergencies occasioned
by breakdowns, climatic
conditions, or unusual peak
loads, canneries which
have complied with safety
and sanitary laws and in­
dustrial commission orders
may employ women and
minors 16 years of age and
over on 12 days in the sea­
son for over 9 but not over
11 hours a day or 60 hours
a week. Time and a half
must be paid for hours
over 9 a day, 54 a week.
Special orders may be issued
by commission to deter­
mine the hours of employ­
ment of women in ex­
changes in private resi­
dences where work is done
exclusively by members of
the family.
Industrial commission may
by general or special order
make reasonable exceptions
or modifications to the law
if it determines that the
carrying out of the stat­
ute’s provisions causes
practical difficulties or un­
necessary hardships, and
that “life, health, safety,
and welfare of employees
shall not be sacrificed or
endangered thereby.”
Work on 7th day permitted
in case of breakdown of
machinery or equipment,
or other emergency requir­
ing immediate services of
experienced and compe­
tent labor to prevent se­
rious injury to person,
damage to property, or sus­
pension of essential opera­
tions.

102

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHTWORK—Continued
Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

WISCONSIN—Con.
2. Day of Rest—Con.
Industrial Com­ Paper and pulp mills. (All
mission, General
employees.)
Exemptions:
Order (Dec. 24,
Superintendents and depart­
1928, as amended
ment heads whose work is
May 27, 1937).
supervisory and not manual,
millwrights, electricians,
pipefitters, and other em­
ployees whose duties include
not more than 5 hours of es­
sential work on Sunday,
making necessary repairs to
boilers, piping, wiring, or
machinery.
3. Meal and Rest Peri­
ods.
Statutes (1951), Place of employment, i. e.,
secs. 103.01,
any manufactory, mechani­
103.02.
cal, or mercantile establish­
ment, beauty parlor, laun­
dry, restaurant, confectionery
store, telegraph or telephone
office or exchange, or ex­
press or transportation es­
tablishment. (Females.)
Exemptions: (By General
Order No. 6.) Registered
pharmacists and registered
assistant pharmacists.
Industrial Com­
mission, Gen­
eral Orders N os.
5 and 6.
Ibid., Special
Order No. 12.




All women employees. Ex­
emptions: Registered phar­
macists and registered assist­
ant pharmacists.
Telephone exchanges. (Fe­
males.)

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Variations
Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

*6

Not less than 1 hour dur­
ing each day or night
for dinner or other
meals.

At least hour must be
allowed for dinner or
other meal periods.
At least
hour free
from work for each
meal.

Industrial commission is au­
thorized to issue general
or special orders fixing such
period or periods of time
(day, night, or week) dur­
ing which work may be
done, as shall be necessary
to protect the life, health,
safety, or welfare of women
workers. Until such or­
ders have been issued by
the commission, the hours
specified in the statute pre­
vail.

War- or defenserelated

♦

Ibid., Special
Order (Season
.1953).

4. Night work.
Statutes (1951),
secs. 103.01,
103.02.

Ibid., sec. 103.02.

Canning or first processing of
perishable fresh fruits and
vegetables. (Women and
minors.)

Place of employment, i. e., any
manufactory, mechanical, or
mercantile establishment,
beauty parlor, laundry, res­
taurant, confectionery store,
telegraph or telephone office
or exchange, or express or
transportation establishment.
(Females.) Exemptions: (By
General Order N o. 6.) Reg­
istered pharmacists and
registered assistant pharma­
cists.

Employment be­
tween 8 p. m.
and 6 a. m. more
than 1 night a
week may not
exceed 8 hours a
night, 48 hours
a week.

Hotels,2

Employment be­
tween 9 p. m.
and 6 a. m. may
not exceed 9
hours a night, 54
hours a week.
8 p. m. to 6 a. m._

(Females).................

Ibid., sec. 103.69... Messengers for telegraph or
messenger company in the
distribution, transmission,
or delivery of messages or
goods, in cities of 1st, 2d,
and 3d class. (Minors under
21.)

See footnotes at end of table.

103



At least Jhour at usual
time for meals, viz, at
or about 12 noon, 6
p. m., and 12 mid­
night.
Stretch of work between
meal periods may not
exceed 6 hours.
Industrial commission is
authorized to issue general
or special orders fixing
such period or periods of
time (day, night, or week)
during which work may
be done, as shall be neces­
sary to protect the life,
health, safety, or welfare
of women workers. Until
such orders have been
issued by the commission,
the hours specified in the
statute prevail.
<*>-—.....................................

Industrial commission is
authorized to issue general
or special orders fixing
such period or periods of
time (day, night, or week)
during which work may
be done, as shall be neces­
sary to protect the life,
health, safety, or welfare
of women workers. Until
such orders have been
issued by the commission,
the hours specified in the
statute prevail.

104

LAWS GOVERNING MAXIMUM HOURS OF WORK, DAY OF REST, MEAL AND REST PERIODS, NIGHT WORK—Continued
Variations

Hour provisions
State

Coverage
Daily Weekly

WISCONSIN—Con.
4. Nightwork—Con.
Industrial Com­
mission, Gener­
al Orders Nos. 2
(a) and 3, and
Special Orders
Nos. 1, and 3 to
11.

Ibid., General Or­
der No. 1.




Mechanical or mercantile es­
tablishment, beauty parlor,
confectionery store, tele­
graph or telephone office or
exchange having 2,000 tele­
phones and over, or express
or transportation company
(other than streetcars).
(Females.) Exemptions:
Registered pharmacists and
registered assistant pharma­
cists.

Manufactories 5 and laundries.
(Females.)
Exemptions:
Officework; charwomen.

Days
per
week

Meal periods; rest
periods

Nightwork pro­
hibited or regu­
lated

General

In telephone exchanges hav­
ing less than 2,000 tele­
phones, the night shift is
from 10 p. m. to 6 a. m.
and is counted as follows
in computing the number
of hours worked (for maxi­
mum daily and weekly
hours, see Maximum
Hours).
Telephone exchanges having:
250 or fewer telephones:
Night shift counted as
1 hour.
251 to 499 telephones:
N ight shift counted as 2
hours.
500 to 749 telephones:
Night shift counted as 3
hours.
750 to 999 telephones:
Night shift counted as 4
hours.
1,000 to 1,249 telephones:
Night shift counted as 5
hours.
1,250 to 1,499 telephones:
N ight shift counted as 6
hours.
1,500 to 1,999 telephones:
N ight shift counted as 7
hours.
6p. m. to 6 a. m_
_ In condenseries, employ­
ment may continue until
7 p. m. on Saturday if
no Sunday work is re­
quired and the number of
hours specified in the
statutes is not exceeded.
Employment 6:30
p. m. to 6 a. m.
more than 1
night a week
may not exceed
8 hours a night,
48 hours a week.

War- or defenserelated

Ibid., General Or­
ders 2 (b), and 3.

Restaurants.

Ibid., General Or­
der No. 4.

Employment be­
tween 8 p. m.
and 6 a. m. on
more than 1
night a week
may not exceed
8 hours a night,
48 hours a week.
5 p. m. to 8 a. m.
in cities of 1st
class and their
suburbs, 5 p. m.
to 6 a. m. in
other places.

Conductors, motormen, or
flagmen on street car lines.
(Females.)

WYOMING:
1. Maximum Hours.
Compiled Stat­
utes (1945), vol.
3, secs. 54-703,
54-707,1951 sup­
plement.

2. Day of Rest. No
law.
3. Meal and Rest Pe­
riods.
Compiled Stat­
utes (1945), vol.
3, sec. 54-703,
1951
supple­
ment.
4. Nightwork. No
law.

(Females.)

Manufacturing, mechanical,
or mercantile establish­
ment, laundry, hotel, pub­
lic lodging house, apartment
house, place of amusement,
or restaurant. 3
(Fe­
males. 4)

Females covered by maximum
hour law who are required
to be on their feet continu­
ously.

18

In an emergency females 18
years of age and over may
be employed overtime if
time and a half is paid for
hours over 8 a day.
An executive order or proc­
lamation of the Presi­
dent of the United States
declaring an emergency
is to be construed as an
emergency within the
purview of this act.2

48

(2).

2 rest periods of notlless
than 15 minutes each,
1 before and 1 after
the lunch hour.6

FOOTNOTES
ARIZONA:
1 Work to be performed in a period not to exceed 13 consecutive hours.
s Daily overtime permitted when necessary: (1) To make 1 shorter workday in week; (2) to make up time lost on previous day of same week due to stoppage of machinery on
which worker is dependent; (3) to make repairs to prevent interruption of ordinary running of machinery. [Code Annotated (1939), vol. 4, sec. 56-117.]

105



106

ARKANSAS:
1 The statute provides that no female may be employed for more than 8 hours a day in the occupations described but provides also that 9 hours may be worked if overtime compen­
sation is paid at one and one-half times the employee’s regular rate. For overtime of a permanent nature beyond 9 hours a day, a permit must be obtained from the commissioner of
labor, in addition to the payment of overtime rates.
CALIFORNIA:
1 When a woman is employed by 2 or more employers subject to sec. 1350, total employment may not exceed 8 hours in 1 day of 24 hours and 48 hours in 1 week.
2 Applicable to females 18 and over.
3 Clerical homework and employees of banks are subject to Order No. 4-52 provisions. (Op. Atty. Gen., Jan. 28, 1946, and Nov. 6, 1944.)
4 For women employed as resident housemothers or in an occupation with similar duties involving direct responsibility for children under 14 years who weekly receive 24-hour
day care, the maximum is 54 hours.
® Women leasing taxicabs are subject to Transportation Order if cab owners are interested in manner of performance of work or operation of cabs and exercise considerable right of
control. (Op. Atty. Gen., No. 45/246, Oct. 23,1945.)
• “On duty” meal period permitted only when nature of work prevents employee from being relieved of all duty, such period to be counted as time worked.
7 Rest period need not be authorized for employees whose total daily worktime is less than 3H hours.
8 Food and hot drinks must be provided for employees required to work after 11:30 p. m.
* For women dismissed too late at night to use public transportation, employer must provide transportation.
‘o If a meal period occurs during these hours, facilities must be available for securing hot food or drink, or for heating food and drink, and a suitable sheltered eating place must
be provided.
COLORADO:
1 As of May 11, 1953, no minimum wage order had been issued for manufacturing establishments.
.
2 Women employed in beauty shops come within the term “mercantile establishment.” (Op. Atty. Gen., Apr. 13,1939.)
3 Applicable to all females employed in industries named. For minors under 16, except children between 14 and 16 (between 12 and 16 during summer vacation) on special permit,
in any gainful occupation 8 hours a day, 48 hours a week.
CONNECTICUT:
1 The provisions of the law regulating hours of women employees apply to employment of women prescription pharmacists. (Op. Atty. Gen., Mar. 18, 1937.)
2 Public laundries regarded as manufacturing establishments. [ General Statutes (1949), sec. 3759.1
DELAWARE:
1 By interpretation includes beauty shops. (Op. Atty. Gen., May 14,1940.)
2 Females 16 and over.
HAWAII:
1 Hawaii has a “wage and hour law” applicable to employees in private employment. It places no limit on hours of employment, but requires payment of time and a half worker’s
regular rate for hours over 48.
IDAHO:
1 Law does not cover employment of women by railroads in interstate commerce, including work as telegraphers or printer operators. (Op. Atty. Gen., March and August 1941.)
2 Females 16 and over.




♦

ILLINOIS:
1 The attorney general of Illinois has interpreted the scope of the 8-hour law in various opinions which may be summarized as follows:
Included under coverage:
Females employed in any office of any of enumerated industries--............................................................................................
Females employed at the county poor farm. ..................... ....................... ...... ......................... .
Females employed as accountants in mercantile establishments—................................................... .......................................... ............
Females employed in dyeing and cleaning establishments.......... ..................................................... ........................ ..............................
Females employed in charitable institutions.......... ..................................................... ................ .................
Females employed in commercial hatcheries______ ______ ______________________________
Exempt from coverage:
Newspaper publishers are not subject to the act_____ ________ _________ _____________________________ ____
Females employed in insurance companies_______ ____ _____________ _________________ _____
Females employed in real estate agencies................................................ ................................................................
Females employed in finance companies_____ ____________ _________________________________
Females employed in fraternity houses...................................................... ................................... .......
Females employed in radio stations______________ ______________________ ______ _
_
Females employed in “Currency exchanges”.................................... ......................................:........ ..................... .........
Females employed in banks.............. .........................................................................................................

Date of
opinion
8-26-37
8-26-37
1-5-40
1-5-40
11-18-42
4-29-43
8-26-37
1-5-40
1-5-40
1-5-40
1-5-40
1-5-40
6-19-47
8-30-49

2 Females 16 and over.
3 Opinions of the attorney general re the scope of the 6-day-week law indicate that the following employees are not included in the coverage:
Employees of undertaking establishments, radio stations, fraternity houses, charitable institutions................ .............. .................. ..........
Workers employed by cemetery associations................................................................................................................................
INDIANA:
1 Not applicable to switchboard operators. (Op. Atty. Gen., Jan. 7,1941.)
2 Sec. 40-1015 defines “young person” to mean a person of 14 years and under 18; “woman” means a female of 18 and over.

1-8-40
12-7-46

KANSAS:
1 Orders have been promulgated by the Kansas Labor Department pursuant to the authority vested in it by the State legislature to “establish such standards of wages, hours,
and conditions of labor for women * * * and minors * * * as shall be held hereunder to be reasonable and not detrimental to health and welfare.” The labor department of Kansas
reports that under this same authority permits are issued granting permission to employ women in war production in excess of the hours established by industrial welfare order No. 2.

107

KENTUCKY:
1 Kentucky statutes do not fix a 6-day workweek. The law has a provision, however, which requires that time and a half be paid to employees for work on the 7th day. Exemp­
tions: Employees working a 40-hour week or less; small telephone exchanges; clerical or technical assistants of professionals; employees subject to Federal Kailway Labor Act; seamen;
operators of boats; common carriers; persons icing railroad cars. [Revised Statutes (1948), sec. 337.050.]




108

LOUISIANA:
i Females 18 and over.
s By interpretation, beauty operators (as employees of mechanical establishments) and employees of radio stations (as employees of telegraph establishments) are included in
coverage. (Op. Atty. Gen., 1942-44, p. 695, and 1944-46, p. 32.) Exempted, by interpretation, are registered nurses in manufacturing establishments, employees of boardinghouses,
and employees in florist shops in all size communities who are engaged entirely in the growing of flowers or in the performance of clerical work. (Op. Atty. Gen. 1944-46, p. 323, p.
324, and p. 1099.)
MAINE:
i Applicable to females 16 and over.
MARYLAND:
1 An act of 1888 (amended in 1943) limits to 10 hours the workday of employees in the service or under the control of corporations or manufacturing companies engaged in manu­
facturing cotton or woolen yarns, fabrics, or domestics of any kind. Certain exemptions applicable to males over 21 years of age are in the act. [Annotated Code (Flack, 1951), art.
100, secs. 1-3.]
2 Females 18 and over.
3 By interpretation, statute does not apply to officework in the establishments covered. (Op. Atty. Gen., Oct. 23,1941.)

•

MASSACHUSETTS:
1 If the work performed in 1 day is not continuous, but is divided into 2 or more periods, the work shall be so arranged that all such periods shall fall within a period of 10 consec­
utive hours except: (1) for transportation or telephone companies, hotels, private clubs and places of amusement where the employment is determined by the department to be seasonal,
and hotels where meals are served during 3 separate periods totalling not more than 7 hours in 1 day and the employment is connected with serving of said meals; (2) in mercantile
establishments such periods may fall within 11H consecutive hours during a total of not more than 7 days in any calendar year of which 6 shall be 6 weekdays within a period of 4
weeks immediately preceding Christmas and the 7th, the Saturday immediately preceding Easter; and (3) in any place of employment where the principle source of income of certain
employees is in tips or gratuities, upon written petition of not less than 60 percent of such employees, the commissioner may allow such periods to fall within a period of 12 consecutive
hours. Hospital employees may be employed outside the period of 10 consecutive hours on authority of commissioner if he finds an emergency exists requiring such action.
2 The current expiration date on the commissioner’s authority is July 1,1954, but this regulation has for a number of years been extended annually by the legislature.
3 If work on any day is not continuous, all periods must fall within 10 consecutive hours.
4 Minors under 21. Messenger work entirely prohibited for girls under 18, by ruling.
MICHIGAN:
1 By interpretation, includes beauty shops. (Op. Atty. Gen., Apr. 7, 1931.)
2 By interpretation, includes telephone office. (Op. Atty. Gen., Mar. 10,1914.)
3 Though 12 hours are permitted, department requests canners to limit hours to 10 a day whenever possible.
4 Latest information available indicates that regulation for season of 1948 still in effect during 1951.
5 The granting of definite rest periods of 15 minutes’ duration, morning and afternoon or on swing shifts, etc., is a recommendation of the State labor department.
MINNESOTA:
1 Applicable in sanatoriums to chambermaids, janitresses, kitchen workers, elevator operators, and telephone operators, but not to nurses or other employees. (Op. Atty. Gen.,
June 11,1941.)
2 Applicable to females 16 and over.




259312 — 54 -------8

MISSISSIPPI:
1 Secs. 6986 and 6992 limit employment of persons over 16 for more than 10 hours a day in any mill, cannery (except fruit or vegetable), workshop, factory, or manufacturing estab­
lishment, except that on first 5 days of week an additional Yi hour a day may be worked, such additional time to be deducted from the last day of the week; and except that persons
employed at night only may work 11^6 hours on first 5 nights of week and
hours on Saturday night, but 60 hours shall constitute a full week's work for such employees.
2 Females 16 and over.
MISSOURI:
1 Females 16 and over.
MONTANA:
1 Montana State constitution (art. XVIII, sec. 4, as amended by referendum effective Dec. 2,1936) provides that “a period of 8 hours shall constitute a day’s work in all indus
tries, occupations, undertakings, and employments, except farming and stock raising: Provided, however, That the legislative assembly may by law reduce * * * but shall have no
authority to increase the number of hours constituting a day’s work beyond that herein provided.”
2 Various statutory provisions also require that 8 hours shall constitute a day’s work for persons (men and women) employed in specified industries and occupations, including
retail stores; public amusements; restaurants; telephone operators; mines, mills, and smelters; railway employees; sugar refineries; and others. Some provide also that 48 hours shall con
stitute a week’s work.
NEBRASKA:
1 Office does not include a bank. (Op. Atty. Gen., Jan. 22,1943.)
2 Females 16 and over.
NEVADA:
1 Applicable to females 18 and over.
2 8 hours must be worked in a 13-hour period.
3 Sec 2825.42a which provided for relaxation of hour provisions during World War II for female workers employed by a common carrier for hire or by the communications industry
is not applicable to the Korean conflict, by attorney general’s opinion: Letter from State labor commissioner to Women’s Bureau dated May 12,1953.
* Not applicable to State, county, or city employees.
8 Meal and rest periods must be included in the 8 hours of work per day to which women are limited. (Op. Atty. Gen., May 1, 1947.)
NEW JERSEY:
1 Females 18 and over.
2 The application form for such a permit requires plant to submit data showing that it has facilities for hot meals, first aid, medical service, and that transportation facilities foi
women on a night shift would be adequate and available. Certain requirements governing the employment of women at night must be guaranteed by employer: (1) If part or all
of employment is between 12 midnight and 7 a. m., working hours not to exceed 10 a night; (2) not more than 6 consecutive working periods in 7 days; (3) at least J^-hour meal period
after 6 hours of work.

109

NEW MEXICO:
1 The working day shall not be divided into more than 3 shifts. | Statutes Annotated (1941), vol. 4, sec. 57-402.]
2 Woman employee exceeding 8 hours in a day but not exceeding 48 hours in the week is not entitled to overtime pay. However, she should not be permitted to exceed 8 hours
in a day except as provided by the emergency clause. (Op. Atty. Gen., July 21,1952.)




110

3 Express and transportation companies included in term “public utility business."
4 Females 16 and over.
5 The scope of the exemptions has been interpreted by the attorney general in the following opinions:
Date of
opinion
Exempts all female employees of hospitals and sanitariums, including clerks, cleaning women, etc., from the provisions of 57-401 et seq.................. ___........ .......................3-17-53
Exempts female dental assistants whose duties are not entirely clerical and stenographic from piovisions of 57-401 et seq................................ .................... ........ ................... 4-24-53
57-401 et seq. not applicable to State employees; their hours of labor may be fixed by the governor, subject to the approval of the State board of finance, according
to 70-2...... ..................... .................................................................................................................. ...... ................................... ............ ....................................................,..........3-16-53
NEW YORK:
1 Not applicable to officeworkers although duties are partly performed in a factory or mercantile establishment or elsewhere. (Op. Atty. Gen., No. 126,1928.) Members of a
subpartnership considered employees and subject to provisions. (Op. Atty. Gen., 1933, 48 St. Dept. 410.)
2 Except during period specified, general provisions governing factories apply.
3 In lieu of Dec. 18-24 period, employer may select any 7 consecutive days during period from Dec. 4 through following Dec. 23, by filing a written notice of days selected with
industrial commissioner.
4 “Resort" applicable to establishments which operate for not more than 4 calendar months and 15 days each year. “Seasonal" applicable to establishments in which the number
of employees is increased by at least 100 percent from the slack to the busiest season.
5 Under 18 years, employment prohibited.
0 Under 21 years, employment prohibited.
7 Text of law reads that employers shall allow employees “at least 24 consecutive hours of rest in any calendar week."
NORTH CAROLINA:
1 Females 18 and over.
2 Where the day is divided into 2 or more work periods for the same employee, such periods shall be within 12 consecutive hours, except that in the case of employees of motionpicture theaters, restaurants, dining rooms, and public eating places, such periods shall be within 14 consecutive hours.
3 The current expiration date is March 1,1955.
4 In laundries and dry-cleaning establishments, employment is limited to 55 hours a week for all employees. Except for employment in mercantile establishments and as outside
salesmen on a commission basis (occupations specifically exempted by the statute), the hours of men may not exceed 10 a day, 56 a week. Time and a half must be paid for more
than 55 hours a week. In seasonal rush of business, however, a manufacturing plant may apply to labor commissioner for permit to employ males overtime for a period not to exceed
60 days, during which period time and a half must be paid for hours over 56 a week.
5 For hours law applicable to establishments employing 9 or more persons in many of these industries, see first entry in coverage column.
NORTH DAKOTA:
1 Executives covered by maximum hour requirements when acting as employees. (Op. Atty. Gen., Sept. 4, 1942.)
2 Applicable to those 18 years and over.
3 In such case, doctor’s certificate must be furnished showing it will not be dangerous to human life to continue employment in the establishment involved.
4 Work in manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, laundry, express or transportation companies not within emergency exemptions. (Op. Atty. Gen, Jan. 10.1944.)
3 Hospitals are not subject to regulations as public housekeeping establishments with respect to hours of employment required of female kitchen workers, according to decision
of the State supreme court. [Pagel v. Trinity Hospital Assn. (1942), 72 N. D. 262, 6 N. W. 2d 392.1
6 The only limitation in order as to days worked is that women may not be employed for more than 28 days in any 1 month.*




*

OHIO:

Ill

Note: Ohio laws were recodified, H. B. 1, Laws 1953, effective Oct. 1, 1953. Cited sections ol the General Code Annotated, 1008, 1008-1,1008-2,1008-2a 12993, and 12996 are now
Sections 4107.42, 4107.43, 4107.46, 4107.47, 4109.10, and 4109.22 respectively of the Revised Code.
1 Emergency law enacted 1951. Senate bill 232, effective Sept. 16,1951 [General Code Annotated (Page, 1937), vol. 11,1951 supplement, Appendix P-5], suspended and replaced
until Sept. 1, 1953, secs. 1008-1,1008-2, and 12996 (relating to minors) of the General Code. S. B. 232 is identical in most respects with the suspended provisions of the General Code.
The major difference is the extension of maximum weekly hours for manufacturing from 45 to 48. Ail differences are shown in the “War-or defense-related” column In 1953 S B 160
extended S. B. 232 until Sept. 1, 1955.
‘
< • ■
»If day’s work is not continuous, overall work period may not be more than 10 consecutive hours, except that in hotels and nonprofit hospitals, and in mercantile establishments
on those days when 10 hours’ work is permitted, overall spread may be 12 hours and in communications companies spread may be 13 hours.
Also, under 1951 (and 1953) act regulating employment in a national emergency, overall spread of 12 hours permitted for officeworkers over 18 in manufacturing establishments
on days of week in which 10 hours is permitted, and for employees in financial institutions and restaurants.
3 Applicable to females over 21; those under 21 permitted to work only 8 hours a day.
* Under suspended sec. 1008-1, taxi driving was a prohibited occupation for females.
OKLAHOMA:
1 Not applicable to females employed in banks. Ex parte Carson (1926), 33 Okla. Cr. 198, 243 P. 200.
s Females 16 and over.
OREGON:
1 The 10-and 60-hour maximums covering employment of females in certain establishments are provided by sec. 102-323 of the Oregon Code. However, for most of the industries
covered, minimum wage orders which also establish hours’ standards have been issued by the State wage and hour commission, under authority granted the commission in secs.
102-303 and 102-304 of the code. Such minimum wage orders and the shorter maximums which prevail under these orders are listed in chronological order following statute citation
in this chart.
2 Although not covered under maximum-hour provisions, employees in canneries, driers, and packing plants must be paid time and a half their regular rate of pay for hours over
10 a day.
3 Hours must be worked within a period of 11 consecutive hours, excluding time off for lunch.
* No maximum-hour provisions, but women working more than 12 hours per day must be paid time and a half for all hours ovor 12.
3 Order provides that "Every woman and minor shall have 1H day’s rest in 7.”
8 Only maximum set is 12 hours daily for minors under 18. However, women employees working over 10 hours a day must be paid time and a half for first 2 hours of overtime,
and double time for hours in excess of 12 a day. For women working on 7th consecutive day in any regularly scheduled workweek, time and a fourth must be paid for first 8 hours’
time and a half for over 8 and up to 12 hours, and double time for hours over 12.
7 Employees must be paid time and a half regular wage for hours over 40.
8 An “On duty” meal period is permitted only when nature of work prevents an employee from being relieved of all duty, and any such period must be counted as time worked.
"If agreeable to employee and to employer, forenoon rest period need not be given if forenoon work period is less than 2 hours and 45 minutes, but if period not given, a 20-minute
rest period is required in afternoon.
10 No woman may be required to report for work or be dismissed from work between 10 p. m. and 6 a. m. unless suitable transportation is available.
PENNSYLVANIA:
7 The hours of work in any working day shall be performed within a spread which is not greater than 2 hours more than the hours of work permitted by law or regulation. (G-4 )
In hotels and restaurants the spread of hours may not exceed 13 in any 1 day, except that for front-oflice employees working split shifts the daily spread shall be determined by aver­
aging over a 2-day period. (S-2.) In telephone industry, 10 hours may be worked within 13 consecutive hours in 1 day. (S-5.) •




112

Whenever any female is employed or permitted to work in, or in connection with, more than 1 establishment in any 1 week or in any 1 day, the aggregate number of hours dur­
ing which she shall be employed shall not exceed 48 in any 1 week or 10 in any 1 day. [Sec. 103 of Statutes, Annotated (Purdon, 1941), title 43, ch. 4,1952 supplement.]
2 In small telephone offices with 1 employee on duty from 10 p. m. to 7 a. m., Buie S-5 (2) authorizes “a total of 2 hours inactivity” in lieu of 1-hour meal period.
> sec. 104, Statutes Annotated (Purdon, 1941), 1952 supplement, which previously prohibited work between 10 p. m. and 6 a. m. in manufacturing establishments for females
21 and over was amended in 1947 to permit females to be employed in manufacturing establishments during any hour, night or day, so long as the provisions of this act are com­
plied with and there is compliance with the regulations established by the industrial board. Applications for employment on a 2- or 3-shift basis shall be made to the department
of labor and industry. Sec. 105, Statutes Annotated (Purdon, 1941), 1952 supplement, which previously prohibited employment between 9 p. m. and 6 a. m. in any establishment
as defined with certain exemptions, for females under 21, was amended in 1947 making it applicable only to females under 18.
PUERTO RICO:
i Puerto Rico’s 1919 law regulating the work of women and children (Session laws: 1919, Act. 73, as amended 1930, Act 28 and 1947, 5th special session, Act 6), was amended in 1949
(Session laws 1949, Act 364), eliminating the previous maximum-hour limitations for women of 8 hours a day and 48 hours a week. The law as now amended provides that women not
subject to the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, shall be paid twice the salary agreed for regular hours for work in excess of 8 hours up to 12 hours a day, or in
excess of 48 hours up to 72 hours a week, and triple time for hours in excess of 12 hours a day or 72 hours a week; women covered by the FLSA shall be paid time and one-half salary
agreed upon for work after 8 hours up to 12 hour a day, or In excess of 40 hours up to 60 hours a week, and triple time after 12 hours a day or 60 hours a week. Act 379, Session laws
1948, has similar provisions for all employees ‘‘in every commercial, industrial, and agricultural establishment; in every shop, factory, centrale, mill, and manufactory; in every ranch,
property, larm, estate, and plantation; in every public-service enterprise, in every gainful business, including printerles, publishing houses, newspaper enterprises, clinics, hospitals,
pharmacies teaching institutions, boardinghouses, hotels, eating houses, restaurants, stores, groceries, warehouses, depots, markets, garages, bakeries, theaters, racetracks, casinos, and
other similar businesses; In every business office or establishment, law office, consulting room, and professional office, and In every place devoted to the rendering of services of any
kind through payment * * * shall also be applied to all chauffeurs and drivers of public and private motor vehicles except those who work on a commission basis * * * but shall not
be applied to persons employed in domestic service: Provided, however, That they shall be entitled to 1 day of rest for every 6 days of work.” Government employees are also exempted
“excepting such agencies and instrumentalities as are devoted to agricultural, industrial, commercial, or public service enterprises.
j Section 553 of the Penal Code (Session laws 1950, Act 250) is a Sunday closing law applicable to all commercial and industrial establishments except those specifically exempted.
A second Sunday law applies to barbershops—except those in rural districts. (Session laws 1946, Act 289 as amended 1948, Act 172.)
RHODE ISLAND:
i A 1945 amendment (ch. 1658) to ch. 298 of the General Laws prohibits any person from engaging in gainful activities or requiring or permitting an employee to work on Sundays or
specified holidays in any store, mill, or factory, or any commercial occupation, or in the work of industrial process, except to perform such work as is absolutely necessary and can
lawfully he performed on Sunday, and except various types of athletic contests. Provides for enforcement by department of labor and on conviction payment of fine of $200 to $500
for each offense.
SOUTH CAROLINA:
1 Secs, 40-51, 40-52, 40-53, 40-55, Code (1952), vol. 4, applicable to cotton, rayon, silk, or woolen textile mills for all employees working inside or outside, except office and super­
visory staff, engineers, firemen, watchmen, shipping and outside crews, repair shop crews, carpenters, mechanics, and electricians establishes an 8-hour day, 40-hour, 5-day week,
but provides that employment over 8 hours a day and 40 hours a week is permitted when the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act have been complied with.
3 Secs. 64-5, 64-6, make it unlawful for any person “to employ, require or permit the employment of women or children to work or labor in any mercantile, or manufacturing
establishment, on the Sabbath Day * * *. The commissioner of labor, and factory inspectors, are hereby charged with the enforcement of this section, as well as all other laws now in
force relating to labor.” Conviction for violation is punishable by a fine of $25 to $100, or Imprisonment, not to exceed 30 days, for each offense. Sec. 64-A is also enforced by the comSJ By Act 418, of session laws 1953, all textile manufacturing establishments and their employees in any city having an exact population of 5,140, according to latest official census,

are exempt from Day-of-Rest law in order to permit manufacturing to begin at 10 p. m. on Sunday.




•

■»

*

TENNESSEE:
1 Females 18 and over.
TEXAS:
1 The Fair Labor Standards Act, the Walsh-Healey Act (Public Contracts), and the Bacon-Davis Act.
2 Op. Atty. Gen., June 24, 1943.
2 Hospital employees and employees of interstate railroads engaged in officework are included in coverage. (Op. Atty. Gen. July 31,1943, and Oct. 2, 1942.)
4 Applicable to females 15 years and over.
8 Stenographers and pharmacists are exempted regardless of the population of the town or city in which they might be employed. (Op. Atty. Gen., July 23, 1943.)
6 “Any female employee who works more than 40 hours per week shall be entitled to receive from the employer double pay rate for all hours in excess of 9 hours per day, provided
the employee actually works more than 40 hours per week."
UTAH:
1 The 8 hours must be worked in net more than 2 working periods and within 12 consecutive hours.
2 Females 18 years and over.
3 Administrative regulations of the commission in respect to emergency-work permits require that time and a half be paid for hours over 8 a day. Application must be made for
emergency permit as soon as the emergency arises; for peak-period permit, at least 7 days before permit is to be used. In no case may hours of work exceed 12 a day, such overtime not
to be worked on more than 3 days in any calendar week.
4 The 8 hours must be worked within 12 consecutive hours.
8 The iVi hours on split shift must be worked in not more than 2 working periods and within 12 consecutive hours.
6 Women may not be required to work more than 8-48-6 except on special permit from industrial commission.
11f employee cannot be relieved of all duties and is not permitted to leave premises, such meal period may not be deducted from hours worked.
8 Order provides for payment of minimum wage rate for meal period.
VERMONT:
* By interpretation, officeworkers in manufacturing establishment are exempted. (Op. Atty. Gen., July 25,1940.)
VIRGINIA:
* By interpretation, includes beauty shops. (Op. Atty. Gen., July 14, 1938.)

113

WASHINGTON:
1 Provisions applicable to females 18 years of age and over.
2 A 1951 act directed the governor to appoint a commission of 3 members from names submitted to him by organizations or associations representing labor, industry, and govern­
ment. Commission to continue in existence during period of national emergency as proclaimed by the President.
3 Employed time includes minutes or hours when employee has to remain subject to call of employer and is not free to follow his or her inclinations.
4 For this industry Washington issued 2 orders: 1 for theatrical amusement and recreation and 1 for general amusement and recreation. Except for variances in the definitions of
coverage, the provisions of both orders are identical.
8 An “on duty” meal period is permitted only when nature of work prevents an employee from being relieved of all duty, and any such period must be counted as time worked.
6 Relief can be given either by general relief or relief personnel at the option of employer.
7 Rest periods are provided for and can be arranged by individual relief or general periods. Order specifies that interval shall cover time from stopping work and returning thereto.




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8 In this order the application is to women.
8 Paid waiting time during which no work is done is considered as satisfying the rest-period requirement.
WEST VIRGINIA:
1 A 10-minute rest period during each 4-hour shift is recommended by State labor department.
WISCONSIN:
1 Females 18 and over.
3 Industrial commission does not have power to change the maximum daily and weekly hours prescribed by statute for women employed in hotels.
3 The statute reads: “At least 24 consecutive hours of rest in every 7 consecutive days.”
4 The General Order reads “24 consecutive hours of rest in each calendar week shall be deemed compliance with [the statute].”
fi Special orders issued by the industrial commission for factories engaged in canning or first processing of fresh fruits and vegetables permit night employment of women 18 and
over during season of actual canning of product.

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WYOMING:
1 8 hours’ work must be performed within a period of 12 hours.
2 A May 5,1947, Attorney General opinion states that war conditions do not in themselves warrant emergency employment of women for overtime hours; in emergencies overtime
employment is optional with employers.
3 By interpretation, also includes dry-cleaning establishments, clerical workers in interstate commerce also covered by FLSA, manual labor in railroad shops, and eating places
in private clubs. (Op. Atty. Gen., May 19, 1939, Dec. 11,1947, Sept. 15,1948, and June 27,1950.) Not covered are beauty operators, canvassers, and employees of railroad telegraph
and telephone offices. (Op. Atty. Gen., Mar. 6,1951, Aug. 11,1941, and Sept. 15, 1948.)
4 Applicable to females 16 years and over.
* Required rest periods included in hours worked. (Op. Atty. Gen., Aug. 9,1951.)