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Retail Prices of Food, 1948




Bulletin No. 965

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Letter of Transmittal
U nited States D epartment of L abor,
B ureau of L abor Statistics,

Washington, D. C.j August, 31 1949.

The S ecretary of Labor:
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on retail prices and
indexes of retail prices of foods for the year 1948.
In 1948, retail food prices advanced to all-time highs. The post
World War II peak attained in July was followed by a reversal of
trend and steady declines each month through December.
A mimeographed report on retail prices of food, giving index num­
bers by group and subgroup of commodities and average prices for
individual foods in each of 56 cities will continue to be issued monthly
and will be available on request as heretofore.
This report was prepared by Frances H. Martin of the Food Section
of the Bureau’s Branch of Consumers’ Prices.
E wan Clague, Commissioner.
Hon. M aurice J. T obin,
Secretary of Labor.
(m)

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.




Price 15 cents







Contents
Summary___________________________________________________________
Food prices during 1948_____________________________________________
Changes in food prices by city_______________________________________
Trend of prices for major food groups_________________________________
Retail prices of individual foods in 1948______________________________

Page

1
1
3
3
9

TABLES
Table 1.—Indexes of retail prices of food in large cities combined, 1913-48,
and by month, January 1946 to December 1948_____________________
Table 2.—Indexes of retail prices of food, by city and by month, 1948___
Table 3.—Indexes of retail prices of food in large cities combined, by com­
modity group, by year, 1923-48, andbymonth, 1948_________________
Table 4.—Average retail prices of principal foods in large cities combined,
by month, 1948___________________________________________________
Table 5.—Annual average retail prices of principal foods, by city, 1948. _

2
6
7
8
10

APPENDIX
Brief description of Retail Food Price Index___________________________
Store sample selection___________________________________________
Collection of prices______________________________________________
Processing______________________________________________________
Relative importance_____________________________________________
Revisions_______________________________________________________
Publications____________________________________________________

14
14
14
15
15
15
16

APPENDIX TABLES
Table A.—Population weights used in computing retail food prices and
indexes for 56 cities combined--------------------------------------------------------Table B.—List of foods and relative importance of individual foods and
groups of foods included in the Retail Food Price Index, in the base
period (1935-39), December 1947, andDecember 1948_______________
(V)

17
17

Summary

Retail Prices of Food, 1948

During 1948 retail food prices advanced to a
new record high, reaching a postwar peak in
July. Through the remaining months they de­
clined continuously, and in December 1948
reached a level 1 percent below December 1947.
Despite this slight decline over the year, food
prices for 1948 averaged 8.5 percent higher than
in 1947.
Marked fluctuations occurred during the year.
After rising in January, retail food prices turned
downward in February and March, following
some of the sharpest declines in the history of
farm commodity prices—especially those for wheat,
corn, hogs, and soybeans. As in 1947, there was
speculation over whether these declines signaled
the downturn for prices of all commodities.
However, sustained consumer demand, strength­
ened by rising incomes and lower income taxes,
and export demands following passage of the
Foreign Assistance Act, pushed food prices to new
highs. The retail food price peak reached in July
was 49 percent above the June 1946 level and 17
percent above June 1920, the peak after World
War I. After July, food prices declined about 5
percent to the end of the year.
Table 1 and chart 1 present the trend in retail
prices of all foods combined, from 1913 through
1948.

Food Prices During 1948
For the second year, retail food price move­
ments were materially affected by the supplies
and prices of wheat and corn. In January 1948,
retail food prices continued upward from their
previous record of December, with all groups
except eggs and sugar contributing to the rise.
At the beginning of the year, corn prices were
high as a result of the short 1947 crop, and wheat,
although plentiful, reflected the high prices of
corn. In February, grain prices broke sharply,
reacting from the substantial rises during the last




half of 1947. The improved crop outlook at
home and abroad forecast better supplies. At the
same time, demand was somewhat diminished by
curtailed Government buying of wheat and flour,
and by unfavorable livestock-feed price ratios,
which resulted in heavy slaughter of livestock.
Retail food prices, reversing their upward trend,
were carried down nearly 2}i percent from midJanuary to mid-February, when prices of all
major groups except fruits and vegetables and
beverages decreased. While the February decline
was not so large at retail as at wholesale, many
retailers followed rapidly the wholesale price
reductions and the trend lasted through midMarch, when prices fell further by 1.2 percent to
reach the low for the year.
By mid-April, a rise of 2.8 percent nearly wiped
out the declines of February and March, as meat
supplies were reduced by a strike of packing­
house workers, and prices of fresh fruits and vege­
tables and dairy products reached new highs.
In May, supplies of meats were still curtailed by
the packing-house strike, while demand remained
very strong. Prices continued upward to reach
a peak in July. Although peaks were reached in
August for most groups, August prices for all
foods combined decreased slightly on the average,
because of a larger-than-seasonal drop of 8.2
percent in the prices of fresh fruits and vegetables.
Fats and oils started down at this time with the
prospect of good oilseed crops.
By late August, there was no doubt that 1948
was a year of record crop production which would
have far-reaching effects on later food supplies
and prices. Demand began to slow up at the
existing price levels, and heavy livestock ship­
ments started in advance of the season. As the
year progressed, a record com crop of over 3%
billion bushels was harvested, accompanied by
bumper crops of wheat and oilseeds. These crop
harvests, presaging more abundant supplies of
food and feed, including meats, fats and oils, and
dairy products, influenced retail food prices down­
ward for the remainder of the year,

2
T able 1.—Indexes of retail prices of food in large cities combined, by yeary 1918-48, and by month, January 1946 to

December 1948
11935- 39 = 100]

Year

All­
foods
index

All­
foods
index

Year

Year

All­
foods
index

Year and
month

All­
foods
index

BY YEAR

1913.,................
1914.................
1915..............
1916......... ..........
1917....................
1918......... .........
1919..............
1920....................
1921......... .........
1922..............
1923....................
1924....................

79.9
81.8
80.9
90.8
116.9
134.4
149.8
168.8
128.3
119.9
124.0
122.8




1925....................
1926.................
1927_________
1928__________
1929 .........
1930....................
1931_________
1932....................
1933-........... —.
1934..................
1935....................
1936...................

132.9
137. 4
132.3
130.8
132. 5
126.0
103.9
86.5
84.1
93.7
100.4
101.3

Year and
month

All­
foods
index

Year and
month

All­
foods
index

183.8
182.3
189. 5
18810
187.6
190.5
193.1
196. 5
203. 5
201. 6
202.7
206.9

1948
January
February
March
April_______
May
.Tune
July
August
September
October
November
December____

209.7
204. 7
202.3
207.9
210.9
214.1
216.8
216.6
215. 2
211. 5
207. 5
205.0

BY MONTH

1937..................
1938_________
1939____ _____
1940................1941
1942....................
1943...................
1944....................
1945.............
1946.................
1947...................
1948.............. —

105.3
97.8
95.2
96.6
105.5
123.9
138.0
136.1
139.1
159.6
193.8
210.2

1946
January___
February__
March. ___
April___ _____
May_______
June_______
July______
August______
September _
October___
N ovember..
December.........

141.0
139.6
140.1
141.7
142.6
145. 6
165. 7
171.2
174.1
180.0
187. 7
185.9

1947
January
February
March
April..................
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December____

Chart 1.— Retail Prices of Food in Large Cities Combined

3
Contrary to the usual seasonal movement, in
September, food price declines gained momentum
in all major groups except eggs, coffee, and sugar.
Although in October, November, and December,
additional food price decreases of between 1 and
2 percent were reported each month, prices re­
mained at a relatively high level. By December,
retail prices of foods were still 40.8 percent higher
than in June 1946, and 10.8 percent above June
1920.

Changes in Food Prices by City
Of the 56 cities surveyed by the Bureau, retail
food price changes from December 1947 to
December 1948 ranged from a decrease of 5.6 per­
cent in Birmingham to an increase of 5.1 percent
in Butte. Even though prices averaged higher
over the year for each of the 56 cities, by Decem­
ber 1948 retail food prices for large cities combined
were about 1 percent lower than in December
1947, as prices in 42 of these cities had dropped
to a level below that at the end of 1947. These
decreases over the year ranged from 0.1 percent
in Portland, Maine, and Buffalo to 5.6 percent in
Birmingham. Three cities showed no change over
December 1947. The price declines were fairly
general throughout the Nation, except in the West,
where five of the seven far western cities reported
increases, one city reported a decline, and one
was at the level of December 1947.
Throughout the year the pattern followed by the
56 cities was an interesting one. In February
after the market break, food prices in all 56 cities
declined. In March, 48 cities continued to de­
cline, while 6 moved upward. By April all 56
cities increased. In May the increase included 52
cities, and in June and July, 50. In August, 26
cities continued the increase, while 28 started to
decline. From September on, the number of
cities reporting declines varied from 45 to 54.
During the year, record peaks were reached by 25
cities in July and 26 in August.
Indexes of average retail food prices by city
during 1948 are presented in table 2. (Annual
average prices of individual foods by city are
shown in table 5.)

Trend of Prices for Major Food Groups
Price movements among the major food groups
varied greatly from December 1947 to December
840009—49-----2




1948, despite the net decline of only 1 percent for
all groups combined. Prices decreased for six of
the major food groups: fats and oils (11.4 percent) ;
eggs (8.0 percent); fruits and vegetables (6.3 per­
cent) ; sugar and sweets (5.8 percent); dairy prod­
ucts (2.8 percent); and cereals and bakery products
(0.2 percent). Prices increased for only two
groups: meats, poultry, and fish (6.2 percent); and
beverages (4.7 percent). Compared with the pre­
war period, 1935-39, prices in December 1948 had
risen most for meats, poultry, and fish (141.3
percent) and eggs (117.3 percent), while prices had
increased least for cereals and bakery products
(70.2 percent), and sugar and sweets (73.0 percent).
Table 3 presents indexes of retail food prices by
group for the years 1923 through 1948 and for
each month in 1948. The accompanying chart
shows the trend of retail food prices by group
through 1948.
Cereals and bakery products.—In contrast to
the sharp upward trend of the previous 2 years,
retail prices for cereals and bakery products com­
bined remained relatively stable during 1948.
After a 1.3 percent rise in January to a new high for
this group, prices declined in February and March,
and remained fairly steady through November.
Despite a fractional advance in December, prices
were slightly below those at the close of 1947.
The largest factor in this decrease was the
11.4 percent drop in the retail price of flour, as it
followed wheat prices downward. Millers con­
tinued to follow a cautious buying policy, and
demand was lowered by reduced flour exports.
Corn meal prices were reduced 10.6 percent. The
price of rice, although showing a decline of 8.0
percent in its first full year without control, by
December 1948 was 11.0 percent higher than in
June 1947, its last month under price control.
Over the year, cooky prices increased 8.2 percent,
corn flakes 5.0 percent, and rolled oats 2.1 percent.
Bread prices also increased 2.0 percent despite
an 11.4 percent lower average in flour prices.
In December record highs were reached in prices
of bread, rolled oats, and cookies.
Meats, poultry, and fish.—Prices for the meats,
poultry, and fish group increased 6.2 percent
over the year, with chickens up 9.1 percent, fish
8.5 percent, and meats 5.5 percent. Higher prices
for beef, veal, and lamb more than offset lower
pork prices in the meats group, with largest in­
creases occurring for hamburger (19.9 percent),

4
Chart 2.— Retail Prices for Groups of Food in Large Cities Combined

1 9 3 5 -3 9 = 100

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




5
veal cutlets (16.7 percent), and round steak and
chuck roast (over 10.0 percent). Salt pork prices
decreased 23.1 percent and sliced bacon 14.4
percent. During the first part of the year, supplies
declined but per capita consumption was well
maintained, and prices rose to new highs through
August. By September, consumers’ price re­
sistance mounted, and per capita consumption
declined, leaving large supplies of meat on the
market and forcing prices downward through the
remainder of the year.
At the beginning of 1948, there were fewer live­
stock on farms than in any year since' 1939. The
short 1947 corn crop caused unusually high feed
prices, which resulted in unfavorable livestockfeed ratios, and consequently, high prices for meat
animals. This combination of circumstances en­
couraged heavy slaughter. Later in the year, as
record grain production materialized, feed costs
dropped sharply, and the United States Depart­
ment of Agriculture urged farmers to rebuild their
animal stocks. However, in September the effects
of buyer resistance to record prices, and heavy
livestock marketings with fear of the outlook for
declining prices, took effect and brought price
declines in advance of the usual seasonal trend.
By December, demand for meat was relatively
slow, with large supplies being carried over.
After an increase of 4.5 percent in January,
prices for meats, poultry, and fish were 237.5 per­
cent of the 1935-39 average; only 1.3 percent below
the previous record high of 240.6 of September
1947. Prices for the group then broke sharply in
February (5.3 percent), as meat prices dropped
6.6 percent, with pork down 10.5 percent, beef and
veal 4.8 percent, lamb 3.5 percent, and chickens
1.8 percent. However, prices were still 3.5 percent
above the average for the year of 1947. In March,
prices steadied. Stimulated by the strike of
packing-house workers from March 16 to May 22,
and with reduced production, prices reached new
highs in each month from April through August.
The postwar peak in August brought the meats,
poultry, and fish price index to a level 267.0 per­
cent of the 1935-39 average. The high for lamb
(275.0) was reached in July, beef and veal (286.2)
in August, and pork (247.9) in September. The
high for fish (328.1) was in November and Decem­
ber. Rapid declines in retail prices of meats,
poultry, and fish from September through De­




cember brought prices down to 241.3 percent of
the 1935-39 average, 9.6 percent below the high
of August.
Lamb prices started downward in August, and
continued down through December, although
slaughter was high in relation to supplies. In Sep­
tember, beef and veal prices started their year-end
decline in advance of the usual seasonal trend.
From October through December, pork prices
dropped sharply, and by mid-December had
reached a point 206.2 percent of the 1935-39 aver­
age, only 0.9 percent above the level of March and
2.0 percent above the low of the year in February.
At the end of 1948, housewives were encouraged
to find that round steak had dropped to 88 cents
a pound on the average, compared with $1.01 in
August, and pork chops averaged about 67%cents
a pound compared with 92 cents in September.
Dairy products.—A decline over the year of 2.8
percent in prices of dairy products was the result of
lower butter prices (down 20.8 percent) which mole
than offset increases for evaporated milk (11.6
percent), fresh milk (about 7% percent), and
cheese (4% percent). Butter, declining from an
average price of 95.4 cents per pound in December
1947, to 75.6 cents in December 1948 had a greater
influence on the down-trend of food prices than any
other single item in the index.
Prices of dairy products during 1948 defied the
usual seasonal trends. After a rise in January, they
declined in February and March. In April, prices
rose 2.3 percent contraseasonally as the price of
butter soared upward by 7.6 percent when the bill
to eliminate the margarine tax was tabled tem­
porarily by Congress. By June, prices had risen
slightly instead of following the regular seasonal
decline. Prices continued upward, reaching the
highest point on record in August, then during the
remainder of the year declined sharply and
contraseasonally.
During the first of the year, storage supplies and
production of dairy products were low. As the
year progressed, stocks accumulated with larger
than usual supplies of milk diverted to cheese and
butter. Large oilseed crops brought lower prices of
oils used in the manufacture of margarine. Conse­
quently, margarine became keener competition,
with prices decreasing 8.9 percent over the year to
38.0 cents per pound, approximately half the price
of butter.

6
T able 2.—Indexes of retail prices of food, by city 1 and by month, 1948
[1935-39=100]

1948
Region and city

Average
for the Jan. 15 Feb.15 Mar. 15 Apr. 15 May 15 June 15 July 15 Aug. 15 Sept. 15 Oct. 15 Nov. 15 Dec. 15
year

United States______________ _ 210.2

209.7

204.7

202.3

207.9

210.9

214.1

216.8

216.6

215.2

211.5

207.5

205.0

200.9
206.2
205.8
209.3
200.9
200.8
216.6

200.3
204.5
202.6
208.8
201.5
199.6
215.0

195.0
197.5
198.4
203.2
195.8
193.5
210.5

192.2
195.6
197.2
202.0
193.0
192.4
205.5

198.2
201.4
201.2
204.9
197.7
197.0
213.1

199.2
207.5
207.2
208.9
201.2
199.4
217.9

204.1
210.3
211.3
213.0
205.4
204.1
222.0

210.2
214.4
214.1
218.4
208.3
209.7
224.9

208.8
214.6
213.5
217.8
205.6
209.8
227.2

207.2
212.7
211.6
215.5
205.3
207.0
223.8

202.6
209.3
209.1
210.4
203.5
204.1
218.4

199.2
205.9
202.5
204.8
199.6
198.0
211.7

194.2
201.0
200.4
203.6
194.5
195.0
209.2

204.9
205.3
210.5
205.3
213.6
202.7
209.8

202.1
201.4
209.7
205.6
212.8
202.1
213.1

196.7
200.3
206.7
199.3
205.4
196.9
203.2

196.6
196.4
201.2
196.3
204.8
196.7
201.8

200.2
203.0
208.6
202.8
209.8
200.8
208.9

207.9
204.7
210.0
205.0
213.7
205.1
212.2

211.6
209.9
213.9
209.4
219.6
208.8
216.1

212.9
212.8
217.9
210.9
222.3
211.2
218.2

213.0
212.6
216.9
212.5
220.9
209.7
217.3

210.1
211.1
216.2
212.0
219.5
207.3
213.2

206.4
205.8
211.5
208.4
215.1
200.7
209.2

201.6
203.9
208.7
202.0
211.0
196.7
202.8

200.0
201.2
204.3
199.3
208.0
196.5
201.1

215.2
212.8
218.8
196.0
205.0
209.2
210.9
220.4
218.5

213.2
213.0
217.6
196.7
205.1
208.2
206.4
219.5
217.9

204.8
209,0
212.5
192.6
199.4
204.2
203.4
208.9
211.4

204.3 212.2
206.1 210.1
209.3 213.0
190.8 193.1
197.7 203.9
203.8 205.7
204.6 210.9
205.8 , 217,0
209.1 212.6

218.4
213.5
218.0
195.3
208.0
208.0
213.7
223.8
219.3

221.3
216.3
223.7
199.2
211.3
211.5
215.3
227.3
224.4

224.7
220.4
226.2
201.9
213.2
212.6
218.3
224.9
224.9

223.6
218.1
229.0
202.2
210.1
217.1
218.8
230.8
227.0

221.4
218.0
225.6
200.8
207.6
216.0
216.3
230.3
226.4

218.0
214.4
220.9
197.2
204.4
211.8
211.2
222.1
219.5

211.9
209.4
217.0
193.1
199.9
206.8
207.5
218i0
215.2

208.2
205.2
213.0
189.4
198.7
204.8
2Q5.0
216.8
214.4

217.0
199.8
202.7
205.7
217.5
199.5
221.9

214.6
199.4
202.6
204.2
217.2
198.6
222.4

208.9
192.5
197.2
197.7
212.8
194.0
215.1

208.2
193,0
198.1
197.7
210.9
195.3
215.9

217.0
197.9
203.0
202.5
213.6
200.5
220.3

219.7
202.2
206.0
207.2
218.2
203.5
225.3

224.3
204.4
206.2
210.1
222.0
203.7
226.4

224.4
204.4
208.2
208.6
224.2
204.7
226.7

222.2
205.4
209.2
211.1
225.3
204.5
224.7

220.2
204.4
206.0
210.3
223.0
203.1
223.0

218.0
201.1
202.2
210.2
217.4
199.7
220.0

214.4
198.5
197.8
205.6
213.1
194.8
222.2

211.8
194.7
195. 6
203.1
212.2
192.1
220.4

208.4
221.2
204.5
216.2
213.9
205.6
220.8
208.2
209.9

211.9
220.2
206.6
216.2
216.5
209.1
222.9
209.5
214.5

205.6
214.5
200.2
212.2
210.2
201.3
219.6
202.0
207.9

201.1
212.3
199.1
208.1
206.0
197.6
213.6
198.9
202.7

204.7
217.8
204.8
214.7
210.5
200.6
221.4
205.1
206.0

207.9
221.6
206.7
217.3
213.3
203.4
223.3
209. 7
208.4

209.9
225.3
208.1
222.9
214.4
205.3
224.5
215.4
209.5

212.4
227.7
211.4
222.8
216.9
209.4
228.3
215.1
212.9

215.7
228.9
208.0
220.7
220.5
211.7
223.3
214.9
215.8

214.2
228.7
207.7
219.3
220.2
214.1
222.4
212.9
215.6

208.3
224.5
204.9
217.5
217.1
209.7
219.2
209.2
212.7

205.9
218.7
198.9
212.6
211.8
203.6
215.0
203.5
206.1

203.3
214.6
197.1
209.9
209.8
201.5
216.0
201.8
206.6

211.7
218.3
237.9
201.2
224.4
217.0

218.0
223.3
244.3
200.1
230. 7
219.6

211.1
221.3
239.6
198.0
224.5
215.5

207.2
214.6
230.0
193.9
219.9
212.2

207.5
218.3
233.9
198.2
222.2
216.3

209.6
218.0
236.2
201.6
223.2
217.0

212.7
216.7
238.4
203.8
226.7
219.8

218.0
220.8
241.7
206.8
229.8
222.5

219. 3
220.6
244.6
207.4
227.1
222.7

216.3
220.7
241.6
207.2
227.8
222.1

210. 8
218.6
236.7
201.7
223.7
213.8

205.4
212.7
233.9
198.9
219.0
211.3

204.8
213.8
233.9
196.6
217.9
211.8

210.7
219.9
207.9
224.9

210.3
221.5
211.4
226. 4

205.7
218.1
206.1
225.6

203.0
216.0
203.8
224.3

206.7
219.3
206.4
228.7

210.5
218.1
209.2
223.0

210.8
220.0
210.0
227.3

213.3
222.1
213.4
233.2

215.2
223.8
212.4
228.5

217.3
223.7
212.0
227.7

214.7
220. 8
206.5
220.5

212.7
217. 6
202.4
218.0

208.2
218.1
201.6
216.1

208.9
210.0
212. 5

204.8
208.6
211. 3

202.1
203.4
207.9

200.5
202.3
207.3

201.3
208.5
212.9

207.4
213.3
216.8

214.7
216.5
215.8

216.6
217.0
217.1

215.1
213.1
216.0

214.5
210.5
214.7

214.9
208.3
211.2

209.3
207.7
208.8

205.7
211.0
209.8

212. 5
226.4
220.8
217.6

212.2
223.0
218.9
218.4

210.9
219.2
215.4
214.7

208.9
220.4
215.3
212.5

213.9
223.2
219.5
215.5

212.6
229.5
223.4
221.4

212.1
228.2
221.6
220.3

213.1
233.7
223.2
223.4

212.7
234.1
224.3
221.9

212.1
231.4
224.2
221.0

213.1
227.7
223.0
217.5

213. 7
222.9
219.5
213.4

214.9
223.5
221.1
211.8

N ew England

Boston. ______________ ___
Bridgeport__________________
Fall River__ ______________
Manchester_________________
New Haven_________________
Portland, Maine_____________
Providence_________________
M iddle A tlantic

Buffalo_____________________
Newark.. _________________
New York ________________
Philadelphia________________
Pittsburgh__________________
Rochester__________________
Scranton___ _______________
E ast North Central

Chicago___________________
Cincinnati__________________
Cleveland__________________
Oolumbus, Ohio ____ ____
Detroit____________________
Indianapolis--- ------------------Milwaukee_________________
Peoria_____________________
Springfield, 111 ------------------W est North Central

Cedar Rapids2--------------------Kansas City ----------------------Minneapolis--- --------------------Omaha_____________________
St. Louis___________________
St. Paul____________________
Wichita2_______________ --South A tlantic

Atlanta____________________
Baltimore------ ------------------Charleston, S. C ... _________
Jacksonville________________
Norfolk____________________
Richmond. ________________
Savannah___ ____ _________
Washington, D.2------------------Winston-Salem C___________
E ast South Central

Birmingham----- -----------------Jackson2___________________
Knoxville2_________________
Louisville___________________
Memphis__________________
Mobile.---------- ------------------W est South Central

Dallas_____________________
Houston___________________
Little Rock_________________
New Orleans.______________
M ountain

Butte______________________
Denver____________________
Salt Lake City______________
Pacific

Los Angeles________________
Portland, Oreg______________
San Francisco______________
Seattle_____________________

1Aggregate costs of foods in each city, weighted to represent total purchases
by families of wage earners and lower-salaried workers, have been combined
for the United States with the use of population weights.




2

June 1940=100.

7
Eggs.—Egg prices declined 8.0 percent over the
year, although averaging the highest on record.
Consumer demand remained high, partly because
of high prices for meat, and commercial egg stocks
at the end of the year were next to the smallest on
record. In November 1948, retail egg prices in
large cities combined averaged 84.5 cents per
dozen—higher than in any month since December
1920. Per capita consumption of eggs in 1948
was the second highest on record, and the Govern­
ment found it necessary to buy only about a third of
the amount of the previous year to maintain farm
prices at 90 percent of parity. Although farm
flocks averaged 2% percent smaller during the year,

the rate of lay which has been increasing over
recent years, was high enough to bring 1948 egg
production above 1947.
Fruits and vegetables.—Retail prices of fruits
and vegetables declined 6.3 percent over the year.
Prices for fresh and dried fruits and vegetables
dropped 7.5 and 10.0 percent, more than offsetting
an increase of 1.3 percent in prices of canned
products. Prices of fresh fruits and vegetables
declined over the year. With plentiful supplies,
decreases for all vegetables except sweetpotatoes
more than offset increases for fruits, supplies of
which were 6 percent below 1947. Largest
vegetable declines were for carrots, cabbage, and

T able 3.—Indexes of retail prices of food, in large cities combined,1 by commodity group, by year, 1923 to 1948, and by month,

January 1948 to December 1948
(1935-39=100]

Meats
Fruits and vegetables
Cereals Meats,
Chick­ Fish Dairy Eggs
All and try,
Bever­ Fats Sugar
Year and month foods bakery poul­
prod­
and
ages and sweets
ucts
prod­ and Total Beef Pork Lamb ens
oils
and
Total Fresh Canned Dried
ucts fish
veal
BY YEAR. 1923 TO 1948 2
1923
1924
1Q25
1926
1997
1928
1929
1Q.qn
1031

-____

1932
1Q
33
19.34.
1935____________
1936____________
1937____________
1938.......................1939__ _________
1940____________
1941____ ________
1942____________
1943____________
1944____________
1945____________
1946____________
1947____________
1948........................

124.0
122.8
132.9
137.4
132.3
130.8
132.5
126.0
103.9
86.5
84.1
93.7
100.4
101.3
105.3
97.8
95.2
96.6
105.5
123.9
138.0
136.1
139.1
159.6
193.8
210.2

105.5
107.2
116.0
115.7
113.3
110.1
107.6
104.3
91.4
82.6
84.7
98.3
101.8
100.7
103.3
99.8
94.5
96.8
97.9
105.1
107.6
108.4
109.0
125.0
155.4
170.9

101.2
102.4
111.3
117.8
116.0
123.1
127.1
119.1
101.1
79.3
68.9
78.9
99.9
98.9
105.8
98.9
96.6
95.8
107.5
126.0
133.8
129.9
131.2
161.3
217.1
246.5

100.7
98.6
106.4
97.8
96.6
94.4
106.5
122.5
124.2
117.9
118.0
150.8
214.7
243.9

98.8
94.7
106.5
98.7
101.1
102.8
110.8
123.6
124.7
118.7
118.4
150.5
213.6
258.5

104.7
103.4
106.6
96.3
88.9
81.1
100.1
120.4
119.9
112.2
112.6
148.2
215.9
222.5

96.3
101.1
105.2
97.9
99.5
99.7
106.6
124.1
136.9
134.5
136.0
163.9
220.1
246.8

95.5
101.1
104.9
104.6
93.8
94.8
102.1
122.6
146.1
151.0
154.4
174.0
183.2
203.2

98.2
98.5
101.0
101.3
101.0
110.6
124.5
163.0
206.5
207.6
217.1
236.2
271.4
312.8

129.4
124.1
128.1
127.4
130.7
131.4
131.0
121.0
102.8
84.9
82.8
90.9
97.5
101.6
105.4
99.6
95.9
101.4
112.0
125.4
134.6
133.6
133.9
165.1
186.2
204.8

136.1
139.0
151.2
141.7
133.2
137.3
143.8
121.4
95.6
82.3
77.9
88.6
104.2
103.3
101.2
100.3
91.0
93.8
112.2
136.5
161.9
153.9
164.4
168.8
200.8
208.7

169.5
159.5
185.1
210.8
183.8
161.4
169.0
177.5
125.7
103.5
113.8
119.1
99.7
104.8
107.9
93.2
94.5
96.5
103.2
130.8
168.8
168.2
177.1
182.4
199.4
205.2

173.6
162.7
193.5
226.2
194.4
166.5
173. 5
185.7
128.7
105.9
118.9
122.3
98.8
106.2
108.6
92.1
95.1
97.3
104.2
132.8
178.0
177.2
188.2
190.7
201.5
212.4

124.8
122.2
132.3
122.9
120.8
120.6
124.3
118.6
103.3
91.1
87.9
103.9
106.2
100.9
103.2
97.4
92.3
92.4
97.9
121.6
130.6
129.5
130.2
140.8
166.2
158.0

175.4
159.6
159.0
152.4
145.9
153.9
171.0
158.7
118.7
91. 2
88.4
101.1
100.8
96.6
116.0
93.3
93.3
100.6
106.7
136.3
158.9
164.5
168.2
190.4
263.5
246.8

131.5
147.6
170.3
170.4
163.3
165.2
164.8
143.4
124.6
112.6
102.4
107.6
104.0
99.4
103.6
97.7
95.5
92.5
101.5
122.1
124.8
124.3
124.7
139.6
186.8
205.0

126.2
134.1
149.1
145.0
132.8
128.3
127.2
119! 2
96.0
7l! 1
66.4
76! 4
110! 3
102.8
105.8
93.5
87.7
82.2
94.0
119.6
126.1
123.3
124.0
152.1
197.5
195.5

175.4
159! 1
124! 6
120! 0
127.2
123.1
114! 3
107! 4
99! 1
89! 6
94.3
97! 9
lO o ! 7
99.6
101.2
97.9
100.6
96.8
106.4
126.5
127.1
126.5
126.5
143.9
180.0
174.0

215.7
222.0
214.2
228.4
229.4
225.2
223.2
204.8
199.6
197.3
192.4
196.2

158.0 256.8
157.7 256.0
157.7 253.9
156.4 252.1
156.4 250.0
157.4 248.0
157.7 248.0
157.8 249.2
159.0 249.1
158.9 238.1
159.4 230.6
159.4 . 229.8

201.9
204.0
204.4
204.4
204.6
205.1
205.2
205.3
205.6
205.9
206.4
207.8

209.3
194.2
191.7
191.4
196.6
200.5
200.8
197.8
196.8
193.0
189.4
184.4

183.4
176.8
174.4
173.6
173.0
170.6
170.9
172.3
173.2
173.1
173.3
173.0

BY PRICE REPORTING PERIOD, 1948
1948

Jan. 15__________
Feb. 15_ __............
Mar. 15..................
Apr. 15 ________
May 15_____ ____
June 15______ ___
July' 15.................
Aug. 15_________
Sept. 15_________
Oct. 15
Nov. 15 ______
Dec. 15_________

209.7
204.7
202.3
207.9
210.9
214.1
216.8
216.6
215. 2
211. 5
207. 5
205.0

172.7
171.8
171.0
171.0
171.1
171.2
171.0
170.8
170.7
170.0
169.9
170.2

237.5
224.8
224.7
233.8
244.2
255.1
261.8
267.0
265.3
256.1
246.7
241.3

233.4
218.0
218.2
229.5
242.0
255.2
263.0
269.3
265.9
254.3
243.1
235.4

239.7
228.2
228.5
241.2
255.8
273.9
280.9
286.2
280.8
269.8
262.4
255.1

225.9
202.2
204.3
212.3
219.1
223.5
233.8
246.1
247.9
233.9
214.4
206.2

231.5
223.4
216.8
232.6
253. 5
271.2
275.0
266.6
256.6
249.4
246.5
238.6

200.0
196.4
194.7
198.4
202.1
207.6
209.3
207.8
209.4
204.0
200.5
208.0

1 Aggregate costs in each city weighted to represent total purchases of famices of wage earners and lower-salaried workers, have been combined with
the use of population weights.




310.9
315.0
313.6
307.2
305.0
299.3
301.6
304.4
314.9
325.9
328.1
328.1

205.7
204.4
201.1
205.8
204.8
205.9
209.0
211.0
208.7
203.0
199.5
199.2

213.6
189.2
186.3
184.7
184.9
194.2
204.3
220.2
226.6
239.0
244.3
217.3

208.3
213.0
206.9
217.4
218.0
214.9
213.4
199.6
195.8
193.5
189.4
192.3

2 Comparable indexes for the years 1923-34 have been computed by convert­
ing indexes from the 1923-25 base to the 1935-39 base,

8
T a b l e 4. —Average retail

'prices of principal foods in large cities combined, by month, 19J+8
1948

Article

Aver­
age for Jan. 15 Feb. 15 Mar. 15 Apr. 15 May 15 June 15 July 15 Aug. 15 Sept. 15 Oct. 15 Nov. 15 Dec. 15
the
year

Cereals and bakery products:
Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents
Cereals:
47.9
Flour, wheat.......... . ___5 pounds. _ 49.0 54.4 50.9 49.7 49.0 48.9 48.7 48.2 47.9 47.8 47.6 47.5
Com flakes.................___11 ounces.. 16.6 16.3 16.3 16.4 16.6 16.6 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.8
16.8
10.0
Com meal.................. ...........pound.. 10.9 11.3 11.3 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.0 11.1 11.1 11.0 10.8 10.2
Rice.......................... _______do— 20.8 20.9 21.1 21.0 21.1 21.1 21.3 21.5 21.6 21.6 20.0 19.5
19.2
Rolled oats_________ ___20 ounces.. 17.1 16.9 16.9 16.9 17.1 17.1 17.1 17.1 17.1 17.1 17.1 17.1
17.2
Bakery products:
Bread, white............... .......... pound- 13.9 13.8 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9
13.9
Vanilla cookies.......... ..............do.... 44.0 42.4 43.3 43.4 43.7 43.0 43.9 44.3 44.3 44.4 44.5 44.8
45.0
Meats, poultry, and fish:
Meats:
Beef:
88.3
Round steak........ ..............do___ 90.5 84.0 78.2 79.1 84.7 90.3 97.2 99.5 101.2 98.9 93.7 91.0
72.9
Rib roast.............. — .........do.... 73.7 69.8 65.6 65.4 68.6 71.9 76.8 79.6 81.5 79.9 76.9 75.4
Chuck roast....... ._______do---- 64.4 59.0 56.3 56.0 59.1 63.6 69.5 70.8 72.3 70.7 67.6 65.4
62.1
56.2
Hamburger.........................do.... 56.1 49.4 48.6 48.9 51.4 55.2 60.2 61.6 62.6 61.6 59.9 57.1
Veal:
Cutlets................. — .........do.... 97.8 91.7 90.9 90.4 93.7 97.9 100.7 102.1 103.5 103.1 101.1 99.1
99.2
Pork:
Chops............ ...... _______do— 77.2 72.3 65.9 69.9 73.6 77.0 78.5 83.3 91.1 91.8 83.7 72.4
67.4
Bacon, sliced...... ...............do---- 76.9 86.8 74.2 70.8 72.9 75.9 76.9 77.9 78.6 79.0 78.9 76.5
74.6
65.6
Ham, whole____ ............ .do— 68.0 69.0 62.3 62.8 64.9 65.7 68.0 71.8 73.8 74.4 70.4 66.8
Salt pork.............. ..............do___ 43.9 54.2 49.7 44.8 43.8 42.5 41.1 40.9 40.5 40.9 41.8 41.8 44.2
Lamb:
Leg............. ......... ..............do___ 71.1 66.7 64.4 62.5 67.1 73.1 78.2 79.3 76.9 74.0 71.9 71.1
68.8
Poultry: Roasting chickens.......... .do___ 61.3 60.3 59.2 58.7 59.9 61.0 62.6 63.1 62.7 63.2 61.6 60.5
62.8
Fish: i
Salmon, pink................16-ounce can.. 54.9 51.8 51.6 51.7 52.1 52.4 53.2 53.5 54.7 56.3 59.4 61.3
61.1
Dairy products:
Butter................................ .......... pound.. 86.7 93.9 90.4 86.4 93.0 92.5 91.0 91.7 89.4 84.7 77.4 74.9
75.6
Cheese............................... ..............do___ 65.6 63.0 64.5 63.4 62.8 64.5 66.2 68.2 69.8 68.7 67.4 64.1
64.2
Milk:
Fresh (delivered)....................quart.. 21.8 21.1 21.2 21.2 21.2 20.8 21.2 21.5 22.1 22.7 22.8 23.1
22.6
Fresh (grocery)_____ ..............do___ 20.8 20.2 20.3 20.3 20.2 20.1 20.3 20.6 21.3 21.4 21.6 21.6
21.3
Evaporated...............14 -ounce can.. 14.8 13.5 14.0 14.1 14.1 14.4 15.0 15.2 15.6 15.8 15.5 15.0
14.8
Eggs: Fresh.........................................dozen.. 72.3 74.0 65.6 64.6 64.0 64.1 67.3 70.8 76.3 78.4 82.7 84.5
75.2
Fruits and vegetables:
Fresh fruits:
12.6
Apples......................... ...........pound.. 11.9 11.5 10.9 10.8 10.9 12.0 14.1 13.9 11.8 11.3 11.5 12.0
16.3
Bananas...................... ..............do---- 15.9 15.6 15.6 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.8 16.3 16.4 16.3 16.3 16.4
43.4
Oranges, size 200------ .......... dozen.. 44.7 37.7 38.4 41.0 40.4 42.2 43.8 47.8 51.8 52.9 54.3 42.7
Fresh vegetables:
18.9
Beans, green............... ..........pound.. 21.6 21.8 28.0 20.8 25.0 24.9 20.2 20.4 19.2 18.7 16.9 24.5
6.9
5.9
5.4
Cabbage---------------- ----------do—
5.3
5.1
9.5
6.6
8.5
7.3
5.2
5.3
6.7
7.7
9.9 10.2 10.3
9.9
9.9
Carrots....... ................
12.1 13.2 14.0 12.2 13.7 16.7 14.1 10.9
14.1
Lettuce.........................--------pound.. 13.6 16.6 12.6 11.4 13.2 16.5 13.5 14.6 11.8 12.9 13.4 13.1
........— head..
6.5
7.3
6.4
6.1
6.4
Onions____________
10.6 11.8 15.1 16.0 18.2 12.0 10.8 10.4
74.8
Potatoes......... ............ — 15 pounds-. 83.8 84.2 88.7 88.7 91.1 94.0 94.6 89.2 80.3 75.7 72.7 71.5
Spinach...................... --------pound.. 12.0 13.7 (2)
12.3 12.0 11.4 10.4 12.5 (2)
11.7
13.2 11.6 11.1
10.3
12.2 10.2
9.4
9.4
Sweetpotatoes........... ---------- do---- 10.9 10.2 10.7 10.8 11.1 11.7 14.2 (2)
Canned fruits:
32.4
Peaches...... ...................No. 2H can.. 31.5 31.3 31.1 31.0 31.0 31.0 31.0 31.2 31.4 31.8 32.1 32.4
Pineapple...----------- .............do---- 37.1 35.3 35.5 <2)
36.2 36.3 36.6 (2)
39.5
37.0 38.0 38.4 38.8
Canned vegetables:
19.9
Corn...... .................... ----No. 2 can.. 19.7 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.7 19.7 19.8 19.9 19.8
Peas...------------------..............do---- 15.1 15.4 15.4 15.1 14.8 14.7 14.7 14.8 15.1 15.3 15.3 15.4
15.3
16.2
Tomatoes__________ ..............do---- 16.5 16.7 16.6 16.7 16.5 16.5 16.6 16.6 16.4 16.5 16.3 16.3
Dried fruits: Prunes......... _____ pound.. 21.4 22.2 22.0 21.5 21.2 21.1 20.8 20.9 20.8 20.9 21.3 21.5
22.1
18.1
Dried vegetables: Navy beans....... do___ 22.0 22.9 23.0 23.1 23.1 22.9 22.8 22.7 23.0 22.9 20.4 18.8
Beverages: Coffee................ . ..............do— 51.4 50.6 51.2 51.3 51.3 51.3 51.4 51.5 51.5 51.6 51.6 51.8
52.1
Fats and oils:
Lard.................................. ..............do— 29.6 35.6 29.2 28.6 28.9 29.6 29.6 29.5 29.4 29.6 29.2 28.5
27.0
Hydrogenated shortening. ..............do---- 44.0 46.8 45.1 44.4 42.9 43.8 45.2 45.7 43.4 43.0 42.6 42.5
42.0
Salad dressing.....................
39.4
39.6 37.8 38.5 38.5 38.7 39.8 40.5 40.8 40.8 40.8 40.1 39.7
Margarine......................... .--------pound.. 41.4 42.0 41.5 40.8 40.8 42.4 44.1 43.7 42.9 41.9 40.2 38.9
38.0
Sugar and sweets:
Sugar................................ .— .......do—
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.3
9.2
9.3
9.9
9.5
9.2
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.4
1 Costs of fresh and/or frozen fish are included in the index, but average
prices are not computed.

onions (about 40 percent). Orange prices ad­
vanced 15.2 percent, with increased demand during
1948 caused by the shortage of other fruits. In
addition to the strong demand for fresh oranges,
a new record was set in the production of canned




* Inadequate reports.

and frozen orange juice. Prices of apples rose
8.9 percent because of a considerably smaller crop.
Cold storage stocks of apples at the end of 1948
were about 40 percent lower than a year earlier.
Banana prices increased 4J£ percent.

9
In January, retail prices of fresh fruits and
vegetables rose 1.7 percent and in February, in­
fluenced by frost and drought, the group increased
a further 2.9 percent, as green beans and onions
continued upward by 28 percent, and spinach 16
percent. The more abundant lettuce and cabbage
declined (24 and 14 percent). Increasingly plenti­
ful supplies in March brought green bean prices
down 26 percent, spinach 23 percent, and the
average for fresh fruits and vegetables down 3.5
percent. April brought an increase of 6.6 percent,
with large vegetable price increases. There was a
less-than-seasonal rise in May, as plentiful supplies
of onions (down 34 percent) and cabbage (down
19.2 percent) came on the market. From June
through November, prices declined to 16.1 percent
below the level of May, and after rising 2.0 percent
in December were still slightly below the level of
June 1946. Prices of canned fruits and vegetables
increased 1.3 percent over the year, with increased
material and labor costs. Prices of dried fruits
and vegetables dropped 10.0 percent. Prices of
prunes declined only 1.3 percent throughout the
year although supplies were excessive because of
fluctuating domestic demand and uncertainty
over export requirements. The Government found
it necessary to purchase large amounts of prunes
and find outlets for purchases through export
channels, and domestically through school lunch
programs and institutions. Dried bean prices
tumbled 19% percent from December 1947 to
December 1948. The 1948 bean crop was 13 per­
cent larger than 1947, and near the record crop of
1943.
Beverages.—Beverage prices rose 4.7 percent
during 1948. The average retail price of coffee in
December 1948 was 52.1 cents a pound compared
with 49.8 cents in December 1947. Coffee prices
rose in 8 months of the year, with no changes in
the other 4 months. Shipping strikes were im­
portant in the movement of coffee prices during
the year. The New York dock strike brought
licensed warehouse stocks down to such an extent
that by November 20, they were the lowest since
coffee trading on the exchange was resumed in
October 1946. Boasters found their operations re­
duced by the resulting coffee shortage; then the in­




crease in green coffee prices made advances in their
prices necessary. In spite of rising prices during
1948, coffee consumption increased 3 percent over
1947, and imports were the second highest on
record.
Fats and oils— Prices of fats and oils dropped
11.4 percent over the year. Lard (down 25.4
percent) was mainly responsible, declining in 8
months of the year. The largest decreases were
in February (17.9 percent), during the heavy sell­
ing of hogs after the market break, and in Decem­
ber (5.4 percent). Prices declined progressively
from October through December, with early
marketing of the spring pig crop beginning in late
September. In November and December when
hogs marketed averaged near the record weights
of 1945, lard output was markedly greater than a
year earlier. The price of lard in December 1948
had dropped to 27.0 cents a pound from the 36.2
cent price of December 1947. Over the year mar­
garine declined 8.9 percent, and hydrogenated
shortening 7.8 percent, while salad dressing rose
6.8 percent. Abundant crops of oilseeds in the
fall of 1948 brought lower vegetable oil prices, and
higher consumption of margarine and shortening.
Butter encountered keen competition in margarine
which averaged about half the price of butter and
reached a new record production for the year—
about 900 million pounds, compared with 746
million pounds in 1947. Exports of fats and oils
in 1948 were lower than in 1947.
Sugar and sweets.—In the first full year free of
price and ration controls since 1942, the retail
price of sugar decreased 5.8 percent, although
consumption by civilians was the largest on record
and quotas were set on the quantities marketed.
The lowering of the sugar tariff at the beginning of
1948 in the face of a record world supply was a
contributing cause of the decline.

Retail Prices of Individual Foods in 1948
Average retail prices of individual foods for
large cities combined are presented in table 4 for
each month in 1948. Annual average retail
prices of individual foods in each of 56 cities, for
1948, are shown in table 5.

10
T a b l e 5 . —Annual

Article
Cereals and bakery products:
Cereals:
Flour, wheat ... 5 pounds..
Corn flakes_____11 ounces. _
Corn meal________pound..
Rice____ _________ do___
Rolled oats_____20 ounces..
Bakery products:
Bread, white______pound..
Vanilla cookies........ ..do___
Meats, poultry, and fish:
Meats:
Beef:
Round steak.........do___
Rib roast............do....
Chuck roast____ do____
Hamburger..........do....
Veal: Cutlets..............do___
Pork:
Chops__________do___
Bacon, sliced.........do___
Ham, whole_____do___
Salt pork_______ do___
Lamb: Leg_________ do___
Poultry: Roasting chickens .do___
Fish:* Salmon,
pink...............__l6-ounce can..
Dairy products:
Butter....... .................... pound. _
Cheese__________ ____..do___
Milk:
Fresh (delivered)___quart. .
Fresh (grocery)_____ do.. __
Evaporated. 14J^-ounce can..
Eggs: Fresh_____________ dozen..
Fruits and vegetables:
Fresh fruits:
Apples..................... pound. _
Bananas_____ ____..do___
Oranges, size 200.......dozen. _
Fresh vegetables:
Beans, green______ pound..
Cabbage____ _____ .do....
Carrots__________ bunch..
Lettuce___ ________head..
Onions___________pound..
Potatoes............15 pounds. ._
Spinach________ .pound
Sweetpotatoes______ do___
Canned fruits:
Peaches______No. 2Vi can..
Pineapple__________ do___
Canned vegetables:
Corn....................No. 2 can..
Peas______________ do___
Tomatoes__________ do___
Dried fruits: Prunes___ pound..
Dried vegetables: Navy
beans_______________ do___
Beverages: Coffee__________ do____
Fats and oils:
Lard______________ ..do___
Hydrogenated shortening .do___
Salad dressing__________ pint..
Margarine _________ pound. _
Sugar and sweets: Sugar____ do___
See footnotes at end of table.




United
States
Cents

average retail prices of principal foods, by city, 194-8
NEW ENGLAND

Fall Man­ New Port­
New Phila­ Pitts­
Boston Bridge­ River chester Haven land, Provi­ Buffalo New­ York delphia burgh Roch­
port
ark
ester
Maine dence
Cents

Cents

49.6
15.8
11.7
20.5
17.5
12.9
(0

Cents

90.5 102.3 100.4
73.7 72.6 73.7
64.4 69.3 70.4
56.1 61.6 63.4
97.8 96.0 100.3
77.2 78.7 78.2
76.9 76.8 77.0
68.0 69.3 69.0
43.9 36.3 34.7
71.1 72.4 72.6
61.3 61.6 62.7
54.9 52.7 53.4
86.7 86.0 86.3
65.6 61.0 0)
21.8 23.0 23.0
20.8 21.7 22.2
14.8 15.1 15.0
72.3 77.4 80.4

99.0
71.0
65.7
63.4
0
80.3
76.7
69.4
35.8
72.7
63.1
55.0
85.5
62.6
22.6
22.1
15.3
76.4

99.7 102.8
70.2 72.5
65.2 66.6
62.1 0
99.5 105.6
78.2 77.9
76.5 76.0
67.5 69.5
35.1 36.1
72.0 72.2
58.4 62.2
54.5 55.5
84.2 86.4
65.2
0)
22.9 22.1
22.4 21.7
15.2 15.0
75.6 78.1

11.9
15.9
44.7
21.6
6.6
12.1
13.6
10.6
83.8
12.0
10.9
31.5
37.1
19.7
15.1
16.5
21.4
22.0
51.4
29.6
44.0
39.6
41.4
9.4

12.3
15.9
49.3
07.4
13.8
16.8
10.9
70.6
0
11.3

10.0
15.3
49.0
0)
7.3
13.0
15.9
10.2
71.7
0
0)
32.0
0
20.4
17.0
15.7
21.7
24.6
52.1
30.0
44.4
44.7
41.2
9.4

49.0
16.6
10.9
20.8
17.1
13.9
44.0

MIDDLE ATLANTIC

48.5
15.6
11.1
21.2
16.6
14.1
0

10.9
15.2
42.4
21.9
7.3
13.2
16.7
10.4
77.2
0)
10.5

32.4
36.1
20.4
17.9
18.5
21.2
24.7
54.6
31.1
43.8
41.6
40.6
9.1

11.0
16.0
47.8
23.8
6.9
14.2
16.3
10.5
78.4
0)
11.0

33.4
39.0
20.0
0)
17.2
22.4
22.8
52.6
30.1
44.6
42.9
41.4
9.5

50.2
16.4
11.7
20.8
16.8
14.4
0)

33.2
0)
19.9
17.1
16.0
21.5
24.6
52.6
30.0
44.8
41.2
41.4
9.4

Cents

51.1
17.2
11.4
0
16.6
13.5
41.4

Cents

50.0
16.6
11.7
20.5
17.1
13.5
38.1

11.0
15.4
43.9
24.4
6.7
13.6
15.0
10.4
75.0
12.2
0)
32.4
37.9
19.7
17.6
16.2
22.1
21.1
52.2
30.2
44.6
41.5
41.3
9.3

Cents

Cents

Cents

Cents

Cents

47.1
16.5
11.5
20.1
16.5
15.1
40.1

Cents

93.5 97.9
68.1 72.4
0
59.7
60.3 0
100.4
0
77.1 79.1
75.3 75.8
67.2 68.7
40.1 35.1
71.1 72.3
59.9 63.2
52.4
0
83.8 86.9
64.0 0
21.7 23.1
21.9 21.1
15.2 14.6
77.8 74.9

85.3 96.4 96.2 97.6
70.8 73.5 76.7 75.7
63.9 67.7 67.5 66.3
58.0 63.0 61.2 57.4
98.4 104.6 107.4 108.0
80.3 78.8 79.0 80.6
69.3 78.3 80.1 78.9
66.9 69.3 70.4 69.0
55.4 46.6
49.2
68.6 69.3 0)
70.5 71.3
58.4 60.2 61.0 60.4
53.7 0
55.8 53.5
85.0 87.9 88.4 87.4
63.6 64.9 70.8 62.8
22.1 24.5 24.2 21.3
20.2 22.7 22.0 20.8
14.4 14.8 15.1 15.0
73.5 79.6 79.8 77.4

90.4
74.3
65.8
59.2
97.6
80.7
76.3
65.9
45.7
72.2
0
58.4
86.9
64.0
21.1
20.7
14.7
73.0

88.2
71.9
64.3
54.6
99.7
81.4
72.0
67.1
54.0
69.3
62.7
54.2
85.3
0)
22.3
21.1
15.0
74.3

10.6
15.6
42.4
06.7
12.7
14.4
10.6
67.6
0
0
34.8
0
20.4
17.5
17.5
22.1
25.5
53.2
29.9
44.1
42.0
42.6
9.4

10.7
16.4
47.8
21.8
6.0
12.0
13.8
10.9
74.2
0)
0
32.6
0
19.1
15.8
17.8
20.8
20.4
50.1
28.0
43.6
36.7
42.0
9.4

10.6
17.0
45.9
20.8
7.0
12.9
14.2
10.9
81.4
12.7
12.2
33.7
0
20.0
15.3
17.0
22.1
21.4
51.2
29.6
44.4
40.8
41.9
9.7

9.2
15.5
45.7
24.2
6.3
11.1
14.5
9.5
66.9
0
0
33.4
0
19.1
16.0
19.2
22.0
22.1
50.6
29.1
44.2
36.9
42.2
9.5

50.0
16.9
11.6
21.2
17.0
13.3
0

48.6
16.1
11.7
20.3
16.1
14.1
42.6

11.9
15.7
38.6
22.7
6.8
13.6
16.1
10.4
76.1
0
11.0

31.7
36.0
19.1
16.9
16.8
20.1
23.8
51.3
29.7
43.8
41.5
41.0
9.1

48.2
15.3
11.4
19.4
16.5
13.7
0

Cents

48.0
16.1
11.8
21.6
16.5
14.2
0

11.8
15.0
47.9
19.6
7.2
14.0
14.9
10.6
81.6
12.9
10.7
32.2
36.5
20.0
15.8
16.7
21.9
22.7
51.6
30.7
44.1
42.4
42.2
9.3

48.5
17.1
12.0
21.3
16.9
14.9
0

12.9
15.5
46.5
21.0
7.3
13.8
14.9
10.7
80.4
13.7
12.1
32.8
39.3
21.0
16.7
16.7
21.5
23.4
51.5
30.9
44:8
44.1
41.6
9.3

12.1
15.8
41.4
21.6
6.9
13.3
15.3
10.4
81.4
12.4
10.9
30.3
0
19.2
15.0
16.8
19.9
23.4
49.6
29.0
44.4
37.8
41.3
8.9

49.7
16.5
11.9
21.5
17.5
13.6
0

Cents

50.6
16.1
10.8
20.5
17.2
13.8
0)

11
T able

5.—Annual average retail prices of principal foods, by city, 1948—Continued

Article

MID­
DLE
AT­
LAN­
TIC—
Con­
tin­
ued

WEST NORTH CENTRAL

EAST NORTH CENTRAL

Scran­ Chi­ Cincin­ Cleve­ Colum­ Detroit Indian­ Mil­ Peoria Spring- Cedar Kansas Minne­ Omaha
apolis waukee
field Rapids City apolis
ton cago nati land bus
Cereals and bakery products:
Cereals:
Flour, wheat___ 5 pounds. _
Cornflakes........ 11 ounces..
Corn meal________pound..
Rice..................... .......do___
Rolled oats_____20 ounces..
Bakery products:
Bread, w hite.____ pound..
Vanilla cookies______do___
Meats, poultry, and fish:
Meats:
Beef:
Round steak.........do___
Rib roast_______ do___
Chuck roast_____do___
Hamburger...........do___
Veal: Cutlets.............do___
Pork:
Chops...................do___
Bacon, sliced........do___
Ham, whole_____do___
Salt pork...............do___
Lamb: Leg_________ do___
Poultry: Roasting chickens
pound. .
Fish: 2 Salmon, pink
16-ounce can..
Dairy products:
Butter____ _________ pound..
Cheese________________do___
Milk:
Fresh (delivered)___quart. _
Fresh (grocery)...........do___
Evaporated. 14H-ounce can..
Eggs: Fresh........ ................... dozen._
Fruits and vegetables:
Fresh fruits:
Apples____ _____ .pound..
Bananas____ ____...do___
Oranges, size 200___ dozen. _
Fresh vegetables:
Beans, green______ pound.
Cabbage___________ do___
Carrots__________ bunch..
Lettuce_____ ____.head. _
Onions___________pound._
Potatoes.............16 pounds..
Spinach__ ____ pound..
Sweetpotatoes______ do___
Canned fruits:
Peaches______No. 2lA can..
Pineapple__________ do___
Canned vegetables:
Corn__________No. 2 can..
Peas______________ do___
Tomatoes__________ do___
Dried fruits: Prunes.......pound.
Dried vegetables: Navy
beans...............................do___
Beverages: Coffee__________ do___
Fats and oils:
Lard...................................do___
Hydrogenated shortening..do. _„
Salad dressing...................pint..
Margarine___________ pound..
Sugar and sweets: Sugar_____do___
See footnotes at end of table.




Cents

46.1
16.8
11.4
20.5
16.8
14.4
37.7

Cents

90.2
71.9
64.7
58.1
98.2
79.5
76.8
67.2
55.4
73.6
59.2
54.9
84.7
62.6
21.5
21.5
14.6
74.3

88.7
74.3
65.3
54.8
94.1
77.8
76.6
65.0
48.2
69.2
58.3
45.6
84.3
64.4

89.7
72.5
64.1
54.9
94.5
77.6
78.7
68.2
44.4
77.5
72.0
54.6
81.5
62.6

22.2

20.5
14.7
67.4

21.6

20.3
14.9
64.4

75.1
65.2
53.2
96.6
76.8
73.1
66.6
46.4
72.4
60.9
54.1
85.6
65.2
20.9
19.7
15.1
75.0

10.1

12.0

12.0

12.0

16.2
48.1

20.2
6.6
6.5
12.2
12.2
14.5 14.5
10.9
11. 0
97.2 1 82.7
14.6 0 )
11.3 12.0

21.1

47.1
16.0
12.0
20.4
16.3
13.0
53.8

15.1 16.3
45.1 47.6
19.8 21.8
5.5
6.5
12.2
11.4
14.4 13.4
9.6 10.0
64.2 100.0
14.7
(9
10.0

31.3

(9

19.5
13.4
15.5

(9

21.0
49.3
28.6
42.5
40.8
41.8
9.0

12.2

31.2
37.2
19.3
14.5
17.3
21.5
20.0

49.7
28.4
43.6
37.7
41.5
9.5

Cents

50.4
16.3
11.2
19.8
17.4
13.1

(9

16.5
37.3

31.6

(9

19.2
15.0
17.2
23.2
20.3
51.7
30.3
43.7
40.2
41.6
9.5

Cents

48.4
17.6
12.3
21.2
17.0
13.6

(9

86.1

15.8
47.7
23.2

32.1
39.6
19.9
13.6
(9
23.4
21.3
50.6
32.4
44.4
37.7
39.2
9.8

Cents

48.4
16.4
10.7
20.3
17.3
12.4

(9

Cents

48.4
16.6
12.0
21.1

17.1
13.4
48.8

87.7
73.1
65.0
56.5
91.2
75.7
76.3
67.5
42.8
76.8
68.3
56.5
82.7
59.9
19.7
19.2
15.0

66.1

84.2
70.9
62.4
53.6
91.1
78.4
74.0
68.2
44.9
70.6
60.6
54.9
85.6
61.9
20.3
19.5
14.6
69.8

10.8

10.8

6.5
12.7
14.3
11.2
77.7
14.6
11.5
31.7

(9

18.0
15.4
16.2
22.0

17.6
50.9
29.0
44.0
39.2
39.9
9.7

16.1
48.5
24.4
6.6
11.8
14.2
10.6
79.1
(9
12.8

32.4

(9

19.8
14.0
16.9
22.0

21.2
49.8
30.3
43.6
36.7
40.5
9.8

Cents

49.7
16.2
11.3
20.5
17.3
12.8

54.0
88.5
70.8
62.6
53.1
91.6
74.7
75.4

Cents

49.1
16.1
11.7
(9
16.6
12.8

C
1)

86.8

19.8
14.8
64.5

71.4
65.2
56.4
86.7
73.6
78.6
67.3
47.4
74.0
59.2
58.4
85.1
63.9
19.4
19.0
14.5
63.5

11.3
45.5
19.3

12.3
16.7
52.2
24.2

14.6
11.4
88.1
14.6
11.3
31.8

13.1
9.8
86.7

66.6
(9

0)
(9

57.0
84.3
64.6
20.1

(9

6.8
12.8

(9

19.6
15.6
16.9

22.8

21.4
51.4
29.2
43.2
39.4
42.4
9.8

6.1
11.0

(9
(9

32.0

0)

20.3
13.7
17.7
22.2

21.1
50.5
28.3
42.9
38.0
56.1
9.7

Cents

46.5
16.4
13.1
20.9
17.0
13.7
53.6

89.1
62.4
55.0
90.2
74.9
75.2
66.6
41.7

Cents

46.4
17.1
13.3
20.3
17.6
14.2

(9

86.5
60.4
53.5
87.7
73.2
75.9
65.7

(9

66.0

(9

(9
(9

80.3
62.0
22.3
20.6
14.4
56.7

61.4
56.8
84.0
62.4
20.4
19.8
14.6
53.6

11.0

10.6

0)
(9

16.3
46.4
0)
7.1
12.4
13.5
10.6
79.0
(9
11.5
30.7

(9

20.4
13.6
17.3
22.3
19.6
50.8
28.7
43.2
38.2
37.7
9.7

Cents

Cents

85.1
62.1
60.3
54.0
85.7
72.1
74.6
65.0
45.2

86.7
73.0
61.6
54.4
89.2
73.3
77.8
65.8
43.5
76.3

49.0
17.9
12.3
21.3
17.4
13.3
51.3

(9
(9

(0
81.4
64.0
17.1
17.1
15.4
54.3
11.3
47.5

17.3
46.3

(9

(9

(9
6.8

6.7
12.3
12.9
11.1
80.9
0)
11.9
33.5

12.4
13.9
11.6
79.6

0)
(9

34.3

(9
20.2

<9

21.0

(0

16.1
18.6

19.8
53.1
28.2
45.0
45.9
41.0
9.8

19.0
15.7
18.8

20.3
50.9
29.6
43.8
39.4
46.7
10.0

47.5
17.7
12.9
20.3
17.0
12.5
56.5

(9

55.1
84.3
62.5
20.2

19.4
14.6
62.2
11.8

17.4
50.8
22.5

6.1
12.1
14.2
11.0
92.0
(9
(9

33.0
41.0
20.6

13.7
14.7

22.1

17.7
51.6
28.3
44.5
38.9
42.4
9.8

Cents

49.4
17.5
11.9
19.7
17.3
13.0
52.0
86.2

74.3
64.2
53.2
89.2
73.9
79.4
66.9
47.0
68.9
54.7
55.2
84.6
65.2
19.5
18.2
15.2
61.5
13.2
16.3
51.7
(9
6.3
11.2

13.6
10.4
82.0

(9
12.2

34.2
42.2
18.6
13.5
18.3
21.4
20.2

52.5
28.7
45.2
38.9
44.5
9.9

Cents

47.7
17.4
11.3
19.8
16.8
13.4
48.1
84.9
68.9
59.7
52.4
86.2
68.9
76.8
66.4
44.4
71.0
44.9
54.5
82.9
61.4
19.5
18.8
14.6
55.9
12.2

16.5
51.8
0)6.5

12.6
13.9
11.2
83.2
(9
(9

32.1
40.9
18.1
13.8
16.2
21.7
17.3
51.6
28.2
41.2
37.8
41.8
9.4

12
T a b l e 5. —Annual

Article
Cereals and bakery products:
Cereals:
Flour, wheat........5 pounds._
Corn flakes..........li ounces..
Corn meal...............pound..
Rice.............................do___
Rolled oats_____20 ounces. _
Bakery products:
Bread, white............pound..
Vanilla cookies.......... .do___
Meats, poultry, and fish:
Meats:
Beef:
Round steak....... .do___
Rib roast..............do___
Chuck roast.........do___
Hamburger..........do___
Veal: Cutlets..............do___
Pork:
Chops...... .......... .do ...
Bacon, sliced........do___
Ham, whole........ .do___
Salt pork...............do___
Lamb: Leg........... ......do___
Poultry: Roasting chickens
pound..
Fish:8 Salmon, pink
16-ounce can..
Dairy products:
Butter____ _____ ____pound..
Cheese...............................do___
Milk:
Fresh (delivered)___quart..
Fresh (grocery)_____ do___
Evaporated.14^-ounce can..
Eggs: Fresh..........................dozen..
Fruits and vegetables:
Fresh fruits:
Apples---------------- pound. _
Bananas___________do___
Oranges, size 200___ dozen..
Fresh vegetables:
Beans, green....... .pound..
Cabbage.....................do___
Carrots__________.bunch..
Lettuce.......................head..
Onions___________pound..
Potatoes............. 15 pounds..
Spinach__________pound..
Sweetpotatoes.............do___
Canned fruits:
Peaches..........No. 2H can..
Pineapple..... .............. do___
Canned vegetables:
Corn___ ____...No. 2 can..
Peas............................do___
Tomatoes..................do___
Dried fruits: Prunes___pound..
Dried vegetables: Navy
beans...............................do___
Beverages: Coffee.......... ......... do___
Fats and oils:
Lard................................... do___
Hydrogenated shortening, do__
Salad dressing__________ pint..
Margarine......................pound..
Sugar and sweets: Sugar.........do___
See footnotes at end of table.




average retail prices of principal foods, by city, 1948—Continued

WEST NORTH CEN­
TRAL—Continued

EAST SOUTH
CENTRAL

SOUTH ATLANTIC

Wash­ Wins­ Bir­ JackCharles­ Jack­
St.
St.
Rich­
Louis Paul Wichita Atlanta Balti­ S. C. sonville Nor­ mond Savan­ ington, Salem ming­ son
more ton,
folk
nah D. C. ton- ham.
Cents

Cents

48.5
16.5
12.2
19.5
16.8
13.4
50.0

Cents

Cents

50.1
18.0
11.9
19.3
17.7
13.2
51.2

46.8
18.9
12.8
19.8
17.4
13.8
57.4

53.0
16.5
7.6
20.6
17.4
13.9
42.0

52.2
19.6
11.9
18.8
18.0
13.9
40.6

48.7
16.0
12.6
20.0
16.7
13.3
42.4

89.4
68.6
60.7
55.4
92.9
73.1
75.5
65.3
44.7
68.4

82.0
70.9
62.3
54.9
85.9
73.1
78.8
66.5
46.8
70.7
56.7
54.8
84.6
66.5
19.0
17.5
15.2
61.1

0)
58.7

85.5

50.1
89.5
72.0
78.0
65.2
47.3
80.1
55.4
57.7
85.6
61.5
20.2
19.6
14.6
55.5

89.2 94.6 90.5
73.0 73.8 77.7
65.0 64.3
52.3 61.5 62.8
(9
91.4 105.8 101.9
70.7 78.5 70.1
77.7 79.6 77.2
66.8 69.4
42.4 44.3 67.7
43.6
80.2 72.6 (9
62.3 57.5 63.2
56.0 54.5 54.6
92.3 89.8 91.5
62.3 67.4 62.1
22.3 20.7 22.6
22.4 20.5 22.5
14.6 15.2 15.0
66.0 73.6 66.1

89.2
75.8
64.2
46.6
91.5
72.1
78.7
67.6
41.1
76.4
65.9
54.1
87.7
62.4
25.8
25.8
14.0
70.4

13.3
16.3
52.4
22.5
7.2
12.3
16.5
11.5
93.7
0)
12.1
33.4

12.5
14.1
31.6
18.4
5.8
11.8
13.5
11.0
84.2
(9
9.7
32.6

13.1
14.7
32.2
20.2
6.1
13.5
15.2
11.2
84.9
0)
9.2
32.9

12.7
12.4
25.0
19.3
5.4
11.8
13.2
10.4
81.7
(9
10.2
30.9

(9
33.6

20.6
16.5
17.2

20.2
15.3
14.8

20.2
16.5
15.0
23.5
24.4
58.1
31.9
44.5
39.7
40.8
9.4

19.9
13.7
14.4
21.9
20.8
52.3
29.0
43.3
38.2
40.1

(9

55.4
84.9
62.8
22.5
21.8
14.2
62.3

11.6
17.0
49.3
22.3
6.8
11.8
13.6
10.5
87.9
13.2
10.3
32.1

(9

20.0
14.3
15.9
21.7
19.8
50.8
27.0
42.5
38.1
39.9
9.5

13.5
16.8
49.6
23.6
6.7
11.6
14.4
10.6
88.1
0)
12.5
33.7
42.7
19.1
13.0
17.4
20.7
19.3
53.6
29.2
42.1
37.9
48.6
10.1

(9
(9

19.5
52.0
26.8
43.2
39.2
42.4
9.8

(9

22.2

20.3
52.7
28.8
43.7
38.8
42.4
9.0

Cents

47.9
17.0
11.9
21.3
17.1
14.1

(9

11.8
16.5
38.0
19.4
6.9
13.5
15.3
11.3
83.2
(0
10.8
32.1
36.9
18.8
15.9
15.7
22.6
21.6
52.4
28.7
44.7
39.1
42.3
9.4

Cents

(0

Cents

(9

8 .8

Cents

49.5
17.6
(9
19.7
17.2
13.4
38.1
92.9
73.0
63.5
55.7
99.5
73.2
74.0
68.8
44.6
72.2

Cents

49.1
17.0
9.0
20.0
17.3
13.6

(9

50.3
18.2
10.4
20.2
17.2
13.6
47.4

Cents

49.2
17.2
10.9
22.4
17.5
13.1
42.8

Cents

Cents

Cents

52.2
17.1
8.7
21.4
18.2
14.4
39.6

49.5
18.0
9.1
20.8
16.6
14.3
37.2

54.8
20.2
9.7
21.9
18.0
14.6
40.9

(9
62.5

54.4
88.7
63.7
23.1
23.2
14.7
69.7

(9

89.0
63.7
21.7
22.1
14.7
70.3

87.4
73.9
60.6
50.8
88.8
69.4
76.4
63.5
40.6
77.9
64.2
56.2
88.2
62.2
24.8
24.5
14.5
67.0

12.1

19.7
5.7
13.3
14.3
10.8
76.5
(9
9.1
31.0

11.2
15.4
36.8
20.0
5.6
13.3
15.0
10.9
74.0
0)
10.1
32.6

11.8
14.1
28.1
19.2
5.2
12.5
13.7
10.9
79.8
(9
9.0
33.6

11.7
16.2
39.1
19.8
6.1
13.4
16.0
10.8
77.7
(9
10.4
32.1

10.3
14.8
34.8
17.7
6.1
14.4
14.8
12.4
88.8
(9
9.1
33.6

14.2
14.0
30.4
22.3
5.8
12.0
12.9
11.4
87.1
(9
9.4
32.8

14.8
13.4
38.4
24.3
6.5
11.7
13.5
12.1
110.7
(99.5
33.4

18.2
17.0
14.5
21.2
21.0
46.4
29.7
43.3
39.0
42.7
9.5

18.6
13.5
14.4
20.3
20.6
52.0
28.6
44.3
39.2
41.9
9.3

22.2
15.2
14.7
22.8

19.5
13.9
15.3
21.0
22.6
50.8
29.2
44.2
41.1
43.0
9.5

20.0
18.9
16.1

20.8
13.6
15.5
21.7
22.5
48.1
27.4
41.2
40.2
40.2
9.2

21.9
14.6
16.3

(9

(9

91.3
73.4
61.6
54.4
97.9
74.7
77.5
68.0
45.2
72.3
53.8

Cents

(9

(9

22.2

52.8
30.1
43.5
39.1
40.7
8 .8

91.5
72.9
62.4
58.7
99.5
77.3
77.7
67.5
43.6
70.3
56.1
56.3
88.5
69.9
21.0
20.2
15.4
73.3

88.9
71.9
63.3
54.7
88.7
69.1
77.9
69.5
42.1
76.5
60.2
57.4
94.4
63.4
22.8
23.1
15.2
68.3

87.4
68.9
59.4
53.5
80.3
66.4
74.2
64.4
41.8
70.5
60.0
54.5
91.4
61.2
24.2
24.0
14.2
63.7

(9

(9

22.2

19.0
56.3
31.5
45.8
40.6
44.2
9.6

(9

91.2

50.1
89.3
72.5
80.8
68.8
44.6

(9

63.2

(9

89.8
64.7
22.3
22.4
15.3
65.0

(9
(9

21.7
57.7
30.9
44.2
42.8
41.6
9.3

13
T a b l e 5. —Annual

Article

average retail prices of principal foods, by city, 1948—Continued

EAST SOUTH CEN­
TRAL—Continued

MOUNTAIN

PACIFIC

San
Salt Los
Knox­ Louis­ Mem­ Mobile Dallas Hous­ Little New Butte Den­ Lake An­ Port­ Fran­ Seattle
Or­
land,
ville ville phis
ton Rock leans
ver City geles Oreg. cisco

Cereals and bakery products:
Cents
Cereals:
Flour, wheat___ .......... 5 pounds.. 53.2
Corn flakes.......... ........11 ounces.. 17.9
Corn meal______ _______pound.. 7.7
Rice___________ ________ do___ 22.1
Rolled oats......... ____ 20 ounces.. 18.0
Bakery products:
Bread, white___ ..............pound.. 14.1
Vanilla cookies.. .................do___ 45.5
Meats, poultry, and fish:
Meats:
Beef:
Round steak. ............... do___ 88.8
Rib roast___ ................do___ 69.9
Chuck roast.. ________ do___ 61.2
Hamburger... ________ do---- 53.8
Veal: Cutlets___ ________ do___ 86.7
Pork:
Chops______ ________ do___ 69.4
Bacon, sliced. ________ do.... 76.4
Ham, whole _______ do___ 66.6
Salt pork... ________ do___ 44.4
Lamb: Leg______________do..
0)
Poultry: Roasting chickens____do.... 70.4
Fish:2 Salmon, pink. ._.16-ounce can.. 0)
Dairy products:
Butter........ ........... . _______ pound._ 88.1
Cheese........................_________do---- 62.1
Milk:
Fresh (delivered)................ quart.. 20.2
Fresh (grocery)...................do___ 20.5
Evaporated __ .1413-ounce can.. 15.6
Eggs: Fresh___________________dozen.. 64.3
Fruits and vegetables:
Fresh fruits:
Apples. ---------- _______ pound.. 11.5
Bananas_______ _________do— 14.9
Oranges, size 200. .......... . .dozen._ 34.4
Fresh vegetables:
Beans, green___ .............pound. _ 23.3
Cabbage ............. .................do___ 6.2
Carrots.________ ...............bunch __ 13.2
Lettuce________ ________ head.. 13.5
Onions________ _______pound _ 11.6
Potatoes.......................15 pounds.. 90.8
Spinach.............. .............pound. _ 0)
Sweetpotatoes--.._________do---- 10.2
Canned fruits:
Peaches________ ___No. 2>3 can.. 33.6
Pineapple______ ________ do---- 0)
Canned vegetables:
Corn... .............. ____ No. 2 can.. 21.5
Peas__ _____ .. ________ do---- 15.5
Tomatoes. ... .
__ do---- 16.5
Dried fruits: Prunes.._______ pound.. 22.8
Dried vegetables: Navy beans..do__ 17.7
Beverages: Coffee______ ________do____ 49.2
Fats and oils:
Lard.......................... ________ do___ 31.1
Hydrogenated shortening.. _ __ do___ 45.8
Salad dressing______ _________pint.. 41.1
Margarine__ ____ _______pound. 43.2
Sugar and sweets: Sugar..________ do___ 10.0

Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents

48.8
17.2
10.3
20.4
17.2
12.8
32.9

53.2
18.5
10.2
19.1
17.3
14.2
47.8

49.6
17.6
10.6
19.6
17.5
16.6
37.2

46.7
16.5
12.0
22.0
16.7
13.7
43.1

47.1
16.4
11.8
21.7
16.9
12.7
42.6

51.2
20.1
12.8
19.4
17.6
13.1
39.5

51.2
17.0
12.2
19.2
17.7
13.8
46.6

51.0
17.8
14.3
20.7
19.5
13.6
50.8

42.5
19.0
11.8
21.6
17.5
13.1
51.6

49.4
16.5
13.3
19.1
18.2
12.6
32.4

51.6
15.9
12.4
22.2
17.6
14.4
43.7

51.3
17.0
13.0
23.4
19.1
14.6
47.3

54.1
17.4
12.8
23.9
18.8
15.3
46.9

51.6
16.8
12.8
22.5
18.2
14.6
46.3

85.5
68.5
60.3
51.1
94.2
74.4
74.7
62.5
0)
76.2
58.1
56.8
85.0
61.8
22.0
21.3
15.0
64.8

86.7
69.8
59.8
50.1
0)
71.6
76.0
65.8
42.8
0)
58.0
0)
87.2
63.3
18.8
18.8
14.6
67.6

85.6
71.5
58.9
50.1
87.1
70.0
70.8
67.2
44.8
77.6
62.0
52.9
87.0
64.4
24.0
24.1
14.3
64.6

87.6
72.6
60.4
53.1
90.4
68.1
75.8
67.3
40.6
76.3
60.2
57.0
88.8
64.4
21.1
20.7
14.7
69.5

94.9
80.5
65.5
55.5
89.4
74.6
75.4
68.9
47.2
78.7
63.2
54.3
86.2
66.3
23.3
21.8
14.7
67.2

87.7
73.2
60.2
51.7
87.4
69.3
75.5
64.6
43.1
77.3
57.7
57.7
85.6
59.7
22.0
22.0
14.8
65.1

97.3
81.1
64.1
54.2
97.7
74.0
76.3
70.2
42.9
77.0
63.4
54.8
86.9
65.1
22.2
21.4
14.4
65.2

86.2
71.4
57.9
51.3
86.1
74.3
80.2
68.0
48.9
71.6
0)
57.4
83.7
60.9
18.4
18.4
16.0
74.6

84.8
71.4
63.5
51.8
83.5
72.7
80.0
63.4
45.2
69.3
51.1
56.5
85.9
0)
19.6
18.3
14.5
68.5

84.8
70.2
58.2
54.1
87.8
75.2
81.0
66.3
46.3
68.8
60.6
55.0
87.8
60.7
18.5
17.7
14.4
70.7

85.4
76.2
60.0
51.2
97.7
87.2
81.6
70.1
50.2
70.7
63.3
54.5
89.9
70.0
20.0
19.1
14.3
75.6

83.2
71.6
61.0
51.6
90.4
77.5
79.9
68.2
49.0
70.7
0)
0)
86.7
68.2
19.6
19.6
14.3
70.2

90.2
75.9
0)
48.9
101.5
85.2
80.9
71.7
53.6
72.3
0)
0)
92.8
71.4
20.2
19.2
15.0
76.5

89.4
76.2
62.6
56.4
(i)
79.4
80.3
69.6
48.7
68.8
57.4
53.0
89.2
63.7
20.0
19.2
14.5
74.4

11.6
16.5
38.2
20.1
7.0
12.2
13.8
11.3
81.2
16.4
11.4
31.5
0)
19.6
14.2
15.4
21.4
18.1
52.8
28.9
44.2
37.7
42.6
9.7

13.7
16.6
37.0
23.3
5.6
11.4
14.4
12.0
95.3
0)
11.3

14.0
11.2
32.6
20.0
6.5
10.3
13.6
10.5
101.0
0)
8.7

13.4
14.3
44.8
20.3
5.4
10.2
13.1
10.3
98.9
0)
10.0

16.2
14.6
42.8
24.3
6.6
11.0
14.1
11.2
114.1
(0
10.9

13.3
15.4
48.4
22.1
5.8
ll.fl
14.4
11.0
86.8
0)
10.2

13.2
10.9
33.6
21.3
5.8
1/0.6
13. 4
9.6
89.9
0)
8.4

11.6
17.7
53.9
0)
8.3
12.5
15.5
12.1
80.8
(0
0)
34.0
0)
21.2
17.2
18.2
21.2
18.3
56.1
33.8
49.0
40.8
42.6
10.8

12.8
16.8
56.5
0)
6.0
10.6
12.8
10.4
81.9
0)
11.8

11.4
16.7
46.2
0)
5.8
9.5
11.6
10.6
82.6
0)
12.5

13.2
17.7
39.7
23.1
5.6
9.9
10.2
10.3
90.2
Q)
14.7
27.2
0)
19.6
14.3
321.5
19.8
24.6
53.0
31.9
43.0
39.9
40.7
9.2

12.4
18.6
45.8
0)
7.1
11.2
13.7
11.0
87.3
0)
(0
31.5
0)
19.2
17.0
325.8
20.5
24.3
53.6
34.0
44.0
40.7
41.4
9.9

31.2
(0
18.7
15.1
15.2
0)
0)
52.1

28.7
0)
40.7
39.5
9.4

29.3
0)
20.0
(0
15.2
20.0
21.2
54.3
29.1
40.9
42.8
40.9
8.9

1Not available. Insufficient number of reports secured during the year.
2 Costs of fresh and/or frozen fish are included in the index, but average
prices are not computed.




WEST SOUTH CEN­
TRAL

31.1
(0
20.1
15.6
14.1
22.3
23.3
51.9
0)
41.9
35.6
40.4
9.3

30.7
0)
19.3
17.1
14.4
21.6
24.8
52.5
31.4
42.9
36.4
42.1
9.1

31.1
(0
20.6
16.2
14.0
22.0
20.3
51.0
31.2
42.4
41.0
42.5
9.3

3No. 23^ can.

32.4
0)
20.6
13.3
15.8
21.9
20.8
55.4
29.5
43.5
41.4
41.5
8.8

31.1
0)
19.2
14.1
18.0
0)
19.5
54.9
29.4
42.1
39.9
42.5
9.8

31.8
0)
18.1
15.3
321.5
20.5
18.9
53.9
32.0
44.4
39.8
45.5
10.2

10.8
17.4
18.6 0)
39.6 54.6
0)
6.1 0)8.2
1Q.7 12.1
9.3 11.6
10.8 11.5
94.8 87.8
0)
0)
0)
0)
29.5 29.5
0)
0)
20.8 19.6
15.0 14.8
322.1 324.8
18.4 20.3
24.3 23.7
53.8 54.2
35.0 34.1
46.1 45.0
41.2 39.3
42.8 43.6
9.3
9.8

Appendix
Brief Description of Retail Food Price Index

June 1946.3 At that time the size of the sample
of independent stores in each city was changed so
as to be equal to the square root of the total num­
ber of independent food stores operating in the
city. This relationship was employed since the
ratio necessary to obtain stable average prices in
a small city is higher than is necessary for a large
metropolitan area.
A complete listing of all independent stores in
each of the 56 cities was classified according to
type of commodities handled—combination stores
(groceries and meats), groceries only, meats only,
produce markets, etc. The listing for each store
type was further classified by sales volume class—
under $50,000, $50,000 and under $250,000, and
$250,000 and over annual sales volume. Stores
were further distributed within city areas and a
random selection then made within each area to
fulfill the sample requirements. The result was a
self-weighting sample of independent stores based
on current distribution of total independent store
sales in each city. The Bureau continued to
include all important chain stores in each city.

The Retail Pood Price Index, a component of
the Consumers’ Price Index, measures average
changes in retail prices of a fixed list of foods of
constant quantity and quality, bought mod­
erate-income families in large cities. This is in
line with the general purpose of the Consumers’
Price Index of measuring how much more or less it
costs at one time than at another to purchase a
fixed list of goods.1 The index is not designed to
measure how much more it costs to live in one city
than in another.2
Retail food prices were first collected in 1903,
when the Bureau’s representatives obtained prices
for the years 1890 through 1903 from grocers’
records. At that time, 30 foods were priced in
171 representative cities in 33 States. Since then
changes in the lists of foods and in the number of
cities have been made, with the number of foods
varying between 16 and 87 and the number of
cities between 39 and 171. The base period, col­
lection and computation methods, and techniques
have also changed from time to time.
Currently the Bureau publishes retail prices of
50 foods in 56 cities. Each month about 80,000
quotations are collected from 1,650 independent
stores and 150 chain organizations representing
6,500 chain stores, or a total of about 8,150 stores.

Collection of Prices

The Bureau collects retail prices of 50 foods in
each of the 56 large cities included in its Retail
Food Price Index, during the first 3 days of the
week containing the fifteenth of the month. Local
Bureau representatives collect retail food prices
from grocers who report voluntarily. The repre­
sentatives are provided with a description (speci­
fication) of the quality for which price quotations
are desired. Within the range of each specifica­
tion, they are instructed to secure a price for the
type, brand, etc. that is sold in greatest volume
in each store. Specifications are defined precisely
enough to insure a meaningful average price and
avoid movement in the index because of shifts
in the quality priced from one period to the next.
They are also broad enough, within limitations,
to provide an adequate number of quotations and
to allow for city and regional differences in grades,
types, package sizes, etc.

Store Sample Selection

In selecting the sample of stores for food price
reports, the Bureau has taken into account type of
store in terms of foods handled, size of store as
measured by sales volume, and geographic loca­
tion within the city.
Revisions in store samples are made from time
to time, to maintain the accuracy of the Bureau’s
food price index. The latest complete sample
revision took place between September 1945 and
1 A detailed discussion of the Consumers’ Price Index will be presented in a
forthcoming bulletin, Consumers' Prices in the United States, 1942-48
(Bull. 966). The index as it was computed through 1941 is described in
Changes in Cost of Living in Large Cities in the United States 1913-41
(Bull. 699).
2 A special study of differences in costs between cities is presented in The
City Worker’s Family Budget in the Monthly Labor Review, February
1948 (also reprinted as Serial No. R. 1909).




* See Store Samples for Retail Food Prices in Monthly Labor Review
for January 1947; also reprinted as Serial No. R. 1878.
(14)

15
Prices are obtained for items found to be most
important in wage earned family budgets as
shown by a comprehensive study in 1934-36.
The selection of the index items also takes into
account similarity of price changes, since it is
impossible for the Bureau to collect prices for all
of the many foods purchased by families. Price
movements of foods not included in the monthly
surveys are imputed to those of other foods
or food groups showing similar price trends, by
means of allocation of weights.
Processing

Each month, the Bureau’s field representatives
return their pricing schedules to the Washington
office, where they are edited carefully for conform­
ance to the required specifications; conversions to
uniform quantity unit are made as necessary, and
weighting factors are entered in preparation for
machine tabulation. The data are then processed
by machine tabulation.
The Retail Food Price Index is a fixed-baseweighted-aggregate index. Weighting factors are
used to maintain appropriate relationships, (1)
among chain stores (outlet weights), (2) between
chain and independent stores (chain-independent
ratio), (3) among foods in each city (consumption
weights), and (4) among cities (population
weights).
Average prices for each food in each city are
computed separately for chain and independent
stores. Weighting factors (called outlet weights)
based on annual volume sales of retail reporters
are used in calculating average prices for chain
stores within each city. A simple average of
independent store prices is obtained, since the
sample was selected to be a self-weighting sample.
Chain and independent average prices for a city
are combined by use of chain-independent ratios
to obtain average prices for the city. This chainindependent ratio is based on the percentage of
total food sales in a city made by chains and by
independent stores.
Consumption weights (called quantity weight­
ing factors) for each city are applied to the indi­
vidual food prices to give them their correct pro­
portions in the city’s group and all-foods indexes.
These weights are based on consumer expenditure
data obtained in 1934-36. The resulting weighted




aggregates are combined to obtain indexes for the
major food groups and for all foods combined.
City population weights are employed in obtain­
ing average prices and indexes for 56 cities com­
bined. These weights are based on the population
of the metropolitan area containing the city in
which prices are collected and that of cities in
the same region and size class. Adjustments in
these population weights were made in February
1943 in accordance with Census Bureau estimates
of changes in population from April 1940 to May
1942, based on the registrations for the sugarration book. Table A shows the population
weights now in use.
Relative Importance

The relative importance 4of the individual foods
in the over-all index is computed and released
by the Bureau once each year.
These relative importance figures are percentage
distributions of the values of the individual foods
in the index as of a certain date. The values are
obtained by multiplying the quantity consumption
weights by the average prices for the specified
date. Thus, the relative importance figures are
not weights in themselves. They change from
time to time as prices for the various foods change
at different rates, since the consumption weights
used in their computation remain constant.
Table B presents a tabulation of foods priced,
individually and by groups, and relative import­
ance (percentage) of each in the all-foods index
for 56 large cities combined, for the base period
(1935-39), December 1947, and December 1948.
Revisions

In order to maintain the accuracy of the index,
special tests and surveys from which revisions
may develop, are made from time to time. Some
of the more important recent revisions are de­
scribed below.
Adjustments to wartime and then to postwar
conditions were made in March 1943 and Feb­
ruary 1946. In March 1943,5*quantity weights
of 27 foods were reduced in line with anticipated
4 See Consumers’ Price Index: Relative Importance of Components, in
the Monthly Labor Review for August 1948; also reprinted as Serial No.
R. 1933.
8 See Bureau of Labor Statistics Cost-of-Living Index in Wartime, in the
Monthly Labor Review for July 1943; also reprinted as Serial No. R. 1545.

16
1943 supplies available to consumers under
rationing regulations, and weights of 26 less
scarce commodities were increased. At the
same time 7 foods were added to the index.
The chain-independent store ratio was revised on
the basis of latest available estimates of changes
in volume of food sold through chains and inde­
pendent stores. Five cities were added to the
index, increasing the total number from 51 to 56.
The population weights were changed to take into
account the marked shifts in population during
wartime.
In February 1946,6 the Retail Food Price
Index was again revised to eliminate the special
wartime adjustments. Prewar consumption
weights were restored, with minor adjustments
to retain the 7 items added to the index in 1943,
and outlet weights within cities were changed,
using the latest sales volume data available.
The computation of average prices for chain and
independent stores, separately, was initiated at this
time. Formerly the ratio between the two types
of stores was used in computing city averages but
the computation procedure did not maintain the
fixed ratio when the number of quotations varied
from period to period. The revised procedure was
an improvement in that the stability of the aver­
ages would be affected less by short supplies, since
the chain-independent ratio would remain fixed,
even though some reporters were unable to furnish
price quotations every collection date because of
food shortages.
During this revision some changes in editing
were also introduced. The sample of stores was
considered large enough that minor changes in the
sample of stores or shifts from one brand to
another within specification did not require adjust­

ment for comparability in computing indexes.
Index numbers for individual items which were
begun at this time are used in obtaining per­
centage changes, rather than prices, since major
differences in the sample and in specifications
are still taken care of in the index by linking.
After February 1946, sales taxes were no longer
included in the published average prices, but were
incorporated in the index for each city. Average
prices in cities having sales taxes were reduced by
the amount of tax formerly included.
The last major revision took place in August
1947,8 when the list of foods included in the index
7
was reduced from 62 to 50, a new subgroup for
meats (excluding poultry and fish) was added and
the number of quotations from independent stores
for dry groceries and staples was reduced. This
reduction did not materially affect the accuracy of
the average prices because of the small amount of
price variation from store to store for these foods.
As procedures change and revisions are made,
indexes are linked (made equal in a given month)
so that changes arising from the mechanics of
revisions do not alter the level of the index and it
continues to reflect price movements only.
Publications
Retail food price data are issued regularly as
follows:

8 See Store Samples for Retail Food Prices, in the Monthly Labor Review
for January 1947; also reprinted as Serial No. R. 1878.

7 See Revision of Retail Food Price Index in August 1947, in the Monthly
Labor Review for October 1948; also reprinted as Serial No. R. 1941.




1. Consumers’ Price Index and Retail Food
Prices (monthly—mimeographed).
2. Retail Food Prices by cities (monthly—
mimeographed).
3. Retail Food Prices by Cities—Annual Averages
(annually—mimeographed).
4. Monthly Labor Review (monthty)5. Retail Prices of Food (annually).

17
T able

A.—Population weights used in computing retail food prices and indexes for 56 cities combined

City

Weight

56 cities combined__ ___________
Atlanta, Ga_____________________
Baltimore, Md ___ _____________
Birmingham, A la __ ___________
Boston, Mass ____ ___________
Bridgeport, Conn________ ______
Buffalo, N. Y.......................................
Butte, Mont. - _______________
Cedar Rapids, Iowa__ ___________
Charleston, S. C ________________
Chicago, 111 __ _______________
Cincinnati, Ohio___ _____________
Cleveland, Ohio _ _____ ________
Columbus, Ohio _ _____________
Dallas, Tex.......................... ............
Denver, Colo___________________
Detroit, Mich__________________
Fall River, Mass________________
Houston, Tex.................... .................

City

Weight

City

Percent

Indianapolis, Ind________________
Jacksonville, Fla_____ ___________
Kansas City, Mo________________
Knoxville, Tenn __ _________
Little Rock, Ark.................................
Los Angeles, Calif...............................
Louisville, Ky _______________
Manchester, N. H ...........................
Memphis, Tenn........... ......................
Milwaukee, Wis_________ _______
Minneapolis, Minn............................
Mobile, A la........................................
Newark, N. J __ ________ ______
New Haven, Conn._____________
New Orleans, La....................... .........
New York, N. Y................................
Norfolk, Va........................................
Omaha, Nebr_________ _________

Percent

Peoria, 111______________________
"Philariftlphia Pa
Pittsburgh, Pa__________________
Portland, M aine.___ ___________
Portland, Oreg_________________
Providence, R. I..................................
Richmond, Va .. _________ ____ _
Rochester, N. Y.................................
St. Louis, Mo__ . ................ ............
St. Paul, Minn....................................
Salt Lake City, Utah...'__________
San Francisco, Calif............................
Savannah, Ga.....................................
Scranton, Pa.......................................
Seattle, Wash.......................................
Springfield, 111............................... .
Washington, D. C...............................
Wichita, Kans...............................
Winston-Salem, N. C....... .................

100.0
1.3
1.8
1.7
4.9
.6
1.6
.1
.1
.4
8.1
1.8
3.6
1.3
1.8
.8
6.1
.4
2.1

1.2
.2
1.1
1.3
.3
.2
5.6
1.0
.1
.5
1.7
1.1
.3
1.6
2.1
1.1
11.8
.7
1.1

Weight
Percent

0.4
7.2
4.2
.2
.7
.8
.8
2.3
2.5
.6
.3
3.1
.2
.9
1.3
.6
1.9
.3
.2

T able B.—List of foods and relative importance of individual foods and groups of foods included in the Retail Food Price

Index, in the base period (1985-39), December 1947, and December 1948

Food
All foods................................................. ........
Cereals and bakery products...........................
Cereals:
Flour, wheat. _
_
___
Macaroni........................................ .
Corn flakes..........................................
Corn meal.........................................
Rice__________________________
Rolled oats_____________________
Bakery products:
Bread, w hite_____ _____________
Bread, whole wheat __________
Bread, rye _ ___ ____________
Vanilla cookies ________ _______
Soda crackers .. _______________
Meats, poultry, and fish_________________
Meats____________________________
Beef:
Round steak_____________
Rib roast _____ _____________
Chuck roast..................................
Hamburger...... ...........................
Veal:
Cutlets.
Pork:
Chops...........................................
Bacon, sliced...............................
Ham, whole____________ ___
Salt pork_____ _____ ________
Lamb:
Leg................................................
Rib chops________ _________
Poultry: Roasting chickens.....................
Fish
...........................................
Fish (fresh, frozen)............ .................
Salmon, pink________________ ___
Dairy products________________________
Butter____________________________
Cheese........................................................
Milk, fresh (delivered). _____________
Milk, fresh (grocery) ._ __ __ __
Milk, evaporated.......................................
Eggs, fresh.......................................................

1935-39 Decem­ Decem­
ber
ber
average 1947
1948
Percent
100.0

15.6
1.8
1.0

1.4
.3
0)
(8)
6.7
.8
1.2
1.8
.6

28.2
22.4
3.8
4.6
1.7
(s)
1.9
3.5
1.9
2.2
.3
1.2

1.3
3.3
2.5
1.7
.8

19.1
5.4

1.6
3 11.1

(3)
1.0
5.5

1 Not included in index.
3 Not given separately for delivered and grocery milk.




Percent

100.0

13.8
(3)2.5
.5
.4
.3
,7
7.8
(s)
(3)
1.6
(3)
30.8
24.6
4. 2
3.9
1.8
1.6

1.9
3.4
2.3
2.3
.5
2.7
(3)2.9
3.3
2.2
1.1

19.1
7.0
1.7
6.7
2.8
.9
6.3

Percent
100.0

13.9
(3) 2.1
.5
.4
.3
.7
8.1

(3)
(3) 1.8
(3)
32.8
26.1
4.7
4.3
2.0
1.9
2.2

3.4
2.0
2.3
.4
2.9
(3) 3.2
3.5
2.2
1.3
18.8
5.6
1.8
6.1

4.2
1.1
5.8

1935-39 Decem­ Decem­
ber
ber
average 1947
1948

Food
FruitsVandfrnitc cmH vp^htahloQ
"KaqV vegetables.......... ...........................
i
X 1Uoil xl Uibo auU VbcfcUivsO
Fresh fruits:
Apples............................... .........
Bananas............................. .....
Oranges.........................................
Fresh vegetables:
Beans, green.................................
Cabbage........................................
Carrots____ ________________
Lettuce....... ........... ......................
Onions.........................................
Potatoes.......................................
Spinach.......................................
Sweetpotatoes.________ ______
Canned fruits and vegetables...................
Canned fruits:
Peaches.........................................
Pineapple....... .............................
Canned vegetables:
Corn............................................
Peas...... .......................................
Tomatoes......................................
Dried fruits and vegetables.......................
Dried fruits:
Prunes ____ _____ _
Dried vegetables:
Navy beans________ ____ ___
Beverages.........................................................
Coffee..........................................................
Tea..............................................................
Fats and oils....................................................
Lard...........................................................
Other shortening______________ ___
Hydrogenated shortening.........................
Mayonnaise................................................
Salad dressing............................................
Margarine.................................................
Peanut butter.............................................
Sugar and sweets.............................................
Sugar ____ _ _

Percent
21.6

16.5
2.1

1.4
3.4
.8

.7
.9
1.7
1.1
3.2
.8
.4
4.1
.6

.4
.7
.9
1.5

1.0
.6

.4
3.4

2.6
.8

3.2
1.1
.7
(3) .9
(3) .3
.2

3.4
3.4

Percent
20.6

16.1
2.2

1.7

2.0

.7
.8
1.5
1.4
1.3
3.4
.7
.4
3.1
.4
.4

Percent

19.6
15.2
2.4
1.8
2.3
.7
.5
.9
1.4
.8
3.2
.7
.5
3.2
.5
.4

.6

.4
1.3
1.4
.7
.7
2.9
2.9
(3)
3.5
(3)1.3
(8) .6
.8
.8

(3)
3.0
3.0

3Not priced.

U. S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949

.6

.4
1.3
1.2

(3)

.7
.5
3.0
3.0

3.2
1.0
(3) .6
(3) .9
.7
(8)
2.9
2.9


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102