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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
R OYAL M EE K E R , Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES )
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BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS J * * ’ \ NUMBER L J 3
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SHORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS
AND A FACTORY SCHOOL EXPERIM ENT




APR IL, 1915

W A S H IN G T O N
G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O FFIC E
1915




CONTENTS.

Part I.—Short-unit courses for wage earners in part-time and evening
sch ools........................................................................................................
Plan and scope of the work............................................................................
General evening industrial schools................................................................
Kind of pupils..........................................................................................
Limitation of attendance.........................................................................
Needs of the workers...............................................................................
Faults of organization, courses, methods, etc.......................................
Advantages of short-unit courses...................................................................
Summary of plans for evening industrial schools........................................
Application of the short-unit course to the part-time school.....................
Usual method of elementary part-time instruction.....................................
Correlation between classroom and s h o p .....................................................
Difficulties of correlating classroom and shop.......................................
Conditions necessary to correlation........................................................
The short-unit course and the mixed class..................................................
Lists of courses.................................................................................................
Limitations in use of courses..................................................................
Short-unit courses of evening schools of specified cities.....................
Typical short-unit courses......................................................................
Analysis of courses...................................................................................
Application of short-unit course to household art school...........................
Part II.—A factory school experiment...............................................................
Introduction.....................................................................................................
The initial experiment in instructing factory workers..............................
The factory school established.....................................................................
Character of the instruction....................................................................
Cost of the school.....................................................................................
Earnings of girls as affected by school instruction..............................
Advantage to the employer ...................................................................
Probable value of similar schools in other industries................................
Descriptive analysis of .processes and occupations.....................................
Description of special machines used for fancy work, e t c ........................




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BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
W H O L E NO. 159.

WASHINGTON.

A P R IL ,

1915.

SHORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS, AND A
FACTORY SCHOOL EXPERIMENT.
PART I.—SHORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARN­
ERS IN PART-TIME AND EVENING SCHOOLS.
BY W . A. O’LEARY AND CHARLES A. PROSSER.

PLAN AND SCOPE OF THE WORK.
This Bulletin contains a list of short-unit courses in various trades
and occupations, and a discussion of their application to tradeextension work in part-time and evening schools.1 These courses are
not short cuts to the trade; they are a device for effectively meeting
the needs of certain groups of workers already in the trade.
1 Acknowledgments are due the following persons for material contributed to this Bul­
letin. In most instances this material has been modified to meet the requirements of the
Bulletin. The writers are responsible for the form in which it is here printed. Boot and
shoe manufacturing, E. C. Swaysland, director of instruction in boot and shoe manufac­
turing, Northamptonshire, England; carpentry, Oliver H. Gardner, industrial school, New
Bedford, M ass.; concrete construction, M. M. Sloan, architectural engineer, Philadelphia,
P a .; electrical work, Henry C. Fellman, Industrial School for Boys, Boston, M ass.; esti­
mating for building construction, E. M. Bassett, estimator and engineer, Philadelphia,
P a .; farming, L. S. Hawkins, specialist in agriculture, State department of education,
Albany, N. Y . ; furniture making, C. A. Zuppann, president Industrial Science and Arts
Association, Grand Rapids, M ich .; laundry chemistry, Abraham ITenwood, head chemistry
department, Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, P a .; machine-shop drafting, Chester B. Ham­
mond, industrial school, New Bedford, M ass.; machine-shop mathematics, J. Gould Spofford, principal industrial school, Quincy, M ass.; machine shopwork, Ezra Morse, principal
industrial school, Somerville, Mass., and Lewis H. Haight, Industrial School for Boys,
Boston, M ass.; mining, Millard B. King, expert assistant for industrial education, State
department of public instruction, Harrisburg, P a .; miscellaneous courses, Alfred P.
Fletcher, assistant superintendent public schools, Rochester, N. Y .; outline of courses,
New York City evening schools; pattern making, Frederick Turner, Mechanic Arts High
School, Boston, M ass.; power-machine operating, Lucy Osborne, Worcester Girls’ Trade
School, Worcester, M ass.; printing, Egbert C. MacNary, principal industrial school, Spring­
field, Mass. ; sheet-metal pattern drafting, Ellsworth Longfield, New Bedford, Mass.,;
steam engineering, H. Percy Arnold, industrial school, New Bedford, M ass.; steam fitting,
Fred Earle, New Bedford, M ass.; textile manufactu ing, Henry Nichols, textile school,
New Bedford, M ass.; women’s work, Iris Prouty, head girls’ department, Boardman Trade
School, New Haven, Conn.




6

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The short-unit or brief course is an intensified form of instruction
which is intended to serve in a limited number of lessons a specific
need of a particular group. Each unit deals with one part of
the trade and is complete in itself. The subject matter is selected
with reference to the need of the group rather than its relation to
other parts of the trade. Many evening school courses in mathe­
matics, for example, admit to the same class machinists, carpenters,
printers, and anyone else who wants the subject. They begin with
arithmetic, and include a series of topics progressively arranged, end­
ing, perhaps, with elementary trigonometry. The course usually ex­
tends over several terms, and the subject is taught with reference to
its general application to shopwork. Under the unit system, instead
of the general course just described, a separate course would be given
in mathematics for the carpenter, another course for the machinist,
and a third course for the printer, each course aiming to meet the
special needs of a particular group.
The last census shows that more than seven millions of people are
wage earners in this country, the large majority of them being engaged
in productive industry. The problem of reaching these workers and
training them for increased industrial efficiency is the great task of
the industrial school. While some of these workers can be reached
by the all-day school, most of them must be trained for their work, if
at all, after they have left the schools to become bread winners.
It is with the training of this latter group, through part-time and
evening schools, that this Bulletin is especially concerned. This dis­
cussion therefore has nothing to do with the day industrial and trade
school or with the attempt to train, through evening schools, persons
for employment in industries which they have not yet entered.
Neither is it concerned with the selected artisan who because of
superior capacity and unusual ambition finds himself well able to take
an extended course of training.
The large body of people engaged in industry are employed in a
variety of occupations which differ greatly as to the skill and knowl­
edge demanded of the worker. As individuals, they also represent
the greatest possible variety of interest, mental aptitude, manual dex­
terity, ambition, previous schooling, and all the other qualities and
conditions that must be taken into consideration as factors in any
attempt to reach them with vocational training.
This great variety of employment and of individual capacity makes
impossible any scheme of vocational training which attempts to deal
with all workers in industry in the mass. Only by studying the
workers and classifying them into particular groups according to
their needs can they be effectively trained.
The short-unit course plan herein proposed has already proved
successful in reaching such groups of workers as the following.



SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

7

1. Specialized machine hands who while running one machine
wish to learn how to operate another, as the planer hand who wants
to learn to operate the universal grinder. Courses of this kind are
in operation in the evening classes of the Newton (Mass.) Trade
School.
2. Skilled workmen, who, because of the progress of their trade,
find themselves lacking in a small but necessary body of knowledge
required to meet the newer demands of their trade, as the printer who
needs instruction in how to match colors and how to “ doctor ” ink, or
the piano tuner who wishes to learn the construction and mechanism
of the player piano. The Murray Hill Evening Trade School, New
York City, is offering instruction of this character to piano tuners.
3. Operatives or workers in the low-grade skilled and unskilled
occupations where there is a small body of knowledge of 6 tricks of
6
the trade” and best ways of doing things which is not common to
the shop. This information is often small in quantity, direct in
character, and therefore special. It must be given, if at all, in a
brief course. The training given chocolate dippers in the school of
the candy factory of the Walter Lowney Co., Boston, is an example
of instruction given by the short-unit course in a low-grade skilled
industry.
4. Workers on specialized jobs desiring instruction to meet the
requirements of the next job in line of promotion, as for example,
the cleaner or finisher in the dress and waist industry who wishes
to be fitted to be an examiner or a cloth inspector. The unit courses
in rod making in the furniture industry given to machine hands to
qualify them to become cabinetmakers also illustrate this type of
work. Such courses are given in the evening trade school of Grand
Rapids, Mich.
5. Groups of men in a skilled occupation who are desirous of
taking training brief and direct in character, but who can not be
induced to take long and continuous courses. The question involved
here is not what is the best method of training the man but rather
how shall you reach him at all. The evening courses for steam
engineers given in the industrial school at New Bedford, Mass.,
consisting of 40 lessons each, are of this type.
Out of a study of the needs of the worker will doubtless come
numerous methods of meeting such needs. Some of the methods
already in use, particularly those dealing with the more ambitious,
better prepared, and more able workers engaged for the most part
in highly-skilled trades, have long stood the test of experience.

This Bulletin will have accomplished its purpose if it succeeds in
directing attention to the specific trade needs of those great bodies of
workers whose needs are not now being met, and in bringing about a




8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

larger use of the short-unit course as a means of reaching these
workers with trade- extension instruction.
GENERAL EVENING INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS.
There has grown up in this country a type of evening school which
aims to meet the needs of trade workers, which, for want of a better
name, we might call the general evening industrial school. This
school is usually conducted under the auspices of the public-school
authorities, as will be most of the organized instruction for the wage
earner.

This general evening industrial school is to a very great extent
an evening high school, giving what is, after all, instruction of a
secondary grade in general mathematics, general science, and general
mechanical drawing, which are the three subjects that have been
traditionally regarded as affording knowledge of the kind used in
manufacturing pursuits. Usually the classes in these subjects are
open to every one over 14 years of age, and the membership of a
given class is frequently made up of such varied elements as highschool boys with particular interest in general subjects, clerks seeking
change of work, young men with interest in and talent for drawing
or who are taking the course as a means of recreation, and a few
workers in the trade. While it seems a misnomer to call such a
school an industrial school, the fact remains that it is so termed.
Of late, many of these general evening industrial schools have
added as practical work, shop courses in such subjects as general
woodwork, general metal work, and general electrical work. In
some cases an instructor is employed who has had actual and ade­
quate experience in some phase of the shopwork which the course
covers, as for example, when a carpenter is employed to teach a
class which includes, in addition to some carpentry work, the mak­
ing of furniture. In too many instances, however, this general shopwork is given by the manual-training instructor of the general day
school, who has had some experience in all the lines in which he is
giving instruction, but not enough to command the respect of the
trade worker.
The experience of the most successful industrial schools goes to
show that the lack of efficiency of many general evening industrial
schools is largely due to such reasons as the following: (1) Failure
to understand the kind of pupil that comes from the industry;
(2) neglect to study the needs of the trade worker; (3) disregard of
the limited time the school can hold the pupil; (4) inefficient methods
of organization and administration; (5) failure to adapt its teaching
methods to the needs and ability of the pupil. It is the aim of this
Bulletin to discuss these factors from this point of view and suggest




SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

9

methods of organization and teaching better adapted to the type of
trade worker herein discussed.
KIND OF PUPILS.

The evening industrial school pupil is frequently a wageworker who
has a family to support. Economic necessity presses hard upon him
and forces him to increase to the utmost his earning capacity. He
comes to the school to get something on which he can realize in his
trade. He is there to buy certain instruction, as it were, exactly
as he goes to the store to purchase a new and improved tool. Un­
less the school is prepared to do what the store does—that is, sell
him the thing he wants—the school is going to fail of its purpose so
far as the wage earner is concerned, and he will go to the corre­
spondence school or some other institution which he thinks can supply
his want. .
The time of the trade worker is limited, and the school must not
waste it. In many industries he still works more than eight hours
a day, and in others he is frequently called upon for overtime. He
often lives at a distance from his work and the school, and loses
much time in coming and going. The school, therefore, ought to
conserve his time in every possible way. This it can do only by
eliminating from the course all subjects not necessary as a means of
increasing the pupil’s trade efficiency, by so organizing the work that
he can easily get what he needs, and by employing the most direct
and efficient methods of teaching it can command.
The pupil who comes from the trade is generally a mature worker,
and the mature worker usually knows his needs. A pupil ought
not to be admitted to the school until he is 17 years of age. He
is seldom accepted in the industry until he is 16, and at least one
year in the trade is necessary in order to acquire sufficient experience
and knowledge of his needs to enable him to profit by the instruction
of the evening school. If the pupil is admitted at 17, this will make
the average age of those in most schools about 23 or 24 years. He
has “ knocked around ” more or less from one shop to another and
has learned by hard experience what the trade demands of him and
what are his trade deficiencies. He knowT what things are assets
s T
and what are not; and he has been “ up against ” varying industrial
conditions and has learned what he must do to meet them. At 24 he
is no longer an adolescent; he is a mature man. His maturity and
experience have developed his judgment, which, with a knowledge of
T
his needs, qualifies him to select from the work of the school the
courses that best meet his wants. This places upon the school the
responsibility of offering practical courses adapted to the demands
of the trade.




10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The man in the trade is extremely skeptical of the value of the
work of the general evening industrial schools. This appears to
be particularly true in the case of the trade worker who, as a boy,
has had high-school training in such subjects as algebra and general
science, and who now comes to the school in search of instruction he
can use in his trade. If he is given the same kind of training he
received in the high school he loses interest, because he has not
found any practical use for what the school has already taught him
and he is of the opinion that his need is not to be met by giving him
more of the same thing. The worker who has not received highschool training is also doubtful of the ability of the school to help
him. He looks upon the schoolmaster as lacking in practical knowl­
edge, and thinks that while the instruction given by the general even­
ing industrial school may be all right so far as theory is concerned,
it has no practical value.
The mechanic is lacking in formal schooling; he is seldom a
grammar-school graduate, and frequently has never gone further
than the sixth or seventh grade. This lack of schooling, together
with the fact that such schooling as he has had is too remote to be
easily recalled, makes it impossible for the average worker to meet
the scholarship standards of the regular school. Therefore, evening
courses based upon regular school standards, or those which require
the passing of an ordinary school examination, automatically shut out
most workers. They not only can not pass such an examination, but
will not make the attempt. Standards of this character, moreover,
do not determine a man’s fitness to profit by trade instruction, and
they ought not to be put up as requirements for admission to a school
whose aim is to give trade extension instruction.
On account of his lack of schooling the mature worker is sensitive.
He knows he can not meet the academic tests which the regular school
imposes and which younger pupils can readily pass. At the same
time he may be a man of standing in his trade. He has reached a
point where he wants to know certain things which he can not learn
in the industry and he comes to the school to get them. To place
such a man in a class with young boys and force him to meet the
academic standards of the regular school is to humiliate him and
wound his self-respect. This the school ought not under any circum­
stances to do.
The trade worker can not think in abstract terms. Whatever
thinking power he possesses has been gained through practical ex­
perience ; his thinking in connection with his work is in terms of the
tools and processes of his trade and not in terms of abstract prin­
ciples. Even his thinking in concrete matters not related to his
trade is often done in the terms of his trade. Even if he could
absorb abstract knowledge, it would be of no value to him because



SH O RT-U N IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

11

he could not adapt it to the practical processes of his trade. To
do that appears to be difficult for even the selected graduate of the
best engineering schools. It is evident, therefore, that if the worker
is to be trained to greater thinking power the approach must be
made through trade processes with which he is already familiar and
not from the viewpoint of abstract subject matter which may have
in it the possibility of adaptation to the trade.
The worker advances in his trade because of his practical knowl­
edge and not because of general academic training. The trade in­
sight and mastery of trade processes necessary to advance come only
through study and practice of the trade itself; general academic
training can directly contribute little. Doubtless there are men of
academic training who are holding responsible trade positions, but
this is because they are selected men and not primarily because of
their academic training. If the school is to train the worker to
advance in his trade it must shape its instruction from the stand­
point of the practical requirements of the trade and not from the
standpoint of an academic school.
LIMITATION OF ATTENDANCE.

Experience goes to show that the usual evening industrial school
does not hold the majority of its pupils longer than a year, and that
many of them it does not hold for that length of time. The reasons
for this have been touched upon at various points in this discussion.
It should be noted in this connection, however, that the trade worker
represents a shifting body of people. Many workers, like those of
certain nationalities in the textile industry, are migratory by instinct
and habit; others, as for example, mechanics in the building trades,
shift with the demand of the labor market. Whatever may be the
cause of the failure of the school to hold its pupils, in view of the fact
that it does fail, it is clearly a mistake to organize the work for such
artisans into continuous courses extending over several years.
The limited time the school can hold the pupil, even under the
most favorable circumstances, is one of the fundamental reasons
why the worker who has not had experience in the trade in which he
seeks instruction should not be admitted to trade classes. In many
communities evening-school instruction is maintained only 20 weeks
of the year. For the majority of men attendance for more than three
evenings a week is a hardship and in many cases a physical impossi­
bility. Should the pupil continue for four years, the entire time
would amount to only 480 hours, or 48 working days of 10 hours each.
It is doubtful whether this amount of instruction will enable the
ordinary unskilled adult to gain entrance into a skilled trade except
as an apprentice.



12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

NEEDS OF THE WORKERS.

It has already been pointed out that the worker in the trade needs
instruction he can use as an asset in his calling; greater expertness
in order to hold his jo b ; knowledge of how to operate a machine other
than the one on which he is employed, as, for example, how to run a
milling machine when he is running a planer, in order to provide
himself with another job should this one give out; knowledge of some
specific process, like that of figuring an indicator card, that he may
be able to cut down his fuel consumption; a more extended knowledge
of trade materials, as, for example, the knowledge of a new material,
like vanadium steel. Again, the need is of an entirely different char­
acter, as the need of giving the instruction through a foreign lan­
guage; or, still again, it is a need arising from the industry, but which
in itself is not directly a trade asset, as, for instance, the need of the
woman millworker for instruction in cooking.
The industrial school, to be efficient, must study the specific needs of
both the individual and the industry. To learn the needs of the in­
dustry the school officers must consult the employer, visit various
industries, see them in operation, and observe the conditions under
which they are carried on. In this work both the employee and the
employer can be of great assistance. To understand the specific needs
of the worker, in addition to visiting the place of employment, con­
ferences between prospective pupils and the instructors of the school
are necessary. This can be accomplished by means of a preliminary
registration, which is discussed in another part of this Bulletin. In
every case the needs of the worker, the local practices of the trade,
and the conditions surrounding the industry should be carefully
considered before proposed courses are formulated. As new groups
and new needs appear, courses should be revised and new courses
organized to meet these needs.
It is a weakness of many of the general evening industrial schools
that they have made no systematic study of the needs of their pupils.
FAULTS OF ORGANIZATION, COURSES, METHODS, ETC.

In such matters as the formulation of courses, arrangement of pro­
grams, standards of admission, records of work and attendance,
methods of promotion, and the like, the general evening industrial
school has in many cases followed altogether too closely the practice
of the regular day school. The courses, for example, are frequently
organized from the standpoint of the subject as a whole and arranged
in a series of logical steps. Promotion from course to course some­
times depends upon the ability of the pupil to meet certain require­
ments which have nothing whatever to do with his trade efficiency.
Such methods of organization, it must be repeated, obscure the aim



SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

13

of the work and disregard both the needs and the experience of the
pupil the school is attempting to train.
From the standpoint of organization the inefficiency of many gen­
eral evening industrial schools is, to a large extent, unquestionably
due to the vagueness of their aim. They often make no distinction,
for instance, between trade-extension courses and trade-changing
courses. Trade-extension courses are intended for men who have had
experience in the trade in which the course offers instruction and who
\Tish to supplement their trade knowledge or skill with additional
trade knowledge for use in the practice of their trade. Only men who
are experienced in the trade and who wish this training for trade pur­
poses should be admitted to trade-extension courses. Trade-chang­
ing courses are designed for men who wish to change from the trade
or occupation they now follow to some other which, they believe,
promises greater success, but in which they have had no experience
or training. The evening industrial school, for reasons that need not
be here discussed, has not yet found a satisfactory method of giving
these men effective trade training and it is doubtful if it can find one.
Such men ought not to be admitted to trade-extension classes. Never­
theless, it has been the practice of many of the general evening indus­
trial schools not only to accept them, but to place them in the same
class with experienced tradesmen.
Sometimes the general evening industrial school maintaining
courses for women is confused as to the purpose of its work because
it makes no distinction between courses in home making and trade
courses for women. Courses in home making, such as cooking and
sewing, should be formulated from the standpoint of the needs and
the practices of the home, but at the same time should be taught
wherever possible with the thoroughness usually required by trade
classes. Trade courses for women, on the other hand, like trade
courses for men, should be organized and taught from the stand­
point of the needs of the trade worker and the requirements of the
industry. A course in sewing that would be adapted to home use
might entirely fail to meet the requirements of trade work. To
clarify the aim in the case of instruction for women, as well as that
for men, the various groups to be taught should be segregated and
organized on the basis of the purpose for which the instruction is
intended.
The trade experience of the worker is also a factor in efficient
organization. It is clear that satisfactory teaching can not be done
in a class which is not organized on the basis of a common trade
experience. It would be impossible, for example, for an instructor
to teach efficiently a class in machine-shop practice to which were
admitted machinists, chauffeurs, engineers, and pattern makers, for
the reason that the trade experience of these men has been so varied



14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

that there is no sound teaching basis. For similar reasons it is not
good practice to admit to the same class young boys who have had
little or no experience in the trade and mature men who have already
mastered many parts of it. In organizing trade classes the evening
school should place in the same group only those pupils who have
had essentially the same trade experience. The reasons for organiz­
ing the group in this way from the standpoint of teaching are dis­
cussed in detail at a later point in this Bulletin. It is to be noted
here, however, that proper group organization as a factor in efficient
administration is often not recognized by general evening industrial
schools.
In matters of organization the industrial school should follow busi­
ness methods rather than those of the regular day school. In many
respects the industrial school is a business quite as much as it is a
school. It maintains shops which, from the standpoint of equipment,
methods of handling work, and product turned out, resemble more
closely the commercial shop than those of the manual training or the
technical school; it deals with workmen who are regularly employed
in industrial plants, and it has a variety of trade contacts entirely
unknown to the regular school. Under these conditions the “ unit ”
method whereby the school is organized into a number of “ unit”
schools according to the trades to be taught, and in which a respon­
sible head is placed in charge of each unit, has been found to be
efficient. The head of each “ unit ” school bears essentially the same
relation to the general director of the whole school as that of a de­
partment superintendent to the general superintendent of a manu­
facturing establishment. This is essentially a business method of
organization and has the advantage of fixing responsibility for results
to a degree that can not be attained under usual school methods or
organization.
The unwillingness to adopt aggressive methods of advertising is a
further reason for the failure of some evening industrial schools
to reach any large extent of the trade. They have commonly assumed
that to reach pupils they need only make a statement in the news­
paper or school department circular that certain courses are to be
offered. They have seldom taken the point of view that they had
education to sell, and that if they were going to do business they
would have to adopt the methods of publicity employed by successful
business concerns. Some of these methods are discussed elsewhere in
this Bulletin.
It is a mistake for the evening industrial school to administer its
work on the theory that the layman has nothing to contribute. This
point of view has prevented many schools from getting into sympa­
thetic contact with the community. As a matter of fact, the layman
has a large contribution to make to the work of the school that will



SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

15

greatly increase its efficiency. This is particularly true of the em­
ployer and men already in the trades. Such men can be of great
service in keeping the school in touch with the community and the
industries; helping it to find out the trade needs of its pupils; assist­
ing it to shape its courses of study; searching out teachers; obtaining
quarters and equipment; giving suggestions as to effective forms of
business administration; and checking up the results of the instruc­
tion. Such service, it should be noted in passing, ought to be purely
advisory and should have nothing to do with the executive details
of the administration of the school.
One method of securing the assistance and advice of practical
men is that of organizing an advisory board for each trade taught
in the school. This board should be made up of practical men
actually engaged in the trades taught and might well have repre­
sented on it the employer, the foreman, and the employee. From
time to time it should meet with the director of the school and the
instructors in the trade for which it is organized for the purpose
of consultation and advice upon matters affecting the interest of the
work. Once or twice a year these various advisory boards should be
brought together in a general meeting. The success of the advisory
board as an agency for promoting the interests of the school will
depend to a large extent upon the ability of the school authorities to
secure the right type of men as members and to discover effective
ways and means of using their services.
Many evening industrial schools have too often been obliged to do
business without proper equipment. They have frequently had to
get along with only that of the regular day school, which is often
not at all adapted to trade work. It is true that in some subjects
effective instruction can be given to the trade worker without exten­
sive equipment; but no instruction can be made as efficient as it ought
to be without the proper kind of equipment. In order to get the
best results the equipment of the evening industrial school should
be of the same standard, both as to quality and capacity, as that used
in the best plants engaged in commercial work of the kind for which
instruction is being given. It should be sufficient, both in variety
and quantity, to enable the school to give instruction in all the trade
processes required to meet the needs of its pupils. The usual manual
training equipment, which is the only equipment possessed by many
schools, is inadequate for this purpose.
More important than equipment is the question of the qualifications
of the teacher. The teacher in the evening industrial school should
be selected from the industry and not from the general day school.
He should be a master of his trade and in good standing among his




16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

fellow craftsmen. He should be a man of good personality and in
vigorous health. He should be experienced in handling men and
should know how to reach them. Unless such a teacher can be ob­
tained, the school ought not to attempt to give trade instruction.
The instructors of the evening industrial school when selected, as
they frequently are, from the ranks of teachers in the general day
school are skilled in the regular school methods of teaching, but they
are not usually familiar with the methods that must be employed to
teach efficiently in the industrial school, nor are they acquainted with
the problems and practices of such a school. Moreover, they are
usually lacking in a practical knowledge of the trade, without which
they can neither teach successfully nor command the respect of the
trade worker.
Preliminary registration for determining the needs of the pupil
and his fitness to profit by the instruction of the school has already
been suggested as a necessity in evening industrial school work. A
week before the opening of the session may well be given to this
work, each course being scheduled for registration on a definite
night. Applicants for admission should be required on registering
to interview the instructor in charge of the course they Avish. In
this interview such facts as the pupil’s previous trade experience
and training, the purpose for which he wishes the work, his probable
fitness to undertake the course, and certain additional data similar
to that listed at the end of this Bulletin might well be determined
in detail. This information should be entered on cards especially
prepared for the purpose and filed for future reference. The pre­
liminary registration as a means of determining the pupil’s fitness
for admission is an administrative device which the general evening
industrial school has seldom employed.
Efficient teaching in the evening industrial school, it has already
been noted, requires that the knowledge to be imparted should be
taught with reference to the worker’s practical experience and trade
interest. To do this it is necessary, unless individual instruction is
to be given, that pupils should be organized into groups, all the
members of which have had about the same trade experience. The
subject matter should be carefully selected from the standpoint of
its practical value and should be organized and taught, as nearly as
possible, in the practical form in which it is encountered by the pupil
in the practice of his trade. How groups of this character can be
organized has already been discussed as a question of administration.
The material to be taught and the form in which it is organized, it is
evident, must be practical rather than theoretical in character, be­
cause the pupil, having had little or no training in trade theory,
has been limited in his experience to practice and has not developed
the capacity to acquire knowledge unless it is related to his practical



SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

17

experience. For this reason the textbooks and methods of some
evening industrial schools, being adapted as they are to the teaching
of abstract knowledge, fail to make the necessary contacts with the
worker’s experience and are therefore of little or no value in teach­
ing the pupil in trade-extension classes. Furthermore, to select and
organize in practical form the subject matter to be taught requires a
teacher who has had the practical experience which the instruction in
such classes is designed to give.
The worker should be taught from the standpoint of direct and
immediate values. Instruction given from the standpoint of de­
ferred value means present preparation for future need and deals
with abstractions and repetitions instead of practical application.
It means preparation for more preparation for still more prepara­
tion. The average worker is not fitted either by experience or by
academic training to acquire knowledge by the process of continuous
preparation. Moreover, he comes to the school for the purpose of
meeting a present, not a future, need, and he will not submit to the
preparatory drill which always accompanies teaching from the stand­
point of deferred values. However well this method may be adapted
to instruction in high-school subjects, it is not adapted to the work of
the evening industrial school.
At an earlier point in this Bulletin the short-unit course was
defined. How this type of course can be used to meet the need of
the trade worker is further pointed out in the following pages.
ADVANTAGES OF SHORT-UNIT COURSES.

The short-unit course puts up a trade asset; it includes only what
has been passed upon by men in the trade and found to be of prac­
tical value. The material thus selected is taught by a practical
teacher and with reference to its adaptability to the trade needs of
the particular group for whom the course is intended. The various
courses in machine-shop mathematics, given at a later point in this
Bulletin, illustrate how courses in this subject, under the short-unit
system, can be made of practical value to the worker. It is to be
understood that these courses need not be used in exactly the form
in which they are given here, but can be modified to meet the specific
requirements of the group in question.
Courses organized as short units economize the time of the pupil.
This is done by eliminating all unnecessary preparatory work, and
all work that does not apply to the specific topic to be taught, and
by arranging a flexible program that will permit the pupil to break
into the work at the point of his greatest need. I f he is a drafts­
man and wants to understand the meaning and use of formulas, it
does not first require him to take a general course in algebra.
62260°— Bull. 159—15------2



18

B ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The worker in the trade who has had a limited academic training
and is therefore unable to meet general academic requirements is not
excluded from the short-unit course on account of his lack of school­
ing. Instead of making an academic requirement a test of fitness to
take the work the pupil is admitted to the course on trial on the basis
of his previous experience, the nature of his need, and his probable
ability to profit by the instruction. These are determined by a con­
ference between the prospective pupil and the instructor. This does
not mean that all requirements for admission to every course are en­
tirely eliminated. Certain courses in this Bulletin, for example, pre­
suppose the experience represented by other courses. This experi­
ence, however, may be gained either in the school or in the trade, and
is to be tested not by formal examination but by conference and trial
as to the pupil’s ability to do the work.
It has already been pointed out that one weakness of some general
evening schools is the fact that their courses are laid out to cover
three or four years, whereas only a very few pupils remain in the
school long enough to complete the course, and that by dropping out
of a continuous course the pupil loses much of the value of the work
he has already taken. The short course recognizes this situation and
meets the difficulty (1) by making the unit so small that the pupil
will be able to complete it within the time the school can probably
hold him, and (2) by dealing with one specific thing in each course.
Organizing the course as a short unit makes the instruction complete
as far as it goes and therefore more effective. If the unit course is
laid out for 10 lessons the pupil who remains through the course
gets all the school has to offer upon the specific topic, which is prob­
ably much more than he would get from the first 10 lessons in a course
on the same subject laid out to cover a year. By limiting the course to
one specific thing the effort of the pupil is concentrated on one subject
instead of being dissipated among several, as it would be in the gen­
eral course. This results in more regular attendance, in more in­
tensive work, and a corresponding gain in efficiency.
By putting up a series of short-unit courses in the same subject
experience goes to show that when one is completed the pupil is likely
to return for the next one, and thus remains in the school longer
than he would if the same work were laid out in the form of a con­
tinuous course.
The content of the course is first determined by going to the in­
dustry and there finding out what are the needs of that industry.
Before opening the course, by means of a preliminary registration,
the specific needs of each pupil are discovered and a group is formed,
based upon a common need. The content of the course is defined in
terms of the specific need of the group and the number of lessons and
the method of approach are then determined by the need. Instead



SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

19

of a general course in cooking, for example, in one course would be
given eight lessons in bread making for beginners and in another
live lessons in bread making for the experienced housekeeper. Or,
again, an Italian-speaking group would be segregated from the rest
of the class and placed under a teacher who could speak the lan­
guage of the group.
Variation in need would be met by the formation of a new group.
I f the variation were so great that enough pupils having a common
need could not be found to form a new group smaller groups could
be formed within the main group and run either in parallel or in
series, but if that were not feasible individual instruction could be
given.
The method of dividing the work into short units is especially
adapted to the needs of the mature worker. As previously stated,
the mature worker because of his judgment and his experience in the
trade usually knows his needs. The short-unit system, by offering a
variety of courses based on the demands of the industry and in a
language he readily understands, gives him an opportunity to make
a selection that will meet his needs.
The chaotic state of the work in some of the evening industrial
schools, it has already been noted, has been due to the fact that the
school has not clearly understood the purpose of the work. Many
schools have regarded the evening work for women, for example,
as uplift work; they have failed to realize that the fundamental
aim of evening work for women should be to increase their efficiency
as workers, either in the trade or in the home. Or, again, they have
not understood the purpose because they have not known what fac­
tors in any given case enter into efficiency. In work for men they
have failed to distinguish between courses that are an integral part
of the trade and those that have only an incidental relationship to
it, as, for example, courses in motor construction for the machinist
and courses in the same subject for electricians. All this is primarily
a failure to comprehend the aim of the work and is mainly due to the
fact that the school has not studied the needs of the worker. The
unit course, by determining the specific need of each group before the
course is organized and then defining the work in terms of this need,
clarifies the aim and gives point and purpose to the instruction.
Courses organized under the unit system enable the school to dis­
cover new groups to be served. In every community there is always
a great deal of vagueness as to what the school is doing. Many peo­
ple whom the school should serve are never reached because the
courses have been advertised in such general terms that people do
not understand what they are for.
If, instead of general courses, unit courses are offered in terms
of probable group needs and advertised in language that is readily



20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

understood among the people they are intended to serve, new groups
will be discovered whose existence heretofore has been unknown.
The unit system is flexible; it meets the needs both of the person
who wishes help on some particular point, but who can not take an
extended course, and the person who wishes a complete course. The
pupil can break into the work at the point of his need, get the help
he wants and then withdraw; if he has other needs, to satisfy them
he has only to repeat the process. By taking units enough he can
get a well-rounded training.
The unit course also makes possible a flexible school program.
Units may be arranged in series,1 in parallel, alternately, or in
groups, and may be repeated as many times as the facilities of the
school will allow. This flexibility of program works to the advan­
T
tage of the pupil who can attend only at irregular intervals, or for
a short period of time.
The flexibility of the unit system as compared with the regular
school course is illustrated by the grouping of letters given below.
I f the letters A, B, C, D represent progressive steps in the usual
‘school course, there is only one point at which the pupil can enter;
that is at A. I f he wishes to enter at C he must pass an examina­
tion in A and B.
I f these letters each represent a unit course, it is seen that by the
flexible organization of these units, a pupil may. enter at any posi­
tion of A, B, C, or D for the desired instruction, and still, if he
wishes, complete an entire course equal in practical content to the
regular school course.
A B C D
B C D A
C D A B
D A B C
In discussing experience and need as affecting organization, it
was pointed out that these two factors are at the basis of sound
teaching method. It was show^n that in order to utilize the princi­
ples of apperception and interest, the group to be taught must have
a common experience and a common need. Given a group so or­
ganized, there are several devices that can be employed in the shortunit course to relate the instruction to the pupil’s interest and
experience.
The question-and-answer method is effective. Under this method
practical questions asked by members of the group and by classes
of former years are collected and prepared in the form of lesson
sheets, in which the instruction is given by printing the question
1 One difficulty of organizing short-unit courses in series can be overcome by having a
given class meet only one night a week.




SHORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

21

and immediately after it the answer. These sheets serve as a basis
for class discussion, and are retained by the pupils for future refer­
ence. By repeating the same question in various forms on different
sheets the pupil approaches the subject from various angles and a
variety of contacts are established. Allowing the pupil to retain
his papers provides him with a fairly complete discussion on each
topic in a form he can easily understand. In work involving mathe­
matical calculations the lesson sheet should contain a large number
of examples worked out in considerable detail and accompanied by
an explanation of each step in the process.
The success of this method depends upon selecting questions that
the pupil wishes to have answered; carefully working out the an­
swers with reference to their practical application; clearly stating
them in the language of the trade; discussing the questions and an­
swers in the class; and at frequent intervals repeating the questions
on other sheets. This device is especially useful in preparing pupils
for license examinations.
Another form of the question-and-answer method is the device of
placing in the pupil’s hands diagrams and drawings accompanied by
practical questions to be answered by an examination of the draw­
ings. This can be varied by substituting for the drawings models and
parts of the job itself. Still another variation of the same device
is to use partially completed diagrams, which, in answer to questions
on the lesson sheets, are to be completed by the pupil.
The use of lesson sheets is especially applicable to a group formed
under the short-unit system, because the material can be drawn from
the common experience of the group and represent questions whose
answers every pupil wants to know.
Another method of relating the instruction to the pupil’s experi­
ence and interest is that of preparing lesson sheets, each of which
deals with one simple unit, as, for example, a lesson in roof framing
on methods of finding the length of a valley rafter. This sort of
lesson sheet should include a variety of diagrams illustrating different
cases carefully worked out. It should eliminate all related theory
and should confine itself to examples, illustrations, statements of facts,
and such explanations as may be necessary to make the meaning clear.
A modification of this device is to increase the size of the unit and
extend it over a number of lessons. Instead of figuring the length of
a valley rafter the pupil is given a framing plan and required to
lay out all the rafters on the plan. Just which method should be
used in any given instance depends upon the need and experience of
the group.
The use of sections of various forms of pipes, valves, parts of the
machines, etc., cut away to show the construction is valuable not
simply because the pupil can be most readily taught through the eye,



22

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

but because he has a practical interest in examining these things.
Equipment of this kind can frequently be obtained from the manu­
facturer if he understands the purpose for which it is wanted. Manu­
facturers will also send their experts to the school to demonstrate its
use. Where it is impossible to obtain this sort of material from the
manufacturer, some of it can easily be constructed within the school
itself. In many classes the stereopticon can also be used to advantage.
In teaching subjects like mathematics, an especially valuable device
is that of taking typical cases, arbitrarily giving the rules necessary
for the required solution, and teaching the pupil how to apply the
rules. This work has to be supplemented by a great deal of careful
explanation. It is especially effective with the type of pupil being
discussed, because he is interested in the process rather than the
reasons that underlie it, and because it gives him at once the informa­
tion he wants.
In the case of courses which are intended to prepare the pupil to
pass an examination, such as those required in some States for an
engineer’s license, it is well to organize the instruction with the
examination itself as a unit, rather than some topic of the subject
covered by the examination. Experience shows that men with a
limited academic background find it difficult to retain instruction
long enough to enable them to pass an examination unless there is
frequent review of the material on which they are to be examined.
One method of overcoming this difficulty is to take for the unit
those phases of the trade that are included in the examination and
prepare lesson sheets that shall cover in a spiral all of these phases.
SUMMARY OF PLANS FOR EVENING INDUSTRIAL
SCHOOLS.

1.
To sum up what has already been said, the best evening indus­
trial school for the types of worker discussed in this Bulletin should
contain the following features:
(a) Preliminary study.—A preliminary study to determine the
needs of the industry and of the workers.
(b) Teachers.—The teacher of practical subjects in every case
should have had experience in the trade; he should have teaching
ability and should be able to organize his work into teaching units;
he should be acceptable both to the employers and the employees; he
should be paid for his services, and the pay should range from $2 to
$5 an evening.
(c) Help of practical men.—The assistance of practical men
should be obtained in such matters as securing proper quarters,
selecting qualified instructors, obtaining buildings and equipment,
passing upon the value of proposed courses, advertising the work



SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

23

of the school, finding out the needs of industry, checking up results,
and obtaining the assistance of various organizations.
(d) Advisory board.—The assistance of the layman can best be
obtained through an advisory board. There might well be one board,
consisting of from three to five members, for each trade taught in
the school. The advisory board should have no executive power
and should act only by advising and suggesting.
(e) Publicity.—The school should advertise extensively in the
newspapers and by means of placards and circulars distributed in
shops, clubrooms, recreation centers, and public places where men are
accustomed to congregate. The circulars should state clearly, in sim­
ple language, such facts as the location of the school, schedule of its
work, the nature and length of the courses, and the groups for whom
these courses are intended. Lantern talks and addresses before vari­
ous social and industrial organizations, including trades-unions, on
the purposes and work of the school should be given wherever a
hearing can be obtained.
( /) Preliminary registration.—Before the school opens there should
be a preliminary registration. At this time the school should find
out in detail the specific needs of each pupil. Applicants might well
be required to register on a card calling for such data as the follow­
ing: Name, address, age, occupation, name and address of employer,
experience in trade, purposes for which work is required, previous
industrial-school attendance, references as to ability to profit by the
work desired, and any other data the school may find necessary.
This card should be kept as a permanent record and on it should be
entered from time to time such additional data as the following:
Character and quality of the pupil’s work in the school, time and
cause of his leaving the school, changes of employment, and the
effect of his school work upon his employment so far as this can be
ascertained.
(; ) Qualifications for admission.—The pupil should be admitted
g
to the school on trial on the basis of his experience and need, and
should be at work in the trade in which he wants instruction, or
else he should be able to give evidence that he has had experience in
a related trade that will qualify him to profit by the work he desires.
He should be at least 17 years of age and in good health.
(A) Home preparation.—In general the school ought not to require
home preparation. In classes where such preparation is found pos­
sible it may be encouraged and credit may be given for it in the
school work. In certain classes—as, for example, sewing—work can
be done at home and brought into the school for examination and
approval.
(i) Cooperation of the employer.—Efforts should be made to ob­
tain the cooperation of the employer. The best way to do this is



24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

to train the employees efficiently. The school authorities should
frequently visit the plant of the employer and should study the em­
ployer’s needs. It is well to notify the employer whenever any of
his employees register in the school and to consult him at intervals
as to their progress and needs.
{]) Organization of program.—The units of the program might
well be arranged in series, so far as possible, and subjects scheduled
to come on alternate nights. If the demand for a certain course is
large and the facilities of the school will admit, courses may be ar­
ranged in parallel.
(k) E quipment and building.—For the best work the equipment
should be up to date and of first-class quality. There should be suffi­
cient variety to meet the needs of the pupils. I f new equipment can
not be obtained, second-hand equipment may be made to answer. I f
the school does not have an adequate shop, a vacant commercial shop
will serve the purpose.
(I) Analysis of work.—Before offering courses the subjects to be
taught should be analyzed in terms of the probable needs of the
industry as shown by a preliminary study. This analysis should be
made by the instructors, and lesson plans should be prepared based
on the analysis.
(m) Attendance.—The pupil should be held to regular attend­
ance and required to give explanation for absence. Absence with­
out satisfactory reason for more than two successive nights should
automatically remove the pupil from membership. Owing to irregu­
larity of attendance due to sickness, demands of the home and the
employer, it is frequently advisable to send personal letters to pupils
who fail to meet this requirement. When the number of applica­
tions for any course is larger than the school can easily accommodate,
a waiting list will steady the attendance. In certain cases a deposit,
to be refunded if attendance is satisfactory, has been found to be
helpful. It is desirable that classes be limited to not more than 15
pupils to each instructor in the case of shop classes and not more
than 20 in other classes.
(n) Short-unit courses.—The work should be offered in the form
of short-unit courses; the course should be ]ong enough to meet the
needs of the worker; efficiency, of course, is independent of the
length.
2. The success of the evening industrial school depends on—
(a) A practical and efficient course.
(b) A teacher who is skilled in teaching and experienced in the
trade he is to teach.
(c) A group of workers with common experience who want the
work and for whom the instruction is a step forward in their calling.




SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

25

3. To reach the worker—
(a) You must not wound his self-respect; he must be put into a
group of men like himself, who have had about the same hard knocks
in the world, about the same amount of schooling, and who have
about the same amount of ability and about the same amount of
skill on the job.
(b) You must not waste his time; you must have goods to deliver
which he wants, and you must deliver them immediately and
directly.
APPLICATION OF THE SHORT-UNIT COURSE TO THE
PART-TIME SCHOOL.
From the standpoint of this Bulletin a general continuation school
will be regarded as a school where the pupil who has already become
a wage earner gives a part of his working time to the school for the
purpose, on the whole, of continuing his general education, making
for better and more intelligent citizenship.
The part-time industrial or trade school is a school operated
during the day where the pupil who has already become a wage
earner is drawn out of the industry for a part of his working time
for the purpose of increasing his efficiency in the occupation or trade
he is following or of preparation for another. This school may
be of two different types, part-time trade extension or part-time
trade preparatory. The part-time trade extension school as here
considered is a school for increasing the trade efficiency of the worker
in the trade or occupation in which he is employed. The part-time
trade preparatory school is a school which prepares the worker for
a calling other than the one in which he is employed.
This Bulletin is concerned only with the application of the shortunit course to the part-time trade extension school and has nothing
to do with the continuation school nor with the part-time trade
preparatory school.
USUAL METHOD OF ELEMENTARY PART-TIME
INSTRUCTION.
In any part-time plan the school’s part in the work is usually
confined to classroom instruction, which is commonly one or the
other of two rather distinct types. Sometimes it is organized as a
general course in such subjects as general mathematics, general
science, and mechanical drawing, which it is felt the worker should
know. This course is commonly carried on in the same way as the
general course in a regular high school. Not infrequently these
general courses are given under the high-school roof by regular high


26

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

school teachers. A school of this kind, though called a part-time
school, is essentially a continuation school, and need not be here dis­
cussed. Usually, the part-time course consists of a modified form of
the general course, and is determined by eliminating from it those
topics that have no application to trade work, and giving more
attention to topics which do apply to the trade. Instead of teaching
all of the general subject of algebra, for instance, such subjects as
the binomial theorem and permutations are omitted, and the
instruction is centered on fundamental processes and on topics like
formulas and simple equations, which it is assumed have general
application to a variety of trades. These topics, however, are not
usually taught from the standpoint of the needs of the worker in any
given trade.
CORRELATION BETWEEN CLASSROOM AND SHOP.

The weakness in the customary method of organizing the class­
room work in the part-time school is that it does not, for reasons
already discussed, admit of effective correlation between shop ex­
perience and classroom work. To give efficient industrial training
requires a close interweaving of practice and theory. Practice lays
the basis for the understanding of theory and fixes it when taught.
Theory gives meaning and direction to practice. The closer that
“ doing and thinking about the doing * can be related, the more effi­
’
cient will be the instruction. To accomplish this requires close cor­
relation between shop experience and classroom teaching. For exam­
ple, to teach most effectively the boy in the classroom how to index a
milling machine by the continued fraction process requires that the
boy shall actually be doing a milling machine job in the shop that
makes it necessary for him to know how to use this method.
Correlation is the only way in which the pupil can be trained to
T
real power by the work of the classroom. Only by intimately relat­
ing the abstract work of the book to the concrete processes of the
shop can the book work be made intelligible to the pupil.
Unless the pupil can be taught to think in connection with the job
he is doing, there is great danger that the work of the shop will
become mere mechanical manipulation. To teach him to think
requires an interweaving of classroom and shop work in such manner
as to utilize the subjects of the classroom such as drawing, mathe­
matics, and applied science to enlighten the processes of the shop.
DIFFICULTIES OF CORRELATING CLASSROOM AND SHOP.

It is clear that correlation between the classroom and the shop
is necessary to efficient teaching in the part-time school. Certain
conditions, however, make this correlation extremely difficult, and



SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

27

to a large extent impossible, save where the short-unit course method
is used. This is true for the following reasons:
1. The school can not control v
the work of the shop. The shop
of the part-time school, like any other commercial shop, must take
its work as it comes. The character and quantity of the work de­
pend entirely upon its business. Under these conditions it is ex­
tremely difficult to organize shop work to meet the needs of the
pupil. He must rather adapt himself to the requirements of the
shop. Even where it might be possible to adjust the shop work to
the needs of the boy, it has not yet appeared that very many manu­
facturers are interested enough in the problem of training the boy
for the industry to make the necessary sacrifice to do this. The
school must therefore adapt itself to the industry, and it can do so
only by using the device of the short-unit course.
2. Variation in the time of admitting the pupil to the part-time
school makes it difficult to secure effective correlation. The time
when the boy enters the school is usually determined by the mini­
mum age at which he can enter the industry. Unless the school
confines its dates for accepting pupils to once or twice a year, they
will be entering the class at various points in the progress of the
work. In some places this difficulty is met by accepting pupils only
at stated intervals, as in the regular schools. This practice is open
to the objection that it throws the boy back either into the regular
school or into a dead end employment until the part-time school will
receive him, and neglects his instruction during the interval before
the opening of a new term of school.
By breaking the classroom work into short units sufficient flexi­
bility is given to the program to permit the school to accommodate
the boy at any time when he enters the industry.
3. In smaller industrial centers, at least, the fact that a part-time
class must usually contain small groups of boys from several different
trades which vary widely in their content and practice presents a
special problem which is discussed at the close of this part of the
Bulletin.
4. The extreme specialization in large shops and factories, and
even in many skilled industries, has tended more and more to make
the usual workman a machine hand having a high degree of knowl­
edge of and skill at the machine which he operates, and little or no
experience or opportunity to get experience at other machines and
processes in his trade.
To give such a w
rageworker the range of training necessary to
make him a competent all-round workman, it is becoming increas­
ingly clear that the part-time school must supplement the narrow
opportunity which the commercial shop affords by maintaining at




28

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

least a modest school shop for the purpose of giving him additional
instruction in shop practice at new machines.
It is very doubtful whether a part-time class organized on any
other than a short-unit basis will meet the needs of the specialized
machine hand. A part-time course made up of general topics, fails
to take into consideration the immediate shop needs of the worker
and for purposes of instruction is not at all concerned with the char­
acter and extent of his shop experience. On the other hand, the
short-unit course aims to meet the immediate trade requirements of
the worker, and is itself the result of a close analysis of the oppor­
tunity afforded by the commercial shop for trade training, which
must of necessity reveal the deficiencies to be met by supplementary
shop practice under the school roof.
When supplementary instruction at new machines or in various
shop processes denied the worker in his daily employment is given
by the school, it must necessarily be organized into a series of short
units, each consisting of shop practice at a specific machine or
process, as, for example, when a boy employed in operating an
engine lathe is given instruction by the school in operating a turret
lathe, a boring mill, a planer, or a milling machine.
When the school shop has been so organized as to provide the
machine worker with a series of experiences at different machines
or processes, the part-time class enjoys an exceptional opportunity
to correlate the work of the classroom and the work of the school
shop. It can control the time and character of any given activity,
both in the shop and in the class, so as to make the training of each
help that of the other.
CONDITIONS NECESSARY TO CORRELATION.

To secure effective correlation requires a reversal of the usual
methods of teaching and involves the following considerations:
1. Deferring the subject to be taught until the need for it appears
in the related subject ; for example, deferring the teaching of decimal
fractions to the machine-shop pupil until he needs to use the
micrometer.
2. Deferring the subject to be taught until there is an adequate
basis of concrete experience in the related subject. To repeat the
example just given, deferring the teaching of decimal fractions as re­
quired for use in the machine shop until the pupil has had some shop
experience.
3. Preceding drill and theory by the practical application of the
topic to be taught. For example, giving the pupil in carpentry a
practical problem in roof framing involving the hypotenuse of the




SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOE WAGE EARNERS.

29

right triangle and deferring drill work upon the method of finding
the hypotenuse until a later point in the course.
4. Where this procedure is not possible, making practical appli­
cation of the topic studied as soon as it is taught.
5. Acquiring power by doing a real and not an imaginary job.
Most of the so-called practical problems of the textbooks fail to
develop power in the pupil because they deal with conditions which
to him are usually imaginary in that they are commonly not related
to his experience.
It seems obvious, for reasons already given, that none of these aims
can be efficiently realized in a part-time class, save by the use of some
device such as the short-unit course.
THE SHORT-UNIT COURSE AND THE MIXED CLASS.

One of the most difficult problems the part-time school has to face
is that of meeting the trade needs of young workers drawn from
several different trades where it is necessary to teach them at the
same hour in the same class. It goes without saying that w^herever
circumstances permit, classes should be so organized as to group
together workers from the same trade, so that each class can devote
its attention to the problems of that one trade, as when a part-time
school consists of a class for machinists, a class for carpenters, and
a class for plumbers.
Sometimes, however, particularly in small cities, pupils from a
number of different trades must be grouped for purposes of instruc­
tion in the same class. The usual method of handling such a class
is to organize the instruction into topics, each of which has, as far as
possible, general and common application to all the trades repre­
sented. This method is commonly adopted because it appears to
the instructor to be the only method of handling the mixed group
confronting him.
It has already been pointed out why this is not a good way to train
young workers, and why the short-unit course offers a far better
method. Admittedly, the proposal to use the short-unit course in a
class made up of pupils from different trades presents both adminis­
trative and teaching difficulties. Under these conditions several
plans are possible, however, which will reduce, if not entirely re­
move, the difficulties, and will at the same time secure more efficient
teaching by the use of the short-unit course than can be obtained by
any other method.
Wherever possible, homogeneous groups should be secured, be­
cause the short-unit course works best with such a group. T o accom­
plish this several devices are feasible:




30

B ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1. Groups representing each of the various trades may be isolated
and taught separately, each group being given fewer hours of in­
struction than would be given to the whole class if this separation
were not made. For example, if a class contains pupils from four
different trades, and eight hours are allotted to mathematics, the
class might be divided into four groups and two hours’ instruction
given to each group. The time during which the members of a given
group are not in the class of mathematics can be used for additional
work either at home or in the school. Under this plan the program
would be arranged in the same way as that of the regular high
school, with separate recitations for each group.
2. Another method is that of dividing a class into groups accord­
ing to trade and teaching the groups thus formed simultaneously.
To employ this method successfully requires close observance of the
following considerations:
(a) The material to be taught must be well prepared and care­
fully graded. Lesson sheets, each designed to cover one specific topic
and written with abundant directions and simple explanations, ac­
companied by examples, clearly worked out, illustrating the princi­
ples and processes to be taught, are absolutely necessary.
(b) The subject matter must be selected and arranged according
to the trade to which it is related, a separate lesson sheet being pre­
pared for each topic, even when that topic has general application to
several trades.
(c) The groups to be taught must be separated from each other
and treated as distinct units throughout the instruction. Placing
the various groups in adjoining rooms or different parts of the same
room for this purpose is advisable. Wherever drill work is neces­
sary, as, for example, for the purpose of fixing certain fundamental
processes which have already been taught in separate groups, several
groups may be brought together and treated as one. This can also
be done to a greater or less extent in checking up work.
(d) A large amount of supplementary material in the form of
blue prints for individual use and wall charts and diagrams are
essential.
(e) To adapt the work to the pupil’s needs, and to check up his
progress it is necessary before starting the class to make a careful
analysis of each trade in order to determine just what topics are to
be taught. A record should be kept of the amount of time a pupil
spends on each topic, and the quality of his work, and as soon as he
has satisfactorily completed a required unit it should be checked up
to his credit.
The success of the device of separate groups within the same class
depends somewhat upon the ability of the instructor to use his more




SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

31

advanced pupils as assistants to give individual instruction to various
members of the different groups.
3.
A third device which may be used with either of the abovementioned plans is that of the paid pupil-teacher who serves as an as­
sistant to the instructor in charge of the class while learning how
to teach. Under the first plan the pupil-teacher would be given a
separate group which he would teach with such assistance and direc­
tion as the instructor might be able to give him. Under the second
plan he would assist the instructor in the preparation of lesson
sheets, revision and correction of work, and would help him in the
class, either by giving individual instruction or handling within the
class one of the class groups.
The success of any of these devices depends in large measure, as
does any teaching device, upon the practical knowledge of the in­
structor and his skill in organizing material and in teaching and his
ability to handle boys.
From the foregoing discussion it is evident that the part-time
school depends for its success upon its ability to meet the trade needs
of the pupil, and that to meet these needs close correlation between
classroom and shop is required, such as can be secured only by the use
of the short-unit course.
LISTS OF COURSES.
LIMITATIONS IN USE OF COURSES.

The courses in the following list are intended to be suggestive only.
They are given to show the way in which analyses of various trades
can be worked out, and not for the purpose of providing a school with
ready-made courses. They are the contributions, on the whole, of
men and women in different trades who have had a certain definite
experience in some one or more establishments where they have gained
familiarity with the trade and its processes under conditions peculiar
to the shops where they have worked.
These conditions may not always be customary or usual in the trade.
Therefore the courses and analyses here given, while they are appli­
cable to shops working under these conditions, may not be applicable
to the work of the same trades as practiced under different conditions.
For example, a course for the machinist in “ making fits,” while it
would meet the needs of the worker in a job shop, would not be ap­
plicable to a factory in which the work is highly specialized. A
course in generator practice for mill electricians would have no
place in those cities where mills obtain all their power from a central
station. The courses in this list for dressmakers are, on the whole,
adapted only to those communities where the trade is not so highly




32

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

specialized as to require special designers, waist drapers, and sleeve
makers. It will therefore be necessary for schools intending to offer
short-unit courses in the trades analyzed in this Bulletin before or­
ganizing their work to make careful study of the conditions under
Avhich these trades are practiced, and to consult local tradesmen of
recognized standing in order to determine what modifications, if any,
must be made to meet the needs of local workingmen.
SHORT-UNIT COURSES OF EVENING SCHOOLS OF SPECIFIED
CITIES.

A partial list of short-unit courses offered in the evening schools of
various cities, taken from the returns of the school authorities, is
given below. These courses show an enrollment of approximately
10,000 pupils.
S h ic k s h in n y , P a .

Mechanical and electrical.
Course.

Lessons.

Use of mathematical tables--------F ractions________________________
Ratio and proportion applied to
pulleys and gearing-----------------Square ro o t______________________

6
15
5
6

Course.

Lessons.

M ensuration_____________________
Mechanics of gear wheels, pumps,
and steam engines____________
Electricity_______________________

15
20
20

Mining.
FIRST QUARTER.

SECOND QUARTER.

English _________________________
Mine mathematics (areas, propor­
tion, roots to 5th, right triangle,
etc.) ________________ _________
Mine laws________________________
G a s e s ___________________________
E llsw orth

20

20

20
20
and

English__________________________ _20
Mine mathematics_______________ _20
Mine laws____________ ____________ _20
Mine ventilation and problems per­
taining to same________________ _20

C-o k e s b u r g ,

Pa.

Household arts.
Serving _________________________ __ 4
Household economy--------------------------7
Preserving_________________________ 1
C anning_________________________ __ 2
Desserts_________________________ __ 5
P ickling_________________________ __ 2
Salads __________________________ __ 3
S picing__________________________ __ 1
J e ll y ____________________________ __ 2
Fish ____________________________ __ 3




S o u p s ___________________________
Marmalades _____________________
Candy __________________________
Left overs________________________
Sewing__________________________
Preparation of meals____________
B a k in g __________________________
Cereals__________________________
Vegetables_______________________
M e a ts___________________________

4
1
2
1
10
10
10
2
5
5

33

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
T it u s v il l e , P a .

Cooking.
Course.

Lessons.

Raised bread and rolls quick
_____
bread _________________________
_____
M e a ts___________________________
_____
Vegetables_______________________
__
C a k e _________________________ _ _ _
Desserts_________________________
Fireless - cooker and paper - bag
cook in g________________________

2
9
8
2

Course.

Lessons,

Salads --------------------------------------Table setting and serving_______
Cooking for infants and invalids
Simple family meals____________
Fish and shellfish______________
P ou ltry _________________________
Meat substitutes________________

3

S h a m o k in , P a .

E nglish__________________________ 100
Sewing for domestic use________ 75

Course for mothers in home sani­
tation _________________________ 25
M in in g __________________________ 100

Scranton, Pa .

Drawing.
(Lessons common to all trades.)

L ettering________________________
Gi’aded exercises teaching use of
instruments_______ _________ ____
Geometrical problems, dimension­
ing ____________________________

2

_
Tracings_________________________ _ 8
Free-hand working sketches_______ 8
_
Talks on drafting-room practice___ 3
Heading working drawings________ 5
_

29

Machine dratving.
(Special course for machinists, molders, pattern makers, and blacksmiths.)

Screw threads (standard)________
Flat-link chain (designed from
formula) ______________________
Crane
hook
(designed
from
tables) ________________________
Sketches o f pulley wheel (made
from object, dimensions taken,
etc.) __________________________

3
4
4

Mechanical drawing of pulley made
from sketches________ _________
Mine car wheel (section view only
_
given to complete draw ing)_
Pedestal box (to be designed)_
_

1

Architectural drawing.
(For carpenters, cabinetmakers, and all woodworkers other than pattern makers.)

Framing (studs, sill, pitch, etc.)
Stair detail or mine-shaft timber­
ing -----------------------------------------Architectural lettering___________
62260°—Bull. 159—15------ 3




3
6
1

Framing (doors, windows, etc.) —
First-floor plan city house or cab­
inet draw ing__________________
Second-floor plan city house or
window and door detail________

34

BU LLETIN o f

th e

BUEEAU o f l a b o r s t a t i s t i c s .

S c r a n t o n , P a .— C o n t i n u e d .

Drawing for plumbers.
Course.

Lessons.

Pipe tee
_ _
Drawing o f trap (sketches made
from object)

3
5

Course.

Lessons.
4

Bathroom layout
Piping drawing, two-family house_
Cellar diagram

9
4

Drawing for masons.
Brick bond
Hollow tile

_____
______

—
____

8
4

Fireplace design
Foundation plan for house

7
6

Drawing for sheet-metal workers.
Two-part elbow
Fonr-part elbow
Tapered elbow

____

4

__

'5
5

Roof cap
Cornice

5
6

Cooking.
C e r e a ls _
Cooked fruits
Vegetables
Raised bread and biscuits and rolls_
Omelets
Desserts
Cake __
__

2
4

6
6
1
6
3

Candy
Meats
Soups
Fish and shellfish
Sauces
Beverages

2
2

1
2

3
2

Pattern making.
Reading drawings
Free-hand sketching
Foundry terms and practice
Allowance on patterns

7
-

8

15
5

Shrinkage on patterns
Draft on patterns
Making patterns
Making core boxes

5
5
25

10

Machine-shop mathematics.
Fractions
_
Ratio and proportion..
Square root
Mensuration
_
Figuring weight
~
Micrometer
Vernier
Percentage _

_

8

7
_
.
_

_

_

4
8

3
5
2

3

.

Foundry work
Pullev speeds and belts
Foundry work (cupola mixture)_
Tapers ______
_ _
Threads
Gearing for threads (simple and
compound)
Gear calculations

4
8
2
2

6
6
12

Sewing for domestic use.
Making stitches, hems, seams, but­
tonholes
Making underwear ----- __________

5
10

Making kimono
Making shirt waist
Making cotton dress

5
8
12

Dressmaking.
Cotton dress
Tailored skirt
Fancy waists




_ _
_

_
_
_ .
._________

7
5
5

Woolen dress
Silk dress —

----------

10
13

35

SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
S c r a n t o n , P a . —Concluded.

Machine-shop practice.
Lathe w ork :
Turning parallel between centers.
Turning tapers—
Offset tail stock.
Compound rest.
Taper attachment.
Church work— Boring and facing.
Thread cutting:
Internal and external.
Right and left hand.
Milling-machine operations:
Plane milling.
Gear cutting.
Milling cutters (plane and angu­
lar).
Fluting.
Boring.

Shaper and planer w ork :
Plane surfacing.
Side cuts.
Cutting bevels.
Universal grinder:
Grinding between centers, parallel
and taper.
Grinding cutters (plane and angu­
lar).
Drill press:
Location and drilling of holes.
Use of jigs.

W il l ia m s p o r t ,

Pa.

VOCATIONAL SCHOOL.

Electricians.
Lessons.

Course.

10
12
8
10

Practical units---------------------------Ohm’s law_______________________
Power measurement-------------------Measurement of resistance----------

Course.

Lessons.

Generators—
Motors______
Meters______

12
10

Class for foundrymen.
Pattern making and foundry work_________________

15

Machinists.
Mensuration and weights of solidsPulleys, belts, and speeds _
Speeds of pulleys, shafts, and
gears-----_ _
Cutting speed and feed _
The micrometer
_ _
Thread proportions — _
_ _

12
10
8
6
2
3

Gearing for screw cutting
Regular
Differential and compound index­
ing
Shop sketching

8
10
6
6
16

Woodworkers.
Board measure and estimating—
Simple stair building and simple
framing________________________
R oof fram ing___________________
Shingling, lathing, and plastering-

15
10
12
10

Brickwork, stonework, and exca­
vation ----:--------------------------------- -- 12
General construction____________ _15
Sketching and reading drawings— 16

Household arts.
Breakfasts__________________
Lunches_____________________
Dinners______________________
Raised bread, biscuits, rolls_
Cakes and cookies___________




Salads___________________________
Desserts_________________________
Table setting and serving________
Cooking for infants and invalids-

4
6
2
2

36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
M ontrose, P a .

Cooking ( evening courses).
[ N o t e . — The

following short-unit courses were given in the evening from Jan. 19 to Mar. 2.]

Course.

Lessons.

Food values______________________
Feeding growing children________
Meats-------------------------------------------

3
3
3

Course.

Fireless cooker.
Fuels__________

Lessons.

____

___

2
2

Courses for farmers ( evening courses),
[ N o t e . — The

following courses were given two evenings per week during the winter
a group of farmers living from 1 to 3 miles from town.]

Soil management________________

6 | Fertilizers_______________________

to

6

T roy , P a .

F ertilizers-----------------------------------

2 | Feeding dairy cows______________

3

[ N o t e .— These courses were given during a period of seven weeks, extending from Jan.
12 to Mar. 1, and were given to those not regularly enrolled in the schools as students.]

Day courses.

Lessons.

Soils and soil management______
Soils and fertilizers____________
Feeding dairy cows---------------------Care and management of dairy
cows___________________________
Breeding dairy cows_____________
Composition and testing of milk_
Farm crops-----------------------------------

Day courses.

Lessons.

10 Rotation of crops_______________
10 Orcharding:
Propagation_________________
6
C ultivation -------------------------6
S p ra y in g -----------------------------6 Farm management_______________
6 Vegetable gardening_____________
10

5
5
3
6
7
5

Hoc HESTER, N. Y.
Cooking.
Bread,
biscuits
and
muffins,
sa la d s_________________________ 12
Soup stock and soups, meats and
vegetables, and marketing______ 12
Desserts, pastry and puddings,
cake m aking__________________
12
Luncheon dishes, breakfast dishes,
and supper dishes_____________ 12
School lunches and lunches for
the dinner pail________ ________ 12
Simple family meals__________ _
12

Left overs_______________________
Invalid dishes, infant feeding, and
children’s diets________________
Candy making, canning and pre­
serving, and waitress course_
_
Chafing-dish cookery_____________
Italian dishes____________________
Fish, oysters, and poultry________
French cooking__________________
Lunch-room training_____________

12
12
6
6
6
6
6
12

Design.
Courses.

Lessons.

House decoration________________
Applied design for garment decora­
tion ___________________________




12
12

Courses.

Lessons.

Costume design---------------------------Embroidery design-----------------------

36
6

37

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
TECH N ICAL AND TRADE COURSES FOB M EN ---- c o n c l u d e d .

Dressmaking and plain sewing.
Courses.

Lessons.

Mending, patching, darning, re­
modeling, and renovating of
wearing apparel----------------------- 12
Household linens, sheets, pillow
slips, hemming towels, damask
hemming, marking and repair­
ing linen_______________________ 12
Plain sewing, aprons, undergar­
ments _________________________ 36
Shirt waists______________________ 12
Shirt-waist suits and one-piece
cotton dresses_________________
24
Layettes (with home w ork )______ 12

Courses.

Lessons.

Children’s garments______________
Fancy neckwear, jabots, collars,
berthas________________________
Advanced dressmaking, fitting and
making of waists, gowns, and
c o a t s __________________________
Buttonhole and eyelet making,
sewing on buttons, hooks and
e y e s ----------------------------------------Power-machine operating________
Skirt making_____________________
Drafting system---------------------------

24
12

36

12
12
24
36

Embroidery.
Wearing apparel________________
Fancy articles------------------------------

12
12

Lettering________________________

12

Millinery.
Drafting and blocking of buckram
shapes-------------------------------------Covering and trimming of buck­
ram fram es___________________
Making of buckles, cabochons,
e t c -------------------------------------------

12
12
12

Ribbon flowers, novelties, etc___ _12
Wire frames, sewing braid, and
trim m ing_______________________24
Children’s millinery______________ _12
Renovating and remodeling old
hats and trimmings___________ _12

General home making.
Household chemistry and sanita­
tion ----------------------------------------- -- 72
Public sanitation------------------------- -- 12
Pure foods and pure-food laws— 12

Household appliances-----------------Home nursing and care of chil­
dren ----------------------------------------Laundering and house care_______

36
12
6

TECH N ICAL AND TRADE COURSES FOR M EN .

Cabinetmakers.
Blue-print reading_______________
Drawing and layout work-----------Estimating_______________________
Furniture design________________

12
12
12
24

Millwork_________________________
Assembling_______________ , _____
_
Finishing________________________

24
12
12

Carpenters.
Blue-print reading----------------------Architectural drawing----------------Perspective drawing--------------------




12
24
6

House framing__________________
R oof fram ing-----------------------------Shop mathematics-----------------------

12
12
24

38

B ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.
R ochester ,

N. Y.—concluded.

TECH N ICAL AND TRADE COURSES FOR M EN ---- C o n t in u e d .

Electricians.
Courses.

Lessons.

Blue-print reading----------------------Estimating_______________________
Drawing of Bell telephone and
telegraph circuits______________
Drawing of light distribution___
Motor generator and switchboard
draw ing-----------------------------------

12
12
36
12

Courses.

Lessons.

General electric theory___________ 12
Theory o f lighting______________ 12
Theory of motors and dynamos_24
Theory of batteries______________ 12
Theory of transformers_________ 12

24

Machinists.
Blue-print reading----------------------Machine design----------------------------

12
24

Shop mathematics_______________

24

Opticians and lens makers.
Theory of light waves, properties
and laws of light reflection and
refraction and dispersion---------

6

Combination and correction of
lenses, properties of mirrors and
lenses, various lens instruments,
polarization of light___________

66

Pattern makers.
Blue-print reading----------------------Machine detail----------------------------

Joint w iping------------------------------Blue-print reading----------------------Theory of water supply-------------Study of drainage systems---------Composition---------------------------- __
Presswork------------------------------ __
Layout and make-ready work- __

Applied mechanics______________
Draft and shrinkage of metals___

12
6

Plumbers.
12 Study of ventilation_____________
12 Theory of pumps________________
6 Theory of hydraulics____________
12 Theory of pneumatics____________

12
6
6
6

Printers.
12 Design___________________________
12 Estimating_______________________

24
12

12
24

12

Sheet-metal workers.
Pattern making-------------------------Blue-print reading-----------------------

12
12

12

Shop mathematics.

Steam- fitters.
Hot-water circulation:
Single-pipe systems--------------Double-pipe systems-------------Pressure system and forced circu­
lation--------------------------------------PREPARATORY

Subjects.

COURSES

Study of boilers--------------------------Boiler testing---------------------------Power-plant maintenance--------------

12
6
36

6

FOR M U N IC IP A L

Lessons.

Trench and sewer inspector--------Inspector of public improvementsDraftsman_______________________
Junior draftsman-------------------------




6
6

36
36
36
36

CIVIL-SERVICE

Subjects.

E X A M IN A T IO N S.

Lessons.

Rodman__________________________
Chainman________________________
Patrolm an_______________________
Driver___________________________

36
36
36
36

39

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
R ochester,

N.

Y . — C o n c lu d e d .

PREPARATORY COURSES FOR M U N IC IP AL CIVIL-SERVICE E X A M IN A T IO N S ---- c o n c l u d e d .

Subjects.

Lessons.

Firem an_________________________
Court stenographer______________
General clerk ___________________
Junior clerk_______________ ______

86
36
36
36

Subjects.

Lessons.

Bookkeeper______________________
Stenographer_____________________
Janitor in charge of steam boilers_
Janitor in charge of furnaces_____

36
36
36
36

Y o n k er s , N. Y.
Units.

Pattern making
Carpentry
Plumbing
Electrical building con­
struction
Electrical machine opera­
tion and installation_
_
Power plant
Machine
Mechanical drawing

85
90
90

8

110

8
10
15
6

130
121
228
200

A lbany,

Cabinetmaking
Pattern making

Units.

5
18
9

Architectural draw ing_
_
Applied mathematics
Sign painting
Blacksmi thing
Gas engine
Embroidery
Sewing
Millinery
Cooking
Dressmaking

8
12
11
8
9
3
7
18
26
7

N. Y.— N o r m a l C o l l e g e .
18 1 Machine-shop practice
18 !

110
60
132
110
74
23
60
100
60
60

18

In Massachusetts short-unit courses for women have been conducted
in the following subjects:
Bread making.
Meats and vegetables.
Desserts.
Simple family meals.
Breakfasts.
Dinners.
Luncheons.
Suppers.
Biscuit, hot cakes.
Cake making.
Pastry and puddings.
Soup stock and soups.
Poultry.
Salads.
Serving of meals.
Washing and ironing.
Mending, patching, darning.
Remodeling clothing.
Undergarments.
Shirt-waist making.

Shirt-waist suits.
Skirt making.
Cotton dresses.
Woolen dresses.
Cutting and fitting, draping.
Children’s dresses.
Damask hemming, fine darning.
Sheets, pillow slips, aprons, etc.
Wire-frame making.
Velvet hats.
Straw hats.
Trimming of hats.
Remodeling of hats.
Buttonhole and eyelet work.
Kensington work.
Colored work.
Scalloping.
Punch work.
French solid embroidery.

Each of the following cities has conducted one or more of the
courses given above:
Boston.—Trade school for girls and in various grammar-school
buildings.
Cambridge.—In various grammar-school buildings.
Everett.—Evening industrial school.



40

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Lawrence.—Evening industrial school.
Lowell.—Evening industrial school.
Methuen.—In a grammar-school building.
Fall River.—In two grammar-school buildings.
Natick.—In the high school and a grammar-school building.
New Bedford.—Evening industrial school.
Newton.—Evening vocational school.
Quincy.—Evening industrial school.
Somerville.—Evening vocational school for girls.
Taunton.—Evening industrial school.
W ahefield.—In high-school building.
Watertown.—In high-school building.
Walpole.—In high-school building.
Worcester.—Girls’ trade school and in various grammar-school
buildings.
YOUNG M E N ’ S C H R IST IA N ASSOCIATIONS.

Most of the instruction in the evening schools of the Young Men’s
Christian Associations throughout the country is organized in brief
courses of from 5 to 25 lessons. During the year 1913, 94,400 pupils
were reported in these courses.
TYPICAL SHORT-UNIT COURSES.

The number of lessons to be given in any course primarily depends
upon the needs of the pupil. This will obviously vary with the apti­
tude of the pupil, the efficiency of the teaching, the facilities of the
school, and the general conditions under which the work is given.
The number of lessons stated for certain courses in this list repre­
sents, on the whole, what experienced instructors believe to be, under
normal conditions, a desirable minimum. Each of these lessons is
assumed to be two hours long.
Each course in the list is numbered, usually under one general
division of the subject, and this number is used as a cross reference to
the analyses given at the end of this list. Only those courses which
are starred (*) are further analyzed.
FARM IN G .

A. Orcharding.
Lessons.

1. Systematic pomology.
*2. Orchard setting..
*3. Orchard cultivation
.
__
*4. Propagation
*5. P runing_
_ _ .
_
6. Orchard protection
8. Diseases injurious to fruits.
7. Orchard insects— .
*9. Sprays and spraying




1-10 *10. Harvesting
_ _
2-6* *11. Marketing
2-10
12. Orchard management
13. Soils,
fertilizers,
5-10
mulches
3-10
14. Orchard cropping
1-5
15. Fillers
2-20
2-20
16. Accounting
5-15

Lessons.

2-10
2-10
5-10
and
5-40
2-10
1-5
2-10

41

SH O R T-U N IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
f a r m in g

— c o n t in u e d .

B. General cropping.
Lessons.

1. Conditions for growth and
development______________
2-4
2. Soils, fertilizers, and ma­
nures______________________ 5-40
3. Seed selection and varieties_5-40
4. Planting or sowing_________
2-10
5. Management
of
growing
c r o p s _____________________ 2-10

Lessons.

(3 Diseases and treatment_____
.
7. Harvesting________________
8. Storing, transportation, and
marketing ______________
9. Cost accounting____________
10. Crop rotation______________

2-15
1-5
1-5
2-10
1-5

C. Truck farming.
1. Conditions determining kinds
of crops
_ __
2. Soils, fertilizers, and ma*
nures
3. Seed selection and plant
breeding
4. Plant propagation _ _
--5. Hothouse management _

2-4
5-40
5-15
5-10
2-20

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Cold fr a m e s _ __________
_
Insect pests and control___
Plant diseases and control—
Cultivation
Marketing
Cost accounting
Management _ _

1-5
5-40
2-20
2-10
2-5
2-10
1-10

D. Grape growing.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Classification of grapes______
Propagation________________
L oca tion ____________________
Soils,
fertilizers,
and
mulches _________________

1-10
5-10
1-5
5^40

5. Planting and successive treat­
ment_______________________

2-10

6. Pruning and training________
7. Grape diseases______________

2-10
2-40

8,
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Insects injurious to grapes.
Sprays and spraying_______
Cultivation_______________
Protection------------------------Harvesting_______________

2-10
5-15
2-10
1-5
2-10

M a r k e t in g ________________

2 -10

Wine making_____________
Vineyard management_____
Accounting_______________

5-20
2-10
2-10

E. Small-fruit raising.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

O rig in _____________________
Varieties__________________
Seasonal production________
Soil type most favorable____
Climatic range____________
Manuring and fertilizing_
_

1-3
2-10
1-3
1-4
1-3
5-20

7.
. 8.
9.
10.
11.

Planting methods______
Trimming or pruning_
P ro te ctio n ____________
R enew ing_____________
Picking and marketing-

2-6
1-5
1 -A

1-5
2-10

F. Poultry keeping.
*1.
*2.
*3.
4.

Poultry houses and yards— 5-15
Breeds and breeding_______10-20
Feeds and feeding_________ 5-10
Egg production and meat
prod u ction ______________
1-4
5. E m bryology_______________
2-10
*6. Incubation________________
5-21
*7. Brooding__________________
5-30




8. E xh ib itin g_______________
*9. M ark etin g_______________
*10. Diseases, parasites, and en­
emies __________________
*11. Poultry appliances-----------12. Poultry management______
13. Killing and picking-______
14. Accounting and recording-

1-5
2-10
3-6
5-15
3-20
2-10

42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
f a r m in g

—concl uded.

G Dairying {including the dairy cow).
..
Lessons.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
*6.
7.
8.
9.

Cow judgin g----------------------10-20
Feeding dairy cattle_______10-20
Breeding dairy cattle______
3-5
Care and management of
dairy ca ttle_____________ 5-20
Diseases of cattle--------------3-5
Milk composition and test­
ing_______________________ 5-15
Milk ferment and fermenta­
tion______________________
1-5
Market milk---------_------------ 5-10
Cream— Separation, ripening,
and churning____________ 2-10

Lessons.

*10.
*11.
*12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Butter making____________
Cheddar cheese making___
Fancy cheese making______
Dairy management________
Dairy by-products________
Creamery management___
Accounting_______________
Dairy buildings and equip­
ment __________________
18. Cleanliness
in
handling
m ilk -----------------------------19. Production
of
certified
m ilk ___________________

2-10
2-10
1-5
5-15
2-10
3-10
2-10
5—
3.0
1-5
1-5

H. Swine raising
1. Choosing and judging--------- 5-10
*2. Feeding___________________
5-10
*3. Breeds and breeding_______10-20

4. Care and management_______10-15
5. D iseases___________________
2-0
6. Buildings and equipment____ 5-10

I. Sheep raising.
*1.
2.
*3.
4.
*5.

B reeds_____________________ 5-10
_______________ _2-10
Judging________________
Feeding_____________________5-10
F attening_________________ _3-6
Breeding---------------------------- -- 5-10

1.
*2.
*3.
4.

Judging____________________
Feeds and feeding__________
Breeds and breeding________
Barns and equipment______

6. Shearing________
7. Sheds and barns_
8. L am bs__________
9. D iseases________
10. Care and management.

2-5
5-6
5-6
2 -6

5-10

J. Horse husbandry.
5-10
5-10
5-10
2-8

5.
6.
7.
8.

Care and management_______
Diseases_____________________
Horse showing______________
Raising and training colts_
_

FURNITURE M A K IN G .

A. Stock and machine work.
Course for1 prospective stockmen:
Grading lumber, kinds of
lumber, u ses____________
Course for prospective kiln men:
Seasoning lumber, manage­
ment of dry kilns________
Courses for machine hands, ap­
prentices :
Stock sawing and matching.
Ripsawing, hand and rail­
road_____________________
Band sawing______________
Buzz planer and jointer
work, care of machine_
_




Courses for machine hands, ap­
prentices— Continued.
Surfacer or planer work,
care of machine_________
Miter-saw and circular-saw
work, and care__________
Jig-saw and band-saw work,
and care________________
Sticker work, care of ma­
chine ___________________
Shaper work, care of ma­
chine___________________
Mortiser and boring ma­
chine____________________

3-8
2-6

1-5
3-6

SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

43

FURNITURE M A K IN G ---- C O lltillU ed .

A. Stock and machine work— Concluded.
Courses for machine hands, ap­
Courses for machine hands, ap­
prentices— Concluded.
Lessons,
prentices— Continued.
Lessons.
Box miter work, and care_
—.
Hand turning_____________
—
Router and friezer work,
Lathe, care, and knife mak­
ing--------------------------------—
and care________________
•■
—
Tenoner, double and single.
—
Scraper, and care of knives—
Triple-drum sanders---------—
Lock machines and Moore
Belt sanders______________
—
—machines_____________ __
Veneering, cutting, jointing,
Open-drum, disk, and oscillating-spindle sanders___
—
tapping, use of presses___
—V jointer or chain jointer_
—
Dovetail-machine work, and
care_____________________
—»
B. Cabinet making.
Courses for machine-hands, apprentice, cabinetmakers in—
5. Gluing— Making glue, prepar­
ing stock, testing glue_____
6. Drawer-fitting, door hanging.
7. Trimming and glazing_______
8. Lining and simple inlay_____

1. Tools, uses and care_________
2. Joints — Uses,
advantages,
methods of construction_
_
3. Construction of frames______
4. Construction of tables, chairs,
cases—Assembling________

C. Finishing.
Courses for apprentices, finishers, and those employed on one operation
wishing to learn other operations, in—
1. Tools, brushes— Quality, care
o f_________________________
2. Mixing and applying stains,
fillers_____________________
3. Varnishing, rubbing, polish­
ing— Kinds of varnish_____
4. French polishing____________
5. Stains, water, oil, and spirit—
Advantages and uses, prep­
aration of solid stock and
veneer for different stains,
wood qualities as applicable
to finishing_______________

Simple methods and formulas
for making stains, filler
removers, polishers, etc.;
chemistry for finishers____
Colors, toning, finishes used
on different kinds of wood,
and for different styles____

Courses for salesmen, designers, all connected with furniture making, in
period styles and modern adaptations.
1. Fittings and decorations for styles.
Courses for student designers.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Methods of construction.
Geometric drawing______
Orthographic projection.
Free-hand drawing______




5. Elementary furniture design.
6. Perspective, mechanical, and
free-hand_________________
7. Advanced design____________

44

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
FURNITURE M A K IN G — c o n c l u d e d .

0. Finishing— Concluded.
Courses for student designers, machine men, cabinetmakers.
Lessons. I

1. Hod m aking________________

Lessons.

— | 2. Making stock bills__________

—

Course for all apprentices.
1. Heading details and rods-------------------------------------------------------------------D. Miscellaneous.
Course for student designers, stock keepers, in—
1. Hardware, furniture trimmings, and accessories— Kinds on market,
advantages, co s t___________________________________________________

—

Courses for foremen, prospective foremen, mechanics, clerks, in—
Lessons.

1. Factory costs and overhead
expenses, sequence of oper­
ations and machines, most
advantageous operations on
different
machines— Sys­
tems of checking__________

Lessons.

2. Carvers’ *apprentices— H a n d
carving __________________

Course for spindle carvers’ apprentices in—•
1. Spindle carving----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Course for apprentice pattern makers, in—
1. Pattern making for furniture work___________________________________
Course for apprentice filers and sharpeners, in—■
1. Filing and sharpening________________________________________________
Course for apprentices and machine men, in—
1. Knife making and tempering____________________ _____________________
Course for apprentice caners, in—
1. Caning-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Course for all stockmen, machine men, clerks, in—
1. Shop mathematics—Board measure, pulleys, belts, gears, cutting speeds.
E. Upholstering.
Courses for apprentice upholsterers, upholsterers wishing to learn new
processes in—
Lessons.

1. Tools and accessories_______
2. Slip seats, pad seats, pad
back s_____________________
3. Springing up, webbing_______
4. Stitching edges, pillow edge,
bridle edge, spring edge,
double stuffing____________




—
—
—

—

Lessons.

5. Cushions____________________
6. Leather tufting, or Turkish
leather work, bun or square
biscuit, and diamond tuft__
7. Old English work___________
8. Stock, distinguishing kinds
and qualities, advantages—

—
—
—

45

SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
M A C H IN E DRAFTING.

Courses for draftsmen and apprentices, in—
Lessons.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Simple detailing____________
Complex detailing___________
Assembling__________________
Spur gears_________________
Worms and worm gearing_
_

—
—
—.

Lessons.

6.
7.
8.
9.

Miter gears_________________
Bevel gears_________________
Spiral gears________________
Free-hand detail sketching_

—

M A C H IN IS T ’ S TRADE.

A. Shop practice.
Courses for foremen, journeymen, apprentices, in—
14. P laner____________________
*1. Making fits_______________
15. Shaper__________ _______ ,_
* 2 . Babbitting___________
*3. Screw cutting________
16. Jigs and fixtures__________
*4. Lapping and scraping.
17. Gauges____________________
18. External grinding______I __
*5. Tool grinding________
*6. Universal grinding___
19. Spur gearing_____________
20. Bevel gearii^g_____________
*7. Casehardening and tempering_____________
21. Screw cutting, lathe_______
22. Screw cutting, milling ma­
* 8 . Soldering_____________
chine___________________
*9. B razing______________
23. Automobile repairing______
* 10. Indexing____________
24. Bench lathe work_________
* 11 . Boring mill__________
25. F orging__________________
* 12 . Laying out cams_____
13. Scraping_____________
*26. Drill press_______________
B. Machine-shop mathematics.
Courses for foremen, journeymen, apprentices, in—
1 Use of mathematical tables*14. Shop trigonometry________
2 . Fractions_________________
15. Laying out geometrical fig­
*3. Ratio and proportion_____
ures_____________________
*4. Square root________________
16. Spur gearing_____________
*5. Mensuration______________
17. Bevel gearing_____________
6. Figuring weights_________
18. Worm gearing____________
*7 Thread cutting____________
19. Spiral gearing____________
* 8 . Simple and compound gear­
20. Feeds and speeds of twist
ing--------------------------------drills___________________
9. Pulleys, speeds, and belting.
21. Calculation of size of drills* 10. Regular indexing_________
22. Form ulas________________
*11. Differential indexing______
*23. Applications of the right
triangle________________
*12. Compound indexing_______
13. Logarithms_______________

.

B L A C K SM ITH IN G ,

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Courses for foremen, journeymen, and apprentices, inMaking and care of fires__
11. Making wrenches_
_
Forging shapes____________
12. Welding tubing_____
Twisting iron______________
13. Oil tempering______
F lu xes_____________________
14. Casehardening______
Chain welding_____________
15. Gas forg es_________
Making rings______________
16. Power hammers___
Sharpening tools___________
17. Calculating stock _
_
Machine-shop tools_________
IS. Lading out angles_
_
Annealing_,_______________
19. Free-hand sketchingWorking angle iron________




—
—
—
—

46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY AS APPLIED TO TELEPHONE W ORK, ELECTRIC LIG H TING , POWERPLANT CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION.

Courses for telephone men, in—
A. House installation.
Lessons.

W iring:
1. Wiring rules and meth­
ods __________________
2. Building construction_
_
3. Making jo in ts__________
Instruments :
4. Construction and use of
instruments__________

Lessons.

Circuits:
5. Drawing circuits .
6. Blue prints______

B. Branch exchange installation.
1. Hotel installation___________
«

— I 2. Apartment-house installation.
1

C. Central office installation, magneto installation.
4. Maintenance of gravity bat­
teries _____________________

1. One-position boards_____
2. Multiple switchboards_
_
3. Central office protection.

D. Central office installation, common battery.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Distributing frames..
Relay racks________
Switchboard cabling.
Form ing______,_____
Testing_____________

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Layout of board___________
Test boards_______________
Location of trouble in circuit.
Reading blue prints________
Locating switchboard trouble

E. Central energy installation.
_
1. Care and use o f machines_
2. Types of telephones_________
3. Ringing circu its____________

—
—
—

4. Central-energy switchboard.
5. Trunking system___________

F. Intercommunicating systcms.

O. Electric lighting.
Courses for electricians, in1. Two and 3 wire systems_____
2. Alternating and direct cur­
rent_______________________
3. Greenfield conduit__________

4. Armored conductor__________
5. Conduit w irin g _____________
6. Practical problems in above
systems___________________

H. Course for electricians and signal men, in*1. Primary batteries.




47

SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY AS APPLIED TO TELEPHONE W ORK, ELECTRIC LIG H TING , POWERPLANT CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION---- c o n c l u d e d .

I. Course for armature winders, power men, general repair men, and mill elec­
tricians, in—
Lessons.

*1. Armature winding__________________________________________________

—

J. Course for general construction men, armature winders, power men,
general repair men, mill electricians, and central energy telephone
men, in—
*1. Direct-current generator and motor_________________________________
K. Course for switchboard-construction men, switcliboard-repair men,
power-plant men, mill electricians, in—
*1. Switchboards________________________________________________________
L. Courses for linemen and power-plant men, in—
*1. Transformers________________________________________________________
*2. Line construction for transmission of power_________________________

—
—

M. Course for power men, in—
*1. Transmission of power______________________________________________
N. Course for fire-alarm men, power-plant men, telephone men, garage
men, and electricians in—
*1. Storage batteries___________________________________________________
O. Courses for power-plant men and mill electricians in alternating
currents.
Lessons.

*1. Machines— Generators*2. Motors_______________

Lessons.

*3. Transformers.
CARPENTRY.

Courses for foremen, journeymen, and apprentices, in—
A. Stair building.
*4. Developing rails for circular
stairs ___________________

*1. Back stairs___
*2. Platform stairs
*3. Circular stairs.

B. Inside finish.
*1. Wainscoting_
_
*2. Hanging doors_

*3. Constructing mantels_____
*4. Constructing china closets.
0. Roof framing.

*1. Figuring rafters_______
*2. Use of framing square.

*3. Construction o f roofs.

D. Drawing and mathematics.
1 . Blue-print reading___
2. Architectural drawing.

3. Perspective drawing.
4. Shop mathematics_
E. House framing.

1. Framing walls and floors.




48

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
C A B IN E TM AK IN G .

Courses for foremen, journeymen, and apprentices in—
Lessons.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Blue-print reading__________
_
Drawing and layout work_
Estimating_________________
Furniture design____________

—
—
—
—

Lessons.

5. M illw ork_
_
6. Assembling.
7. Finishing_
_

PA IN T IN G .

Courses for foremen, journeymen, and apprentices in1. Estimating services_________
2. Paint composition and mixing
paints___ .________________
3. Color harmony______________

4.
5.
6.
7.

Fresco and stenciling.
Graining____________
Hardwood staining_
_
Finishing____________

PATTERN M A K IN G .

Courses for apprentices, journeymen, and foremen in—
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Reading drawings___________
Free-hand sketching________
Foundry terms and practiceAllowance on patterns_______
Special bench tools__________
Machine to o ls______________
Layouts and templates______
Materials____________________
Glue and gluing____________

10. Fillets, dowels, plates, and
letters____________________
11. Finishing patterns_________
12. Types o f patterns__________
13. Core prints________________
14. Construction of patterns___
15. Core b ox es________________
16. Skeleton patterns__________
17. Sweeps---------------------------—
PLUMBING.

Courses for foremen, journeymen, and apprentices in_
*1. Drainage and ventilation_
*2. Joint wiping_______________
*3. Hot and cold water supply
systems__________________

*4. Installing traps and fixtures.
5. Estimating________________
6. Blue-print reading_________

SH EET-M ETAL WORK.

Courses for foremen, journeymen, and apprentices inA. Sheet-metal pattern drafting.
*1.
*2.
*3.
*4.

(a) Cornice work__________
(b) Cornice work__________
Skylights__________________
(a) Heating and ventilat­
ing ----------------------------

*5. (b) Heating and ventilat­
ing ---------------------------*6. (c) Heating and ventilat­
ing ---------------------------*7. Automobile p a rts__________
B. Shop work.

1. Pattern making.




49

SHORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
SH E ET-M ETAL W ORK— c o n c l u d e d .

C. Drawing and mathematics.
Lessons, i

—

Blue-print reading__________

Lessons.

2. Shop mathematics .

STEAM ENGINEERING.

A. License work.
Course for third-class engineers in—
Work to prepare for second-class license___________________
Course for second-class engineers in—
Work to prepare for first-class license______________________
Course for third-class firemen in—
Work to prepare for second-class license_____________ ______
Course for second-class firemen in—
Work to prepare for first-class license______________________
Course for first-class firemen in—
Work to prepare for third-class engineer’s license___________
B. Arithmetic.
Course for engineers and firemen in—

1.

Boiler-room calculations____________________________________
C. Boiler-room chemistry.
Courses for engineers, in—
Lessons.

Gas analysisFeed waters.

Lessons.

3. Oils_

D. St cam-plant management.
Courses for operating engineers inManagement of power plantBoilers______________________
Pum ps______________________

—
—
—

E.

4. Heat and evaporation.
5. Simple engines________
6. Compound engines___
Gasoline engines.

Courses for engineers and firemen inIgnition—Jump spark_______
Ignition— Make and break_
_
Locating trouble____________
62260°— Bull. 159— 15------ 4




—
—
—

4. Assembling and disassem­
bling______________________
5. Carbureters and m i x i n g
valves_____________________

50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,
STEAM

FITTING.

Courses for foremen, journeymen, and apprentices in—
A. High-pressure work.
L essons.

1. Injectors.
B. Traps.
Lesson s.

1. Bucket2. B a ll— _

Lessons.

3. Expansion,

C. Condensers.
1. Surface.
2. J e t____

3. Buckle'y.

D. Pumps, regulators, etc.
3. Economizers4. Separators __

1. Feed pum ps_______
2. Damper regulators-

E. Valves.
4. Blow-off valves________
5. Automatic boiler stops-

1 . Gate valves
2. Globe valves_.
3. Check valves.

F. Pipe.
3. Wrought iron, Reading, Co­
hoes, Byers_______________
4. Cast-iron, blow-off line, con­
denser piping, feed piping_
5. Joints, screwed, flanged, ex­
pansion ___________________

1. Brass, customary use, feed
lin es______________________
2. Steel, commercial, full weight,
extra heavy, ammonia pip­
ing, step-bearing X X X ___

G. Low-pressure work.
1. Boilers, flue, water tube___
2. Vacuum system_____________
3. V alves______________________

—
—
—

4. Boiler testing5. Power-plant maintenance_
_

STONE AND GRANITE CUTTING.

Courses for foremen, journeymen, and apprentices, in1. Monument design___________
2. Lettering____________________
3. Geometry as applied to stonecutting____________________

4. Figuring stones___
5. Reading drawings.
6. Molding w o rk ____

COTTON M ANU FACTUR ING .

A. Carding and spinning.
Course for boss of picker room, second hands, and overseers of card
' rooms, in—
1, Openers and pickers.




51

SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
cotton

m a n u f a c t u r in g

— c o n tin u e d .

A. Carding and spinning— Concluded.
Course for boss grinders and second hands and overseers of card rooms,
in—

Lessons.

2. Cards________________________________________________________________

—

Course for third hands on draw frames and second hands and overseers
of card rooms, in—
3. Draw frames_________________________________________________________
Course for third hands on roving frames and second hands and overseers
of card rooms, in—
4. Roving frames_______________________________________________________
Course for third hands on ring frames and second hands and overseers
of card rooms, in—
5. Ring frames_________________________________________________________
Course for mule spinners, third hands on mules, and second hands and
overseers of mule rooms, in—
6. Mules________________________________________________________________
Course for third hands on twisters and second hands and overseers of
r in g sp in n in g , in —

7. Twisters_____________________________________ s
----------------------------------Course for designers, superintendents, assistant superintendents, cotton
samplers, in—
8. Cotton sampling______________________________________________________
Course for above-mentioned groups, in—
9. Draft calculations___________________________________________________
B. Warp preparation and weaving.
Courses for second hands and overseers of warping room, in—
Lessons. |

1. Spoolers_____________________

Lessons.

— | 2. W arpers____________________

Course for slasher tenders and second hands and overseers of slashing
room, in—
3. Slashers______________________________________________________________
Courses for weavers, loom fixers, second hands and overseers of weaving,
in —

Lessons.

4. Plain loom s________________
5. Automatic looms__________ _

—
—

Lessons.

6, Dobbies_____________________
7. Jacquards__________________

C, Designing.
Course for groups given above under A-4, 5, 6, 7, in1. Elementary designing and cloth analysis______________________



—■
—

52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
COTTON M AN U FACTUR ING ---- c o n c l u d e d .

C. D esignin g— Concluded.
Course for superintendents and assistant superintendents, in—
Lessons.

2. Elementary designing and cloth analysis______________________________
Course for designers and assistant designers, in—
3. Design and cloth analysis_____________________________________________
TERRA-COTTA WORK.

Courses for terra-cotta workers, in—
A. Terra-cotta architectural drafting.
1. Stone and marble shop drafting.
2. Architectural terra-cotta drafting
3. Fireproof construction.

4. Sheet-metal pattern drafting.
5. Plan reading.

B. Terra-cotta model making.
1. Reading drawings for moldings, 2. Making models from drawings of
arches, balustrades, pilasters, col­
above.
umns, window and comice effects. 3. Making molds of models from draw­
ings.
WOOD M ILLW ORK.

Courses for foremen, journeymen, apprentices, in—
*4. Door making.
*1. Window-frame making.
*2. Sash making.
*5. Wainscot making.
*3. Doorframe making.
SIGN PAINTING .

Courses for foremen, journeymen, apprentices, inHandling and care of tools.
Mixing and blending colors.
Preparation of various surfaces for
sign purposes.
Coating of wood, metal, etc.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Use of driers.
Gilding on wood and glass.
Use of “ lettering pencil.”
Use of “ fitches.”
Practice in lettering.

SHOW-CARD W RITING.

Courses for journeymen, apprentices, in—
4. Use of “ lettering pencil.”
5. Practical lettering.

1. Handling and care of tools.
2. Mixing and blending colors.
3. Preparation of various surfaces.

PROOF READING AND COPY EDITING.

Courses for proof readers, in—
A. Theory—Lectures.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Proof reader’s marks.
Punctuation.
Reference marks.
Capitalization.
Division of words.
Compounding.
Abbreviations and contractions.




8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Simplified spelling.
Rules of geographic board.
Synonyms and antonyms.
Orthography.
Homonyms.
Grammatical construction.

SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

53

PROOF READING AND COPY EDITING— c o n c l u d e d .

B. Practical work.
1.
2.
3.
4

5.
6.
7.
8.

Galley reading.
Galley revising.
Reading with copy.
Advertisement reading.

Advertisement revising.
Page reading.
Final and foundry reading.
Editorial reading.

Courses for copy editor, in—
Editing.
1 2. Preparation of manuscript

1. Copy editing.

PRINTING.

Courses for foremen, journeymen, and apprentices, in*1.
*2.
*3.
*4.
*5.
6.

Make-ready for pressman.
Register.
Ink.
Papers.
Up-to-date styles.
Cost system.

*7.
*8.
9.
10.
11.

PLAYER-PIANO-ACTION

Composition.
Cutting stock.
Design and printing.
Punctuation and proof marks.
Spelling.

M E C H A N IC S.

Courses for repair men and workmen, inA. Player-action construction.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Principles of construction.
Repairing bottom actions.
Motors and governors.
Timing.
Repairing top actions.

Regulating.
Testing.
General factory work.
General outside work.
Trying out player actions in pianos.

B. Installation.
1. Player-action installation.
M IN IN G .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Courses for mine firemen and mine steam engineers, inA. Boilers.
Types of boilers.
9. Feed-water heaters.
Construction of boilers and mate­ 10. Feed-water pumps and injectors.
rials of construction.
11. Removal and prevention of boiler
Combustion of fuel.
scale.
Size and construction of chimneys.
12. Pressure gauges.
Smoke prevention.
13. Boiler explosions.
Methods of firing.
14. Safety appliances.
Cleaning and banking fires.
15. Boiler testing.
Boiler fittings.
B. Steam engines.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Calculation of horsepower.
Types of engines.
Valve gears.
Construction of engine foundation
and footings to prevent vibration.




5- Indicators and indicator diagrams.
6. Condensers.
7. Lubricants.

54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
m i n i n g —concluded.

G. Pumps and air compressors.
1. Construction and operation of va­
rious types.

2. Electrically operated pumps.

D. Practical electricity and electrical machines.
1. Simple and branched circuits.
2. Care and uses of storage cell.
3. Incandescent light and electric light­
ing.
4. Transmission of electrical power in
mines.

5. Precautions to be taken in mines
where electricity is used.
6. Care and operation of electrical ma­
chinery.

E. Reports and accounts.
1. Making out daily reports of boiler
and engine room.

2. Weather conditions
ciency o f plant.

affecting effi­

Courses for mine workers, in—
A. Mine gases.
1. Origin, occurrence, behavior, and detection of gases common to mines.
B. Mine ventilation.
1. Principles of mine ventilation.
2. Air currents.
3. Distribution of air currents by
splitting, doors, stoppings, and
regulators.

4. Ventilating appliances.
5. Advantages and disadvantages of
various kinds of fans.
6. Problems in mine ventilation.

C. Timbering, haulage, and pumping.
1. Advantages and disadvantages of
various haulage systems.
2. Arrangement and operation of
pumps.

3. Keeping of time, cost, and progress
sheets.
4. Making out bills of lading and esti­
mates for quantity o f material
needed.

D. Mine calculations.
MOTION-PICTURE M A C H IN E OPERATING.

Courses for motion-picture machine operators, in1. Current capacity.
2. Testing circuits.
3. Connecting machines—Direct cur­
rent.
4. Connecting machines—Alternating
current.
5. Rheostats, economizers.
6. Testing for grounds and short cir­
cuits.
T Arc lamps.
.
8. Locating machine parts.




9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Functions of machine parts.
Threading film.
Connecting up machine.
Operating.
Protecting circuits.
Protecting films.
“ Troubles.”
Rewinding films.
Construction of booths.
Fire.
Installation rules and laws.

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

55

JANITOR WORK.

Courses for janitors and janitors’ helpers, in—
*1.
*2.
*3.
4.
*5.
*6.
*7.
*8.
*9.
*10.
*11.

Relationships.
Cleaning.
Repairs.
Rules of the sanitary code.
Fire escapes.
Heating systems.
Gas.
Electric bells and lights.
Elevators.
Telephone service.
Sanitary appliances.

*12.
*13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
*18.
*19.
20.
21.

Roofs.
Water supply.
Doors.
Dumb-w^aiters.
Speaking tubes.
Air shafts.
Care of mail matter.
Telegrams and express delivery.
Renting and collecting.
Use and care of tools.

LAU ND RY C H E M ISTR Y.

Courses for laundry foremen and workmen, in*1.
2.
3.
*4.
5.
6.

Water.
Alkalies.
Solvents for fat or grease.
Detergents.
Bleaches.
Rinsing.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Drying.
Starch.
Stains.
Textile fibers.
Dyes.

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION.

Courses for draftsmen, builders, clerks, inspectors, and field men, in—
*1.
*2.
3.
*4.

Materials of concrete construction.
Principles of reinforced concrete.
Systems of reinforcement.
Practical features of reinforced
concrete design and construction.
5. Steel reinforcement.
6. Conduct of work in the field.

*7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Superintendence.
Specifications.
Designing for reinforced concrete.
Tests on reinforced concrete.
Cost data relating to reinforced
concrete.

E STIM AT IN G FOR GENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

Courses for estimators and contractors’ clerks, in—
1 . Units of measure and methods of
classifying work.
*2. Taking off quantities from plans in
accordance with specifications
and tabulating.

*3. Compiling general contractor’s esti­
mate for complete structure.

BOOT AND SHOE M ANU FACTUR ING .

*1.
*2.
*3.
4.
5.
6.

Pattern cutting and clicking.
Fitting and machining.
Sole-leather cutting, stock fitting.
Lasting and attaching.
Finishing.
Last making and pattern cutting.




7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Clicking and closing.
Sole-leather cutting and lasting.
Finishing, machine operating.
Design.
Management.

56

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
NURSING.

Courses for trained attendants, in—
Lessons.

1. Care of sick room and bed,
including bed making with
and without patient in bed2. Bones and bandaging_______
3. Temperature, pulse, respira­
tion, making out charts_
_
4. Bathing, including bathing in
bed, bathing without uncovering patient, alcohol
bath s_____________________
5. Massage_____________________

—
—
—

—
—

Lessons.

6. Elimination through kidneys
a n d b o w e l s , including
catheterization,
external
genita and douches, enemata, and suppositories_
_
7. Contagion and disinfection8. Care of newborn___________
9. Sick children______________
10. Infant feeding_____________
11. Applications________________
12. Diets (liquid and light), spe­
cial diets, feeding in con­
valescence, tray service_
_
13. Emergencies_______________

—
—
—
—
—
—

—

COOKING.

Courses for housekeepers, in—
A . General.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Meats.
Vegetables.
Cream soups.
Stock soups and stews.
Yeast bread, biscuits, and rolls.
Baking-powder biscuits, breakfast
cakes.
Cake.
Frostings and fillings.
Pastry.
Hot desserts.
Cold desserts.
Ice creams and ices.
Salads.
Fish and shellfish.

15.
10.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Poultry.
Cookies and wafers.
Sandwiches.
Candy.
Canning and preserving.
Breakfasts.
Dinner-pail lunches.
Lunches for school children.
Sunday night suppers.
Fireless-cooker and paper-bag cook­
ing.
25. Simple family meals.
26. Left overs.
27. Cooking for infants and invalids.

B. Courses for nurses.
Lessons. |

1. Broths and gruels___________

—

Lessons.

2. Cooking for convalescents_
_

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.

A. Courses for housekeepers.
Removing spots and stains,
fine starching, and ironingFamily washing and ironingFood adulteration and pres­
ervation__________________




4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Upholstering_____________
Cleaning and repairing_
_
Feeding growing children.
Emergencies_____________
Home nursing___________

—

57

SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
DOMESTIC ECONOMY — concluded.

Courses for mothers, in—
B. Feeding and care of infants and young children.
Lessons.

1. Children’s diseases— Symp­
toms, precautions, and pre­
vention________________________—
2. Home care of sick children__
—
3. Making infants’ and chil­
dren’s clothing____________ ____—
4. Laundering infants’ and chil­
dren’s clothing____________ ____—

Lessons.

5. Feeding infants — Modified
milk, top-milk method, ster­
ilizing, care, and selection
of nipples________________
6. Feeding young
children—
Twelfth to fifteenth month,
third to sixth year, after
sixth year________________

M ILLIN E R Y.

Courses for makers, in—
3. Drafting and blocking buck­
ram shapes_______________
2. Making fa.bric hats, such as
velvet, cloth, silk, etc______
3„ Making of buckles, cabochons, ornaments_________
4. Ribbon flowers, novelties, etc.
5. Wire frames________________
6. Children’s millinery_________

7. Renovating and remodeling
old hats and trimmings_
8. Sewing braid and trimming.
9. Making hats of lace, net,
chiffon, e t c ______________
10. Making straw-braid hats_
_
11. Mourning m illinery________
12. Bow making______________ _

SE W IN G FOR DOMESTIC U SE.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8. White embroidery__________
9. General mending and repair­

Making underwear_____
Making shirt waists----Making unlined dresses .
Making fancy waists___
Making skirts___________
Tailoring_ 1___________
_
Fine hand sewing______

in g ----------------------------------------

10. Renovating
and
making
over______________________
1 1 . Fancy neckwear___________
Courses for mothers.
2. Making clothes for small
children___________________

1. Making baby clothes.

Course for housekeepers.
1. Making table and bed linen______________________
W AITRESS

W ORK.

Courses for waitresses, in—
*1. Care of dining room________ ___ —
2. Washing and ironing table
linen___ ____________________ —
*3. Setting of table and serving.
—
*4. Care of pantry____________ ___ —
*5. Bread, butter, and sand­
wiches __________________ ___ —




6. Canapes____________________
*7. Preparation and serving of
beverages________________
8. Carving____________________
*9. Personal appearance_______

58

BU LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
D RESSM AKING.

Courses for dressmakers, in—
Lessons.

Lessons.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6. Drafting and pattern making.
7. Costume design and color
harmony__________________
8. Up-to-date methods_________

Waist m aking.
Waist draping.
Sleeve making.
Skirt making __
Tailoring______

—
—
—

P O W ER -M AC H IN E OPERATING.

Courses for the operator who can do plain operating, in—
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Felling______________________
Hemming____________________
Gathering and ruffling_______
Tucking_____________________
Two-needle tucking--------------Buttonhole - machine operat­
ing -----------------------------------

7. Embroidery - machine operat­
ing-----------------------------------8. Hemstitch-machine operating.
9. Two, three, and five needle
machine operating_________

ANALYSIS OF COURSES.

No attempt has been made in this Bulletin to work out an exhaus­
tive analysis of any of the trades represented, nor has an attempt
been made to present an analysis which, from the point of view of
the materials, tools, or processes of the trade, shall be consistent. In
actual practice it may be desirable to analyze some of the trade
units to be taught in greater detail than the analysis here given. In
other cases it may be found desirable to combine into one unit several
of the units given in this list. The practice to be followed must, in
every instance, depend upon the needs of the pupils and of the trade.
FARM ING.

Course A -2.— Orchard setting.
A. Selection of stock:
1 . Permanents.
2. Semipermanents.
3. Fillers.
B. Planting:
1. Pruning before setting.
2. Fall and spring planting.

B. Planting—Concluded.
3. Distances for planting.
4. Planting tables.
5. Preparation of ground
planting.
6. Planting trees.

Course A S .— Orchard cultivation.
A. Objects of cultivation.
B. Methods of cultivation.
C. Cover crops:
1. Management.
2. Some cover crops.
3. Amount of seed.




D.
E.
F.
G.

Intercropping a young orchard.
Sod management.
Mulches.
Drainage.

for

59

SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
F A R M IN G -

continued.

Course A-Jf.- -Propagation.
A. Seedage.
B. Layerage.
C. Cuttage:
1. Requirements of cuttings.
2. Formation of roots.
3. Heat, moisture, and soil.
4. Kinds of cuttings—Tuber,
root, stem, leaf, etc.
D. How a woody stem grows.

E. Graftage:
1. Advantages and
tages.
2. Budding.
3. Whip grafting.
4. Cleft grafting.
5. Cutting grafting.
6. Double grafting.
7. Inarching.
8. Grafting waxes.
F. Nursery management.

disadvan­

Course A -5 —Pruning.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.

A. Trees which stand pruning.
B. Fruit buds and pruning.
C. Healing of wounds:
1. The cambium layer.
2. When to cut branches.
3. How to cut.
4. Dressings for cuts.
5. Treatment of old wounds.

Shaping the tree.
Top pruning.
Root pruning.
Heading-in.
Water sprouts.
When to prune.
High and low heads.

Course A -9.— Sprays and spraying.
A. Principal fungus diseases.
B. Insect pests.
C. Spraying machinery:
1. Power sprays.
2. Barrel pumps.
3. Syringes.
4. Three principles of spray noz­
zles.

D. Spray solutions:
1. Bordeaux.
2. Lime sulphur.
3. Arsenate of lead.
4. Soluble oils.
5. Combined insecticides
fungicides.
E. The spray calendar.

Courses A-10 and A—
11.—Harvesting and marketing.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Picking.
Sorting.
Barrel packing.
Box packing:
1. Wrapping fruit.
2. Styles of pack.

E. Other packages.
F. Storage.
G. Marketing.

Course F -l.—Poultry houses and yards.
A. Location and situation:
1. Location for market
fancy poultry.
2. Where to place houses.
3. Soil factor.
4. Water supply.



and

B. Poultry quarters:
1. Styles of houses.
2. Parts of the house.
3. The colony plan.
4. Model poultry house.
5. Ventilating system.

and

60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
f a r m in g

— c o n t in u e d .

Course F-2.—Breeds and breeding.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Line breeding.
Importance of vitality.
Vitality and productiveness.
Egg production.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Breeds of fowls.
What to select.
Law of inheritance.
Utility breeding.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Course F -8.— Feeds and feeding.
6. Care of laying hens.
Feed, and quantity of eggs.
Composition of eggs.
7. Mashes, dry and wet.
Composition of poultry feeds.
8. Green feeds.
Nutritive ratio.
9. Grit.
Winter eggs.
10. Grain, ground and unground.

A.
B.
C.
D.

0 tO
5

1.
.
.
.

Course F -6.— Incubation.
E. Artificial incubation:
Structure of egg.
1. Incubators.
Development of egg.
Care of eggs for hatching.
2. Temperature.
Natural incubation:
3. Moisture.
4. Air.
1 . How to set hens.
5. Turning the eggs.
2. Food and care of sitting
hens.
6. Hatching.
3. Testing
2S.

Importance of brooding.
Types of brooders.
Making the brooder.
Feeding young chicks.

Course F -7.— Brooding.
5. Weaning chicks.
6. Teaching chicks to roost.
7. Separating the sexes.
8. Culling the stock.

Cou rse F -9 .— ill ark e t ing.
A. Eggs:
B. Poultry:
1. Sorting eggs.
1. Selecting for market.
2. Preparation for market.
2. Preparation for killing.
3. Killing.
3. Market preference.
4. When to sell eggs.
4. Picking.
5. Shipping eggs to commission
5. Packing for shipment.
merchants.
6. Commission merchants
6. Preservation of eggs.
family trade.
7. Cold storage.
Course F-10.- ■Diseases (health and sanitation).
A. Prevention of disease:
B. Diagnosis of ailments.
1. Care.
C. Disinfection.
2. Quarantine.
D. Injurious habits or vices.
3. Isolation of ailing fowl.
Course F~ll. Poultry appliances (fixtures and devices).
A. Interior fixtures:
B. Mills and food machinery:
1. Roosts.
1. Bone and meat grinders.
2. Dropping boards.
2. Food choppers.
3. Nests.
3. Grit machines.
4. Devices for feeding.
5. Fountains and water supply.
6. Doors and windows.



and

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
f a r m in g

61

— c o n t in u e d .

Course G-6.—Milk composition and testing.
A. Composition of milk :
1. Fats.
2. Nitrogen compound.
3. Sugars, salts, and gases.
B. Standards of milk.
C. Milk products.
D. Methods of sampling milk.

E. The Babcock test:
1 . Whole milk.
2. Cream.
3. Skim milk, whey, butter, etc.
F. Acidity test.
G. Bacterial test.
II. Specific-gravity test.
I. Adulterations and tests.
J. Commercial testing and scoring.

Course G-10.—Butter making.
A. Creaming:
1. Cause.
2. Processes—
( a ) Gravity methods.
(b) Centrifugal methods.
B. Ripening of cream :
1. Object.
2. Temperature.
3. Time.
4. Starters.
C. Sweet and sour cream :
1. Comparative values.
2. Acid tests.

D. Churning:
1. Temperature.
2. Character of butter fat.
3. Acidity of cream.
4. Richness of cream.
5. Amount of cream.
6. Churning process.
7. Types of churn.
E. Gathering.
F. Washing.
G. Working.
H. Salting.
I. Packing.

Courses 0-11 and G-12.— Cheese making.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.

Composition of cheese.
Quality of milk needed.
Value of fat in cheese making.
Care of milk for cheese making.
Ripeness of milk.
Starters.
Use of rennet.
Cheddar cheese:
1. Setting.
2. Cutting.

H. Cheddar cheese— Concluded.
3. Heating.
4. Cheddaring.
5. Grinding.
6. Salting.
7. Curing.
S. Quality.
I. Hard and soft cheeses.
J. Cream cheeses.
K. Fancy cheeses.

Courses 11-2; 1 -3 ; J-2.—Farm animals (feeds and feeding).
A.
B.
C.
D.

Uses and composition of foods.
Function of food materials.
Digestion of food.
Maintenance rations and produc­
tive rations.
E. Nutritive ratio.
F. Balanced ration.
G. Special feeding:
1. Requirements.
2. Regularity.
3. Amount, kind, and cost.



H. Feeding the dairy c o w :
1. Effect of food on composition
of milk.
2. Summer feeding.
3. Winter feeding.
4. Concentrated feeds.
5. Dry forage.
6. Silage.
7. Roots.
I. Feeding young animals.

62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
FARM ING — concluded.

Courses H S ; 1 -1 ; 1 -5 ; J-S.—Breeds and breeding.
A.
B.
C.
D.
: E.
F.
G.

Types.
Breeds.
Score-card judging.
General characteristics.
Variations.
Heredity.
Prepotency.

H. Systems of breeding:
1. Purposes of breeding.
2. Cross breeding.
3. Line breeding.
4. Inbreeding.
I. Grades and thoroughbreds.

M A C H IN IS T ’ S TRADE.

Shop practice.
Course A -l.— Making fits.
[A. Straight bore fit:
1. Straight turn fit.
2. Punning fit.
3. Tight fit—
(a) Shrink.
(b) Force.

B. Taper fit.
O. Thread fit:
1. Square thread.
2. V-thread.
3. Pipe thread.
4. Cup thread.
Course A -2.—Babbitting.

A. Preparation o f mold.
B. Handling m etal:
1. Keeping clean.
2. Correct temperature.
3. Proper grade of metal.
C. Simple bearings:
1. Solid.
2. Half.

D. Two bearings in line.
E. Scraping in and oil grooving.
F. Automobile babbitting:
1. Crank shaft.
2. Connecting rods.
G. Generators and motors.

Course A S .—Screw cutting.
D. Manipulation of machines:
1. Finishing threads.

A. Grinding tools.
B. Setting tools.
C. Change gears.

Course A-Jf.— Lapping and scraping.
A. Making fits.

| B. Lapping mandrils.
Course A-5.— Tool grinding.

A. Drills.
B. Lathe tools.
C. Planer tools.

D. Thread tools.
E. Scrapers and chisels.

Course A -6 .— Universal grinding.
A. Handling machine.
B. Internal grinding.
C. External grinding.




D. Magnetic grinding.
E. Surface grinding.

SH ORT-UNIT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

63

’ t r a d e — s h o p p r a c t ic e — c o n c lu d e d .

m a c h in is t s

Course A -7.— Casehardening and tempering.
A. Casehardening, pack hardening, or­
dinary heating and cooling proc­
ess :
1. Mottling.
2. Cold chisels.
3. Cutters.

A. Casehardening, pack hardening, or­
dinary heating and cooling proc­
ess— Concluded.
4. Taps.
5. Reamers.
6. Hammers.

Course A -8.— Soldering.
A. Ordinary soft soldering.
B. Hard soldering.

C. Use of fluxes.
D. Composition of fluxes.
Course A -9.—Brazing.

A. By using gas torch.
B. Oxyacetylene process.

C. Various metals as spelters.

Course A-10.—Indexing.
A. Simple indexing.
B. Compound indexing.
C. Compound gearing with continuedfraction process.
D. Differential indexing.

E. Cutting unequally spaced reamers
to prevent chatter.
F. Cutting angular cutters with angu­
lar cutters.
G. Cutting spirals.

Course A - l l .—Boring mill.
A. Taper turning with special reference to head-striking work.
Course A-12.— Laying out cams.
A. Drum cams.
B. Uniform-motion cams.
C. Nonuniform-motion cams.

D. Reciprocating-motion cams.
E. Cams for automatic machines run­
ning in vertical plane.

Course A-26.—Drill press.
A. Line drilling.
B. Template.

C. Angular.
D. Vise.
Machine-shop mathematics.
Course B -3.—Ratio and proportion.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

As applied in sizing pulleys.
As applied in sizing gears.
Finding speeds of pulleys.
Finding speeds of gears.
Finding weights o f stock.

F. As applied to triangles.
G. As applied to the capacity of cyl­
inders.
H. Computing wages.

Course B-4.— Square root.
A. Solving areas.




| B. Solving right triangles.

64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
m a c h in e

- s h o p m a t h e m a t i c s — c o n tin u e d .

Course B-5.— Mensuration.
A. Area of right triangles.
I>. Area of oblique triangles having
type given.
C. Area of oblique triangles having
three sides given.
D. Area of square.
E. Area of circle.
F. Area of hexagon.
G. Area of ellipse.

II.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.

Area of octagon.
Volume of cube.
Volume of rectangular block.
Volume of cone.
Volume of pyramid.
Volume of cylinder.
Volume of frustrum of cone or
pyramid.
O. Volume of sphere.

Course B-7.— Thread cutting.
A. Details for cutting V thread.
B. Details for cutting U. S. thread.
C. Details for cutting Whitworth St.
thread.
D. Details for cutting woven thread.

E. Details for cutting acme thread.
F. Details for cutting buttress thread.
G. All details to make thread tools
for cutting threads.

Course B-S.— Simple and compound gearing.
A. Simple gearing as used in cutting
common thread on standard lathe.
B. Method assuming one gear.
C. Method assuming both gears.

D. Compound gearing where simple
gearing is impossible:
1. Assuming one gear.
2. Assuming all gears but one.
3. Train of six gears.
4. Cutting fraction of threads.
5. Cutting of worm threads ac­
cording to diametrical pitch.
6. Proving various cases.

Course B-10.—Regular indexing.
A. Divisions factors of 40.
B. Divisions which give a whole num­
ber and a fraction.

C. Spacing given distances on circum­
ference of circles.
D. Indexing for angular measure.
E. Cutting and trimming bevel gears.

Course B-.11.—Differential indexing.
A. Indexing for divisions not possible
to obtain by regular indexing
and not practicable to execute
by compound.

B. Includes sections C, D, and E of
regular indexing.
C. Methods for milling heart-shaped
cam for uniform motion; varia­
ble motion.

Course B-12.— Compound indexing.
A. Indexing for divisions not possible
to obtain by regular indexing.

B. Includes C, D, and E of regular in­
dexing.

Course B -lJ f- -Shop trigonometry.
A. Rules and ratios of triangles.
B. Trigonometric tables.
C. Solution of right triangles.




D. Spacing off any number of divisions
on circle.

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

65

M A C H IN E -S H O P M A T H E M A T IC S— c o n c l u d e d .

Course B-2S.— Right triangles.
A. Distance across flats—Plane figure,
even size.
B. Distance from center to fiat— Plane
figure, even size.
C. Setting over tail stock to cut No. 4
Morse taper, stock 15" long.
D. Angle to set compound rest to turn
No. 2 Morse taper.

E. Angle to set milling-machine head
to cut 60° blank angular cutter,
20 teeth, with 60° angular cutter
and have parallel bands.
F. Problems in setting up w ork :
1. Drill, milling machine, shapes,
boring mill.
G. Swivel to cut 47° angle, both hori­
zontal and vertical feed in use.

PEACTICAL ELECTRICITY.

Course I I -l.—Primary batteries.
A. Voltaic cells— Cells not employing
chemicals.
1. Depolarizer—Zinc ammonium,
chloride carbon cell.
B. Cells haying a liquid depolarizer:
1 . Grow cell.
2. Bunsen.
3. Nitric acid.
4. Iron cell.
5. Zinc and sulphuric cell.
C. Bichromate cells:
1 . Bichromate depolarizer.
2. Fuller cell.
3. Daniell cell.
4. Crowfoot cell.

D. Cells having solid depolarizer:
1. Leclanche.
2. Lalende cell.
3. Dry cells.
4. Harrison cell.
5. Chloride cells.
E. Standard cells:
1. Clarke.
2. Carhart.
3. Clarke standard cell.
4. Western cadmium cell.
5. Daniell standard cell.
F. Application— Connections.
G. Testing—Tests on open and closed
circuit cells.

Course 1-1.—Armature icinding.
A. Right to left handed windings.
B. Spacing of the conductors, pitch of
winding.
C. Tables.
D. Developed winding diagrams.
E. Ring winding, lap winding, wave
winding.
P. Grouping conductors:
1. Parallel grouping—
(a) Lap winding— Drum.
(b) Ring winding.
2. Series parallel grouping—
(a) Wave-winding drum.
(b) Series ring winding.
G. Duplex winding, doubly reentrant
ring.
LI. Condition of reentrancy.

G2260°—Bull. 159—15------5



I. Types of winding in use:
1. Duplex lap.
2. Simplex doubly reentrant lap.
3. Simplex singly reentrant lap.
4. Simplex trebly reentrant lap.
5. Duplex singly reentrant lap.
6. Duplex doubly reentrant lap*
7. Triplex singly reentrant lap.
8. Duplex trebly reentrant lap.
J. Lap winding, wave winding, two
layer.
K. Drum winding, drum-winding se­
ries.
L. Grouping, Fritsche’s oblique wave
winding.
M. Triplex-wound drum.
N. Disk windings.
O. Four-pole wave winding— Derrozier’s six-pole disk windings.

66

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
PRACTICAL e l e c t r i c i t y —

continued.

Course J -l.— Direct-current generator and motor.
A. Armature:
1. Action of the armature.
2. Losses in armature.
3. Core losses, Eddy currents.
4. Hysteresis losses.
5. Slotted armatures.
B. Armature winding.
C. The magnetic circuit:
1. Density— Excitation.
2. Method of connecting—
( a ) Series winding.
(b) Shunt winding.
( c ) Compound winding.
D. Open and closed coil windings.
E. Unipolar dynamos.
F. Electromotive force and pow er:
1. Sparking and commutation.
2. Heating.
3. Reactions in armature.

G. Construction of armature:
1. Core and spider shaft bear­
ings.
2. Winding commutators.
H. Action of m otor:
1 . Counterelectromotive force.
2. Efficiency.
3. Reaction.
4. Torque.
I. Types of m otors:
1. Series— Shunt— Compound.
J. Regulation of motors.
K. Rheostats and starting boxes.
L. Care and operation of motors:
1. Commutator brushes—Arma­
tures.
2. Coils—Defects in coils.
3. Testing.

Course K -l.— Switchboards.
A. Instruments needed in a circuit.
B. Windings of generators and motors.
C. Connections of instruments.
D. Placing of board.
E. Simplex circuits.
F. Balancing system.
G. Operations and parallels.
H. Types of switches.
I. Arrangement of instruments and
switches:
1. Simple switchboard.
2. Fuses.
3. Boards for two generators.
4. Combination of machines.

I. Arrangement of instruments and
switches— Concluded.
5. Generator for three-wT sys­
ire
tem.
J. Types of boards:
1. Switches for elevator service.
2. Arc-light switchboards.
3. Direct-current boards.
4. Alternating-current boards.
5. Single-phase switchboard.
6. Two-phase switchboard.
7. Three-phase switchboard.
8. High-tension switchboard.
9. Oil-break switches.
10. Power-factor meters.

Course L -l.— Transformers.
A. Theory.
B. Resistance effects on primary and
secondary coils.
C. Magnetic effects.
D. Core losses and effects.




E.
F.
G.
II.

Management of transformers.
Connection of transformers.
Construction of transformers.
Types of transformers.

SH O R T-U N IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

67

PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY---- C O lltillU ed .

Coarse L-2.—Electric transmission—Line construction.
A. Conductors— Copper, aluminum:
1. Gauges— Weights and differ­
ent types of wire—
(a) Rubber covered.
(b) Weatherproof.
(c) Slow burning.
B. Overhead construction— Poles and
cross arm s:
1. Sizes and specifications of
poles.
2. Pins and insulators.
3. Setting of poles—
(a) Holding
power
of
coils.
(b) Concrete bases.

B. Overhead construction— Poles and
cross arms— Concluded.
3. Setting of poles— Concluded.
(c) Guying and bracing
poles.
(d ) Splicing and running
wires.
C. Underground construction:
1. Trenches— Conduit manholes.
2. Distribution centers.
3. Edison underground tube sys­
tem.
4. Carrying capacities.
D. Tests.

Course M -l.— Transmission of power.
A. Direct current— Calculations, two
and three wire systems.
1. Distribution centers.
2. Balancing of loads.
B Alternating current:
1. Single phase.
2. Two phase.

B. Alternating current— Concluded.
3. Three phase.
4. High and low tension.
5. Insulators.
6. Balancing loads.
7. Distributing centers.

Course N -l.— Storage batteries.
A. Batteries and accumulators:
1. Different types.
2. Construction.
B. Efficiency of storage batteries.
C. Installation and care o f storage
batteries:
1. Setting up.
2. Electrotype.
3. Charging.

C. Installation and care of storage
batteries- -Concluded.
4. Discharging.
5. Automobile systems.
6. Fire-alarm systems.
D. Appliances for storage batteries:
1. Busters and cell switches.

Course 0 -1 .—Alternating-current machines— Generators.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Generators.
Wave forms and values.
Self-induction.
Capacity.
Resistances.
Alternators:
1. Single-phase machines—
(a ) Construction.
(b) Electromotive force
of alternators.
(c ) Field excitation.




F. Alternators— Concluded.
1. Single-phase machines— Con.
(d ) Revolving field.
(e) Inductor alternator.
2. Polyphase machines—
(a ) Two-phase machines.
(b ) T h r e e-p h a s e ma­
chines.
(c ) Star and delta con­
nected.
(d ) Armature windings.

68

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY — concluded.

Course 0 -2 .— Motors.
B. Induction motors— Concluded.
1. Single phase— Concluded.
(c ) Operation.
(d) Repulsion type.
2. Three-phase types.
3. Rotary connectors.

A. Synchronous.
B. Induction m otors:
1. Single phase(a) Starting.
(b) Connection.

Course O S .— Transformers.
A. Theory.
B. Resistance effects on primary and
secondary coils.
C. Magnetic effects.
D. Colosses and defects.

E.
F.
G
-.
II.

Management of transformers.
Connection with transformers.
Construction of transformers.
Types of transformers.

CARPENTRY.

Stair building.
Course A -l.—Back stairs.
A. Laying out.
B. Figuring rise.

C. Building.

Course A-2.—Platform stairs.
A. Laying out.
B. Figuring rise.

C. Building.
D. Developing rails.
Course A-3.— Circular stairs.
(Same analysis as for A -l.)

Course A - j .—Developing rails for circular stairs.
\
A, Quarter circle.
B. Half circle.

I C. Straight stair with turnout at top
|
and overease at bottom.
Inside finish.
Course B -l.— Wainscoting.

A. Designing.
B. Laying out.
C. Putting up wainscoting in various
types of rooms.

D. Putting up wainscoting for stairs.

Course B -2.—Hanging doors.
A. Trimming.
B. Inside door.

C. Outside door.
D. Sliding doors.
Course B-3.— Constructing mantels.

A. Designing.
B. Laying out.




C. Building.
D. Papier-mache trimmings.

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
carpentry—

69

c o n c lu d e d .

Course B - 4 Constructing china closets.
.—
A. Designing.
B. Laying out.

C. Building.
Course C -l.—Figuring rafters.

A. Lengths, bevels, and backing of common, hip, jack, cripple, and valley rafters.
Course C-2.— Use of framing-square.
A. Laying off lengths of rafters.

| B. Laying off bevels.

Course C-3.— Construction of roofs.
A. Building hip, gambrel, French, and bell-top roofs.
PLUMBING.

Course 1.—Drainage and ventilation.
A. Names and uses of tools and mate­
rial.
B. Best methods of installing different
systems, proper sizes o f pipes,
fittings, etc.

C. Pipe-practice job, soil pipes, venti­
lation pipes, house drains, waste
pipes, etc.
D. Repair-practice jobs on old faucets,
valves, tanks, burst pipes, etc.

Course 2.—Joint wiping.
A. Preparation of lead pipe and other
metals for wiping.
B. Solder— Preparation, testing, puri­
fying.
C. Wiping cloths— Cutting, folding,
preparation for use.

D. J o i n t - w i p i n g practice — Round
joints, branch joints, upright
joints, wall joints, floor flanges,
etc.

Course 3.—Hot ami cold water supply systems.
A. High-pressure and tank-pressure
systems.
B. Connections with range boilers and
gas heaters.

C. Proper placing of valves, shut-offs,
air chambers.
D. Hot-water circulation.

Course 4.—Installing traps and fixtures.
A. Construction work on skeleton
houses, representing different
types of building, installing traps,
fixtures, etc.

B. Laying out plumbing work or plana
and specifications.
C. Drawing of plans conforming to
board of health rules.
D. Theory of traps and fixtures.

SH EET-M ETAL PATTERN DRAFTING.

Course A - l .— (a) Cornice work,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Butt miters, three cases.
Return miters, two cases.
Panel miters.
Trimmings on mansard roofs.
Gable miters.
Patterns for octagonal vase.




G. Patterns for elliptical vase.
II. To construct a b a ll:
1. In zones.
2. In gores.
I. Blanks for and miters of curved
moldings.

70

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
SH EET-M ETAL PATTERN DRAFTING— C O n tilllied .

Course A -2 .— (b) Cornice work.
A. Pattern of junction between gable
and pilaster.
B. Pattern of gable mitering upon an
inclined wash.
C. An eyebrow window upon a dome.
D. Development of an octagonal pin­
nacle.
E. Pattern of rectangular molded base,
not square in plan.

F. Pattern o f molded base, square top,
octagonal bottom.
G. Pattern of raking bracket 011 a gable
cornice.,
H. Pattern of raking bracket 011 a
curved pediment.
I. Pattern of broken pediment.
J. Pattern of an elliptical splayed arch.

Course A S .— Skylights.
A. Skylight construction, and propei
combinations.
B. Drawings to determine sizes and
lengths of several parts.
C. Patterns for curves, ridge, and com­
mon bars.
D. Patterns for hip bars.
E. Patterns for jack bars.

F. Patterns for circular skylights.
G. Turret details and measurements.
H. Patterns for turrets.
I. Marquee, details and measurements.
J. Taking measurements of rough
work at buildings for purpose of
making shop details.

Course A - 4 (a) Heating and ventilating.
.—
A. Patterns of group flanges, three
cases.

B. Patterns of two-piece ell in round
pipe.
C. Patterns of two-piece ell in oval
pipe.
D. A round elbow in any number of
pieces—Rule of miter line.
E. A bevel elbow in any number of
pieces with limited throw.

F. Pattern of a bifurcated pipe.
G. Pattern of T joints, two cases.
H. Pattern of tangent T joints, two
cases.
I. Pattern of pipe intersecting elbows.
J. Principles of developing a section
formed by the junction of any
two shapes.

Course A -5 .— (J)) Heating and ventilating.
A. Patterns for square to round tran­
sition, bottom arid top parallel.
B. Patterns for square to round tran­
sition, bottom and top not parallel.
C. Patterns for oval to round transi­
tion, bottom and top parallel.
D. Patterns for oval to round transit
tion, bottom and top not parallel.
E. Patterns for oval to round elbow :
1. In the sharp.
2. In the flat.




F. Patterns for three-pronged fork, all
ends unequal sizes.
G. Patterns for “ breeches,” two cases.
H. Patterns for four-piece square to
round elbow.
I. Patterns for square pipe, describing
a compound curve.
J. Patterns for diagonal offset in rec­
tangular pipe.

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

71

SH E ET-M ETAL PATTERN DRAFTING-----CO llCluded.

Coarse A-6.— (c) Heating and ventilating.
A. Patterns of flaring pipe flange, in­
clined roof.
B. Patterns of ship’s ventilator.
C. Patterns for joining two small pipes
of unequal diameter to one large
pipe by means of two tapering
elbows.
D. Temperature and velocity:
1. Gravity systems.
2. Plenum systems.

E. Location of inlets and outlets and
sizes of ducts.
F. Efficiency, piping, and cold-air sup­
ply of hot-air furnace.
G. To design a plenum system of heat­
ing and ventilating from data.
H. To design a gravity system of heat­
ing and ventilating from data.
I. To design a hot-air furnace system
o f heating from data.

Course A - 7.—Automobile parts.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Designs
Designs
Designs
Designs
Designs

and
and
and
and
and

patterns for hoods.
patterns for dash.
patterns for doors.
patterns for seats.
patterns for sides.

F. Designs and patterns for mud­
guards and shields.
G. Designs and patterns for pan under
engine.

WOOD M ILLW OR K.

Course 1.— Window-frame making.
A. Laying out, listing, and making shop details for window frame, brick or
stone construction, to include—
1. Box or casement frames.
2. Single or mullion frames.
3. Circular or square frames.
Course 2.— Sash making.
A. Laying out, listing, and making
shop details for—
1. Sash with cheek rail.
2. Casement sash.

A. Laying out, listing, and making shop
details for— Concluded.
3. Circular or square sash.

Course 3.—Doorframes.
A. Laying out, listing, and making
shop details for—
1. Plain frames.
2. Rabbeted frames.
3. Paneled frames.
4. Sliding doors.

A. Laying out, listing, and making shop
details for—Concluded.
5. Double-acting doorframes.
6. Single or mullion frames,
with side lights and tran­
soms.

Course 4-—Door making.
A Laying out, listing, and making
shop details for—
1. Solid doors.
2. Veneered doors.




A. Laying out, listing, and making shop
details for— Concluded.
3. Single or double sliding
doors.
4. Circular or square doors.

72

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
wood

m il l w o b k

— c o n c lu d e d .

Course 5.— Wainscot making.
A. Laying out, listing, and making
shop details for—
1. Bevel wainscot.
2. Rake wainscot.

A. Laying out, listing, and making
shop details for — Con­
cluded.
3. Jib wainscot.

PRINTING.

Course 1.— Make-ready for pressmen.
C. Painting overlays.

A. Cutting overlays.
B. Scraping overlays.

Course 2.— Register.
| B. Points for folding.

A. Gauge pins.

Course 3.—Ink.
A. Consistency.
B. Colors and tints.

I C. Doctoring.
I D. Adjusting for papers.
Course J Papers.
f.—

A. For half-tone work.
B. Proper sizes and groups.
C. Treating for press.

D. Paper manufacture—As of interest
to printer.

Course 5.— TJp-to-date styles.
A. Invitations.
B. Cards.
C. Forms.

D. Letterheads.
E. Folders.

Course 7.— Composition.
A. Stonework:
1. Imposition.
2. Locking up forms.
B. Rule forms conforming to the point
system.
C. Job composition:
1. Books.
2. Advertisements.

C. Job composition— Concluded.
3. Letterheads.
4. Billheads.
5. Social forms.
6. Script.
7. Spacing.
8. Relative position of cuts.

Course 8.— Cutting stock.
A. Cutting to advantage.

B.

Cutting for folding with the grain.

JANITOR W ORK.

Course 1.— Relationships.
A. Relation of janitor to owner,
agents, and tenants.
B. Sobriety, cleanliness, politeness.




C. Enforcing
rules.

landlord’s

and

city’s

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
JANITOR WOR

73

:—continued.

Course 2.- -Cleaning.
A. Sidewalks, stoops, areas, janitor’s
apartment, cellars, dumb-w^aiters,
and windows.
B. Removal of snow.
C. How to keep away vermin, rats,
mice, stray cats.
D. Storing of tenants’ property.

E. How to clean ink stains from
floors.
F. Cleaning windows in winter.
G. Care of vacant apartments.
H. Care of brass work, tile floors, mir­
rors.

Course S.- -Repairs.
A. Cement floors and sidewalks.
B. Whitewashing.
C. Removing paint— Potash, gasoline
torch, patent compounds.
D. Care of freshly planed surfaces.
E. Patching plaster walls and wall
paper.
F. Painting floors.

G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.

Wood fillers.
Thawing pipes.
Putting in window cords.
Hanging doors.
Putting on weather strips.
Patching woodwork and floors.
Remedying splintering.

Course 5.—JHre escap.es.
A. Inspection.
B. Keeping them free from
brances.

encum­

C. Locate fire alarms.
D. Precautions against fire.

Course 6.— Heating systems.
A. Kinds: Hot air, hot water, steam.
B. B oilers:
1. High and low pressure.
2. Care and management of boil­
ers.
3. Firing, ashes, clinkers.
4. Economy in fuel.
C. Radiator valves, air valves, of dif­
ferent makes; one and two pipe
systems.
D. Knocking in pijDes and noisy radia­
tors.
E. Laying up boilers in summer.

F.
G.
H.
I.
J.

Installation of pipes.
Risers, returns, and drips.
Bronzing.
Stopping leaks.
Chimneys:
1. Fire dangers.
2. Corrosion of pipes to be
guarded against.
3. Cutting in or out one or more
boilers under steam.
4. Temperature-regulating sys­
tems.

Course \— Gas.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Economy.
Drips.
Flickering.
Detecting and stopping leaks.
Loose or tight spigots.

F.
G.
H.
I.

Burners, tips, mantles.
Meters.
Lighting of halls.
Danger of fires.

Course 8.—Electn ; bells ancl lights.
A. Care and management of batteries.
B. Detection and location of faults.
C. Electric lights and fuses.



D. Detecting and locating troubles.
E. Electric meters.

74

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
ja n ito r

w o r k —continued.

Course 9.—Elevators.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Kinds.
How to care for electric lifts.
Inspection and care of cables.
Commutator brakes.
Safety appliances.

F.
G.
H.
I.

Strange noises in machine.
Guides, shoes, and sheaves.
Undue heating of parts.
How to run elevators.

Course 10.— Telephone service.
A. How to use the telephone.
B. Switchboard operation.

C. How to send messages during a
thunderstorm.
D. Notification of telephone calls.

Course 11.— Sanitary appliances.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Tent pipes.
Soil pipes.
Care of traps.
Stopping leaks.
Clearing obstructions
sinks, traps, etc.

in

bowls,

F. Hand-pump refrigerators and their
drain pipes.
G. Cesspools.
H. Area ways.
I. Strainers.

Course 12.—Roofs.
A. Different kinds of roofs.
B. Painting and patching tin roofs and
leaders.
C. Strainers.
D. Snow and ice.
E. Exposed water pipes.
F. Vent pipes.

G. Places leaks are most likely to
occur.
H. Walking on tin roofs.
I. Protection.
J. Clotheslines.
K. Tank houses and tanks.
L. Cleaning of tanks.
M. Wooden tanks and hoops.

Course 13.— Water supply.
A. Electric, gas, and hot air— Care of
same.
B. House pumps.
C. Hot water.
D. Hot-water boiler.
E. Different kinds o f faucets.
F. Leaky faucets.
G. Stopcocks.
H. Tank and croton pressures.

I. H o^ to avoid having water from
tank rush back into croton sys­
tems.
J. Leaks in water-closet cisterns.
K. Different kinds of cisterns.
L. Rattling of faucets.
M. Humming in cistern valve.
N. Repairing on faucets, pipes, lead
joints, putty joints.
O. Guarding against corrosion of pipes.

Course 18.— Care of mail matter.
A. Registered letters.
B. Special delivery.
C. When to return undelivered mail to
office.




D. Forwarding mail.
E. Mail rates.

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.
j a n it o r

work

75

— c o n c lu d e d .

Coarse 19.— Telegrams and express delivery.
A. Where telegrams can be sent.
B. Rate.
C. Question of receiving telegrams for
tenants.

D. Where express matter can be sent.
E. Receiving express and delivery par­
cels and paying for same.

LAUNDRY C H E M ISTR Y.

Course 1.— Water.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Different kinds.
Gases dissolved in water.
Salts.
Action of salt solutions on soap
solutions.

E. Hardness, temporary and perma­
nent.
F. Soap-destroying power of water, be­
fore and after softening.

Course 4*—Detergents.
A. Soap.
B. Methods of making soap.

C. Hard and soft soap.
D. Cleansing power of soap.

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION.

Course 1.— Materials of concrete construction.
C. Sand.

A. Concrete.
B. Aggregate gravel.

Course 2.— Principles of reinforced concrete.
A. Formulas used
strength.

for

calculating

B. Use of tables for strength values.
C. Examples in design.

Course 4.—Practical features of reinforced concrete design and construction.
A. Laying out of floors, spandrels, col­
umns.
B. Special foundation construction.

C. Construction of parapet walls.
D. Finishing and waterproofing of con­
crete.

Course 7.— Superintendence.
A. Examination of drawings and form
work.

B. Laying out work.

ESTIM AT IN G FOR GENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

Course 2.— Taking off quantities from plans in accordance ivith specifications
and tabulating.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.

Excavation.
Concrete footings and walls.
Stone-foundation masonry.
Stone-face masonry.
Brickwork and cut stone.
Ornamental terra cotta.
Cement and asphalt floor.
Structural ironwork.




I. Fireproof floors and partitions.
J. Column and girder covering.
K. Roofing and sheet-metal roof.
L. Plastering and lathing— Plain and
ornamental.
M. Lumber and millwork.
N. Plumbing, painting, and glazing.

76

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
ESTIM ATIN G FOR GENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION —concluded.

Course 3.— Compiling general contractor's estimate for complete structure.
A. Includes miscellaneous items, such as building permits, street and vault per­
mits, guaranty and penal bonds, insurance, temporary office, street pro­
tection.
BOOT AND SHOE M ANUFACTURE.

Course 1.—Pattern cutting and clicking.
A. Methods for producing patterns
from lasts.
B. Use of construction lines in pattern
cutting.
C. Distinct type of sole shapes.
D. Different systems of construction
lines.
E. Systems used in arranging patterns
to prevent waste.

F. Direction in which parts of upper
should be tight.
G. Class of materials required in dif­
ferent parts.
H. Character and quality o f various
parts of skins and hides.
I. Suitability of each part far various
purposes.
J. Lining cutting, linens, russet.

Course 2.—Fitting and machining.
A. Preparing parts of upper for vari­
ous processes.
B. Making and use of gums, cements,
and pastes.
C. Fitting on the round, on the flat,
on the last.
D. Needles, shuttles, and threads,
E Relation between needle and thread,
points of excellence in each.
F. Peculiarities required in needle
threads and shuttle threads.

G. Method of setting needles in upperstitching machinery, l e a t h e r
points, and linen points.
H. Sewing seams and stitching seams,
lap, welt, open stitch, and plain
seams.
I. Stitching fitted work, held on and
lasted work.

Course 3.— Sole leather cutting and stock fitting.
A. Structure of leather for bottom
stock.
B. Relative weight, flexibility, and
hardness.
C. Suitability of sides, bends, butts,
middles, shoulders, and bellies.
D. Use of box, eccentric, and revolu­
tion presses.
E. Methods of cutting bottom stock,
through
soles, straight
and
curved splice.
F. Ranging and cutting direct.




G. Systems to avoid waste, to econo­
mize labor.
H. Wetting, rolling, and hammering
bottom stock.
I. Blocking, cementing, and fitting.
J. Skiving, molding, and blocking ma­
chine.
K. Tackers.
L. Heel building by machine, slugging,
channeling for sewing and stitch­
ing.

SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

77

BOOT AN D SHO E M AN U FACTUR E— c o n c l u d e d .

Analysis of processes in l)oot and shoe machine operating.
1. Cutting room :
a. Cutting vamps.
b. Cutting tops.
c. Cutting quarters.
d. Cutting fixings.
e. Cutting linings.
f. Dieing trimmings—
Facings.
Back stays.
Side facings.
Button fly linings.
2. Stitching room :
a. Seaming linings.
b. Seaming tops.
c. Stitching labels.
d. Stitching top facings.
e. Stitching eyelet facings.
f. Stitching back stays.
g. Stitching outside stays.
h. Stitching eyelet rows.
i. Forming lining to top.
j. Undertrimming top.
k. Eyeleting, hooking, and but­
toning.
1. Stitching tip.
m. Seaming vamp.
n. Stitching button fly to lining.
o. Making buttonholes.
p. Vamping.
q. Lacing.
r. Inspecting.
3. Sole-leather room :
a. Cutting soles.
b. Cutting top lifts.
c. Cutting inner soles.
d. Taps and counters.
4. Lasting room :
a. Picking up lasts.

4. Lasting room— Concluded.
b. Assembling. c. Toe lasting by machine.
d. Side lasting by hand.
e. Heel and toe wiping in by
machine.
f. Inspecting.
5. Bottoming room :
a. Welting.
b. Trimming welts and vamps.
c. Filling bottoms shanking.
d. Laying soles.
e. Nailing heel seats.
f. Bough rounding.
g. Trimming heel seats.
6. Sole-fastening room :
a. Goodyear stitching.
b. Shaping-last trimming.
c. Leveling.
d. Heeling.
e. Slugging.
f. Trimming or shaving heels. *
g. Trimming edges.
h. Setting edges.
7. Finishing:
a. Finishing heels and bottoms.
8. Treeing or dressing room s:
a. Pulling lasts.
b. Cleaning.
c. Brushing edges and heels.
d. Repairing shoes.
e. Putting in heel pads, laces.
f. Inspecting.
9. Packing room :
a. Packing shoes in carton.
b. Putting cartons in cases.
c. Shipping.

W AITRESS W ORK.

Course 1.— Care of dining room.
A. Regulating lights, heat, and ven­
tilation.
B. Putting in order after each meal.
C. Daily cleaning.
D. Weekly cleaning.
E. Cleaning glass in windows and cabi­
nets.




F.
G„
H.
I,

Care of hardwood floors.
Care of rugs and carpets.
Care and polishing of furniture.
Cleaning brass and copper.

78

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
w a it r e s s

work

— c o u c iu c le d .

Course 3.— Setting of table and serving.
Laying of table for all meals and
occasions.
Serving for family meals.
Formal serving.

D. Afternoon tea.
E. Bridge teas, etc.
F. Buffet lunch and supper.

Course 4-— Care of pantry.
A. Care of
B. Care of
etc.
C. Care of
D. Care of
E. Care of

food left from meals.
fruit, relishes, bread, cake,
refuse food.
refrigerator.
china, glass, and silver.

F. Care of teakettle, teapot, and coffee­
pot.
G. Care of dish pans, towels, etc.
II. Care of cupboards and drawers.
I. Care o f fine linen.
J. Care of gas stove.

Course 5.—Bread, butter, and sandiviches.
A. Cutting of bread.
B. Butter balls and curls.
C. Bread and butter sandwiches.

D. Bread and butter rolls.
E. Sandwich fillings.
F. Open and decorated sandwiches.

Course 7.—Preparation and serving of beverages.
A. Ice water.
B. Tea, coffee, cocoa—Hot.
C. Tea, coffee, cocoa—Iced.

D. Table waters and alcoholic bever­
ages.
E. Fruit punches.

Course 9.—Personal appearance.
A, Cleanliness, orderliness, and neat­
ness.
B. Hair, hands, and nails.

C. Shoes and slippers.
D. Uniforms.

APPLICATION OF SHORT-UNIT COURSE TO HOUSEHOLD
ART SCHOOL.
The all-day school.

What has been said with reference to the part-time school applies with equal
force to the full-time day school. There is also a further application of the
unit course, especially with reference to home making. To take cooking in the
day household art school as an illustration: In teaching cooking for homemaking purposes, it is desirable that as early as possible the girl assume re­
sponsibility for the entire meal. But before this can be done, she needs a cer­
tain basis of cooking experience. One way of giving this is in short-unit courses
where the pupil, not having a specific need derived from trade experience, is
put through a number of these courses to give her the necessary knowledge and
skill.
The pupil may begin her experience in any unit group, the length o f her stay
in each group depending upon her ability and the amount of subject matter in
the unit. In the training of home makers, in order to make the experience
practical and complete, the units of special cooking should be followed by others
in marketing, the preparation of meals, and invalid cooking.



SH O RT-UN IT COURSES FOR WAGE EARNERS.

79

The following schedule illustrates how instruction by this method may be
worked o u t:
Time.

Monday.

A. M.
8 to 10 a. Meat.
b. Cookies a n d
small cakes.
10 to 12 Vegetables, quick
bread.
P. M.
1 to 3

Cake.

Tuesday.

Wednesday.

Thursday.

Friday.

Frozen desserts.

Pastry.

Cold desserts.

Hot desserts.

a. Sandwiches.
b. Chafing - dish
cooking.

a. Salads.
b. Meat substi­
tutes.

Left overs.

a. Fish.
b. Quick breads.

Stews and casse­
role cooking.

a. Bread a n d Soups.
rolls.
b. Fireless cooker.

Canning and pre­
serving.

The above schedule shows only two units in cooking for housekeepers. These
units have been arranged from the standpoint of the administration of a school
which disposes of its produce in the lunch room. The product of afternoon
classes is such as to be available the following morning. If instruction and
equipment permit, more than one unit class can be run at the same period.
These cooking units can be repeated, duplicated, and extended according to
the demand for instruction.
Cooking in the part-time school for home makers.

There is a large area of unexplored territory in training the mature house­
keeper through the day school, and for this work the unit course is especially)
adapted. This is partly because the housekeeping job can be left at odd inter­
vals and these intervals can be arranged by the worker more or less at her own
convenience to permit her attendance at the day school.
In many communities it has been found that there are women anxious to
obtain instruction in the units of home making. They will enter unit courses
in cooking and sewing because they are at once put in touch with the specific
information which they want, whereas a general course in either o f these
subjects would attract only a small percentage of these same women.




PART II—A FACTORY SCHOOL EXPERIMENT.
BY CHARLES H . WINSLOW.

INTRODUCTION.

In October, 1913, the public-school system of New York City
assumed a new function, namely, that of extending its educational
service to the illiterate, immigrant, wage-earning population of the
city, and on June 4, 1914, the first graduation exercises for immi­
grant women and girl wage earners were conducted by the city’s
department of education. These exercises were conducted not in a
school building but in a factory. In a word, since the worker could
not leave the shop to attend school, the school authorities in this
instance sent the teacher into the shop, and it is worthy of special
note that this enterprise of bringing the school to the worker in the
shop was undertaken by the school authorities not on their own
initiative but in compliance with an urgent request made by the
employer operating the factory.
According to the census of 1910, the number of illiterates 10 years
of age and over, living in New York City was in that year 254,208.
During the decade 1900-1910 the number of illiterates had increased
from 181,835, or by more than 70,000. The number in 1910 was
more than double the number returned by the* census in 1890. It
should be borne in mind in considering these figures that many
individuals returned as literate—that is to say, as able to write—
are unable to write or to understand the English language. This
will be apparent from the census figures relating to the number
returned from New York City as being unable to speak English.
The figures relating to inability to speak English refer to the for­
eign-born white population alone, and according to the census of
1910 the number of foreign-born whites 10 years of age and over
who were returned from New York City as being unable to speak
English was 421,951. The corresponding number for 1900 was
168,974, the increase for the decade being 252,977.
In the 10 years, 1900-1910, the number of foreign-born white
women and girls unable to speak English increased in New York
City from 97,845 to 224,982. Practically the total number of these
foreign-born white women and girls unable to speak English were
15 years of age or older (221,514 out of 224,982) and were, therefore,
too old to enter the primary grades of the public schools.
80



A FACTORY SCHOOL EXPERIMENT.

81

That 40 illiterate working girls employed in a factory in New
York City were, during the school year 1913-14, given some ele­
mentary instruction in reading and writing English and in the sim­
pler processes of arithmetic is in itself a matter of small social sig­
nificance. Obviously the importance attached to the event did not
arise from the fact that the number of illiterate girls in New York
City had been reduced in the course of a year by 40. It is highly
probable that during the year ended July 4, 1914, the number of
young women and girls in the city who were unable either to write
or to speak English increased by thousands. The factory school is
important only when regarded as an institution capable of expansion
in the factories of New York City and of other communities.
Regarded as an extension of the public-school system, the factory
school of the type under consideration in New York City performs
a social service which can not, any more than can the service of public
schools in general, be precisely valued in dollars and cents. In so far
as it deals with the illiterate immigrant worker, it is clearly more
than a social agency of elementary schooling. Teaching illiterate
foreign workers to speak, read, and write English is work not simply
of elementary schooling, but is much more essentially a work of as­
similation of the population of foreign origin. The community
which receives and economically exploits these foreign workers
T
assumes an obligation with reference to them which it can not avoid
T
with impunity. The welfare of the community as well as of the
worker is involved.
These principles formed the groundwork of the establishment of
the first factory school, and they will certainly underlie the establish­
ment of similar schools in other factories, but it is significant that
they are not made the basis of an appeal for an extension of the work
to other factories. The basis upon which the appeal for an extension
of the work rests is increase in efficiency of the workers. It was felt
by those active in establishing this first school to be essential that the
factory school be proved to be a profitable investment for the em­
ployer, and his cooperation in extending the work is expected only to
the extent that his interest is apparent in doing so.
While, so far as the community is concerned, the profitableness
of an investment in education can not be measured in terms of eco­
nomic efficiency of factory workers, and while schooling, which did
not increase the workers’ efficiency in the factory, might nevertheless
be absolutely essential and profitable in a community, when other
than economic social needs are taken into account, the employer, in
his character as an employer, is under no obligation whatever to
undertake the education of citizens. Those who have figured out the
cost of this first factory school and have related that cost to the
62200°— Bull. 159—15------ 6



82

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

increase in efficiency of the workers taught in the school have, there­
fore, acted upon the correct principle, since the extension of the fac­
tory school as an institution is conditioned on economic consider­
ations alone. Whatever the benefits of such a school, if the employer
is to provide for its maintenance, it must be proved to be profitable
to him.
It is, therefore, of fundamental importance that this first experi­
ment in the operation of a factory school has been subjected to the
test of economic value to the employer, and that it has been proved
to be a paying investment. Since this is so, employers are not only
justified in establishing similar schools in their factories, but in
view of the much more important social benefits conferred upon the
workers, should feel under obligation to undertake this work.
On the termination of the first year of the factory school the
firm of D. E. Sicher & Co. stated it to be their belief “ that the
workers who have been thus trained have gained from 20 to 70 per
cent in efficiency,” and they make this fact the basis of their appeal
to employers for cooperation with the school authorities in extending
“ this work of reducing illiteracy among the half million adults,
mostly immigrants, in the city of New York.”
THE INITIAL EXPERIMENT IN INSTRUCTING FACTORY
WORKERS.

In 1913 four manufacturers in the white-goods industry of New
York City, conceiving that illiteracy among the foreign workers
in their factories was a cause of inefficiency and low wage-earning
capacity and, in consequence, of economic loss not only to the work­
ers themselves but to their employers as well, initiated in cooperation
with the public-school authorities a scheme of elementary schooling
for certain of their employees. In this initial experiment the plan
provided that four illiterates from each factory should attend in
alternate weeks the district public school—attendance at school to
be at the time expense of the cooperating manufacturers. The
board of education indorsed the plan and undertook to provide the
necessary instruction. In accordance with this arrangement two
classes were formed, each composed of eight illiterate factory girls
who worked in the factory and attended Public School No. 4 in
alternate weeks. On each school day, from 9 until 12 in the fore­
noon, the workers were instructed in English, and in the afternoon,
from 2 until 5, they were instructed—by an expert whose services
were volunteered without charge—in the use of special machines.
After a brief trial of five weeks, however, this undertaking was
abandoned, largely on account of difficulties experienced in adminis­




A FACTORY SCHOOL EXPERIMENTT0

83

tering the alternate-week rule and in keeping accurate account of
the time spent in school by the worker.
THE FACTORY SCHOOL ESTABLISHED.

One of the four manufacturers who had been interested in the
original plan, Mr. D. E. Sicher, of the firm of D. E. Sicher & Co.,
decided to continue the experiment further, and accordingly applied
to the board of education for cooperation in organizing in his factory
a class among his own employees. In October, 1913, such a class was
formed. This class, also, was under the direction of the principal of
Public School No. 4, the instruction being given by the same teacher
who had been appointed to the work under the alternate-week plan.
Forty-two workers were designated by the foreman of the factory
for enrollment in the class. The ages of these workers ranged from
16 to 35 years. All of them were of foreign birth, 23 being natives
of Russia, 5 of Italy, 8 of Hungary, and 6 of Austria. Fifteen had
never attended any school whatever, 23 had attended school in the
country of their birth, and 4 had attended school for a few months
only—in each case far less than one year—in the United States. All
of them had been employed for a considerable period in the factory.
The class held sessions five days a week from 9 until 12 in the fore­
noon, the time being divided into four periods of three-quarters of
an hour each. Workers were instructed in groups of 4, 4 groups, or
16 workers, being instructed each morning. The school year extended
over about 42 weeks, or 2 terms of 20 weeks each, and 2 weeks vaca­
tion. The course of study prescribed by the board of education was
completed by one-half the number of students enrolled in each 20
weeks of the school year.
CHARACTER OF THE INSTRUCTION.

The character of the instruction was determined by the primal
needs of the workers, and was, therefore, simple and elementary, the
subjects taught being equivalent to the course in English provided
for foreigners in the evening schools of New York City. Using as a
basis for her work such themes as came within the daily experience
of the workers, and were of personal interest and benefit to them, the
instructor devoted her efforts principally to teaching her pupils to
understand, speak, read, and write the English language, including
spelling, the simple principles of sentence building and of elementary
grammar, and letter writing.
The instruction embraced also the simpler operations of arithmetic,
including tables of weights and measures and simple fractions.
Talks were given on early history, on the lives of Washington,
Lincoln, and other statesmen, and on legal holidays and their origin.



84

BU LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The school program included further some account of geography,
especially that relating to New York City, to routes of travel, and to
places of interest. Some instruction was given in civics, including
some account of the merits of different systems of government, the
essentials of good citizenship, and of patriotism. Finally, instruc­
tion in hygiene constituted an important educational factor in the
course, embracing physical culture, personal cleanliness, and first
aid to the injured.
Under each of these headings, the instruction offered was of the
simplest and most elementary sort, and it may be freely admitted
that even so the workers enrolled in the class were not prepared
to absorb all of the instruction offered by the course of study pre­
scribed by the board of education. The course served, nevertheless,
the very important purpose of opening up avenues of further interest
and study along profitable lines, and even if no other tangible result
had been achieved than that of enabling these foreign-born workers
to read and to understand the English language, the incidental
benefits to them of this acquirement were of incalculable value, this
elementary knowledge of the language of the community in which
they live and work being an essential basis of any material improve­
ment in their condition—either as wage earners or as citizens.
COST OF THE SCHOOL.

The total cost of this experiment to the firm of D. E. Sicher & Co.;
inclusive of space, light, heat, janitor’s service, and loss of workers’
time, amounted to $672 for the entire school year; the cost to the
board of education for instruction and materials used amounted to
$560, making a total cost of $1,232 for the instruction of 42 employees
during a period of 40 weeks.
EARNINGS OF GIRLS AS AFFECTED BY SCHOOL INSTRUCTION.

The earning capacity of the girls attending the school increased
steadily throughout the school year, and since wages were paid by
the piece this increase in earnings is a fair measure of increase in
efficiency as workers. It is significant that any immediate economic
benefit should result, even from such general elementary schooling
as that which has been described, since this schooling was not specifi­
cally industrial or vocational in character. The explanation is, how­
ever, simple. Such elementary schooling as that given in the factory
school is a condition of economic efficiency in any line of work.
With a view to determining as accurately as possible the imme­
diate economic benefit derived from the simple instruction given in
the school—instruction largely devoted to teaching the workers to
T
understand, read, and write the English language—the following



85

A FACTORY SCHOOL EXPERIMENT.

table of earnings has been prepared, in which the average earnings
per hour of 10 girls enrolled in the class (illiterate at the beginning
of the school) are compared with the average earnings per hour of
10 literate girls not enrolled, during a period covering 32 weeks
preceding and 16 weeks subsequent to the opening of the school.
The girls composing the two groups were of exactly corresponding
ages and experience in their work of machine operation.
AVERAGE EARNINGS OF 10 MACHINE OPERATORS ATTENDING FACTORY SCHOOL
(ILLITERATE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SCHOOL), COMPARED WITH AVERAGE
EARNINGS OF 10 LITERATE MACHINE OPERATORS NOT ENROLLED IN THE SCHOOL.
Average earnings per hour
of—
Periods.

32 weeks preceding opening of school.......................................
First 4 weeks of school..............................................................
Second 4 weeks of school...........................................................
Third 4 weeks of school.............................................................
Fourth 4 weeks of school..........................................................

Literate girls
Illiterate
not attend­ girls attend­
ing factory
ing factory
school.
school.
Cents.

-

23.2
23. 4
22. 8
23.1
23.1

Per cent of
increase in
earnings of
illiterate
girls attend­
ing factory
school.

Cents.

19.5
20.9
21.1
21.2
22.2

7.2
8. 2
8. 7
13.8

As may be seen from the above table, the average earnings per
hour of 10 literate girls, operators, during 32 weeks preceding the
opening of school exceeded the average earnings per hour of the 10
illiterate workers by 3.7 cents, or by approximately 16 per cent, the
excess of earnings of the literate workers over those of the illiterate
amounting in a full working week of 50 hours to $1.85. Each 4-week
T
period of school showed an increase in the earnings of the girls
attending school, while the earnings of the other group remained
practically stationary. During the last 4-week period of the 16 weeks
of school the earnings of the literate girls exceeded the earnings of
the girls attending school by only 0.9 cent per hour, or slightly more
than 4 per cent, the excess amounting to 45 cents in a full-time work­
ing week.
Among the causes of this increase in earning capacity may be noted
two practical benefits derived through even an imperfect knowledge
of English, namely, the ability to understand the spoken orders of
the foreman or forelady and the ability to read and understand
rules relating to the prevention of accidents in the operation of
machines.
If the average earnings during the 32 weeks preceding the opening
of the school be compared with the average earnings during the last
4-w^eek period shown in the table, the increase in earnings for those
attending school averages 2.7 cents per hour (13.8 per cent), or $1.35




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

per week. Assuming that no further advance in earnings results
from the instruction given, this average increase amounts to approxi­
mately $70 in a year, if employed for a full year. The average cost
per pupil per week of maintaining the school was 73.3 cents. The
cost assignable to the 10 girls whose average wages are shown in the
table for the period of 16 weeks was, therefore, $117.28; while the
aggregate increase in wages for these girls was equivalent to approxi­
mately $700 a year. If the total cost of the school had been assessed
upon the earnings of the girls, their increase in earnings in one year
due to the schooling would thus have exceeded the cost of the school­
ing by nearly $600, the excess of the wage increase over the cost of
the 16 weeks’ schooling per girl amounting to approximately $58.
ADVANTAGE TO EMPLOYER.

The profit to the employer is equally obvious. I f it be assumed
that these girls remain in the industry an average period of 8 years,
the aggregate increase in earnings for the 10 girls amounts to $5,600.
It is fair to assume that the employer’s profit on the work repre­
sented by this increase in earnings is not less than 10 per cent, or
$560, which is over four-fifths of the total cost to the employer of
providing schooling for 42 girls during a period of 40 weeks. The
cost to the employer for 16 weeks’ schooling for 10 girls on this basis
amounts to approximately $64, or less than one-eighth of the profit
which he may reasonably expect to derive from the increase in effi­
ciency of the workers.
It will be understood that these figures are not offered as indi­
cating precisely either the increase in wage or the profit to the
employer to be expected from 16 weeks of elementary schooling, but
the wage increase and the profit, as figured, are indicated by the
actual experience shown in the records of 10 girls. I f the data had
embraced a larger number of girls, a somewhat greater or less imme­
diate economic benefit might have been shown; but the margin of
profit, both to the worker and to the employer, is certainly sufficiently
great to warrant the conclusion that the factory school is a paying
investment. Even if a much smaller increase in efficiency on the part
of the workers be assumed, the factory school would still yield a
high rate of profit. As a matter purely of shop economy it pays the
employer to cooperate with the school authorities in providing in­
struction for illiterate workers. It is hardly necessary to add that
other benefits, such as the reduction of the liability to accident and
the appeal to the workers’ loyalty and good will, although they can
not be exactly measured in dollars, are, nevertheless, of even greater
economic value to the employer.




A FACTORY SCHOOL EXPERIMENT.

87

PROBABLE VALUE OF SIMILAR SCHOOLS IN OTHER
INDUSTRIES.

While it may be laid down with a fair degree of certainty as a
general economic principle of factory operation in a wide range of
industries and occupations that illiteracy, wherever it obtains, is an
immediate and direct cause of inefficiency among the workers and of
consequent loss to the employer and to the worker, the data pre­
sented in the foregoing pages relates specifically to the white-goods
industry. The conditions under which this first factory school oper­
ated successfully, achieving the economic benefits to worker and to
employer which have been specified, were, therefore, determined by
the requirements of the manufacturing processes and employments
in this industry. Although there is no reason to believe that bene­
fits less considerable than those which have been noted would result
from a similar scheme of cooperation with the public-school au­
thorities in providing elementary schooling for illiterate workers
in other industries, it may be felt that the data which have been pre­
sented have special significance with reference to the white-goods
industry alone, or with reference to other industries where similar
factory conditions prevail. The following brief account of the
processes and employments in the white-goods industry will suffice to
show that the conditions of employment in the industry are not
essentially different from the conditions necessarily prevailing in a
w
ride range of allied industries in New York City, and that the
processes of the industry do not in any peculiar or exceptional
degree require school training as a condition of efficiency.
In comparison with such other clothing industries as the dress and
waist industry and the cloak, suit, and skirt industry, the require­
ments of skill on the part of the worker are somewhat less in the
white-goods industry. The materials used in the white-goods industry
are less varied in texture, weight, and color, and are less expensive;
changes in style less frequently necessitate material changes in the
processes of manufacture, and the requirements of fit in white gar­
ments are less exacting. Generally, it is true also, that the risks of
loss which the manufacturer must assume are less in the whitegoods industry than they are in other clothing industries. This re­
sults, in part, from the fact that the demand for the white-goods gar­
ments is less seasonal than is the demand for other garments; in
part, from the fact that the danger of overstocking is less in the
white-goods industry, since this industry encounters less radical
changes in style; and, in part, from the fact that in the white-goods
industry less labor is expended upon the materials used, which are.
in themselves, of less value per garment. The industry is, neverthe­
less, an important factor in the economic world, and an account of its



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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

processes and employments is, therefore, of significance, since these
processes and employments affect the welfare of many thousands of
workers. The following account is based upon data obtained by per­
sonal visits to large plants, by contact with workers in the various
occupations, and by conference with heads of departments and with
manufacturers.
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF PROCESSES AND OCCU­
PATIONS.

The principal materials used by the industry are cotton cloth, cam­
bric, nainsook, silk, chiffon, crepe de chine and crepe cloth, and vege­
table silk.
The occupations in the industry may be grouped under the follow­
ing headings:
1. Designing.
2. Grading patterns and cutting materials.
3. Fancy work.
4. Construction of garment.
5. Finishing.
1. DESIGNING.

The first process in manufacturing a garment, such as a gown, princess slip,
corset cover, combination chemise, skirt, or drawers, is that of planning and
designing. This work is done by women designers.
The designer is constantly on the lookout for new ideas, which she may
derive from various sources. She studies the models put out by high-class
houses, and when employed by manufacturers of the highest-grade garments,
may be sent to Paris and to other European cities in search of ideas.
In all cases the designer must be a skilled artisan, possessing a thorough
knowledge o f all branches of the work in order to assure success in planning
garments, and that such plans may be economically, practically, and tastefully
carried out. Generally designers are workers of experience who have risen
from minor positions, and where such is the case they are said to be more
efficient in fulfilling the practical requirements of the trade.
The competency of a designer is largely determined by her ability to gauge
the needs of the trade catered to by the house employing her. Upon her to
a very great extent rests the responsibility for bringing the line produced by
the house within the limits set by the trade as regards grade and price. The
exercise of practical judgment in this respect is of prime importance, since
any disregard of these limits necessarily results in loss to her employer.
Economy of material is another important condition in practical designing.
The skillful designer plans her models so that the material can be cut with the
least possible waste of material and at the same time without sacrifice of style.
The actual work of designing consists first in planning a model by drafting
a pattern on paper, which indicates the lines or contours of the garment,
the kinds of trimmings, and their proportions. In cases where the design is
elaborate the designer, in addition to the drafting, will make cut-outs and will
lay out and pin the trimmings on the drafted sheet, roughly completing the
proposed model. She then cuts one garment from the materials selected
for that style and gives it to the sample maker, together with the original paper
pattern to be used as a guide.
The earnings of designers vary in proportion to their ability.



A FACTORY SCHOOL EXPERIMENT.

89

Sample maker.— Tlie sample maker completes the garment forwarded by the
designer in accordance with the details of the pattern. Sample makers are
chosen from among the more skillful operators, and they work under the imme­
diate direction o f the designer.
Their wages range from $10 to $12 a week. x
Special orders also are carried out and imported models copied by the de­
signer and her staff of sample makers.
The garment completed by the sample maker is pressed and made ready
for adoption as a line to be carried by the house. It is measured to determine
the quantity of various materials and trimmings used, the cost of these mate­
rials and of the labor expended upon them is computed, the value of the gar­
ment is compared with previous running numbers, and, when proved satis­
factory as regards style, selling price, and margin of manufacturers’ profit, the
new line is adopted.
2. GRADING PATTERNS AND CUTTING MATERIALS.
Cutters.— The head cutter receives the original paper pattern made by the
designer, dissects it into its different operations, such as tucking, fancy yoke
making, lace running, machine embroidery, and scalloping.
He then makes a permanent and complete pattern for each of the different
operations and proceeds to grade these patterns into sizes for cutting in quan­
tities. To grade for size he must make a set of paper patterns in reduced and
increased sizes in proportion to the dimensions of the original pattern, which
is drafted to the standard size 36. A great deal depends upon tlie correctness
with which patterns are graded, and therefore the cutter must possess a knowl­
edge o f drafting as well as cutting.
The head cutter makes out a card, on which he enumerates all of the com­
ponent parts of the garment, specific dimensions, quantities of materials, and
perforations for guiding fancy operations. On this card he writes also notes
of caution, a description of the garment and of the materials to be used, and
any other necessary data. The card so filled out serves as a record and is kept
in view by the cutters when operating.
The head cutter also makes out a card giving directions for trimming and
sloping the garment. On this card he specifies length of neck, length of sleeve,
length of ruffles, length of belts to be cut by the trimmers, and also the amount
of trimmings called for by each design.
Layers-up.— The goods received from the cotton converter (selling agency)
are stretched on cutting tables by the helpers in the cutting department, and
laid up to as many thicknesses as the instrument for cutting will allow or the
order may require. This is the work of the layer-up, whose wage ranges from
$5 to $8 a week.
The pattern to be cut is marked out with pencil on the top layer of the goods
by the skilled cutters, and cut with scissors, short knife, or electric machine,
the instrument used depending upon the number of thicknesses to be cut.
The work of laying out the pattern necessitates skill, as mis judgment may
result in losses.
The wages paid for this work range from $12 for assistants to $23 for ex­
perienced cutters.
The material cut is assorted by the assistants in the cutting department,
bundled, and sent to the various departments of the factory.
Trimmers.— The trimmers measure trimmings, such as lace, cut the material
with scissors according to directions on the cutter’s card, and send the cut




90

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

trimmings to the operating room to be given out with the rest of the garment
for different operations.
Trimmers are paid from $5 to $14 a week.
Slopers.—The slopers, following the directions on the description card pre­
pared for use of trimmers and slopers, lay up trimmings, mark them into shape,
and cut with scissors, except where large quantities are required, when the
work of sloping is done by the sloping cutter with regular cutting instruments.
As in the case of that of trimmers, the work of the slopers is sent to the
operating room, to be given out by the forelady for different operations with
the rest of the garment.
Wages of slopers, as of trimmers, range from $5 to $14 a week.
3. FANCYWORK.
Stampers.— Where the pattern calls for embroidering, the pieces to be em­
broidered are sent to the stamping department. Here a stamper transfers the
design to the material from a perforated paper pattern by rubbing a mixture
of crayon and benzine with a pouncet over the pattern. The stamped pieces are
then forwarded to the factory proper.
Tucking.—The first occupation to receive attention in the factory proper is
the tucking on the garment, which is done by machines for single and multiple
tucking.
Zigzagging, hemstitching, etc.— Tucking is followed by the other branches of
fancy work, such as zigzagging, lace running, hemstitching, machine embroidery,
scalloping. Some o f this work is done by special machines, a description of
which is found further on in this report.
This fancy work is done by one set of operators for the various garments
manufactured.
Scallop cutters.—The work of scallop making, done by a special machine,
when finished is sent by the forelady to the scallop cutters, either before the
hemming and felling or after, as she deems best. These scallop cutters trim
the waste material from the scallops with scissors. (No machine has as yet
been invented that can make the scallops and cut away the waste material at
the same time.) When finished this is sent back to the operating room.
The scallop cutter receives from $6 to $9 a week.
In the meantime the other sections of the various garments are turned over
to the foreladies of the different departments, to be distributed among the
operators.
4. CONSTRUCTION OF GARMENT.
Body makers.— The work of making the body of the garment is done by
machine operators called body makers. The body makers also make slits in
skirt or drawers.
Trimming operators.—The work of trimming neck and sleeves or bottom of
garments with laces or other trimmings, front making or shoulder joining, when
required, is done by operators called trimming operators, who use plain sewing
machines. These workers also make sleeves, if garment is constructed with
set-in sleeves.
This accomplished, the garment is returned to the forelady, who gives it to
other operators in the order in which their work is most advantageously done
in completing the garment.
Fellers, hemmers, and sleeve setters.— These operators include the fellers,
who join the seams of the garment; the hemmers, who hem the bottoms and
do also gore seaming; and the sleeve setters, who set in the sleeves.




A FACTORY SCHOOL EXPERIMENT.

91

Garments that require ruffles, or fancy trimmings previously made by the
fancy workers, are now ready for the joiners and operators on special machines.
Joiners.—The joiners join widths of ruffles made by fancy workers and are
the beginners in the industry. They learn by using a gauge on the machine, and
when proficient are taught other branches of the work by the special teacher
employed in the shop for such purposes.
Fancy machine operators.—The fancy machine operators join the fancy trim­
mings, such as ruffles and lace yokes, to the garment, operating special machines
■constructed for this work. They also make and set dust ruffles. Their work
completes the actual construction of the garment.
5. FINISHING.
Buttonhole maker; marker.—A special machine is used in the making of
buttonholes which is set by the operator for size of hole required. The button­
hole maker, instead of passing the work back to the forelady when finished,
passes it on to the marker, who marks with a pencil the places for buttons and
hands the work on to the button sewer.
The buttonhole maker is paid from $6 to $9 a week.
Button sewer.—The button sewer sews on buttons by machine, which machine
can be adjusted to hold buttons of any size or kind. When she has finished
her work she gives it to the girl in charge of the last three processes, i. e.,
buttonhole making, button marking, and button sewing, who returns it to the
forelady.
Ribboners.—The garment is now ready for the ribboners, who pull ribbons
through the lace insertions by use of a bodkin. This work is very simple and
requires no skill or knowledge of garment making. Among these ribboners
the more apt ones make bows and rosettes.
Examiners.—The garments are now forwarded to the examiner (whose wages
range from $5 to $9 a week). It is the duty of these workers to measure the
parts of the garment, to insure that the dimensions correspond to the given
sizes, also to examine for slip stitches and rid the garment of threads.
Presser.— This done the garment is placed in the hands of the presser, who
presses it thoroughly (using irons of 6§ pounds in weight), pleats and folds it
into shape, and pins it into size, using tissue paper to keep from creasing when
packed.
Pressers receive wages of from $7 to $14 a week.
Final inspection and packing.— The pressed garments are forwarded to a set
of workers who inspect the ironing and pack the garments in boxes. Each box
is properly marked (to designate lot, number, style, and size), tied, and made
ready for shipping.
Work ticket.— The forelady of each department keeps a record of work done
by her workers on a separate work ticket for each operator. This records the
style, number, quantity delivered to worker, and the operation to be performed.
When the work is finished and returned to the forelady, the amount returned
by the worker is entered on the same ticket, the rate per dozen, and the full
amount due to the worker for that quantity of w ork. At the end of the week
T
these amounts are totaled and the ticket is sent to the office for making up the
pay roll.
The rates of pay are determined with reference to the skill required for the
work done, the degree of skill required depending largely upon the character
of the garment. The gown requires the most skill; in the order mentioned the
princess, the corset cover or brassiere, the combination, the chemise, the skirt,
and the drawers require less skill.




92

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

By way of summing up briefly the manufacturing processes which have
been described, the progress of two typical garments through the factory may
be traced.
TRACING THE GOWN.
[T h ro u g h the variou s processes of w ork in the order in w hich th ey fo llo w .]

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Designing (sample making).
Cutting (trimming and sloping.)
Stamping for embroidery, and embroidering when garment requires such.
Fancywork making, tucking, lace running, etc.
Trimming operations.
Hemming and felling.
Buttonhole making.
Button sewing.
Ribboning.
Examining.
Pressing.
Examining the pressing, and packing in boxes.
Shipping.
TRACING THE COMBINATION.
[T h ro u g h the variou s processes o f w ork in the order in w hich th ey fo llo w .]

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Designing.
Cutting (trimming and sloping.)
Stamping for embroidery and embroidering when garment requires such.
Fancywork making.
Trimming top (corset cover).
Felling (closing sides).
Trimming bottoms of drawers.
Facing drawers.
Gathering or pleating top of drawers.
Joining both legs of drawers.
Joining by belting.
Buttonhole making.
Button marking.
Button sewing.
Ribboning.
Examining.
Pressing.
Examining the pressing, and packing.
Shipping.

DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIAL MACHINES USED FOR FANCYWORK, ETC.
1. Overlock.—Used for joining fancywork, embroidery, or laces to yokes of
gowns, etc. This machine performs the operation in one stitch, giving a fancy
finish to the seam. It is also used in combining waist and drawers of com­
bination, accomplishing this in one operation.
2. Lap seam.— Two-needle machine is used for joining seams. It makes a
flat fell stitch with one operation instead of four. The seams are called lap
seams.




A FACTORY SCHOOL EXPERIMENT.

93

3. Ruffle setter.—This machine takes two pieces of material, gathers one,
joining them together with a tuck-over seam in one operation. Used in setting
ruffle to bottom of drawers, skirt, and chemise.
4. Chain-stitch machine.— Used for fancy work, joining laces and embroidery,
tucking, etc., with single thread, making chain stitch (instead o f overcasting
by hand).
5. Zigzag machine.—Used for joining laces together for yokes. This works
from side to side, making a fancy stitch (zigzag) in one operation, thus
saving work of trimming seams and of overcasting for strength and finish
of same.
6. Embroidery machine.— Works on stamped design inclosed in wooden em­
broidery frames. The operator directs the work of the machine by keeping
the lines of design in proper position for machine, the width being controlled
by a knee press.
7. Embroidery machine scalloping.— This is used for making scallops <no
stamping necessary). Material to be scalloped is shaped for neck, or straight
for ruffles, and the machine is guided from the edge of the material.