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School and Early Employment
Experience of Youth




A REPORT ON
SEVEN COMMUNITIES,
1952-57

Bulletin No. 1277
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Claguc, Commisstontr




School and Early Employment
Experience of Youth

A R e p o rt on S e v e n C o m m u n itie s, 1952-57

Bulletin No. 1277
August 1960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 50 cents







PREFACE
T h e n u m b e r and p r o p o r t io n o f young p e o p le in the U nited S ta tes w ho attend s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o ls and c o l l e g e s h a ve b e e n ste a d ily r is in g f o r m an y y e a r s , and the le v e l o f e d u ca tio n
o f the g e n e r a l p o p u la tio n is c o n s id e r a b ly h ig h e r than it w a s in the d e c a d e o f th e 1930*s.
N e v e r t h e le s s , s u b s ta n tia l p r o p o r t io n s o f you n g p e o p le s t i l l te r m in a te t h e ir fo r m a l e d u c a ­
tio n b e f o r e g ra d u a tio n f r o m h igh s c h o o l, and m any n e v e r c o m p le t e e v e n the 8th o r 9th
g r a d e . T h is g r o u p , g e n e r a lly 1 6 -1 8 y e a r s o f a g e w hen th ey d r o p ou t, p lu s h igh s c h o o l
g ra d u a te s w ho do not g o on to c o l le g e o r to o th e r s p e c ia liz e d tr a in in g , w ho a r e g e n e r a lly
18 o r 19 y e a r s o ld w hen th ey g ra d u a te , c o n s titu te the bulk o f the new en tra n ts in to the
la b o r f o r c e e a c h y e a r .
O v e r the y e a r s , young w o r k e r s h av e e x p e r ie n c e d h ig h e r r a te s o f u n e m p lo y m e n t than
h ave any o th e r a g e g r o u p s . F o r th is r e a s o n , a m on g o t h e r s , the U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r
h as a k e e n in t e r e s t in th e ir p r e p a r a t io n f o r w o r k . T h e D e p a r tm e n t’ s s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i ­
b ility in the fie ld o f m a n p o w e r u tiliz a tio n s tim u la te s its in t e r e s t in and c o n c e r n w ith the
tra in in g and a b ility that young p e o p le a r e b rin g in g f r o m s c h o o l to the w o r ld o f w o r k , and
p a r t ic u la r ly w ith th e ir c a p a c it y to p r o v id e the n e c e s s a r y s k ills to m e e t the N a tio n ’ s
ch a n g in g t e c h n o lo g ic a l n e e d s in the y e a r s a h ea d .
T h e c u r r e n t p r o b le m s o f young p e o p le in g ettin g s u ita b le tra in in g and fin d in g s u ita b le
w o r k w ill be c o m p o u n d e d in the n ext d e c a d e by the in flu x into the la b o r f o r c e o f the m illio n s
b o rn d u rin g the 1 9 4 0 's and 1950*s. M o r e o v e r , th e s e m u ch g r e a t e r n u m b e r s o f i n e x p e r i ­
en ce d you n g p e o p le w ill be e n te rin g the la b o r m a r k e t d u rin g a p e r io d o f r is in g d em a n d
f o r w o r k e r s w ith m o r e ed u ca tio n and tr a in in g . In a n tic ip a tio n o f th is e x p e c te d u p s u r g e o f
young w o r k e r s , the D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r u n d e rto o k a s e r i e s o f p ilo t s u r v e y s to fin d out
how w e ll a s u b s ta n tia l g r o u p o f young p e o p le ju s t out o f s c h o o l w ho had c o m p le t e d no
m o r e , and o fte n l e s s , than a s e c o n d a r y ed u ca tio n a d ju s te d to the w o rk in g w o r ld d u rin g the
f i r s t few y e a r s a ft e r th ey le ft s c h o o l. T he fin d in g s b rin g into fo c u s s o m e o f the p r o b le m s
that c o n fr o n t e d u c a t o r s in planning s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m s and g u id a n ce p r o g r a m s , e m p lo y e r s
in se ttin g t h e ir sta n d a rd s f o r h ir in g , and youth t h e m s e lv e s in m ak in g th e e a r ly d e c i s i o n s
that w ill a ffe c t so c r u c ia l l y th e ir su b seq u en t w o rk in g c a r e e r s .
A c k n o w le d g e m e n t is m a d e f i r s t to the s c h o o l o f f i c e r s o f the s e v e n a r e a s c o v e r e d by
th e s e s u r v e y s f o r th e ir c o o p e r a t io n in m ak in g a v a ila b le the s c h o o l r e c o r d s o f the y ou n g
p e o p le stu d ie d .
T h e s u r v e y s w e r e c a r r ie d out by c o l l e g e s o r u n i v e r s it ie s , and in o n e c a s e by a
p u b lic s c h o o l s y s t e m , u n d er c o n t r a c t w ith the B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s . T h e B u re a u
p r e p a r e d the in t e r v ie w q u e s tio n n a ir e s and in s tr u c tio n s and the ta b u la tio n p la n s in o r d e r
to in s u r e c o m p a r a b ilit y o f the fin d in g s . A b a s ic , d e ta ile d r e p o r t f o r e a c h a r e a s u r v e y e d
w a s w r itte n by the p r in c ip a l in v e s t ig a to r w ith the e x c e p tio n o f the p ilo t study in w h ich
o n ly the in te r v ie w in g w a s don e by the c o n t r a c t o r .
T h e p r in c ip a l in v e s t ig a t o r s w e r e M ary B a s s o , D i r e c t o r o f G u id a n ce and P la c e m e n t ,
P u b lic S c h o o l S y s te m o f P r o v id e n c e , R .I .; P r o f . D ean L o n g , v i c e p r e s id e n t o f E v a n s v ille
C o lle g e (In d ia n a ); D r . W illa r d A b r a h a m and D r . R o b e r t L . B a k e r , S c h o o l o f E d u ca tio n ,
A r iz o n a State U n iv e r s it y ; D r. S tew a rt C . H u lsla n d e r, S c h o o l o f E d u ca tio n , U n iv e r s ity o f
M ich ig a n ; D r . L e o n a r d P . A d a m s , S ch o o l o f In d u stria l and L a b o r R e la t io n s , C o r n e ll
U n iv e r s ity ; and D r . G e r a ld G . S o m e r s , In stitu te o f In d u s tr ia l R e la t io n s , W e s t V ir g in ia
U n iv e r s it y .
T h is b u lle tin w a s p r e p a r e d by M a r g a r e t L . P lu n k ett and N a o m i R ic h e s o f the D iv is io n
o f M a n p ow er and E m p lo y m e n t S t a t is t ic s , B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s . M a r ie S h ep h ard had
r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r th e ta b u la tio n s . M is s P lunkett w a s r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e plan n in g and
c o o r d in a t io n o f the e n tir e stu dy.




iii

CONTENTS
Page
C h apter I.

In tro d u ctio n and su m m a r y o f fin d in gs

1

S u m m a ry o f m a jo r f i n d i n g s ---------------------------C h apter II.

C h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f s c h o o l l e a v e r s w hen they le ft s c h o o l

10
10
10
10
13
13
16
17
19
19

P e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s -------------S e x ------------------------------------------------A g e ..........................................................
L e v e l o f m e n ta l a b i l i t y -------------H igh est g r a d e c o m p le t e d ----------S c h o o l r e t a r d a t i o n ---------------------R e a s o n s f o r d ro p p in g o u t -------------G ra d e r e t a r d a t i o n ---------------------D is s a t is fa c t io n w ith s c h o o l -----W o r k ---------------------------------------------M a r r i a g e -------------------------------------M ilita r y S e r v i c e ------------------------H e a lt h .............................................
T ra in in g f o r w o r k w h ile in s c h o o l
V o c a tio n a l e d u c a t i o n - ----------------V o c a tio n a l c o u n s e lin g -----------------

21
21

22
22
22
22
23

C h apter III. W o rk e x p e r ie n c e o f s c h o o l l e a v e r s
W o rk e x p e r ie n c e w h ile in s c h o o l ------------------------------------------F a m ily statu s at tim e o f in t e r v ie w ----------------------------------------L a b o r f o r c e e x p e r ie n c e a fte r le a v in g s c h o o l ---------------------P r o p o r t io n s e n te rin g the la b o r f o r c e --------------------------------E n try j o b s -------------- •
--------------------------------------------------------------J o b s at date o f in t e r v ie w -----------------------------------------------------M ethod o f ob ta in in g jo b h e ld at the tim e o f the in te rv ie w
W a g e s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------H ou rs o f w o r k ------------------------------------------------------------------------U n e m p l o y m e n t ---------------------------------------------------------------------P o s t -h ig h s c h o o l tra in in g and jo b a s p i r a t i o n s ------------------U n a c c o u n te d -fo r t i m e --------------------------------------------------------------

24
24
24
25
25
28
30
31
32
33
33
38
39

TABLES
1. A g e o f g ra d u a te s at date o f g ra d u a tion , by a r e a and s e x -----------------------------------------

11

2.

A g e o f d r o p o u ts at date o f le a v in g s c h o o l, by a r e a and s e x ------------------------------------

12

3.

IQ ’ s o f g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u ts , fiv e a r e a s --------------------------------------------------------------

14

4 . H igh est g r a d e c o m p le te d by d r o p o u ts who c o m p le te d 8th g ra d e o r a b o v e , by
a r e a and s e x -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

15

5.

G ra d e r e ta r d a tio n o f d r o p o u ts , by a r e a and s e x ------------------------------------------------------

17

6. A g e and h ig h e st g r a d e c o m p le te d by d r o p o u ts , a ll a r e a s --------------------------------------

18




iv

T A B LE S - - C ontinued
Page
7.

R e a s o n s f o r le a v in g s c h o o l a s sh ow n on s c h o o l r e c o r d s , by a r e a and s e x ---------

*9

8.

R e a s o n s f o r le a v in g s c h o o l a s g iv e n by d r o p o u ts w ho w e r e in te r v ie w e d , by
a r e a and s e x -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

20

O p in io n s o f g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u ts on v a lu e o f w o r k e x p e r ie n c e and e a rn in g s
w h ile in s c h o o l, a ll a r e a s , by s e x -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

25

M a r ita l and p a r e n ta l status o f g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u ts at tim e o f in t e r v ie w , s ix
a r e a s , by s e x --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

26

N u m b e r o f w e e k s e la p sin g a ft e r le a v in g s c h o o l, b e f o r e g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u ts
sta r te d to lo o k f o r a r e g u la r jo b , a ll a r e a s , by s e x --------------------------------------------

27

N u m b e r o f w e e k s it to o k g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u ts to fin d f i r s t r e g u la r jo b , fiv e
a r e a s , by s e x ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

28

13.

O u tm ig r a n ts , s e le c t e d data, a ll a r e a s , by s e x ----------------------------------------------------------

29

14.

F i r s t r e g u la r jo b s o f g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u ts , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f e m p lo y m e n t
status at tim e o f in te r v ie w , a ll a r e a s , by s e x -------------------------------------------------------

29

R e g u la r jo b s o f g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u ts e m p lo y e d at tim e o f in t e r v ie w , a ll
a r e a s , by s e x ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

30

16.

W a g e s o f g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u ts at tim e o f in te r v ie w , by a r e a and s e x ------------

33

17.

H o u rs w o r k e d p e r w e e k by g r a d u a te s and d ro p o u ts e m p lo y e d at tim e o f i n t e r ­
v ie w , by a r e a and s e x -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

34

T o ta l w e e k s o f u n e m p lo y m e n t o f g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u ts in the l a b o r f o r c e at
t im e o f in t e r v ie w , s ix a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

36

A v e r a g e n u m b e r o f w e e k s o f u n e m p lo y m e n t o f g r a d u a te s and d ro p o u ts e v e r in
la b o r f o r c e , s ix a r e a s , by s e x ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

37

U n a c c o u n t e d -fo r t im e o f g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u ts , th r e e a r e a s , by s e x ---------------

^

9.

10.

11.

12.

15.

18.

19.

20.

CHARTS
1.

R e a s o n s d r o p o u ts g a v e f o r le a v in g s c h o o l ------------------------------------------------------------------

^

2.

G ra d e and age at w h ich d ro p o u ts le ft s c h o o l -------------------------------------------------------------

^

3.

E xten t to w h ich g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u ts w e r e behind the n o r m a l g r a d e f o r th e ir
a g e --------------------------------------- ------------- - ................................... ......................................................

5

4.

R e g u la r jo b s o f m a le g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u t s -------------------------------------------------------------

^

5.

R e g u la r jo b s o f fe m a le g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u t s -------------------------------------------------------

6.

W e e k ly e a r n in g s o f g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u ts on the jo b h e ld at tim e o f in te r v ie w

8

7.

P r o p o r t io n o f g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u ts u n e m p lo y e d at t im e o f in t e r v i e w --------------

9

■7




v

A P P E N D IX E S
Page
A . T e c h n ic a l n o t e -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B . D e s c r ip t io n o f in d ivid u a l a r e a s s u r v e y e d ------------------------------------------------------------------C . F o r m s and q u e s tio n n a ir e s ----------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------F o r m fo r tr a n s c r ip t io n o f data fr o m s c h o o l r e c o r d s ------------------------------------------Que s tio n n a ire s :
S ch edu le A . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w -------------------------------------------------------------------------S ch ed u le B . In q u iry to fa m ily m e m b e r s ----------------------------------------------------------D . T a b le s :
D -l.

43
46
51
51
52
60

U n iv e r s e , s a m p le , and c o m p le te d in te rv ie w s o f g ra d u a tes and d r o p o u ts ,
by a r e a and s e x -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

63

D -2 a . IQ ’ s o f g r a d u a te s , fiv e a r e a s , by s e x -----------------------------------------------------------

64

D -2 b . IQ ’ s o f d r o p o u ts , fiv e a r e a s , by s e x --------------------------------------------------------------

64

D -3 .

H igh est g r a d e c o m p le te d by d ro p o u ts , by a r e a and s e x ----------------------------

65

D -4 .

R e a s o n s f o r le a v in g s c h o o l as g iv en by d ro p o u ts , by h ig h est g ra d e
c o m p le t e d and by a r e a and s e x -----------------------------------------------------------------

66

D -5 .

R e a s o n s f o r le a v in g s c h o o l a s g iv e n by d r o p o u ts , fo u r a r e a s , by IQ ------

68

D -6 a . A ll v o c a t io n a l c o u r s e s c o m p le te d by g ra d u a tes and d r o p o u ts , s ix a r e a s ,
by s e x --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

69

D -6 b . C o m m e r c ia l c o u r s e s c o m p le te d by g ra d u a tes and d r o p o u ts , s ix a r e a s ,
by s e x --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

70

D -6 c .

In d u stria l c o u r s e s c o m p le te d by g ra d u a tes and d ro p o u ts , s ix a r e a s ,
by s e x ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

72

D -7 .

E m p lo y m e n t e x p e r ie n c e o f g ra d u a tes and d ro p o u ts du rin g s c h o o l y e a r s ,
by a r e a and s e x --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

74

D -8 a . M a r ita l status o f g ra d u a te s and d ro p o u ts at tim e o f in te rv ie w , by a r e a
and s e x --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --

75

D -8 b . P a r e n ta l status o f g ra d u a tes and d ro p o u ts at tim e o f in te r v ie w , by a r e a
and s e x ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

76

D -9 .

E m p lo y m e n t s e a r c h o f g ra d u a te s and d ro p o u ts betw een lea v in g s c h o o l
and f i r s t r e g u la r jo b , by se x , a ll a r e a s -------------------------------------------------

77

D -1 0 . T y p e o f f i r s t r e g u la r jo b held by g ra d u a tes and d ro p o u ts , i r r e s p e c t i v e
o f e m p lo y m e n t status at tim e o f in te rv ie w , by a r e a and s e x --------------

81

D - l l . T y p e o f r e g u la r jo b h eld by g ra d u a tes and d rop ou ts at tim e o f i n t e r ­
v ie w , by a r e a and s e x ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

82

D - l 2 . R e g u la r jo b s o f g ra d u a te s and d ro p o u ts e m p lo y e d at tim e o f in te r v ie w ,
s e le c t e d data, by se x , a ll a r e a s --------------------------------------------------------------

83

D - l 3. E m p lo y m e n t status o f g ra d u a te s and d ro p o u ts at tim e o f in te r v ie w , by
h ig h e s t g r a d e c o m p le t e d , by a r e a and s e x ----------------------------------------------

88




vi

SCHOOL AND EARLY EMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE OF YOUTH
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
A b ou t o n e -t h ir d o f a ll stu d en ts w ho en ter
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l in the U nited S ta tes d r o p
out b e f o r e g r a d u a tin g .1 N e a r ly t h r e e - f ift h s
o f th o s e w ho g ra d u a te do not go on to any
s c h o o l o f a d v a n ce d le a r n in g o r tr a in in g ,
fu ll t im e , in the s u m m e r o r autum n f o l l o w ­
ing th e ir g r a d u a tio n . F o r th e p u r p o s e s o f
th is stu d y, th e s e tw o g r o u p s to g e t h e r h ave
b ee n d e fin e d a s s c h o o l l e a v e r s . W ith few
e x c e p tio n s th ey a r e b e tw een 16 and 21 y e a r s
o f a g e , h a ve fin is h e d t h e ir f o r m ill e d u ca tio n
and a r e p r e s u m a b ly r e a d y to a s s u m e adult
r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s e ith e r in the la b o r f o r c e o r
as h o m e m a k e r s .
A m o n g a ll p e r s o n s in the la b o r f o r c e ,
young p e o p le h a v e c o n s is t e n t ly had h ig h e r
u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s than any o th e r a g e
g r o u p . In A p r il 1957, w hen t h e s e s u r v e y s
w e r e in p r o c e s s , u n e m p lo y m e n t fig u r e s f o r
the N ation a s a w h o le sh o w e d that n e a r ly
10 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e a g e d 1 4 -1 9 and n e a r ly
7 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e 2 0 -2 4 y e a r s o f a g e w e r e
u n e m p lo y e d c o m p a r e d w ith l e s s than 4
p e r c e n t o f the a g e g r o u p 2 5 -3 4 . T h e s e high
u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s , th ou gh th ey v a r y in
d e g r e e o v e r t im e , but n ot in k in d, add to
the g e n e r a l c o n c e r n abou t young p e o p le . In
the d e c a d e ah ead p o p u la tio n ch a n g e s ca n be
e x p e c te d to a c c e n tu a te r a th e r than r e l ie v e
th is situ a tio n . In 1958, out o f a to ta l p o p u ­
la tio n o f 174 m illio n A m e r ic a n s t h e r e w e r e
abou t 14 m illio n you n g p e o p le a g e d 16
th ro u g h 21 * both in and out o f s c h o o l.
W ithin the n ext fe w y e a r s , h o w e v e r , the
high b ir th r a t e s o f th e 1940*s and 1 9 5 0 ’ s
w ill be fe lt , and by 1970, th is a g e g ro u p
w ill h a v e in c r e a s e d to a lm o s t 22^ m illio n .
A lth ou gh not a ll o f t h e s e you n g p e o p le
w ill be in th e la b o r f o r c e , th ey a r e a ll p a rt
o f th e N a tio n ’ s la b o r f o r c e p o te n tia l and a
p r im a r y s o u r c e
o f n a tio n a l e c o n o m ic
stre n g th . W hat w o r k w ill th ey fin d to do ?
1 Retention in High Schools in Large Cities, 1957, U.S. Depart­
ment o f Health, Education, and Welfare, Office o f Education,
Bull. No. 15, 1957.




W ill th ey be tra in e d f o r the kind o f w o r k
that s o c ie t y n e e d s to h ave d o n e ? T h o s e
w ho g o on to c o l le g e w ill p r e s u m a b ly be
b e tte r a b le to ta k e c a r e o f th e m s e lv e s in
th e la b o r m a r k e t than th o s e w ho do n ot,
s in c e th ey w ill h a v e , i f not p r o fe s s io n a l o r
te c h n ic a l tr a in in g , at le a s t a h ig h e r le v e l
o f g e n e r a l e d u ca tio n . But th o s e w ho g r a d ­
u ate f r o m h igh s c h o o l and do not h ave a d d i­
tio n a l tra in in g and th o s e w ho d r o p out o f
s c h o o l b e fo r e g ra d u a tio n m a y w e ll b e l e s s
a b le , f o r v a r io u s r e a s o n s , to a d ju st s u c ­
c e s s fu l l y to the w o r ld o f w o r k . M any s u r ­
v e y s h ave b een m a d e by e d u ca tio n a l and
o th e r a g e n c ie s o v e r the y e a r s , but th ey
h a v e b e e n c o n c e r n e d m a in ly w ith the r e a ­
so n s f o r d ro p p in g out o f s c h o o l o r f o r not
g oin g on to c o l l e g e ; few h a v e fo llo w e d
s c h o o l le a v e r s into the la b o r f o r c e to s e e
w hat happ en ed to th e m a ft e r th ey le ft
s c h o o l . It is th is a s p e c t o f the m a tte r w ith
w h ich th e D ep a rtm en t o f L a b o r is p r i ­
m a r ily c o n c e r n e d .
State la w s h a v e m a d e s c h o o l a tten d a n ce
v ir t u a lly c o m p u ls o r y to a g e 16, and both
State and F e d e r a l la b o r le g is la t io n h av e
g r e a t ly r e s t r i c t e d fu l l- t i m e e m p lo y m e n t
p r i o r to th is a g e d u rin g the tim e that s c h o o l
is in s e s s i o n . H o w e v e r , high s c h o o l g r a d ­
u a te s not g o in g on to c o l le g e a r e u s u a lly 18
o r o l d e r ; the g r e a t m a jo r it y o f d ro p o u ts
a r e 16 o r o ld e r and e lig ib le f o r fu l l- t i m e
e m p lo y m e n t, e x c e p t in c e r t a in h a z a rd o u s
o c c u p a tio n s w h e r e a g e 18 is the m in im u m
f o r h ir in g . T h e r e f o r e , w ith r e s p e c t to
m in im u m a g e f o r e m p lo y m e n t, sta tu tory
r e q u ir e m e n t s d o not u s u a lly p re v e n t e ith e r
g ra d u a te s o r d r o p o u ts f r o m taking jo b s .
T h e ir d iffic u lt ie s a r e lik e ly to a r i s e , r a th e r ,
f r o m d e f i c i e n c i e s in tra in in g and la c k o f
w o r k e x p e r ie n c e .
T h is study o f the e a r ly e m p lo y m e n t e x ­
p e r ie n c e o f young p e o p le w a s u n d erta k en ,
t h e r e f o r e , in an a ttem p t to id e n tify s o m e o f
the m a jo r fa c t o r s in the w h o le c o m p le x o f

E n g la n d , M id d le A tla n tic , South A tla n tic ,
and M ountain R e g io n s ; and t h r e e in the
E a st N orth C e n tra l R e g io n . In p o p u la tio n ,
th ey ra n g e d fr o m abou t 4 0 ,0 0 0 to 3 5 0 ,0 0 0 .
In e a c h o f tw o s u r v e y s , an e n tir e cou n ty
w a s c o v e r e d b e c a u s e it c o n s titu te d a s in g le
a d m in is tr a tiv e s c h o o l a r e a . In fo u r o f the
s u r v e y s , p a r o c h ia l s c h o o ls w e r e in c lu d e d .
N one o f the a r e a s had a s ig n ific a n t n o n w h ite s c h o o l p o p u la tio n , but in o n e a r e a ,
th e r e w a s a c o n s id e r a b le p r o p o r t io n o f
S p a n is h -A m e r ic a n s and tw o o t h e r s had
e x p e r ie n c e d h e a v y i m m i g r a t i o n f r o m
so u th e rn E u r o p e , P o la n d , and the U nited
K in g d om p r i o r to the 1 9 2 0 ’ s . P o p u la tio n in
tw o o th e r a r e a s w a s m a in ly A n g lo -S a x o n .
No e n tir e ly r u r a l a r e a and no m a jo r m e t r o ­
p o lita n c e n t e r w e r e a m on g the s e v e n . A l l
w e r e in d u s tr ia liz e d in v a r y in g d e g r e e , but
n on e w a s a s in g le -in d u s t r y a r e a . T h ey
v a r ie d c o n s id e r a b ly in th e ir m a jo r e c o ­
n o m ic a c t iv it y , f r o m th o s e w h ich w e r e
p r i m a r i ly d is tr ib u tio n p o in ts f o r w h o le s a le
and r e t a il tr a d e w ith s o m e m a n u fa c tu r in g ,
to t h o s e w ith e x te n s iv e h e a v y in d u s tr y .
S e v e r a l w e r e a r e a s o f su b s ta n tia l la b o r
s u rp lu s d u rin g and p r i o r to the p e r io d
c o v e r e d in the s u r v e y s .3

y o u th ’ s a d ju stm e n t to w o r k .2 W hat p r o p o r ­
tio n lo o k e d f o r jo b s and what p r o p o r t io n
found jo b s ? H ow lon g did it ta k e , how did
th ey g o abou t the s e a r c h , and w hat k in d s o f
jo b s d id th ey g e t ? H ow m u ch did th ey e a r n ?
D id th e g r a d u a te s do b e tte r than th e d r o p ­
o u t s ? W as the im p a c t o f u n e m p lo y m e n t
d iffe r e n t on g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u t s ? W hy
did th e d r o p o u ts le a v e s c h o o l ? D id s u c c e s s
in s c h o o l c o r r e l a t e w ith s u c c e s s o n the
jo b ?
T h e fin d in g s , w h ich p r o v id e at le a s t s o m e
a n s w e r s to th e s e q u e s tio n s , h a v e b e e n
d e r iv e d f r o m tw o s e t s o f d a ta . O f fic ia l
s c h o o l r e c o r d s p r o v id e d c e r t a in b a s ic i n ­
fo r m a t io n on ab ou t 2 2 ,0 0 0 young p e o p le ,
su ch a s a g e w h en th e y le ft s c h o o l, h ig h e s t
grade
c o m p le t e d ,
in t e llig e n c e
q u otien t,
v o c a t io n a l c o u r s e s c o m p le t e d , and r e a s o n
f o r le a v in g a s r e c o r d e d by the s c h o o l . In ­
fo r m a t io n on p o s t - s c h o o l w o r k e x p e r ie n c e
w a s o b ta in e d by d i r e c t in t e r v ie w w ith a
su b s a m p le o f 4 ,0 0 0 s c h o o l le a v e r s w ho had
re m a in e d in t h e ir h o m e c o m m u n it ie s . C e r ­
tain s u b je c t iv e q u e s tio n s w e r e a ls o a s k e d
p e rta in in g to p la n s f o r fu tu re tr a in in g , jo b
a s p ir a t io n s , and h ow s c h o o l c o u ld h a v e b e e n
m o r e u s e fu l, a s w e ll a s q u e stio n s o n p r e s e n t
m a r it a l sta tu s and n u m b e r o f c h ild r e n .
F iv e o f th e s e v e n s u r v e y s c o v e r e d t h e t h r e e
s c h o o l y e a r s b e tw e e n S e p te m b e r 1953 and
June 1956. O ne c o v e r e d th e p e r io d S e p te m ­
b e r 1951 to June 1955, and o n e the s in g le
s c h o o l y e a r o f 1 9 5 5 -5 6 .

F or
the
c o n v e n ie n c e o f th e g e n e r a l
r e a d e r , the m a jo r fin d in g s o f the s u r v e y s
in th e s e s e v e n a r e a s a r e s u m m a r iz e d , w ith
s o m e o f the m o s t s ig n ific a n t d e ta il, in th is
c h a p te r . M o r e c o m p le t e a n a ly s is o f the
data f o r a ll a r e a s c o m b in e d and f o r the
in d iv id u a l a r e a s a p p e a r s in c h a p te r s II and
III.

T h e s e v e n a r e a s s e le c t e d f o r study w e r e
lo c a t e d a s f o l lo w s : O ne e a c h in th e N ew

SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS
1 • N o n u n ifo r m ity A m o n g S c h o o l L e a v e r s .
It is n ot a c c u r a t e to th in k o f s c h o o l le a v e r s ,
e ith e r g r a d u a te s o r d r o p o u t s , a s h o m o ­
gen eou s g ro u p s. S ch ool le a v e r s a r e c h a r a c ­
t e r i z e d by in n u m e r a b le p e r s o n a l d i f f e r ­
e n c e s . F o r e x a m p le , s o m e o f th e g ra d u a te s
c o v e r e d by the s u r v e y s w ho did not g o on to
c o l le g e had s c h o o l r e c o r d s s im ila r to th o s e
who did g o , and s o m e d r o p o u ts had IQ ’ s a s
h igh , b a s e d on sta n d a rd in t e llig e n c e t e s t s ,
a s th o s e w ho g r a d u a te d . W o r k h i s t o r i e s ,
lik e w is e , v a r ie d w id e ly a m on g in d iv id u a ls
in m o s t g r o u p s . H o w e v e r , the m a le g r a d ­
u a te s n ot g o in g to c o l le g e p r e s e n t e d a
ra th e r u n ifo r m p i c t u r e - - t h a t o f young m e n

f a i r ly co n tin u o u s ly e m p lo y e d . T h e e x p e r i ­
e n c e o f m a le d r o p o u ts , on the o th e r hand,
sh ow ed m o r e v a r ia t io n . S o m e had jo b s ,
con tin u ity o f e m p lo y m e n t, and w a g e s that
a p p r o x im a te d th o s e o f the m a le g r a d u a te s ,
w h e r e a s o t h e r s w e r e i r r e g u l a r ly o r n e v e r
e m p lo y e d . T h e g i r l s , both g ra d u a te s and
d r o p o u ts , w e r e d iv id e d m a in ly b etw een
th o s e w ho e n te r e d the la b o r f o r c e and had
r e m a in e d th e r e up to the tim e o f the s u r ­
v e y s , and t h o s e w ho had m a r r ie d e a r ly and
e ith e r had n e v e r w o r k e d in p a id e m p l o y ­
m en t o r w h o s e la b o r f o r c e a tta ch m e n t w a s
v e r y ir r e g u la r .

2 For description o f survey plan and methods, see appendix A,
page 43.

3
46.




-

2

-

For detailed description o f areas, see appendix B, page

b . E a r ly M a r r ia g e A m o n g G ir l D r o p ­
o u t s , E a r ly m a r r ia g e w a s a n o th e r m a jo r
r e a s o n g iv e n f o r d ro p p in g o u t. G ir ls w e r e
m u ch m o r e lik e ly than b o y s to g iv e th is
a.
D is s a t is fa c t io n
W ith S c h o o l , T h e
r e a s o n , but it m a y w e ll h a v e b een a h idden
m a jo r s in g le r e a s o n g iv e n by th e stu d en ts
r e a s o n f o r b o y s who d ro p p e d out “ to go to
f o r d ro p p in g out b e f o r e g r a d u a tio n w a s
w o r k ,’ * not b e c a u s e o f the n eed f o r s e l f d i s s a t is fa c t io n w ith s c h o o l . T h is w a s u n ­
su p p o rt, but a s a p r e lu d e to c o u r ts h ip and
d o u b te d ly du e, in p a r t, to the fa c t that about
m a r r ia g e .
85 p e r c e n t o f a ll d r o p o u ts w e r e behind
c . E c o n o m ic N e e d . T h is did not s e e m to
th e ir n o r m a l g r a d e by at le a s t 1 y e a r . T h is
be a m a jo r r e a s o n f o r d ro p p in g ou t, i f that
r e ta r d a t io n u s u a lly
b eg a n in g r a m m a r
p h r a s e is in te r p r e te d to m ea n that the
s c h o o l. T h e d r o p o u ts in te r v ie w e d d id not
fa m ily o f the d ro p o u t c o u ld not su p ply h im
m e n tio n th is f a c t o r a s a c a u s e f o r d i s ­
w ith the n e c e s s i t i e s f o r s c h o o l a tte n d a n ce .
s a t is fa c t io n w ith s c h o o l, but e x p r e s s e d
T h e s ta te m e n ts o f the d ro p o u ts th e m s e lv e s
b o r e d o m w ith s c h o o l s u b je c t s , d is lik e o f
and th e ir s c h o o l r e c o r d s , a s w e ll, a tte s t
t e a c h e r s , o r o th e r g e n e r a l c o m p la in t s . T h e
that r e a l e c o n o m ic h a r d s h ip w a s p r e s e n t
s c h o o l r e c o r d s sh o w e d that o v e r 45 p e r c e n t
in fe w in s t a n c e s . T h is m igh t a p p e a r to be
o f a ll the d r o p o u ts had IQ ’ s o f l e s s than 90
e x p la in e d by the g e n e r a lly h igh n a tion a l
and a bou t 33 p e r c e n t had IQ ’ s o f l e s s than
85. A c c o r d in g to e d u c a tio n a l e x p e r t s , th is
le v e l s o f e c o n o m ic a c t iv it y . N one o f the
a r e a s s u r v e y e d , h o w e v e r , w a s an a r e a o f
m e a n s , a m on g o th e r th in g s, that th is g ro u p
had p r o b a b ly not a c q u ir e d the d e g r e e o f
la b o r s h o r ta g e and s e v e r a l o f the c o m m u ­
re a d in g a b ility w h ich w ou ld have m ad e
n itie s had su b s ta n tia l la b o r s u r p lu s e s du rin g
s c h o o l in t e r e s t in g and m a n a g e a b le .
the p e r io d c o v e r e d .
2 . P r in c ip a l
S c h o o l,

R eason

f o r D ro p p in g Out o f

C h a r t 1.

REASONS DROPOUTS GAVE FOR LEAVING SCHOOL
ale

' Inc lu de s 3 % o f b o ys w ho gave m arriag e as a re a so n .

562565 0 - 60 - 2




- 3 -

3. A g e o f D r o p o u ts and H ig h e s t G ra d e C o m ­
p le t e d , A g e 16 w a s the s in g le y e a r o f a g e
at w h ich m o s t d r o p p in g out o c c u r r e d . N e a r ly
30 p e r c e n t o f th e d r o p o u t s , h o w e v e r , w e r e
18 o r o l d e r at th e t im e th ey le ft s c h o o l - o ld en ou gh to h a v e g r a d u a te d . I r r e s p e c t iv e

o f a g e , abou t 40 p e r c e n t o f a ll the d r o p o u ts
had c o m p le te d a y e a r o r m o r e o f s e n io r
h igh s c h o o l w o r k (10th g r a d e o r a b o v e ).
T h e o th e r 60 p e r c e n t le ft at v a r io u s y e a r s
in the ju n io r h igh s c h o o l.

GRADE AND AGE AT WHICH DROPOUTS LEFT SCHOOL*
9th Grade

10th Grade

11th G rade

12th Grade

M ale
School Dropouts
A ll A ge s

26%

33% ;

22% ,
;\>'V >

;1%y

Includes o n ly those w h o had com p lete d the 8th grade or above.

Based on scho ol re c o rd s of all d ro p o u ts in 7 areas.

4 . M en tal A b ilit y and C on tin u ation o f E d u ­
c a tio n . T h e s o c i a l w a s te r e s u ltin g f r o m
f a ilu r e to p u r s u e an a c a d e m ic e d u c a tio n
b ey o n d h ig h s c h o o l w a s not fou n d to be
n u m e r ic a lly h igh in th e c o m m u n it ie s stu d ie d .
O nly 16 p e r c e n t o f the g r a d u a te s w ho did
n ot g o on to c o l l e g e and w h o s e IQ ’ s w e r e
k now n had IQ ’ s a b o v e the n o r m a l r a n g e ,
i . e . , 110 o r o v e r . T h e r e w e r e d i f f e r e n c e s
a m o n g c o m m u n it ie s , o f c o u r s e . A p p ly in g
the so m e w h a t s t r i c t e r sta n d a rd o f a s c o r e
o f at le a s t 115, w h ich is o fte n u s e d by
e d u c a t o r s in e s tim a tin g a b ility to c o m p le t e
c o l l e g e s u c c e s s f u ll y , the p r o p o r t io n o f the
g ra d u a te s w ho did n ot g o t o c o l l e g e , d r o p p e d
to 8 p e r c e n t . T h e d r o p o u ts sh o w e d e v en
l e s s c o l l e g e p o te n tia l than th e g r a d u a te s .
O n ly a bou t 6 p e r c e n t o f th e m had IQ ’ s
of
110 o r
a b o v e and o n ly 2 p e r c e n t
o f 115 o r a b o v e . H e r e , a g a in th e r e w e r e




School Dropouts
A ll A ges

d iffe r e n c e s
veyed.

a m on g

the

c o m m u n itie s s u r ­

T h u s, the m a jo r p r o b le m w ith r e s p e c t to
th e s e d ro p o u ts m a y not h a v e b een s o m u ch
the l o s s o f p o te n tia l c o l le g e stu d en ts a s
th e lik e lih o o d that m an y o f th e m c o u ld not
h a v e p r o fit e d f r o m
s e n io r h igh s c h o o l
c o u r s e s . S u c c e s s fu l c o m p le t io n o f m o s t
s e n io r high s c h o o l s u b je c t s r e q u ir e s r e a d ­
ing a s a t o o l, and abou t o n e -t h ir d o f th e d r o p ­
ou ts had IQ ’ s w h ich e x p e r ie n c e has sh ow n
a r e u s u a lly to o lo w f o r a c q u ir in g a d eq u a te
r e a d in g a b ilit y . On the o th e r hand, the f a i l ­
u r e o f the re m a in in g t w o -t h ir d s o f th e s e
d r o p o u ts to c o m p le t e s e n io r h igh s c h o o l
m a y h ave r e p r e s e n t e d a s e r io u s l o s s o f
p o te n tia l c r a ft s m e n w h o, i f th ey had fin is h e d ,
m ig h t h ave q u a lifie d f o r a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r
o th e r tra in in g f o r s k ille d o c c u p a t io n s .

- 4 -

EXTENT TO WHICH GRADUATES AND DROPOUTS WERE
BEHIND THE NORMAL GRADE FOR THEIR AGE

by 1 or m ore y e a rs

by

2

or m ore y e a rs

Based on sc ho ol records o f all d ro p o u ts and g ra du ate s in 7 areas.

5. V o c a tio n a l E d u ca tio n , A lm o s t a ll the
g ra d u a te s, both b o y s and g ir l s , had c o m ­
p le te d at le a s t on e v o c a tio n a l c o u r s e , e ith e r
c o m m e r c ia l o r in d u s tr ia l. T h is w as a ls o
tru e f o r n e a r ly t w o -t h ir d s o f both boy and
g ir l d r o p o u ts . But th e r e w as an im p o rta n t
d iffe r e n c e b etw e e n the gra d u a tes and the
d ro p o u ts in the n u m b e r o f c o u r s e s taken.
F o r e x a m p le , t h r e e -fift h s o f a ll the boy
g ra d u a tes had c o m p le te d fo u r o r m o r e
in d u str ia l c o u r s e s , c o m p a r e d w ith le s s
than o n e -fift h o f a ll the boy d r o p o u ts . The
tra in in g o f g i r l s c h o o l le a v e r s w ith r e s p e c t
to c o m m e r c ia l c o u r s e s fo llo w e d a g e n e r a lly
s im ila r p a tte rn . T w o -t h ir d s o f a ll g ir l
g ra d u a te s had taken fo u r o r m o r e c o m ­
m e r c i a l c o u r s e s , c o m p a r e d w ith on ly 15
p e r c e n t o f the g ir l d r o p o u ts .
C o m p le tio n o f v o c a tio n a l c o u r s e s by the
b oy s s e e m e d to h ave lit t le e ffe c t on the
ty p e o f en try jo b s th ey ob ta in ed , and d r o p ­
ou ts and g ra d u a te s fa r e d not to o d iffe r e n tly
in th is r e s p e c t . F o r the g ir l s , h o w e v e r ,
h igh s c h o o l g ra d u a tio n , in clu d in g c o m ­
m e r c i a l c o u r s e s , op en ed the d o o r to the
t y p i s t -s t e n o g r a p h e r -b o o k k e e p e r o c c u p a tio n s , w h e r e a s fe w o f the g ir l d ro p ou ts
w e r e a b le to get su ch jo b s . T h is r a is e s the
q u e stio n w h e th e r it w ou ld be p o s s ib le o r




p r a c t ic a l to plan v o c a tio n a l c o u r s e s f o r
b o y s w h ich a r e as d ir e c t ly re la te d to the
n e e d s o f e m p lo y e r s in th e ir r e s p e c t iv e
co m m u n itie s a s s e c r e t a r i a l c o u r s e s a r e
to the n e e d s o f th o s e who e m p lo y g i r l s .
6. L a b o r F o r c e P a r t ic ip a t io n . A lm o s t a ll
b oy s c h o o l le a v e r s who had re m a in e d in
the a r e a s s u rv e y e d (and f o r w h om , t h e r e ­
f o r e , th is in fo rm a tio n w a s a v a ila b le ) had
e n te re d the la b o r f o r c e , and about t h r e e fo u rth s ob ta in ed jo b s fa ir ly q u ick ly . O f
th o s e w ho e n te re d the la b o r f o r c e , m o r e
than h a lf o f the boy g ra d u a te s and t w o fifth s o f the d ro p o u ts a ctu a lly found jo b s in
l e s s than a w eek a fte r sta rtin g to lo o k . On
the o th e r hand, 10 p e r c e n t o f the boy d r o p ­
outs had lo o k e d f o r 14 o r m o r e w e e k s
b e fo r e th ey had found jo b s , c o m p a r e d w ith
on ly 5 p e r c e n t o f the b oy g r a d u a te s .
A p p r o x im a te ly 90 p e r c e n t of the g i r l
g ra d u a te s in te r v ie w e d had e n te re d the la b o r
f o r c e and m o r e than h a lf had found jo b s in
l e s s than a w eek a fte r sta rtin g to lo o k . In
c o n tr a s t, o n ly about 70 p e r c e n t o f the g i r l
d ro p o u ts in te rv ie w e d had e v e r e n te re d the
la b o r f o r c e , and o f th e s e , tw o -fifth s had
found jo b s w ith in a w eek a fte r sta rtin g to
lo o k . S even p e r c e n t o f the g i r l d ro p o u ts

- 5 -

in the s u m m e r o f 1957. W hen o n ly the 1,500
ou tm ig ra n t m a le s w e r e c o n s id e r e d , the
r o l e o f the A r m e d F o r c e s a s an “ e m p lo y e r ”
w as ev en m o r e o b v io u s . A b ou t 80 p e r c e n t
o f the boy g ra d u a tes and 75 p e r c e n t o f the
b oy d ro p o u ts who had le ft th e ir a r e a s by
the tim e o f in te rv ie w , and w h o s e status
w as known, w e r e in m ilit a r y s e r v i c e .

had lo o k e d f o r 14 o r m o r e w e e k s b e fo r e
fin d in g a jo b , c o m p a r e d w ith 4 p e r c e n t o f
the g i r l g r a d u a te s .
7. O u tm ig r a tio n . T h e g e n e r a lly fa v o r a b le
situ a tio n w ith r e s p e c t to gettin g jo b s in
the a r e a s u r v e y e d m igh t h ave b e e n d iffe r e n t,
had it not b e e n f o r the su b sta n tia l o u t ­
m ig r a t io n o f young p e o p le , e s p e c ia lly b o y s .
F o r t y -e ig h t p e r c e n t o f both b oy d r o p o u ts
and b o y g r a d u a t e s - - a to ta l o f about 1,500
in d iv id u a ls - -h ad a lr e a d y le ft th e ir h o m e
c o m m u n itie s by the tim e o f the in t e r v ie w s ,
thus r e d u c in g c o m p e t it io n f o r a v a ila b le
jo b s . It is s ig n ific a n t that, o f a ll th e s e b oy s
who le ft th e ir h o m e a r e a s , about h a lf o f
the g ra d u a te s and m o r e than h a lf o f the
d ro p o u ts had n e v e r had a r e g u la r jo b
b e fo r e le a v in g . A lo w e r p r o p o r t io n o f the
g ir ls had m ig r a te d f r o m th e ir h o m e c o m ­
m u n itie s ; a g a in , a c o n s id e r a b le p r o p o r t io n
o f th e s e , e s p e c ia lly the d r o p o u ts , had not
w o rk e d b e fo r e le a v in g .

10. J obs at T im e o f In te r v ie w . A b ou t 60
p e r c e n t o f a ll the s c h o o l l e a v e r s e m p lo y e d
at the tim e o f in te rv ie w w e r e s t ill in th e ir
fir s t jo b s . Many o th e r s w e r e out o f the
la b o r f o r c e , and s o m e few w e r e u n e m ­
p lo y e d . H o w e v e r, f o r the 40 p e r c e n t w h o se
jo b s at the tim e o f the in te r v ie w w e r e
d iffe r e n t fr o m
th e ir
f i r s t jo b s , s o m e
p r o g r e s s had a lr e a d y been m a d e by both
g ra d u a tes and d r o p o u ts . A t the sa m e tim e ,
a w idening gap in the s k ill le v e l o f the jo b s
held by g ra d u a tes and d ro p o u ts w a s b e ­
co m in g a p p a ren t. N e a rly h a lf o f the b oy
g ra d u a tes w e r e in s k ille d o r s e m is k ille d
jo b s , w h e re a s o n ly a th ird had s ta rte d in
th e s e c l a s s i f i c a t io n s . M o re than a th ird o f
the boy d ro p o u ts w e r e in s k ille d o r s e m i ­
s k ille d w o r k at the date o f in te r v ie w , c o m ­
p a re d w ith a little m o r e than a fo u rth o f
th em at the tim e o f th e ir f i r s t jo b s . T he
p r o p o r tio n o f g ir l g ra d u a tes in o f f i c e w o r k
had in c r e a s e d to o v e r 70 p e r c e n t , c o m ­
p a re d w ith 60 p e r c e n t in th e ir f i r s t jo b s ;
and am ong g ir l d ro p o u ts , the p r o p o r tio n
in o ffic e w o rk had i n c r e a s e d to 16 fr o m
11 p e rce n t.

8. F ir s t J o b s . A m o n g th o s e in te r v ie w e d ,
su b sta n tia l p r o p o r t io n s o f the f i r s t (o r
en try ) jo b s o f both the b oy and g i r l d r o p ­
ou ts and o f th e b o y g ra d u a te s w e r e u n ­
s k ille d . T h e p r o p o r t io n s o f the young p e o p le
w h o se f i r s t jo b s w e r e in u n sk ille d w o rk
ran g ed f r o m 33 p e r c e n t fo r b o y g ra d u a te s
to 55 p e r c e n t f o r g i r l d r o p o u t s . T h e p r o ­
p o r tio n sta rtin g in s a le s jo b s ra n g ed f r o m
12 p e r c e n t f o r b o y d ro p o u ts to 23 p e r c e n t
fo r g i r l d r o p o u ts , w ith the g ra d u a te g r o u p s
fa llin g in b etw e e n . A s m igh t be e x p e cte d
fo r you n g in e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s , m any
f i r s t jo b s w e r e o f a ty p e w h e r e a d v a n c e ­
m en t s e e m e d lim it e d , f o r e x a m p le , th o s e o f
fillin g sta tio n atten dan t, r e t a il c l e r k , and
d e liv e r y t r u c k d r iv e r . In s e v e r a l a r e a s ,
s iz a b le p r o p o r t io n s w e r e found in s e m i ­
s k ille d fa c t o r y jo b s . T h e m a jo r it y o f the
g ir l g ra d u a te s found e m p lo y m e n t in o f f i c e
w o r k , w h e r e a s g i r l d r o p o u ts w e r e m o s t
lik e ly to be e m p lo y e d a s w a it r e s s e s o r in
o th e r u n sk ille d w o r k . S om e o f e a ch g ro u p
w e r e f a c t o r y o p e r a t iv e s in the a r e a s w h e re
su ch jo b s w e r e a v a ila b le f o r w o m e n .

11. E a r n in g s . T he g ra d u a te s w e r e earn in g
c o n s id e r a b ly m o r e on the jo b s th ey h eld at
the tim e o f in te rv ie w than w e r e the d r o p ­
o u ts . A m on g the b o y s , on ly 3 p e r c e n t o f the
g ra d u a tes w e r e ea rn in g l e s s than $ 40 a
w e e k , c o m p a r e d w ith 15 p e r c e n t o f the
d r o p o u ts . In o th e r w o r d s , fiv e tim e s as
m any d ro p o u ts as g ra d u a te s w e r e found to
be at the lo w e r end o f the w a g e s c a le .
N e a rly a fifth o f the g i r l g ra d u a te s w e r e
earn in g $ 6 0 o r m o r e a w e e k , c o m p a r e d
w ith l e s s than a tenth o f the g i r l d r o p o u ts .

9. M ilita r y S e r v i c e . In the c a s e o f b o y s ,
m ilit a r y s e r v i c e o fte n a p p e a r e d to be a
su b stitu te f o r c iv ilia n e m p lo y m e n t. O f the
3,015 m a le s w ho w e r e in clu d e d in the
o r ig in a l in te r v ie w s a m p le , o n e -t h ir d w e r e
found to be in the A r m e d F o r c e s at the
tim e w hen in te r v ie w s w e r e c o n d u c te d . T h is
w as a c o n s id e r a b ly h ig h e r p r o p o r t io n than
the 20 p e r c e n t o f a ll m a le s in the N ation,
ag ed 17 to 21, w ho w e r e in m ilit a r y s e r v i c e

The jo b s and w a g es o f a ll the s c h o o l
l e a v e r s , o f c o u r s e , r e fle c t e d d iffe r e n c e s
in the e co n o m y o f the a r e a s w h e r e they
w ork ed as w e ll a s d iffe r e n c e s in th e ir
e d u ca tion . A b o y ’ s ch a n c e s o f ea rn in g $ 8 0
a w eek so o n a fte r le a v in g s c h o o l d ep en d ed
f i r s t on w h eth er he liv e d in an a r e a w h e re
in d u stry w a s paying su ch w a g e s to b e g in ­
ning w o r k e r s . H o w e v e r, i f he had grad u ated
fr o m high s c h o o l and $ 8 0 -a - w e e k jo b s w e r e




-

6

-

C h a rt

4.

C h a rt

5.

REGULAR JOBS OF MALE GRADUATES AND DROPOUTS
F ir s t lo b

Jo b a t T im e of I n t e r v ie w

Dropouts

B ased o n in te r v ie w s in 7 areas.

REGULAR JOBS OF FEMALE GRADUATES AND DROPOUTS
F ir s t Jo b

Jo b a t T im e of I n t e r v ie w
S a le s

S e r v ic e
O c c u p a t io n s

,
60

^ 4
%

O ffic e W o r k
1 1 % p:::::::::H

4%^
3 % I

,

.. . 3 J
%

S k i ll e d a n d
S e m is k ille d (M a n u ­ ^ 6 %
fa c t u r in g a n d
itte] 9 %
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g )

8 M.
%M
W /th
Based on in te rvie w s in 7 a re a s .




...

U n s k i ll e d

O th e r

G raduates
Dropouts

- 7 -

:

8%

w ith th e ir tra in in g in s p e c i f i c
o f f i c e w o r k , had a v e r y d e fin ite
o v e r the g i r l d r o p o u ts f r o m the
s in c e o f f i c e s k ills w e r e in h ig h
a lm o s t e v e r y c o m m u n ity .

a v a ila b le in h is c o m m u n ity , he w a s m o r e
l ik e ly to g e t o n e than i f he w e r e a d r o p o u t.
G e n e r a lly sp e a k in g , the b o y g r a d u a te s got
th e
b e tte r
jo b s o p e n to in e x p e r ie n c e d
w o r k e r s . O b v io u s ly , th e g i r l g r a d u a te s ,

s k ills f o r
a d v a n ta g e
b eg in n in g ,
d em a n d in

WEEKLY EARNINGS OF GRADUATES AND DROPOUTS ON THE JOB HELD
AT TIME OF INTERVIEW

f r o m 10 to 26 p e r c e n t . T h e m o r e fa v o r a b le
e x p e r ie n c e o f the g ra d u a te s m a y h a v e b e e n
due in p a rt to the n a tu re o f t h e ir jo b s ,
s in c e th ey co u ld be m o r e s e l e c t i v e - - m o r e
a b le to c h o o s e th o s e jo b s lik e ly to be
p e rm a n e n t.

12. A m ou n t o f U n e m p lo y m e n t. G ra d u a te s
and d r o p o u ts e x p e r ie n c e d s h a r p ly d iffe r e n t
a m o u n ts o f u n e m p lo y m e n t. A s a lr e a d y n o te d ,
it to o k so m e w h a t l o n g e r , on th e a v e r a g e ,
f o r d r o p o u ts to o b ta in jo b s in the f i r s t
p l a c e . A t th e t im e o f th e in t e r v ie w s , the
u n e m p lo y e d b oy g r a d u a te s a s a p r o p o r t io n
o f t h o s e th en in the l a b o r f o r c e , ra n g ed
f r o m 3 to 9 p e r c e n t in th e v a r io u s c o m m u ­
n it ie s , but a m o n g th e d r o p o u t s , th e p r o p o r ­
tio n ra n g e d f r o m 10 to 27 p e r c e n t . A m o n g
th e g i r l g r a d u a t e s , the p r o p o r t io n o f t h o s e
in th e la b o r f o r c e w ho w e r e u n e m p lo y e d
at th e t im e o f in t e r v ie w ra n g e d f r o m 1 to
12 p e r c e n t , but a m o n g th e g i r l d r o p o u ts ,
th e r a n g e w a s f r o m 10 to 50 p e r c e n t .

13. U n a c c o u n te d -fo r T i m e . In a d d itio n to
u n e m p lo y m e n t, w h ich is d e fin e d a s tim e
sp en t u n e m p lo y e d but a c t iv e ly lo o k in g fo r
a jo b , the am ount o f “ tim e u n a cco u n te d
f o r ” w a s o f c o n c e r n in t h e s e s u r v e y s .
U n a c c o u n te d -fo r t im e w a s d e fin e d a s tim e
w hen the s c h o o l l e a v e r w a s not w o r k in g o r
lo o k in g f o r w o r k ; w a s n ot in m ilit a r y s e r v ­
i c e , o r , in the c a s e o f g i r l s , not m a r r i e d ;
had no d is a b lin g i ll n e s s o r a c c id e n t ; w a s
not r e q u ir e d to a s s u m e r e s p o n s i b il i t ie s at
h om e
b e c a u s e o f h a r d s h ip t h e r e ; and,
fin a lly ,
w as
not in s c h o o l . F o r su ch
p e r i o d s , the s c h o o l l e a v e r s g a v e no s p e c if i c
r e a s o n f o r bein g out o f th e la b o r f o r c e .
T h e r e s p o n s e s w h ich b e s t d e s c r i b e d th is
situ a tion w e r e lik e ly to b e , f o r b o y s : “ I
w a s tr y in g to m a k e up m y m in d what to

A m o n g th e b o y s w ho had e v e r b e e n in
th e l a b o r f o r c e , th e g r a d u a te s had b e e n
u n e m p lo y e d an a v e r a g e o f f r o m 5 to 11
p e r c e n t o f t h e ir t im e s in c e le a v in g s c h o o l ,
w h ile th e d r o p o u ts a v e r a g e d f r o m 6 to 27
p e r c e n t . F o r g i r l s , the situ a tio n w a s c o m ­
p a r a b le - - g r a d u a t e s w e r e u n e m p lo y e d f r o m
4 to 11 p e r c e n t o f t h e ir tim e and d r o p o u ts




-

8

-

C h a rt 7 .

PROPORTION OF GRADUATES AND DROPOUTS UNEMPLOYED
AT TIME OF INTERVIEW
M a le

F e m a le

Dropouts

Based on in te rvie w s in 7 A re a s .

d o ” ; and in the c a s e o f g i r l s : ‘ ‘ My fa th e r
d o e s n ’ t w ant m e to w o r k ,” o r “ I d o n ’ t
h ave to w o r k .”
O nly t h r e e o f the a r e a s s u r v e y e d p r o ­
v id e d data that c o u ld be u s e d a s a b a s is
f o r o b s e r v a t io n on th is p o in t. In t h e s e
a r e a s , u n a c c o u n t e d -fo r tim e did n ot a p p e a r
to be a s e r io u s p r o b le m f o r m o s t b oy
g r a d u a te s , e v e n th ou gh s o m e fe w a p p a ­
re n tly did sp en d m on th s d oin g n oth in g.
F o r th e b o y d r o p o u t s , the p r o b le m w as
m o r e s e r i o u s . E v e n th ou gh a lm o s t a ll o f
th em had b e e n in th e la b o r f o r c e at s o m e
tim e , n e a r ly o n e -t h ir d had u n a c c o u n te d f o r t im e , and th is a v e r a g e d w e ll o v e r 6
m on th s f o r t h o s e w ith su ch t im e . T h e s e
m on th s w hen the b oy d r o p o u ts w e r e not
e v e n lo o k in g f o r w o r k w e r e not n e c e s s a r i l y
c o n s e c u t iv e , but th ey r e p r e s e n t e d , on the
a v e r a g e , a lm o s t o n e -fo u r t h o f th e tim e




s in c e
th is
s c h o o l.

g ro u p

had

d ro p p e d

out

of

F o r the g i r l s , both g ra d u a te s and d r o p ­
o u ts , th e in fo r m a tio n on u n a c c o u n t e d -fo r
t im e w a s m u ch l e s s p r e c i s e . M a r r ia g e w a s
c o n s id e r e d a fu l l- t i m e jo b , and in the
a b s e n c e o f m o r e s p e c i f i c in fo r m a tio n , the
d ate o f m a r r ia g e w as a s s u m e d to be the
d a te o f le a v in g s c h o o l. T h is la s t a s s u m p tio n
p r o b a b ly r e s u lt e d in an u n d e rsta te m e n t o f
th e a m ou n t o f u n a c c o u n t e d -fo r tim e am on g
g i r l s w ho had m a r r i e d . E v e n s o , about
o n e -fift h o f the g i r l g ra d u a te s had u n ­
a c c o u n t e d -fo r t im e , a v e r a g in g a lm o s t a
h a lf y e a r , o r a fifth o f th e ir tim e s in c e
g ra d u a tio n . T h e g i r l d r o p o u ts had ev en
m o r e u n a c c o u n t e d -fo r t im e . A b ou t a fo u rth
o f th em a v e r a g e d n e a r ly a y e a r in th is
c a t e g o r y , o r m o r e than a th ird o f the to ta l
t im e s in c e th ey le ft s c h o o l.

- 9 -

CHAPTER II. CHARACTERISTICS OF SCHOOL LEAVERS
WHEN THEY LEFT SCHOOL
3,931 w e r e w ith the s c h o o l l e a v e r in p e r s o n
(2 ,3 1 9 g ra d u a te s and 1,612 d r o p o u t s ). R e l a ­
tiv e s and fr ie n d s su p p lie d s o m e i n fo r m a ­
tio n f o r a n oth er 2 ,3 8 0 s c h o o l l e a v e r s (1 ,2 4 7
g ra d u a te s and 1,133 d r o p o u ts ) w h o, f o r one
r e a s o n o r a n o th e r, w e r e n ot c u r r e n t ly liv in g
in th e ir h o m e co m m u n ity and t h e r e fo r e
co u ld not be in te r v ie w e d p e r s o n a lly . In ­
fo r m a t io n f o r th is g r o u p d id not in clu d e
th e ir d e ta ile d la b o r f o r c e e x p e r i e n c e . (See
ta b le D - 1.)

In o r d e r to ev a lu a te p r o p e r ly the m a t e r ia l
p r e s e n t e d in th is stu d y, the r e a d e r n e e d s to
k e e p in m in d the b r o a d d im e n s io n s o f the
tw o s e ts o f data on w h ich the v a r io u s c o n ­
c lu s io n s a re b a s e d .4 In the s e v e n a r e a s
s u r v e y e d , th e r e w e r e 2 1,887 s c h o o l l e a v e r s ,
o f w h om 12,382 w e r e g ra d u a te s and 9 ,5 0 5
w e r e d r o p o u t s . T h e s e c o n stitu te d the u n i­
v e r s e f o r the stu d y. F r o m th is u n iv e r s e , a
sa m p le o f 6 ,8 3 0 w a s s e le c t e d f o r p e r s o n a l
in te r v ie w , o f w h om 3 ,8 3 0 w e r e g r a d u a te s
and 3 ,0 0 0 w e r e d r o p o u t s ; 3,311 w e r e b o y s
and 3 ,519 w e r e g i r l s . H o w e v e r , not a ll
s c h o o l l e a v e r s in the sa m p le co u ld be
tra ced . L a ck o f a c o r r e c t cu rren t a d d ress
w as one r e a s o n ; o t h e r s had m o v e d aw ay ,
le a v in g no c l o s e fa m ily o r fr ie n d s w ho co u ld
sp ea k f o r th e m ; a fe w had d ie d , and a few
w e r e in in stitu tio n s . S h rin k a ge in the s a m p le
f r o m a ll th e s e r e a s o n s to ta le d 500 p e r s o n s
o r 7 p e r c e n t f o r a ll a r e a s c o m b in e d .

T he s c h o o l r e c o r d s o f the n e a r ly 2 2 ,0 0 0
in d iv id u a ls f o r m the b a s is f o r the c o m ­
p o s ite p r o f i l e o f the s c h o o l le a v e r a s
p r e s e n te d in th is c h a p te r , a p r o f i l e w h ich
sh ow s age at le a v in g s c h o o l, s e x , l e v e l o f
m e n ta l a b ility , h ig h e s t g ra d e c o m p le t e d ,
the s c h o o l ’ s r e c o r d e d r e a s o n f o r d r o p ­
pin g out, and the n u m b e r o f v o c a t io n a l
c o u r s e s c o m p le t e d . T h e d r o p o u t s ’ ow n r e a ­
so n s f o r le a v in g w e r e th o s e g iv en to the
in t e r v ie w e r
by the
in d iv id u a ls
in the
s a m p le .

C o m p le te d in t e r v ie w s t o t a l e d 6 ,311 (3 ,5 6 6
g ra d u a te s and 2 ,7 4 5 d r o p o u t s ); o f t h e s e ,

PERSONAL CH ARACTERISTICS
S e x .- - I n a ll a r e a s but o n e , m o r e g ir l s than
b o y s g ra d u a te d f r o m h igh s c h o o l but d id
not g o on to c o l le g e . T h e r a t io s ra n g ed
f r o m 62 g ir l s to 38 b o y s out o f e v e r y 100
in one a r e a to 49 g ir l s and 51 b o y s out
o f 100 in a n o th e r . In e v e r y a r e a , h o w e v e r ,
m o r e b o y s than g ir l s d r o p p e d out o f h igh
s c h o o l b e fo r e g ra d u a tin g . T h e d ro p o u t r a t io s
ra n g ed f r o m 52 b o y s and 48 g ir l s out o f
e v e r y 100 in on e a r e a to 60 b o y s and 40
g ir l s in tw o o f the o th e r a r e a s . T h e s e
r a t io s a c c o r d with o b s e r v a t io n s m a d e by
m an y s c h o o l a d m in i s t r a t o r s .5

A g e . - - T h e u su a l a g e at g ra d u a tio n w as 18.
T h e p r o p o r t io n o f the g ra d u a te s in th e s e s u r ­
v e y s w ho fin is h e d h igh s c h o o l at th is age
ra n g e d fr o m 57 to 73 p e r c e n t in s i x a r e a s .
(S ee ta b le 1.) T h o s e who g ra d u a te d y o u n g e r
ra n g e d f r o m 6 to 12 p e r c e n t , and th o s e
who w e re 19 o r o v e r ra n g e d f r o m 20 to
37 p e r c e n t in the sa m e s ix a r e a s . In the
sev en th a r e a , stu d en ts w e r e y o u n g e r at
g ra d u a tion : 47 p e r c e n t w e r e u n d er 18 and
o n ly 9 p e r c e n t w e r e p a st that a g e . T h is
a ty p ic a l age d is tr ib u tio n m a y be due to
the fa c t that th is a r e a w a s a sin g le l a r g e
c ity w ith w e l l - e n f o r c e d s c h o o l a tten d a n ce
la w s . S in ce in m ig r a tio n had not b een c h a r ­
a c t e r i s t i c o f th is c ity f o r m a n y y e a r s , it
is p r o b a b le that a la r g e p r o p o r t io n o f its
h igh s c h o o l g ra d u a te s had e n te r e d s c h o o l
at age 6, w h e re a s in the o th e r s u r v e y e d
a r e a s , m an y m a y h a v e c o m e f r o m f a r m

4 For more detail, see appendix A, page 43.
5 A genuine dropout rate, that is, the proportion of students
who entered high school but did not finish, can be computed only
from total enrollment figures in a school system. Only two of the
area reports supplied these figures; their rates were 26 and 32
percent, compared with an average of 29 percent for large cities.
The rate of 29 percent is the “ voluntary withdrawal rate** for
cities of 200,000 to 1 million population. This rate is not com­
puted by comparing the number who entered the 9th grade and the
number who graduated 4 years later. Instead, it follows the actual
first-year class through the 4 years, omitting from the base in
each succeeding year the new students who came in by transfer
from other cities, and, in counting voluntary withdrawals, sub-




-

tracting from the base those who left the school because they
moved away, or were disabled or institutionalized. “ Voluntary
withdrawal** closely corresponds to the definition of dropout used
in this study. For details on this method of computing the dropout
rate, see Retention in High Schools in Large Cities, op. cit., p. 7.

10

-

TABLE l.--Age of graduates at date of graduation, by area and sex
(Percentage distribution)
Age at graduation

Total graduates
Area and sex
Number

Percent

16

Under
16

17

18

19

20 and
over

10
8
11

64
59
68

19
24
16

6
9
4

All areas------------ 1 12,344
Male -----------------5,459
Female-------------6,885

100
100
100

(*)
(2 )

1
(2 )
1

Area A -----------------Male -----------------Female--------------

2,880
1,459
1,421

100
100
100

(*)
(2)
(2 )

(2 )
(2 )
(2 )

7
6
9

71
66
76

17
21
12

5
7
3

Area B-----------------Male -----------------Female--------------

2,547
1,100
1,447

100
100
100

(2 )
(2 )

1
1
1

5
4
6

57
49
62

25
31
21

12
15
10

Area C-----------------M a le-----------------Female--------------

2,026
882
1,144

100
100
100

(2 )
(2)
(2 )

1
1
1

6
9
4

73
65
79

17
20
14

3
5
2

Area D-----------------Male--------Female-------

796
333
463

100
100
100

(2 )

(2 )

—

—

(2 )

(2 )

8
6
10

65
59
69

20
25
17

7
10
4

Area E-----------------Male--------Female-------

1,305
495
810

100
100
100

_
_

(2 )

—

1

12
8
14

61
54
65

23
32
17

4
6
3

Area F--------Male--------Female-------

2,106
896
1,210

100
100
100

1
(2)
1

11
9
13

62
57
66

20
25
16

6
9
4

Area G--------Male--------Female-------

684
294
390

100
100
100

2
1
2

45
35
51

44
47
42

8
15
4

1
2
1

(2)

—

—

(2 )
(2 )
—

__ _
—
—

1 Excludes 38 for whom age was not reported.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
a r e a s and m a y h a ve e n te r e d s c h o o l at
the m a n d a to r y age o f 7, r a t h e r than the
p e r m i s s iv e age o f 6. In O c t o b e r 1946,
ro u g h ly the tim e when the stu d en ts s u r ­
v e y e d w ou ld h ave b e e n e n te r in g the f i r s t
g r a d e , o n ly 88 p e r c e n t o f the r u r a l fa r m
6 - y e a r - o l d s in the U n ited S ta tes w e r e
e n r o lle d in s c h o o l, c o m p a r e d w ith 96 p e r ­
cen t o f the u rban 6 - y e a r - o l d s . 6

T he age o f d ro p o u ts at le a v in g s c h o o l
is o f m o r e c o n c e r n to e d u c a to r s and the
c o m m u n ity in g e n e r a l than is the a g e o f
g r a d u a te s . It im m e d ia te ly r a i s e s the q u e s ­
tio n o f how d ro p o u ts a r e o c c u p y in g th e ir
tim e and what th e ir jo b fu tu re m a y b e .
T h e sin g le y e a r o f age at w h ich m o s t
d ro p p in g out o c c u r r e d w a s 16. T h e ra n g e
w a s f r o m 25 to 39 p e r c e n t in s ix a r e a s ; in
the sev en th , it w as 65 p e r c e n t . (S ee table
2 .) But b e c a u s e s c h o o l r e ta r d a tio n u su a lly
o c c u r s e a r ly in a stu d e n t's c a r e e r , m any

6U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
Population Characteristics, Series P-20, No. 1, table 1.

562565 0 - 60 - 3




11

-

TABLE 2.— Age of dropouts at date of leaving school, by area and sex
(Percentage distribution)
Age at date of leaving school

Total dropouts
Area and sex
Number

Percent

Under
14

All areas---------Male------------Female-----------

19,454
5,418
4,036

100
100
100

Area A ------------Male------------Female-----------

1,347
696
651

100
100
100

Area B------------Male------------Female-----------

3,179
1,894
1,285

100
100
100

Area C------------Male------------Female-----------

1,454
855
599

Area D------------Male------------Female-----------

20 and
over

14

15

16

17

18

19

1
1
(2 )

2
2
2

8
6
10

34
32
38

27
28
26

16
18
15

5
6
4

7
7
5

(2 )
(2 )

1
1
1

7
3
10

39
36
43

30
32
29

16
18
14

4
6
2

3
4
1

1
2
1

3
3
4

12
11
14

25
23
26

24
25
23

14
14
13

5
5
5

16
17
14

100
100
100

0
0
(3 )

2
1
3

8
5
12

32
33
32

32
34
29

21
21
20

4
5
3

1
1
1

564
312
252

100
100
100

0
0
0

1
1
2

9
9
10

28
23
33

33
34
31

20
22
19

7
9
4

2
2
1

Area E------------Male------------Female-----------

691
416
275

100
100
100

— — —

(2 )

—

—

—

(2 )

1
(2 )
2

33
25
46

29
31
25’

23
27
18

10
12
7

4
5
2

Area F------------Male------------Female-----------

1,199
668
531

100
100
100

—

2
2
2

7
7
9

34
31
37

29
28
30

20
23
16

6
7
4

2
2
2

Area G -----------------------------------Male------------Female-----------

1,020
577
443

100
100
100

_
_

_____

_
_

—

—

—

—

—

23
24
22

9
10
8

3
3
2

(2 )
(2 )

—

65
63
68

—

0
0

—

1 Excludes 51 for whom age was not reported.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
3 Included in age 14.
stu d en ts r e a c h a ge 16 w ith ou t c o m p le tin g
e v e n the 7th g r a d e . T h is g r o u p w ould not
have b e e n d i s c o v e r e d in th e se s u r v e y s ,
b e c a u s e in fo u r a r e a s o n ly th o s e w ho had
c o m p le te d at le a s t the 7th g ra d e w e r e in ­
clu d e d and, in t h r e e a r e a s , on ly th o s e
w ho had c o m p le t e d the 8th g ra d e o r a b o v e .
T h u s, the to ta l n u m b e r o f 16 - y e a r - o l d d r o p ­
ou ts in a g iv e n a r e a w ou ld p r o b a b ly be
la r g e r than th e s e s u r v e y s in d ic a te .




A su b sta n tia l p r o p o r t io n o f d r o p o u t s , on
the o th e r h and, w e r e as old a s m an y h igh
s c h o o l g r a d u a te s . T h e 18- y e a r and o ld e r
age g r o u p co n stitu te d f r o m 23 to 37 p e r ­
ce n t o f a ll d r o p o u ts in s ix a r e a s , but o n ly
12 p e r c e n t in the sev en th . V ie w in g the
age o f the d ro p o u ts a s a w h o le , the a b ­
s o r p tio n o f the m a jo r it y , i .e . th o s e 16
and o v e r , in to the la b o r f o r c e w ou ld n ot
be h a m p e r e d by the e x t r e m e you th that

12

-

w ou ld r e q u ir e
m it s ,7

th e m to s e c u r e w o r k p e r ­

In s p ite o f the s c h o o l a tten d a n ce and
la b o r la w s , a rou n d 10 p e r c e n t o f the d r o p ­
outs le ft s c h o o l b e fo r e age 16 in fo u r o f
the s e v e n a r e a s . T h e la b o r la w s m a y o r
m a y n ot h ave b e e n w e ll e n fo r c e d , but th o se
w ho d r o p p e d out and n e v e r a p p lie d f o r a
w o r k p e r m it w ou ld be n o t ic e d on ly by the
s c h o o ls * a tten d a n ce o f f i c e r s . E n fo r c e m e n t
v a r ie d w id e ly . In on e a r e a , t h e r e w as n o
e ffe c t iv e fo llo w u p o f s c h o o l a tte n d a n ce . In
a n o th e r , n o a c tio n w as taken if the d ro p o u t
w a s w ith in a fe w m on th s o f age 16 by the
tim e the s c h o o l o f f i c e r in v e s tig a te d . M any
studen ts who s im p ly fa ile d to a p p e a r when
s c h o o l r e o p e n e d in the fa ll w ou ld thus have
had the s u m m e r m o n th s , p lu s the tim e b e ­
fo r e the o f f i c e r in te r v ie w e d the p a r e n ts ,
in w h ich to m o v e c l o s e r to age 16. S ch o o l
a tten d a n ce la w s a re d iffic u lt to e n fo r c e
u n le s s the p a r e n ts c o o p e r a t e , o r the d r o p ­
out c o m e s to the a tten tion o f the p o l i c e ,
a cou rt, or a s o c ia l agen cy.
G e n e r a lly , fe w e r g i r l s than b o y s d r o p p e d
out o f s c h o o l, but th o s e w ho did ten d ed to
le a v e at y o u n g e r a g e s . (S ee ta b le 2 .) In the
s e v e n a r e a s s u r v e y e d , 50 p e r c e n t o f the
g ir l d r o p o u ts w e r e u n d e r 17, c o m p a r e d w ith
40 p e r c e n t o f the b o y d r o p o u t s . At the sam e
tim e , th ey w e r e m o r e lik e ly to have k ept
up w ith the n o r m a l g ra d e f o r th e ir a g e .
L e v e l o f M en ta l A b ilit y .- -A lt h o u g h e x ­
t r e m e youth is n o t, in g e n e r a l, a p r o b le m
f o r d r o p o u ts w ith r e s p e c t to a v a ila b ility
f o r e m p lo y m e n t, m a n y o f th em have o th e r
lim it a t io n s . T h e le v e l o f m en ta l a b ility ,
f o r e x a m p le , is o fte n a f a c t o r . A lth ou gh
e d u c a t o r s a r e not in e n tir e a g r e e m e n t on
a s a t is fa c t o r y m e a s u r e o f in t e llig e n c e o r
on the r e la t io n s h ip b e tw e e n the in t e llig e n c e
qu otien t and d r o p p in g out o f s c h o o l, it is
t Dropping out of school is no longer entirely a voluntary
matter. Social concern with the welfare of young people has pro­
duced a body of legislation designed to protect health and provide
education. In all six States in which these surveys were made,
school attendance was obligatory until age 16. However, under
the law in five of these States, permits could be issued for work
during school hours to those 14 and over, under specified condi­
tions. In two States, employment certificates were required to
age 18, although full-time school attendance was not obligatory
after age 16. In one State, no work permits were issued to those
under age 16, and school attendance was required to age 16 ex­
cept in a few exceptional cases. The Federal Fair Labor Stand­
ards Act prohibits the employment of children under 16 during
school hours in the production or handling of any product for
interstate commerce, thus further reducing the potential employ­
ment of those under 16.




n e v e r t h e le s s tr u e that the in t e llig e n c e q u o ­
t i e n t s 8 o f d r o p o u ts in th e s e s u r v e y s w e r e
d e fin ite ly lo w e r than th o s e o f the g ra d u a te s
n ot g o in g to c o l l e g e . (S ee ta b le s 3, D -2 (a )
and D - 2 (b ).) T h is s u g g e s ts on e r e a s o n why
d r o p o u ts d is c o n tin u e th e ir e d u ca tio n . A
qu otien t o f 85 is the p oin t b e lo w w h ich
s u c c e s s f u l c o m p le tio n o f m o s t h igh s c h o o l
s u b je c t s is r e g a r d e d by e d u ca tio n a l a u th o r ­
it ie s a s g e n e r a lly d iffic u lt , s in c e u s e fu l
re a d in g a b ility is not u su a lly a c q u ir e d b e ­
lo w th is p oin t. T h o s e w ith IQ*s b etw een
85 and 89 a r e u su a lly s lo w l e a r n e r s ; 90
to 109 r e p r e s e n t s the n o r m a l r a n g e ; and
110 o r a b ov e is r e g a r d e d by e d u c a to r s a s
the le v e l o f a b ility n e e d e d f o r c o l le g e w o r k .
A d m itte d ly ,
an in d iv id u a l’ s m o tiv a tio n ,
study h a b its , and p e r s o n a lit y t r a it s can
p a r tia lly o f fs e t h is in t e llig e n c e q u otien t,
r e s u ltin g in p e r fo r m a n c e b e tte r o r w o r s e
than the IQ it s e l f w ould in d ic a te .
W h a tev er the lim ita tio n s o f an IQ te s t
m ay be in a s s e s s in g the a b ility o f any g iv e n
in d iv id u a l, su ch a te s t d o e s in d ic a te what
a g ro u p a s a w h ole is c a p a b le o f a c h ie v in g .
In the fiv e a r e a s r e p o r t in g IQ ’ s, o n ly f r o m
4 to 16 p e r c e n t o f the g ra d u a te s had IQ ’ s
un der 85, but f r o m 23 to 35 p e r c e n t o f the
d ro p o u ts w e r e r e c o r d e d u n d er th is l e v e l .
G ra d u a te s w ith IQ ’ s o f 110 and o v e r ra n g e d
f r o m 9 to 22 p e r c e n t in the fiv e a r e a s ,
c o m p a r e d w ith on ly 4 to 8 p e r c e n t o f the
d r o p o u ts . If a ll th o se who d r o p p e d out
b e fo r e th ey r e a c h e d the 8th o r 9th g ra d e
had b e e n in clu d e d in th is s u r v e y , an e v e n
l a r g e r p e r c e n ta g e o f lo w IQ ’ s m igh t h a v e
b een found am on g d r o p o u ts .
A c c o r d in g to th e se data, then, the n u m ­
b e r o f q u a lifie d y ou n g p e o p le w ho did not g o
on to c o l le g e w as r e la t iv e ly s m a ll, p a r ­
t ic u la r ly
a m on g
the d r o p o u t s .9 F a c t o r s
o th e r than in te lle c tu a l a b ility a r e a ls o in ­
v o lv e d in d e c is io n s n ot to con tin u e fo r m a l
e d u ca tio n . N ot a ll you n g p e o p le w ith c o lle g e
le v e l IQ ’ s want to attend c o l le g e , n o r d o
they n e c e s s a r i l y m ak e g r a d e s in h igh s c h o o l
w h ich w ould be a c c e p ta b le f o r c o lle g e
e n tr a n c e . In a d d ition , th e r e a r e the g ir l s
who p r e f e r e a r ly m a r r ia g e and the b o y s
w h o s e in t e r e s t s a r e not a c a d e m ic .
H ig h e s t G ra d e C o m p le t e d .- - O n e o f the
p u r p o s e s o f th is study w as to ob ta in m o r e
8 The Otis Mental Ability Group Test was the most widely used
in the areas studied.
9 For an evaluation on this point based on rank in class, rather
than on IQ, see Dael Wolfle, Guidance and Educational Strategy
(in Personnel and Guidance Journal, September 1958, p. 18).

13 -

TABLE 3.— IQf of graduates and dropouts, five areas
s

110 and over

Number

Area

Total school
leavers for whom
IQf were
s
reported1

Num­
ber

Percent

Per­
cent

90-•109

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

85-•89

Num­
ber

Under 85

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Graduates
All areas2---Area
Area
Area
Area
Area

A — ---- —
D-------E-------F-------G--------

3 7,161

100

1,186

16

4,489

63

784

11

702

10

2,581
786
1,253
1,861
680

100
100
100
100
100

575
134
190
168
119

22
17
15
9
17

1,584
436
909
1,131
429

61
55
73
61
63

202
94
107
300
81

8
12
8
16
12

220
122
47
262
51

9
16
4
14
8

Dropouts
All areas2---Area
Area
Area
Area
Area

A-------D------ —
E------- F--- ---G----- — -

3 4,032

100

256

6

1,945

48

601

15

1,230

31

1,177
475
628
798
954

100
100
100
100
100

94
36
30
32
64

8
8
5
4
7

599
214
349
344
439

51
45
55
43
46

163
60
106
149
123

14
12
17
19
13

321
165
143
273
328

27
35
23
34
34

1 Based on Otis Mental Ability group test in 4 areas, and on Teman-McNamar in 1.
2 Data for areas B and C were insufficient to warrant presentation.
3 Excludes 612 graduates and 794 dropouts for whom IQT were not reported.
s
in fo r m a t io n abou t the g r a d e l e v e l and a g e s
at w h ich d r o p o u ts le ft s c h o o l. (S ee ta b le s
4 and D - 3 .) A lth o u g h data f o r s o m e o f the
s e v e n a r e a s stu d ie d in c lu d e d p e r s o n s d r o p ­
p in g out w h ile th e y w e r e s t ill in the 7th o r
8th g r a d e s , da ta in ta b le 4 a r e c o n fin e d ,
f o r a ll a r e a s , to t h o s e w ho d r o p p e d out
a ft e r c o m p le tin g at le a s t the 8th g r a d e .1
0
E v e n on th is b a s is , the s u r v e y s in d ica te
that a su b s ta n tia l p r o p o r t io n o f the d r o p ­
ou ts n e v e r c o m p le t e d any y e a r in s e n io r
h igh s c h o o l (1 0 th g r a d e and a b o v e ). A b ou t
a th ird o f the b o y s d r o p p e d ou t d u rin g th is
f i r s t s e n io r h igh s c h o o l y e a r , le a v in g th e m
w ith the 9th g r a d e a s th e ir h ig h e s t a c a d e m ic
a c h ie v e m e n t . O f th is g r o u p , m o r e than o n e th ir d w e r e age 16, the le g a l s c h o o l - le a v i n g
a g e ; 7 p e r c e n t w e r e y o u n g e r , but 57 p e r -

cen t w e r e 17 o r o v e r . A b ou t the sa m e p r o ­
p o r tio n o f g ir l s le ft s c h o o l a fte r co m p le tin g
the 9th g r a d e , but th ey w e r e so m e w h a t
y o u n g e r than the b o y s . H a lf w e r e age 16,
12 p e r c e n t w e r e y o u n g e r , and o n ly 37 p e r ­
cen t w e r e 17 o r o v e r .
T h e age d is tr ib u tio n o f th o se w ho le ft
s c h o o l d u rin g the 10th g ra d e s u g g e s ts that
the attain m en t o f age 16 w a s not n e c e s s a r i l y
the d e c is iv e f a c t o r in th e ir d ro p p in g ou t.
P e r h a p s the d iffic u lt ie s o f the g r a d e i t ­
s e l f - - t h e f i r s t y e a r o f s e n io r h igh s c h o o l - w e r e at le a s t in p a r t r e s p o n s ib le f o r the
c o n c e n tr a tio n o f d ro p p in g out at th is p o in t.

T h o s e d ro p o u ts w ho c o m p le t e d on e o r tw o
g r a d e s at the s e n io r h igh s c h o o l ' l e v e l
ra n g ed f r o m 33 to 52 p e r c e n t in the s e v e n
1
0 For complete coverage of those surveyed, see table D-3, This a r e a s , but in e a c h o f fo u r a r e a s th is g r o u p
includes data for three areas where those who dropped out during
to ta le d about t w o -fift h s o f a ll d r o p o u ts .
the 8th grade were included and for one area where a large
T h e r e w e r e no c o n s is te n t d i f f e r e n c e s by
“ ungraded** group was classified as having completed less than
s e x in any o f the g ra d e c o m p le tio n d a ta .
the 8th grade.




- 14 -

TABLE 4.— Highest grade completed by dropouts who completed 8th grade or above, by area
and sex
(Percentage distribution)
Highest grade completed

Total dropouts
Area and sex
Number

Percent

8th

9th

10th

llth

All areas—
--------------Male-- ---- ------- ----Female— ------- ----------

1 8,829
5,009
3,820

100
100
100

27
27
26

32
33
31

21
19
24

20
21
19

Area A-------------------- —
Male— ------------------- —
Female- -----------------

1,347
696
651

100
100
100

18
20
15

30
31
28

31
26
37

21
23
20

Area B---------------------Male— ----------------- -—
Female--------------------

3,179
1,894
1,285

100
100
100

35
36

25
25
24

11
10
13

29
30
27

Area C---- ----------------Male— -------------------Female--------------------

1,319
769
550

100
100
100

18
17
19

38
44
31

30
27
34

14
12
16

Area D---------------------Male---------------------Female-------- -----------

543
302
241

100
100
100

13
14
12

44
45
43

28
27
30

15
14
15

Area E------------ ---------Male-------------- ----- —
Female--------------------

674
405
269

100
100
100

27
21
37

33
35
31

26
28
21

14
16
11

Area F----------- --------- Male---------------------Female------------------- -

1,065
572
493

100
100
100

33
37
28

32
32
33

23
20
26

12
11
13

Area G---------------------Male— -------------------Female------------------- -

702
371
331

100
100
100

20
22
18

47
45
49

23
22
24

10
11
9

35

1 Excludes 630 who completed less than the 8th grade and 46 for whom grade completed was
not reported.
A s a lr e a d y n o te d , h o w e v e r , g ir ls ten d ed
to d r o p out at s o m e w h a t y o u n g e r a g e s than
b o y s , and at the sa m e tim e th ey ten ded
to be fou n d m o r e o fte n in the n o r m a l g ra d e
f o r th e ir a g e . T h e p r o p o r t io n o f d r o p o u ts
w ho c o m p le te d the 10th o r 11th g ra d e is
show n in the fo llo w in g ta b u la tion :
A reas
D
E
F
A
B
G

c

T o t a l ------ 52
M a l e ------ 49
F e m a l e - - 57




40
40
40

44
39
50

43
41
45

40
44
32

35
31
39

33
33
33

F r o m the p o in t o f v ie w o f k e e p in g th o s e
you n g p e o p le in s c h o o l w ho m ig h t p r o fit f r o m
h ig h s c h o o l g ra d u a tio n , the o n e s w ho d r o p p e d
out in the 12th g r a d e ( o r w ho fa ile d to r e ­
tu rn to s c h o o l a fte r c o m p le tin g the 11th
g r a d e ) a re o f p a r t ic u la r in t e r e s t . F r o m 10
to 15 p e r c e n t in fiv e a r e a s and o v e r 20 p e r ­
ce n t in tw o o th e r s d r o p p e d out at the t h r e s ­
h old o f o r d u rin g th e ir fin a l y e a r , p r e ­
su m a b ly
w ith in
rea ch
o f h igh
sch ool
g r a d u a tio n . (S ee ta b le 4 .) O v e r - a g e w as
u n d ou b ted ly a f a c t o r f o r m a n y , but n ot fo r
the t w o -t h ir d s w ho w e r e on ly 18 o r y o u n g e r

15 -

in the 12th g r a d e . It is th is g r o u p w h ich p r o b ­
a b ly sh ou ld get m o r e e n c o u r a g e m e n t f r o m
t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e lin g o f f i c e r s to r e m a in
in s c h o o l lo n g en ou gh to g r a d u a te .
S c h o o l R e t a r d a t io n .- - M o s t stu d en ts e n ­
r o l l in the f i r s t g r a d e o f e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l
b e tw e e n t h e ir s ix th and se v e n th b ir t h d a y s ,
and if th ey p r o g r e s s at the a n tic ip a te d ra te
o f on e g ra d e a y e a r , th e y sh ou ld c o m p le te
the 12tH g r a d e b e f o r e th e ir 19th b ir th d a y . 1
1
In t e r m s o f th is s c h e d u le , o v e r f o u r - f i f t h s o f
a ll d r o p o u ts in th e s e s u r v e y s w e r e b eh in d
th e ir n o r m a l g r a d e by 1 y e a r o r m o r e , the
p r o p o r t io n s in s ix a r e a s ra n g in g f r o m 81
to 94 p e r c e n t , w ith a lo w o f 73 p e r c e n t in
the one o th e r a r e a . T h u s , m o s t o f th e s e
d r o p o u t s , h a d th e y r e m a in e d in s c h o o l,
w ou ld h a ve b e e n at le a s t 19 y e a r s o ld
w h en th ey g r a d u a te d . (S ee ta b le 5 .) In the
sa m e s ix a r e a s , f r o m 4 9 to 68 p e r c e n t w e r e
r e t a r d e d by at le a s t 2 y e a r s . Had th ey r e ­
m a in e d in s c h o o l and p r o g r e s s e d at the
n o r m a l ra te o f one g r a d e a y e a r , th e y w ou ld
h ave b e e n at le a s t 20 y e a r s o ld w hen they
g ra d u a te d .
T h e s e s tu d ie s sh ow ed a d e fin it e s e x d i f ­
f e r e n c e in t e r m s o f k e e p in g up w ith the
n o r m a l g r a d e . In e v e r y a r e a stu d ie d , h ig h e r
p r o p o r t io n s o f b o y s than g i r l s w e r e r e ­
ta r d e d , p a r t ic u la r ly a m o n g th o s e w ho w e r e
r e t a r d e d by at le a s t 2 y e a r s .
It is a p p a re n t f r o m a v a r ie t y o f data and
f r o m o b s e r v a t io n that m u ch r e t a r d a t io n o c ­
c u r s b e f o r e the student r e a c h e s s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l . 1 T h is w a s a ls o tr u e in the p r e s e n t
2
s u r v e y s . (S ee ta b le 6 .) F o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t
1 Eleanor H. Bernert gives a more detailed scale. “ Expected
1
grades completed” for 18-year-olds are grades 12 to 13 (first
year of college). Eighteen-year-olds “ retarded by 1 year” are
those in the 11th grade and “ by more than 1 year” in grades
1 to 10. See Eleanor H. Bernert, America's Children, New York,
John Wiley & Sons, 1958, p. 66.
1 “ Retardation appears to be a cumulative process, starting
2
at a relatively low rate (about 5 percent) among the 8-year-old
pupils, increasing steadily with each increase in age, and reach­
ing a peak of over 25 percent for 15-year-olds. After age 15, a
slight drop occurs in the percentage of pupils in retarded grades
(24 and 22 percent for the 16- and 17-year-olds, respectively).
At age 18, a slight increase in retardation is apparent (23 per­
cent).” Bernert, op. cit., p. 69.




o f the 1 6 - y e a r - o ld d r o p o u ts had c o m p le te d
on ly the 8th g ra d e o r l e s s . T h o s e w ho had
c o m p le te d the 8th g ra d e w ou ld be at le a s t
20 y e a r s o ld at the tim e o f g ra d u a tio n , if
th ey had re m a in e d in s c h o o l . O n e -fift h o f
a ll 1 7 - y e a r - o ld d r o p o u ts c o v e r e d by the
s u rv e y had c o m p le te d o n ly the 8th g ra d e o r
l e s s . T h ey w ould have b e e n at le a s t 21 y e a r s
o f age b e fo r e g ra d u a tin g f r o m h igh s c h o o l,
had th ey sta y ed in s c h o o l and p r o g r e s s e d
at the r a te o f a g ra d e a y e a r - - w h i c h o b v i ­
o u s ly had not b e e n th e ir ra te in the p a s t. A s
E le a n o r B e r n e r t w e ll e x p r e s s e s it, “ T he
r o a d to g ra d u a tion is a lo n g o n e , and p e r ­
h ap s a lo n e ly o n e , f o r the m a jo r it y o f th e ir
age m a te s h ave a lr e a d y b e e n g r a d u a te d .” 1
3
T h e g ra d u a te s in th is s u r v e y w e r e a ls o
to s o m e exten t r e t a r d e d . O n e -fo u r t h o f th e m
w e r e age 19 o r o v e r and 6 p e r c e n t w e r e
at le a s t 20 w hen th ey fin is h e d high, s c h o o l.
T h e r e s u lt s o f th e s e s u r v e y s b e a r ou t,
f o r s p e c if i c c o m m u n it ie s , the o b s e r v a t io n s
on g ra d e r e ta r d a tio n that M is s B e r n e r t
m a d e on a n a tion a l b a s is . In w ritin g o f the
e n tire s c h o o l p o p u la tio n , not o n ly the d r o p ­
o u ts , she s a y s , “ T h e p r o b le m o f r e ta r d a tio n
in th is N ation is n ot a s m a ll o n e ; o v e r 4
m illio n p u p ils 8 to 18 y e a r s o ld w e r e r e ­
ta r d e d in th e ir a g e - g r a d e s c h o o l p r o g r e s s
in A p r il 1950. A b ou t 1.6 m illio n w e r e tw o
o r m o r e g r a d e s beh in d th e ir e x p e c te d p e r ­
f o r m a n c e l e v e l s . At the h ig h s c h o o l a g e s ,
o v e r o n e -fo u r t h o f the s c h o o l y ou th s w e r e
e n r o lle d in g r a d e s b e lo w the on e e x p e c te d
o f th e m ; 8 5 0 ,0 0 0 o f th e m , o r a p p r o x im a te ly
12 p e r c e n t, w e r e e n r o lle d in g r a d e s that
w e re at le a s t tw o o r m o r e g r a d e s b e lo w
the e x p e c te d p e r fo r m a n c e o f th e ir age
m a t e s . T h u s, f o r e v e r y 8 s c h o o l y ou th s 14
to 17 y e a r s o f a g e , tw o w e r e la g g in g behind
in th e ir s c h o o l p e r fo r m a n c e , and on e o f
th o s e tw o is at le a s t tw o o r m o r e g r a d e s
behind h is age m a te s w ho h ave m a in ta in ed
e x p e c te d l e v e l s o f a g e -g r a d e p e r fo r m a n c e .
T h is is ev id en t d e s p ite s o c i a l p r o m o t io n ,
the a ctu a l ex ten t o f w h ich is n ot k n o w n .” M
1 Bernert, op. cit., p. 70.
3
MBernert, op. cit., p. 65.

- 16 -

TABLE 5.— Grade retardation of dropouts, by area and sex
Dropouts retarded— 1
Area and sex

Total
dropouts

By 1 or more years

By 2 or more years

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

All areas-----------------Male--------------------Female-------------------

2 9,-408
5,386
-4,022

7,893
4,691
3,202

84
87
80

4,985
3,203
1,782

53
59
44

Area A --------------------Male--------------------Female-------------------

1,347
696
651

988
562
426

73
81
65

473
314
159

35
45
24

Area B --------------------Male--------------------Female-------------------

3,179
1,894
1,285

2,577
1,569
1,008

81
83
78

1,673
1,094
579

53
58
45

Area C--------------------Male--------------------Female-------------------

1,428
837
591

1,203
741
462

84
89
78

736
480
256

52
57
43

Area D --------------------Male--------------------Female-------------------

561
309
252

478
271
207

85
88
82

276
175
101

49
57
40

Area E --------------------Male--------------------Female-------------------

674
405
269

633
392
241

94
97
90

456
280
176

68
69
65

Area F --------------------Male--------------------Female-------------------

1,199
668
531

1,084
621
463

90
93
87

748
476
272

62
71
51

Area G--------------------Male--------------------Female-------------------

1,020
577
443

930
535
395

91
93
89

623
384
239

61
67
54

1 Defined as behind the normal grade for their age. This does not necessarily mean that
they were 'mentally retarded” in the technical sense of the term.
’
2 Excludes 97 for whom age and/or highest grade completed were not reported.
REASONS FOR DROPPING OUT
E d u c a t o r s , and the p u b lic in g e n e r a l,
a r e p r o b a b ly m o r e in t e r e s t e d in r e a s o n s
f o r d r o p p in g out o f s c h o o l than in any o th e r
p h a se o f the d r o p o u t p r o b le m . A lth ou gh
th ese s u r v e y s , lik e m o s t o t h e r s d e a lin g
w ith th is s u b je c t, a r e in c o n c lu s iv e in th is
r e s p e c t , th ey d o p o in t up c e r t a in f a c t o r s
ra th e r sh a r p ly and su g g e st o t h e r s
that
in vite fu r th e r e x p lo r a t io n . One u n u su al a s ­
p e c t o f th e se stu d ie s is that tw o d is t in c tly
d iffe r e n t s o u r c e s o f in fo r m a t io n on r e a s o n s
f o r d r o p p in g out w e r e u se d : F i r s t , the r e a ­




son s a s r e c o r d e d by the s c h o o l f o r the
“ u n i v e r s e ” 1 o f d r o p o u ts and s e c o n d , th o s e
5
g iv e n by the g ro u p o f d r o p o u ts w ho w e r e
p e r s o n a lly in te r v ie w e d in 1956 and 1957.
(S ee ta b le s 7, 8, D -4 , and D -5 .)
N e ith e r s o u r c e , h o w e v e r , is e n tir e ly
s a t i s fa c t o r y .
T e r m in a l
in te r v ie w s
w ith
d r o p o u ts w e r e not the g e n e r a l r u le in m o s t

15 The term “universe** means the entire number in the category
under survey.
17 -

TABLE 6*— Age and highest grade completed by dropouts, all areas
Highest grade completed

Total
dropouts

8th grade or less

Age
at leaving
school

Number
Number

Percent

9th

Percent

All
areas

All
areas

Number

7-area
range

All
areas

Percent
All
areas

7-area
range

All ages--------

1 9,408

100

2,964

31

17-45

2,777

30

25-42

Under 16-------Age 16---------Age 17---------Age 18---------Age 19 and over—

971
3,220
2,572
1,543
1,102

100
100
100
100
100

662
1,447
529
153
173

68
45
21
10
16

37-83
22-59
11-30
5-19
4-21

249
1,169
884
340
135

26
36
34
22
12

16-63
31-59
25-43
12-31
10-22

Highest grade completed— Continued
Age
at leaving
school

10th
Number
All
areas

11th
Percent

All
areas

Number

7-area
range

All
areas

Percent
All
areas

7-area
range

All ages--------

1,900

20

11-31

1,767

19

7-29

Under 16-------Age 16---------Age 17---------Age 18---------Age 19 and over—

24
480
707
475
214

2
15
27
31
19

2-8
8-32
18-39
20-42
9-44

36
124
452
575
580

4
4
18
37
53

1-17
4-11
7-26
22-52
30-60

1 Excludes 97 for whom age and/or highest grade completed were not reported*
o f the a r e a s stu d ied and in deed the s c h o o ls
did n ot a lw a y s know that a g iv e n student
w as a d rop ou t until he fa ile d to a p p ea r
w hen s c h o o l r e o p e n e d a fte r the s u m m e r
vacation* T he n ota tion s m ade on the s c h o o l
r e c o r d s s o m e tim e s a p p ea r to have b een
e n te re d w ithout m u ch k n o w le d g e o f the in ­
d iv id u a l c a s e . F o r e x a m p le , “ r e a c h e d age
16“ o c c a s io n a lly a p p e a re d on the r e c o r d s
o f stu den ts who w e r e , a c c o r d in g to the
sam e r e c o r d s , 17 o r o ld e r w hen they le ft
s c h o o l. In so m e o f the su rv e y e d a r e a s the
r e c o r d s w e r e c o m p le t e , w ith a r e a s o n r e ­
c o r d e d f o r e v e r y student w ho d r o p p e d out,
but in tw o a r e a s su ch r e c o r d s w e re m is sing
f o r about o n e -t h ir d o f the d r o p o u t s - - a fa c t o r
w hich m igh t a ls o p r o d u ce s o m e b ia s in the
o v e r a ll data.
R e lia b ilit y o f the in te r v ie w data is a ls o
op en to q u e stio n in s o m e c a s e s . W hen a




d rop ou t w a s a sk ed by an in te r v ie w e r why he
le ft s c h o o l, he m igh t g iv e s o m e v e r y s p e c if i c
r e a s o n su ch a s , “ I le ft to get m arried ,** o r
“ I w anted to enlist,** although the age o f
the in d iv id u a l at tim e o f le a v in g b e lie d the
r e a s o n g iv en . F o r e x a m p le , a fe w b o y s
who le ft s c h o o l at age 14 r e p o r t e d that they
le ft to g o into m ilit a r y s e r v i c e , and a fe w
g ir ls o f the sa m e age r e p o r te d m a r r ia g e
as the r e a s o n . The r e a l r e a s o n f o r m an y,
i r r e s p e c t iv e o f th e ir a g e , m ay w e ll have
been a c o m p o s ite o f things w hich m a d e
continued s c h o o l attendance l e s s a ttr a c tiv e
than v a r io u s a lte rn a tiv e p la n s.
A n oth er fa c t o r in flu en cin g the in te rv ie w
r e p l i e s w ould be the n o r m a l sh ift in a
p e r s o n ’ s ow n in te rp re ta tio n o f h is r e a s o n
a fte r the p a s s a g e o f tim e . S in ce the p e r ­
son al in te rv ie w o c c u r r e d n o l e s s than 1 y e a r

- 18 -

and in so m e c a s e s as m u ch as 4 to 5 y e a r s
a fte r the p e r s o n d r o p p e d out o f s c h o o l, what
had a ctu a lly h app en ed to h im in the m e a n ­
tim e m igh t have b e c o m e the r e a lit y f o r h im
but a quite d iffe r e n t r e a lit y f r o m what had
in flu e n ce d h im at the tim e he m ad e h is
o r ig in a l d e c is io n .
G ra d e R e ta rd a tio n . - - I r r e s p e c t i v e o f what
the s c h o o l r e c o r d s sh ow ed o r what the s c h o o l
le a v e r s th e m s e lv e s m a y e x p lic it ly have
sta te d , the fa c t o f gra d e r e ta r d a tio n w as n o
doubt a con trib u tin g r e a s o n fo r d ro p p in g
ou t. N ot a ll d ro p o u ts had lo w IQ ’ s, although
a la r g e p r o p o r t io n did have IQ ’ s b e lo w 90.
It s e e m s r e a s o n a b le to a s s u m e , h o w e v e r ,
that w h a tev er the ca u se f o r r e ta r d a tio n ,
m o s t 1 7 - y e a r - o ld b o y s o r g ir ls w ould be
relu cta n t to r e m a in in c la s s e s w h e re the
a v e r a g e student w as 14, n o r w ould they
want to r e m a in in h igh s c h o o l until age 21
in o r d e r to g ra d u a te . E ven the 16- y e a r o ld s w ou ld be s e n s itiv e to the age d i f f e r ­
e n ce betw een t h e m s e lv e s and th e ir 1 4 TABLE 7.— Reasons for leaving school

els

y e a r - o ld c la s s m a t e s , and the p r o s p e c t o f
staying in h igh s c h o o l until age 20 would
p r o b a b ly s e e m d is c o u r a g in g .
D is s a tis fa c tio n W ith S c h o o l.--W h e n the
s c h o o l r e c o r d s and the p e r s o n a l in te r ­
v ie w data a re a n a ly z e d , one m a jo r r e a s o n
f o r le a v in g stan d s out c l e a r l y - - d i s s a t i s ­
fa c tio n w ith s c h o o l, d e s c r ib e d h e re as
“ a d v e r s e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e .’ ’ T h is te r m
in clu d e s a n u m b er o f th in g s, su ch a s fa ilu r e
w hich r e s u lt s in g ra d e r e ta r d a tio n , d is lik e
o f in d ivid u a l t e a c h e r s , and g e n e ra l la c k o f
in te r e s t. A c c o r d in g to the s c h o o l r e c o r d s ,
it is the m o s t im p orta n t sin g le r e a s o n f o r
d ro p p in g o u t - - m o r e im p o rta n t than le a v in g
to g o to w o rk o r to en te r m ilit a r y s e r v ic e
f o r the b o y s o r m a r r ia g e f o r the g i r l s . O f
the m o r e than 7,000 d ro p o u ts f o r w hom the
s c h o o ls had in fo rm a tio n on r e a s o n s f o r
le a v in g , n e a r ly o n e -fo u r th w e re r e c o r d e d
as having le ft b e ca u se o f d is s a t is fa c t io n
w ith s c h o o l. T he p r o p o r t io n s in in dividu al
a r e a s ra n g ed f r o m 3 to 11 p e r c e n t in fo u r ,
and fr o m 32 to 58 p e r c e n t in the o th e r s .
shown on school records,

by

area and sex

(Percentage distribution)
Reasons for leaving school
Total dropouts
Area and sex
Number

Reached
Percent age 16

Work

Mar­
riage

Moved
Mili­
within
tary
service area

Adverse
school
experi­
ence

Adverse
home
Health
circum­
stances

Other

All areas-----------Male--------------Female-------------

17,622
4,268
3,354

100
100
100

17
18
15

18
22
13

(2)
1
21

(3)
14
(4)

5
4
5

22
24
20

4
3
5

5
4
9

11
10
12

Area A--------------Male--------------Female-------------

1,347
696
651

100
100
100

_
_
—
—

14
19
10

(2)
1
38

(3)
8
(4)

1
1
1

48
55
40

2
1
3

4
2
6

8
13
2

Area B--------------Male--------------Female— --------- —

1,846
1,033
813

100
100
100

__
—
—

26
35
14

(2)
1
23

(3)
23
1

__
—
—

3
4
3

1
1
1

13
7
21

33
29
37

Area C-------------- Male— -------------Female----------- —

1,444
853
591

100
100
100

58
64
50

9
9
10

(2)
1
10

(3)
3
(4)

13
12
16

4
5
2

1
(4)

3
3
3

5
3
9

Area D-- ---------- Male--------------Female-------------

483
272
211

100
100
100

29
33
24

11
14
9

(2)
(4)
19

(3)
14
1

24
20
29

8
10
5

2
1
2

2
1
3

7
7
8

Area E--------------Male--------------Female-------------

646
393
253

100
100
100

14
7
25

24
28
18

(2)
1
8

(3)
20

1
1
1

32
34
28

11
9
14

3
1
6

Area F--------------Male--------------Female-------------

836
444
392

100
100
100

25
26
24

18
24
13

(2)
2
37

(3)
27
1

4
2
5

11
14
7

4
2
7

4
3
6

— -

Area G--------------Male--------------Female-------------

1,020
577
443

100
100
100

18
20
16

(2)
(4)
3

(3)
7

1
1
(4)

58
58
59

15
12
19

3
3
3

—

1
2
3
4
562565 0

___
—

—

—

—

Excludes 1,883 for whom reasons for leaving were not reported, of which 1,333 were in area B.
Because of small number of boys involved, total for both sexes is not shown*
Because of small number of girls involved, total for both sexes is not shown.
Less than 0.5 percent.
- 60 - 4




- 19 -

___
___
—

___
___

S om e o f the w ide v a r ia t io n in th e se p r o ­
p o r t io n s m ay be due to d iffe r e n t c r it e r i a
u sed by the s c h o o l o f f i c e r s who k ept the
r e c o r d s . A lth ou gh so m e b ia s m ay a ls o be
ca u se d by la c k o f in fo rm a tio n f o r about
o n e -fift h o f a ll d r o p o u ts , it is sig n ifica n t
that the tw o a r e a s h avin g the m o s t c o m ­
p le te data a ls o r e c o r d e d the h ig h e st p r o ­
p o r t io n o f students le a v in g s p e c if ic a lly b e ­
ca u se o f d is s a t is fa c t io n w ith s c h o o l. It is
a ls o p r o b a b le that a c o n s id e r a b le p r o p o r ­
tio n w ho w e r e r e c o r d e d as h avin g le ft
b e c a u s e th ey had “ r e a c h e d age 16“ a ctu a lly
le ft as so o n as they co u ld b e ca u se th ey
s im p ly d id n ’ t lik e s c h o o l. (See ta b le 7 .) T h e
p o s s ib ilit y that the s c h o o l r e c o r d s a ctu a lly
u n d e rsta te th is r e a s o n is su p p o rte d by the
fa c t that 35 p e r c e n t o f the d ro p o u ts w ho
w e r e in te rv ie w e d c la im e d a d v e r s e s c h o o l
e x p e r ie n c e as th e ir r e a s o n , ra n g in g , again
ra th e r w id e ly , f r o m 15 to 18 p e r c e n t in
th re e a r e a s to f r o m 28 to 63 p e r c e n t in the
fo u r o t h e r s . (See ta b le 8 .)

The q u estion n a tu ra lly c o m e s to m ind
w h eth er th o se students w h ose IQ ’ s fa ll
b elow the n o r m a l ran g e le a v e m o r e f r e ­
quently b e ca u s e o f a d v e r s e s c h o o l e x p e r i ­
e n ce than do th o s e with IQ ’ s ab ov e the
n o r m a l ra n g e . A n a ly s is o f the in te r v ie w
data f o r fo u r a r e a s in d ic a te s that o f a ll the
d ro p o u ts d ir e c t ly in te rv ie w e d and w h ose
IQ ’ s and r e a s o n s f o r lea v in g w e r e know n,
46 p e r c e n t gave a d v e r s e s c h o o l e x p e r ie n c e
as th e ir r e a s o n f o r le a v in g . (See table D - 5.)
O f th ose with IQ ’ s o f l e s s than 90, 53 p e r ­
cent gave th is as th e ir r e a s o n , and o f th o se
with IQ ’ s o f 110 and o v e r , 39 p e r c e n t gave
the sa m e r e a s o n . H o w e v e r , the n u m b er o f
th o se with high IQ ’ s w ho gave th is r e a s o n
w as s m a ll.
A d e fin ite r e la tio n s h ip a p p e a re d b etw een
h ig h e st g ra d e c o m p le te d and a d v e r s e s c h o o l
e x p e r ie n c e as a r e a s o n f o r d ro p p in g ou t. A s
h ig h e r g r a d e s w e re c o m p le te d , the p r o p o r ­
tion o f d ro p o u ts w ho gave this as th e ir

TABLE 8.— Reasons for leaving school as given by dropouts who were interviewed, by area and sex
(Percentage distribution)
Reasons for leaving school

Total dropouts
Area
and sex

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Reached
age
16

1 1,559
7
-49
810

100
100
100

5
6
4

18
25
12

(2)
3
27

(3)

Area A---- —
Male-----Female----

264
109
155

100
100
100

1
2
1

25
43
13

(2)
6
47

(3)
6
—

Area B-----Male-----Female----

235
113
122

100
100
100

_
_
—
—

15
19
11

All areas--Male----- Female----

Work

Military
service

Marriage

6

(4)

Moved
within
area

Adverse
school
experience

Adverse
home
Health
circum­
stances

Other

(*)
(*>
(4)

35
38
32

8
7
9

6
5
7

10
10
9

1

28
32
25

4
5
5

8
6
8

__
—
—

(4)
1

8
6
11

38
41
35

—
1

(3)
11
2

16
20
11

(3)
2

_
_
—
—

15
18
13

8
7
9

6
7
5

11
11
11

(3)
7

(2)
3
29

_
_
—
—

—

Area C-----Male-----Female----

213
119
94

100
100
100

23
28
16

18
23
11

(2)
4
35

—

Area D-----Male-----Female— -—

130
60
70

100
100
100

18
18
18

20
32
10

(2)
—
31

—

_
_
—
—

18
20
16

8
8
9

5
2
7

11
13
9

Area E-----Male-----Female- —
-

196
95
101

100
100
100

—
—
—

28
33
23

(2)
3
14

(3)
13
—

—
—

42
40
44

4
3
5

5
2
8

6
6
6

Area F— ---Male-----Female- —
-

166
66
100

100
100
100

__
—
—

11
21
5

(2)
1
33

(3)
12
—

38
44
34

8
6
10

10
8
12

5
5
5

Area G-----Male— — Female----

355
187
168

100
100
100

_
_

13
15
11

(2)
—
6

(3)
1

63
66
60

17
14
19

2
3
2

1
1
2

1
2
3
4

2
3
1

—
—

Excludes 50 for whom reasons for leaving were not reported.
Because of small number of boys involved, total for both sexes is not shown.
Because of small number of girls involved, total for both sexes is not shown.
Less than 0.5 percent.




-

20

-

th e ir r e a s o n f o r le a v in g , but in tw o a r e a s
th is p r o p o r t io n w a s on ly 6 and 14 p e r c e n t ;
in the fiv e o t h e r s , the ra n g e w a s f r o m 29
to 47 p e r c e n t . In a ll but one a r e a , the p r o ­
p o r tio n who g a ye th is r e a s o n w a s s u b s ta n ­
tia lly h ig h e r than the s c h o o l r e c o r d s in d i­
c a te d . T h is s u p p o rts the su p p o s itio n that
“ rea son s** g iv e n in the in t e r v ie w s r e f l e c t
what had a ctu a lly h a p p en ed a fte r the student
le ft s c h o o l, r a th e r than the p r e c i s e m o t iv a ­
tio n at the tim e o f le a v in g .

r e a s o n ra n g ed s te a d ily d ow n w a rd , f r o m
a lm o s t h a lf w ho had c o m p le t e d no m o r e than
the 8th g ra d e to o n e -fo u r t h o f th o se w ho
had c o m p le te d the 1 1th g r a d e . T h is s u g g e s ts
a c o n n e c tio n w ith g r a d e r e ta r d a tio n , w h ich
in m a n y c a s e s is r e la t e d to lo w e r i n t e ll i ­
gen ce le v e ls .
W o r k .- - T h e
secon d
m ost
im p o rta n t
s p e c if i c r e a s o n g iv e n f o r le a v in g s c h o o l w as
to go to w o rk . A lm o s t o n e - f ift h o f a ll d r o p ­
outs f o r w h om th is type o f in fo r m a tio n w as
a v a ila b le le ft f o r th is r e a s o n , ra n g in g a m on g
the a r e a s f r o m 9 to 2 6 p e r c e n t a c c o r d in g
to the s c h o o l r e c o r d s , and f r o m 11 to 28
p e r c e n t a c c o r d in g to the in te r v ie w e d d r o p ­
ou ts t h e m s e lv e s . T h e r e w a s little v a r i a ­
tion in the p r o p o r t io n s who le ft s c h o o l
tow a rd the end o f th e ir 4 y e a r s in o r d e r
to go to w o rk and th o s e w ho d ro p p e d out
in the e a r l i e r y e a r s f o r th is r e a s o n . O f a ll
the d r o p o u t s , b o y s and g ir ls c o m b in e d , about
20 p e r c e n t in e a c h g r a d e f r o m the 9th th rou g h
the 11th gave w o rk as th e ir r e a s o n f o r
le a v in g , c o m p a r e d w ith on ly slig h tly l e s s
(15 p e r c e n t ) o f th o se w h o se h ig h e st g ra d e
c o m p le t e d w as the 8th o r lo w e r . (S ee ta b le
D -4 .)

B e c a u s e o f the age f a c t o r , the p r o p o r ­
tio n s w ho g ave m a r r ia g e a s th e ir r e a s o n
f o r le a v in g in c r e a s e d w ith g ra d e c o m p le te d ,
ra n g in g s te a d ily u p w ard f r o m 14 p e r c e n t o f
th o se who had c o m p le te d l e s s than the 9th
g ra d e to o v e r h a lf o f t h o s e w ho had c o m ­
p le te d the 11th. T h e in c r e a s e is p a r t ic u la r ly
g r e a t b e tw e e n th o se c o m p le tin g the 10th and
11th g r a d e s - - f r o m 34 to 53 p e r c e n t .
A lth ou gh the data t h e m s e lv e s show m a r ­
r ia g e a s an im p o rta n t r e a s o n f o r q u itting
s c h o o l, it is p o s s ib le that th is c o m p le x
m o tiv a tin g ca u se is a ctu a lly u n d e r s ta te d .
S ta tis tic a l data f o r 1956 f o r the N a tion a s
a w h o le in d ica te that o n e -fo u r t h o f a ll
w om en now m a r r y b e fo r e age 1 8 - -w h ic h is
the u su a l a g e o f g ra d u a tio n . T h e b r o a d e r
im p lic a t io n s o f th is fa c t a re w e ll e x p r e s s e d
by D r . E li G in z b e r g : “ If m o r e and m o r e
y ou n g w o m e n b e c o m e e n g a g e d at 17 o r 18,
and m a r r y at 19 o r 20, the o th e r s a r e
in e v ita b ly u n d er p r e s s u r e to fo llo w s u i t - f i r s t to e s t a b lis h to t h e m s e lv e s and th e ir
f a m i li e s th e ir a b ility to w in a su ita b le
m a n ; and s e c o n d ly , to p r o t e c t th e ir p o s itio n
by in s u rin g that th e ir fr ie n d s d o not p ic k
o ff the m o s t d e s ir a b le m en .**1 S in ce m o s t
6
g ir l d r o p o u ts a r e o ld e r than th e ir c l a s s ­
m a t e s , th e ir in t e r e s t in m a r r ia g e m ig h t w e ll
take p r e c e d e n c e o v e r m ak in g the n e c e s s a r y
e f f o r t to stay in s c h o o l and g ra d u a te .

G e n e r a lly sp e a k in g , e c o n o m ic in c e n tiv e s
a p p e a r to be l e s s im p o rta n t c u r r e n tly a s a
ca u se f o r le a v in g s c h o o l than h a s b e e n the
c a s e in the p a s t. It is r e a s o n a b le to a s s u m e ,
f o r e x a m p le , that b oy d r o p o u ts w ou ld be
w o rk in g , o r at le a s t lo o k in g f o r w o r k , as
so o n as they le ft s c h o o l u n le s s th ey had
le ft b e c a u s e o f ill-h e a lt h . But a c c o r d in g
to th e ir sta te m e n ts to the in t e r v ie w e r s ,
m an y d e la y e d f o r a c o n s id e r a b le tim e b e fo r e
sta rtin g to lo o k f o r w o r k . F r o m 7 to 30 p e r ­
cen t in the v a r io u s a r e a s sa id they w aited
a m on th o r lo n g e r b e fo r e sta rtin g to lo o k ,
and f r o m 3 to 24 p e r c e n t sa id they w a ited
10 w e e k s o r lo n g e r , e v e n though so s im p le
a thing a s m a k in g in q u ir ie s o f r e la t iv e s and
fr ie n d s w as c o n s id e r e d “ looking.** (S ee
ta b le D - 9 .)

In the c a s e o f the b o y s , r e la t iv e ly fe w
a p p e a r to h a v e le ft s c h o o l in o r d e r to m a r r y ,
the p r o p o r t io n s n e v e r r is in g a b o v e 2 p e r c e n t
in any a r e a , a c c o r d in g to s c h o o l r e c o r d s ,
and e x c e e d in g 4 p e r c e n t in o n ly one a r e a ,
a c c o r d in g to the in t e r v ie w s . H o w e v e r , in
v ie w o f the c u r r e n t c u ltu ra l p a tte rn o f e a r l y
datin g and e a r ly m a r r ia g e , m any o f the
o l d e r b o y s w ho w e r e beh in d th e ir n o r m a l
g r a d e m a y h ave b een re lu cta n t to stay in
h igh s c h o o l lo n g en ou gh to g ra d u a te , th e r e b y

M a r r ia g e . - - B oth
sch ool
records
and
in te r v ie w data in d ic a te that, f o r the g i r l s ,
m a r r ia g e w a s an im p o rta n t r e a s o n f o r
le a v in g s c h o o l, but the p r o p o r t io n s v a r ie d
w id e ly by a r e a in b o th s e t s o f data. A c c o r d ­
ing to the s c h o o l r e c o r d s , th o s e le a v in g to
get m a r r ie d ra n g e d f r o m 23 to 38 p e r c e n t
in th re e a r e a s , but o n ly f r o m 3 to 19 p e r c e n t
in the o th e r f o u r . In te r v ie w data sh ow ed
s i m i la r w ide d i f f e r e n c e s am on g the a r e a s .
F o r a ll a r e a s c o m b in e d , o v e r o n e -fo u r t h
o f the g i r l s in te r v ie w e d gave m a r r ia g e as




-

16 Eli Ginzberg, The Changing Pattern of Women’s Work: Some
Psychological Correlates, (in American Journal of Orthopsychi­
atry, Vol. XXVIII, No. 2, New York. April 1958, p. 318).
21

4 p e r c e n t o f th ose who had c o m p le te d no
m o r e than the 8th g ra d e to 13 p e r c e n t o f
th ose w ho had c o m p le te d the 1 1th.

p o stp o n in g the tim e w hen they co u ld e s ta b ­
lis h fa m ilie s o f th e ir ow n . It is not i m ­
p ro b a b le that le a v in g “ to go to w o r k ” w as
m o tiv a te d in m any c a s e s by th e ir w ish to
m a r r y as so o n as p o s s ib le r a th e r than by
the p r e s s u r e o f e c o n o m ic n eed in th e ir
p a re n ta l h o m e s .

An im p orta n t fa c t o r about m ilita r y s e r v ­
ic e is its r o le in co n n e ctio n w ith the la b o r
m a rk e t adju stm en t o f s c h o o l le a v e r s . T he
high p r o p o r tio n o f b o y s in the o r ig in a l in t e r ­
v ie w sa m p le who cou ld not be in te rv ie w e d
b e ca u s e they w e re in m ilit a r y s e r v i c e in d i­
ca te s that e n lis tm e n t o ffe r e d an a c c e p ta b le
a lte rn a tiv e to continuing in s c h o o l o r g ettin g
a jo b . The p r o p o r tio n o f o u tm ig ra n t boy
d ro p o u ts who le ft th e ir h o m e co m m u n itie s
to e n ter the s e r v i c e , as r e p o r t e d by th e ir
fa m ilie s o r fr ie n d s , g iv e s fu r th e r in d ica tio n
o f this c h o ic e . In the v a r io u s a r e a s , f r o m
39 to 82 p e r c e n t o f a ll the o u tm ig ra n t boy
d rop ou ts w h ose c u r r e n t a c tiv ity w as know n
w e re in m ilita r y s e r v i c e at the tim e o f the
in te r v ie w s . (See table 13.) In the a b s e n c e
o f d ir e c t con ta ct w ith the b oy s th e m s e lv e s ,
h o w e v e r , it is d iffic u lt to sa y to what exten t
they d rop p ed out of s c h o o l b e c a u s e they
intended to e n lis t o r w h eth er a su bsequ en t
d e c is io n to e n lis t w as r e a c h e d w hen they
found that su itable c iv ilia n e m p lo y m e n t
w as d iffic u lt to ob ta in .

M ilita r y S e r v i c e . - - I t is v e r y d iffic u lt to
get a co m p le te s t o r y f r o m the s u r v e y s on
how m u ch d ro p p in g out w as a ttrib u ta b le to
v o lu n ta ry e n lis tm e n t in the A r m e d F o r c e s .
S c h o o l r e c o r d s t e ll so m e th in g . O v e r a ll, th ey
in d ica te that o n ly 14 p e r c e n t o f the b o y s le ft
f o r th is r e a s o n - - r a n g in g f r o m le s s than 10
p e r c e n t in t h r e e a r e a s to about o n e -fo u r th
in tw o o t h e r s . A g e , o f c o u r s e , w as a fa c t o r
h e r e s in c e the lo w e s t e n lis tm e n t a g e , f o r
a ll the s e r v i c e s , is 17 y e a r s and S e le c tiv e
S e r v ic e p o lic y f o r s o m e y e a r s h as b een
a u to m a tic a lly to d e fe r b o y s in h igh s c h o o l
until they r e a c h age 2 0 .
C o m p a r is o n o f the in te r v ie w data w ith the
s c h o o l r e c o r d s h a s little v a lid ity , sin ce
on ly th o se b o y s w ho had co m p le te d th e ir
m ilit a r y s e r v i c e and had r e tu rn e d to th e ir
hom e c o m m u n itie s co u ld have b e e n in t e r ­
v ie w e d .1 T h e in te r v ie w data, t h e r e fo r e ,
7
a r e in e v ita b ly an u n d e rsta te m e n t on th is
p oin t. O f a ll the in te r v ie w e d g ro u p , on ly
6 p e r c e n t gave m ilit a r y s e r v i c e a s th e ir
r e a s o n f o r h a vin g le ft s c h o o l. A m o n g th o se
who le ft s c h o o l at age 16, o n ly 3 p e r c e n t
gave th is a s th e ir r e a s o n , c o m p a r e d with 8
p e r c e n t o f both the 1 7 - and 18- y e a r - o l d s
and 11 p e r c e n t o f th o se 20 o r o v e r . T he
g ra d e c o m p le tio n p a ttern c o n fo r m s w ith the
age p a tte rn , ra n g in g ste a d ily u pw ard f r o m

H ealth. - - P o o r health w as a c o m p a r a tiv e ly
m in o r r e a s o n f o r le a v in g s c h o o l. A c c o r d in g
to the s c h o o l r e c o r d s , 5 p e r c e n t le ft f o r th is
r e a s o n and a c c o r d in g to the d ro p o u ts th e m ­
s e lv e s , 6 p e r c e n t o v e r a ll, but in one a r e a
as m any as 10 p e r c e n t gave th is as th e ir
r e a s o n . A lthough in m o s t a r e a s m o r e g ir ls
than b oy s gave th is ex p la n a tion , the p r o p o r ­
tion fo r both s e x e s w as h igh f o r an age
g ro u p as young as th is .

TRAINING FOR W ORK WHILE IN SCHOOL
V o c a tio n a l E d u c a tio n . --H o w m u ch v o c a tio n a l p r e p a r a tio n did the s c h o o l le a v e r s
have w hen they te r m in a te d th e ir s c h o o lin g ?
The le v e l o f th e ir g e n e r a l e d u ca tio n (h igh est
g ra d e c o m p le t e d ) has a lr e a d y b e e n d i s ­
cu ssed .
T h is, h o w e v e r , is not the w h ole
s to r y . A s p a rt o f th e ir high s c h o o l t r a in ­
ing, m a n y b o y s had taken v o c a t io n -r e la t e d
c o u r s e s su ch a s m a ch in e sh op, m e t a lw o r k ­
ing, w e ld in g , w o o d w o r k in g , g e n e r a l shop,
m e c h a n ic a l d ra w in g , p rin tin g , and auto m e ­
ch a n ic s ; g ir l s to o k c o m m e r c ia l c o u r s e s su ch
as typin g, ste n o g ra p h y , and b ook k eep in g.1
8

In the six a re a s f o r w h ich th is in fo r m a ­
tion w as a v a ila b le , a lm o s t a ll g ra d u a te s w ho
did not g o on to c o lle g e had taken at le a s t
one v o c a tio n a l c o u r s e - - f r o m 92 p e r c e n t in
one a r e a to 100 p e r c e n t in th re e oth ers,
(See t a b l e D - 6 ( a ) , ( b ) , ( c ) . ) The b oy g r a d ­
uates w ho had taken su ch c o u r s e s ra n g ed
fr o m 84 to 100 p e r c e n t, and the g i r l g r a d u ­
ates ra n g ed fr o m 93 to 100 p e r c e n t. L e s s ­
e r p r o p o r tio n s , h o w e v e r , had had m o r e than
a m e r e in tro d u ctio n to v o c a tio n a l e d u c a ­
tion .
In one a r e a on ly 1 p e r c e n t of the
boy g ra d u a tes w ho had taken in d u s tria l
c o u r s e s had c o m p le te d fo u r o r m o r e su ch

1
7

18B e ca u s e of d iffic u ltie s o f c l a s s i f y i n g c o u r s e s , v o c a t io n a l ed u ­
ca tio n as u se d here in clu d e s c o u r s e s in trade and in d u stria l ed u ­
ca tio n and in d ustrial a rts.

F o llo w u p for p e rs o n a l in te rv ie w w a s c o n fin e d to the area sur­
v e y e d . Inform ation on w h eth er a b oy w a s cu rrently in th e s e r v ic e
w a s ob ta in e d from parents or n e ig h b o rs .




-

22

-

c o u r s e s w h ile in a n oth er a r e a , at the o th e r
e x t r e m e , 88 p e r c e n t o f the boy g ra d u a tes
with any v o c a tio n a l ed u ca tion had taken
fo u r o r m o r e su ch c o u r s e s . F o r a ll a r e a s
co m b in e d , the p r o p o r t io n w as 71 p e r c e n t,
w h ich eq u a ls t h r e e -fift h s o f a ll the boy
g ra d u a te s. O f the g ir l g ra d u a tes who had
co m p le te d c o m m e r c ia l c o u r s e s , th ose c o m ­
p le tin g fo u r o r m o r e c o u r s e s ra n g ed fr o m
11 p e r c e n t in one a r e a to 87 p e r c e n t in
a n o th e r, o r 70 p e r c e n t f o r a ll a r e a s c o m ­
b in ed . T h is is tw o -t h ir d s o f a ll the g ir l
g ra d u a te s.
T he d ro p o u ts had taken fe w e r v o c a tio n a l
c o u r s e s than the g ra d u a te s. T h is is not
s u r p r is in g , sin c e v o c a tio n a l c o u r s e s a re
g iv en m o s t often in the la t e r g r a d e s w h ich
w e re n e v e r r e a c h e d by the e a r ly d r o p o u ts .
The p r o p o r t io n o f d r o p o u ts , both s e x e s c o m ­
bin ed, w ho had c o m p le te d at le a s t one v o c a ­
tion a l c o u r s e ra n g e d f r o m 54 to 88 p e r c e n t,
the boy d r o p o u ts ra n g in g fr o m 54 to 91 p e r ­
cen t and the g ir l d r o p o u ts f r o m 50 to 83 p e r ­
ce n t. H o w e v e r , th o se w ith m o r e su b stan tial
tra in in g w e r e r a r e r than am ong the g r a d ­
u a te s. O f the b oy d ro p o u ts who had taken
in d u s tr ia l c o u r s e s , the p r o p o r tio n w ho
had c o m p le te d fo u r o r m o r e su ch c o u r s e s
ran ged f r o m 4 p e r c e n t in one a r e a to 51
p e r c e n t in a n o th e r. F o r a ll a r e a s c o m ­
b in ed , th is w as 28 p e r c e n t, o r l e s s than a
fifth o f a ll b oy d r o p o u ts . The g ir l d rop ou ts
c o m p le tin g fo u r
or
m ore
c o m m e r c ia l
c o u r s e s ra n g e d fr o m 6 to 54 p e r c e n t o f th ose
w ith su ch c o u r s e s , o r l e s s than a th ird fo r
a ll a r e a s c o m b in e d . T h is co n stitu te s about
15 p e r c e n t o f the g ro u p as a w h o le .
E v id e n tly , the a v a ila b ility o f v o c a tio n a l
c o u r s e s and th e ir “ r e q u ir e d ” status v a r ie d
w id e ly in the d iffe r e n t s c h o o l s y s te m s s u r ­
v e y e d . F o r th o se s c h o o l le a v e r s in the
sa m p le who w e r e d ir e c t ly in te rv ie w e d , som e
in fo rm a tio n on the a v a ila b ility o f v o c a tio n a l
c o u r s e s w a s fo r t h c o m in g , a r is in g out o f the
q u e stio n , “ H ow co u ld s c h o o l h ave b een m o r e
u s e fu l to y o u ? ” A lth ou gh on ly sm a ll p r o ­
p o r tio n s o f stu den ts re sp o n d e d to th is q u e s ­
tion (abou t 40 p e r c e n t o f the gra du a tes and
30 p e r c e n t o f the d r o p o u ts ), a fo u rth o f the




boy d ro p o u ts w ho had an o p in io n and slig h tly
m o r e am on g the g ir l g ra d u a tes said th ey
w o u l d have lik e d m o r e in d u s tria l and
c o m m e r c ia l
c o u r s e s . O nly in s ig n ifica n t
p r o p o r tio n s o f the boy g ra d u a tes and g ir l
d ro p o u ts m ade any co m m e n t on this p o in t.
V o c a tio n a l C o u n s e lin g .- - V o c a t i o n a l g u id ­
an ce and co u n se lin g p r o g r a m s as w e ll as
v o c a tio n a l ed u ca tion c o u r s e s p lay an im ­
p orta n t p a rt in a stu d en t’ s p r e p a r a tio n f o r
ea rn in g a liv in g . In v ie w o f th is , the p e r ­
cen ta g e o f th o se w ho r e p o r te d having had
v o c a tio n a l gu id a n ce o r co u n se lin g is o f
in te r e s t. T h e lo w e r p r o p o r tio n o f d ro p o u ts
who had b een co u n s e le d w as p ro b a b ly due
to the fa c t that m any o f th em did not stay
in s c h o o l lon g enough to r e a c h the g ra d e
le v e l w h ere co u n se lin g p r o g r a m s w e r e
a v a ila b le .
When a sk ed how s c h o o l cou ld h ave been
m o r e u se fu l, n e a r ly a fo u rth o f the boy
g ra d u a tes who e x p r e s s e d an op in ion su g ­
g e ste d m o r e v o c a tio n a l c o u n s e lin g , and in
tw o a r e a s both boy and g ir l d ro p o u ts m e n ­
tion ed that v o c a tio n a l co u n s e lin g w ould have
been h e lp fu l. It is not p o s s ib le to t e ll f r o m
the in te r v ie w q u e s tio n n a ir e s w h eth er the
s c h o o l l e a v e r s who m en tion ed a gu id an ce
p r o g r a m had r e c e iv e d little v o c a tio n a l c o u n ­
se lin g o r w h e th e r, having had s o m e , th ey
wanted m o r e . T he n u m b er o f s c h o o l le a v e r s
in te r v ie w e d and p e r c e n t who r e p o r te d h avin g
v o c a tio n a l co u n s e lin g is show n in the f o l l o w ­
ing tabu lation :
G ra d u a te s

D rop ou ts

A rea1
N u m b er
A ........
B ........
C ........
D ........
E ........

4 26
302
343
270
482

P e r c e n t N u m b er
63
54
54
49
70

272
235
245
140
196

P ercen t
27
31
26
24
42

^-Data on v o c a tio n a l co u n se lin g not a v a il­
a b le f o r 2 a r e a s .

- 23 -

CHAPTER III. WORK EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL LEAVERS
W O R K EXPE R IE N CE W HILE IN SCHOOL
M any s c h o o l le a v e r s had w o r k e d in g a in ­
fu l e m p lo y m e n t w h ile s t ill in s c h o o l , e ith e r
d u r in g s u m m e r v a c a tio n s o r d u rin g the
s c h o o l y e a r - - a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s o r on
w e e k e n d s . M u ch h i g h e r p r o p o r t io n s o f
g r a d u a te s than o f d r o p o u ts r e p o r t e d su ch
w o r k e x p e r i e n c e - -7 0 p e r c e n t c o m p a r e d w ith
40 p e r c e n t . G ra d u a te s w e r e g e n e r a lly o l d e r
d u rin g th e ir s c h o o l y e a r s than d r o p o u ts and
t h e r e f o r e w e r e m o r e e lig ib le f o r w o r k in
t e r m s o f a g e . A p p r o x im a t e ly 90 p e r c e n t o f
th e m w e r e 18 o r o v e r w h en th ey c o m p le t e d
h ig h s c h o o l , c o n t r a s t e d w ith o n ly 28 p e r c e n t
o f the d r o p o u ts w h o w e r e 18 o r o v e r w h en
th ey le f t .
B o y s , both g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u t s , r e ­
p o r t e d w o r k e x p e r ie n c e m o r e fr e q u e n tly
than d id g i r l s . T h e p r o p o r t io n o f b oy
g ra d u a te s w ho had w o r k e d ra n g e d f r o m 45
p e r c e n t in on e a r e a to 86 p e r c e n t in th r e e
o t h e r s , c o m p a r e d w ith 35 to 79 p e r c e n t
o f the g i r l g r a d u a t e s . T h e p r o p o r t io n o f boy
d r o p o u ts w ho w o r k e d ra n g e d f r o m 27 to 69
p e r c e n t , and o f th e g i r l d r o p o u ts f r o m 18 to
42 p e r c e n t . (S e e ta b le D - 7 .) M o st r e p o r t e d
that t h e ir jo b s w h ile in s c h o o l had la s te d
at le a s t a m o n th . No in fo r m a t io n w a s
c o l le c t e d on h ow th e s e jo b s w e r e o b ta in e d ,
w h e th e r by in d iv id u a l in itia tiv e , th ro u g h the
p u b lic e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e , o r th ro u g h the
s c h o o l ’ s v o c a t io n a l o r p la c e m e n t p r o g r a m s .
In a ll a r e a s , b oth g r a d u a te s and d r o p o u ts
h eld a b ou t the s a m e ty p e s o f jo b s w h ile
th ey w e r e s t ill in s c h o o l . A ll s u c h jo b s
n e c e s s a r i l y had to be ada pted to p a r t - t i m e
s c h e d u le s - -w o r k d u rin g s u m m e r m o n th s , o r
a ft e r s c h o o l h o u r s , o r on w e e k e n d s . T h e
b o y s u s u a lly w o r k e d at c o m m o n la b o r jo b s ,
a s s a le s c l e r k s , at fillin g s ta t io n s , and in
on e a r e a , in a g r ic u lt u r e . T h e g i r l s m o s t

c o m m o n ly h eld s a l e s c l e r k and w a it r e s s
jo b s w h ile th ey w e r e s t i l l in s c h o o l , i r r e ­
s p e c t iv e o f w h eth er th ey b e c a m e g ra d u a te s
o r d r o p o u ts .
In tw o a r e a s , f o r m a l s c h o o l - w o r k p r o ­
g r a m s w e r e in o p e r a t io n . T h e s e p r o g r a m s
c o v e r e d t r a d e s , in d u s tr y , o f f i c e tra in in g
p r a c t i c e , and m e r c h a n d is in g and d i s t r i b u ­
tiv e e d u ca tio n ( r e t a il s a l e s ) . In on e o f th e s e
a r e a s , s ix c o o r d in a t o r s and on e s u p e r v is o r
and in the s e c o n d and s m a l l e r a r e a , th r e e
c o o r d in a t o r s w e r e o p e r a tin g the p r o g r a m s .
O f a ll the g ra d u a te s in t h e s e tw o a r e a s w ho
w o r k e d w h ile in s c h o o l, 200 ( o r m o r e than
40 p e r c e n t ), w o rk e d in th e s e c o o p e r a t iv e
p r o g r a m s . S in ce , w ith fe w e x c e p t io n s , th e s e
p r o g r a m s w e r e o p en o n ly to s e n i o r s , th ey
had lit t le e ffe c t on the w o r k e x p e r ie n c e o f
d r o p o u ts .
A lth ou gh w o r k e x p e r ie n c e is g e n e r a lly
c o n s id e r e d im p o rta n t and c o n s t r u c t iv e in
the g r o w in g -u p p r o c e s s , m an y o f the stu d en ts
w ho had w o rk e d w h ile in s c h o o l w e r e n e g a ­
t iv e abou t the v a lu e o f t h e ir w o r k e x p e r ie n c e .
A b ou t t h r e e -fift h s o f both the b oy g ra d u a te s
and the boy d ro p o u ts w ho had w o r k e d , and
o v e r h a lf o f both the g i r l g ra d u a te s and g i r l
d r o p o u ts fe lt , f o r e x a m p le , that th e ir w o r k
e x p e r ie n c e had not h e lp e d th e m in fin d in g
jo b s a fte r le a v in g s c h o o l . (S e e ta b le 9 .)
W ith r e s p e c t to e a r n in g s , o v e r (60 p e r c e n t )
o f both b oy g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u ts , 72
p e r c e n t o f the g i r l g r a d u a te s , and 55 p e r ­
ce n t o f the g i r l d r o p o u ts sa id that th e ir
e a rn in g s w e r e not an im p o rta n t fa c t o r in
en a b lin g th em to sta y in s c h o o l . F a m ily
p r id e m a y h ave c a u s e d stu d en ts to be r e ­
lu cta n t to sa y th ey “ h a d ” to w o r k . O r
p e rh a p s th e ir r e s p o n s e s m a y be a n o th e r
in d ica tio n that e c o n o m ic p r e s s u r e w a s not
fe lt by m o s t s c h o o l l e a v e r s .

F A M IL Y STATUS A T TIM E OF INTERVIEW
O ne o f th e c o m m o n ly o b s e r v e d s o c i a l
p h e n o m e n a o f th e p o s tw a r y e a r s h as b e e n
th e r a p id ly s t e p p e d -u p m a r r ia g e r a te o f
you n g p e o p le . In 1957, m o r e g i r l s w e r e
m a r r y in g at
18 and m o r e b o y s at 21 than
at an y o th e r
s in g le y e a r o f a g e . In v ie w o f
th is g e n e r a l situ a tio n , the ex ten t to w h ich
you n g p e o p le
in th e c o m m u n it ie s s u r v e y e d




w e r e a ss u m in g r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r f a m ilie s
o f th e ir ow n is o f in t e r e s t ,
On the b a s is o f in te r v ie w s w ith s c h o o l
le a v e r s o r th e ir fa m ilie s
in s ix a r e a s ,
it is
c l e a r that th e s e young p e o p le a s a
g r o u p sh ou ld not be lo o k e d u pon a s ju v e n i le s .
W ithin a fe w y e a r s a ft e r le a v in g

- 24 -

TABLE 9.— Opinions of graduates and dropouts on value of work experience and earnings
while in school, all areas, by sex

All areas

Number reporting
on value of
work experience or
value of earnings

Those reporting work experience or
earnings not helpful
Number

Percent

Work experience:
Graduates----- ---- -----Male-------------------Female------------------

1 1,544
570
974

824
332
492

53
58
51

Dropouts-----------------Male-------------------Female----- ------------

1 601
340
261

345
204
141

57
60
54

Earnings:
Graduates— --------------Male------- -----------Female-------------- ---

2 1,546
572
974

1,050
350
700

68
61
72

Dropouts-----------------Male-------------------Female------------------

2 603
342
261

363
219
144

60
64
55

1 Excludes 68 graduates and 21 dropouts who did not report whether or not work expertence helped in getting a job later.
2 Excludes 66 graduates and 19 dropouts who did not report whether or not earnings
helped them to stay in school.
s c h o o l, t w o -fift h s o f b oth g r a d u a te s and
d ro p o u ts had m a r r i e d . (T h e a r e a in w h ich
a ll th e s c h o o l l e a v e r s w e r e in t e r v ie w e d
o n ly 1 y e a r a ft e r te r m in a tin g th e ir s c h o o l ­
ing w a s o m itte d f r o m th is ta b u la tio n .) H alf
o f the m a r r ie d g r a d u a te s and o v e r t w o th ir d s o f the m a r r ie d d r o p o u ts had c h ild r e n .
(S ee ta b le s 10, D -8 ( a ) , and D -8 (b ).)
M uch h ig h e r p r o p o r t io n s o f the g ir l s
than o f the b o y s had m a r r ie d by th e tim e
o f in t e r v ie w . H a lf th e g i r l g r a d u a te s w e r e
m a r r ie d , and o v e r h a lf o f t h e s e had c h ild r e n ;
t w o -t h ir d s o f the g i r l d r o p o u t s w e r e
m a r r ie d , and n e a r ly t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f th e s e
had c h ild r e n . A b ou t 30 p e r c e n t o f the

m a r r i e d g i r l d r o p o u ts had tw o o r m o r e
c h ild r e n , c o m p a r e d w ith on ly 12 p e r c e n t
o f the m a r r ie d g i r l g r a d u a te s . If th e s e g i r l
d r o p o u ts fo llo w , in th e ir m a tu r ity , the r e c e n t
la b o r f o r c e b e h a v io r o f the m a r r ie d fe m a le
p o p u la tio n in g e n e r a l, th ey w ill p r o b a b ly be
se e k in g jo b s in th e ir t h ir t ie s , a ft e r th e ir
y o u n g e s t c h ild r e n a r e in s c h o o l . It w ill be
at the tim e o f a ttem p ted e n try in to the la b o r
f o r c e that th e ir in a d eq u a te s c h o o lin g and
la c k o f w o r k s k ills w ill b e c o m e m o r e
s h a r p ly a p p a re n t, and p r e s u m a b ly , i f c u r ­
re n t data on the r e la tio n s h ip b e tw een e d u ­
c a tio n and e m p lo y m e n t p r o s p e c t s a c c u r a t e ly
r e f l e c t the fu tu re , w ill p r e v e n t th e ir g ettin g
any but u n s k ille d jo b s .

LABOR FORCE EXPE R IE N CE A F T E R LEAVING SCHOOL
T h e m o s t s ig n ific a n t q u e s tio n s in the
s u r v e y , in t e r m s o f m a n p o w e r u tiliz a tio n ,
r e la t e to the d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s and s ta b ility
a c h ie v e d by s c h o o l l e a v e r s in th e la b o r
m a r k e t a ft e r th ey le ft s c h o o l. H ow m any o f
the s c h o o l le a v e r s e n te r e d the la b o r f o r c e ;
did th ey s ta r t lo o k in g f o r w o r k p r o m p tly
a fte r le a v in g s c h o o l; w hat m e th o d s did th ey




u s e in tr y in g ; how lon g did it tak e th em to
g et th e ir f i r s t jo b s ; what w e r e th e s e f i r s t
j o b s ? D id th ey g et b e tte r jo b s l a t e r ? W hat
d id th ey e a r n ? How m u ch u n e m p lo y m e n t did
th ey e x p e r i e n c e ?
P r o p o r t io n s E n te rin g th e L a b o r F o r c e . - A lm o s t a ll m a le s c h o o l l e a v e r s , both

- 25 -

TABLE 10.— Marital and parental status of graduates and dropouts at time of interview,
six areas, by sex
(Percentage distribution)
Total graduates and
dropouts1

Parental status

Marital status

School leavers
Number

Percent

Graduates--------Male------------

3 2,720
1,117

100
100

60
76

Female----------

1,603

100

49

Dropouts----- ----Male------------

3 1,888
1,058

100
100

59
79

F e m a l e -------- -

830

100

34

Single

Percent
with
children

Number
married

Married2

40
24
Range, 12-33
51
Range, 38-57
41
21
Range, 13-29
66
Range, 45-77

1,079
270
809
770
222
54-8

51
50
Range, 31-90
52
Range, 36-81
68
56
Range, 31-71
73
Range, 65-92

1 Corresponding data for those reporting status in the 7th area, which covered only 1
year after leaving school: Boy graduates, 112, 3 percent married; girl graduates, 173, 12
percent married; boy dropouts, 245, 2 percent married; girl dropouts, 193, 18 percent
married. Of the 56 married girls, 17 had 1 child. No reports, 126.
2 Includes 1 percent or less in each area who were widowed, divorced, or separated.
3 Total includes both outmigrants and nonmigrants except for areas C and D where data
for outmigrants were not reported (416 graduates and 222 dropouts). Total also excludes
89 graduates and 127 dropouts for whom marital status was not reported in the other 4
areas.
g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u t s , w ho w e r e d i r e c t l y
in te r v ie w e d w e r e o r had b e e n in th e c iv ilia n
la b o r f o r c e 1 at s o m e t im e a ft e r le a v in g
9
s c h o o l (95 p e r c e n t o f the b o y g r a d u a te s

and 91 p e r c e n t o f the b o y d r o p o u t s ). (S ee
ta b le D - 9 .) T h e p r o p o r t io n o f fe m a le g r a d ­
u a tes e v e r in the l a b o r f o r c e w a s s lig h tly
lo w e r than that o f the m a le s , but a m on g
fe m a le d r o p o u ts , the p r o p o r t io n e n te rin g the
la b o r f o r c e w a s o n ly 70 p e r c e n t . T h e f o l ­
lo w in g ta b u la tio n sh ow s the la b o r f o r c e
p a r t ic ip a t io n o f g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u ts
a ft e r le a v in g s c h o o l.

is Labor force participants include those whoever looked for
a job as well as those who found jobs. A regular job was defined
for the purposes of this study as one which lasted a month or
longer, full or part time.

Dropouts

Graduates

Per­
cent

Number

Per­
cent

772
737

100
95

1,54-3
1,411

100
91

783
712

8
35

1
5

16
132

1
9

39
71

Number
Total interviewed------In labor force-------Looked for but never
found regular jobs1Never in labor force-

Percent based on number in labor force.




- 26 -

Female

Male

Female

Male

Number

Number

Per
cen

100
91

826
576

100
70

5
9

42
250

7
30

Per­
cent

the p r o p o r t io n w ho found jo b s in a s h o r t
tim e m igh t h ave b e e n d iffe r e n t . F r o m
in te r v ie w s w ith r e la t iv e s o f the ou tm ig ra n ts
it w a s found that su b s ta n tia l p r o p o r t io n s
o f the ou tm ig r a n t s - - n e a r l y h a lf o f th e
g ra d u a te s and l a r g e r p r o p o r t io n s o f the
d r o p o u t s --h a d not had a r e g u la r jo b b e fo r e
le a v in g h o m e . (S ee ta b le 13.) T h is m e a n s
that th e ir o u tm ig r a tio n p r o b a b ly did not
c r e a t e m an y jo b v a c a n c ie s , and had th ey
r e m a in e d in th e ir h o m e c o m m u n itie s th e r e
w ou ld h a v e been m u ch m o r e c o m p e titio n
f o r e x is tin g jo b s and co n s e q u e n tly m o r e
d iffic u lty f o r the s c h o o l le a v e r s a s a g ro u p
to g et jo b s s o o n a fte r sta rtin g to lo o k .

T h e g r e a t m a jo r it y o f a ll s c h o o l le a v e r s
w ho e n te r e d the la b o r f o r c e sta r te d to
lo o k f o r jo b s w ith in a m on th a ft e r le a v in g
s c h o o l . A ll g r o u p s w e r e abou t e q u a lly
p r o m p t e x c e p t the g i r l d r o p o u ts w ho w e r e
s u b s ta n tia lly s l o w e r , (S ee ta b le 11.)
In the fiv e a r e a s f o r w h ic h th e s e data
w e r e a v a ila b le , o v e r h a lf o f both the boy
and g i r l g r a d u a te s fou n d t h e ir f i r s t jo b s
a fte r l e s s than a w e e k 's s e a r c h , and t h r e e fo u r th s had fou n d jo b s w ith in 3 w e e k s . T h e
d r o p o u ts did not fin d r e g u la r w o r k qu ite as
q u ic k ly . O nly abou t 40 p e r c e n t o f the boy
d r o p o u ts o b ta in e d jo b s w ith in 1 w e e k and 70
p e r c e n t o b ta in e d jo b s w ith in 3 w e e k s . O f
the g i r l d r o p o u ts w ho g ot jo b s , t w o -fift h s
w e r e a ls o s u c c e s s f u l in the f i r s t w e e k , and
t h r e e -fo u r t h s got jo b s w ith in 3 w e e k s . Only
s m a ll p r o p o r t io n s o f any o f the s c h o o l l e a v e r g r o u p s w e r e lo o k in g f o r w o r k a h a lf
y e a r o r l o n g e r . (S e e ta b le 1 2.) T h e r e p o r t e d
p r o m p t n e s s w ith w h ich m o s t s c h o o l l e a v e r s
found th e ir f i r s t jo b s a ft e r sta rtin g to lo o k
m ig h t s u g g e s t that jo b s w e r e p le n tifu l in
s p ite o f the fa c t that m o s t o f the a r e a s
stu d ied w e r e know n to h a v e la b o r s u r p lu s e s
d u rin g th is p e r io d . On th e o th e r hand, th is
q u ick “ s u c c e s s " in the jo b hunt m a y r e f l e c t
on e a s p e c t o f the b e h a v io r o f in e x p e r ie n c e d
e a r n e r s ju s t e n te r in g the la b o r f o r c e , s in c e
th ey m a y n ot h a v e c o n s id e r e d t h e m s e lv e s
a s “ l o o k i n g " f o r w o r k u n til th ey h e a r d that
s o m e f i r m w a s h ir in g .

S om e d e ta ile d fig u r e s w ill illu s t r a t e th is
p o in t. F o r t y -e ig h t p e r c e n t o f a ll b oy g r a d ­
u a te s had le ft th e ir h o m e a r e a s by the d ate
o f in t e r v ie w . O f t h o s e w h o s e p r e v io u s w o r k
e x p e r ie n c e w a s know n, f r o m 27 to 65 p e r ­
ce n t had n e v e r b een r e g u la r ly e m p lo y e d in
the a r e a s f r o m w h ich th ey had m ig r a t e d .
M ost o f the o u tm ig ra n t g ra d u a te s w h o s e
r e a s o n s f o r le a v in g h o m e w e r e know n had
le ft to e n te r m ilit a r y s e r v i c e ( f r o m 68 to
94 p e r c e n t in the v a r io u s a r e a s ) . A b ou t h a lf
o f the boy d r o p o u ts a ls o w e r e o u tm ig r a n ts .
O f t h e s e , 18 to 71 p e r c e n t in the v a r io u s
a r e a s had n e v e r w o r k e d , and f r o m 39 to 82
p e r c e n t w ent in to m ilit a r y s e r v i c e .
L o w e r p r o p o r t io n s o f g i r l s than o f b o y s
had le ft th e ir h o m e c o m m u n it ie s . T h e ir
p r in c ip a l
r e a s o n s f o r le a v in g w e r e to
a c c o m p a n y th e ir h u sb a n d s o r t h e ir p a r e n ts .
L e s s w a s know n in t h e ir h o m e c o m m u n it ie s

If the s c h o o l l e a v e r s w ho had le ft th e ir
h o m e a r e a s c o u ld h a v e b e e n in t e r v ie w e d ,

TABLE 11.— Number of weeks elapsing after leaving school* before graduates and dropouts
started to look for a regular job* all areas* by sex
Graduates
Number of weeks between
leaving school and beginning of job search

Male

Dropouts

Female

Male

Female

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Total who looked for work1------

711

100

1,381

100

696

100

555

100

Less than 4 weeks--- -----------

599

84

1*130

82

588

84

337

70

4-9 weeks-----------------------

57

8

123

9

33

5

58

10

10 or more weeks— --------------

55

8

128

9

75

11

110

20

1 Does not include 26 boy and 30 girl graduates* and 16 boy and 21 girl dropouts for
whom this information was not reported.
562565 0

-

60 - 5




- 27 -

TABLE 12.--Number of weeks it took graduates and dropouts to find first regular job, five areas, by sex
(Percentage distribution)
Total graduates
and dropouts

Number of weeks to find first regular job

Area and sex
Nunber

Percent

All areas:1
Male graduates-Female graduatesMale dropouts--Female dropouts—

538
1,042
498
429

100
100
100
100

Area A:
Male graduates-—
Female graduatesMale dropouts--Female dropouts—

167
232
101
104

Area B:
Male graduates-Female graduatesMale dropouts--Female dropouts—

Less
than 1

10-13

14-26

1-3

4-9

51
52
39
41

23
25
31
36

13
12
12
11

4
4
5
3

2
2
5
2

100
100
100
100

60
55
42
33

19
21
28
39

12
12
13
8

3
7
3
6

2
3
6
2

101
163
81
54

100
100
100
100

35
29
27
32

22
33
25
33

9
14
19
11

4
4
7

3
3
4
7

Area E:
Male graduates-Female graduatesMale dropouts--Female dropouts—

138
322
86
70

100
100
100
100

48
54
47
33

31
30
36
52

13
13
9
10

4
1
5
4

1
2
2

Area F:
Male graduates-—
Female graduatesMale dropouts--Female dropouts—

76
180
57
52

100
100
100
100

54
48
36
54

10
17
14
17

17
14
12
11

8
9
11
2

Area G:
Male graduates-—
Female graduatesMale dropouts--Female dropouts—

56
145
173
149

100
100
100
100

54
73
38
47

32
21
39
34

12
4
10
13

2
1
4
2

27-52

—

1
1
3
2

2

1
2
2
6

1
4

5
3
3
2

1
—

5
2

1
2
5
2

2
6

1
—

1
1

—

—

—

—

—

3
3
11
4

—

4
4
5
8

—

3
1

26
15
11
9

—

2
—

4
5
11
4

4
1

No
report

1
1
2
3

—

—

—

More
than 52

1
—

—
—
—

1
1
2

1 Data for areas C and D were not available.

abou t t h e ir p r e v io u s w o r k e x p e r ie n c e than
abou t that o f th e b o y s , but a g a in the a v a i l ­
a b le data in d ic a te that su b s ta n tia l p r o p o r ­
tio n s , e s p e c ia l l y a m on g th e d r o p o u t s , had
n ot w o r k e d b e f o r e le a v in g .
E n try J o b s .- - I n f o r m a t i o n on the e n try
jo b s o f the you n g p e o p le w ho r e m a in e d in
th e ir h o m e c o m m u n it ie s w a s o b ta in e d by
d i r e c t in t e r v ie w w ith th e m . (S e e t a b le s 14
and D - 1 0 .) A m o n g th o se w ho e v e r w o r k e d ,
o n e - t h ir d o f the b oy g ra d u a te s and a lit t le
m o r e than a fo u r th o f the b oy d r o p o u ts w e r e
s u c c e s s f u l in o b ta in in g , as th e ir f i r s t r e g u ­
la r e m p lo y m e n t, jo b s w h ic h r e q u ir e d s k ille d
o r s e m is k ille d w o r k e r s . T h e s e jo b s w e r e
t y p ic a lly th o s e o f o p e r a t iv e s in f a c t o r i e s o r
r e p a ir m e n in auto r e p a ir s h o p s , and o f
d r i v e r s o f d e liv e r y t r u c k s . O nly a fo u rth
o f the b o y g r a d u a te s w e r e f i r s t e m p lo y e d
a s u n s k ille d w o r k e r s w h ile n e a r ly t w o fifth s o f the d r o p o u ts w e r e so e m p lo y e d .
T h e u n s k ille d w o r k e r s in c lu d e d th o s e in
o c c u p a t io n s su ch a s cle a n u p m e n in f a c t o r i e s




and a s c o m m o n l a b o r e r s in n o n m a n u fa ctu r in g . T r a d e jo b s in clu d in g th o s e o f r e t a il
c l e r k s and s t o c k c l e r k s w e r e h e ld by n e a r ly
a fifth o f the b oy g r a d u a te s , but by o n ly a
lit t le m o r e than a ten th o f the b o y d r o p ­
o u ts . T h e ty p e o f jo b o b ta in e d r e f le c t e d the
d if f e r e n c e s in the la b o r m a r k e t o p p o r t u n i­
t ie s o f the v a r io u s a r e a s a s w e ll a s the
s k ills o f the young s c h o o l l e a v e r s .
F o r m o s t o f the g i r l s , g ra d u a tio n m ea n t
the o p p o rtu n ity f o r o f f i c e w o r k . E n try jo b s
o f th r e e ou t o f fiv e g i r l g r a d u a te s w ho
w e r e e v e r e m p lo y e d w e r e o f th is ty p e , c o m ­
p a r e d w ith o n ly 1 in 10 o f the e v e r - e m p l o y e d
g i r l d ro p o u ts * T h is r e f l e c t s the e f f e c t i v e ­
n e s s o f th e v o c a t io n a l tra in in g that w as
g e n e r a lly ta k en by the g i r l s w ho c o m p le t e d
4 y e a r s o f h igh s c h o o l . In c o n t r a s t , o v e r
o n e -fo u r t h o f the g i r l d r o p o u ts w ho e v e r
w o r k e d had e n try jo b s in s e r v i c e o c c u p a ­
t io n s , u s u a lly a s w a i t r e s s e s , c o m p a r e d
w ith l e s s than 10 p e r c e n t o f the g i r l g r a d ­
u a te s ; a lm o s t a n o th e r 30 p e r c e n t o f the

- 28 -

TABLE 13.— Outmigrants, selected data, all areas, by sex
Area

All
areas

Outmigrants

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Number:
Male graduates------ Male dropouts-------Female graduates----Female dropouts------

718
736
522
392

160
1<45
68
99

68
137
33
46

107
62
142
33

78
<8
4
82
54

91
107
40
26

128
137
92
61

86
100
45
53

Percent of outmigrants
to all school leavers:
Male graduates------Male dropouts--- ---Female graduates--- —
Female dropouts----- -

<8
4
<8
4
25
32

<8
4
56
21
38

38
33
22
27

47
31
39
34

<7
4
41
31
43

40
53
10
20

62
67
31
38

59
35
23
24

Percent of outmigrants
who left for military
service:
Male graduates— ----Male dropouts----- — -

80
72

79
76

84
80

85
56

78
39

94
82

74
74

68
66

Percent of outmigrants
with no work experience
before leaving:
Male graduates1--- Male dropouts2------Female graduates3- — ■
Female dropouts4-----

<7
4
54
46
63

44
57
36
70

36
60
49
72

35
18
50
60

45
27
47
58

27
46
18
21

59
71
55
66

65
58
46
47

1
2
3
4

Excludes
Excludes
Excludes
Excludes

13percent
23percent
18percent
38percent

whose previous
whose previous
whose previous
whose previous

work
work
work
work

experience
experience
experience
experience

was
was
was
was

not
not
not
not

known.
known.
known.
known.

TABLE 14.— First regular jobs of graduates and dropouts irrespective of employment status
at time of interview, all areas, by sex
Graduates
Occupational group1

Male
Num­
ber

Dropouts

Female

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Male

Female

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

All areas-- ------ -----

729

100

1,395

100

673

100

534

100

Sales----------------Service occupations-— —
Office work- ---- --Skilled and semiskilled
manufacturing----- —
Skilled and semiskilled
nonmanuf acturing---Unskilled manufacturing
and nonmanufacturingOther--------- -------

124
55
53

17
8
7

247
130
843

18
9
60

79
75
14

12
11
2

124
146
56

23
27
11

127

18

41

3

95

14

11

2

119

16

8

1

86

13

6

1

185
66

25
9

38
88

3
6

259
65

38
10

148
43

28
8

1 For kind of jobs included in each category, see footnote 1, appendix table D-10.




- 29 -

d ro p o u ts w e r e f i r s t r e g u la r ly e m p lo y e d in
o th e r u n sk ille d o c c u p a t io n s , c o m p a r e d w ith
l e s s than 5 p e r c e n t o f the g r a d u a te s .
F o r the b o y s , the r e la tio n s h ip b etw een
th e ir v o c a t io n a l e d u ca tion and the ty p e o f
e n try jo b s th ey got w as le s s c l e a r - c u t and
d e fin ite than f o r the g i r l s . It is no doubt
m o r e d iffic u lt f o r s c h o o ls to tra in b o y s in
the v a r io u s s k ills r e q u ir e d in jo b s op en
to m e n in in d u stry than it is to p r e p a r e
g ir l s f o r o f f i c e w o r k . In on e a r e a , th is
p r o b le m w a s s p e c if ic a lly r e c o g n iz e d in a
co m m u n ity su r v e y o f in d u s tr ia l m a n p o w e r
r e q u ir e m e n ts m a d e at about the sa m e tim e
as the s c h o o l - le a v e r stu d y. In a study t0
p r e p a r e d by the A r iz o n a State E m p lo y m e n t
S e r v ic e in c o o p e r a t io n w ith l o c a l in d u stry ,
it w as r e c o m m e n d e d that a d v is o r y g rou p s
fr o m in d u stry and c i v i c o r g a n iz a tio n s k e e p
the s c h o o ls a b r e a s t o f ch a n g e s in t e c h n ic a l
n ee d s and te c h n iq u e s and that the p h y s ic a l
s c h o o l f a c i li t i e s be expan ded by in sta llin g
m a c h in e -s h o p and e le c t r o n ic eq u ip m en t.
J ob s at D ate o f In te r v ie w . - - A t the date
o f in te r v ie w , the t im e span du rin g w h ich
p o s t - s c h o o l w o r k e x p e r ie n c e co u ld have
b ee n a c q u ir e d m igh t have b e e n a s lit t le as
20Manpower Requirements and Training Needs, Phoenix, Ariz.,
Arizona State Employment Service, 1957. 40 pp.

1 y e a r o r as m u ch a s 4| y e a r s , dep en din g
on w hen an in d ivid u a l had g ra d u a ted o r
d ro p p e d ou t. The o c c u p a tio n a l d is tr ib u tio n ,
t h e r e fo r e , r e fle c t s a fa ir ly w id e ra n g e o f
tim e in w h ich w o rk e x p e r ie n c e co u ld h ave
been a c q u ir e d and it should be ev a lu a ted in
that lig h t.
W hen in te r v ie w e d , a lm o s t h a lf the e m ­
p lo y e d boy g ra d u a tes and m o r e than o n e th ird o f the boy d ro p o u ts w e r e e m p lo y e d
a s s k ille d o r s e m is k ille d w o r k e r s . O n e fifth o f the boy g ra d u a tes w e r e e m p lo y e d
a s s e r v i c e o r u n sk ille d w o r k e r s , c o m p a r e d
w ith t w o -fifth s o f the d r o p o u ts . M o re than
10 p e r c e n t o f the boy g ra d u a te s but u n d er
10 p e r c e n t o f the d ro p o u ts w e r e in s a le s
w o r k . A m on g the g i r l s , o v e r 70 p e r c e n t o f
the g ra d u a tes w e r e e m p lo y e d in o f f i c e w o r k ,
c o m p a r e d w ith 16 p e r c e n t o f the d r o p o u ts ;
7 p e r c e n t o f the g ra d u a tes w e r e s a l e s c l e r k s ,
c o m p a r e d w ith 15 p e r c e n t o f the d r o p o u ts .
(S ee ta b le s 15 and D - l l . )
O f s p e c ia l in te r e s t w ith r e s p e c t to young
w o r k e r s is th e ir ra te o f a d v a n cem en t f r o m
the s k ill and ea rn in g s le v e l o f th e ir f i r s t
r e g u la r jo b to a h ig h e r s k ill and e a rn in g s
l e v e l. One w ay to d e te r m in e th is w ou ld be
to c o m p a r e fi r s t jo b s and jo b s held at a
su bsequ en t point in t i m e - - i n th is c a s e , at
the tim e o f the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s - - f o r

TABLE 15.--Regular jobs of graduates and dropouts employed at time of interview, all
areas, by sex
Graduates
Occupational group1

Male

Dropouts
Female

Male

Female

Num­
ber
All areas— --------- ---Sales--- -------------Service occupations--- Office work-----------Skilled and semiskilled
manufacturing----- Skilled and semiskilled
nonmanufacturing— — —
Unskilled manufacturing
and nonmanufacturing—
Other— ------ — - -— —
-

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

683

100

1,092

100

553

100

320

100

86
13
51

13
2
7

73
46
786

7
4
72

45
36
11

8
6
2

47
50
50

15
16
16

200

29

58

5

119

22

30

9

135

20

9

1

78

14

1

125
73

18
11

32
88

3
8

193
71

35
13

120
22

(2)

1 For kinds of jobs included in each category, see footnote 1, appendix table D-10.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.




- 30 -

37
7

the same group of people. In surveys of
this type, however, such a comparison
does not permit a full evaluation of indi­
vidual progress. The nonuniformity of the
time period covered has already been m en­
tioned. A second element of noncompara­
bility between the two sets of data arises
from the fact that almost 700 more indi­
viduals had held “ first job s” than were
employed at the time of interview. The
difference was caused mainly by girls
who had left the labor force, usually b e­
cause of m arriage, and by those of both
sexes who were unemployed when the inter­
views were held.

the number in service jobs had declined
from 27 to 16 percent.
Although these shifts do not appear to be
dramatic, it must be remembered that even
those school leavers with the longest
exposure to the labor market had scarcely
had time to reach their occupational stride,
and the difference between the type of job
which graduates and dropouts might be ex­
pected to hold eventually would scarcely
have had time to become fully apparent.

In spite of these variables, a comparison
of the two sets of job distribution data
yields some useful information. Of con ­
siderable importance, for example, is the
fact that the jobs held by around 60 percent
of the school leavers at the time of inter­
view were identical with their first jobs.
This was true for about three-fifths of the
boy graduates and of the dropoyts of both
sexes and for two-thirds of the girl grad­
uates. This suggests stability of em ploy­
ment if not advancement, but it undoubtedly
also reflects the presence in this group
of large numbers who had been working for
only a limited time and were still in their
initial jobs. The difference in distribution
between first and current jobs, therefore,
reflects only the job changes of the 40 p e r­
cent who had remained in the labor force
as employed persons but had changed their
jobs at some point between their first and
current employment.
Even though only 40 percent of the entire
group had changed jobs, some upgrading
was already apparent. The proportion of
boy graduates doing skilled or semiskilled
work had increased from 34 to 49 percent,
and those in unskilled work had decreased
from 25 to 18 percent. The boy dropouts
had made some progress, too, but not re la ­
tively as much. While 27 percent reported
first jobs in the skilled or semiskilled class,
36 percent held such jobs at the time of the
interview. The proportion of boy dropouts
holding unskilled jobs remained about the
same, 38 percent in their first jobs co m ­
pared with 35 percent at the time of inter­
view. Among the girls, the proportion of
graduates in office work had increased from
60 to over 70 percent and in service o ccu ­
pations had dropped from 9 to 4 percent.
Girl dropouts had raised their participation
in office work from 11 to 16 percent, while




- 31

Method of Obtaining Job Held at the Time
of the Interview. --P a rt of a person’ s success
in getting a job lies in his knowledge of how
to go about it, how well he uses services
available for this purpose, and how well he
presents his own case to a potential em ­
ployer.
In this survey, school leavers were asked
how they obtained the job they held at the
time of interview, since this experience,
rather than how they got their first job,
was likely to be recalled m ore accurately.
Most reported having found their present
jobs through personal application or through
friends and relatives. (See table D-12.)
Dropouts tended to rely most frequently
on the latter method. R eferral by the school
was likely to be important only to those just
graduated, and the area in which the survey
covered only the first year after leaving
school showed the highest proportion of
school referra ls. This area is also known
for its well-established school placement
service.
Comparatively low proportions said they
obtained their current jobs through the
public employment service, but since only
the principal job-finding method was tabu­
lated, the role of the employment service
may be understated. For example, if the
service referred a person to an employer
and he then applied for that job in person,
he might have reported “ personal applica­
tion” as the way he got his job, forgetting
that the employment service made the initial
referral. In many areas, the employment
service holds conferences and gives tests
at the schools for senior class members
who wish job placement, and the graduate
may have identified his subsequent job
referral with the school. In any event, those
who registered with the employment s e rv ­
ice but who found their jobs by other methods

are not shown here as having had any con ­
tact with the service. In these surveys,
m ore girls than boys reported obtaining
their jobs through the employment service
and this agrees in general with data co m ­
piled by the employment service itself.
W ages.--H ow much were these school
leavers earning on the jobs they held at the
date of interview when they had accumulated,
at the least, about 1 year’ s work experience ?
Were there measurable differences between
what graduates and dropouts were earning?
Although the jobs held by the boy grad­
uates and the boy dropouts were often
described by them in sim ilar term s, their
earnings already differed considerably.
Judging by available data relating to age
and education, this early difference will
tend to become greater for the two groups
as a whole as the years out of school in­
crease. Rough estimates of life-tim e earn­
ings for males at age 25 show an expected
future income, for the same number of years
of work, of about $ 155,000 for high school
graduates and $ 110,000 for those who co m ­
pleted only the 8th grade.2 While there will
1
be many individual e x c e p t i o n s to this
pattern, boys who have graduated from
high school have a better financial prospect
than do dropouts.
In the seven communities surveyed, only
3 percent of the boy graduates earned less
than $40 a week, compared with 15 percent
of the boy dropouts. Thus, five times the
proportion of dropouts as of graduates were
found to be at the lowest end of the wage
scale. About 45 percent of the boy dropouts
were earning less than $ 50 a week, co m ­
pared with only 15 percent of the boy grad­
uates. On the other hand, 31 percent of the
boy graduates were earning $ 80 or m ore a
week, compared with 20 percent of the
dropouts. (See tables 16 and D-12.)
There was, of course, a considerable
range in earnings by area. In two areas,
only 1 percent of the boy graduates were
earning less than $40 a week, but in
another area 9 percent of them were found
in this low-wage group. In one area, with a
concentration of light industry, no boy
graduate was earning $ 80 or m ore a week,
2 See Stuart Garfinkle, Work-Life Patterns and Educational
1
Levels (in Occupational Outlook Quarterly, December 1958, pp.
16-18).




but in another area, characterized by heavy
industry, 51 percent were in this wage
bracket. Boy dropouts also showed widely
different earnings patterns among the com ­
munities surveyed. Those earning less than
$ 40 a week ranged from 3 percent in one
area to around 20 percent in three others,
while those in the $ 8 0 -and-over w a g e
bracket ranged from none to 37 percent,
again reflecting wages in the dominant in­
dustries.
A sim ilar pattern of wage differences
existed between graduates and dropouts
among the girls. In all areas combined,
only 6 percent of the employed girl grad­
uates, but m ore than 20 percent of the
employed girl dropouts were earning less
than $30 a week. Only 14 percent of the
girl graduates earned less than $ 40 a
week, compared with 39 percent of the girl
dropouts. Nearly half of the girl graduates
were in the $50-$ 79 wage bracket, com ­
pared with only 16 percent of the dropouts.
As in the case of the boys, earnings levels
varied among areas for the same kinds of
work. The proportion of girl graduates
earning less than $ 30 a week ranged from
less than 1 percent in one area to 20 p e r­
cent in another; for girl dropouts, the range
was from 1 to 64 percent. The highest p ro ­
portions of these low earners in each group
were found in the same area.
Although graduation from high school
made a substantial difference in earning
power among the girls, their overall earn­
ings levels were lower than those of boys.
For example, 70 percent of the boy grad­
uates earned $60 or m ore a week, while
82 percent of the girl graduates earned
less than $60. Among dropouts, over half
the boys earned $ 50 or m ore a week, while
82 percent of the girls earned less than $ 50.
Even when earnings of boy dropouts and girl
graduates were compared, the traditional
wage advantage of men was still apparent.
F ifty-six percent of the boy dropouts earned
$ 50 or m ore a week, compared with 50
percent of the girl graduates.
Since total weekly earnings, not wage
rates, were obtained in these surveys,
part-tim e workers (less than 35 hours per
week) no doubt contributed to the percentage
reporting low earnings. This was especially
true of girl dropouts, 7 percent of whom
reported regular working hours of less than
35 a week.

- 32 -

TABLE 16.— Wages of graduates and dropouts at time of interview, by area and sex
(Percentage distribution)
Weekly wages

Total, graduates
and dropouts
Area and sex
Less than
$30-$39
$30

$90
and
over

$40-$49

$50-$59

$60-$69

$70-$79

$80-$89

1
10
8
18

12
29
36
43

15
10
32
9

20
14
13
4

19
12
4
3

15
10
1
1

1
8
10
19

8
7
37
10

14
14
29
7

22
20
14
5

24
22
2
—

22
14
2
—

10
18
29
17

17
12
40
13

11
16
14
8

22
11
2
4

14

12
6
21

7
2
4

19
12
1
—

8
10
20

3
9
16
17

15
9
45
20

17
14
12
7

13
15
11
3

17
20
1
--

34
17
1
"

3
5
13
---

7
16
23
38

15
7
25
6

11
20
17
12

19
13
7

19
7
1
---

20
27
1
6

—

2
1
18

6
7
34
36

9
12
42
21

38
31
19
5

21
21
4
12

12
15
-5

2
4
20
64

3
15
16
14

17
28
31
9

19
19
20
4

20
8
6
9

13

7
11
2
---

19
7
—
---

7
15
12
20

63
77
82
78

26
2
4
1

—

5
1
1

—
—

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

All areas:
1
Male graduates--Male dropouts---Female graduates—
Female dropouts--

665
529
1,075
312

100
100
100
100

2
5
6
21

Area A:
Male graduates--Male dropouts---Female graduates—
Female dropouts--

152
71
158
42
-

100
100
100
100

1
7
6
59

Area B:
Male graduates--Male dropouts---Female graduates—
Female dropouts--

96
64
126
24

100
100
100
100

7
12
6
33

—

Area C:
Male graduates--Male dropouts---Female graduates—
Female dropouts--

105
87
149
30

100
100
100
100

1
8
4
33

—

Area D:
Male graduates--Male dropouts---Female graduates—
Female dropouts--

70
44
114
16

100
100
100
100

6
5
13
38

Area E:
Male graduates--Male dropouts---Female graduates—
Female dropouts--

127
83
275
61

100
100
100
100

1
1
(2 )
3

Area F:
Male graduates--Male dropouts---Female graduates—
Female dropouts--

69
47
123
22

100
100
100
100

Area G:
Male graduates--Male dropouts---Female graduates—
Female dropouts—

46
133
130
117

100
100
100
100

—

8
5
---

2

2
1
—

—
—

—

—

—

1
—

16
10
(2 )
1

8
8
—

---

13
11
—

—

—

—

1 Excludes 18 male graduates, 2 - male dropouts, 17 female graduates, and 8 female dropouts for whom wages
4
were not reported.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

Hours of W ork.--Inform ation was o b ­
tained on hours usually worked per week on
the jobs held at the time of the interview.
The heaviest concentration, of course, was
at 40 hours, but in most areas, higher p r o ­
portions of graduates than of dropouts
worked these “ normal** hours. In all but
one area, higher proportions of dropouts
than graduates worked longer hours, i.e .,
41 to 48 hours and 49 hours and over. At
the same time, m ore dropouts than grad­
uates worked only part time: 5 percent of
boy dropouts to 2 percent of boy graduates,
and 7 percent of girl dropouts to 4 percent
of girl graduates. There was considerable
variation among the areas, especially for




girl dropouts; as many as a fifth of them
worked part time in two areas, but less
than 10 percent elsewhere. (See tables 17
and D-12.)
Unemployment. - - The fact that y o u n g
people get jobs does not tell the whole
story. Are they able to keep them, or to
get other jobs without undue loss of time
if they are laid o ff? How much unemploy­
ment do they experience and what difference
does high school graduation make in their
unemployment record ?
Overall, in the communities surveyed,
there was less unemployment among young

TABLE 17.— Hours worked per week by graduates and dropouts employed at time of interviev^r,
by area and sex
(Percentage distribution)
Total, graduates
and dropouts

Weekly hours worked.

Area and sex
Less
than 35

35-39

40

41-48

49
and over

2
4
5
7

3
19
3
8

70
66
63
67

16
10
18
12

9
1
11
6

100
100
100
100

1
4
1
9

3
3
6
9

68
81
50
40

12
11
19
26

16
1
24
16

83
118
64
24

100
100
100
100

2
2
3
8

1
12
2
8

64
73
51
59

31
13
36
25

Area C:
Male graduates--Female graduates—
Male dropouts---Female dropouts-

108
146
92
30

100
100
100
100

3
1
4
20

15
3

70
70
58
50

17
11
21
17

10
3
14
3

Area D:
Male graduates--Female graduates—
Male dropouts---Female dropouts-

69
115
48
16

100
100
100
100

4
11
4
7

2
14
4
31

64
62
52
31

23
10
19
31

7
3
21

Area E:
Male graduates--Female graduates—
Male dropouts---Female dropouts-

130
279
86
62

100
100
100
100

1
3
5
6

5
36
1
16

83
58
73
65

6
3
18
10

Area F:
Male graduates--Female graduates—
Male dropouts---Female dropouts-

69
123
47
22

100
100
100
100

1
9
9
18

12
25
4
4

52
38
30
14

22
25
30
23

Area G:
Male graduates--Female graduates—
Male dropouts---Female dropouts-

48
130
135
118

100
100
100
100

2
1
6

2
13
4
3

92
85
87
97

4
1
2

Number

Percent

All areas:1
Male graduates--Female graduates—
Male dropouts---Female dropouts-

662
1,073
546
315

100
100
100
100

Area A:
Male graduates--Female graduates—
Male dropouts---Female dropouts-

155
162
74
43

Area B:
Male graduates--Female graduates—
Male dropouts---Female dropouts-

—

—

—

—

2
—

8
—

—

5
—

3
3
13
3
27
41
—
—

1
—

1 Excludes 21 male graduates, 19 female graduates, 7 male dropouts, and 5 female drop­
outs for whom weekly hours worked were not reported.




-

34

-

people than might have been expected, since
all but two of the areas were c la s s i­
fied as having a surplus of w orkers. How­
ever, the amount of unemployed time
reported may have been minimized first
by the tendency of boys to enlist when
they could not find work and second, by
the tendency of the girls to consider them­
selves out of the labor force if jobs were
not available.
These surveys provide several measures
of the impact of unemployment. The first
measure relates to the number of individuals
in each of the graduate and dropout groups
who were unemployed (but looking for
work) at the time they were interviewed.

This measure does not involve the dura­
tion of current unemployment or whether or
not there had been previous employment.
When applying this static measure, unem­
ployment at a specific point in time, the
difference between graduates and dropouts
was marked. The incidence of unemploy­
ment at the date of interview was three
times greater among boy dropouts than
among boy graduates, and over four times
as great among girl dropouts as among girl
graduates. Differences in the magnitude of
unemployment rates existed among the
various communities, but in every com ­
munity much higher proportions of drop­
outs than of graduates were unemployed.
(See table D-13.)

Unemployed graduates and dropouts at time of interview, by highest grade completed,
all areas, by sex
Male
Highest grade completed

Female

Number in
labor force

Percent un­
employed

Number in
labor force

Percent un­
employed

Graduates (12th grade)--- ---

725

6

1,151

5

Dropouts, all grades— -----11th grade---------------- 10th grade---------------9th grade--- ------------Less than 9th grade— — -— -

683
83
123
222
255

19
10
14
16
27

412
49
105
139
119

23
20
16
27
25

Among the boy dropouts, unemployment
at the time of interview appeared to be
related to the amount of their education,
i.e., the proportion of those unemployed
decreased steadily with each higher grade
completed. An age factor, however, was
also probably involved. The proportion of
boys who were 17 or over when they
dropped out rose from one-third of those
who finished less than the 9th grade to over
90 percent of those who completed the
11th. Age, in addition to m ore schooling,
apparently gave them an advantage in get­
ting and keeping jobs. This is in line with
Census data for October 1957 which give
rates of unemployment by age, for males
not enrolled in school, as 15 percent for
16- and 17-yea r-olds, about 11 percent
for 18- and 19-year-olds and a n o t h e r
marked drop to 6.6 percent for those 20 to
24 years old. Among girl dropouts there
appeared to be little correlation between
unemployment rates and grade completed.
562565 0

-

60 - 6




Other factors, such as irregular participa­
tion in the labor force because of m arriage,
might have affected their ability to retain
their jobs or might have made them seem
less desirable as employees because of
their lesser work experience.
A second measure of unemployment deals
with the proportion of individuals in the
labor force at the time of interview who
had experienced specific amounts of un­
employment since leaving school. The data
relate to both those who were employed
and those who were unemployed when interviewed. (See table 18.) In the combined
six areas for which such data were avail­
able, m ore than half of the graduates but
less than a third of the dropouts had experi­
enced no unemployment, or only a trifling
am ount--less than a week. The substantial
difference between graduates and dropouts
in this favorable experience was marked,
not only overall, but in every area. There

- 35 -

TABLE 18.--Total weeks of unemployment of graduates and dropouts in the labor force at
time of interview, six areas
(Percentage distribution)

Area

Total, graduates
and dropouts in
labor force at
time of interview
Number

Weeks of unemployment
None or
less than
1 week

1-3

4-13

14-26

More than
26 weeks

Percent

All areas:1
Graduates----------Dropouts------------

2 1 ,6 4 3
2 977

100
100

53
32

19
21

16
19

3
6

9
22

Area A:
Graduates----------Dropouts------------

331
155

100
100

45
14

24
24

21
30

5
14

5
18

Area C:
Graduates----------Dropouts------------

278
177

100
100

47
32

26
11

8
9

(3)
1

19
47

Area D:
Graduates----------Dropouts------------

214
92

100
100

56
21

15
13

7
13

1
5

21
48

Area E:
Graduates----------Dropouts------------

425
165

100
100

43
29

22
27

25
23

5
10

5
11

Area F:
Graduates----------Dropouts------------

209
97

100
100

70
40

5
5

16
16

5
10

4
29

Area G:
Graduates----------Dropouts------------

186
291

100
100

75
44

15
31

7
19

2
3

1
3

1 Data for area B were not available.
2 Excludes 5 graduates and 7 dropouts for whom weeks of unemployment were not reported.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.

was little difference, however, in the p ro ­
portions of graduates and dropouts who
experienced short-term unemployment,
i.e., from 1-13 weeks, but in long-term
unemployment, there was again a sharp
difference. Over twice the proportion of
dropouts as of graduates had been unem­
ployed 14 or more weeks. In two of the
areas, this ratio was substantially greater.
Although the weeks of unemployment were
not necessarily consecutive, the cumulative
effect of periods of no earnings is a serious
matter for young people just starting their
working careers.




In addition to the unemployment rates and
the total weeks of unemployment for those
individuals in the labor force at the time of
interview, a third evaluation of the compara tive impact of unemployment on graduates
and dropouts can be made on the basis of
group averages of weeks of unemployment
for those who had ever been in the labor
fo rce . This information was available for
considerably larger numbers than for those
shown in table 18, because all those ever
in the labor force were included rather than
only those who were in the labor force at
the time of interview.

- 36 -

From this measure of unemployment, the
unfavorable experience of dropouts co m ­
pared with that of graduates is again clearly
evident, (See table 19.) Boy graduates who
had ever been in the labor force had averaged
7 weeks of unemployment or 8 percent of

their average time in the labor force; boy
dropouts ever in the labor force had a v er­
aged 11 weeks of unemployment, or 15p e r ­
cent of their average time in the labor
fo rce --a lm o st twice as much as graduates.
The girl graduates had averaged 6 weeks of

TABLE 19.— Average number of weeks of unemployment of graduates and dropouts ever in
labor force, six areas, by sex
Graduates

Dropouts

Area
Male
All areas:1
Number ever in labor force--- — -----Average total weeks unemployed-------Percent of time unemployed to time in
labor force------------------------Area A:
Number ever in labor force-----------Average total weeks unemployed-------Percent of time unemployed to time in
labor force------------------------Area C:
Number ever in labor force-----------Average total weeks unemployed-------Percent of time unemployed to time in
labor force-------------------------

Female

Male

633
7

1,248
6

622
11

516
11

8

7

15

22

169
5

238
7

106
17

113
12

6

8

16

22

112
6

186
4

124
6

60
16

3

4

6

26

79
8

167
9

60
10

54
6

7

10

11

13

138
8

326
4

89
10

80
9

9

4

9

10

79
10

186
11

64
30

57
16

11

11

27

23

56
5

145
4

179
6

152
8

11

7

14

18

Area D:
Number ever in labor force-----------Average total weeks unemployed-------Percent of time unemployed to time in
labor force----- ------------------Area E:
Number ever in labor force----- ----- Average total weeks unemployed-------Percent of time unemployed to time in
labor force------------------------Area F:
Number ever in labor force-----------Average total weeks unemployed-------Percent of time unemployed to time in
labor force------------------------Area G:2
Number ever in labor force-----------Average total weeks unemployed-------Percent of time unemployed to time in
labor force-------------------------

1 Data for area B were not available.
2 Survey in this area covered only 1 year after leaving school.




- 37 -

Female

unemployment or 7 percent of their average
time in the labor force and the girl dropouts,
11 weeks of unemployment or 22 percent of
their average time in the labor force--th ree
times as much as the graduates. Since many
who were included in these averages had ex­
perienced relatively little or no unemploy­
ment (under 1 week), these data do not show
the full impact of unemployment on those
individuals who had actually experienced it.

It is evident from an evaluation of all the
survey data on work history that dropouts
had from two to three times as much un­
employment, on the average, as did grad­
uates, whether unemployment was measured
on the basis of total amount for those cu r­
rently in the labor force, average unemploy­
ment for those ever in the labor force, or
rates of unemployment for those in the labor
force at a given point in time.

POST-HIGH SCHOOL TRAINING AND JOB ASPIRATIONS

Most of the school leavers were inter­
viewed in the summer of 1957, just before
national unemployment rates began to climb
to the high levels reached during 1958.
Also, during most of the period of their
recorded work history, the general e c o ­
nomic situation of the country had been
improving, after the 1953-54 recession.
Their employment situation when inter­
viewed, as well as their total work experi­
ence, was therefore probably m ore favorable
than it might have been had they been
interviewed 6 months later. Even when
economic conditions are good, however,
young people just entering the labor market
can, on the basis of historical experience,
anticipate a series of economic ups and
downs during their working life. In the light
of labor force projections and predictions
of the demand for a more highly skilled
work force, young people who have term i­
nated their e d u c a t i o n without completing
high school need to be thinking in terms of
what they can do to improve their relatively
disadvantaged position.
To what extent are young people aware
of this situation? Are they preparing to
improve their skills ? To what extent are
they aspiring to better jobs? Is there any
evidence from these surveys that the young
people studied realized their educational
deficiencies and planned to do something
about them? After some experience at*work, did they develop any ambitions as
to what they would like to be doing that was
substantially different from what they
actually were doing?
Three questions in the interviews yielded
some impressions on these points. The
school leavers interviewed were asked
about any training they had taken since
they had graduated or dropped out of school,
and about training that they planned to
begin in the near future. A third question
asked what kind of job the school leaver




would most like to have. Although the ques­
tions were not considered primary ones in
these surveys, they did yield some rather
interesting impressions of what was going
on in the minds of these young members of
the labor force whose work experience
was still limited.
The proportion of the graduates who r e ­
ported that they had taken additional train­
ing after they left school was nearly one in
five in all areas combined, with m ore girls
than boys reporting post-high school train­
ing. Almost a third of the boy graduates who
reported any training had taken some type of
college extension work, and a s l i g h t l y
smaller proportion had taken training in
some type of mechanics such as auto,
diesel, radio, and television repair work.
About two-thirds of the girl graduates who
had taken additional training took it in
com m ercial courses. Plans for future train­
ing were concentrated on the same types of
study. Only 12 percent of the graduates had
plans for further training. Among the boys in
this group, more than half expected to take
college courses, with training in mechanics
next; over two-fifths of the girls with plans
for future training were thinking in terms of
com m ercial courses, with those planning on
college making up the next largest group.
Only half as many dropouts as graduates
(1 in 10) had taken additional training after
leaving school, the boys concentrating on
mechanics or work toward completing high
school and the girls on com m ercial courses.
The proportion who had definite plans for
future training was the same as among the
graduates--12 percent. Of this small p ro­
portion, two-fifths of the boy dropouts but
less than a third of the girl dropouts had in
mind courses which would lead to a high
school diploma; over a fourth of the boys
planned to take training in mechanics and
two-fifths of the girls planned to take
com m ercial courses.

- 38 -

It would appear that the great majority
of both graduates and dropouts regarded
their exit from high school as the termina­
tion of their education, rather than as an
interruption. This attitude was borne out by
their job aspirations at the time of inter­
view. When asked what kind of work they
would most like to do, they mentioned, with
few exceptions, jobs which were already
within reach. Both the boy graduates and
dropouts usually said that they would like
to be mechanics or welders or some other

type of skilled manual worker. The girls,
both graduates and dropouts, wished to be
secretaries. In one community, about 10
percent of the girl graduates and dropouts
who reported any job aspirations men­
tioned nursing or hospital work, but this
was unusual. Almost no one mentioned
teaching. The glamour occupations - -a ir plane pilot, airline hostess, or those con ­
nected with stage, radio, or television -were not mentioned, nor were the fields of
music, the graphic arts, or writing.

U N A C C O U N T E D -F O R TIME

Although the principal focus in these
surveys was the employment and unemployment experience of the young people sur­
veyed and its relationship to their educa­
tional attainment, the interview data did
provide the basis for some further analysis
of how these young people had invested the
entire span of time since they had finished
their schooling. A point of interest in the
analysis was the amount of time spent in
unspecified kinds of activity. The term
‘ •unaccounted-for time*’ was used to define
this concept. The calculation of such time
was based only on what the young people
themselves reported to the interviewers.
The amount of unaccounted-for time was
a residue arrived at by subtracting from
the total period since leaving school the
sum of all time spent in the labor force and
all time out of the labor force for certain
specific reasons. These reasons were m ili­
tary service, marriage for girls, further
schooling, definite home responsibilities
connected with parental family need, and
personal ill health. The assumption was
made that such uses of time outside the
labor force should be considered on a par
with work. Time that was spent out of the
labor force for other than these specific
reasons constituted time unaccounted for.
Such periods of time are of special con­
cern to those interested in the welfare and
development of young people.
In order to avoid too strict an interpreta­
tion of the term “ time unaccounted fo r ,”
an interval of 2 weeks or less between jobs
was disregarded even though the school
leaver reported he was not actively looking
for work during such periods. Time spent
actively looking for work was always counted
as time in the labor force even though the
period extended to a year or more and the
method of actively looking was only making




inquiry of friends and relatives. Employ­
ment in short-time jobs--those which lasted
less than a month--and all part-time work
were counted as time in the labor force.
All female school leavers who were married
were considered out of the labor force by
reason of marital status, unless there was
positive evidence that they were actually
working or looking for work. The date of
marriage was not asked for on the interview
schedule and therefore it was assumed, for
this purpose, that the date of marriage was
the date of leaving school, unless otherwise
specified. Thus, time unaccounted for is
understated for most married girls, co m ­
pared with that for unmarried girls and for
all of the boys.
Since this attempt to account for total
time was in the nature of an experiment
and the organization of the data for this
purpose was complicated, only three areas
gave reports complete enough to be used.
Even on this limited basis, however, the
results have interest. (See table 20.) Sum­
marizing the data for the three areas co m ­
bined, 13 percent of all the boy graduates
had some time unaccounted for, and for those
with such tim e, the average was 21 weeks,
or 19 percent of their time since graduation.
Almost 2 j times as many boy dropouts (31
percent) had time unaccounted for, and for
these the average was 34 weeks,* or 24p e r­
cent of their time since dropping out.
In general, the girls a c c u m u l a t e d
more unaccounted-for time than the boys.
Eighteen percent of the girl graduates
averaged 25 weeks, or 21 percent of their
time since graduation; 23 percent of the
girl dropouts averaged 49 weeks, or 36
percent of their time since dropping out.
As has already been noted, it is probable
that girls who found themselves unemployed
tended to consider themselves out of the

- 39 -

TABLE 20.— Unaccounted-for time of graduates and dropouts, three areas, by sex
Experience of those with
unaccounted-for time

Graduates and dropouts
Area and sex
Number

Those with unaccounted-for time
Percent

Number
Three areas:1
Graduates
Male------------Female----------Dropouts
Male------------Female----------Area A:
Graduates
Male------------Female----------Dropouts
Male------------Female----------Area D:
Graduates
Male------------Female----------Dropouts
Male------------Female----------Area E:
Graduates
Male------------Female----------Dropouts
Male------------Female-----------

Average weeks of
unaccounted-for
time

Percent of elapsed
time since leav­
ing school

392
798

51
145

13
18

21
25

19
21

274
360

86
84

31
23

34
49

24
36

174
252

24
59

14
23

23
24

22
23

113
159

45
47

40
30

40
53

29
41

138
344

8
18

6
5

19
23

19
19

95
101

22
11

23
11

25
28

16
24

80
202

19
68

24
34

20
26

17
19

66
100

19
26

29
26

31
51

20
35

1 These data for areas B, C, F, and G were not available.

labor force rather than actively seeking
work, and by this attitude alone would
produce a less favorable record for them ­
selves than the boys in term s of unac­
counted-for tim e.
Altogether, the d r o p o u t s accumulated
almost twice as much unaccounted-for time
as the graduates. This loss is in addition,
of course, to the time that was spent
genuinely unemployed by all dropouts and
graduates, time when they were out of a
job but reported themselves as actively
looking for work.




These relationships are based on a com ­
paratively small number of cases (about
1,200 graduates and 600 dropouts in three
areas) and further testing on a broader
base might well yield m ore definitive con ­
clusions. Nevertheless, the fact that the
graduates had a better record than the
dropouts in this respect as well as in em ­
ployment continuity, in earnings, and in
types of jobs obtained, strengthens the
basic conclusions of these studies of indi­
vidual experience--that there is a clear,
measurable economic advantage in the
possession of a high school education.

- 40 -

APPENDIXES
Appendix A .

Technical Note

Appendix B.

D escription of Individual A re a s Surveyed

Appendix C .

F o rm s and Questionnaires

Appendix D.

T ables







APPENDIX A. TECHNICAL NOTE
This study was made in seven areas
selected prim arily because of their labor
market classification, but also because of
their geographical distribution, and the
availability of educational institutions to
carry out the fieldwork. The study as a
whole was developed as an experimental
pilot project, and the areas selected are
therefore not necessarily representative

either of the United States as a whole, or
of communities of sim ilar size. The results,
however, were sufficiently consistent among
the areas with respect to a number of sig­
nificant labor force measures to suggest
that the overall findings may be m ore
generally representative than the method
of selection would imply.

METHOD

3. Students known to have died.

Construction of the U niverse

The universe for each area was estab­
lished separately through the use of the
basic school records for all school leavers
between specified dates. School leavers
were defined as high school graduates who
did not go on to college or other form al
training immediately after graduation, and
those who dropped out of junior or senior
high school before graduation. The grades
covered were the 8th through the 12th in
four areas and the 9th through the 12th in
the remaining three areas. Five of the
surveys covered 3 school years, from
September 1953 to June 1956; one covered
4 years, from September 1951 to June 1955;
and the remaining survey, 1 year, from
September 1955 to June 1956. Parochial
schools were included in four areas.
The first overall step was to obtain
cooperation of the schools in making avail­
able the names and addresses of their
school leavers. A card file carrying this
information was set up. These cards were
carefully screened to remove the following:
1. Duplicates, i.e ., students who had left
one school in the area and later entered
another in the same area. The card ca rry ­
ing the most recent record of such students
was retained.
2. Students who had left school before
graduation because their families had moved
away from the area. Since their subsequent
school status was unknown, they could not be
considered bona fide dropouts.




The remaining cards became the universe
of school leavers, from which the sample
to be interviewed was drawn.
Construction of the Sample

In selecting the sample, varying propor­
tions for both graduates and dropouts were
used in the seven areas, depending upon the
size of the universe. The proportions ranged
for graduates, from 1 in 2 to 1 in 5, and
for dropouts from 1 in 2 to 1 in 6. (See
table D -l.) The method used in selecting
each sample was to arrange the universe
cards separately for graduates and drop­
outs for each school, then to arrange them
by sex and, finally, alphabetically. Cards
were drawn to give the previously deter­
mined number for the sample, e.g., if a
sample of 500 had been decided on, every
fifth card in a universe of 2,500 was
drawn. The first card drawn to start this
count of five was determined by the selec­
tion of a random number. This stratifica­
tion of the universe cards automatically gave
the same proportional representation in the
sample for each school and for each sex
as in the universe.
Because the size of the universe of
graduates and the universe of dropouts in
some areas differed considerably, it was
sometimes necessary to use a different
ratio in order to provide group samples
of approximately the same size. Whenever
data on graduates and dropouts within an
area were combined in the tabulations, the
two groups were properly weighted.

- 43 -

The actual number of interviews held was
Less than the number in the designed
sample, owing to the deletion of ou t-of- scope
cases and a limited number of refusals.
The shrinkage was caused by some inac­
curacies and lack of current information in
the school records, and no doubt by some
errors made in copying the records. In­
correct addresses resulted in some school
Leavers who could not be located, or whose
family m em bers or form er neighbors, if
Located, could supply no information about
them. During personal interviews, some
students who had been classified as drop­
outs were found to have entered another
school; some had left school or graduated
at a date which placed them outside the scope
of the survey; a few were in institutions,
and a few had died. Only a limited number
refused to be interviewed. The shrinkage
from all causes ranged from none in three
areas to about 10 percent in three others.
However, in the seventh and largest area,
which was also an area of considerable
mobility, the shrinkage came to almost 20
percent and was in about the same propor­
tion for both graduates and dropouts. No
substitutions ^ e re made for shrinkage.
Interview Schedules

Two interview schedules were prepared;
the principal one was for the interviews
with school leavers in person, and the
second for briefer interviews with family
members or neighbors o f those school
leavers who had left the home areas. The
schedule for the personal interview with
the school leaver concentrated on questions
designed to get the complete labor force
history of every school leaver who had re ­
mained in the home area and whose name
was drawn for the sample, from the time
he left school until the time of interview.
It included detailed information on each job
held, the dates employed, the specific job
and industry, method of obtaining the job,

wages paid and hours worked on the job
held at the time of interview, all periods
of unemployment and time out of the labor
force, with reasons therefor. In addition,
some background information was collected,
such as present marital status and family
composition, own reason for leaving school,
opinions on how school could have been
m ore useful; work experience while in
school; vocational counseling; additional
training taken or planned; and job aspira­
tions.
The second, briefer schedule used for
interviews with family m em bers or neigh­
bors asked for the absent school leaver*s
current labor force status, whether he had
ever been employed in the home area, his
reasons for leaving the area, and his m a ri­
tal status.
The m ajor schedules, i.e ., those used in
interviews with the school leavers them­
selves, differed from area to area in minor
details, either because of local area in­
terest in some additional information, or
because experience in the areas first sur­
veyed showed that certain questions were
of little value. (See schedules in appendix
C.) Schedules were pretestedbefore the first
survey started, in a community that was not
included in the study.
C overage

School records were transcribed for a
total of 21,887 school leavers, of whom
12,382 were graduates and 9,505 were
dropouts. (See table D -l.) There were
3,931 personal interviews with school
leavers, of whom 2,319 were graduates
and 1,612 were dropouts. In addition, family
m embers or neighbors supplied some in­
formation about the 1,247 graduates and
1,133 dropouts who had left their home areas
after terminating their schooling.

PROCEDURE

The Bureau of Labor Statistics conducted
the initial survey as a pilot study. It deter*
mined the type of data to be drawn from
the school records and supervised tran­
scription of these data to cards. It p re­
pared the interview schedules and the
tabulation plans. A university in the area
conducted the personal interviews. In six




other areas, the entire survey was made
for the Bureau of Labor Statistics on a
contract arrangement with universities or
school system s, using the Bureau’ s sched­
ules, procedures, and tabulation plans.
The Bureau furnished technical assistance
throughout.

- 44 -

Transcription of Records
F o llo w in g the c o n s t r u c t io n o f the u n i­
v e r s e , c e r t a in b a s ic data f r o m the s c h o o l
r e c o r d s w e r e t r a n s c r ib e d on a s e p a r a te
c a r d f o r e a ch g ra d u a te and d r o p o u t. T h e s e
data sh o w e d a g e at t im e o f le a v in g s c h o o l,
s e x , h ig h e s t g r a d e c o m p le t e d , r e a s o n f o r
le a v in g s c h o o l , IQ , and n u m b e r o f v o c a ­
tio n a l c o u r s e s c o m p le t e d . T h e in fo r m a tio n
on th e s e c a r d s fu r n is h e d the b a s is f o r the
ta b u la tio n s sh ow in g the s c h o o l e x p e r ie n c e
o f the u n iv e r s e o f s c h o o l l e a v e r s , and f o r
c r o s s ta b u la tio n s w ith the w o r k e x p e r ie n c e
data f r o m the in t e r v ie w s c h e d u le s o f th o se
in the s a m p le .

Interviews
B e fo r e in te r v ie w in g b e g a n in any g iv e n
c o m m u n ity , a p p r o p r ia t e e x p la n a tio n s o f the
p u r p o s e and g e n e r a l pla n o f the s u r v e y w e r e
p u b lic iz e d in the l o c a l p r e s s and r a d io . T h e
c o o p e r a t io n o f the l o c a l e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e
w a s o b ta in e d and v o lu n ta ry a g e n c ie s w e r e
a s k e d f o r c o o p e r a t io n in p u b lic iz in g the
su rveys.
I n t e r v ie w e r s
w e r e g ra d u a te stu d en ts,
t e a c h e r s , o r s o c ia l w o r k e r s , s e le c t e d by
the c o n t r a c t o r s . E a ch g r o u p o f in t e r v ie w e r s
w a s h e a d e d b y a s u p e r v i s o r , and i n s t r u c ­
tio n s w e r e g iv e n to a s s u r e u n ifo r m ity o f
a p p r o a c h and u n d e rsta n d in g o f t e r m s . T h e
s u p e r v is o r m a d e s u r e that e v e r y s c h o o l
l e a v e r r e m a in in g in the a r e a w ho w a s in
the sa m p le w a s in t e r v ie w e d in p e r s o n .
R e p e a t v is it s w e r e m a d e , i f n e c e s s a r y , to
co n ta c t the e m p lo y e d s c h o o l l e a v e r s a fte r
w o r k in g h o u r s , o r th o s e t e m p o r a r ily aw ay
fr o m h o m e . In s o m e a r e a s , a p r e in t e r v ie w
c o n ta c t w a s m a d e by te le p h o n e o r p o s t ­
c a r d to in fo r m the p e r s o n s in the s a m p le
o f the p u r p o s e o f the s u r v e y and to s e c u r e
th e ir c o o p e r a t io n .
T h e s u p e r v is o r
w ith n e ig h b o r s o f
le ft th e ir a r e a s
in te r v ie w s w ith




m a d e s u r e that in t e r v ie w s
s c h o o l le a v e r s w ho had
w e r e n ot su b stitu te d f o r
fa m ily m e m b e r s i f the

la t t e r w e r e s t ill a v a ila b le . T h e s u p e r v i s o r s
o th e r m a jo r r e s p o n s ib ilit y w a s ed itin g ea ch
s ch e d u le a s it w a s tu rn e d in , to be s u r e that
in fo r m a tio n w a s c o m p le t e and in te r n a lly
c o n s is t e n t . If it w a s n ot, s c h e d u le s w e r e
r e tu r n e d to in t e r v ie w e r s f o r fu r th e r in q u iry
and c o r r e c t i o n .
T h e in t e r v ie w s in e a ch a r e a to o k p la c e
a p p r o x im a te ly 1 y e a r a fte r the m o s t r e c e n t
g ra d u a te o r d r o p o u t w ith in the s c o p e o f the
s u rv e y in that a r e a c o u ld h a v e g ra d u a te d
o r le ft s c h o o l. T h e r e f o r e , the tim e span
c o v e r e d f o r in d iv id u a ls c o u ld h a v e b e e n as
s h o r t a s 1 y e a r , o r a s lo n g a s 4 j y e a r s .
In fiv e o f the s e v e n a r e a s the ra n g e w a s
fr o m 1 to
y e a r s . In te r v ie w s in s ix a r e a s
w e r e c o n d u c te d in the s u m m e r o f 1957,
and in on e a r e a in the s u m m e r o f 1956.

Tabulations
E a ch s c h o o l r e c o r d c a r d w a s g iv en a
s e r ia l n u m b e r , u sin g a s e p a r a te s e r i e s
f o r g ra d u a te s and d r o p o u ts . T h e s a m e
s e r ia l n u m b e r w a s e n te r e d on the in ­
dividual* s in te r v ie w s ch e d u le in o r d e r to
c o o r d in a t e in fo r m a tio n f o r e a ch in d iv id u a l
f o r c r o s s - t a b u la t i o n p u r p o s e s .
T h e data f r o m the b a s ic s c h o o l r e c o r d
c a r d s w e r e ta b u la ted f o r the e n tir e u n iv e r s e
to p r e s e n t the o v e r a ll s c h o o l b a c k g r o u n d o f
a ll s c h o o l le a v e r s in the a r e a . T a b u la tio n s
on the w o r k e x p e r ie n c e and o th e r p o s t ­
s c h o o l ite m s on the in te r v ie w s c h e d u le s
w e r e c r o s s ta b u la ted w ith the s c h o o l r e c o r d
c a r d data f o r th e s e s a m e in d iv id u a ls . T h e s e
c r o s s -t a b u la t io n s w e r e d e v is e d to fin d out
the r e la tio n s h ip s b e tw e e n s c h o o l e x p e r ie n c e
and su b se q u e n t a d ju stm e n t to the la b o r f o r c e .
T h e r e w a s no w e ig h tin g by a r e a w hen the
ta b u la tion s f o r the s e v e n a r e a s w e r e put
to g e th e r f o r the p u r p o s e o f a n a ly s is , but
in th o s e in s ta n c e s w h e r e th e r e w a s a w id e
v a r ia t io n o f r e s p o n s e , th is w a s n o te d in
tex t c o m m e n t . A ll a p p en d ix ta b le s sh ow
data f o r e a ch a r e a s e p a r a t e ly .

- 45 -

APPENDIX B. DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL AREAS SURVEYED
SOURCES OF D A T A
F o r p o p u la t io n : U .S. B u re a u o f the C en su s 1956 ( s p e c ia l c e n s u s e s ) and E d ito r and
P u b lis h e r M a r k e t G u id e , E d it o r and P u b lis h e r C o ., N ew Y o r k 1957, e s tim a te s
f o r 1956. D ata a r e f o r cou n ty and co m m u n ity s u r v e y e d .
F o r r a c e and n a tiv ity : U .S.
(N o la t e r data a v a ila b le .)

B u rea u

of

the

C en su s,

C e n su s o f P o p u la tio n 1950.

F o r e m p lo y m e n t : C ounty B u s in e s s P a tte r n s , U .S. B u re a u o f the C e n su s and U.S.
D e p a rtm e n t o f H e a lth , E d u c a tio n , and W e lfa r e , B u rea u o f O ld -A g e and S u r v iv o r s
I n s u r a n c e - - F i r s t q u a r t e r 1956. D ata a r e f o r e n tir e cou n ty in w h ich a r e a is lo c a t e d .

CONTRACTORS AND PRIN CIPAL INVESTIGATORS
A rea A.

V a n d e rb u rg h C o u n ty , Ind. E v a n s v ille C o lle g e . P r o f e s s o r D ean L o n g , v ic e
p r e s id e n t .

A rea B.

P h o e n ix , A r i z . A r iz o n a State U n iv e r s ity , S ch o o l o f E d u ca tio n . P r o f e s s o r s
W illa r d A b r a h a m and R o b e r t L . B a k e r .

A rea C.

S a g in a w , M ic h . U n iv e r s ity o f M ich ig a n , S c h o o l o f E d u ca tio n . P r o f e s s o r
S te w a rt C . H u ls la n d e r .

A r e a D.

P o r t H u ro n , M ic h . U n iv e r s ity o f M ich ig a n , S c h o o l o f E d u ca tio n . P r o f e s s o r
S te w a rt C . H u ls la n d e r .

A re a E.

U tic a , N. Y . C o r n e ll U n iv e r s ity , S ch o o l o f In d u s tria l and L a b o r R e la t io n s .
P r o fe s s o r L eon ard P. A dam s.

A rea F.

H a r r is o n C ou n ty, W . V a . W e st V ir g in ia U n iv e r s ity , In stitu te o f In d u stria l
R e la t io n s . P r o f e s s o r G e r a ld G . S o m e r s .

A re a G.

P r o v id e n c e , R . I. P u b lic S c h o o l S y ste m o f P r o v id e n c e , D e p a rtm e n t o f
G u id a n ce and P la c e m e n t. M a ry D. B a s s o , d i r e c t o r .

N o te :

E x p la n a tio n o f s y m b o ls u s e d in a r e a la b o r m a r k e t c l a s s i f i c a t io n
P r i o r to M ay 1955
I. L a b o r s h o r ta g e
II. B a la n c e d l a b o r su p ply

III. M o d e r a te la b o r su rp lu s
IV . S u bstan tial la b o r su rp lu s

F r o m M ay 1955 to p r e s e n t
U su al u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e 1
(in p e r c e n t)

D e s c r ip t io n
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

O v e r a ll la b o r s h o r t a g e s ----------------------------------------------------L o w la b o r s u p p l y --------------------------------------------------------------M o d e r a te l a b o r s u r p l u s ----------------------------------------------------R e la t iv e ly su b sta n tia l l a b o r s u r p l u s ------- -- --------------------R e la t iv e ly su b sta n tia l la b o r s u r p l u s ------------------------------R e la t iv e ly su b sta n tia l la b o r s u r p l u s -------------------------------

L e s s than 1.5
1.5 to 2.9
3.0 to 5.9
6 .0 to 8.9
9.0 to 11.9
12.0 o r m o r e

iRatio of unemployment to area's total labor force.
Source: U.S. Dept, of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security, Area Manpower Guide Book, 1957, p. XXVIII.




- 46 -

AREAS
A rea A ,

V a n d e rb u rg h C ou n ty , Ind.

L o c a t io n : E a s t N o rth C e n tra l R e g io n ,
T h e s c h o o l l e a v e r study in c lu d e d the e n tir e cou n ty .
P o p u la tio n o f co u n ty : 189,23 0 (e s tim a te d ). M a jo r c ity : E v a n s v ille , 157,500 ( e s t i ­
m a te d ). T o ta l w h ite , 94 p e r c e n t ; N e g r o , 6 p e r c e n t ; adult f o r e i g n - b o r n , n e g lig ib le .
E m p lo y m e n t: 5 5 ,1 2 4 . O f t h e s e , h a lf w e r e e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g , c h ie fly
n o n e le c t r ic a l eq u ip m e n t (g a s r e f r ig e r a t o r s ) and tr a n s p o r ta tio n eq u ip m e n t. T he
n ex t la r g e s t e m p lo y e d g r o u p w a s in w h o le s a le and r e ta il tra d e and the th ird ,
in s e r v i c e s .
T h e c it y is an in d u s tr ia l and tra d in g c e n t e r f o r a la r g e a g r ic u ltu r a l r e g io n . A
co m m u n ity c o l le g e g iv e s u n u su al a tten tion to c o u r s e s f o r a d u lts.
L a b o r M a r k e t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n :1
1952
Jan u a ry -----------M a r c h -------------M a y -------------------J u l y -------------------S e p t e m b e r --------N o v e m b e r ---------

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

III
III
III
III
III
II

II
II
II
III
III
III

III
III
IV
IV
IV
IV

IV
IV
C
C
C
C

D

D
D
D
D
D
D

E
E
E
E
D

1958
D

E
E
E
E
E

iSee explanatory note, p. 46. The Evansville labor market area, beginning with May 1956, was defined as Vanderburgh County, Ind.
and Henderson County, Ky.

A rea B .

P h o e n ix , A r i z .

L o c a t i o n : M ou n tain R e g io n .
T he s c h o o l l e a v e r study in c lu d e d o n ly the c ity o f P h o e n ix .
P o p u la tio n o f M a r ic o p a C ou n ty o f w h ich P h o e n ix is the m a jo r c it y : 51 0 ,0 0 0 ( e s t i m a te d ); g r e a t e r P h o e n ix , 3 5 0 ,0 0 0 (e s tim a te d ). A r iz o n a S ta tis tic a l R e v ie w 1956.
T o ta l w h ite , 94 p e r c e n t ; N e g r o , 4 p e r c e n t ; o th e r r a c e s (c h ie fly A m e r ic a n In d ia n ),
2 p e r c e n t ; adu lt f o r e i g n - b o r n , 9 p e r c e n t . S p an ish su rn a m e s in M a r ic o p a C ou n ty
c o n stitu te 13 p e r c e n t , and in P h o e n ix , 10 p e r c e n t .
E m p lo y m e n t : 9 6 ,7 0 2 . O v e r o n e -t h ir d w e r e e m p lo y e d in w h o le s a le and r e ta il tr a d e .
T h e n e x t l a r g e s t g r o u p , a b ou t 2 1 ,0 0 0 , w a s e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g , n ota b ly
a i r c r a f t and p a r t s . T h e s e r v i c e g ro u p n u m b e r e d m o r e than 1 4,000 .
T h e c it y is an o v e r la n d sh ip p in g p oin t f o r c o tto n and v e g e ta b le s and is s u r r o u n d e d
by an ir r ig a t e d a r e a p r o d u c in g c it r u s fr u it s and v e g e t a b le s . T o u r is t tra d e is im p o r ta n t.
T h e a r e a is on e o f in c r e a s in g p o p u la tio n , ow in g to in m ig r a tio n .
L a b o r M a rk e t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n :1
1952
Jan u a ry -------------- Ill
M a r c h ----------- ----- Ill
M a y ----------------- - - III
J u l y .................... - - III
S e p t e m b e r ------ - - III
N o v e m b e r ------ - - III
iSee explanatory note, p. 46.




1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

III
III
III
III
III
III

III
III
III
III
III
III

III
III
C
C
C
C

c
c
c
c
c
c

C
C
C
C
C
C

1958
C
C
C
C
C
C

A rea C .

S a g in a w , M ic h .

L o c a t io n : E a s t N o rth C e n tr a l R e g io n .
T h e s c h o o l l e a v e r study in c lu d e d on ly the c ity o f S agin aw .
P o p u la tio n o f
(e s t im a t e d ).
10 p e r c e n t .

Saginaw C ou n ty : 178,000 (e s tim a te d ); o f Saginaw C ity , 107,000
T o ta l w h ite , 94 p e r c e n t ; N e g r o , 6 p e r c e n t ; adult f o r e i g n - b o r n ,

E m p lo y m e n t : 4 9 ,2 2 8 . A b o u t 2 7 ,0 0 0 w e r e e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g o f w h om m o r e
than a th ir d w e r e in ir o n and s te e l fo u n d r ie s and a lm o s t a n o th e r th ir d in
t r a n s p o r t a t io n e q u ip m e n t. W h o le s a le and r e t a il tra d e and p u b lic u t ilit ie s w e r e
the n ex t l a r g e s t in d u s tr ia l g r o u p s .
T h e r e is a f o r m a l s c h o o l - w o r k p r o g r a m w h ich in c lu d e s t r a d e s , in d u s tr y , o f f i c e
o c c u p a t io n s , r e t a ilin g , and s a le s (d is tr ib u tiv e e d u ca tio n ). T h is p r o g r a m is u s u a lly op en
on ly to 12th g r a d e stu d e n ts.
L a b o r M a r k e t C l a s s if ic a t io n : 1
1952
Jan u ary --------M a r c h -----------M a y ----------------J u l y ....................
S e p t e m b e r -----N o v e m b e r ------

-

-

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

III
III
III
II
II
II

II
II
II
I
I
I

II
III
III
III
III
III

III
II
B
B
B
B

B
B
C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C
C
C

1958

c
D
E
E
E

D

i See explanatory note, p. 46.

A re a D.

P o r t H u ro n , M ic h .

L o c a t io n : E a s t N o rth C e n tr a l R e g io n .
T h e s c h o o l l e a v e r stu dy in c lu d e d on ly the c it y o f P o r t H u ron .
P o p u la tio n o f St. C la ir C ou n ty in w h ich P o r t H u ron is lo c a t e d : 108,00 0 (e s tim a te d );
P o r t H u ro n , 4 1 ,2 0 0 (e s t im a t e d ), the s m a lle s t o f the a r e a s s u r v e y e d . T o ta l w h ite ,
98 p e r c e n t , a d u lt f o r e i g n - b o r n , 15 p e r c e n t . T h e l a r g e s t f o r e i g n - b o r n g r o u p s a r e
48 p e r c e n t f r o m C a n a d a , 9 p e r c e n t fr o m P o la n d , and 8 p e r c e n t f r o m G e r m a n y .
E m p lo y m e n t: 1 8 ,7 0 8 . O f t h e s e , m a n u fa ctu rin g e m p lo y e d abou t h a lf. O f th o s e in
m a n u fa c t u r in g , m o r e than t w o -fift h s w e r e in p r im a r y m e t a ls . T h e n ex t l a r g e s t
in d u s tr ia l g r o u p s w e r e w h o le s a le and r e ta il t r a d e , and s e r v i c e s .
P o r t H u ron h a s a f o r m a l s c h o o l - w o r k p r o g r a m w h ich in c lu d e s t r a d e s , in d u s try ,
o f f i c e tra in in g p r a c t i c e , m e r c h a n d is in g , and r e ta il tra d e (d is tr ib u tiv e e d u ca tio n ). T h is
p r o g r a m is o p e n to 12th g r a d e stu d en ts o n ly .
L a b o r M ark et C la s s ific a t io n :1
1952
Jan u a ry --------- - - (2)
M a r c h ------------ - - IV
M a y ----------------- - - IV
J u l y .................... ----- IV
S e p t e m b e r ------ - - IV
N o v e m b e r ------ - - (*)

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2)

(2
)
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV

IV
IV
(3
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

(2)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

iSee explanatory note, p. 46.
2Small areas, of which Port Huron is one, are listed only if a substantial labor surplus (6%or more) exists. In such case only the
general designation S.L.S. is used rather than a specific unemployment rate as described by the symbols D, E or F.
sSubstantial labor surplus (S.L.S.)




-

48-

A re a E.

U tic a , N . Y

L o c a t io n : M id d le A tla n tic R e g io n .
T h e s c h o o l l e a v e r study in c lu d e d o n ly the c ity o f U tica .
P o p u la tio n o f O n eid a C ounty in w h ich U tica is l o c a t e d : 2 2 2 ,8 5 5 (1950 C en su s):
U tica : 114,2 7 4 (e s t im a t e d 1956). T o ta l w h ite , a lm o s t 100 p e r c e n t ; adu lt fo r e ig n b o r n , 16 p e r c e n t . T h e la r g e s t f o r e i g n - b o r n g r o u p s a r e 41 p e r c e n t f r o m Italy
19 p e r c e n t f r o m P o la n d , and 12 p e r c e n t f r o m the U n ited K in g d om and E i r e .
E m p lo y m e n t : 5 6 ,8 7 0 . A b o u t 3 0,000 w e r e e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g o f whorr
a p p r o x im a t e ly o n e - f ift h w e r e in p r im a r y m e t a ls and a b ou t o n e -s ix t h in e le c t r ic a l
m a c h in e r y . T h e tw o n e x t l a r g e s t e m p lo y e d g ro u p s w e r e in w h o le s a le and retail
t r a d e , and s e r v i c e s r e s p e c t iv e l y .
T h e s iz e o f th is tow n h a s r e m a in e d sta tio n a ry f o r 30 y e a r s . L e a d in g c it iz e n s
o r g a n iz a t io n s a r e m a k in g a d e t e r m in e d e ffo r t to c o n v e r t its m a n p o w e r s k i ll s , o n c e ir
t e x t ile s , to n ew in d u s t r ie s su ch a s fa b r ic a t e d m e ta ls and lig h t m a c h in e r y . A C om m unity
A c t io n C o m m itte e h a s o r g a n iz e d r e tr a in in g c o u r s e s f o r the u n e m p lo y e d , and p ro v id e c
lo a n s f o r th o se stu d yin g e l e c t r o n i c s .
L a b o r M a r k e t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n :1
1952
Jan u a ry ---------—
M a r c h ----------- M a y ----------------- J u l y -------------- -- S e p t e m b e r ------ N o v e m b e r ------ -

- m
-

IV
IV
IV
IV
IV

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

IV
IV
III
III
III
III

III
III
IV
IV
IV
IV

IV
IV
D
D
D
C

c
c
c
c
c
c

C
C
C
C
C
C

1951
D
E
E
E
E
E

lSee explanatory note, p. 46. The Utica-Rome labor market area includes all of Oneida and Herkimer Counties, N.Y.

A rea F .

H a r r is o n C o u n ty , W. V a .

L o c a t io n : South A tla n tic R e g io n .
T h e s c h o o l l e a v e r study c o v e r e d the e n tir e co u n ty .
P o p u la tio n o f the co u n ty : 8 4 ,1 5 0 ; o f C la r k s b u r g , the c h ie f c it y :
w h ite (c o u n ty ), 98 p e r c e n t ; adult f o r e i g n - b o r n , 5 p e r c e n t .

3 4 ,3 5 0 . Total

E m p lo y m e n t : 2 0 ,5 7 2 . N e a r ly 7 ,000 w e r e in m a n u fa c tu r in g , o f w h om ne.arly tw oth ir d s w e r e in s to n e , c l a y , and g la s s . W h o le s a le and r e t a il tra d e e m p lo y e d the
n ex t la r g e s t g r o u p . S o m e 3,0 00 w e r e in m in in g .
H e a v y o u t m ig r a t io n h a s c h a r a c t e r iz e d th is co u n ty . M in in g is a d e c lin in g in d u stry
L a b o r M a r k e t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n :1
1952
Ja n u a ry --------- M a r c h ------------ "
M a y ----------------- J u l y ----------------- ’ S e p t e m b e r ------ "
N o v e m b e r ------ -

"
-

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

195$

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2
)
<>
*

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2)

(2
)
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV

IV
IV
(3
)
(3
)
(3)
(3)

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2)
(2)
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)
(3)
(3)
(3
)
(*)

lSee explanatory note, p. 46.
2Small areas, of which Harrison County is one, are listed only if a substantial labor surplus (6% or more) exists. In such case onl
the general designation S.L.S. is used rather than a specific unemployment rate as described by the symbols D, E or F.
sSubstantial labor surplus (S.L.S.)




- 49 -

A rea G,

P r o v id e n c e , R , I,

L o c a t i o n : N ew E n g la n d R e g io n .
T h e s c h o o l l e a v e r study in c lu d e d o n ly the c ity o f P r o v id e n c e .
P o p u la tio n o f P r o v id e n c e C ou n ty : 9 5 6 ,8 7 6 ; P r o v id e n c e C ity (lo c a l e s tim a te )
2 2 3 ,0 0 0 . T o ta l w h ite , 98 p e r c e n t ; adult f o r e i g n - b o r n , 23 p e r c e n t . T h e l a r g e s t
f o r e ig n b o r n g r o u p s a r e 35 p e r c e n t f r o m Ita ly , 21 p e r c e n t f r o m the U nited
K in g d o m and E i r e , and 11 p e r c e n t f r o m C an ad a.
E m p lo y m e n t : 1 9 4 ,8 8 2 . O f t h e s e , n e a r ly 110,000 w e r e in m a n u fa c tu r in g . O f th o se
in m a n u fa c tu r in g , m o r e than a fo u rth w e r e in t e x t ile s and m o r e than a fo u rth in
m i s c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa c tu r in g (c o s tu m e je w e l r y ). W h o le s a le and r e ta il tra d e
e m p lo y e d 4 1 ,0 0 0 and ab ou t 14,000 w e r e in s e r v i c e s . T h is w a s the m o s t h igh ly
in d u s t r ia liz e d a r e a s u r v e y e d , c h a r a c t e r iz e d by lig h t ra th e r than h ea v y in d u s tr y .
L a b o r M a rk et C la s s ific a t io n :1
1952
Jan u a ry --------M a r c h -----------M a y ----------------J u l y ----------------S e p t e m b e r -----N o v e m b e r ------

-

-

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV

IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV

IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV

IV
IV
E

D
D
D
D
D
D

D
D

E
F
F
F
E
E

D
D
D

E
E
E
E

iSee explanatory note, p. 46. The Providence labor market area covers Bristol County and parts of Providence, Kent, and Washing­
ton Counties, Rh. Is., as well as sections of Bristol, Norfolk, and Worcester Counties in Eastern Massachusetts.




- 50 -

APPENDIX C. FORMS AND QUESTIONNAIRES
FORM FOR TRANSCRIPTION OF D A TA FROM SCHOOL RECORDS
Serial Number
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Budget Bureau No. 44-560$
Expires June 30, 1956

School Code

grad.

Student Category

D

dropout □
1.

2.
Name of pupil (last,

first,

middle)

3. Sex
M □

Date of birth
Mo., day, yr.

F □

4. ___________________________________________________________________________________
Most recent address of pupil (street,
town)
5.

_____________________________________
IQ

6._______________________________
Permanent physical disability

7 .________________________________________
Date of leaving school
Mo., yr.
9.

None □
Less than
8th
8th
8. Highest grade completed □
□

9th,
□

10th
□

11th
□

12tl
□

Reason for leaving_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

10. Number of courses taken:

Commercial_______________________________

Industrial__________________________________

11. Name of father or guardian (last, first, middle)___________________________________________________________________________
If known to school
12. Pupil’s telephone number_____________________
13. Did pupil move from area since leaving school?




Yes □

No □

- 51 -

Not known □

J. S. D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r
bureau o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

B u d get B u rea u N o . 44 R - 108.4
A p p r o v a l e x p ir e s Jan. 3 1 , 1959
SCHEDULE A

PERSONAL IN TER VIEW QUESTIONNAIRE
On the W o rk H is t o r y and S c h o o l E x p e r ie n c e o f S c h o o l L e a v e r s , 1 9 5 2 -5 7 .
ic h o o l C o d e ___________
I.

Student C o d e ___________

S e r ia l N o .____________

PERSONAL DATA
1 . _________________________________ N e e ________________________________________________________
N am e (la s t , f i r s t , m id d le )
If m a r r ie d , g iv e m a id en n am e
2 . _______________________________________________
C u r r e n t h o m e a d d r e s s ( s t r e e t and tow n)

3 . _____________________________________________
T e le p h o n e n u m b e r

4.

D ate o f b ir th ____________________________ 5.
m on th
year

S o c ia l S e c u r ity n u m b er_____________________

6.

a.

M a r ita l sta tu s: S in g le __________M a r r i e d __________ O th er
d i v o r c e d ) _________

b.

N u m b e r o f c h ild r e n :

s e p a r a te d ,

N on e____ O n e _____ T w o _____ T h r e e o r m o r e ________

7.

If s in g le , d o y o u liv e w ith y o u r im m e d ia te f a m i ly ?

8.
II.

(w id o w e d ,

S ib lin g s :

Y e s _______N o _______

W hen you le ft s c h o o l, how m any b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s d id y ou h a v e ? _____

SC H O O L E X P E R IE N C E
9.

D r o p o u ts
le a v e ?

c.

D r o p o u ts O n ly:

d.

G r a d u a te s O n ly: If you g r a d u a te d , did y o u r fa m ily u rg e y ou to con tin u e so m e
N o _______
f o r m o f s c h o o lin g ?
Y e s _______

e.

In what w a y s d o y o u think y o u r s c h o o l co u ld h ave b een m o r e u s e fu l to y o u ?

a.

W e r e y o u e n r o lle d in any f o r m a l s c h o o l - w o r k tra in in g p r o g r a m (d is tr ib u tiv e
e d u c a tio n o r o th e r s c h o o l - e m p l o y e r p r o g r a m s ? )
Y e s __________ N o _________

b.

11.

D ate y o u le f t s c h o o l (m on th , y e a r ) _______________________________________________ _

b.

l(h

a.

If s o , what ty p e o f jo b o r jo b s did y o u h o ld in c o n n e c tio n w ith su ch p r o g r a m ?
Spe c i f y __________________________________________________ _________________________________

on ly :

If

y ou

le ft

b e fo r e

c o m p le tin g

the

12th

Did y o u r fa m ily u rg e y o u to stay in s c h o o l ?

g r a d e , why d id y ou
Y e s ____ N o _____

D id y ou h old any o th e r paid jo b s w h ile y o u w e r e in s c h o o l o r d u rin g s u m m e r
v a c a t io n s ?
Y e s ______ N o ________




- 52 -

If y o u did:

(a ) In what
g ra d e ?

(b) W hat kind o f jo b o r j o b s ?

(c ) Did th is jo b
la s t a m onth
o r lo n g e r ?
W rite y e s o r no

d.
e.
12.

D id th is w o r k e x p e r ie n c e h e lp y ou g et a jo b w hen y ou le ft s c h o o l ?
Y e s ________________ N o _______
Did the e a r n in g s f r o m y o u r w o rk h e lp y ou to sta y in s c h o o l ?
Y e s ________________ N o _______

a . W h ile you w e r e in s c h o o l, did y ou h ave a d v ic e f r o m y o u r s c h o o l about tra in in g
f o r a jo b o r about p o s s ib le jo b o p p o r tu n itie s a fte r le a v in g s c h o o l ?
Y e s ________________N o _
b.

F r o m w h o m ? C h e c k the one w ith w h om y o u had m o s t c o n ta c t about th is:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

S c h o o l p r in c ip a l
□
V o c a t io n a l c o u n s e lo r o r gu id a n ce o f f i c e r □
H o m e ro o m tea ch er
□
A c la s s r o o m tea ch er
□
O th e r ( s p e c i f y ) _______________________________________________________________________

c.
d.

S in ce le a v in g s c h o o l , have y ou fo llo w e d a d iffe r e n t o c c u p a t io n ?
Y e s ______ N o _______ N o r e s p o n s e ________

e.

13.

W hen y o u w e r e in s c h o o l, what jo b o r o c c u p a tio n did y o u p lan to fo llo w a fte r
le a v in g s c h o o l ? __________________________________________________________________________

W hat kind o f w o r k w ou ld y o u m o s t lik e to d o ? _______________________________________
(in clu d e m a r r ia g e as an o c c u p a tio n but not m ilit a r y s e r v i c e , u n le s s y ou plan
to r e m a in w ith the A r m e d F o r c e s . )

D id y o u take any kind o f v o c a t io n a l, t e c h n ic a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l tra in in g a fte r y ou
le ft s c h o o l ? Y e s _______N o _________
If y o u d id , g iv e n a m e o f tr a in in g a g e n cy o r s c h o o l
(a) W hat w a s the
tra in in g ?

(b) D a tes begun

(S p e c ify s e p a r a t e ly f o r e a c h kind o f tra in in g )




- 53 -

D ate ended

(c ) Com] p leted
Y es
No

d.

e.

If a n sw e r is Y e s , s p e c if y k in d __________________________________________________________

f.
II.

D o y o u h ave any d e fin ite p la n s to take any fu r th e r t r a in in g ?
Y e s _______ N o _________

If a n sw e r is Y e s , what date d o y o u e x p e c t to b e g in t r a in in g ? ______________________

D IS A B IL IT Y
N O T E : U se ju d g m e n t and d o not a s k an yon e with an o b v io u s d e fe c t the n a tu re o f the
d e fe c t su ch as an a m p u te e , the c r ip p le d , a s p a s tic o r a s tu tte r e r . In s te a d , r e c o r d
y o u r o b s e r v a t io n .
14.

a.

D o y ou have a p h y s ic a l d is a b ilit y w h ich h a s la s te d f o r 6 m on th s o r lo n g e r o r
w h ich is lik e ly to la s t that l o n g ? Y e s ______ N o ________
If n o , d ra w lin e th ro u g h b to g and go on w ith q u e s tio n 15.
If y e s , a sk the fo llo w in g :

b.

S p e c ify ty p e (h e a r t a ilm e n t, T . B . , n e p h r it is , e t c . o r r e c o r d y o u r ow n o b s e r v a ­
tio n ).

c.

H ow o ld w e r e y o u w hen the d is a b ilit y b e g a n ?

d.

H as the d is a b ilit y p r e v e n te d y o u r g ettin g a j o b ? Y e s _______N o _________

e.

H as it lim it e d the kind o f jo b y ou ca n t a k e ? Y e s _______ N o ________
(If d e fe c t o b v io u s ly d o e s , r e c o r d y o u r o b s e r v a t io n w ithout a sk in g the q u e s tio n .)

f.

D o y ou know the n a tu re o f the s e r v i c e s o ffe r e d by the State V o c a tio n a l R e ­
h a b ilita tio n a g e n c y in p r e p a r in g h a n d ica p p e d p e r s o n s f o r paid e m p lo y m e n t?
Y e s _______ N o _________ H as h e a r d o f it but no d e fin ite in fo r m a t io n ________

g.

W ou ld y o u lik e to h a ve h e lp in p r e p a r in g y o u r s e l f f o r w o r k ?
(1) Y e s ______ (2) N o ________(3) F e e l s v o c a tio n a l tra in in g is i m p o s s ib le f o r h im
f o r p h y s ic a l r e a s o n s _______ (4) D o e s not e x p e c t to be in la b o r f o r c e f o r r e a s o n s
not c o n n e c te d w ith d is a b ilit y (m a r r ia g e , e t c .) . (5) N o c l e a r r e s p o n s e .

[V.

E M P L O Y M E N T A N D U N E M P L O Y M E N T E X P E R IE N C E SINCE L E A V IN G SCH OOL
N O T E : A R E G U L A R JO B IS A JOB H E L D F O R 1 M O N TH O R M O R E , F U L L O R
P A R T T IM E . A S H O R T -T IM E JOB IS A JOB H E L D F O R LE SS TH AN 1 M O N T H ,
W ITH A M IN IM U M O F 3 D A Y S , F U L L O R P A R T T IM E .
15.

P r e s e n t jo b
A . D o y o u h a ve a jo b n o w ? Y e s _______ N o _________
B . If a n s w e r i s Y e s , a sk w hen he s ta r te d on th is jo b . If in te r v ie w e e is now w o r k ­
ing on a r e g u la r jo b (a s d e fin e d a b o v e ) o r h as a r e g u la r jo b but is not a c tu a lly
w o rk in g th is w e e k , o r h a s a n e w jo b w h ich he b e lie v e s to be a r e g u la r jo b , e v e n
though he h a s w o r k e d on it l e s s than 1 m on th , f i l l in a ll ite m s f o r p r e s e n t jo b .
If a n sw e r is N o, o r Y e s , but is on a s h o r t -t im e j o b , e n te r “ not e m p lo y e d ”
u n d er “ p r e s e n t j o b ” and f i l l in o th e r sh e e ts on jo b e x p e r ie n c e s in c e le a v in g
s c h o o l. If in t e r v ie w e e n e v e r h eld a r e g u la r jo b s in c e le a v in g s c h o o l, w r ite
“ n e v e r h e ld a r e g u la r j o b ” a c r o s s s h e e t, a n sw e r q u e s tio n 16, d is r e g a r d
q u e stio n 17, and a n sw e r V .




- 54 -

P r e s e n t r e g u la r jo b
( c o l . 1)

D e ta ils on jo b e x p e r ie n c e
a.

What d o y o u do on th is j o b ?

b.

What date did y o u sta r t w o r k on j o b ?

c.

XXX

d. x x x
e.

What is the n a m e o f y o u r c o m p a n y
or e m p lo y e r ?

f.

A d d r e s s o f c o m p a n y o r e m p lo y e r
(to w n ).

g.

T y p e o f b u s in e s s o r p r o d u c t .

h.

How did y o u o b ta in the j o b ?
(C h e c k m o s t d i r e c t m e a n s o f
p la c e m e n t ).
1.

C on tin u a tion o f jo b h e ld w h ile in
s c h o o l.

2.

S ch ool r e fe r r a l.

3.

P u b lic e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e
o ffic e .

4.

F e e - c h a r g in g e m p lo y m e n t
agen cy.

5.

R e la tiv e o r fr ie n d .

6.

A d v e r t is e d in a n e w s p a p e r .

7.

A n s w e r e d n e w s p a p e r o r r a d io
a d v e r t is e m e n t .

8. A p p lie d in p e r s o n at p la c e o f
b u s in e s s .
9.

O th er ( s p e c if y ) .

i.

What a r e y o u r p r e s e n t w e e k ly
w a g e s (b e fo r e ta x e s o r o th e r
d e d u c tio n s ) ?

j.

R e g u la r h o u r s o f w o r k p e r w e e k

k. x x x
1.

xxx

m.

xxx

n. xxx
o.

xxx

p. xxx
q.

xxx

r.

xxx




- 55 -

16.

E x p e r ie n c e b e tw e e n le a v in g s c h o o l and f i r s t r e g u la r j o b , if any.
a.

W hat date did y o u le a v e s c h o o l ?_________________________________

b.

A ft e r y o u le ft s c h o o l, d id y o u lo o k f o r w o r k ? Y e s _______N o _________

c.

H ow m a n y w e e k s a fte r le a v in g s c h o o l did y o u s ta r t lo o k in g f o r w o r k ? _________

d.

If th is w a s m o r e than 9 w e e k s , w hat w e r e the r e a s o n s y ou w e r e n ot lo o k in g f o r
w o r k d u rin g th is tim e ? ________________________________________________________________

e.

D id y o u fin d a r e g u la r j o b ? _________________________

f.

H ow m a n y w e e k s d id it tak e y ou to fin d th is f i r s t r e g u la r j o b ? __________________

g.

D id y o u h a v e any s h o r t -t im e jo b s (la s tin g l e s s than 1 m on th but m o r e than
3 d a y s ) w h ile y o u w e r e lo o k in g f o r y o u r f i r s t r e g u la r jo b o r i f y ou n e v e r got
a r e g u la r j o b ? Y e s ______ N o _________
If a n s w e r is Y e s , how m a n y ? _____________

h.
i.
17.

In h ow m a n y w e e k s w e r e y o u w ork in g in th is (th e s e ) s h o r t -t im e j o b ( s ) ? _______
D id y o u r e g is t e r at the p u b lic e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e o f f i c e b e fo r e y ou g ot y o u r
f i r s t r e g u la r j o b ? Y e s _______ N o _________

J o b e x p e r ie n c e , f i r s t r e g u la r jo b to p r e s e n t jo b
F i r s t r e g u la r jo b
a fte r le a v in g s c h o o l
( c o l . 2)

D e ta ils on jo b e x p e r ie n c e

a.

W hat did y o u d o on th is j o b ?

b.

W hat date d id y o u s ta r t w o r k on j o b ?

c.

W hat date d id y o u le a v e the j o b ?

d.

D id y o u u su a lly w o rk l e s s than 35 h o u r s p e r
w eek?
W hat w as the n a m e o f y o u r c o m p a n y o r e m ­
p lo y e r ?

f.

A d d r e s s o f co m p a n y o r e m p lo y e r (tow n ).
T y p e o f b u s in e s s o r p r o d u c t .

h . H ow did y o u o b ta in the j o b ? (C h e c k m o s t
d i r e c t m e a n s o f p la c e m e n t .)
1.

C on tin u a tion o f jo b h e ld w h ile in
s c h o o l.

2.

S ch ool r e fe r r a l.

3.

P u b lic e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e o f f i c e .

4.

F e e - c h a r g in g e m p lo y m e n t a g e n c y .

5.

R e la tiv e o r fr ie n d .

6. A d v e r t is e d in a n e w s p a p e r .
7.

A n s w e r e d n e w s p a p e r o r r a d io a d ­
v e r t is e m e n t .

8.

A p p lie d in p e r s o n at p la c e o f b u s in e s s .

9 . O th e r ( s p e c if y ) .
l.

XXX

j-

XXX




- 56 -

D e ta ils on jo b e x p e r ie n c e

k.

W hy did y o u le a v e th is j o b ?

l.

F i r s t r e g u la r jo b
a fte r le a v in g s c h o o l
( c o l . 2)

H ow m an y w e e k s e la p s e d b etw een
le a v in g th is r e g u la r jo b and s e c u r in g
y o u r n ex t r e g u la r jo b , i f a n y ?

m . In how m a n y o f th e se w e e k s w e r e y ou
lo o k in g f o r w o r k ?
n . In h ow m an y o f th e se w e e k s did y ou
h ave s h o r t - t im e j o b s ?
o.

Did y o u d ra w u n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n ­
s a t io n ?
1. N u m b e r o f w e e k s .

p. If, d u rin g the p e r io d b e tw e e n th is r e g ­
u la r jo b and y o u r n ext r e g u la r jo b , you
w e r e not lo o k in g f o r w o r k f o r m o r e than
1 m on th , why w e re y o u not lo o k in g ?
q.

D id y o u e v e r g et a n o th e r r e g u la r j o b ?

r.

W h ile y o u w e r e lo o k in g f o r y o u r n ext
jo b , did y o u r e g is t e r at the p u b lic e m ­
p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e o f f i c e ?

[A b o v e q u e s tio n s w e r e r e p e a te d f o r e a c h s u c c e e d in g r e g u la r jo b to a c c o u
f o r a ll tim e b etw een f i r s t r e g u la r jo b and date o f in t e r v ie w .]
V.

C U R R E N T U N E M P L O Y M E N T E X P E R IE N C E
N ote:
18.

D o n ot a sk fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s o f p e r s o n s who now h av e a r e g u la r j o b .

A r e y o u lo o k in g f o r w o r k ? Y e s _______ N o _______ . If a n s w e r is Y e s , f i l l in secti<
A . If a n s w e r is N o , f i l l in s e c t io n B .

A . If y ou a r e n ot w o rk in g n o w , o r h ave o n ly a s h o r t -t im e jo b and a r e lo o k in g f o r regi
la r w o r k , but h a v e not o b ta in e d it:
19.

a.

F o r h ow m an y w e e k s have you b een lo o k in g f o r a j o b ? _________________________

b.

W hat k in d o f jo b a r e y o u lo o k in g f o r ? S p e c ify ___________________________________




- 57 -

c.

W hat a r e y ou d o in g to t r y to g et a j o b ? ( F i ll in on e o r m o r e )
Date o f m o s t r e c e n t u se o f
___________ th is m eth od ______
(1) C h e c k at the l o c a l p u b lic e m p lo y m e n t
s e r v ic e o ffic e .

_______________________________

(2) C h e ck at a f e e - c h a r g i n g e m p lo y m e n t
agen cy.

_______________________________

(3 ) In q u ire o f f r ie n d s and r e l a t iv e s .

_______________________________

(4) A n s w e r n e w s p a p e r o r r a d io a d v e r t i s e ­
m e n ts .

_______________________________

(5) P u t a d v e r t is e m e n t s in n e w

s p a p e r s . _______________________________

(6) A p p ly in p e r s o n at e m p l o y e r ’ s p la c e
o f b u s in e s s .
(7) O th e r ( s p e c if y ) .
20.

_______________________________
_______________________________

D u rin g y o u r p r e s e n t s e a r c h f o r a jo b , w as th e re a s p e c i f i c jo b o r jo b s that you
a p p lie d f o r , but w h ich y o u d id not g e t ? Y e s _______N o ________.
If a n s w e r is Y e s :
a.

W hat w a s the m o s t r e c e n t j o b ? _______________________________________________________

b.

W hat r e a s o n d id the e m p lo y e r g iv e y ou f o r not h ir in g y o u ?

S p e c ify :

(1) D id n ot h a ve s k ill q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ...................................................
(2) D id n ot h a ve e d u c a tio n a l q u a l i fi c a t i o n s .....................................

□

(3) T o o y o u n g .......................................................... .......................................

□

(4) D id n ot h ave p h y s ic a l q u a l i fi c a t i o n s ........ .................................

□

(5) O t h e r ....................... ••••.............................................................................

□

(6) N o s p e c i f i c r e a s o n ................................................................................
21 .

□

□

D u rin g y o u r p r e s e n t s e a r c h f o r a jo b , w e r e y ou o f f e r e d a s p e c if i c jo b f o r w h ich
y o u w e r e q u a lifie d but w h ich y o u d id not a c c e p t ?
Y e s ____N o _____
If a n sw e r is Y E S :
a.

W hat w as the j o b ? ____________________________________________________________

b.

T h e r e a s o n y o u did not a c c e p t it.

S p e c ify :

(1) W a g e s w e r e to o l o w ............................................. ...............................

□

(2 ) T r a n s p o r t a t io n w a s d i f f i c u l t ............... .......... ................. ••••........

□

(3) D id n ot lik e w o rk in g c o n d itio n s •••••..................... .......................

□

Spe c i f y ___________________________________________________________
(4 ) O th e r ( s p e c i f y ) .................................. ......................................................




- 58 -

□

B . If in t e r v ie w e e is not w o rk in g at p r e s e n t , and is n ot lo o k in g f o r a jo b :
22.

If y o u a r e n ot lo o k in g f o r w o rk , what is the c h ie f r e a s o n ?
a.

O c c u p ie d fu ll tim e in k e e p in g h o u s e ..................................................

□

b.

P e r m a n e n t d i s a b il i t y ..................................................................................

□

c.

H ave a new jo b sta rtin g w it h in _____ d a y s .........................................

□

d.

E x p e c t to be c a lle d b a ck on old jo b w ith in _____ d a y s .................

□

e.

In s c h o o l, a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r plan to e n te r w ith in _____ d a y s ..

□

f.

I l l n e s s ......................................

□

g.

D o n ot h ave s k ills f o r w o r k a v a ila b le .................................................

□

h.

T o o you n g f o r w o r k a v a ila b le .................................

□

i.

D o n ot h ave p h y s ic a l q u a lific a tio n s f o r w o rk a v a ila b le ••••••••

□

j.

O th e r ( s p e c i f y ) .........................................................................................

□




- 59 -

SCHEDULE B
INQUIRY TO F A M IL Y M EM BERS OF SCHOOL LEAVERS
NO LONGER LIVING IN A R E A
T h e s e fe w q u e s tio n s a r e to be a sk e d to get s o m e lin e on what h a s h app en ed to the
u tm ig r a n ts a m on g s c h o o l l e a v e r s . T h e q u e stio n s a r e lim it e d and g e n e r a l b e c a u s e in
lan y c a s e s fa m ily m e m b e r s d o n ot r e a lly k n ow m u ch abou t th o s e w ho h ave m o v e d aw ay.
H o w e v e r , s in c e a n u m b e r o f you n g p e o p le m a y be le a v in g the a r e a , it is n e c e s s a r y , in
v a lu a tin g the to ta l situ a tio n , to have s o m e b a s ic in fo r m a tio n about th em .
Q u e s tio n s on f i r s t pa ge sh ou ld be a d d r e s s e d on ly to adu lt p e r s o n s - -p a r e n t s o r o th e r
Lose r e l a t i v e s - - w h o m igh t be e x p e c te d to h ave r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e in fo r m a tio n . D o
ot in t e r v ie w n e ig h b o r s o r o th e r n o n fa m ily m e m b e r s f o r a n s w e r s to q u e s tio n s 1 -9 .
If the fa m ily o f the s c h o o l le a v e r h a s a ls o m o v e d a w a y - - t r y to fin d out f r o m a n e ig h b o r
h e th e r the s c h o o l l e a v e r le f t the a r e a and w h e re he w en t, if p o s s i b le . In su ch c a s e s ,
11 out “ In q u iry o f N e ig h b o r s ’ * o n ly .
ch o o l C o d e ____________________
Durce o f in fo r m a tio n :

Student C o d e ____________________ __ S e r ia l N o . ________________

N a m e _______________________________________R e l a t i o n s h ip ________________
(la s t ,
fir s t,
m id d le )

. PERSON AL D A TA
1. __________________________________ ________________ N ee j ________________________________________
N am e o f s c h o o l le a v e r ( f i r s t , la s t , m id d le )
(If m a r r i e d , g iv e m a id e n n a m e )
2.

D ate o f b i r t h :_______________________________ __
m on th
year

3.

a.

M a r ita l Status:

b.

N u m b e r o f c h ild r e n .

4.

S ib lin g s :
a.

S in g le _________ M a r r i e d _________ O th e r ___________
N o n e _______ O n e _______ T w o ________T h r e e o r m o r e ___________

W hen he le ft s c h o o l, h ow m an y b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s did he h a v e ? _________

D o e s he h a v e any p h y s ic a l d is a b ilit y w h ich h a s la s te d f o r 6 m o n th s o r lo n g e r o r
w h ich is lik e ly to la s t that lo n g ?
Y e s _______ N o _________
If y e s :

b.

S p e c ify ty p e (h e a r t a ilm e n t, T .B ., n e p h r itis , e t c .) ___________________________________

c.

H ow o ld w as h e w hen the d is a b ilit y b e g a n ? ____________________________________________

d.

H a s the d is a b ilit y p r e v e n te d h im f r o m gettin g a j o b ?

e.

D o e s he k n ow o f the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the V R a g e n c y in p r e p a r in g p e r s o n s
f o r p a id e m p lo y m e n t ?
Y e s ______ N o ________P a re n t d o e s n ’ t k n ow __________

Y e s ______ N o ________

P R E S E N T A C T IV IT Y
5.

W hy did he le a v e the a r e a ?




_____________________________________________________

- 60 -

6.

W hen d id he l e a v e ? _______________________
m on th
year

7.

W h e re is he liv in g n o w ? ___________________________
(tow n and State)

8 . Had he w o r k e d at a r e g u la r jo b o r jo b s b e fo r e le a v in g the a r e a ?
Y e s ______ N o _______
If Y e s , f o r how lo n g a lt o g e t h e r ?
9.

Is he w o rk in g n o w ?

M o n th s ______________ Y e a r s ____

Y e s _______ N o ________

If Y e s ,
a.

W h e r e ? ____________________________
(tow n and State)

b.

O c c u p a t io n ? __________________ _
( if a v a ila b le )

INQUIRY OF NEIGHBORS
F i l l out o n ly if both s c h o o l le a v e r and fa m ily a r e n ot at g iv e n a d d r e s s .
N am e o f S c h o o l l e a v e r ________________ Student C o d e _______________S e r ia l N o.
D o you k n ow w h e re he now l i v e s ?

Y e s _______N o ________

W h ere ? ______________________________________________________
(a s c o m p le te an a d d r e s s as p o s s ib le )
D o y ou know w h e re h is fa m ily now l i v e s ?

Y e s ______ N o _______

W h ere ? _______________________________________________________ ___________________
(a s c o m p le t e an a d d r e s s as p o s s ib le )

N o te : If s c h o o l l e a v e r is s t ill liv in g r e g u la r ly in the a r e a , not ju s t h o m e on v a c a tio n
c o n ta c t h im at n ew a d d r e s s and f i l l out sch e d u le A .
If s c h o o l l e a v e r h a s le ft the a r e a , but fa m ily s t ill liv e s t h e r e , c o n ta c t th em and fill
out s c h e d u le B .
If n e ith e r ca n be c o n ta c te d , in d ic a te by an “ X ” ,
□
and a s k n e ig h b o r what he k n o w s about s c h o o l l e a v e r ’ s
p r e s e n t status




- 61 -




A P P E N D IX D
T A B L E S D - l to D -1 3

-

62

-

TABLE D-l.— Universe, sample, and completed Interviews of graduates and dropouts, by area and sex
Type of interview schedule
All interviews

Complete sample

Universe

A schedules1

Area
and sex
Total

All areas—
Male-----*Female— —

Grad­
uates

Drop­
Total
outs

Grad­
uates

Drop­
outs

Total

6,311
3,015
3,296

21,887 12,382
10,939 5,487
10,948 6,895

9,505
5,452
4,053

6,830
3,311
3,519

3,830
1,648
2,182

3,000
1,663
1,337

B schedules2

Grad­
uates

Drop­
outs

Total

Grad­ Drop­
uates outs

3,931
1,557
2,374

2,319
773
1,546

1,612
784
828

2,380
1,458
922

1,247
719
528

1,133
739
394

Grad­
uates

Drop­
outs

Total

3,566
1,492
2,074

2,745
1,523
1,222

Area A-— —
Male----Female— —

4,227
2,155
2,072

2,880
1,459
1,421

1,347
696
651

1,183
598
585

657
336
321

526
262
264

1,170 ^
592
578

654
334
320

516
258
258

698
287
411

426
174
252

272
113
159

472
305
167

228
160
68

244
145
99

Area B—
Male----Female— -

5,762
3,021
2,741

2,583
1,127
1,456

3,179
1,894
1,285

1,040
537
503

516
225
291

524
312
212

841
428
413

423
178
245

418
250
168

537
223
314

302
110
192

235
113
122

304
205
99

121
68
53

183
137
46

Area C----Male----Female--

3,526
1,767
1,759

2,026
882
1,144

1,500
885
615

1,074
531
543

660
286
374

414
245
169

952
432
520

592
229
363

360
203
157

588
263
325

343
122
221

245
141
104

364
169
195

249
107
142

115
62
53

Area D----Male----Female---

1,365
649
716

796
333
463

569
316
253

684
286
398

437
167
270

247
119
128

684
286
398

437
167
270

247
119
128

410
156
254

270
88
182

140
68
72

274
130
144

167
79
88

107
51
56

Area E- - Male— --Female---

1,998
912
1,086

1,307
496
811

691
416
275

1,050
482
568

692
265
427

358
217
141

949
433
516

617
230
387

332
203
129

685
235
450

486
139
347

199
96
103

264
198
66

131
91
40

133
107
26

Area F----Male----Female-— -

3,305
1,564
1,741

2,106
896
1,210

1,199
668
531

950
444
506

527
223
304

423
221
202

866
411
455

502
208
294

364
203
161

448
146
302

282
80
202

166
66
100

418
265
153

220
128
92

198
137
61

Area G---— Male-----Female— —

1,704
871
833

684
294
390

1,020
577
443

849
433
416

341
146
195

508
287
221

849
433
416

341
146
195

508
287
221

565
247
318

210
60
150

355
187
168

284
186
98

131
86
45

153
100
53

1 Interviews with school leavers in person.
2 Interviews with family or neighbors of school leavers.




63

TABLE D-2a.— IQ's of graduates, five areas, by sex
IQ's of graduates
Area
and sex

Total
reporting IQ
Number

Under 85

Percent

Number

90-109

85-89

Percent

Number

Percent

110-114

Number

Percent

Number

115 and over

Percent

Number

Percent

All areas1---Male-------Female--- -—

2 7,161
3,201
3,960

100
100
100

702
373
329

10
12
8

784
355
429

11
11
11

4,489
1,973
2,516

63
62
64

624
264
360

9
8
9

562
236
326

7
7
8

Area A — -----—
Male-------Female— ----

2,581
1,317
1,264

100
100
100

220
139
81

9
10
7

202
115
87

8
9
7

1,584
814
770

61
62
61

285
129
156

11
10
12

290
120
170

11
9
13

786
324
462

100
100
100

122
58
64

16
18
14

94
34
60

12

11
13

436
172
264

55
53
57

66
30
36

8
9
8

68
30
38

9
9
8

Area E-----—
Male--- ---Female-----

1,253
479
774

100
100
100

47
19
28

4
4
4

107
41
66

8
9
8

909
352
557

73
73
72

126
46
80

10
10
10

64
21
43

5
4
6

Area F—
---Male---- ---Female—
—

1,861
790
1,071

100
100
100

262
140
122

14
18
11

300
137
163

16
17
15

1,131
451
680

61
57
64

92
29
63

5
4
6

76
33
43

4
4
4

680
291
389

100
100
100

51
17
34

8
6
9

81
28
53

12
10
14

429
184
245

63
63
63

55
30
25

8
10
6

64
32
32

9
11
8

Area D—
— — Male-------Female—
— -

Area G— —
Male-—
—
Female— —

1 Data for areas B and C were insufficient to warrant presentation#
2 Excludes 612 graduates for whom IQ's were not reported. IQ's based on Otis Mental Ability Group Test in 4 areas and
on Terman-Mc Namor in 1.

TABLE D~2b.— IQ's of dropouts, five areas, by sex

Area
and sex

Total
reporting
IQ

IQ's of dropouts
Under 85
Number

90-109

85-89

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

115 and over

110-114

Percent

Number

Percent Number

Percent

Number

Percent

All areas1-- —
Male--------Female---- ---

2 4,032
2,225
1,807

100
100
100

1,230
714
516

31
32
28

601
334
267

15
15
15

1,945
1,046
899

48
47
50

165
81
84

4
4
5

91
50
41

2
2
2

Area A--------Male--- ----Female-— — -

1,177
602
575

100
100
100

321
189
132

27
31
23

163
94
69

14
16

599
275
324

51
46
56

63
29
34

5
5
6

31
15
16

3
2
3

Area D--- ----—
Male-— — ---Female— — -— -

475
261
214

100
100
100

165
96
69

35
37
32

60
31
29

12
22

14

214
116
98

45
44
46

18
7
11

4
3
5

18
11
7

4
4
3

Area E- ------Male---------Female--------

628
384
244

100
100
100

143
84
59

23
22
24

106
56
50

17
15
21

349
227
122

55
59
50

26
16
10

4
4
4

4
1
3

1
(3)
1

Area F— — — --Male— ------ Female-------

798
436
362

100
100
100

273
158
115

34
36
32

149
86
63

19
20
17

344
176
168

43
40
47

16
8
8

2
2
2

16
8
8

2
2
2

Area G— ------ Male--------Female— -----

954
542
412

100
100
100

328
187
141

35
35
34

123
67
56

13
12
24

439
252
187

46
46
45

42
21
21

4
4
5

22
15
7

2
3
2

12

1 Data for areas B and C were insufficient to warrant presentation.
2 Excludes 794 dropouts forv
whom IQ's were not reported. IQ's based on Otis Mental Ability Group Test in 4 areas and
Dn Terman-Mc Namor in 1.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.




64

TABLE D-3.— Highest grade completed by dropouts, by area and sex
Highest grade completed
Total dropouts
11th

Area and sex

10th

9th

Ungraded1

7th

8th

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

4

Per­
cent

225
151
74

Number

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

All areas--------Male-----------Female----------

2 9,459
5,420
4,039

100
100
100

1,768
1,035
733

19
19
18

1,902
976
926

20
18
23

2,814
1,645
1,169

30
30
29

2,345
1,353
992

25
25
24

405
260
145

5
4

Area A-----------Male-----------Female----------

1,347
696
651

100
100
100

288
157
131

21
23
20

422
183
239

31
26
37

399
215
184

30
31
28

238
141
97

18
20
15

_
_
—
—

_
_
—
—

_
_
—
—

—
—
—

Area B-----------Male-----------Female----------

3,179
1,894
1,285

lo o

100
100

930
576
354

29
30
27

358
192
166

11
10
13

772
469
303

25
25
24

1,119
657
462

35
35
36

_
_
—
—

_
_
—
—

_
_
—
—

_
_
—
—

Area C-----------Male-----------Female----------

1,474
867
607

100
100
100

177
90
87

12
10
14

396
210
186

27
24
31

506
335
171

34
39
28

240
134
106

16
16
18

155
98
57

11
11
9

_
_
—
—

_
_
—
—

Area D-----------Male-----------Female----------

566
313
253

100
100
100

80
43
37

14
14
15

154
82
72

27
26
28

237
134
103

42
43
41

72
43
29

13
14
11

23
11
12

4

_
_
—
—

_
_
—
—

_
_
—

_
_
—

—-

—

_
_
—
—
_
_
—
—
22
26
17

Area E-----------Male-----------Female----------

674
405
269

100
100
100

91
63
28

14
16
11

172
115
57

26
28
21

Num­
ber

226
142
84

33

35
31

185
85
100

27
21
37

_
_
—

3

5

Area F-----------Male-----------Female----------

1,199
668
531

100
100
100

131
65
66

11
10
12

238
112
126

20
17
24

343
182
161

29
27
30

353
213
140

29
32
27

134
96
38

11
14
7

_
_
—
—

Area G-----------Male-----------Female----------

1,020
577
443

100
100
100

71

7
7
7

162

16

331

41
30

82
80

14
18

168
163

32
29
37

138
80
58

14
14

93
55
38

9
10
8

225
151
74

13

2
3
2

1 Only one area had this classification. Students were placed in this classification by the school authorities in ths
area if they failed to earn promotion for 2 years.
2 Excludes 46 for whom grade completed was not reported.




65

TABLE D-4.— Reasons for leaving school as given by dropouts, by highest grade completed and by area and sex
Highest grade completed, by sex
11th

All grades
Area and reasons
given for leaving

Male

Tot 9 1
.

Female

Male

10th

Female

Male

9th

Female

Male

L e s s than 9th

Female

Male

Female

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

5

100
5
18
15
3
(2)

743
43
187
19
48
2

100
6
25
3
6
(2)

807
30
96
218
2
3

100
4
12
27
(2)
(2 )

88
2
27
6
11
—

108
2
13
57
1
—

132
10
42
5
12
—

217
12
27
73
—
—

244
22
65
5
15
2

254
11
31
57
1
2

279
9
53
3
10
—

228
5
25
31
—
1

534

35

279

38

255

32

27

21

37

53

73

84

142

97

Number

Number

Number

Number

Number

11 areas-----------Reached age 16----Work--------------Marriage----------Military service--Moved within areaAdverse school
experience------Adverse home circumstances------Health------------Other--------------

1 1,550
73
283
237
50

123
95
150

8
6
10

52
36
77

7
5
10

71
59
73

9
7
9

3
3
9

3
4
7

8
7
11

20
15
17

22
16
24

31
13
24

19
10
33

17
27
25

rea A--------------Reached age 16----Work--------------Marriage----------Military service--Moved within areaAdverse school
experience------Adverse home circumstances------Health------------Other--------------

264
4
67
78
7
2

100
1
25
30
3
1

109
2
47
6
7
—

100
2
43
6
6
—

155
2
20
72
—
2

100
1
13
47
—
1

21
—
7
2
1
—

39
1
8
23
—
—

25
—
12
3
2
—

61
—
6
29
—
—

35
1
16
1
2
—

38
—
3
15
—
1

28
1
12
—
2
—

17
1
3
5
—
1

74

28

35

32

39

25

9

5

6

16

11

12

9

6

12
20
—

—

—

—

—

—

—

rea B--------------Reached age 16----Work--------------Marriage----------Military service--Moved within areaAdverse school
experience------Adverse home circumstances------Health------------Other--------------

235
—
35
39
14
—

100
—
15
17
6
—

113
—
21
4
12
—

100
—
19
3
11
—

122
—
14
35
2
—

100
—
11
29
2
—

16
—
4
1
3
—

37

16

23

20

14

11

1

1
20
89

(2)
8
38

rea C--------------Reached age 16----Work--------------Marriage----------Military service--Moved within areaAdverse school
experience------Adverse home circumstances------Health------------Other--------------

206
45
36
37
3
—

rea D --------------Reached age 16----Work--------------Marriage----------Military service--Moved within areaAdverse school
experience------Adverse home circumstances-------Health------------Other--------------

5
7

4
8

5
6

5
8

7
13

...
7
46

...
6
41

100
22
17
18
1

114
30
27
5
3

100
26
24
4
3

—

—

—

—

—

1
13
43

1
11
35

92
15
9
32

14
—
4
—
1
—

27
—
2
13
—
—

25
—
1
1
4
—

33
—
5
10
1
—

58
—
12
2
4
—

48
—
4
9
—
—

2

1

2

4

2

17

8

...
—
7

...
2
3

...
2
6

1

...
3
12

...
3
12

...
2
21

...
8
19

12
2
2
3
1

19
—
—
12

25
7
8
1
1

47
14
12

19
3
2
7

30
7
5
1

23
3
2
9

—

14
—
3
3
1
—

—
—

—

17
13
23

8
7
11

8
8
13

7
7
11

9
5
10

10
5
11

130
24
26
22
4

100
18
20
17
3

60
11
19

100
18
32

70
13
7
22

100
18
10
31

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

18

12

20

11

11
6
14

8
5
11

5
1
8

8
2
13

6
5
6

9
7
9

1

3
1
2

4
2
4

2
7
5

17
3
7

24
3
2
8

66

9
1

—
—

7

4

—

1
—

1

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

26
7
6

2

8

—
—

—

6

—

. . .

16

1

—

3

—

23

—

—

2

—

—

3

4

9
31
9
5
4

2

13

—

—

3

12

—

1
—

18

7

2
2
—

20

4

2
5
—

16

—

1
3
—

—

32

—

4
6
—

100
16
10
35

See footnotes at end of table.




1
1

1
1
—

—

—

1
1

—

4

3

2
3
2

—

2

2

2

6

2
3
2

31
8
3
7

9
1
2

6
1
2

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

3

3

9

1
—

—

—
—

4

—

—

6

2
—

1

3

4

3
1
1

—

4

4

1
2
—

TABLE D-4.— Reasons for leaving school as given by dropouts, by highest grade completed and by area and sex— Continuec
Highest grade completed, by sex
All grades
Area and reasons
given for leaving

Total
Number

11th

Male

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Female

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

100
—
23
14

Male

100

Area E-------------Reached age 16---Work-------------Marriage---------Military serviceMoved within area—
Adverse school
experience-----Adverse home circuinstances-----Health-----------Other-------------

194
—
54
17
.12
—

100
—
28
9
6
—

94
—
31
3
12
—

100
—
33
3
13
—

81

42

37

39

44

44

8
10
12

4
5
6

3
2
6

3
2
7

5
8
6

5
8
6

Area F-------------Reached age 16---Work-------------Marriage---------Military serviceMoved within area—
Adverse school
experience-----Adverse home circumstances- ---Health-----------Other-------------

166
—
19
34
8
3

100
-—
11
21
5
2

66
—
14
1
8
2

100
—
21
1
12
3

100
--5
33
—
1

100

63

38

29

44

34

34

1A

17
8

8
10
5

4
5
3

6
8
5

10
12
5

10
12
5

Area G-------------Reached age 16---Work-------------Marriage---------Military serviceMoved within area—
Adverse school
experience-----Adverse home circumstances-----Health-----------Other-------------

355

100

187

100

168

100

—

—

—

—

—

—

46
10
2
—

13
3
1
—

-

28
—

—

—

15

5

4

—

—

1

6

1
2

2
—

_____

60

17
2
1

27
6
1

14
3
1

33
3

19
2
2

3

3

1
—




9
1
—

—
21

2
1
1

1
2

2
2
3

1
3

1
4
1

24
_—
—
12
—
—

18
—
6
—
—
2

31
—
3
8
—
1

28
—
6
_
_
2
—

36
— _
2
6
—
—

8

7

10

15

15

2
1
1

1
1
1

6
3

2
2
1

2
8
3

16
3
1
_____

9

—

1
_____

16
1
—

61
—

11

3
1

—

—

—

—

_____

_____

_____

35

84

17

27

5
2
—

108
—

9
4

12

16

1
2

—

68
—

—

—
_____

—

57
—

5
3

—

5

—

31
—

1 Excludes 59 for whom reasons for leaving and for highest grade completed were not reported.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

67

—

37

7

—

—

101

—

18
—
5
—
2
—

15

—

8
—

—

66

34
—
6
6

4

1

3

—

123

36
—
12
3
4
—

Number

1
1

7
—
—

—

63

Number

1A

13
—
1
1
5
—

—

60
9
4

Male Femal

4

9

—

224

Less than 9t

Female

12

—
—

—
—

—

1
1

Male

2

7

1

—

—

1
1

1

—

11
6

—

1

—

7
4

—

4

—

1

19
—

7
1

—

Female

22

—

—

1

2

—

9th

Number

—
1
3

7

—

5
33
—
1

Male

10
—

—

18
10

—

—

18

—

—

Female

Number

—
23
14

10th

10
2
1

—

3

45
11
1
—

TABLE D-5.— Reasons for leaving school as given by dropouts, four areas, by IQ
IQ's of dropouts
Area and reasons given for
leaving school

Total dropouts
Under 85

85-89

90-109

110 and over

Number

Number

Number

Number

Percent

Number

1 areas1------------------ ------Reached age 16— ----------------Work-----------------------------Marriage-------------------------Military service-----------------Moved within area---------------Adverse school experience-------Adverse home circumstances------Health---------------------------Other-----------------------------

2 840
4
161
118
20
4
386
85
44
18

100
1
19
14
2
1
46
10
5
2

289
3
47
20
5
2
158
36
17
1

117

383

—

—

■ea A ----------------- -----------Reached age 16-------------- ----Work-----------------------------Marriage--------------------- ---Military service----------------Moved within area------ ---------Adverse school experience-------Adverse home circumstances------Health--------------------------Other- ---------------------- ----

229
4
57
69
4
2
64
11
18

100
2
25
30
2
1
28
4
8

30
—
12
5
2

—

—

75
3
18
11
2
1
28
5
7
—

ea E-----------------------------Reached age 16-------------------Work-----------------------------Marriage------------------------ Military service--------------- —
Moved within area-------------- —
Adverse school experience— ---- —
Adverse home circumstances— ----Health--------------------------Other----------------------------

170
—
47
15
8
74
8
9
9

100
—
28
9
5
—
43
5
5
5

44
—
8
1
—
—
27
3
4
1

ea F-----------------------------Reached age 16------------------—
Work-----------------------------Marriage-------------------------Military service- --------------Moved within area---------------Adverse school experience— ----- Adverse home circumstances- ---—
Health---------------------------Other-----------------------------

111

100

14
24
6
2
40
11
8
6

13
22
5
2
36
10
7
5

9
5
3
1
14
2
5
—

7
2
1
3

4
14
2
1
17
6
2
1

ea G-----------------------------Reached age 16-------------------Work-----------------------------Marriage-------------------------Military service----------------Moved within area---------------Adverse school experience--- ----Adverse home circumstances------Health---------------------------Other-----------------------------

330
—
43
10
2
—
208
55
9
3

100
—
13
3
1
—
63
16
3
1

131
—
12
3
-—
—
89
26
1
—

38
— 1
—
1
—
30
4
1
1

140
—
26
5
1
—
78
23
5
2

—

58
8
4
5

—

68

82
73
8
2
150
37
21
10

—

109
—
23
47
—
1
24
4
10
—

30
—
7
5
3
—
12
1
1
1

87
—
29
7
5
—
31
4
4
7

—

9
1
1

39

—

L Data for areas B, C, and D were not available for this cross tabulation,
2 Excludes 149 for whom reasons and/or IQ's were not reported.




21
14
7

19
1
4
1

—
—

20
4
2
2
15
1
4
6
—
—

3
1
—

—
9
—
3
2
——
-—
4
—
—
—

6

47
—

—

51
1
11
11

—
—

1
—
—
2
1
—
2
21
—
4
2
—
11
2
2
—

TABLE D-6a.— All vocational courses completed by graduates and dropouts, six areas, by sex

Sex

Total
graduates
and
dropouts

Number

Number of
students who
completed no
vocational
courses

Percent Number

Percent

Unduplicated
total of students
who completed
vocational
courses1
Number

Percent

Total
graduates
and
dropouts

Number

Percent

Number of
students who
completed no
vocational
courses
Number

All areas2

Percent

Unduplicated
total of students
who completed
vocational
courses1
Number

Percent

Area A

Total----Male---Female—

3 19,755
9,930
9,825

100
100
100

3,489
1,886
1,603

18
19
16

16,266
8,044
8,222

82
81
84

4,227
2,155
2,072

100
100
100

483
238
245

11
11
12

3,744
1,917
1,827

89
89
88

Graduates—
Male---Female—

11,075
4,990
6,085

100
100
100

370
215
155

3
4
3

10,705
4,775
5,930

97
96
97

2,880
1,459
1,421

100
100
100

139
93
46

5
6
3

2,741
1,366
1,375

95
94
97

Dropouts— Male---Female-—

8,680
4,940
3,740

100
100
100

3,119
1,671
1,448

36
34
39

5,561
3,269
2,292

64
66
61

1,347
696
651

100
100
100

344
145
199

26
21
31

1,003
551
452

74
79
69

19
23
15

2,858
1,364
1,494

81
77
85

2,026
882
1,144

100
100
100

45
46
43

832
482
350

55
54
57

Area C

Area B
28

Total----Male---Female-

5,762
3,021
2,74-1

100
100
100

1,634
892
742

30
27

4,128
2,129
1,999

72
70
73

3,526
1,767
1,759

100
100
100

668
403
265

Graduates—
Male---Female-

2,583
1,127
1,456

100
100
100

166
67
99

6
6
7

2,417
1,060
1,357

94
94
93

2,026
882
1,144

100
100
100

—

____

—

—

—

—

Dropouts-—
Male--- Female-

3,179
1,894
1,285

100
100
100

1,468
825
643

46
44
50

1,711
1,069
642

54
56
50

1,500
885
615

100
100
100

668
403
265
Area F

Area D
Total----Male---Female—

1,365
649
716

100
100
100

Graduates—
Male---Female—

796
333
463

100
100
100

DropoutsMale---Female-

569
316
253

100
100
100

10
4
14

1,235
621
614

90
96
86

3 3,171
1,468
1,703

100
100
100

392
225
167

12
15
10

2,779
1,243
1,536

88
85
90

__
_

__

—

—
—

100
100
100

2,106
896
1,210

100
100
100

10
8
2

(*)
1

—

796
333
463

(*)

2,096
888
1,208

100
99
100

23
9
40

439
288
151

77
91
60

3 1,065
572
493

100
100
100

382
217
165

36
38
33

683
355
328

64
62
67

130
28
102

130
28
102
Area G

Total----Male---Female-

1,704
870
834

100
100
100

182
100
82

11
11
10

1,522
770
752

89
89
90

Graduates—
Male---Female-

684
293
391

100
100
100

55
47
8

8
16
2

629
246
383

92
84
98

DropoutsMale---Female—

1,020
577
443

100
100
100

127
53
74

12
9
17

893
524
369

88
91
83

1 The unduplicated total counts a student only once even though he completed both commercial and industrial courses.
It includes also 182 graduates (66 percent girls) in area A and 180 graduates (60 percent girls) in area F who had com­
pleted courses in distributive education (retail trade).
2 Excludes area E for which data were not available by number of vocational courses. Registration by type of cur­
riculum was as follows: General— 130 graduates, 131 dropouts; college preparatory— 353 graduates, 79 dropouts; busi­
ness— 616 graduates, 220 dropouts; industrial— 206 graduates 240 dropouts. Twenty-three did not report type of
curriculum.
3 Excludes 134 dropouts in 8th grade for whom data on vocational courses were not reported.
* Less than 0.5 percent.




69

TABLE D-6b. Commercial courses completed by graduates and dropouts, six areas, by sex,
Commercial courses
Number of courses taken
Area and
sex

Total talcing
commercial
courses
Number

Two

One

Percent

Number

Percent Number

Three

Percent

Number

No commercial
courses

Four

Percent Number

Percent Number

Percent1

All areas2---Male-------Female------

311,258
3,682
7,576

100
100
100

2,278
1,359
919

20
37
12

2,262
1,135
1,127

20
31
15

1,257
351
906

11
9
12

5,461
837
4,624

49
23
61

4,940
4,327
613

30
54
7

Graduates----Male-------Female------

8,652
2,887
5,765

100
100
100

1,307
933
374

15
32
7

1,555
921
634

18
32
11

1,016
304
712

12
11
12

4,774
729
4,045

55
25
70

2,052
1,888
164

19
40
3

Dropouts-----Male------- Female------

2,606
795
1,811

100
100
100

971
426
545

37
53
30

707
214
493

27
27
27

241
47
194

9
6
11

687
108
579

27
14
32

2,888
2,439
449

52
75
20

Area A — — ---Male-------Female------

2,64-5
819
1,826

100
100
100

324
204
120

12
25
7

439
247
192

17
30
10

117
49
68

4
6
4

1,765
319
1,446

67
39
79

1,099
1,098
1

29
57
(4 )

Graduates----Male------- Female------

2,056
682
1,374

100
100
100

206
156
50

10
23
4

285
203
82

14
30
6

80
38
42

4
5
3

1,485
285
1,200

72
42
87

685
684
1

25
50
(*)

589
137
452

100
100
100

118
48
70

20
35
16

154
44
110

26
32
24

37
11
26

6
8
6

280
34
246

48
25
54

414
414
—

41
75
—

Area B-------Male-------Female-------

2,952
1,095
1,857

100
100
100

407
247
160

14
23
9

676
405
271

23
37
15

250
113
137

8
10
7

1,619
330
1,289

55
30
69

1,176
1,034
142

28
49
7

Graduates----Male-------Female--- —

2,116
794
1,322

100
100
100

155
114
41

7
14
3

454
321
133

22
41
10

165
95
70

8
12
5

1,342
264
1,078

63
33
82

301
266
35

12
25
3

Dropouts---- —
Male-------Female—--- ——

836
301
535

100
100
100

252
133
119

30
44
22

222
84
138

27
28
26

85
18
67

10
6
13

277
66
211

33
22
39

875
768
107

51
72
17

Area C-------Male-------Female----- -

1,909
537
1,372

100
100
100

425
213
212

22
40
15

417
190
227

22
35
17

212
38
174

11
7
13

855
96
759

45
18
55

887
795
92

31
58
6

Graduates-----Male-------Female------

1,485
417
1,068

100
100
100

252
150
102

17
36
10

278
145
133

19
35
12

170
31
139

11
7
13

785
91
694

53
22
65

540
465
75

27
53
7

Dropouts---- —
Male-------Female------

424
120
304

100
100
100

173
63
110

41
52
36

139
45
94

33
38
31

42
7
35

10
6
12

70
5
65

16
4
21

347
330
17

42
68
5

Lrea D -------Male-------Female------

809
229
580

100
100
100

247
154
93

30
68
16

120
35
85

15
15
15

48
14
34

6
6
6

394
26
368

49
11
63

420
389
31

34
63
5

Graduates----Male-------Female------

586
152
434

100
100
100

133
96
37

23
63
9

66
23
43

11
15
10

29
10
19

5
7
4

358
23
335

61
15
77

210
181
29

26
54
6

Dropouts-----Male-------Female------

223
77
146

100
100
100

114
58
56

51
75
38

54
12
42

24
16
29

19
4
15

9
5
10

36
3
33

16
4
23

210
208
2

48
72
(4 )

erea F -------Male-------Female---- —

2,176
797
1,379

100
100
100

633
418
215

29
53
16

408
202
206

19
25
15

361
111
250

17
14
18

774
66
708

35
8
51

603
446
157

22
36
10

Dropouts-----Male-------Female------

See footnotes at end of table.




70

TABLE D-6b. Commercial courses completed by graduates and dropouts, six areas, by sex— Continued
Commercial courses
Number of courses taken
Area and
sex

Total taking
commercial
courses
Number

One

Percent

Number

Two

Percent Number

Three

Percent

Number

Four or more

Percent Number

Graduates----Male-------Female--- —

1,884
695
1,189

100
100
100

441
330
111

23
48
9

348
192
156

18
28
13

333
107
226

18
15
19

292
102
190

100
100
100

192
88
104

66
86
55

60
10
50

20
10
26

28
4
24

10
4
13

—

Area G-------Male-------Female------

767
205
562

100
100
100

242
123
119

32
60
21

202
56
146

26
27
26

269
26
243

35
13
43

—

Graduates--- -—
Male-------Female------

525
147
378

100
100
100

120
87
33

23
59
9

124
37
87

24
25
23

239
23
216

45
16
57

—

Dropouts-----Male-------Female------

242
58
184

100
100
100

122
36
86

51
62
47

78
19
59

32
33
32

30
3
27

12
5
15

Percent Number

762
66
696

Dropouts-----Male-------Female------

1
2
3
*




212
193
19

10
22
2

4

391
253
138

57
71
42

755
565
190

50
73
25

104
99
5

17
40
(4 )

651
466
185

73
89
50

—

6

12
54

7
—

10

54

8

42
—

11

42

5

12
—

12

Percent1

41
9
59

12

Percent based on unduplicated total of those who completed vocational courses. See table D-ba.
See footnote 2, table D-6a.
Excludes 68 for whom number of courses taken were not reported.
Too few to compute percent.

71

No commercial
courses

6

T A B L E D-6c. - -Industrial courses completed by graduates and dropouts, six areas, by sex

Industrial courses
Number of courses taken
Area and
sex

Total taking
industrial
courses

One

Number

Two

3 10,008
7,083
2,925

100
100
100

2,500
1,333
1,167

25
19
40

2,240
1,328
912

22
19
31

977
659
318

10
9
11

4,291
3,763
528

43
53
18

6,182
923
5,259

38
11
64

Graduates---Male------Female-----

6,066
4,104
1,962

100
100
100

923
396
527

15
10
27

1,230
512
718

20
12
36

552
279
273

9
7
14

3,361
2,917

56
71
23

4,636
670
3,966

43

Dropouts--- —
Male------Female-----

3,942
2,979
963

100
100
100

1,577
937
640

40
32
66

1,010
816
194

26
27
20

425
380
45

11
13
5

930
846
84

23
28
9

1,546
253
1,293

28
8
56

Area A------Male----- —
Female-----

1,606
1,576
30

100
100
100

108
90
18

7
6
60

210
203
7

13
13
23

86
83
3

5
5
10

1,202
1,200
2

75
76
7

2,138
341
1,797

57
18
98

Graduates---Male---- -— Female-----

1,117
1,091
26

100
100
100

39
24
15

3
2
57

87
80
7

8
7
27

36
34
2

3
3
8

955
953
2

86
88
8

1,624
275
1,349

59
20
98

Dropouts---- Male--- ---Female— — —

489
485
4

100
100
100

69
66
3

14
14
(*)

123
123

25
25

50
49
1

10
10
(*)

247
247

51
51

514
66
448

51
12
99

Area B-— ----Male------Female-- —
-

2,780
1,905
875

100
100
100

669
474
195

24
25
22

493
257
236

51
55
41

1,348
224
1,124

33
11
56

Graduates- —
Male------Female-----

1,545
946
599

100
100
100

124
43
81

8
5
14

249
77
172

16
8
29

Dropouts----Male------Female-----

1,235
959
276

100
100
100

545
431
114

44
45
41

244
180
64

Area C------Male------Female-----

1,299
1,148
151

100
100
100

193
133
60

15
11
40

Graduates---Male------Female---- -

854
738
116

100
100
100

104
63
41

Dropouts----Male------Female-----

445
410
35

100
100
100

Area D------ Male— ---- Female— ---

628
586
42

Graduates— —
.Male------F e m a l e Dropouts— —
Male— — —
Female— — —
Area F— — — —
Male- — --Female— - -

—

206
123
83

7
6

—

1,412
1 1,051

31
6

—

U

67

1
0

|

92
30
62

6
3
10

1,080
796
it
284

70
84
47

872
114
758

36
11
56

20
19
23

114
93
21

9
10
8

332
255
77

27
26
28

476
110
366

28
10
57

315
249
66

24
22
44

99
91
8

8
8
5

692
675
17

53
59
11

1,496
184
1,312

52
13
88

12
9
36

159
102
57

19
13
49

53
48
5

6
7
4

538
525
13

63
71
11

1,170
144
1,026

58
16
90

89
70
19

20
17
54

156
147
9

35
36
26

46
43
3

1C
10
9

154
150
4

35
37
11

326
40
286

39
8
82

100
100
100

66
57
9

10
10
21

113
90
23

18
15
55

48
45
3

8
8
7

401
394
7

64
67
17

594
29 j
565

48
5
92

349
316
33

100
100
100

21
16
5

6
5
15

37
17
20

11
5
61

19
18
1

5
6
3

272
265
7

78
84
21

446
16
430

56
5
93

279
270
9

100
100
100

45
41
4

16
15
(4)

76
73
3

27
27
(*)

29
27
2

11
10
(4)

129
129

46
48

148
13
135

34
5
89

2,507
1,159
1,348

100
100
100

780
326
454

15
14
16

531
390
141

272
84
188

10
7
12

31
28
34

812
278
534

See footnotes at end of table.




18
14
27

Percent Number

Number Percent1
Percent ,

Percent

—

Percent Number

Four or more

Number
All areas2-— Male-------Female— - -

Percent Number

Three

industrial
courses

- 72 -

33
24
40

384
165
219

—

—

21
34
10

T A B L E D - 6c. - -Industrial courses completed by graduates and dropouts, six areas, by sex--Continued
Industrial courses
Number of courses taken
Area and
sex

Total taking
industrial
courses
Number

Two

One

Percent

Number

No
industrial
courses

Percent

Number

Four or more

Three

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent Number Percen

Graduates---Male------Female-----

1,879
825
1,054

100
100
100

389
138
251

21
17
24

634
172
462

34
21
44

341
138
203

18
17
19

515
377
138

27
45
13

217
63
154

10
7
13

Dropouts----Male------Female— -*—

628
334
294

100
100
100

391
188
203

62
56
69

178
106
72

28
32
25

43
27
16

7
8
5

16
13
3

3
4
1

55
21
34

8
6
10

1,188
709
479

100
100
100

684
253
431

58
36
90

297
251
46

25
35
10

154
152
2

13
21
(5)

53
53

4
8

334
61
273

22
8
36

Graduates---Male------Female— — —

322
188
134

100
100
100

246
112
134

77
59
100

64
64

20
34
—

11
11

3
6

(5)
1

307
58
249

49
24
65

Dropouts— --Male------Female— — —

866
521
345

100
10C
10C

438
141
297

51
27
86

27
3
24

3
(4)
7

Area G------ Male— ----Female-----

1
2
3
*
5

:

|
:

—

233
187
46

27
36
13

—

143
U 1
2

---16
27
1

—

—

1
1
—

—

52
52
-

Percent based on unduplicaT,ec total of those who completed vocational courses. See table D-6a.
See footnote 2, table D-6a*
Excludes 76 for whom number of courses T-aken w as not reported.
Too few to compute percentage.
Less than 0.5 percent.




73

6
10
— -

TABLE D-7*— Employment experience of graduates and dropouts during school years, by area and sex
Dropouts

Graduates
Area and
employment
experience

Number

Female

Male

Total
Per­
cent

Number

Per­
cent

Number

Per­
cent

Male

Total
Number

Per­
cent

Number

Female
Per­
cent

Number

Per­
cent

LI areas------------No work experienceWorked at some time—

1 2,312
700
1,612

100
30
70

770
162
566

100
24
76

1,542
516
l',024

100
34
66

1 1>567
965
622

100
61
39

770
414
356

100
54
46

617
551
266

100
67
33

rea A---------------No work experience—
Worked at some time—

4-26
114312

100
27
73

174
24
150

100
14
66

252
90
162

100
36
64

272
137
135

100
50
50

113
45
66

100
40
60

159
92
67

100
56
42

pea B---------------No work experience— Worked at some time—

302
165
117

100
61
39

no
60
50

100
55
45

192
125
67

100
65
35

235
161
54

100
77
23

113
61
32

100
72
26

122
100
22

100
62
16

pea C----------------No work experience— Worked at some time—

34-0
70
270

100
21
79

120
21
99

100
16
62

220
49
171

100
22
76

223
106
117

100
46
52

126
51
77

100
40
60

95
55
40

100
56
42

pea D---------------No work experience— Worked at same time—

270
54
216

100
20
60

66
12
76

100
14
66

162
42
140

100
23
77

UO
67
73

100
46
52

66
21
47

100
31
69

72
46
26

100
64
36

pea E------- --------No work experienceWorked at some time—

462
90
392

100
19
61

136
19
119

100
14
66

344
71
273

100
21
79

196
96
100

100
49
51

95
33
62

100
35
65

101
63
36

100
62
36

pea F---------------No work experience— Worked at some time—

262
120
162

100
43
57

60
26
52

100
35
65

202
92

no

100
46
54

166
115
51

100
69
31

66
46
20

100
70
30

100
69
31

100
69
31

pea G— -------------No work experienceWorked at some time—

210
67
143

100
32
66

60
16
42

100
30
70

150
49
101

100
33
67

355
263
92

100
74
26

167
137
50

100
73
27

166
126
42

100
75
25

1 Excludes 3 graduates and 22 dropouts for whom data were not reported*




74

TABLE D-8a.--Marital status of graduates and dropouts at time of interview, by area and sex
Graduates
Area and
marital
status

Total

Male

Number

Percent

1 3,005
1,901
1,091
13

100
63
36
1

1,229
958
267
4

612
360
249
3

100
59
41
(3)

Area B--------Single------Married4----Other2-------

423
259
164

Area C--------Single------Married-----Other2-------

Dropouts
Female

Total

Male

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

100
78
22
(3)

1,776
943
824
9

100
53
46
1

1 2,326
1,515
795
16

100
65
34
1

1,303
1,074
223
6

309
229
79
1

100
74
26
(3)

303
131
170
2

100
43
56
1

441
210
223
8

100
48
50
2

100
61
39

178
139
39

100
78
22

245
120
125

100
49
51

418
266
152

338
176
160
2

100
52
47
1

121
81
40
—

100
67
33
---

217
95
120
2

100
44
55
1

Area D--------Single------Married-----Other2-------

269
150
118
1

100
56
44
(3)

87
59
27
1

100
68
31
1

182
91
91
---

Area C--------Single------Married-----Other2-------

602
432
169
1

100
72
28
(3)

225
199
26
—

100
88
12
—

Area F--------Single------Married-----Other2— .... -

476
264
207
5

100
56
43
1

197
142
53
2

Area G--------Single------Married-----Other2-------

285
260
24
1

100
91
9
(3)

All areas-----Single------Married-----Other2------_____
Single------Married-----Other2-------

1
(46
was
2
3
4

Number Percent

Female
Number

Percent

100
82
17
1

1,023
441
572
10

100
43
56
1

223
159
61
3

100
71
28
1

218
51
162
5

100
24
74
2

100
64
36

250
205
45

100
82
18

168
61
107

100
36
64

245
152
89
4

100
63
36
1

141
111
28
2

100
79
20
1

104
41
61
2

100
39
59
2

100
50
50
—

140
68
71
1

100
49
50
1

68
48
20
—

100
71
29
---

72
20
51
1

100
28
71
1

377
233
143
1

100
62
38
(3)

311
232
78
1

100
75
25
(3)

193
167
26
---

100
87
13

118
65
52
1

100
55
44
1

100
72
27
1

279
122
154
3

100
44
55
1

333
188
143
2

100
56
43
1

183
144
38
1

100
79
21
(3)

150
44
105
1

100
29
70
1

112
109
3

100
97
3

100
91
9
—

245
240
5

100
98
2
—

193
159
34

—

100
87
12
1

438
399
39

—

173
151
21
1

100
82
18
—

—

—

Percent

—

Includes both outmigrants and nonmigrants except for areas C and D where data for outmigrants were not available
graduates and 222 dropouts). Total also excludes 145 graduates and 197 dropouts in all areas for whom marital status
not reported.
Other includes widowed, divorced, or separated.
Less than 0.5 percent.
Data on widowed, divorced, and separated included with married.




75

TABLE D-8b.— Parental status of graduates and dropouts at time of interview, by area and sex
Graduates
Area and parental status

Total
Num­
ber

Dropouts

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

1 1,104
545
416
73
70

100
49
38
7
6

273
136
96
21
20

100
50
35
8
7

831
409
320
52
50

100
49
39
6
6

1 809
270
348
142
49

100
33
43
18
6

227
100
96
16
15

100
44
42
7
7

582
170
252
126
34

100
29
43
22
6

Area A-------------------------No children------------------One child--------------------Two children------------- ----Three or more children--------

252
154
82
16
—

100
61
33
6
—

80
52
22
6

100
65
27
8
—

172
102
60
10

100
59
35
6

—

—

230
87
92
42
9

100
38
40
18
4

63
28
32
2
1

100
44
51
3
2

167
59
60
40
8

100
35
36
24
5

Area B-------------------------No children------------------One child--------------------Two children-----------------Three or more children--------

164
28
65
8
63

100
17
40
5
38

40
4
17
2
17

100
9
43
5
43

124
24
48
6
46

100
19
39
5
37

152
32
72
21
27

100
21
47
14
18

45
13
19
3
10

100
29
42
7
22

107
19
53
18
17

100
18
49
17
16

Area C-------------------------No children------------------One child— ------------------Two children-----------------Three or more children--------

162
73
77
8
4

100
45
48
5
2

40
17
19
2
'2

100
42
48
5
5

122
56
58
6
2

100
46
47
5
2

92
16
52
21
3

100
17
57
23
3

29
11
14
3
1

100
38
48
10
4

63
5
38
18
2

100
8
60
29
3

Area D --------------------------No children------------------One child--------------------Two children-----------------Three or more children--------

119
53
45
20
1

100
44
38
17
1

29
15
7
6
1

100
52
24
21
3

90
38
38
14
—

100
42
42
16
—

72
24
32
12
4

100
33
44
17
6

20
10
6
2
2

100
50
30
10
10

52
14
26
10
2

100
27
50
19
4

Area E-------------------------No children------------------One child--------------------Two children-----------------Three or more children------- -

170
110
52
7
1

100
65
30
4
1

26
18
7
1
---

100
69
27
4

144
92
45
6
1

100
64
31
4
1

79
36
27
13
3

100
46
34
16
4

26
18
5
3

100
69
19
12
—

53
18
22
10
3

100
34
41
19
6

Area F-------------------------No children------------------One child--------------------Two children-----------------Three or more children--------

212
109
88
14
1

100
51
42
7
---

55
29
22
4

100
53
40
7
—

157
80
66
10
1

100
51
42
6
1

145
50
59
33
3

100
34
41
23
2

39
17
18
3
1

100
44
46
8
2

106
33
41
30
2

100
31
39
28
2

Area G-------------------------No children------------------One child--------------------Two children-----------------Three or more children--------

25
18
7
—

100
72
28
—

3
1
2

22
17
5
—

100
77
23
—

39
25
14
—

100
64
36
—

5
3
2

—

(2)
(2)
(2 )
—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

34
22
12
—
—

100
65
35
—

—

(2 )
(2 )
(2 )
—
—

All areas----------------------No children------------------One child--------------------Two children-----------------Three or more children--------

—

—

—

—

1 Includes both outmigrants and nonmigrants except for areas C and D where data for outmigrants were not available
(4-16 graduates and 222 dropouts). Total also excludes 145 graduates and 197 dropouts in all areas for whom marital
status was not reported, and 2 dropouts for whom parental status was not reported.
2 Too few to compute percentage.




76

T A B L E D -9 . --E m p lo y m e n t search of graduates and dropouts between leaving school and fir s t regular job,
by sex, all areas
Graduates
A re a and employment search

M ale

F em ale

Number

Percent

Number

Total school l e a v e r s ---------------------------------------------------------Number who never looked for em ploym ent (out
of labor fo rc e) -----------------------------------------------------------Number who looked for em p lo ym en t------------------------Number who found regular j o b s ---------------------------------

772

100

1, 543

100

35
737
729

5
95
i 99

132
1, 411
1, 395

9
91
1 99

E lapsed time before starting to l o o k --------------------------L e s s than 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------4 -9 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------------10 or m ore w e e k s --------------------------------------------- ' ----------No report --------------------------------------------------------------------------

737
599
57
55
26

100
81
8
7
4

1 ,41 1
1, 130
123
128
30

100
80
9
9
2

Length of time to find fir s t regular j o b --------------------No t im e -----------------------------------------------------------------------------L e s s than 1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------------------1 -3 w eek s------------------------------------------------------------------------4 -9 w eek s------------------------------------------------------------------------1 0-13 w eek s---------------------------------------------------------------------1 4 -2 6 w eek s----------------------------------------------------------------------2 7 -5 2 w eek s---------------------------------------------------------------------M ore than 52 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------No report --------------------------------------------------------------------------

2 538
96
177
123
66
21
11
8
8
28

100
18
33
23
13
4
2
1
1
5

2 1 ,0 4 2
115
429
261
122
42
25
9
12
27

100
11
41
25
12
4
2
1
1
3

Percent

A L L AR EA S

Dropouts
M ale
Number

F em ale
Percent

Number

Percent

Total school l e a v e r s ---------------------------------------------------------Number who never looked for em ploym ent (out
of labor fo rc e ) -----------------------------------------------------------Number who looked for em ploym ent ----------------------Number who found regular j o b s ---------------------------------

783

100

826

100

71
712
673

9
91
1 95

250
576
534

30
70
1 93

E lapsed time before starting to l o o k --------------------------L e s s than 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------4 -9 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------------10 or m ore w e e k s ------------------------------- -------------------------No report --------------------------------------------------------------------------

712
588
33
75
16

100
83
5
10
2

576
387
58
110
21

100
67
10
19
4

Length of time to find fir s t regular j o b --------------------No t im e -----------------------------------------------------------------------------L e s s than 1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------------------1 -3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------4 -9 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------10- 13 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------1 4 -2 6 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------2 7 -5 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------M ore than 52 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------No r e p o r t --------------------------------------------------------------------------

673
40
223
205
76
36
36
21
13
23

100
6
33
31
11
5
5
3
2
4

534
18
184
184
62
18
17
11
18
22

100
3
35
35
12
3
3
2
3
4

See footnotes at end of table.




77

TABLE D-9.— Employment search of graduates and dropouts between leaving school and first regular job, by area and
sex— Continued
Number of graduates

Number of dropouts

Area and employment search
Male

Female

Male

Total school leavers------------------------------- -—
Number who never looked for employment (out of labor
force)-------------------------------------------Number who looked for employment-------------- -----Number who found regular jobs-----------------------

174

252

113

159

5
169
167

14
238
232

7
106
101

46
113
104

Elapsed time before starting to look-----------------Less than 4 weeks----------------------------------4-9 weeks------------------------------- ----------10 or more weeks------- ----------------------------No report------------------------------------- -------

169
150
9
10

238
193
17
28

106
85
3
18

—

—

113
54
11
48
—

Length of time to find first regular job------------- No time----------------------- ---------------------Less than 1 week----------- ------------------------1-3 weeks------------— ----------------------------4-9 weeks------- ----------------------------------10-13 weeks------------------- --------------------—
14-26 weeks-------- — ------- ----------------------27-52 weeks----------- -----------------------------Mere than 52 weeks---------------------------------No report-------------------------------------------

167
96
4
32
19
5
4
2
2
2

—

101
40
3
28
13
3
6
1
2
5

104
18
17
41
8
6
2
4
6
2

Female

Area A

232
115
15
48
28
16
6
—

4

Area B
Total school leavers--------------------------- -----Number who never looked for employment (out of labor
force)-------------------------------------------Number who looked for employment-------------------Number who found regular jobs--------------------- —

110

192

113

122

6
104
101

29
163
163

23
90
81

62
60
54

Elapsed time before starting to look-----------------Less than 4 weeks--- — ----------------------------4-9 weeks— - — — ----------------------------------10 or more weeks------------ -------- --------------No report--------------------------------------------

104
62
10
6
26

163
95
19
24
25

90
64
7
10
9

60
32
8
15
5

[length of time to find first regular job-------------No time---------------------------------------------Less than 1 week--------------------- --------------1-3 weeks------ — -— ---- ------------------------- 4-9 weeks— ---------------------------------------10-13 weeks------------------------------------ ---14-26 weeks----------------------------------------27-52 weeks----------------------------------------Mere than 52 weeks— ------ --- ---------------------No report---------------------------------------- ---

101

163

—

—

—

54
—

22
20
15
6
3
4
2
9

47
53
22
7
5
4

—

1
26

81
—

25

36
22
9
4
3

17
18
6
—

4
1
3
5

Area C
?otal school leavers---------------------------------Number who never looked for employment (out of labor
force)------ --------------------------------- ----Number who looked for employment-------------------Number who found regular jobs---------------------- -

122

221

141

104

10
112
112

35
186
186

17
124
118

44
60
57

[lapsed time before starting to look--------------- -—
Less than 4 weeks----------------------------------4-9 weeks-----------------------------------------10 or more weeks-----------------------------------No report-------------------------------------------

112
91
12
9

186
148
17
18
3

124
113
5
3
3

60
45
3
.2
10

—

See footnotes at end of table.




78

TABLE D-9.— Employment search of graduates and dropouts between leaving school and first regular job, by area and
sex— Continued
Number of graduates

Number of dropouts

Area and employment search
Male

Female

Male

Female

Area 0— Continued
Length of time to find first regular job- ------------No time---------------- ----------------------------Less than 1 week— --------------------------------- •
—
1-3 weeks— ---------------- -----------------------4-9 weeks------------------------------------------10-13 weeks------- ---------------------------------14-26 weeks-------------------------------------- ---27-32 weeks-------------------------------------- ---Mere than 52 weeks---------- ------------------------No report---------------------------------------- ----

c>
(x)

(X)
n
(x)
(x)
(x)
(x)
(x)
(x)
(x)
(x)

118
—
59
27
11
4
7
3
2
5

57
—
15
15
9
2
3
—
2
11

Total school leavers----------------------------------Number who never looked for employment (out of labor
force)--------------------------------------------Number who looked for employment--------------------Number who found regular jobs------------------------

88

182

68

72

9

79
79

15
167
167

8
60
57

18
54
48

Elapsed time before starting to look------------------Less than 4 weeks----------- ---------------------- 4-9 weeks------------------------------------------10 or more weeks------------------------------------No report--------------------------------------------

79
75
1
3
—

167
157
9
1
—

60
49
4
7
—

54
42
4
5
3

Length of time to find first regular job--------------No time---------------------------------------------Less than 1 week--------------------------- ---------1-3 weeks— --- — -----------------------------------4-9 weeks-------- ----------------------------------10-13 weeks--------------- -------------------- ----14-26 weeks------------------- ----------------------27-52 weeks------ ----------------------------------More than 52 weeks----------------------- ----------No report-— — ---------------------------------------

(X)
(X )
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
n
( x)

(X)
(X)
(X )
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
( X)
( X)

57
11
25
5
5
5
1
3
2

48
—
14
14
7
3
4
2
3
1

(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(x)

Area D

—

Area E
Total school leavers----------------------------------Number who never looked for employment (out of labor
force)---------------------------------------- -----Number who looked for employment-------- -----------Number who found regular jobs------------------------

138

344

95

101

—
138
138

18
326
322

6
89
86

21
80
70

Elapsed time before starting to look------------------Less than 4 weeks-----------------------------------4-9 weeks------------------------------------------10 or more weeks------------- ----. -----------------No report--------------------------------------------

138
109
17
12
—

326
268
39
19
—

89
80
3
6
—

80
59
10
11
—

Length of time to find first regular job--------------No time---------------------------------------------Less than 1 week-------------------------------------1-3 weeks— --------- -------------------------- ----4-9 weeks------------------------------------------10-13 weeks------------------------------------------14-26 weeks-----------------------------------------27-52 weeks-----------------------------------------Mere than 52 weeks----------------------------------No report--------------------------------------------

138
—
66
43
18
5
1
3
2
—

322
—
174
99
41
2
5
1

86
—
40
31
8
4
2
1

70
—
23
36
7
3
-r 1

—

—

—

See footnotes at end of table.




79

_

__

TABLE D-9.— Employment search of graduates and dropouts between leaving school and first regular job, by area and
sex— Continued
Number of graduates

Number of dropouts

Area and employment search
Male

Female

Male

Female

Area F
80

66

100

16
186
180

2
64
57

43
57
52

79
64
6
9

Elapsed time before starting to look------------------Less than 4 weeks--------- --------------------------4-9 weeks------------------------------------------10 or more weeks------------------------------------No report--------------------------------------------

202

1
79
76

Total school leavers----------------------------------Number who never looked for employment (out of labor
force)--------------------------------------------Number who looked for employment--------------------Number who found regular jobs------------------------

186
133
19
34

64
45
4
15

57
29
6
22
—

57
21
8
7
6
6
6
3

—

—

52
—
28
9
6
1
2
2
4
—

—

Length of time to find first regular jobs-------------No time---------------------------------------------Less than 1 week----- -------------------------------1-3 weeks------------------------------------------4-9 weeks---------------------------------------- —
10-13 weeks-----------------------------------------14-26 weeks-----------------------------------------27-52 weeks-----------------------------------------Mere than 52 weeks----------------------------------No report--------------------------------------------

—

76
—

—

180
—

41
8
13
6
3
2
3
—

—

87
31
26
15
9
4
8

Area G
Total school leavers----------------------------------Number who never looked for employment (out of labor
force)--------------------------------------------Number who looked for employment--------------------Number who found regular jobs------------------------

60

150

187

168

4
56
56

5
145
145

8
179
173

16
152
149

Elapsed time before starting to look------------------Less than 4 weeks-----------------------------------4-9 weeks------------------------------------------10-or more weeks------------------------------------No report--------------------------------------------

56
48
2
6
—

145
136
3
4
2

179
152
7
16
4

152
126
16
7
3

Length of time to find first regular job--------------No time--------------------------------------------- Less than 1 week------------------- -----------------1-3 weeks------------------ -----------------------—
4-9 weeks------------------------------------------10-13 weeks------ -----------------------------------14-26 weeks--------------------------------------- -—
27-52 weeks-----------------------------------------More than 52 weeks----------------------------------No report--------------------------------------------

56
—
30
18
7
1

145

173

149

—

—

—

—

—

—

—
- —

—

1 Based on number who looked for employment.
2 Data for graduates in areas C and D not available.




106
30
5
2

80

2

67
66
17
8
7
5
1
2

70
51
19
3
2
1
—

3

TABLE D-10.— Type of first regular job held by graduates and dropouts, irrespective of employment status at time of
interview) by area and sex
Graduates
First regular job1

Male

Dropouts

Female

Male

Number

Graduates

Female

Number

Male

Dropouts

Female

Male

Number

All areas

Female

Number
Area A

Total..... -............ ----- -----------------------

729

1,395

673

534

167

232

101

104

Sales----------------------------------------------Service occupations--------------------------------Office work----------------------------------------Skilled and semiskilled manufacturing--------------Skilled and semiskilled nonmanufacturing-----------Unskilled manufacturing and nonmanufacturing-------Other-----------------------------------------------

124

247
130
843
41
8
38
88

79
75
14
95
86
259
65

124
146
56
11
6
148
43

50
4
12
27
36
35
3

53
13
125
6
1
11
23

16
2
2
16
23
42
--

33
31
5
6
-26
3

55
53

127
119
185
66

Area B
Total........... ........................ ............
Sales----------------------------------------------Service occupations--------------------------------Office wor|k----------------------------------------Skilled and semiskilled manufacturing--------------Skilled and semiskilled nonmanufactur^ing- ---------Unskilled manufacturing and nonmanufacturing-------Other--------------------------------------------- r-

Area C

101

163

81

54

112

186

118

57

5
15
7
—
30
23
21

17
39
64
2
5
6
30

12
19
—
1
17
17
15

15
12
10
—
4
8
5

7
10
10
42
-29
14

41
17
120
5
-3

5
30
3
35
-30
15

20
20
8
—
—
8
1

Area D

Area E

Total--- ---- ---------------------- ------------------

79

167

57

48

138

322

86

7°(

Sales----------------------------------------------Service occupations--------------------------------Office work------- ---------------------------------Skilled and semiskilled manufacturing--------------Skilled and semiskilled nonmanufacturing-----------Unskilled manufacturing and nonmanufacturing-------Other-----------------------------------------------

10
17
7
21
—
18
6

34
36
87
1
—
3
6

4
10
3
25
—
14
1

8
31
6
1

34
5
11
33
30
22
3

28
9
271
8
1
4
1

23
5
5
17
27
9

18
29
17
3
2
1

—

2
““

Area G

Area F
Total......... ----------------- --------------- ----Sales----------------------------------------------Service occupations--------------------------------Office work----------------------------------------Skilled and semiskilled manufacturing--------------Skilled and semiskilled nonmanufacturing-----------Unskilled manufacturing and nonmanufacturing-------Other-----------------------------------------------

76

180

57

52

56

145

173

149

9

66
16
55
19
1
6
17

1
-1
1
11
35
8

10
19
2
1
-6
14

9
4
6
—
2
23
12

8
-121
—
—
5
11

18
9
—
—
8
112
26

20
4
8
—
—
97
20

—
—

4
21
35
7

1 These job classifications are made up as follows: Sales includes retail clerk, stock clerk; service occupations in­
cludes waitress; office work includes general office worker, typist, stenographer, bookkeeper, business machine opera­
tor; skilled and semiskilled manufacturing includes factory operatives (except area G); skilled and semiskilled non­
manufacturing includes auto repairman, filling-station attendant, delivery truckdriver; unskilled manufacturing and non­
manufacturing includes common laborer, factory operative (only for area G); other includes telephone operator, nurses'
aid, professional, semiprofessional, managerial, and agriculture-forestry-fishing.




81

TABLE D-ll.— 'type of regular job held by graduates and dropouts at time of interview, by area and sex
Graduates
Regular job1 at time of interview

Male

Dropouts

Female

Male

Number

Graduates

Female

Male

Number

Female

Service occupations— — ------- ------------Office work--------------------------------Skilled and semiskilled manufacturing------Skilled and semiskilled nonmanuf acturing---Unskilled manufacturing and nonmanuf ac turing •
Other---- ----------------------------------

Number

683

1,092

553

320

157

162

76

45

86
13
51
200
135
125
73

73
46
786
58
9
32
88

45
36
11
119
78
193
71

47
50
50
30
1
120
22

33
1
9
48
42
17
7

22
3
106
7
1
5
18

8
1
1
23
16
25
2

14
7
1
6

126

64

24

109

150

95

30

5

8
4
92
1
4
1
16

4

2
2
8

4
6
10
62

6
14
114
9

2
14
3
45

4
13
4
2

—

9
—

38
18
25

*
------------------------ -—

—

—

19
15
26

—

—

—

13
14

7
5

119

48

17

5
6
7
38
—
12
6

10
14
82
6

2
11

3
7
5
2

20
— -

2
5

Sales--------------------------------------Service occupations------------------------Office work--------------------------------Skilled and semiskilled manufacturing------Skilled and semiskilled nonmanufacturing---Unskilled manufacturing and nonmanufacturing'
Other---------------------------------------

70

123

8

19
6
42
27
2
13
14

- —
—

6
18
31
7

1 For coverage of occupational groups, see footnote 1, table D-10.




82

23
8

6
1

Area E

74

—

—

5
2

13
2

—
—
—

-

130

279

86

62

25

4
5
237
8
2

16
3
6
28
23
8
2

8
12
19
18
1
2
2

133

137

120

4

9
7
1

10
2
11

—

9
46
34
13
3

—

23

Area F
Total-----------------------------------------

11
6

Area C

Area D

Sales---------------------------- — -------Service occupations— ---- -— -—
---------Office work-— ---- — — --- -----— --- -----Skilled and semiskilled manufacturing---- -—
Skilled and semiskilled nonmanufacturing---Unskilled manufacturing and nonmanufaeturing*

—

95

Total-----------------------------------------

Total------ -— -—

Female

Area A

Area B

Sales------------- ------------------------Service occupations------------------------Office work--------------------------------Skilled and semiskilled manuf acturing------Skilled and semiskilled nonmanufacturing---Unskilled manufacturing and nonmanuf acturing ■
Other---------------------------------------

Male

Number

All areas
Total---------------------- ---------------- —

Dropouts

Area G
47

22

4

6
7
2
2

—
—

3
12
17
11

48
6
—

—

2

3

113

3

—

7

—

—

21
11

—

6
10

8
92
20

—
—

92
5

TABLE D -1 2 . --R e g u la r jobs of graduates and dropouts employed at time of interview, selected data, by sex, all areas

Graduates
Selected data and area

Total

Male

Female

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Method of obtaining j o b ----------------------------Continuation of school j o b --------------------School referral ----------------------------------------Public employment s e r v i c e ------------------F ee-charging employment agency--------Relatives or f r i e n d s ------------------------------Advertisem ent in n ew spaper----------------Answering newspaper or radio a d ------Personal application--------------------------------Other -----------------------------------------------------------

1, 775
167
202
147
34
472
11
64
58 5
93

100
9
11
8
2
27
1
4
33
5

683
61
37
34
8
249
2
18
238
36

100
9
5
5
1
37
(M
3
35
5

1, 092
106
165
113
26
223
9
46
347
57

100
10
15
10
2
21
1
4
32
5

Weekly w a g e s ----------------------------------------------L ess than $ 3 0 ------------------------------------------$ 3 0 -$ 3 9 ...............................................................
$ 4 0 -$ 4 9 ...............................................................
$ 5 0 - $ 5 9 ...............................................................
$ 6 0 - $ 6 9 ...................... - .....................................
$ 7 0 - $ 7 9 ..................- ..........................................
$ 8 0 -$ 8 9 ...............................................................
$90 and over -------------------------------------------

2 1 ,740
79
100
461
437
272
170
108
113

100
5
6
26
25
16
10
6
6

665
15
9
78
101
134
122
97
109

100
2
1
12
15
20
18
15
17

1, 075
64
91
383
336
138
48
11
4

Hours of work ------------------ -------------------------L ess than 35 a w eek ------------------------------35 -3 9 ......................................................................
4 0 ....................................... - ...................................
4 1 -4 8 ......................................................................
49 and over -----------------------------------------------

3 1 ,7 3 5
56
227
1, 177
206
69

100
3
13
68
12
4

662
13
22
467
103
57

100
2
3
70
16
9

1, 073
43
205
710
103
12

100
6
8
36
31
13
5
1
(M
100
4
19
66
L0
1

Number of weeks unemployed between
last regular job and present regular job L ess than 4 ----------------------------------------------4 - 9 ............................................- ............................
10 or m o r e ----------------------------------------------No weeks unem ployed-----------------------------

4 1 ,373
711
104
129
429

100
52
8
9
31

558
286
51
62
159

100
51
9
11
29

815
425
53
67
270

100
52
7
8
33

Number

A L L AREAS

Dropouts
Total
Number

Male

Fem ale

Percent

Number

Percent

Percent

Method of obtaining j o b ----------------------------Continuation of school j o b --------------------School referra l ----------------------------------------Public employment s e r v i c e ------------------Fee-charging employment a g e n c y ------Relatives or f r i e n d s ------------------------------Advertisem ent in n ew spaper----------------Answering newspaper or radio a d ----Personal a p p lic a tio n ------------------------------O th e r ------------------------- ----------------------------------

873
27
15
79

100
3
2
9

553
18
8
38

100
3
1
7

320
9
7
41

100
3
2
13

—

—

—

—

—

—

380
16
56
269
31

43
2
6
31
4

277
7
20
169
16

50
1
4
31
3

103
9
36
100
15

32
3
11
31
5

Weekly w ages------------------------------------------------L e ss than $30 ----------------------------------------$ 3 0 -3 9 ....................................................................
$ 4 0 - 4 9 ....................................................................
$ 5 0 - $ 5 9 ...............................................................
$ 6 0 -$ 6 9 ...............................................................
$ 7 0 -$ 7 9 ........................................................- - $ 8 0 - $ 8 9 ..............................- ..............................
$90 and o v e r ---------------------------------------------

2 841
97
109
287
79
88
72
55
54

100
12
13
34
9
10
9
7
6

529
31
52
153
51
75
63
51
53

100
5
10
29
10
14
12
10
10

312
66
57
134
28
13
9
4
1

100
21
18
43
9
4
3
2

Hours of work --------------------------------------- -----L ess than 35 a w e e k ------------------------------3 5 -3 9 ......................................................................
4 0 .............................................................................
4 1 - 4 8 ..................................................... - ..............
49 and over -----------------------------------------------

3 861
46
45
553
135
82

100
5
5
64
16
10

546
25
19
342
97
63

100
5
3
63
18
11

315
21
26
211
38
19

100
7
8
67
12
6

Number of weeks unemployed between last
regular job and present regular jo b ----L e ss than 4 ----------------------------------------------4 - 9 ...........................................................................
10 or m o r e ----------------------------------------------No weeks unem ployed-----------------------------

4 725
401
83
92
149

100
55
11
13
21

470
239
53
65
113

100
51
11
14
24

255
162
30
27
36

100
63
12
11
14

See footnotes at end of table.




83

n

TABLE D-12.— Regular jobs of graduates and dropouts employed at time of interview, selected data, by area and
sex— Continued
Number of graduates

Number of dropouts

Selected data and area
Total

Male

Female

Total

Method of obtaining job----------------------Continuation of school job-----------------School referral----------------------------Public employment service------------------Fee-charging employment agency-------------Relative or friend-------------------------Advertisement in newspaper-----------------Answering newspaper or radio advertisement—
Personal application-----------------------Other---------------------------------------

317
20
35
27
10
88

156
10
12
7
2
54

121
2
1
4

—

—

9
124
4

4
65
2

161
10
23
20
8
34
—
5
59
2

57
5
5
42
5

41
2
1
27
3

16
3
4
15
2

Weekly wages---------------------------------Less than $30------------------------------$30-$39------------------------------------$40-$49------------------------------------$50-$59------------------------------------$60-$69------------------------------------$70-$79------------------------------------$80-$89------------------------------------$90 and over--------------------------------

310
10
18
71
67
55
40
36
13

152
1
2
12
21
33
37
33
13

158
9
16
59
46
22
3
3
—

113
30
14
9
13
16
15
10
6

71
5
6
5
10
14
15
10
6

42
25
8
4
3
2
—
—
—

Hours of work--------------------------------Less than 35 per week----------------------35_39--------------------------------------40-----------------------------------------41-48--------------------------------------49 and over---------------------------------

317
9
9
237
36
26

155
2
4
106
19
24

162
7
5
131
17
2

117
5
8
54
25
25

74
1
4
37
14
18

43
4
4
17
11
7

Number of weeks unemployed between last
regular job and present regular job------Less than 4--- -----------------------------4_9----------------------------------------10 or more----------------------------------

318
294
17
7

156
141
11
4

162
153
6
3

119
114
4
1

76
71
4
1

43
43
—
—

Method of obtaining job----------------------Continuation of school job-----------------School referral---------------------------- Public employment service------- -----------Fee-charging employment agency-------------Relative or friend-------------------------Advertisement in newspaper------------- ---Answering newspaper or radio advertisementPersonal application-----------------------Other----------------------------------------

223
9
23
14
10
70
—
4
75
18

96
5
6
4
4
37

127
4
17
10
6
33

61
3
1
2
—
30
1
—
20
4

25
2
_
_
1
—
9
2
2
7
2

Weekly wages---------------------------------Less than $30------------------------------$30-$39------------------------------------$40-$49------------------------------------$50-$59------------------------------------$60-$69------------------------------------$70-$79------------------------------------$80-$89--------- ---------------------------$90 and over--------------------------------

222
14
7
47
66
29
24
16
19

Hours of work--------------------------------Less than 35 per week----------------------35-39---------------------------------------40-----------------------------------------41-48--------------------------------------49 and over---------------------------------

201
4
15
139
41
2

Male

Female

Area A

—

76
2

45
—

1
4

—
—
—

—

Area B

2
30
8
96
7
10
16
11
21
13
18

126
7
7
37
50
18
3
3
1

88
16
13
15
11
12
8
5
8

64
8
8
11
8
10
7
4
8

24
8
5
4
3
2
1
1
—

83
2
1
53
25
2

118
2
14
86
16
—

88
4
3
47
29
5

64
2
1
33
23
5

24
2
2
14
6

—

—

—

See footnotes at end of table.




2
45
10

86
5
1
3
—
39
3
2
27
6

84

—

TABLE D-12*— Regular jobs of graduates and dropouts employed at time of interview, selected data, by area and
sex— Continued
Number of dropouts

Number of graduates
Selected data and area
Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Area B— Continued
Number of weeks unemployed between last
regular job and present regular job------Less than 4 -------------------------------- 4-9----------------------------------------10 or more----------------------------------

230
155
35
40

101
64
18
19

129
91
17
21

89
49
14
26

65
36
9
20

24
13
5
6

Method of obtaining job----------------------Continuation of school job-----------------School referral----------------------------Public employment service------------------Fee-charging employment agency-------------Relative or friend-------------------------Advertisement in newspaper------ ----------Answering newspaper or radio advertisement—
Personal application-----------------------Other---------------------------------------

259
40
13
8
1
68
5
16
92
16

109
14
7
4
—
38
—
3
38
5

150
26
6
4
1
30
5
13
54
11

125
5
4
—
53
2
4
53
4

95
4
—
2
—
47
1
3
35
3

30
1
—
2

Weekly wages---------------------------------Less than $30------------------------------$30-$39------------------------------------$40-$49------------------------------------$50-$59----------------------- ------------$60-$69------------------------------------$70-$79------------------------------------$80-$89------------------------------------$90 and over--------------------------------

254
7
14
27
83
36
30
20
37

105
1

149
6
14
24
67
18
16
2
2

117
17
13
13
14
14
14
17
15

87
7
7
8
8
12
13
17
15

30
10
6
5
6
2
1
—

Hours of work— -------------------------------Less than 35 per week----------------------3 5-39 --------------------------------------40-----------------------------------------41-48--------------------------------------49 and over---------------------------------

254
5
22
178
34
15

108
3
76
18
11

146
2
22
102
16
4

122
10
3
71
24
14

92
4
3
53
19
13

30
6
—
18
5
1

Number of weeks unemployed between last
regular job and present regular job------Less than 4 --------------------------------4 -9 ----------------------------------------10 or more---------------------------------No weeks unemployed-------------------------

259
32
21
27
179

109
17
8
15
69

150
15
13
12
110

125
14
12
23
76

95
11
8
15
61

30
3
4
8
15

74
9

Area C

—

3
16
18
14
18
35

—

—

—

6
1
1
18
1

—

Area D
Method of obtaining job----------------------Continuation of school job-----------------School referral----------------------------Public employment service------------------Fee-charging employment agency-------------Relative or friend-------------------------Advertisement in newspaper-----------------Answering newspaper or radio advertisementPersonal application-----------------------Other---------------------------------------

193
33
9
8
—
52
1
4
83
3

2
—
24
—
1
36
2

119
24
9
6
—
28
1
3
47
1

Weekly wages---------------------------------Less than $30------------------------------$30-$39------------------------------------$40-$49------------------------------------$50-$59------------------------------------$60-$69------------------------------------$70-$79------------------------------------$80-$89------------------------------------$90 and over--------- -----------------------

184
19
17
31
39
28
21
14
15

70
4
2
5
11
8
13
13
14

114
15
15
26
28
20
8
1
1

—

See footnotes at end of table.




85

67
4

50
3

—
7
—
29
2
3
20
2

1

—
4
—
25
1
1
16
—

61
8
2
14
4
11
6
3
13

45
2
2
8
3
9
6
3
12

17
1
—
3
—
4
1
2
4
2
16
6
—
6
1
2
—
—
1

TABLE D -1 2 .—Regular jobs of graduates and dropouts employed at time o f interview, selected data, by area and
sex— Continued
Number of graduates

Number of dropouts

Selected data and area
Male

Total

Female

Total

Male

Female

Area D— Continued
Hours of work--------------------------------Less than 35 per week----------------------35-39--------------------------------------40-----------------------------------------41-43------------------------------------- ~
49 and over— --------------------------------

184
16
17
115
28
8

69
3
1
44
16
5

115
13
16
71
12
3

64
3
7
30
14
10

48
2
2
25
9
10

16
1
5
5
5
—

Number of weeks unemployed between last
regular job and present regular job------Less than 4 --------------------------------4-9— --------------------------------------10 or more---------------------------------No weeks u n e m p l o y e d ------------------------

192
65
12
26
89

74
26
5
12
31

118
39
7
14
58

67
13
15
9
30

50
11
10
4
25

17
2
5
5
5

Method of obtaining job----------------------Continuation of school job-----------------School referral----------------------------Public employment service------------------Fee-charging employment agency-------------Relative or friend-------------------------Advertisement in newspaper-----------------Answering newspaper or radio advertisementPersonal application-----------------------Other---------------------------------------

409
41
37
49
8
100
3
16
123
32

130
11
4
12
1
48
2
5
37
10

279
30
33
37
7
52
1
11
86
22

148
4
2
27
—
62
3
8
36
6

87
4
1
10
—
45
2
1
22
2

61
—
1
17
—
17
1
7
14
4

Weekly wages---------------------------------Less than $30------------------------------$30-$39------------------------------------$40-$49------------------------------------$50-$59------------------------------------$60-$69------------ ------------------------$70-$79-------------------------------------$80-$89-------------------------------------$90 and over--------------------------------

402
2
4
99
127
100
39
15
16

127
1
—
7
12
49
27
15
16

275
1
4
92
115
51
12
—
—

144
3
13
28
23
29
24
15
9

83
1
2
6
10
26
17
12
9

61
2
11
22
13
3
7
3
—

Hours of work- ------------------------------Less than 35 per week----------------------35-39--------------------- -----------------40-----------------------------------------41_48---------------------------------------49 and over---------------------------------

409
8
107
270
18
6

130
1
7
108
8
6

279
7
100
162
10
—

148
8
11
103
21
5

86
4
1
63
15
3

62
4
10
40
6
2

Number of weeks unemployed between last
regular job and present regular job-------Less than 4 ---------- ----------------------4 -9 ----------------------------------------10 or more----------------------------------

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )
(4 )

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )
(4 )

(?)
(?)
(4 )
(4 )

(4)
(4)
(?)
( 4)

(4 )
(4 )
(?)
(4 )

(?)
(4)
( 4)
( 4)

193
12
7
37
2
39
1

70

123
7

69
1
1
11

47
1
1
6

Area E

Area F
Method of obtaining job----------------------Continuation of school job---------------------------------School referral-----------------------------------------------------Public employment service-----------------------------------Fee-charging employment agency-------------------------Relative or friend-----------------------------------------------Advertisement in newspaper---------------------------------Answering newspaper or radio advertisement----Personal application--------------------------------------------Other------------------------------ ------------------------------------------

5

2
3
—

23
—

2
27
8

5

75
15

See footnotes at end of table.




86

5

34
2
16
1
3
48
7

—

—

30
—

5
—

7

23
—

1
23
2

22
—
—

—

1
14
1

—

9
1

TABLE D-12.— Regular jobs of graduates and dropouts employed at time of interview, selected data, by area and
sex— Continued
Number of dropouts

Number of graduates
Selected data and area
Total

Male

Male

Female

Total

47
2
7
13
9
4
4
5
3

Female

47
4
2
14
14
13

Area F— Continued
Weekly wages---------------------------------Less than $30------------- -----------------$30-$39------------------------------------$40-$49------------------------------------$50-$59------------------------------------$60-$69------------------------------------$70-$79----- -------------------------------$80-$89------------------------------------$90 and over------------------------------- -

192
26
22
50
37
22
15
7
13

69
1
2
12
13
14
9
5
13

123
25
20
38
24
8
6
2
—

69
16
10
15
10
6
4
5
3

Hours of work--------------------------------Less than 35 per week----------------------35-39--------------------------------------40-----------------------------------------41-48--------------------------------------49 and over---------------------------------

192
12
39
83
46
12

69
1
8
36
15
9

123
11
31
47
31
3

69
8
3
17
19
22

Number of weeks unemployed between last
regular job and present regular job------Less than 4 ----------------------------- --4-9----------------------------------------10 or more---------------------------------No weeks unemployed-------------------------

193
8
11
13
161

70
3
5
3
59

123
5
6
10
102

68
2
5
18
43

Method of obtaining job----------------------Continuation of school job-----------------School referral----------------------------Public employment service------------------Fee-charging employment agency-------------Relative or friend-------------------------Advertisement in newspaper-----------------Answering newspaper or radio advertisementPersonal application-------------------- ---Other------------------------------ --------

181
12
78
4
3
55
1
10
13
5

48
7
6
2
1
25

133
5
72
2
2
30
1
9
8
4

257
6
10
23

Weekly wages---------------------------------Less than $30------------------------------$30-$39------------------------------------$40-$49------------------------------------$50-$59------------------------------------$60-$69------------------------------------$70 and over--------------------------------

176
1
18
136
18
2
1

130
1
15
107
6
1

249
7
44
193
4

Hours of work--------------------------------Less than 35 per week------------------ ----35-39--------------------------------------40 ---------------------------------------------41-48--------------------------------------49 and over---------------------------------

178
2
18
155
3
—

Number of weeks unemployed between last
regular job and present regular job— ----Less than 4 --------------------------------4-9----------------------------------------10 or more----------------------------------

181
157
8
16

22
14
3
2
1
2
—
—

—
22
4
1
3
5
9

47

21
2

—

5
15
27

—

3
16

Area G

—

1
5
1
46
—

3
29
12
1
1

—

120
5
5
9

—

—

110
1
33
68
6

137
1
5
14

—

66
13
35
3

44
1
20
33
3

132
6
20
102
3

117
1
24
91
1

—

__

____

—

48
35
4
9

1

253
8
10
231
3
1

135
8
6
117
3
1

4
114

—

48
1
1
44
2

1

133
122
4
7

257
209
33
15

137
110
17
10

120
99
16
5

—

130
1
17
111
1

—

118
—

—
—

j
------------

1 Less than 0.5 percenti
2 Excludes 35 graduates (18 males and 17 females) and 32 dropouts (24- males and 8 females) for whom data were not
reported.
Excludes 40 graduates (21 males and 19 females) and 12 dropouts (7 males and 5 females) for whom data were not
reported.
4 Data for area E not available.




87

TABLE D-13.— Employment status of graduates and dropouts at time of interview, by highest grade completed
by area and sex
Dropouts
Graduates
Area, present employment
status and sex

Total completing
grades less than
the twelfth

Number completing

Ninth
grade

Less than
ninth
grade

140
106
17
17

253
187
35
31

288
185
70
33

113
39
10
64

218
88
17
113

257
101
38
118

232
89
30
113

100
67
19
14

22
16
1
5

26
19
5
2

36
22
9
5

29
19
6
4

159
45
16
98

100
28
10
62

41
12
2
27

63
20
6
37

38
8
6
24

17
5
2
10

100
86
3
11

113
64
24
25

100
57
21
22

16
10
2
4

14
9
2
3

25
16
3
6

58
29
17
12

192
126
7
59

100
66
4
30

122
24
13
85

100
20
10
70

14
6
2
6

27
7
2
18

33
5
3
25

48
6
6
36

Male--------------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

122
109
10
3

100
89
8
3

137
94
29
14

100
69
21
10

16
10
3
3

32
22
5
5

52
44
6
2

37
18
15
4

Female------------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

218
148
11
59

100
68
5
27

100
28
15
57

100
28
15
57

21
5
2
14

29
11
3
15

23
6
4
13

27
6
6
15

Male--------------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

87
73
7
7

100
84
8
8

67
50
11
6

100
75
16
9

11
11

17
14
2
1

29
19
5
5

10
6
4

Female------------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

181
118
16
47

100
65
9
26

71
17
17
37

100
24
24
52

25
7
4
14

30
7
9
14

Eleventh
grade

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Male-------------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

1 771
682
43
46

100
88
6
6

2 7?7
553
130
94

100
71
17
12

96
75
8
13

Female-----------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

1 1,539
1,089
62
388

100
71
4
25

2 820
317
95
408

100
39
11
50

Male-------------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

174
157
6
11

100
90
3
7

113
76
21
16

Female-----------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

252
162
8
82

110
64
3
33

Male--------------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

110
95
3
12

Female-----------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

Tenth
grade

All areas

Area A

Area B

Area C

Area D

See footnotes at end of table.




88

—
—

10
3
1
6

—

6
—

3
3

TABLE D-13.— Employment status of graduates and dropouts at time of interview, by highest grade completed,
by area and sex— Continued
Dropouts
Graduates
Area, present employment
status and sex

Total completing
grades less than
the twelfth

Number

Number completing—

Percent

Eleventh
grade

100
90
10

18
17
1

Number

Percent

Male-------------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force---- —

138
130
7
1

100
94
5
1

—

—

Female------ -----------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

344
279
9
56

100
81
3
16

100
61
8
31

100
61
8
31

10
7
1
2*

Male-------------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

80
70
6
4

100
87
8
5

66
47
16
3

100
71
24
5

7
7

Female-----------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

202
123
10
69

100
61
5
34

100
22
12
66

100
22
12
66

Male------ -------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

60
48
4
8

100
80
7
13

187
137
20
30

100
73
11
16

6
4
1
1

Female------------------------Employed-------------------Unemployed-----------------Out of the labor force------

150
133
1
16

100
89
1
10

168
120
14
34

100
71
9
20

8
6
1
1

Tenth
grade

Less than
ninth
grade

Ninth
grade

Area E
94
85
9

—

—

36
30
6

22
21
1

18
17
1
—

—

19
14

34
17
6
11

37
23
1
13

18
14
3
1

28
15

24
7
1
16

31
10
3
18

36
5
7
24

16
10
6

57
42
3
12

108
81
16
11

31
22
1
8

68
48
7
13

61
44
5
12

—

5

Area F
13
11
2

—
—

—

9
—

1
8

n

2

Area G

—

1 Excludes 1 male and 4 female graduates for whom employment status was not reported.
2 Excludes 6 male and 6 female dropouts for whom grade completed was not reported.




- 89 U. S. G OV E R N M E N T

P R IN T IN G

O F F IC E : I96 0

O

562565