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Report to the President  The President*# Committee on  EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  CEO. WM. MILLER   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Report to the President by The President's Committee on EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  WASHINGTON, D.C. November 26, 1963 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $1.00   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20210  · November 26, 1963. THE PRESIDENT, THE WHITE HousE, Washington 25, D.O. DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: I submit herewith, through the Honorable W. Willard Wirtz, Vice Chairman, a report covering the activities of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. This report combines both the annual report required by Executive Order 10925 and a comprehensive review of the Committee's history and activities since .April 6, 1961. You are familiar with most of the content of this report because of your energetic, direct and dedicated leadership, while Vice President, as Chairman of the'Committee. This record does honor to yourself and to the memory of the late President John F. Kennedy, who created the Committee as a means of opening equality of opportunity to all Americans and who died while still in the pursuit of a larger freedom for everyone. Respectfully yours,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Executive Vice Chairman.  iii  The Committee• s Charge Whereas discrimination because of race, creed, color, or national origin is contrary to the constitutional principles and policies of the United States; and Whereas it is the plain and positive obligation of the U.S. Government to promote and ensure equal opportunity for all qualified persons, without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin, employed or seeking employment with the Federal Government and on Government contracts; and Whereas it is the policy of the executive branch of the Government to encourage by positive measures equal opportunity for all qualified persons within the Government; and Whereas it is in the general interest and welfare of the United States to promote its economy, security, and national defense through the most efficient and effective utilization of all available manpower; and Whereas a review and analysis of existing Executive orders, practices, and government policy procedures relating to government employment and compliance with existing nondiscrimination contract provisions reveal an urgent need for expansion and strengthening of efforts to promote full equality of employment opportunity; and Whereas a single governmental committee should be charged with responsibility for accomplishing these objectives . . . Preamble to Executive Order 10925 establishing the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, issued by President John F. Kennedy effective April 6, 1961.  iv  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  President Lyndon B. Johnson  V  Secretary of Labor W. Willard Wirtz  vi  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A Message From the Vice Chairman  President Kennedy said, "Denial of the right to work is unfair, regardless of its victim. It is doubly unfair to throw its burden most heavily on someone because of his race or color." One of the most constructive forces in· lifting this racial burden has been the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity which John Kennedy established, under the vigorous and dedicated leadership of Lyndon B. Johnson first as Vice President and now as President. Of course, there is much that remains to be done. It is to that unfinished work that the future activities of this Committee will be dedicated.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  vii  Hobart Taylor, Jr. viii  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY LYNDON B. JOHNSON President of the United States  VICE CHAIRMAN  w.  WILLARD WIRTZ Secretary of Labor  EXECUTIVE VICE CHAIRMAN HOBART TAYLOR,  Jr.  SPECIAL COUNSEL N. THOMPSON POWERS Deputy Solicitor of Labor  MEMBERS Stephen Ailes, Secretary of the Army, Washington 25, D.C. Bernard L. Boutin, Administrator, General Services Administration, 19th and F Streets, NW., Washington, D.C. Anthony J. Celebrezze, Secretary of Health, Education, ·a nd Welfare, Washington 25, D.C. Donald C. Cook, President, American Electric Power Service, 2 Broadway, New York 8, N.Y. Dr. Joaquin B. Gonzalez, 318 North Santa Rosa, San Anton'io, Tex. The Right Reverend Monsignor George G. Higgins, Director, National Catholic Welfare Conference, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C. Lurther H. Hodges, Secretary of Commerce, Washington 25, D.C. Edgar Kaiser, President, Kaiser Industries, 300 Lakeside Drive, Oakland, Calif. Robert F. Kennedy, The Attorney General, Glll Department of Justice, Washington 25, D.C. Mrs. Mary Lasker, Mary Lasker Foundation, Chrysler Building, ~ew York, N.Y.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Marjorie McKenzie Lawson, Associate Judge, Juvenile Court of D.C., 400 E Street, NW., Washington 1, D.C. Fred Lazarus, Jr., Chairman of the Board, Federated Department 'Stores, Inc., 222 West Seventh Street, Cincinnati 2, Ohio. John W. Macy, Jr., Chairman, Civil Service Commission, 1900 E Street, NW., Washington 25, D.C. Robert. S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense, Washington 25, D.C. Paul H. Nitze, Secretary of the Navy, Washington 25, D.C. Walter P. Reuther, President, United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, 8000 East J e:trerson, Detroit 14, Mich. The Very Reverend Francis B. Sayre, Dean, The Washington Cathedral, Wisconsin and Massachusetts Avenues, NW., Washington, D.C. William F. Schnitzler, Secretary-Treasurer, American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations 815 16th Street, NW., Washington 6, D.C. David A. Schulte, 1125 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y.  ix  Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman, The Atomic Energy Commission, Washington 25, D.C. Antonio J. Taylor, 221 Sena, Santa Fe, N. Mex.  James E . Webb, Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1520 H Street, NW., Washington 25, D.C. Rabbi Jacob Joseph Weinstein, 930 East 50th Street, Chicago, Ill.  Mrs. D. H. Watson, 676 Riverside Drive, New York, N.Y.  John H . Wheeler , President, Mechanics and Farmers Bank, Durham, N.C.  Robert C. Weaver, Administrator, Housing and Home Finance Agency, 1626 K Street, NW., Washington, D.C.  Howard B. Woods, Executive Editor, The St. Louis Argus, St. Louis, Mo. Eugene M. Zucker t, Secretary of the Air Force, Washington 25, D.C.  STAFF OF PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY John Hope II, Director fo r Government Employment. Percy H. Williams, Director for Contract Compliance. David Mann, Director of Surveys. Ward Mccreedy, Director of Field Services. Emile J. Bourg, Jr., Director of Labor Liaison. Malcolm F . Wise, Director of Information. Raymond Shelkofsky, Director of Administration  X   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  CONTENTS REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT CHAPTER ONE THE STORY OF THE PRESIDENrs COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Page  Evolution and Trends, 1961-1963_ _______________________ __ ___ Propose~ Programs_______ ________________ _______________ First Plan for Progress__ _________________________________ Complaints and Compliance ______________________________ Government Employment Program_ _______________________ Minority Employment Census_-- --- - --------------------Los Angeles Pilot Project ________________________ ~·------Complaint Activity__ ____________________________________ The Kheel Report_ ______________________________________ Organizational Changes ____________ .______________________ Executive Order 11114___________________________________  1 1 2  2 2  3 4 4 4 4  4  CHAPTER TWO EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT Compliance Tools in Executive Order 10925 _ _ _____ ____ ____ ___ __ Basic Ingredients of the Program____ _____ _____________________ Contract Compliance ________________________________________ Surveys and Reviews ________________ ·________________________ The Complaint Process ______________________________________  6  6 7  7 8  CHAPTER THREE EMPLOYMENT PATTERN CHANGES RESULTING FROM COMPLAINTS IN COMPANIES IN SEVEN INDUSTRY GROUPS Petro-Chemicals _ _ _ _ ________________________________________ Textiles ____________________________________________________ Steel___ ____________________________________________________ Tobacco ___________________________________________________ Aircraft____________________________________________________ Shipbuilding_ _______________________________________________ Food Processing_____________________________________________   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  11 11 12 12 12 13 13 xi  CHAPTER FOUR COMPLIANCE REPORTING PROGRAM Page  The Reporting Form_ _ _ _ ____________________________________ 14 Objectives of the Reporting Program __________________________ 15 Coverage of the Program_________ ___ _______ _____________ __ ___ 15 Current Review of the Compliance Repor ting Program_ ____ __ ___ 16 Profile of Negro Employment in Establishments Filing Compliance 16 Reports in 1962 _________________________ __________________ Blue Collar Employment________ ______________ ___ ______ __ 17 White Collar Employment ______ _________________ __ ___ ___ 18 Summary __________________ ___ ____________________ _____ 19 Tables 1-5 ___________ _____ __ _______ __ __________________ 17-21 Changes in Negro Employment From 1962 to 1963 in Establish21 ments Filing Compliance Reports for Both Years _____________ Tables 1-3 __________________ __ ___ ____ ____ ____ ______ __ __ 22-24 Discussion_ ___ ______________________________________________ 25  CHAPTER FIVE EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN THE FEDERAL ESTABLISHMENT Background and Perspective_ __________ ___ __ _______ ___ __ ___ ___ Functions of the Government Employment Division__ _________ __ Affirmative Action__ ____ ___ ______ _______ __ _____ __ ____ _____ __ Employment Census as a Tool for Agency Planning_ __ _______ __ _ Correcting Under-utilization_ __ _____ __ _____ __ ______ __ ______ __ _ Department of Defense_____ _________ __ ____ ____ __ __ __ ___ _ Department of Commerce___ ______ _____ __ __ _____ ___ ______ Department of Justice_ __ _______ _____ __ __ ____ ___ _________ Department of Labor____________________ ______ _______ __ _ Department of Health, Education, and Welfare__ ___________ Civil Service Commission _______ _- _- - - _- _________________ General Services Administration_________ ____ ___ ______ ____ _ National Aeronautics and Space Administration_ __ ___ __ _____ United States Information Agency_ __ ___ _______ __ ___ ___ ___ Regional Meetings ________ __ __- _- - - _- _- - - - - - - __ - ____________ Training and Recruitment_________ ____ __ __ ________________ __ _ Statistics on Increased Utilization of Minorities ____________ _____ Agency Capability Development_____ _____ _____________ __ _____ Table__ __ __ ____ __ ______ __ ______ _______ _____________ ____ ___ _  27 27 28 28  29 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 32 32  CHAPTER SIX GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT CENSUS 1961 Results__ ____________ __________ __________________ ____ __ 1962 Highlights_ ____________________ ______________ __________ 1963 Highlights____ ___ ________ _____________ ____________ _____ xii  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  34 34 35  GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT CENSUS-Continued Minority Group Study, June 1963 _____________________________ 37 Index to Tables 1 to 17 _ _____________________________________ 37 Tables 1 to 17 ______ ______ ________________ ______ -.- __________ 38-55 56 Negro and Total Employment in Selected Agencies______________ Index to Tables 1-1 to 1- 33 _ _________________________________ 56 Tables 1-1 to 1-33 ___________________________________ ________ 57-94 95 Spanish-Speaking and T otal Employment, in Selected Agencies____ Index to Tables 2- 1 to 2-8 _ __________________________________ 95 Tables 2-1 to 2- 8 _ _ _____________________________________ ___ 96- 103  CHAPTER SEVEN GOVERNMENT COMPLAINT SYSTEM Some Pattern Changes ___ ______________________________ ______ Case Load and Affirmative Action ___________ _________________ ·_ Complaint Processing as a Specialized Grievance Procedure_______ Analysis of Complaints Over First Two Years ________ __________ Employees and Complaints by Civil Service Region _________ Employees and Complaints by Agency_____________________ Geographical Distribution ______ __________________________ Status of Complaints_ ___ _____ _____ ____ ____ ______________ Disposition of Closed Cases _______________ _____ __~-- ------  104 105 105 105 106 106 107 107 107  CHAPTER EIGHT PLANS FOR PROGRESS TheOrigins ___ __ __ ______________ _________ ______ ____ ________ First Anniversary_ __________________________________________ Program Expansion _____________ _____________ _______ ________ University Participation _____ ___________________ _____ ________ The Advisory Council _____ _______ ___________________________ Employers Participating (November 1963) _ _ _ __________________ Model Plan for Progress _.. _______ _______ __ ___ ___ ______ ___ ____  108 108 109 109 110 110 111  CHAPTER NINE A PROGRESS REPORT OF PLANS FOR PROGRESS COMPANIES Some Highlights___ _____ ___ _____ ______ ____ ______ ____ _____ ____ Statistical Comparisons of 91-Company Report_ ______ __________ Companies Included in 91-Company Report_ ___________________  115 116 117  CHAPTER TEN EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN ORGANIZED LABOR The Union Role in the Equal Employment Opportunity Program_ Union Programs for Fair Practices ____ ______ __ _________________ Examples of Union Effort ____ __ __________ ____________________ The Construction Industry ___ ________________________________ Local Activities ___________ ____ ______________________________ Sample Union Program for Fair Practices ______________________ Unions Signing Programs for Fair Practices ___ ___________ ______   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  118 118 119 120 120 121 123 xiii  CHAPTER ELEVEN IN THE COMMUNITIES Page  Program Highlights_ __ ____________ ___________________________ C~mmunity Leaders Conference______________ _____ ____________ Conference Recommendations__________ _____________ __ ____ The Regional Conferences__ __________ _________ ___ ____________ The Los Angeles Vocational Education Pilot Project _____________ Local Organizations __ __ _____________________________________  128 128 129 129 130 131  CHAPTER TWELVE SUMMARY AND COMMENT by Hobart Taylor, Jr., Executive Vice Chairman Accomplishments of the President's Committee___ ___ __ _____ ____ The Changing Attitude_ __ __ ___ __ _____ _________ ______ ____ ____ Signs of the Problems That Still Exist_ _____ _____ __________ ____ Relating Other Factors to Employment Opportunity__ _______ ____ Education and Training _____ ______ _________ ___ _______ ____ Psychological Patterns ___ . _______________________________ Housing ____________ ·--------- ______________ _______ __ __ Mobility _____ ___________ ____________ _____ ___ _______ ____ The Rationale of Equal Opportunity_ __________________________  132 133 133 133 134 134 134 135 135  APPENDIX Executive Orders 10925 and 11114__ ________ ___ _________ ___ ____ The Rules and Regulations of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity _________________________ __ _______  xiv  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  135 142  CHAPTER ONE  The Story of the President• s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity Evolution and Trends 1961-1963 When the late President John F. Kennedy affixed his signature to Executive Order 10925 on March 6, 1961, he put ·f orth one of the most important policy statements of his or any other administration. It put the Federal Government's economic power squarely in the forefront of the battle :for equal opportunity for all. Two persons outside the administration were instrumental in the drawing of the order. They were Abe Fortas, a prominent Washington attorney, and Fred Lazarus, president of Federated Department Stores, Inc., who gave of his long experience as a member of the former President's Committee on Government Contracts. The Executive order became effective 30 days after the President signed it. Within a few days after the effective date, the new President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity met and approved plans and programs to carry out the order. At that meeting, and in subsequent planning: these specific programs :for reaching the goals of the Executive order were begun ( dates of program inauguration in parenthesis) :  -A conference with contract compliance officers from Government agencies to get the compliance program under way (Apr. 21., 1961). -A meeting with the presidents of the 50 largest government contractors (May 2, 1961). -A meeting with the presidents of many of the international unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO (May 3, 1961). -Developing rules and regulations under which the Committee and agencies would operate and the holding of public hearings on the rules and regulations (June 7 and June 30, 1961). -Developing coopfrative programs (later   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  designated as Plans for Progress) in which companies would undertake equal opportunity programs supplementing the requirements of the Executive Order (first Plan for Progress signed May 2'5, 1961). -Determining through annual governmentwide surveys the employment status of minority group members in Government employment (first survey, June 1961). -Conducting training programs for employment policy officers a~d their ·deputies to insure effective implementation of the Executive Order in government employment (first seminar, July 27, 1961). -Holding regional conferences of top officials of government agencies throughout the country to. study problems and initiate programs for carrying out the Executive Order (first such conference, June 1961). -Developing a comprehensive compliance reporting system for Government contractors under Committee jurisdiction. -Developing a complaint investigation and adjustment procedure that would protect the rights of both employees and employers, whether Government agencies or contractors. -Assigning skilled staff personnel in Government agencies to promote affirmative action programs for equal opportunity and to handle complaint investigations and adjustments. -Working with labor unions and other employee organizations to obtain their cooperation in opening the doors of opportunity to all, with special attention to disadvantaged members of minority groups. -Carrying out of intensive educational and community relations programs to obtain cooperation and assistance of all segments of society and the economy in achieving equal employment opportunity.  All of these programs were underway by the end of the first year of the Committee's existence. Many were well.advanced and getting substantial results. At the meetings with Government contractors and labor union leaders, the Committee Chairman and Vice Chairman were given pledges of full cooperation and assistance. Out of these meetings came the programs that later were developed as Plans for Progress for business firms and Programs for Fair Practices for labor unions. First Plan Signed  The first Plan for Progress was signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson, then Vice President and Committee Chairman, and the Lockheed Aircraft Corp. on May 25, 1961. By the Committee's first anniversary, 52 of the nation's largest corporations had signed Plans £or Progress. Today, the number has grown to 115, including several national concerns that do not hold government contracts and one university. Industry interest in Plans for Progress can be gaged by the fact that 19 leading industrial executives in the nation have formed a special Advisory Council for the program and many more serve on Committees of the Council. Five of these firms have loaned personnel executives of their firms as staff for the Council ( see Plans for Progress) . Reports from Plans for Progress companies indicate substantial progress has been made in improving opportunities for minority group members in their employ-opportunities beyond the requirements of Executive Order 10925 (see Plans for Progress) . Although development of the Union Programs for Fair Practices was initiated during the first year, it was not until midway in the second year, on November 15, 1962, that the actual signing took place. At that time, 115 international unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO, together with the AFL-CIO itself and its 340 directly affiliated local unions, pledged to take all necessary steps to insure equal employment opportunity and equal membership rights without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin ( see Union Programs for Fair Practices). Complaints and Compliance  While these cooperative programs were being formulated, the contr,a ct compliance program also 2  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  was getting underway. The first complaints of discrimination in employment by Government contractors actually had been received even before the Committee started operations. It was obviously imperative that procedures be established immediately for investigation and adjustment of such complaints. Primary responsibility for the processing of complaints rests with the contracting Government agencies, rather than with the Committee, and each agency designates one top-ranking official as contract compliance officer. In addition to processing complaints, this officer and his deputies have the responsibility for seeing to it that contractors carry out positive programs to insure equal employment opportunity as required by the Executive order. All con tr.acting agencies have taken steps to develop the staff capability necessary for effective administration of the programs required by the Committee. Existing personnel has been trained or experienced specialists recruited to insure e:ffecti ve implementation. During this same period, the Committee began development of an effective compliance reporting system. The Bureau of the Budget, under the law, must approve any reporting form to be used by a Government agency and the Committee worked closely with the Bureau. An advisory committee representing various segments of the business community assisted in developing the compliance form for government contractors. The form was not applicable to construction contractors or public utilities. The approved form was distributed to contractors by the contracting agencies in January 1962. Statistical information from these forms serves two primary purposes : ( 1) It provides a profile of the utilization of minority group manpower in American industry; and (2) It provides government agencies and the Committee with information of value in obtaining compliance ,and in developing affirmative action programs by business firms and labor unions ( see Compliance Reports). Government Employment Program  While these actions were being taken in the field of private employment, important steps also were being taken to insure equal opportunity in government employment. Rules and regulations  for this phase of the Committee's work, developed in cooperation with the agencies, were adopted. Individual agencies then developed their own rules and regulations, in conformance with those of the Committee and subject to approval by the Committee Special Counsel and Exequtive Vice Chairman. Complaint procedures were put into operation with the responsibility for complaint investigation and adjustment placed with the agencies. Results of these inv.estigations and actions are carefully reviewed by the Committee staff to insure fairness and proper action. Most agencies lacked personnel experienced in working on equal opportunity problems-when the Committee program began. Therefore, the Committee undertook the training of top-echelon employment policy officers and encouraged agencies to set up their own inhouse training programs. The first Committee training seminar was held in July, 1961. Subsequently, the Committee conducted other programs and cooperated with ~gencies in training sessions (see Government Programs) . The government equal opportunity "spotlight" focused on Washington because of the heavy concentration of Federal employees in that area, but the Committee recognized that it. was vitally important that the program be fully implemented throughout the country. Accordingly, in June, 1961, with the assistance of the Civil Service Commission and in cooperation with other ag~ncies, the Committee launched a series of regional meetings with leaders of federal -agencies in the field. One meeting was conducted in each of the 14 civil service regions of the country. The goals of the equal employment opportunity program in Government were explained, problems were discussed and methods of implementation were developed. After all 14: regional meetings were conducted, the Committee set up a second round of smaller followup conferences. These conferences were across-the-table discussions with regional agency chiefs, personnel people and deputy employment officers. In these sessions, progress was checked and the importance of the program was reemphasized. Minority _Employment Census  While the conferences were going on, the results of the first governmentwide survey of minority 726-890 0----64-2   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  group employment, made in June 1961, became available. The survey bore out the contention that most Negro employees were concentrated in the lower grades of federal employment and that relatively few had broken through the invisible, but substantial, barrier to the middle and upper grades. Acting on these facts, then Vice President Johnson, as Committee chairman, with the approval of the Committee, instructed all agencies to make an intensive survey of their personnel to seek out persons who had been "passed over" unfairly because of their race, creed, color or national origin-and to adjust such situations. When the second and third annual surveys were made in June 1962 and June 1963, substantial improvement in the employment status of Negroes was apparent (see statistical data in Government Employment). But the surveys conclusively demonstrated that equal employment opportunity was far from a reality, not only for Negroes but for persons of Mexican descent, American Indians and persons of orien~l ancestry. Such surveys will be conducted each June. They enable the Committee and the agencies to pinpoint areas of greatest concern and provide a footing for stepping up the overall program of achieving equal employment opportunity in government. To supplement these compliance and survey activities, the Committee also has devoted considerable effort to developing working relationships with groups and organizations in the field of human relations; liaison and cooperative efforts with state and local government agencies in the nondiscrimination field, and cooperative programs with community groups. On May 19, 1962, a National Conference of _Community Leaders, called by then Vice President Johnson, was conducted in Washington to discuss equal employment opportunities and to enlist the active support of community leadership in attaining the goals. Programs now being i:rp.plemented in communities across the nation resulted from this conference. As part of the Committee's community action effort, Committee officers, members and staff representatives have participated in hundreds of programs from one end of the country to the other in cooperative efforts to promote the concept of equal employment opportunity. 3  Los Angeles Pilot Proiect  A specific cooperative community action program was initiated in Los Angeles under Committee leadership as a pilot project which, it is hoped, will be extended to other areas. The project stemmed primarily from the fact that, while there are thousands of unemployed in the booming Los Angeles area, at the same time thousands of jobs are available for trained and qualified persons. And the heaviest unemployment is among the Mexican-Americans and Negroes in the area. The pilot project is designed to train persons in the skills that are in demand. The -Committee served as the catalyst to start the project, but effective cooperation and assistance has been provided by local organizations, industries, state and local government agencies and Federal agencies. Classes in three skills-clerk-typist, machine operator and electronic assembler-were set up by the Los Angeles public school system with the help of a Manpower Development Training Act grant from the Department of Labor and with the approval of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The first students started in March 1963, and on completion of their training, were immediately placed in jobs ( see Community Activity). Complaint Activity  Of course, the primary activity when the Committee started operations was the processing of individual complaints. Temporary procedures were established at the start for the transmittal of complaints of discrimination, either in Govern· mentor in Government contract work, to the appropriate agency. After some experience had ?een gained and after adoption of rules and regulations, the procedures were developed that are being used today. They are described in more detail in other sections of this report. The Committee has ·handled an unprecedented number of complaints, a development attributed to confidence on the part of employees that something will be done about discriminatory situations. As of October 31, 1963, 2½ years after issuance of the Executive order, the complaint processing results were as follows :  In Government employment, 2,699 complaints received, 2,243 processed to completion and 736, or 36 percent, resulting in corrective action (see Government Employment). 4  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  In employment by Government contractors, 2,111 complaints had been received. Of these 156 had been dismissed for lack of jurisdiction, 1,306 were carried to completion and 937, or 72 percent, resulted in corrective action (see Contract Compliance). (It should be noted that the previous committees in this field had corrective action rates as follows: President's Committee on Government Contracts, 7½ years, 20 percent; Committee on Government Employment Policy, 6 years, 16 percent.) The Kheel Report  In the spring of 1962, then Vice President Johnson asked Theodore W. Kheel, an eminent New York attorney with a deep interest in the field of human relations, to survey the work of the Committee and to recommend steps which might be taken to improve its effectiveness. In August of that year, Mr. Kheel submitted his report. One of his principal recommendations was that the Committee have a full time executive vice chairman. Mr. Kheel recommended that the Executive Vice . Chairman give priority to the following:  (1) Focusing the work of the Committee staff in the complaint process on cases where a significant pattern adjustment appears possible. (2) Securing a more aggressive public information program. (3) Securing more adequate f ollowup of Plans for Progress activity and assuming complete supervision of this program. (4) Securing better liaison with Committee members. Steps have been taken to implement the principal recommendations of the Kheel Report, along with other measures aimed at accelerating the rate of progress toward equal employment opportunity. On September 10, 1962, Hobart Taylor, Jr., Committee Special Counsel, was designated Executive Vice Chairman by the President-the fulltime appointment recommended by Mr. Kheel. Other important changes within the Committee also took place. When Secretary of Labor Arthur J. Goldberg resigned to accept an appointment to the United States Supreme Court, W. Willard 'Wirtz became Secretary of Labor ( September 25, 1962) and assumed vice chairmanship of the Com-  mittee. And in March 1963, John G. Feild, who had served as Executive Director since the Committee was formed, resigned to take another position. The scope of the Committee's authority and responsibility was substantially increased when the late President Kennedy issued Executive Order 11114 on June 21, 1963. This Executive order assigned to the Committee responsibility for assur-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ing equal employment opportunity in all federally assisted construction programs. It also made clear that the Committee has jurisdiction over all facilities of a contractor, including those facilities separate and distinct from performance on the firm's Government contract. Rules and regulations for assuring equal opportunity in this broad field have been developed and are being put into effect as this report is completed.  5  CHAPTER TWO  Equal Opportunity in Private Employment While Executive Order 10925 was being drafted, it was recognized that at least three provisions absent from previous orders must be included if the program was to be effective insofar as employment by Government contractors was concerned: (1) A provision authorizing the President's Committee to coordinate the activities of contracting agencies in promoting equal employment opportunity. (2) A provision requiring that contractors submit annual manpower profiles as proof of affirmative action. (3) A provision for sanctions in the form of authority to cancel contracts or to bar from future contracts any employer who refused to cooperate. These basic tools were written into the order. Together with voluntary cooperation, they have enabled the equal employment opportunity program to advance at an accelerated rate and to achieve affirmative action on an unprecedented scale. But the task of providing equal opportunity has just begun. The relationship between the two aspects of the Committee's · program-enforcement and persuasion-was stated by Theodore W. Kheel, the New York attorney who surveyed the Committee's program and organization. In his report to then Vice President Johnson, he said : "Enforcement and persuasion are not separate and distinct, nor incompatible, but related parts of the same program. They are opposite sides of the same coin. Both are nec·e ssary and indispensable, each to the other." Mr. Kheel also pointed out that "the Presidential mandate itself requires the employment of 'voluntary' methods before the Committee resorts to its enforcement powers." The Executive order declared that "each contracting agency shall make reasonable efforts 6  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  within a reasonable time limitation to secure compliance with the contract provisions of this order by methods of conference, conciliation, mediation and persuasion before proceedings shall be instituted ... or before a contract shall be terminated in whole or in part . . . for failure of a contractor or subcontractor to comply with the contract provisions of this order." The clear wording of the Executive order thus enables the Committee to transmit to the contracting agencies, and through them to the contractors, the objectives of the equal employment opportunity program within a framework that requires affirmative action. It was recognized, however, that the effectiveness of the compliance program could be limited by a lack of commitment or sense of participation on the part of those finally responsible for implementing the equal employment opportunity programthe compliance officers in the agencies and the line management of the Government contracting companies. Company and agency policies developed under the Executive order had to be communicated downward to give each person a sense of participation and a sense of responsibility for carrying out such policies. The Program's Basic Ingredients  The right of a worker to file a complaint and obtain speedy adjudication of his complaint-within a specified time not provided in previous ordersremains a basic ingredient in the Committee's program. The new ingredients of enforcement and persuasion, coupled with the fixing of responsibility for affirmative action, has enabled the Committee to move stearlily a way from primary reliance on individual complaints and to use its other tools on a more massive scale. Currently, . for example, more than 2,500 special compliance reviews are being conducted by the contracting agencies to check contractor performance.  The new approach in Executive Order 10925 forced basic changes. It required development of a new capability for program operation within the regular procurement and contract administration structure of the contracting agencies. It required the development of a comprehensive reporting system to provide-for the first time- factual information on industry employment patterns. Responsibility for action had always rested with the contracting agencies, but there had been little coordinated activity. Now the Committee has direct liaison with the activities of the agencies. Each agency now has personnel assigned to review contractors' personnel practices and to provide technical assistance in developing new programs. As a result, many contractors have worked out, or are working out, specific plans of action :for recruiting, training, upgrading and job assignment-all designed to improve performance under an agreed-upon timetable. To check on results, the Committee has the mandatory compliance reporting requirement in operation :for all manufacturing and service contractors with contracts of more than $50,000 and 50 or more employees. A similar reporting pro.g ram :for the construction industry has been launched and a comparable action program is being developed. Significant developments of a pattern-setting nature already have taken place in a number of industries. Some are discussed in a later section ( see Pattern Changes) . Contract Compliance  Executive Order 10925 requires that contracts with an agency of the Executive Branch of the Federal Government include an equal employment opportunity clause. The seven-point clause developed by the Committee (see Appendix) is as binding upon the contractor as are other clauses in the contract-the contractor who denies employees or applicants :for employment equal opportunity because of race, creed, color or national origin violates his contract. Nondiscrimination clauses have been included in Government contracts for years, but the current clause i$ stronger and provides for more effective enforcement than previous clauses. It not only bars the contractor :from discriminating against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color or national origin, but it also requires that the contractor take   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  affirmative action to make certain that applicants are employed, and employees are treated during employment, without discrimination. The ban on discrimination in the clause covers employment; upgrading, demotion or transfer; recruitment or recruitment advertising; layoff or termination; rates of pay or other :forms of compensation; and selection for training, including apprenticeship. The clause states that the contractor will comply with the rules, regulations and relevant orders of the Committee, will file such reports a~ the Committee requires, and will permit access to books and records to ascertain compliance. The contractor is required to display notices of his compliance with the Executive order and to notify any labor union with which he has contracts of his obligations as an equal opportunity employer. Plain language in the clause spells out the fact that the contract may be_canceled or suspended in whole or in part and the contractor may be declared ineligible for further Government contracts in the event he is fouu.Q. to be in noncompliance and refuses to take corrective action. The ultimate sanctions of contract cancellation or debarment are not punishments for crimes but rather are tools with which to obtain compliance. This is clearly provided in the procedures spelled out in the Committee rules and regulations. They require a notice to the contractor that he is not in compliance and is in imminent danger of losing his contract; notice of the reasons he faces such action; and an opportunity for the affected contractor to comply with the Committee's requests under the Executive order. In several instances, companies have been told they face such action and in each instance they have brought their practices into compliance with the Executive order. The contractor is required to include the same nondiscrimination provisions in subcontracts and purchase orders. Rules and regulations of the Committee pro_v ide that contracts, subcontracts, purchase orders and other transactions not exceeding $10,000 ( other than Government bi11s of lading) are exempt from the requirements of the Executive orders unless a special Committee order withdraws the exemption. Surveys and Reviews  Primary responsibility for enforcement of the contract clause lies with the agency making the 7  contract. Each agency has a two-fold responsibility: (1) To make certain that the contractor complies with all the nondiscrimination provisions of the contract, including the taking of affirmative action to insure equal employment opportunity. (2) To investigate and obtain adjustment of complaints of discrimination in connection with employment by the contractor. The contracting agency's first responsibility is discharged primarily through survey and review processes, coupled with counseling advice and, if necessary, direct instructions as to steps to be taken. There are several types of survey and review processes. In their normal order of usage, they are: (1)-Regular compliance reports-These mandatory annual reports provide the base for the Committee's compliance programs. Information from the reports, readily available through automatic data processing, makes it possible for a contracting agency to systematically review all of its contractors on a regular basis. (2)-Special compliance reviews-These reviews are frequently undertaken when there is some doubt as to the contractor's compliance, particularly when investigation of complaints indicates lack of compliance. But they may also be carried out in connection with the study of employment practices in a given industry or locality. Such special reviews require not only compilation of information from such sources as the Committee's compliance reports, but also on-the-spot inspection, discussions with management and employees, careful analysis of the contractor's policies and practice, and other steps designed to get a full picture of the situation. (3)-Preaward Survey-Insofar as possible, the contracting agency should determine prior to the a ward of a contract the ability of the successful bidder to comply with the nondiscrimination clause of the contract (in other words, to comply with the Executive orders). These processes are intended to insure compliance with the Executive orders without dependence on the filing of complaints as a means of discoverino· lack of compliance. Of necessity this has required that contracting agencies assign personnel with particular ski1ls in this field to work with contractors in the development of pro8  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  grams, policies and practices that will msure equal · employment opportunity. The principal contracting agencies are developing the internal capability for effective administration of the equal employment opportunity program and for systematic surveys and reviews of compliance by the contractors with whom they do business. Committee officers and staff members have worked with the agencies, through training programs and conferences, to help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of agency operations 'a nd of personnel assigned to the program. The Complaint Process  Any employee of, or applicant for employment by, the Federal Government or any Government contractor has a right to file a complaint with the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity-if he feels he has boon discriminated against in any personnel action. Complaints may be filed directly with the Committee or through ·a ny branch or agency of the Federal Government. The rules and regulations provide that the contracting agency is to furnish the Committee with a report on its investigation within 60 days after it receives the complaint. The 60-day goal has not always been achieved, but, as experience is gained, the time on complaints has been cut down steadily and it is expected that the great majority of complaints soon will be processed within the time limit. Each agency investigation r.eport is reviewed by the Committee staff. I:f the report is complete and no discrimination is found, the complaint is closed for "no cause." If the report is complete and discrimination based on race, creed, color or national origin is found, the Committee reviews the corrective action taken to determine its sufficiency. If the report is not complete, or if the corrective action is inadequate, the case is returned to the contracting agency for further action. In some cases the agency and the Committee participate jointly in the investigation. ( Although the Committee has the authority to act independently, this authority is seldom exercised since the primary responsibility for securing compliance rests with the contracting agencies.) If a subsequent review of the reports  indicates appropriate action has been taken, the complaint is closed as having been satisfactorily adjusted. In the majority of cases, it has been found that the corrective action involves and affects employees other than the individual who filed the complaint. This is usually true because practices involving discrimination-or denial of equal opportunity-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  are not limited to an individual employee or applicant, but are directed at all members of the affected minority group (see Pattern Changes). Thus, the resolution of each complaint, by changing practices affecting all members of a minority group, or all minority groups, usually works to the benefit of substantial numbers of such employees or applicants.  9  CHAPTER THREE Employment Pattern Changes Resulting From Complaints in Companies in Seven Industry Groups When individual complaints of discrimination have been found to be valid and have been corrected through the processes called for in the Executive orders, the result often has been significant change in employment patterns. An analysis of complaints in companies in seven major industries indicates the major cause of charges of discrimination has been promotion and transfer policies. Over three times as many complaints have been concerned with promotion as with the second most important cause, initial hire. Discharge was third, accounting · for less than 10 percent of the complaints filed. Significant pattern changes or "breakthroughs" have occurred in all three areas. The resolution of promotion complaints has usually involved major changes in company policies and revisions df collective bargaining agreements-some of which have contained discriminatory clauses. Investigation generally has disclosed the following broad pattern in existence prior to complaints to the Committee: Minority group employees were assigned at time of hire to racially homogeneous groups. These groups could be in departments, sections, lines of promotion, etc. But whatever classification was assigned was the one usually recogniz.ed under the collective bargaining agreement as a separate unit for purposes of seniority and bidding on jobs. The collective bargaining -agreement recognized at least two and often several of these separate classification units. As a result of the company's policy of assigning jobs based on race, creed, color or national origin, separate seniority groups perpetuated the separation by effectively preventing free transfer between classification groups. In the great majority of cases, minority group employees were assigned, regardless of qualifica10  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tions, to the lower-skilled, lower-paid jobs where their opportunity for advancement based on ability and seniority extended only to the top of their particular classification. In several instances, the highest jobs to which minority group employees could aspire, regardless of qualifications, paid less than the lowest base rate for other newly hired employees. These higher-paying classifications were barred to Negroes, or, in some areas, to Mexican-Americans. Specific corrective action to eliminate discriminatory practices and to provide equal employment opportunity to all has varied from company to company and from industry to industry. In general, investigation of hiring complaints has indicated that the contractor either completely excluded minority groups from employment or employed them only in menial and laboring categories. It was further found that where the contractor recruited to any extent, the recruitment and referral sources in most cases could not possibly furnish minority group employees. Such sources included colleges and schools, offices of public and private employment agencies serving only certain applicants, employee referral by employee groups with nonminority group members, etc. The type of corrective action varied. Generally, however, contractors took action to recruit from a broader cross-section of the community; established uniform application, testing and interview procedures; and discontinued placement based on race or national origin. But changes frequently were more subtle-and, in many cases, considerably more dynamic-than these generalizations indicate. These will become apparent in the following treatment of pattern changes in companies in certain industries.  I-PETRO-CHEMICALS There have been 10 petro-chemical companies in which complaint investigation has resulted in substantial alteration of practices and policies. Most of the complaints of discrimination have been in the gulf coast refining centers in Louisiana and Texas, but complaints also have resulted in substantial action in Illinois and South Carolina. The number of complaints against individual companies ranged from 1 to more than 50. All complaints alleged racial discrimination in upgrading, seniority and transfer. Complaints against six Louisiana companies charged that Negro employees were placed in labor and service departments, regardless of qualifications. When such employees attempted to transfer to better jobs, they were prevented from doing so by seniority provisions or were disqualified due to lack of education. Investigation showed that white employees of similar or lesser educationa.t and seniority qualifications had been placed in the more skilled positions routinely and without question. Following negotiations, the companies acted to provide upgrading and promotion on the basis of uniform nondiscriminatory standards of seniority and qualifications. New hires were placed without regard to race. Two of the companies found it necessary to amend collective bargaining agreements in order to effect necessary changes. Other companies were able to act affirmatively within the scope of existing collective bargaining agreements. All segregated locals have been eliminated in the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union. Within a month of corrective action, 20 Negro employees had successfully bid into positions in the following crafts : carpenters, brick masons, insulators, instrument men, mechanics, pipefitters, welders, boilermakers, electricians and warehousemen. The following case studies also illustrate the previously stated generalizations. In the case of a Texas company, complaints resulted in alteration of practices to permit Negro employees to bid on positions in previously allwhite departments. And when the company laid off workers, it permitted these employees to qualify for transfer on the basis of seniority and qualifications for promotion as soon as vacancies occurred. The company also broadened the base of its recruitment to include those who could provide minority group applicants and it is actively seek-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ing minority group applicants for professional and technical positions. In addition, it has eliminated separate segregated facilities. In another Texas company, complaints alleged generally the same conditions that existed in the six Louisiana companies treated above. After investigation, the company and union amended the collective barga1ning agreements to permit equality of opportunity in transfer, promotion and upgrading.  II-TEXTILES Investigations of complaints at a Tennessee textile firm disclosed that only three N egroes--al1 maids-were employed in a work force of more than 1,200 employees. A history of exclusionary industry practices in the area contributed to the fact that experienced Negro production workers were unavailable. On the other hand, the contractor was unable to secure a sufficient supply of qualified and experienced labor. The number of trained workers fell below the demand. The contractor met with leaders of the Negro community, provided machines and materials for evening school training of interested adults, and made arrangements for testing and referral of interested applicants through the state employment service. The contractor has hired qualified Negro sewing machine operators-workers he helped train-both through referral by the employment service and direct from the evening school. Since this action, two other local manufacturers have hired Negroes for the first time. A complaint against a Virginia textile firm alleged racial discrimination in upgrading. Following investigation, the complainant was upgraded, the company committed itself to opening its training programs to Negro employees and it established contact with Negro colleges for referral of professional personnel and management trainees. It took a little longer in the case of a North Carolina contractor. It was necessary for the Committee to require the submission of compli~~1ce reports before further contracts could be a warded to the company. After receipt of the reports and subsequent negotiations, the contractor submitted a positive program for compliance with the Executive orders for all of its facilities in several States-including active recruitment from the Negro community and notifications of all recruitment sources of its desire to have applicants re11  :£erred without regard to race, reed, color or national origin. A survey of its operations within 30 days after the initial investio·ations sho,ved that five Negro machine operator had been hired at one of its plants in rorth arofa1a. It should be observed that the oriunittee does not require the hirino- of N eo-roe or any oth~r minority oToup, but that it seeks to create open conditions in which all qualified applicants " ·ill be :fully and :fairly considered.  cation for promotion and job assiO'nment and a systematic company review of the qualifications of it egro employees. Complainants were offered transfer rights and opportunities for training hitherto barred to them. One complainant was promoted to foreman. And, for the first time, the company has hired N eO'ro women for .office and clerical positions.  Ill-STEEL  Group complaints of racial discrimination in transfer and upgrading were filed ,against two tobacco firm in orth Carolina. At both companies, resolution of complaint and alteration of traditionally discriminatory practices required extensive negotiations with corporate management. At one company, management proposed amendment of the collective bargaining agreement-but its proposal was rejected by the white local of the union. After the .ommittee contacted both the local and international union, the aITTeement was amended to permit a uniform system of transfer and promotion without regard to race. At the other company, following negotiations, the company submitted a comprehen ive program of affirmative compliance with the Executive order. It included action necessary to resolve the complainants' grievances.  Group complaints of racial di crimination in upgradino- and promotion have resulted in ub tantial action and ommitment for orre tive action by steel companies in "\Vest Viro-inia, Alabama and Texas. In a Texas ca e, egro employees ,rnre locked into lower classifications ,,ithout opportunity to move to a base cla sification leading to higher job cateo-orie . J egro employees complained that white \\Orkers ·w ith less eniority and no o-reater ability were beinO' promoted while the regroes were passed over. Employee :facilities were also eITTeO'ated. After investiO'ation, three omplaint were tran £erred into the line of seniority for higher jobs, t"o with retroactive seniority. The company also pledged promotion, transfer and upO'rading without rerrard to race., creed, color or national orio-inas required by the Executive orders. Facilities were opened to all employees without regard to race. A subs·equent report indicates that many other egro employees, formerly classified a laborers, have been reclassified to higher ara les offering advancement opportunitie . In an Alabama plant, r eg-ro complainants said they "ere placed in racially seareO'ated lines of promotion-and :few of the lines extended beyond "'emi killed classifications. Inve tiaation onfirmed the e allegations. The company and union then negotiated changes in several department . e 0 ·otiation on other racially separate, rather than functionally separate, lines also were initiated and resulted in the merger of more than 60 such lines. It should be pointed out that the e ucc s:ful neo-otiations took pla eat the height of the Birmingham di turbances. In a vVest Virginia case, complaints about the ompany's sy tern of job as ignment, transfer and promotion re ulted in an open-bid system of appli12  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  IV-TOBACCO  V-AIRCRAFT Investigation of racial discrimination against facilities of three aircraft firms in five states has resulted in substantial alterations of the contractors' employment practices. Group complaints were filed aO'ainst four facilities; individual complaints again t two. omplaints against one facility alleged discrimina ion in hiring; the remainder of them dealt with upgrading and transfer. In Connec icut, upgradina complaints resulted in a complete reevaluation of company practices by corporate officials. After this review, complainants and others were offered upgrading to positions more consistent with their qualifications. ome accepted· others, for reasons of job security, declined. In Indiana, investiaation of a complaint of hiring discrimination di closed that, while the plant had been in operation for more than 20  years, Jegroes had not been employed except for a 6-month period followino- an AACP drive in 1960. Subsequent to investigation and neo-otiation, the company recalled the complainant and altered its practices to include recruitment of ' egro applicants. A check a few months after the first investigation showed that the company's changed recruitment practices had resulted in the employment of more than 85 egro employees in various job categories. Subsequent to the original investigation, management joined in the Plans for Progress program, pledgino- extension of its efforts toward a more affirmative compliance program. In Alabama, complaints of racial discrimination against a facility of the above company alleo-ed Jegroes were unable to transfer or secure promotions for stri tly racial reasons. Jegotiations resulted in the company's agreement to interview all of its eO'ro employees .and to review their qualifications, preparatory to upgrading and relocation as vacancies occurred. Subsequent inquiry di closed that offers of transfer and upgrading have been made to 15 egro employees. In addition, 13 Neo-ro applicants have been hired into seven classifications in four previously all-white divisions. In North Carolina and Tennessee, investigations of complaints against two contractors revealed that NegTO employees were always placed in menjal labor categories while white applicants of similar qualification were placed in production departments, given intensive training, and had progressed accordino- to ability to considerably higher qualifications. After negotiations, the companies opened training cour es to eQ"roes ·and instituted counseling ervices for all employees to give ITTiidance as to which courses they should pursue. At one plant, eparate facilities already had been eliminated; at the other, facilities were desegregated after Committee investio-ation. Both concerns reevaluated their methods of recruitment and initial hire. This resulted 'jn a   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  broadening of the base of their recruitment sources to include egro schools and colleges and alteration of interview and testing practices to provide equal opportunity to all applicants.  VI-SHIPBUILDING In the shipbuilding industry, gl'Oup complaints about job a signment and seniority practices resulted in alteration of employment patterns in companies in California and Mississippi. In California, the company adopted a policy of equal opportunity and upo-raded some Negro employees to positions more commensuriate with their qualifications. It was subsequently found, however, that egro and white painters were assigned to different departments. The white painters' jobs were steady; the Negro painters' jobs depended upon production and it fluctuated. When production flagged, N eo-ro painters were laid off while white painters with similar qUi3,lifications, and considerably less seniority, were retained. After negotiations with both company and union, the collective bargaining a!ITeement was amended to provide a single seniority list for all painters. The interMtional union assisted in making this possible.  VII-FOOD PROCESSING In the food processing industry, complaints against facilities of three companies in Georgia and Texas resulted not only in substantial changes in practices at the facilitie , but also in corporate changes affecting the companies' facilities in several other states. Group complaints filed against all three companies alleged racial discrimination in job assignment and upgradino- and segregation of facilities. In all three, the employment practices complained of have been altered to provide for equal opportunity. In addition, recruitment and hiring practices now afford equal opportunity.  13  CHAPTER FOUR  Compliance Reporting Program The development of a compliance reporting system for Government contractors and subcontractors is one of the most significant steps taken in over 20 years of Federal antidiscrimination effort. Although some type of nondiscrjmination clause has been included in Government contracts since 1941, Executive Order 10925 provided, for the first time, for the mandatory filing by contractors .and subcontractors of periodic reports concerning their employment policies, practices and detailed employment data by race, sex, and occupation on an establishment basis. The compliance reportino- system is the first attempt to review systematically the effect of the nondj scrimination provisions on Government contract employment and to assess the impact of the equal opportunity program on utilization of minority group manpower by Government contractors and subcontractors. The Compliance Report (Standard Form 40, Revised) used jn the program was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Executive order which require each contractor having a contract containing the nondis rimination provisions as set out in the Order "to file and to cause each of his ubcontractors to file compliance reports." The Executive order also provides that "Compliance reports shall be filed within such times and hall contain such information as to the practices, policies, program and employment statistics of the contractor and each such subcontractor, and . hall be in such form, as the ommittee may prescribe." ~ It has been of great concern to the Committee that the compliance reporting system should be administratively feasible and sbll not constitute an undue burden upon Government contractors and up.on Government contracting agencies. Consequently, in developing the compliance reporting system, advice and guidance were sought from the contracting agencies, involving frequent 14  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  meetings with compliance and contracting officials; from the Interdepartmental Committee on Government Procurement Policy; the Bureau of the Budget and its Business Advisory Council on Federal Reports; from representatives of trade and industry associations and labor organizations; from various Government contractors, and from the Departments of Commerce; Health, Education and Welfare, and Labor. These latter agencies are familiar with mass reporting procedures. It is not possible here to list all the organizations and individuals who were consulted in developing this reportino- system, or the frequent discussions that took place. But 1all contributed materially to the reporting system finally approved by the Committee on December 1, 1961. The instructions attached to Standard Form 40 implement the rules and regulations of the Committee. These instructions state : "Each prime contractor and first-tier subcontractor subject to these orders who has a contract, subcontract, or purchase order for $50,000 or more ( or $100,000 or more if solely for standard commercial ~upplies and raw materials) and who also has 50 or more employees shall file compliance reports. All other contractors and subcontractors shall be required to file compliance reports upon the request of the Executive Vice Chairman of the Committee. "In the event a prime contractor or first,t ier subcontractor is a multiestablishment company, a separate compliance report shall be filed for each reporting unit of the company, as provided for in paragraph 3 of these instructions, including the principal office of the company. "(Note.-These revised instructions require compliance reports covering all employees and activities of the company,  including facilities which may not be performing any work directly or indirectly under any Government contracts or Federally assisted construction contracts.)" The instructions also provide that compliance reports will be filed by prime contractors within thirty (30) days after the award of a contract and by first-tier subcontractors within sixty (60) days after the award of a subcontract. Annual reports are then to be filed on March 31 of each year, as long as the contractor continues to perform any work under any Government contract. (Plans for Progress ompanies report on an an ual basis each December 31.) Obiectives of the System  The compliance reporting system is designed to provide: 1. A means of assessing the impact of the non-discrimination provision on Government contractors and for measuring progress in opening up equal job opportunities to minority group persons. 2. A manpower profile of the work force of the nation affected by Government contracts. 3. An analysis of employment patterns of minority groups in the work force. 4. An analysis of situations affecting the under-utilization of the manpower potential of such minority groups. 5. An effective tool to be used by the employers, themselves, in assessing the effect of their employment policies on minority group persons. 6. An instrument to be used by the Federal contracting agencies in administering the nondiscrimination program and for promoting the practice as well as the principle of equal employment opportunities among Government contractors. 7. A means for an affirmative approach to be taken by the Government, by management, by labor, by the community, and by organizations and individuals to eliminate practices and conditions which disadvantage considerable segments of our nation's population only because of reasons of race, creed, color or national origin. Any reporting proo-ram of the magnitude of that undertaken by the Committee invariably produces a steady stream of correspondence from contrac-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tors, trade and industry groups, and organizations and private individuals requesting information, guidance, clarifications or interpretations with respect to the program. As a result, the Committee developed a "Question and Answers" pamphlet containing detailed answers to questions most frequently raised with respe t to the compliance reporting program. Di tribution of this pamphlet has reduced the flow of inquiries and the number of reports which had to be returned for additional information. Coverage of the Program  Since the greatest proportion of the Federal procurement dollar is spent for manufactured items, manufacturing firms make up the major portion of those covered by the reporting program. It is estimated that approximately 38,000 companies in nonagricultural industries eventually will be covered. These companies have approximately 50,000 establishments and 15½ million employees. It is estimated that the maximum coverage should be reached by the reporting year 1964. In considering the analysis that follow, it must be borne in mind that Standard Form 40 does not cover those contractors participating in the Committee's Plans for Progress program. While these companies are subject to the Executive order and the compliance program, they furnish statistics under a separate reporting program. The two reporting systems have been made statistically compatible and together will provide information on the estimated coverage of more than 15½ million employees. It should also be pointed out that the reporting program involving the use of Standard Form 40 does not apply to the construction or utilities industries. Due to the distinctive nature of the construction industry and the fluid nature of the work force represented by the building trades, a eparate reporting system has been developed and is now in operation. Under the reporting proo-ram for construction contracts, each contractor havino- a contract for construction, repair and alteration for $100,000 or more, and each subcontractor having a subcontract thereunder for $50,000 or more is required to file compliance reports. A special form> desi <mated as tandard Form 41 ( ompliance Report-Construction) has been developed and distributed by the contracting agencies. All contracts and subcontracts subject 15  to the reporting requirements a warded on and after January 1, 1963, are affected by this reportinO' prooTam. The fir t reports started flowing to the contracting agencies on March 31, 1963. Unlike the reporting procedures for the other industries, construction contractors and subcontractors are required to file reports directly with the contra tino- agencies and not with the Committee. An appropriate reporting system for utilities is being developed. Approximately O percent of the money expended in Government contracts for construction, repair and alteration is for contracts having a dollar value of $100,000 or more. Thus, it is estimated that a very large portion of the workers in the con truction industry and the building trades will be covered by this reporting program.  Current  Review of the Compliance Reporting Program  The compliance reporting program utilizing tandard Form 40 has been in effect for more than 18 months. It has demonstrated that it is a reliable medium for collecting specific detailed and hitherto unavailable data relating to minority group employment affected by Government contracts. It has also proven to be an effective instrument for u e by contracting agencies in developing affirmati-rn action programs with Government contractors. A copy of each report filed is transmitted by the Committee, after review and processjni, to the appropriate contracting agency. Each agency, after reviewino- the report and the results of the machine proce ing, then selects establishments for follow-up a tions. The objectives and the procedure involved in the surveys ,Yere discussed earlier in this report ( see Private Employment Section). Through the use of electronic data processing equipment and programing, compliance report statisti s on employee by race and sex, by occupation, by indu try, and by o-eographical areas are tabulated. The report form was designed to enable this information to be ompared with data such a the 1960 census and the tabulation , now being o-athered are beino- o stru tured as to provide comparisons on a national, reo-ional, tate and standard metropolitan statistical area basis (major metropolitan and labor market areas in the 1 nited tates). 16  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Preliminary tabulations, covering some 10,033 establishments and about 4.2 million workers from usable reports received by the Committee through June, 1962, are discussed in this report. It should again be noted that the following are not included in the e statistical tabulations : 1. Companies participating in the Committee's cooperative Plans for Progress proo-ram. A summary of most of their reports is presented in tlrn Plans for Progress section of this report. Becauso a very sub tantial majority of employers in the aerospace field and the transportation equipment industry are participating in the Plans for Progress program, they are underrepresented in the data. 2. The o-reat majority of the contractors in the construction contract industry who are required to file Standard Form 41, which is especially designed for the construction industry. The few construction contractors who filed tandard Form 40 are included in the overall totals in these preliminary tabulations. 3. Public utilities, which do not have o-eneral contracts. 4. Compliance reports not statistically usable "hi h were returned to contractors because of incompletene s. More than 3 000 reports, coverinomore than one million additional employees, fall in this category. A primary purpose of securing reports from Government contractors i to obtain as accurate a picture as possible of employment relatino- to the utilization of minority group workers in the labor force. However, because of time limitations, it has been possible to present in this report only the data on employment of eo-roe , the principal minority group covered by this reportino- program. Later tabulations, presently incomplete will present data for pani h-Americans, orientals and other specifi d minority groups. (The following analysis was made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor under the direction of Ewan Clague, Commissioner of the Bureau.)  Profile of Negro Employment in Establishments Filing Compliance Reports in 1962 To provide a basis for evaluating the performance of Fe lern,l contra tors under the current executi rn orders banning emr loyment di rimina-  tion, a study of Negro occupational patterns was undertaken, based on the 10,033 compliance reports filed in 1962. 1 The establishments reported about 4.2. million employees, of w horn 267,000 or 6.3 percent were Negroes (see Table 1). Nearly three-fourths of both total employment and Negro employment was in manufacturing industries, particularly those producing durable goods. Services, notably colleges and universities, accounted for the largest share of reported nonmanufacturing employment. Establishments in the northeast and north central regions had nearly two-thirds of the total 1 The compliance reporting system of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity was officially promulgated March 1, 1962. The basic reporting requirement is the submission of a compliance report (Standard Form 40) by each prime contractor or first-tier subcontractor who has a contract, subcontract, or purchase order with any Federal agency or department in the amount of $50,000 or more, and who employSI a total of 50 or more persons. Multi-establishment companies must file separate reports for the principal office of the company and for each establishment performing or expected to perform work under Government contracts or subcontracts. Initial compliance reports are required within 30 days after a prime contract award and 60 days after the award of a firsttier subcontract. Thereafter, reports are due annually on March 31, as long as the same contractor or subcontractor remains subject to the reporting requirements. The great majority of the compliance reports in 1!162 referred to late March through June, with April the peak month. The full study on which this section is based is scheduled for completion in early 1964.  TABLE  1.  employment and slightly over half of the Negro employment (see Table 2) . Southern establishments reported 20 percent of the total employment and 40 percent of the Negro employment. Blue Collar Employment  The 267,000 Negro employees included 215,000 men and 52,000 women. About 95 percent of the Negro men and 81 percent of the Negro women employees were in blue collar occupations ( craftsmen, operatives, laborers, or service workers; see T able 3) . As shown bel°'v, Negroes were much more highly concentrated in these occupations than were other employees : Negro employees Men Number (thousands) _____________ Percent. _____ . ___________________ White collar occupations _______ Blue collar occupations _________  215 100. 0 5.1 94. 9  Other employees  Women  Men  52 100, 0 19. 2 80.8  3,076 100. 0 36. 1 63,9  Women 893 100. 0 53.2 46.8  Negro blue collar employees were slightly more than 9 percent of the total blue collar employment; they held about 12 percent of the operative, laborer, and service jobs in the reporting estab-  Total employment and Negro employment, by industry, in establishments filing compliance reports in 1962 All  Number of reporting units  employees  Negro employees  Number (thousands)  Percentage distribution  Numb er (thousands)  Percentage distribution  Negro employees as percent of all employees  Total ________________ ~------- --------  10,033  4,236  100. 0  267  100. 0  6. 3  Manufacturing ________ _____________ - - - - - - - - - -  6, 446  3,134  74. 0  190  71. 2  6. 1  Durable goods ______________ - - - - - - - - - - - Primary metals __________ - - - - - - - - - - - Machinery ___ ____________ ____ _______ Electrical equipment_ ______ ---- -- - -- Transportation equipment ___ ____ - - - - Nondurable goods ___ ______ - --- - - -- - --- -Food __ __ ___________________________ Chemicals ____________ - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  4,005 870 911 493 2,441 940 398  2,098 507 441 390 256 1,036 301 187  49. 12. 10. 9. 6. 24. 7.  116 55 12 14  1 4. 4  74 31 8  43. 20. 4. 5. 4. 27.  Other 1--------------------------------------  3,587  1,102  26. 0  77  28. 8  7. 0  Transportation and public utilities _________ Wholesale and retail trade _____ ___ - _- - - - - Finance, insurance, and real estate ___ - _- - - Services ________________________________ Colleges and universities _____________ - _- - -  303 1, 504 115 1,095 154  248 174 70 441 266  5. 9 4. 1 1. 7 10. 4 6. 3  23 5 2 40 29  8. 6 1. 9 .7 15. 0 10. 9  9. 3 2. 9 2. 9  1  482  5 0 4 2 0 5  11  5 6 5 2 1  7 11. 6 3. 0  5. 10. 2. 3. 4. ·1. 10. 4.  5 8 7 6 3 1 3 3  9. 1  10. 9  Totals shown include unallocated data.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  17  T AB LE  2.  Total employment and Negro employment, by regions and sew, in establishments filing compliance reports in 1962 All employees  Male :  N egro employees  Number (thousands)  P ercentage distribution  N umber (thousands)  P ercentage distribution  N egro employees as percent of all employees  United States, totaL ___________________  3, 291  100. 0  215  100.0  6. 5  ortheast ____________ _____ _____ ________ _ Nort h CentraL _______ ___________________ South ________________ ___________________ West ___________________________________ F emale: United States, totaL __________ _________  1, 061 1,133 669 428  32. 2 34. 5 20. 3 13.0  50 65 86 14  23. 3 30. 2 40.0 6. 5  4. 7 5. 7 12. 9 3. 3  945  100.0  52  100.0  5. 5  N ort heast _______________________________ N orth Central ___________________________ South __ _________________________________ West ____________________________ _______  326 291 195 133  34. 5 30. 8 20. 6 14. 1  16 12 21 3  30. 23. 40. 5.  4. 9 4. 1 10. 8 2. 3  lishments, but less than 3 percent of the skilled jobs. Of the Negro blue collar workers more than 90 percent were in jobs below the skilled level. As indicated in the tabulation below, about 1 in every 3 men in blue collar occupations was a skilled worker, while among Negro men in these occupations, less than 1 in 10 was skilled. The proportion of women blue collar employees holding skilled jobs was small in both groups, but 77 percent of all Negro women employees-both blue and white collar-in the covered establishments were operatives, laborers, or service workers, as compared to a ratio of 46 percent in total female employment. AU employees  Negro employees  Blue collar occupations Men Number (thousands ) ______ ___ ___ Percent __________________________ Craftsmen (skilled) ___ _________ Operatives, laborers, and service workers ___ ____ ___________  Wome n  Men  Wome n  ------ ---  2,171 100. 0 34. 5  460 100.0 6. 1  204 100. 0 9. 3  42 100. 0 4. 8  65.5  93. 9  90. 7  95.2  White Collar Employment  Negro white collar employment totaled 21,000, including 11,000 men and 10,000 women ( see Table 3). There were about 10 male Negro white collar employees out of every 1,000 male white collar employees. The corresponding rate among women white collar employees was 21 Negroes per 1,000 employees-more than double the r ate for 18  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  8 1 4 7  Negro men. Negro women employees were 5.3 percent of all female officials, ·professional employees, and technicians; the corresponding rate for Negro men was 1 percent. However, nearly three-fourths ( or 8,000) of the Negro male white collar employees were officials, professional employees, or technicians, whereas the majority of Negro women in white collar positions (6,000 out of 10,000) were clerical employees. Only 3,300 Negroes were employed in sales occupations out of a total of 124,000 such jobs. The preponderance of Negro white collar employment was in services and other nonmanufacturing industries, although manufacturing industries provided nearly t wo-thirds of the total male white collar employment and 53 percent of the total female white collar employment included in this study (see Table 4) . Colleges and univer- ' sities provided 49 percent of the 10,000 white collar jobs held by Negro women and 30 percent of those held by Negro men. The highest Negro shares of total white collar employment, both for men and women, were in colleges and universities. Insurance carriers also were important sources of white collar employment for Negro women. Among both men and women in each region, the largest number of Negroes per 1,000 white collar employees were in nonmanufacturing industries, with the highest r ates in services, finance, insurance and real estate ( see Table 5) . Very high proportions of Negro white collar employees in the South's service industries reflected predominantly Negro educational institutions. Except for serv-  ices, northeastern establishments in each industry employed higher proportions of Negro women in white collar jobs than did the southern establishments included in this study.  the reported jobs, but only 1.3 percent of the white collar jobs. Similarly, the Negro share of skilled blue collar employment was much smaller than the Negro share of total blue collar employment. The great majority .of Negro men and women employees in the reporting establishments were employed in relatively low paying jobs which require little or no training; these are the jobs with the highest unemployment rates. A very small proportion of the reporting establishments accounted for the bulk of Negro white collar employment. Ten percent of the units employed nearly 60 percent of all the Negro male and more than 90 percent of all the Negro female white collar employees.  Summary  The purpose of securing compliance -reports from Government contractors is to obtain as accurate a picture as possible of their utilization of Negroes and other minority groups in the Nation's labor force. The data which have been presented show clearly the magnitude of the problem of underutilization of Negro manpower by the contractors who filed reports in 1962. The Negroes held 6.3 percent of  TABLE  3.  Total employment and Negro employment, by occupation and sex, in establishments filing compliance reports in 196i All employees  Negro employees  Negro employees as percent of all employees  Number (thousands)  Percentage distribution  Number (thousands)  Percentage distribution  Both sexes, totaL ___ ___ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  4,236  100. 0  267  100. 0  6. 3  White collar occupations ______ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  1,605  37. 9  21  7. 9  1. 3  Officials, professional, and technicaL __ _- - - - C~rical ____ _____________________________ Sales ____________________________________  862 619 124  20. 3 t4. 6 3. 0  12 9  4. 5 3. 4  1. 4 1. 5 .2  Blue collar occupations ________ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  2, 631  62. 1  246  92. 1  9. 4  Craftsmen (skilled) _____________ - - - - - - - - - Operatives, laborers, and service workers ____  776 1, 855  18. 3 43.  21  225  7. 9 84. 2  2. 7 12. 1  Male, totaL ________________ - - - - - - - - - - -  3,291  100. 0  215  100. 0  6. 5  White collar occupations __________ - - -- -- - -- ---  1, 120  34. 0  11  5. 1  1.0  Officials, professional, and technicaL ___ - - - - ClericaL __ _____________________ - - - - - - - - Sales ---- -- ------- -------------------- ---  7 6 218 116  23. 9 6. 6 3. 5  8 3  3. 7 1. 4  1.0 1. 4 .2  Blue collar occupations _____ ________ - - - - - - - - - --  2, 171  66. 0  204  94. 9  9. 4  Craftsmen (skilled) ___________ - - - - - - - - - - - Operatives, laborers, and service workers ____  748 1,423  22. 7 43. 3  19 1 5  .8 86. 1  2. 5 13. 0  Female, totaL ______________ - - - - - - - - - - -  945  100. 0  52  100. 0  ~: 5  White collar occupations ________ - -- - --- - - - - _: _  485  51. 3  10  19. 2  2. 1  Officials, professional, and technicaL ____ - - --Cl1ericaL ________________________________ Sales ---- --------------------------------  76 401 8  8. 0 42. 4 .9  4 6  7. 7 11. 5  5. 3 1. 5 .7  Blue collar occupations ______________ - - - - - - - - - -  460  4 .7  42  0. 8  9. 1  Craftsmen (skilled) __________ - - - - - - - - - - - - Operatives, laborers, and service workers ___ -  2 432  3. 0 45. 7  2 40  3. 8 77.0  7. 1 9. 3  1  The reporting establishments had 330 726-390 0-64- - 3   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  egro sal  (1)  (1)  (1)  ------------  ------- -----  ---------- --  employees, of whom 277 were men and 53 were women.  19  TABLE  4.  Total employment and Negro employment in white collar occupations, by industry and sem, in establishments ffeing compliance reports in 196f All white collar employees  Negro white collar employees  Negro employees as percent of all employees  Number (thousands)  Percentage distribution  Number (thousands)  Percentage distribution  Male, totaL ___________________________  1,120  100. 0  11. 0  100. 0  1.0  Manufacturing _______________________________  697  62. 2  4. 1  37. 3  .6  Durable goods ___________________________ Primary metals ______________________ Electrical equipment_ ________________ ondurable goods ___ --------------------Food __________________ ____ _________ Chemicals _________________ __ ________  484 90 107 213 55 62  43. 2 8. 0 9. 6 19. 0 4. 9 5. 5  2. 8 .5 1. 2 1. 3 .3 .5  25. 4. 10. 11. 2. 4.  5 5 9 8 7 5  .6 .6 1. 1 .6 .5 .8  423  37. 8  6. 9  62. 7  1. 6  206 115 113  18. 4 10. 3 10. 1  5. 0 3. 4 3. 3  45. 5 30. 9 30. 0  2. 4 3. 0 2. 9  Insurance carriers _________________ _______ Wholesale trade ______ ____________________  91 22 71  8. 1 2. 0 6. 3  1. 6  .2 .3  14. 5 1. 8 2. 7  1. 8 .9 .4  Female, totaL ________ ______ ______ _____  485  100. 0  10. 0  100. 0  2. 1  Manufacturing _______________________________  255  52. 6  1. 5  15. 0  .6  Durable goods ___________________________ Primary metals ___________________ __ _ Electrical equipment ______________ ___ Nondurable goods __ _____________ _____ ____ Food ____________________________ ___ Chemicals ___ ____ _____ _______________  165 24 38 90 23 27  34. 4. 7. 18. 4. 5.  0 9 8 6 7 6  .9 1 .6 1 .2  9. 0 1. 0 4. 0 6. 0 1.0 2. 0  .5 .4 1. 1 .7 .4 .7  -------------------------------------  230  47. 4  8. 5  85. 0  3. 7  Services _________________________________ Educational services __________________ Colleges & universities ____________ other servMiscellaneous, medical, and ices ________________ _____ _________  122 85 83  25. 2 17. 5 17. 1  6. 5 5. 3 4. 9  65. 0 53. 0 49. 0  5. 3 6. 2 5. 9  37 42 26  7. 6 8. 7 5. 4  1. 2 1. 5 1  12. 0 15. 0 1.0  3. 2 3. 6 .4  Other  t ______ _____ ___ _______________________  Services _________________________________ Educational services ________ _______ ___ Colleges & universities ____________ Miscellaneous, medical, and other services ______________________________  Other  1  Insurance carriers _____________________ ___ Wholesale trade ___ ___________ - _- - - - - - - - - 1  Totals shown include unallocated data.  20  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  .4  TABLE  5.  Numb er of Negro w hite collar employees per 1,000 w hite collar employees, by sex, industry, and re_qion, in e ·tabli hnients fili.n_q complZance reports in 1962 United States, total  Male N egro white collar employees: Number, all industries _____ __________________________________ _ Number per 1,000 male white collar employees : Manufacturing ________ __________________________________ _ Durable goods ___ ____ ___________________________ ____ _ Nondurable goods ___________________________ ________ _ Wholesale and retail trade ___________________________ _____ _ Finance, insurance, and real estate __ _______________________ _ Services ________________ ________________________ ________ _ . Female Negro white collar employees: N umber, all industries ____________ - ___ - __ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - collar employees : Number per 1,000 female white _______________________________ _ Manufacturing ___________ Durable goods ___________________ ___ ___ _____ ________ _ N ondurable goods ___________________________________ _ Wholesale and retail trade ________________ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ Finance, insurance, and real estate _________________________ _ Ser vices ______ ___ __ ____ _____ __ _________________ _________ _  (The following analysis of 1962 and 1963 compliance reports also was prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics at the request of the President's Committee. It is preliminary in form and content and represents merely an overall view. A more detailed analysis and expanded tables will be published by the President's Committee when the information has been compiled early in 1964.)  Cha·nges in Negro Employment From 1962 to 1963 in Establishments Filing Compliance Reports for Both Years In order t o determine whether Negroes have made job gains during the past year among employers subject to Federal policies regarding equal employment opportunity, a comparison was made of compliance reports submitted by the identical ome 4,600 establishment in both 1962 and 1963. 1 1 Compliance reports in 1962 were submitted by the g reat majority of covered establishments from late March through June, with May the peak month. The bulk of the 1963 reports, which were matched with the 1962 reports from identical establishments, were received by the Committee in March and April 1963. Thus, the comparisons in this section generally refer to employment in spring 1962 and spring 1963, with the time between annual reports in most units being 10 or 11 months rather than a full year. Many employers filed 1963 reports on the anniversary of their 1962 repor ts, instead of on March 31 as s pecified in t he reporting fo r m instructions. A few of the units which filed 1962 reports later in the year (some did not have government contracts until then) also filed 1963 reports in time for inclusion in these comparisons ; 18 of these units were omitted from the tabulation because the short t ime •Pan involved might have dimrted the comparisons.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  N ortheast  N orthcentral  South  11, 000  4, 000  2, 000  4,000  6 6 6 5 7 24  7 7 8 7 17  3 3 3 2 6 18  7 6 8 6 20 44  10, 000  3, 000  2,000  4, 000  6 5 7 7 34 53  8 7 9  4 3 7 9 12 37  3  6  10  47 28  3  3 3 9 96  out of the 10,000 units which filed compliance reports in 1962 also filed in 1963. These establishment accounted for -nearly 60 percent of both the total employment and the egro employment shown on compliance reports for 1962. ( omparable data for coverao-e in 1963 are not yet available.) The data, which are summarized in Table 1, show improvement in the utilization of Negroes egro white collar in white collar occupations. 2 employment increased 17.4 percent while total white collar employment in reased by only 1.9 percent. The net gain by Jegroes of 1,830 whit collar jobs increased the Negro share of total white collar employment in these establishments from 12 egroes per 1,000 white collar workers in 1962 to 13 per 1,000 in 1963. Approximately 1 out of every 13 egroes (8 percent) were white collar workers in 1963 as compared to 1 out of 15 (7 percent) in 1962. Both Negro and total blue collar employment dropped slightly, but the some"·hat laro-er relative decline in total b]ue collar employment caused the egro hare of total blue ollar employment to rise slightly, from 97 egroes per 1,000 blue collar workers in 196""' to 98 per 1,000 in 1963. The great majority of egro employees in both year were employed in servi e, semiskilled, and ~ As discussed below, a relatively small proportion of the compared establishments accounted for the bulk of the improvement. A breakdown of the Negro g ains by specific white collar occupation ■ (e.,r., clerical, professional, and managerial) is not yet available.  21  TABLE  1.  Total employment and Negro employment in 4,610 units which ftled Compliance Reports in both 196f and 1963 1962-1963 change 1963  1962  Number Total employment: All occupations _______________________________________  Percent  2,425,873  2,404,253  -21, 620  -0. 9  White collar _________________________________________ Blue collar ___________________________________________ Negro employment: All occupations _______________________________________  918,928 1,506,945  936,198 1,468,055  17,270 -38, 890  1. 9 -2. 6  156,441  155,677  -764  -0. 5  White collar ______________ ___________________________ Blue collar ___________________________________________ Number of Negroes per 1,000 workers: All occupations _______________________________________ White collar _________________________________________ Blue collar _______ __________ ________________ - - __ - - - - - -  10,519 145,922  12,349 143,328  1,830 -2, 594  - .1. 8  64 12 97  65 13 98  1 1 1  ----------------------------------  unskilled blue collar occupations. This report is focused on white collar employment in order to determine the extent of Negro gains in occupations in which they have made little penetration in the past. Net changes of 50 or more Negro white collar employees were reported in 7 of the 44 metropolitan areas in which the total employment in the compared establishments was 10,000 or more ( see Table 2). (In the other areas, those in which the employment totals were smaller, there were no changes of any significant size.) The Negro white collar gains in these seven areas, shown below, represented more than three-fourths of the total national gain-1,393 out of 1,830 jobs:  ments, reached 2 percent in Philadelphia, and moved well above 1 percent in Pittsburgh, Newark, and Chicago. The proportion of Negroes employed in white collar positions also rose in each of these areas. In Washington an additional 6 of every 100 Negroes gained white collar jobs; in New York this ratio went up by nearly 4 per 100; in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Newark, the gain was about 2 per 100. Despite these improvements, however, the proportion of Negroes in white collar jobs in each of these areas remained substantially below the comparable proportion for other persons, as the following tabulation shows:  Negro-white collar employees, Identical establishments  Change in numher Crom 1962 to 1963  New York __ ___________________ Washington, D.C __ ___________ Philadelphia ______ _.. __ ._ .. - - - Pittsburgh ___________ - - -- -- - - Newark ____________________ ___ Chicago ___ . --- ------ .. ________ Loa Angeles ___________________  451 399 254 85 77 64 63  All percent or white collar employment  As percent or total Negro employment  1962  1962  1963  3,0 3,6 1. 6 1. 1 1.0 1.0 .8  3,4 4,9 2. 1 I. 6 1. 2 1.2 .9  30,2 24.8 6.0 6,2 14. 2 4.2 12,0  34,0 31.0 8.2 8.5 16.2 5.4 12. 6  By far the largest changes in the number of Negro white collar employees were in New York, Washington, and Philadelphia. Washington led the rises in the Negro share of total white collar employment with a jump from 3.6 to 4.9 percent but the Negro proportion of white collar employment rose above 3 percent in New York establish22  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Negro white collar employees as percent of all Negro employees  White collar employees of other races as percent or all employees or  other races 1962  1963  - -- -- -- -  17. 4  New York ______________ Washington, D.C ____ ___ Philadelphia ___ _________ Pittsburgh ______________ Newark ______ ___________ Loe Angeles _____________ Chicago _________________  30,2 24,8 6,0 6,2 14.2 12.0 4,2  1963  1962  1963  Difference In percentage points between Negroes and other races  1962  1963  - -- - - - - - - 34.0 31. 0 8.2 8.5 16,2 12.6 5.4  68, 1 83.5 40. 9 32,8 56. 9 49.1 41. 0  69.4 82.9 41. 1 32.8 59,0 50.5 46. 1  37,9 58. 7 34,9 26,6 42, 7 37. 1 36,8  35,4 51. 9 32,9 24.3 42,8 37,9 40. 7  There was a slight narrowing of this occupational gap between Negroes and others in 4 of the 7 areas but the changes were not large enough to alter the basic community patterns of relative exclusion from employment opportunities in white collar occupations. Negro white collar employment changes in the 44 areas in which the contractors employed 10,000 or  TABLE  2.  Negro white collar employment in  44 areas, arrayed by numerical change from 1962 to 1963  [Areas are those where contractors included in the comparisons employed 10,000 or more workers in 1963)  Negro white collar employees  1963  1962  New York ___________________________ _ Washington, D.C _____________________ _ Philadelphia _______________________ - __ Pittsburgh __________ ___________ - _- _- - Newark _____________________________ _ Chicago _____________________________ _ Los Angeles __________________________ _ Indianapolis _________________________ _ St. Louis ____________________________ _ San Francisco ________________________ _ :ts~~gham _________________________ _ Cincinnati _______________ - _______ - _- __ Denver ______________________________ _ Gary ________________________________ _ Kansas City ___________ - _- - - - - - - - - - - - Cleveland ______________ - _- _-- - - - - - - - - -_ ______________________________ Buffalo Detroit ______________________________ _  ~~!gcfrf:!~;========================== Minneapolis-St. Paul ______ - _- _- - - - - - - - Rochester ______________ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - San Jose _____________________________ _ Louisville ____________ - __ - - - - - - - - - - - - - Winston-Salem _____ __- -- - -- - - - - - - - ---Baltimore ______________ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  ~;~)I~t~n~~=========================  Akron _______________________________ _ Hartford ____________________________ _ Houston _____________________________ _ Richmond ___________________________ _ Portland _____________________________ _ Canton ______________________________ _ Columbus ___________________________ _ Dallas _______________________________ _ Albany ______________________________ _ f!;;\~~~rg_:========================== Allentown Milwaukee ___________________________ _ Steubenville-Weirton ________________ - - Worcester ____________ _______________ _  Number  Percent of total white collar employment  2,317 812 647 255 293 537 500 63 175 67  3. 0 3. 6 1. 6 1. 1 1.0 1.0 .8 1. 1 1.1 .4 .2  8 244  48 15 48 14 106 41 96 62 35 239 15 41 53 30 498 60 34 16 22  72 69 4 10  .7 .2 .6 .4  .7 .7  .6 .9 .3 .5 1. 1 .7 1. 9 1.1 .7 .4 .2 .8 1. 2 .1  5 9  .2 1. 1 .9 .2 .2  5  .1  111 49  2  35 5 2  more workers in 1963 are presented in Table 2. In most of these areas there was little or no overall change either in the number of Negro white collar employees or in the Negro's share of total white collar employment; in 4 there was no change and in 20 others the net changes amounted to fewer than 10 Negroes. Consequently, the Negro share of total white collar employment was steady in 16 areas, and changed by only one- or two-tenths of   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  .9 .6 .2  .3 .2 .1  Number  2,768 1,211 901 340 370 601 563 104 210  96 29 258 62 29 61 27 118 29 107 72 44 247  23 49 60 37 491 54 30 19 25 70 71  /  Percent of total white collar employment  3.4 4. 9 2. 1 1.6 1. 2 1. 2 .9 1. 7 1. 3 .6 .6 1.0 .8 .5 .9 .4 .7  .3 .8 .8 .8 .9 .4 .5 1. 2 .9 1. 9 .9 .7 .4 .3 .8 1. 2 .1 .2 1.0 .9 .2 .3  Change from 1962 to  1963  Number  451 399 254 85 77 64 63 41 35 29 21 14 14 14 13 13 12 -12 11 10 9 8 8 8 7 7 -7 -6 -4 3 3 2 2 -2 1 1 1 1  Percent of total white collar employment  0.4 1. 3 .5 .5 .2 .2 .1 .6 .2 .2 .4 .1 '2  .3 .2 .2 .1 -.1 .1 .1 .2  -----------.1 -----------.1 .2  ------------, 2 ----------------------.1 ----------------------2 -----------11 ----------112 - .1 50 -------- ---6 -------- ---10 1 .1 -1 -----------4 .1 2 ------------ -------- -- -----------35 . 3 -------- - - -----------5 2  . 2 -------- - - - -------- - --  . 1 ---------- - -----------  one percent in 21 other areas. In the 7 southern areas within this group of 44 (not counting Washington or Baltimore), the increases were relatively slight. Detailed breakdowns of the net gain in Negro white collar employment from 1962 to 1963 reveal little or no change in the great majority of establishments. Of the 4,610 establishments compared, more than 3,700 ( 4 out of every 5) reported no  23  TABLE  3.  White collar employment changes from 1962 to 1963 in 118 units reporting increases or decreases of 5 or more Negro white col'lar employees, by selected industry groups 1962-1963 change 1962  1963  ..  Number All white collar employees, total ______________________ Manufacturing ___________________________________________  Percent  176,589  185,792  9,203  5. 2  68,327  66,424  -1, 903  -2.8  Durable goods _______________________________________ Nondurable goods ____________________________________  36,450 31,877  32,243 34,181  -4, 207 2,304  -11. 5 7. 2  Nonmanufacturing ________________________________________  108,262  119,368  11, 106  10.3  Edu cati on al services __________________________________ Insurance carriers ____________________________________ Other nonmanuf acturing ______________________________  59,840 26,165 22,257  61,897 30,580 26, 891  2,057 4,415 4,634  3.4 16. 9 20.8  Negro white collar employees, totaL __________________  5,570  7,087  1,517  27. 2  Manufacturing ______________________ ~--------------------  883  1,069  186  21. 1  Durable goods _________________________ - - - - - - - - - - - - - Nondurable goods _______________________ - - - - - _- -- __ - _  605 278  694 375  89 97  14. 7 34.9  Nonmanufacturing ________________________________________  4,687  6,018  1,331  28.4  Educational services __________________________________ Insurance carriers __________________________ - _- - ____ - Other nonmanuf acturing ______________________________  2,751 1,235 701  3,327 1,708 983  576 473 282  20. 9 38. 3 40. 2  change in Negro white collar employment, while 556 (1 in 8) reported increases, a~d 327 (1 in 15) reported decreases. Gains consisted of one Negro white collar worker in half of the 556 establishments which reported increases. Gains of 5 or more Negro white collar jobs were reported in only 93 establishments. Similarly, in most of the 327 establishments which reported decreases in Negro white collar employment, the changes involved very few employees; declines of 5 or more were reported by only 25 of these establishments. Altogether, the 118 units reporting increases or decreases amounting to 5 or more employees accounted for about 1,500 or roughly 80 percent of the 1,830 net change in Negro white collar employment, as the following tabulation shows : Ne,ro white collar employment chanire or: Sor more Units  Units EmUnits EmEmployees ployees ployees  - - - -- -- -- -  lncreaaes _______________  Decreaaea ___ ---- ------Net cbanire In number or Ne,ro white collar employees ____________  l0ormore  5-9  93  25  --------  24  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1,811 294 1,517  56 15  --------  38.1 102 281  37 10  --------  1,428 192 1,236  Tabulations of white collar employment changes by industry have been prepared only for the 118 establishments which reported increases or decreases of 5 or more Negro white collar employees (Table 3). N onmanufacturing industries accounted for virtually all of the increase in total white collar employment and for 88 percent of the increase in Negro white collar employment. Insurance carriers and educational institutions reported the largest numerical increases in Negro white collar employees. While manufacturing industries also showed a substantial percentage increase in their Negro white collar employment, the numerical gains were quite small, largely reflecting the decline in total employment in the durable goods industries. As shown on page 25, the distribution of Negro white collar gains between manufacturing and nonmanufacturing closely followed the distribution of Negro white collar employment in 1962, so that in general the industries which provided most of the Negro white collar jobs in 1962 also provided most of the gain over the year.  Percent distribution orNegro white collar employment In 1962 Total: Number __________________________________ _  ::i~E~:::::::::::::::::::::::::  Educational se"ices- __ __________________ _ Insurance carriers ________________________ _ Other nonmanur~turing ___ _______ __ _____ _  Net change in Negro white collar employment Crom 1962 to 1963  5,570 100.0 15. 9 10. 9 5.0 84, 1  6.4 87. 7 37,9  49.3 22.2  31.2 18.6  12.6  Encouragement may be drawn from the Negro white collar gains which have been outlined above, although much remains to be done. The net changes from 1962 to 1963 provide evidence of forward movement, although of course they were relatively small. The concentration of Negro white collar job openings in a relatively small proportion of the establishments included in the comparisons may be considered evidence of a pattern of specific adjustments and accommodations rather than of a steady and evenly spread upward trend. About 10 percent (447) of the establishments covered in this study did not have a single Negro white collar employee either in 1962 or 1963 although in each (1) there were at least 100 white collar employees in 1963 and (2) white collar employment increased or remained steady over the year. Among these were 37 establishments which had 500 white collar jobs each, but did not report any Negro white collar employees. The 447 establishments were located in the following States : Selected units without Negro white collar employees  New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, ;=t!1ichlgan _________ _________________ _  sJ~!h~  California Other States ________ -=====-======================-  447  100.0  203 88 41  45. 4  115  19. 7 9. 2  25. 7  One guide to the selection of establishments in which significant improvement could be anticipated 1s the fairly close connection between changes in Negro and total white collar employment. Among the 118 establishments which ac-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Number or Units with Units with unita with increases decreasea change or of five or offtveor ftveormore more in more in Negro In Nerro Nerro white white white collar collar collar employemployemployment ment ment  1,517 100.0 12.3 5. 9  Discussion  Total _______________________________________ _  counted for the bulk of the Negro gains from 1962 to 1963, this relationship was as follows:  Number of units with change in total white collar employment ____ _______ _ Units with increaaes In total white collar employment ____ ___________ __ Units with decreases in total white collar employment __ ___ _____________  I  118  80 38  93 I  25  73  7  20  18  1 Includes one establishment in which total white collar employment dld not chan1e.  In general, thus, Negro gains are most likely to occur ·where total white collar employment is also increasing. The preceding Bureau of Labor Statistics reports further underscore the fact that the manpower resources of this country represented by the Negro remain virtually untapped. That the problem exists throughout the economy is evident from the Manpower Report of the President transmitted to the Congress in March, 1963. The 1963 Manpower Report of the President, for example, points out:  "Discrimination against nonwhites, primarily Negroes, results in an estimated annual waste of $17 billion of production and services, in addition to the sizeable bu.man and social costs involved." ,The Report further states that "in this period of unprecedented world tension, the country cannot afford either the reckless waste of manpower or the social injustice involved in employment discrimination." The inescapable conclusion is that the underutilization of Negroes and the denial or limitation of equal employment opportunities to a significant segment of the citizens of this nation-solely because of reasons of race or color-is a flagrant waste of one of the most vital resources of this country. This waste appears in several forms. For example, restrictions on the employment of Negroes, among industries and occupations, are a serious limitation on mobility, which makes the achievement of full employment and the efficient response to a structural change much more difficult. This is especially significant because the great majority 25  of job opportunities presently available to Negro workers are in those semiskilled and unskilled occupations, which are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of automation and other technological developments. Moreover, the inability of educated Negroes to find appropriate employment reacts upon the effectiveness of the education of the next generation. It reduces the incentives to learn and to get more training. It therefore must lower the quality of education, regardless of new buildings, later school-leaving age-even of desegregation in the schools. Such pyramiding of problems in succeeding  26  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  generations is recognized as a serious drag on the economic growth of the nation. The Federal Government, State and local governments, management and labor, schools and colleges, organizations and individuals alike, must share the responsibility for correcting this situation. All of these institutions must cooperate to eliminate employment practices which economically and socially disadvantage citizens of this country and to provide the incentive, the counselling, and training for all persons, particularly these under-utilized minority groups, to meet the manpower needs for achieving this country's full economic and industrial potential.  CHAPTER FIVE  Equal Employment in the Federal Establishment Background and Perspective More than 80 years ago, the Federal Government first established a policy that its employees should be hired and advanced solely on the basis of merit and fitness for their jobs. This provision first appeared in the Act of January 16, 1883, which established the United States Civil Service Commission. This law prohibited the consideration of individual characteristics extraneous to fitness, such as religion or political affiliation. Difficulties have been experienced in putting this policy into practice where certain disadvantaged groups have been concerned. As a result, the Government has established, from time to time, specialized agencies, usually within existing departments, to deal with the problems of particular groups, e.g., the handicapped, and, more recently, women and youth, as well as racial, religious and ethnic minorities which are the primary concern of. the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. All of these agencies have been concerned with reducing manpower waste because of the underemployment of those disadvantaged elements of the population. Much of this waste results from individuals being deprived of the chance to fully develop their capacities and abilities. However, such waste is also caused by the exclusion or underutilization of persons for reasons unconnected with their qualifications to do the job-such as race, creed, color, religion, or place of origin. The President's Committee is directly concerned with these latter causes of manpower waste. ·It is charged with administering Executive Order 10925, which, as one of its major provisions, requires equal opportunity to Federal Government employees and applicants without restrictions based on race, creed, color or national origin.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Functions Performed by Government Employment Division  The Committee's primary efforts within the Federal establishment have been directed toward the following:  1. Helping agencies and departments to carry out effectively the affirmative action required of them under the Executive Order. 2. Taking, through the U.S. Civil Service Commission, an annual census of minority employment in Federal· agencies. This makes possible the monitoring and appraisal of agency employment practices and establishes a base for corrective action where deemed necessary by the Committee. It also permits the periodic analysis and report to the Vice President and President of developments in Federal minority employment. 3. Reviewing the actions taken by departments and agencies in response to complaints filed and judging the sufficiency of their corrective actions. Certain of the racial and ethnic minorities covered by the Executive Order feel keenly the restrictions upon equal employment opportunity because of both limited skill development and outright discrimination-even against the qualified. The Committee, therefore, has had to be concerned with raising qualifications and expanding vocational horizons, as well as with eliminating discrimination. For this reason, continuous liaison is maintained with Government agencies concerned specifically with greater manpower development and use, especially among disadvantaged groups. Similar close liaison with local community leadership is desirable because of the relationship between equal employment opportunity and Government insta:llation and community services. The growing decentralization of Federal establish27  ments geographically and the frequent location of Government installations in the suburbs of metropolitan communities increasingly emphasize the importance of factors such as housing restrictions and inequita:ble use of insta:Uation facilities such as restaurants, rest rooms and recreational facilities, in determ1.ning whether minority groups can achieve true equal employment opportunity. Inequities in living conditions-h-0using, educational opp<?rtunity, and public accommodations-have led Negro and other minorities to stay behind and sacrifice employment rights of high value when their activities have moved to less hospitable communities. This is true even when discrimination is absent from the essential employment practices-recruitment, hiring, promotion, and postemployment training. The basic techniques by which Executive Order 10925 is enforced involve a variety of actions by the Committee staff and the employing agency. Many are complementary and mutually supportive. The development of effective affirmative action programs requires many such relationships, as does the Committee's effort to promote training at all levels within each agency. The objective of the latter effort is to raise the capabilities of agency personnel to administer the Executive Order to such l~vels that compliance by each agency can be ·achieved with decreasing amounts of Committee staff involvement in reviewing and assuring functions. At the same time, if the complaint-processing technique is to remain effective, the Committee must determine whether the decisions of a:gencies regarding complaints in their establishments are fair and adequate. Consequently, it must review agency decisions, monitor their actions, and judge whether they meet Committee standards. In the following section, the major approaches by which the Committee has tried to achieve the goals of the order among the departments and agencies of Government are discussed. Affirmative Action  An essential element in the administration of Executive Order 10925 is the requirement that both the Committee and Government agencies take "affirmative steps" and "positive measures" in order to realize the national policy of equal employment opportunity. (Executive Order 10925, Sections 201-202.) President Johnson's dedicated 28  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  leadership is exemplified in the following staitement which he made to a group of employment policy officers while he was Vice President and Chairman of the President's Committee: "We do what we do in the realm of equal opportunity not because of fear of what the world thinks of us but because of what we think of ourselves and our system. We believe-we know-that equal employment opportunity is no unattaina'ble or unreasonable goal for a free society." Employment Census as ·a Tool for Agency Planning  The Executive order has given a new impetus to the achievement of equal employment opportunity. By requiring the Committee ~ study the employment practices of Government agencies and departments, and ·by directing each agency and department to study its own patterns, a basis has been laid for new and unique tools for insuring compliance with the Executive Order-the annual , census of minority group employment. · The authority given to the Committee to require . Government agencies to provide specific facts about the employment practices of all Federal Government installations and to use this information ·as a basis, in part, for monitoring agency practices and requiring corrective personnel actions has greatly increased the motivation of agency management to take positive action. Indispensable to sound management decisions in the field of equal opportunity, as in other phases of personnel relations, is an adequate body of objective, comparative information, gathered at regular intervals so as to reveal patterns of employment, changes over time, and differences among departments and agencies at the same time. With the help of the Civil Service Commission a reporting system has been developed. Through this system the President and the Committee receive annually a picture of the pattern of minority employment in the Federal establishment as a .vhole_; by departments and agencies, and by bureaus within each of these; as well as by state and local area. This information is processed and made available to the employment policy officer of each agency to be used as a basis for planning his agency's program by installation. Illustrative of the Committee's use of such data as a means of motivating and stimulating agency action is a Government-wide request by the  Execut ive Vice Chairm an under Memo randum E16. This memorandum, issued after each employment policy officer had received the June, 1962, his. Committee census figures for each bureau ghly thorou be data the that ted agency, reques analyz ed and apprai sed to determ ine where, if at · all, it appear ed that correction efforts might be necessary to assure that the agency was operat ing in compliance with Execut ive Order 10925. It was furthe r require d that if such areas of appare nt noncompliance were discovered, all appoin tments and promotions should be preaud ited for a tem·:porary period in order to verify the practices and institu te a corrective progra m, if required . . All agencies have been require d to report to the Committee that these procedures have been followed and to state the results of audits which were instituted . As a result, Government-wide apprai sals of the quali~y of compliance with the Execut ive Order have been made:  m  Correcting Under-utilization  One of the most widespread means of discriminating agains t minori ty employees is to employ them arbitra rily below their highes t skills. Recognizing the import ance of elimin ating such under- utiliza tion of employees, the then Vice President Johnso n, as Committee chairm an, directed all depart ments and agencies to review the personnel file of employees in the lower grades to locate under- utilize d personnel. He requested that, where such employees were found, aggressive positive effort be made to place them in jobs more suited to their abilities and trainin g. While these reports still are coming to the Committee, those received to date disclose the discovery of a sizeable numbe r of under- utilize d employees, both from minori ty groups and otherwise. The agencies have reporte d that some such employees have been approp riately upgrad ed or transfe rred into other units or agencies to jobs more suitable to their talents , and steps are being taken to afford improv ed opport unities to others. Some examples of actions resulti ng from the review of personnel files includ e: Department of Defen se.-Th rough questionnaires submit ted to employees at levels of GS-6 or below, 170 employees (of whom 55 were Negro) were identified as significantly under-utilized. As of the last report, promo tions had reduced the number of under- utilize d employees to 47.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Department of Comm erce.- As a direct result of the survey findings, 16 minori ty group person nel have been promo ted or reassigned. Of 2,838 minori ty group employees whose files were reviewed ( out of a tot~l of 13,661 files studie d), 795 had been promo ted within the past year under normal promo tion procedures. Department of J ustice .-Seve ral Negro U.S. attorne ys and a United States marsha l, as well as assista nt U.s: attorne ys and a deputy marsh al have been appoin ted in southe rn and border states. ·A Negro became U.S. attorne y for the Northe rn Distric t of Califo rnia and anothe r U.S. attorne y for the Northe rn Distric t of Ohio. As of Januar y, 1961, there were only eight Negroes employed as assista nt U.S. attorneys. That numbe r is now 39. Those who became assista nt U.S. attorne ys in North Caroli na, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Virgin ia, and. Texas were the first Negroes ever to occupy that position in those states. A Negro has been appoin ted U.S. Marsh al-for the Distric t of Columbia for the second time in history , the first and only Negro in that position having been Freder ick Douglas, who served from 1877 to 1881. The Departme nt has also expand ed its nondis crimin atory recruit ment and trainin g progra ms at all levels. Department of Labor .-Sinc e Januar y 1961 ' Negro employment in the Depar tment of 'Labor has increased, particu larly in the upper grade levels and in the Depart ment's southe rn offices. On Januar y 20, 1961, there were 24 Negroes among the 1,619 Depart mental employees in grades 12 throug h 18; by June 30, 1962, the total had increased to 70 among 2,449. Among the Dep rtment's rankin g Negro employees· are an Assista nt Secreta ry, an Assista nt to the Secret ary, the Assistant Direct or of the Office of Manpo wer Automation and Traini ng, and the Deput y Admin istrator of the Bureau of Intern ationa l Labor Affairs. All have been appoin ted since Januar y 1961. A review of 2,213 personnel files has resulted in the promo tion of 158 employees. In additio n, 173 employees have taken skill improv ement trainin g, 45 have been reassigned and 53 have been ·assigned additio nal duties. Additi onal trainin g or other actions are planne d for greate r utiliza tion of 147 other employees. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.- The survey of one install ation (Burea u of Old Age and Surviv ors Insura nce headqu arters in Baltim ore) disclosed that approx imatel y 600 employees (both white and Negro) had typing and 29  stenographic experience which was not being used. Inservice training classes are being offered to bring unused skills up to standard requirements. .Civil Service Commission.-Although the review of files indicated 99 cases of possible underutilization, final review showed only seven valid cases. Of the seven, two have resigned, three have been promoted to higher grades, one is on the pro.:. motion roster without change to date, and one declined transfer despite limited promotion opportunities in present position. General Services Administration.-Seven employees with position titles of laborer and grades ranging from Wage Board-1 to Wage Board-4 were upgraded to such positions as clerk-typist, electrician, keypunch operator, etc. at higher grades. Ten employees in grades WB-5 and from GS-4 to GS-11 were upgraded to more responsible positions at higher grades. Some of these actions resulted in increases of three or four grades. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.-The agency reports annual appraisals of all employees have resulted in significant placement of Negroes in middle and upper job levels. During calendar year 1962; the number of Negroes in Grade 5-11 increased from 171 to 242 (41.5 percent) and in Grades 12-18 from 31 to 46 (48.4 percent). United States Information Agency.-Review of the files of 386 Negro employees indicated 79 were under-utilized. Counseling interviews have been held with all, and 26 of the 79 have been promoted to positions of increased responsibility.  Regional Meetings During the period of this report the Government Employment Division took a major step to accelerate the program of equal job opportunities. In July, 1961, the Committee launched a series of 14 regional meetings designed to assist key regional officers directing and managing Federal programs involving over 500,000 civil employees for the purpose of implementing equal opportunity programs. The work of the Committee was aided considerably by the effective participation of the Civil Service Commission under the leadership of Chairman John Macy. At each conference the Civil Service Commission Regional Directors cooperated in organizing and in following-up the work of these sessions. The subjects highlighted at these conferences 30  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  included Committee rules and regulations, complaint procedures, techniques, affirmative action, and further steps that agencies. could take in support of the program. Even before the first round of regional meetings was completed in July, 1962, a round of followup conferences in each region was started. The followup program consisted of meetings with individual agencies to review past performance and to accelerate progress since the previous meetings. The following Table indicates the number of employees covered in the followup meetings and the number of agencies involved. Cities in Which Followup Conferences Have Been Held t Date  City  May 14-15, 196L _________ June 18-21, 1962___________ Sept. 18-19, 1962___________ Oct. 15-19, 1962________ __ __ Nov. 13-15, 1962___________ Jan. 15-17, 1963 ___________ Feb. 12-14, 1963___________ Mar. 19-22, 1963_____ __ ____  Atlanta _______________ _ Chicago ______________ _ Nashville _____ ________ _ Los Angeles __________ _ St. Louis _____________ _ Philadelphia ___ _______ _ New Orleans _________ _ New York ____ ________ _  No.of employees  11,580 47,224 4,300 63,199 24,843 63,405 8,911 144,779 368,241  No.or agencies  11 16  11 20 16  14 11 14  123  1 Similar meetln(s are scheduled in Miami, Boston, Cincinnati, Dallas, Denver and San Francisco.  Training and Recruitment  A focal point in the discussion with agencies has been the limited number of qualified applicants from Negro and Spanish-speaking groups on the Federal. Service Entrance Examination and stenographic and typing registers. Agency efforts to . increase the number of these minorities appearing on various Federal registers include more extensive recruitment drives at high schools and colleges attended by minority groups. The Civil Service Commission has also made a contribution in this direction by contin~ing to expand its program to represent a positive image of the Federal Government as a good place for all persons to seek em. ployment. Another problem posed by the agencies at the meetings was that members of minority groups lacked specialized experience and training necessary for initial hiring. An example of this is the field of data processing. In some southern cities, Negroes experience difficulty in obtaining the necessary training because they are excluded from the only business schools that provide preemployment training in this field. To overcome this problem one agency established a training program in co-  operation with the private company providing the equipment. The Federal agency sends its employees to the company facilities to be trained. Upon completion of the training, the employee returns to his agency. Preemployment training, however, remains closed to this group of persons, some of whom have high aptitude for data processing. The Civil Service Commission now forbids government agencies to deal with employment agencies, trade schools and similar recruitment sources that discriminate because of race, creed, color or national origin. Some agencies have established on-the-job training programs and others have made outside educational opportunities available to employees in order to qualify them for higher positions. One agency made a skill survey of the employees and a determination was then made as to what was needed for an on-the-job training program. This was done for a large number of employees in dead end positions who lacked training to move into new and higher positions. The agency made available typing and other courses to employees and also encouraged employees to take additional courses. Another agency, in cooperation with the Civil Service Commission, gave tests to electrician helpers to determine their potential at the journeyman level. The employees attaining a passing grade were afforded first consideration for promotion. Those who did not receive a passing grade were offered correspondence courses for their further self-development. A training program in basic mathematics is being planned for these latter employees. This training program will be given 50 percent on Government time and 50 percent on the employee's time. Some agencies presented the problem of recruiting minority group applicants in certain specialized fields, such as quality control, procurement specialist, and banking and finance. The agencies stated that in these cases, experience gained in private industry provided the Government its biggest source of applicants. Because of restrictions by private industry in some areas, it has been difficult for members of minority groups to qualify. To assure equal opportunity, agencies have created trainee positions and recruited from the Federal Service Entrance Examination register and then provided the necessary on-the-job specialized training for those moving into these fields.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Another area of concern to agencies was the difficulty in filling the higher administrative and professional positions where a definite number of courses and educational qualifications were prerequisites. This is particularly true in the fields of accounting, chemistry, and mathematics. The agencies found that schools where a large number of minority group members were attending did not include sufficient courses in their curricula to qualify their graduates for these positions. Secretary of Labor W. Willard Wirtz has sponsored four regional conferences attended by presidents, deans and placement officers of predominantly Negro colleges, and representatives of many Federal agencies to discuss in depth employment opportunities and curriculum adjustment needs of colleges, and to motivate students to qualify for Government jobs. The Department of State has been working with a committee of college presidents to develop a program that will prepare Negro students more adequately to qualify in the Foreign Service examination. Quite early in the Kennedy Administration, under the leadership of former Secretary of Labor Arthur Goldberg, the Labor Department greatly expanded its recruitment efforts among colleges and universities with large enrollment of Negroes and other minority groups. In like manner, the Civil Service Commission stepped up its positive recruitment program through its regional office programs, Federal Executive Board-directed activities, and the example it has set by its own hiring practices in some regions. To sum up, a proliferation of measures has taken place in the last 2 years with the intent to improve education, increase the motivation, ancl instill confidence of the youth of minority groups in departments and agencies of the Federal Government as willing sources of employment :for them. We are beginning to see the fruits of this effort in increased numbers of such students taking the Federal Service Entrance Examination and a larger number of them passing it.  Statistics on Increased Utilization of Minorities ./  The accompanying table reveals the changes in minority group and total Federal employment as reported by the agencies participating in the followu p meetings. 31  The increase in employment of minority groups in the classified grades, from 1961 to 1962, is pointed out by reports from specific areas. Significantly, Los Angeles revealed an increase for Spanish-surname employing in the classified grades from 270 in 1961 to 324 in 1962, or 20 percent; whereas total employment increased from 12,749 in 1961 to 13,199 in 1962, or 3.5 percent. In · the middle grades, GS-5 through 11, the increase was from 119 to 169, or 42 percent, against a total employment increase from 6,188 in 1961 to 6,395 in 1962, or 3.3 percent. In Atlanta, Negro employment in the middle grades, GS-5 through 11, increased from 23 in 1961 to 32 in 1962, or 39.1 percent; whereas, the total employment increase was 7.4 percent. St. Louis revealed an increase for Negroes in these middle grades from 475 to 604, or 27.2 percent, against a total employment increase from 7,301 to 7,810, or 7.0 percent. Significant gains for Negroes in grades 12 through 18 were revealed in all areas covered, particularly Philadelphia, where the gain was from 55 in 1961 to 81 in 1962 or 47.3 percent, against a total change from 4,536 in 1961 to 5,584 in 1962, or 23.1 percent. St. Louis revealed an increase in the upper grades, 12 through 18, from 6 to 8 or 33.3 percent against a total increase from 1,268 to 1,383, or 9.1 percent. In New York, there was an increase of 32 Negroes in grades 12-18, for a 25 percent gain, compared to a total increase of 1,037 for a 10.8 percent gain. It must be stressed that the primary purpose of these meetings was to assist the participating agencies in developing their affirmative action programs. Statistical information was gathered in order to indicate the general pattern of minority TABLE  1.  Change in Negro  utilization and significant changes that had occurred between meetings. This gave an objective basis from which to discuss why the pattern was as described, whether a satisfactory local effort was being made, and what additional steps could be taken. The objective of the Committee in these meetings was to give on-the-spot aid to local Federal offices and installations in their efforts to assure equal employment opportunity for all applicants and employees. By covering further areas of higher government employment, this assistance was directed specifically to the field services. Agency Capability Development  Through Committee help, the capabilities of agencies to carry out the Executive Order have been greatly increased. All Federal Agencies have had some basic orientation for assuring agency proficiency in fulfilling the intent of the Order. To do this, the Committee has conducted or aided in several major training programs on equal employment opportunity in which either all agencies or several agencies participated. Departments and agencies employing more than % of all Government employees have had special training programs in equal employment opportunity. Individual specialized training courses aimed at reaching all personnel responsible for department and agency equal employment opportunity programs have been given by some departments and agencies using the resources of the Committee. Departments participating in such individual specialized training programs included: Department of the Army, Department of the Air Force, Department of the Navy, Department of Agriculture, the Post Office Department, and the  and total Federal employment as reported by agencies participating in regional f ollowup meeting  1  First report  Second report  City  Total employment  Negro  Percent  Total employment  Negro  Percent change  Percent  Total employment  Total __________  360,869  75,138  20. 4  365,647  79,892  21. 8  +1. 3  Atlanta ______________ Chicago _____________ Los Angeles __________ St. Louis ____________ Philadelphia _________ New Orleans _________ New York ___________  10, 796 47,733 63,893 23,269 62,062 8,337 144,779  1,508 18,044 10,663 4,736 15,051 1, 216 23,920  14. 37. 16. 20. 24. 14. 16.  11, 580 47,224 63, 199 24,843 63,405 8,911 146,485  1,476 18, 811 10,844 5,335 15,348 1,418 26,660  12. 39. 17. 21. 24. 15. 18.  +7. -1. -1. +6. +2. +6. +1.  1  0 8 7 4 3 6 5  7 8 2 5 2 9 2  3 1 1 8 2 9 2  Similar information was obtained on other minorities where they are a significant part of the labor force.  32  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Negro  +6. 3 -2.1 +4. 3 +1. 7 +12. 6 +2. 0 + 16. 6 +11. 5  Department of the Interior. These training sessions were from 1 to 3 days in length. In addition, the Office of Career Development, U.S. Civil Service Commission, conducted a 3-day equal employment training session for 11 middlesized . departments -and agencies. Committee staff served as consultants and resource people. The 11 departments and agencies participating were: Department of Justice, Department of Labor, Department of Commerce, Department of State, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Housing and Home Finance Agency, Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. Information Agency, Civil Service Commission and Agency for International Development.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  To insure that such training reaches department and agency field personnel responsible for final execution of the Order, regional training sessions have been held by the Committee in 14 major cities having large concentrations of Federal employees as described earlier. Department and agency personnel so trained aid the Employment Policy Officer in carrying out agency responsibility under the Executive Order. The agencies also have engaged staff personnel to work on their equal employment opportunity programs. The assigning of special personnel to handle the equal employment program has enabled these agencies both to expedite complaint processing and insure equal employment opportunity with growing effectiveness.  33  CHAPTER SIX Government Employment Census Prior to the issuance of Executive Order 10925, the belief was widely held that minority group employees of the Federal Government, particularly Negro employees, were denied equal opportunity in employment. No accurate measure existed, however, of the extent of such alleged discrimination. Accordingly, the late President Kennedy included in his Order instructions to conduct a government-wide . survey of employees to provide statistics on current employment patterns. By direction of the Committee, that survey was made as of June, 1961. It was repeated in June, 1962, and June, 1963. The results of the 1961 survey bore out in large measure the contention that Negroes were being denied equal access to employment opportunity. And it provided the Committee and the agencies with the necessary information for undertaking programs to insure equal opportunity. Among the findings in 1961: -While Negroes held 8.9 percent of the 1,012,447 Classification Act or similar positions, 72 percent of their jobs were concentrated in the lower level of GS-1 through GS-4 where the starting salary range was from $3,185 to $4,985. Only 35 percent of all employees were in this job bracket. -Only 27 percent of the Negroes in Classification Act or similar systems held jobs in the middle range of positions, GS-5 through GS-11 ( salary range, $4,345 to $9,640), while 50 percent of all employees held jobs in this bracket. -Only 1 percent of the positions from GS-12 through GS-18 ($8,955 to $18,500) were held by Negroes. In the Postal Field Service, the situation was similar-the great bulk of the Negroes concentrated in the lower grades, disproportionately small numbers in middle and upper grades. Even before the survey figures were available, however, the Committee and the various agencies 34  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  had undertaken programs to insure equal opportunity in Government employment. By the time of the second annual survey of Government employment in June, 1962, the Committee was able to report substantial progress toward equal opportunity for Negroes in Federal employment ( see tables). Some Highlights:  -The percentage of Negro Federal employees in Classification Act jobs in Grades 1-4 dropped from 72 percent to 68 percent while the number in the middle level GS-5 through GS-11 positions climbed from 27 percent to 30 percent. -Of the net increase of 62,633 jobs from June, 1961, to June, 1962, Negroes accounted for 10,737 or more than 17 percent. -In Classification Act jobs, Negro employment in the middle grades, GS-5 through GS11, increased 19.2 percent compared with an overall increase of 2.4 percent, while in the upper grades, GS-12 through GS-18, the increase of Negroes was 35.6 percent compared with an overall increase of 9.5 percent. The second and third surveys also provided information (not obtained in the 1961 census) on employment of the Spanish-speaking nationwide; of people of Mexican origin in five southwestern states; of people of Puerto Rican origin in four northeastern states; of people of Oriental origin in three western states, and of American Indians in seven states. Since this survey was the first to cover the additional minority groups, there was no basis for comparison as to progress being made, but the picture presented was similar, although to varying degrees, to the picture of egro employment (see tables). This material is still being tabulated for the 1963 census. At the time this report was being prepared, only  prelimi nary informa tion was available from the third census. What was available, however, showed that sound and steady progress was still being made. · Some Highlights:  -Twen ty-two percent of the net increase in Federal employment during the period represented increased Negro employment. This compares to 17 percent for the previous census period. -This net increase brings total reported Ne• gro employment to a new high of 301,899-up 3 percent from 293,353 in June, 1962. The cumulative percentage increase from June, 1961, to June, 1963, amounted to 6.8 percent. -Ther e were 545 more Negroes in the grades GS-12 through GS-18 (paying $9,475 to $20,000) than there were a year earlier, an increase of 38.7 percent. The total number of jobs in these grades increased 12.4 percent during the same period. -Negr oes in the middle grades (GS-5 -GSll) increased by 4,278, or 14.7 percent, while total employment in these grades increased 5.1 percent. -The number of Negroes in Wage Board positions paying more than $8,000 increased by 183, or 122 percent, while the total number of these positions increased 41.5 percent. -In the Postal Field Service, the numbe r of Negroes in higher paying positions increased  56.3 percent, despite a 2 percent decline in the total number of such jobs (see tables for further details). These annual surveys provide the Committee and the agencies wi th the necessa ry informa tion for effective operation of equal opportu nity programs. The statistics pinpoin t areas and facilities where special efforts need to be made. They call the attentio n of admini strators to areas in their jurisdic tion where equal opportu nity may be lacking, and they provide the basis for the development of affirmative action efforts to insure equal opportunity. It is recognized that encoura ging nationa l figures do not always accurately reflect local situations. For that reason, and as a supplem ent to the census reports, the Civil Service Commission has institut ed a series of continuous commu nity surveys of Federa l facilities. These surveys last from 2 to 3 weeks and cover all personnel activiti es of each Government agency in the community being surveyed. Program s to improv e the activities of each agency are developed and then careful ly followed through , with help from the local community. One of the objectives of these surveys is to assure the community residents that all qualified persons will receive equal opportu nity with the Federal Government and to demons trate to them that the Government provides a good place for career advancement.  35 72-~90 064   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  t   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Min orit y Group Study June 1963 Foreword of nonExecut ive Order 10925, dated March 6, 1961, reaffirmed the policy s agencie l Federa that d directe discrim ination in govern ment employment and l Federa in ination discrim take additio nal affirmative steps to eliminate any ent's Presid The origin. employment because of race, color, religion, or nation al Order has Committee on Equal Emplo yment Oppor tunity established by this annual ly groups compiled statisti cs on Federa l employment and minori ty since 1961. and Progressively, each of the annual studies has been modified to extend increased improve the coverage and detail in the surveys. This expansion has geogra phic the numbe r of minori ty groups covered, added to the individ ual and refined ry, catego pay by ation inform ed areas identified separa tely, extend improvwhile , cations modifi These tions. the definitions and reporti ng instruc affect that ons variati about t brough have ing the statisti cs for each curren t year, year-to -year comparisons. ment The first minori ty census in 1961 included total and Negro employ phic geogra te separa t worldwide. Data were collected depart ment wide withou grade by d reporte were identification. Employees under the Classification Act reporte d and the Postal Field Service by level; Wage Board employees were only in overall total. the The 1962 and 1963 surveys were broade r in coverage and conten t than for ngs groupi 1961 survey. Pay categories were expan?-ed to include salary and Negro Wage Board and other pay plans. Minor ity groups included s, MexiIndian can Ameri on Data State. by and ide Spanis h-Spea king worldw d in obtaine were origin l orienta of s person and , can-Americans, Puerto Ricans s, agencie d selecte only d include 1962 in ge selected states. Overseas covera , Alaska in nel Person nel. person s oversea d while in 1963 all agencies reporte ed collect were Data years. both in ed H awaii, and Puerto Rico were exclud in 1963. separa tely for 41 selected Standa rd Metrop olitan Statist ical Areas y from slightl differ and figures The 1962 data in these tables are final revised 1962· data initiall y publish ed.  •  INDEX Coverage Table 1 Negr o and t otal employment, worldwide, 1962-1 963 la Negro and t otal employment, worldwide, 1961-1963 2 Spanis h-Spea king and total employment, worldwide, 1962-1963 3 Mexican-American and total employment, selected states, 1962-1963 4 Puerto Rican and total employment, selected states, 1962-1963 5 American-I ndian and total employment, selected states, 1962-1963 6 Orient al-Am erican and total employment, selecte d states, 1962-1 963   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Table  Coverage  Negro and Total Employment 1962- 1963 7 Washi ngton, D.C., Metrop olitan Area 8 Boston Civil Service Region 9 New York Civil Service Region 10 Philad elphia Civil Service Region 11 Atlant a Civil Service Region 12 Chicago Civil Service Region 13 St. Louis Civil Service Region 14 Dallas Civil Service Region Denve r Civil Service Region 15 16 San Franci sco Civil Service Reofon 0 17 Seattle Civil Service Region 37  TABLE  1.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, Jwne 1962 and June 1963, summary, all agencies Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  2,298,808  301,889  13. 1  +46, 474  +2. 1  +8, 804  +3. 0  Total Classification Act or similar _______ __________  1,103,051  101, 589  9. 2  +39, 403  +3. 7  +5, 052  +5. 2  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through 1 L _______________ GS-5 through 8 ____________ _____ GS-9 through 1L _______________ GS-12 through 18 _______________  355,329 558,528 315,203 243,325 189,194  66, lp9 33,468 26,452 7,016 1,952  18. 6 6. 0 8. 4 2. 9 1.0  -8, 297 +26, 842 + 10,940 +15, 902 +20, 858  Total Wage Board ________  560, 211  106,665  19. 0  -8, 402  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 _______ ____ $8,000 and over _________________  84,268 442,577 301,257 141,320 33,366  37,004 69,328 60,961 8,367 333  43. 9 15. 7 20. 2 5.9 1.0  -19, +1, -32, +33, +9,  Total Postal Field Service __  582,475  89,323  15. 3  +11, 907  PFS-1through4 1_____ _____ _ ____ PFS-5 through lL ______________ PFS- 5 through 8---------------PFS-9 throug4 11 _______________ PFS-12 through 20 ____ ___ _______  499,630 79, 216 66,205 13,011 3,629  83, 747 5,551 5,366 185 25  16. 8 7. 0 8. 1 1. 4 .7  Total other pay plans ______  53,071  4,312  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _________________  11, 708 22,362 15,328 7,034 19,001  3,152 915 754 161 245  1  Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers.  38  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3 1 6 0 4  +229 +4, 278 +3, 132 +1, 146 +545  +o. +14. +13. +19. +38.  -1. 5  +1,011  +1. 0  9 3 6 2 5  -7, 669 +8, 497 +4, 655 +3, 842 +183  -17. 2 +14. 0 +8.3 +84. 9 +122. 0  +2.1  +2, 443  +2.8  +7, 713 +4, 200 +3, 630 +570 -6  +1. +5. +5. +4. -.  6 6 8 6 2  +1, 860 +574 +534 +40 +9  +2. 3 + 11. 5 +11.1 +27. 6 +56. 3  8. 1  +3, 566  +7. 2  +298  +7.4  26. 9 4. 1 4. 9 2.3 1. 3  -917 + 1,545 + 1, 219 +326 +2, 938  +462 -187 -123 -64 +23  +11. 2 -17. 0 -14. 0 -28. 4 +10.4  649 468 105 573 779  -2. +5. +3. +7. +12.  -18. +. -9. +31. +41.  -7. +7. +8. +4. +18.  3 4 6 9 3  4 7 4 5 7  TABLE  la.-Negr o and total employme nt by grade and salary groups, June 1961 and June 1963, sum;mary, all agencies Change from 1961  1963 Pay category  Negro Total employees  Number  Total  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent 13. 1 +101, 448  +4. 6  +19, 273  +6. 8  9. 2  +90, 604  +8. 9  + 11, 805  +13. 1  66,169 33,468 26,452 7,016 1,952  18. 6 6. 0 8. 4 2. 9 1.0  -117 +55, 470  +11. 0  +1, 927 +8, 963  +3. 0 +36. 6  560, 211  106,665  19. 0  -8, 624  -1. 5  -188  ¥p through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $i,500 through $6,499 ___________ $ ,500 through $7,999 ________ ___ 8 ,000 and over _________________  84,268 442,577 301,257 141,320 33,366  37,004 69,328 60,961 8,367 333  43. 9 15. 7 20. 2 5. 9 1.0  Total Postal Field Service __  582,475  89,323  15. 3  + 16, 324  +2. 9  +6, 136  +7.4  83,747 5,551 5,366 185 25  16. 8 7. 0 8. 1 1. 4 .7  +12, 223 +4, 236  +2. 5 +5. 6  +4, 766 +1, 356  +6.0 +32. 3  PFS-5 through 8 - -------- ---- ----- ----- ------g PFS1 - -____ ---------- - - __________ g ~o PFS- 2t~{~~~\  499,630 79,216 66,205 13, 011 3,629  Total other pay plans ___ ___  53,071  4,312  8. 1  +3, 144  +6. 3  11,708 22,362 15,328 7,034 19,001  3,152 915 754 161 245  Total all pay plans ________  2,298,808  301,889  or To~al. Classificatio n Act s1m1lar __ _______________  1,103,051  101,589  GS-1 through 4 _________________ g~-5 through ll ___ _______ __ ____ G -5 through 8 _________________ G S-9 through 1 L _______________ S-12 through 18 _______________  355,329 558,528 315,203 243,325 189,194  Total Wage Board ________  ~it~ :~~~~g~ i;--------------i  $4,499 ______________ ¥.f through through $7,999 ___________  $4'~00 $ , /0 through $6,499 ___________ 6 -- - - --- - - _______ $8;088 !~r~~her$7,999_ __________  9 1 9 3 1. 3  26. 4. 4. 2.  (1)  ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------------------------------+88. 2 +915 +22. 9 +35, 251 ---------- ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- ----------  -0. 2  ---------- ------- ------------ ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- ----------  ------------------- ---------- ------------ ·------ ---------------------------+121. 3 +14 -3. 6 -135 +1, 520  +54. 4  ---------- ---------- ---------- --- ---------------- ---------- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------  Less than 0.05 percent. !Includes 4th-class poltmasters and rural carriers.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  39  TABLE  2.-Spanish-speaking and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f arid June 1963, summary, all agencies 1963 Total employees  Pay category  Change from 1962  Spanish-speaking Total Number  Percent  Spanishspeaking  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ___ _____  2,298,808  51,682  2. 2  +46, 474  +2. 1  +995  +2. 0  Total Classification Act or similar ____ ___ ___ _____ __  1, 103, 051  15,292  1. 4  +39, 403  +3. 7  +572  +3. 9  GS-1 through 4 _____ ____________ GS-5 through 1 L ______ ____ _____ GS-5 through 8- - - ----- - ------ -GS-9 through 1L __________ __- __ GS-12 through 18 ____________ ___  355,329 558,528 315,203 243,325 189,194  7,520 6,987 4,809 2,178 785  2. 1 1. 3 1. 5 .9 .4  -8, +26, +10, +15, +20,  Total Wage Board ____ ___ _  560,211  25,175  4. 5  Up through $4,499 ___ ___ ________ $4,500 through $7,999 __ ____ _____ $4,500 through $6,499 __ _ ___ __ __ _ :t,6,500 through $7,999 ____ __ ___ __ $8,000 and over ____ ___________ - -  84,268 442,577 301,257 141,320 33,366  5,792 19, 105 15,272 3,833 278  6. 9 4. 3 5. 1 2. 7 .8  -19, +1, -32, +33, +9,  Total postal field service ____  582,475  9,737  PFS-1 through 4 1 _ _ __ _ ________ _ PFS-5 through lL _______ _____ __ PFS-5 through 8 __ _- - - - - - - - - - - - PFS-9 through lL __ -- - - - ---- - - PFS-12 through 20 ______ _- - - - - - -  499,630 79,216 66,205 13,011 3,629  Total other pay plans  2 _ __ _  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 __ __ _______ $4, 500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over ___________ _____ _ 1 2  3 0 6 0 4  -281 +692 +388 +304 +161  -1. 5  -1, 635  -6.1  649 468 105 573 779  -18. 9 +. 3 -9. 6 +31. 2 +41. 5  -1, 500 -254 -1, 634 +1, 380 +119  -20. 6 -1. 3 -9. 7 +56. 3 +74. 8  1. 7  +11, 907  +2. 1  +1, 119  +13. 0  9,194 534 472 62 9  1.8 .7 .7 .5 .2  +7, 713 +4, 200 +3, 630 +570 -6  +1. 6 +5. 6 +5. 8 +4. 6 -. 2  +1, 035 +79 +65 +14 +5  +12. 7 +17.4 +16. 0 +29. 2 +125. 0  53,071  1,478  2. 8  +3, 566  +7. 2  +939  +174. 2  11, 708 22,362 15,328 7,034 19,001  328 1,014 785 229 136  2. 4. 5. 3. .  -917 +1, 545 +1, 219 +326 +2, 938  +101 +803 +614 + 189 +35  +44. 5 +380. 6 +359. 1 +472. 5 +34. 7  Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers. Increases due partially to shift in reporting from Wage Board to other pay plans.  40  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  297 842 940 902 858  8 5 1 3 7  -8, 402  -2. +5. +3. +7. +12.  -7. +7. +8. +4. +18.  3 4 6 9 3  -3. +11. +8. +16. +25.  6 0 8 2 8  TABLE  , June 1962 and Jwne 3.-Mewican-American and total employment by grade and salary groups _1963, suwmary of sekcte d States [Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas]  Change from 1962  1963 Pay categor y  Mexica n-Amer ican Total employe es  Numbe r  Total  Percent  Mexican Americ an  Percent  Percent +1. 0  Total all pay plans _______ •  453,881  33,925  7. 5  +12, 221  +2. 8  +343  or Total Classific ation Act ___ similar ______________ gs-1 through 4 _____________ ____ S-5 through IL _________ ______ 0 S-5 through 8 _________________ gs-9 through lL ___ ___________ _ S-12 through 18 _______________  212,142 70,810 110,562 61,742 48,820 30,770  9,603 5,023 4,339 3,070 1,269 241  4. 5 7. 1 3.9 5. 0 2. 6 .8  +8, 066 -1, 662 +6, 131 +2, 999 +3, 132 +3, 597  +4. 0 - 2. 3 +5. 9 +5.1 +6. 9 +13. 2  +595 - 128 +639 +423 +216 +84  Total Wage Board ________  143,640  19,055  13.3  +2, 426  +1. 7  -1, 194  -5. 9  $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 _________ __ $8,000 and over _________________  14,960 120,036 70,807 49,229 8,644  4,391 14,523 11,970 2,553 141  29. 4 12. 1 16. 9 5. 2 1. 6  -2, 642 +2, 221 -7,540 +9, 761 +2, 847  -15. 0 +1. 9 -9. 6 +24. 7 +49.1  -1, 317 +51 -779 +830 +72  -23.1 +.4 -6.1 +48. 2 +104. 3  Total Postal Field Service ___  90,808  4,399  4. 8  +1, 178  +1. 3  +238  +5. 7  ------- -------_PFS-5 through 811 _______ _______ PFS-9 through -------_______ 2-----_______ o h g thro~ PFS-12  79,628 10,502 8,418 2,084 678  4,206 187 164 23 6  5. 3 1.8 1. 9 1. 1 .9  +982 +250 +239 +11 -54  +1. 2 +2.4 +2. 9 +. 5 -7. 4  +102 +41 +32 +9 +5  +4. 8 +28.1 +24. 2 +64. 3 +500. o  Total other pay plans a ____  7,291  868  11. 9  +551  +8. 2  +704  +429. 3  through $4,499 ______________ ff,500 through $7,999 ___________ 4,500 through $6,499 ___________ ____ _______ i~:888 !~1~ghver$7,999 ___ _______ _______  1,186 4,771 3,316 1, 455 1,334  49 815 649 166 4  4. 1 17. 1 19. 6 11.4 .3  -338 +973 +432 +541 -84  -22. 2 +25. 6 +15. 0 +59. 2 -5. 9  -58 +765 +606 +159 -3  -54. 2 +1, 530. 0 +1,409 .3 +2, 271. 4 -42. 9  p through $4,499 ______________ f4,500 through $7,999 ___________  i:r-~ t~;~~g~ tt·-------------$  4th class postmasters and rural carriers. !Includes pay plans. Increases due partially to shift in reporting from Wage Board to other   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  +6. -2. +11. +16. +20. +53.  6 5 3 0 5 5  TAB LE  4.-P uer to Rican and total employm ent by grade and salary groups, Jun e 196 f and June 196-1, summary-selected States [Connecticut, New Jersey, New York , and Pennsylvania)  1963 Pay cate gory Tota l emp loye es  Cha nge from 1962  Pue rto Rica n Tota l Num ber  Tota l all pay plan s ______ - _  377 ,735  Perc ent  Perc ent  Pue rto Rica n  Pec rent  4,09 2  1. 1  -4, 514  -1. 2  -18 3  -4. 3  150 ,919  695  .5  -89 0  - .6  49,9 48 77, 116 39,2 16 37,9 00 23,8 55  +25  +3. 7  443 234 172 62 18  .9 .3 .4 .2 .1  Tot al Wag e Boa rd _ - - - _-- _  -2, 098 -19 4 -1, 165 +97 1 +1, 402  -4. 0 -. 3 -2. 9 +2. 6 +6. 2  78,9 64  -9 +37 +18 +19 -3  -2. 0 +18 . 8 +11 .7 +44 . 2 -14 . 3  1,43 6  1. 8  Up thro ugh $4,499_ - - -- -- - _ $4,500 thro ugh $7,9 99- - - - ------ -- _ -- $4,500 thro ugh $6,499 ___________ $6,500 thro ugh $7,9 99- - - - - --- __ $8,000 and over ____ - _- _____ - ____  -6, 144  -7. 2  8,44 2 66,2 09 42,8 80 23,3 29 4,31 3  -52  -3. 5  685 740 496 244 11  8. 1 1. 1 1. 2 1.0 .3  Tot al Pos tal Fiel d Serv ice __  -2, 425 -4,7 20 -11 , 640 +6, 920 +1, 001  143 ,052  3 7 3 2 2  -10 6 +49 -14 5 +19 4 +5  1,92 3  -13 . 4 +7. 1 -22 . 6 +38 8. 0 +83 . 3  1. 3  PF - 1 thro ugh 4 1- - - - - - - - - - - -PFS - 5 thro ugh lL ____________-__ PFS-5 thro ugh 8 ________________ PFS -9 thro ugh lL ____________ PFS -12 thro ugh 20 ______________ __  +3, 558  125 ,368 16,9 38 13,9 72 2,96 6 746  +2. 6  -16 0  1,83 2 91 86 5  -7. 7  1. 5 .5 .6 .2  +1, 645 +1, 905 +1, 694 +21 1 +8  +1. +12 . +13 . +7. +1.  Tota l Clas sific ation Act or simi lar ____ - _- _- - - - - - - - _ G -1 thro ugh 4 __ - - - - - - - - - - GS- 5 thro ugh 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - GS- 5 thro ugh 8_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - G -9 thro ugh 11 - - - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - --GS- 12 thro ugh 18 _______________  Tot al othe r pay plan s ____ .:_ Up thro ugh $4,499 ____________ __ $4,500 thro ugh $7,9 99- - - - - - - _..: $4,500 thro ugh $6,499 _ - - ________ $6,500 thro ugh 99 _ - - - - ____ $8,000 and over$7,9 ___________________ 1  Includes 4th class postmasters and  42  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  rural carriers.  ---- ---- -- ---- ----- -  -22 . -6. -21 . +42 . +30 .  3 -19 8 7 +38 8 +38 7 --- ·- ---- -1 ---- ---- --  -9. 8 +71 .7 +79 . 2  ---- ---- ----- ---- --  4,80 0  38  .8  -1, 038  2,71 4 1,40 9 1,03 4 375 677  -17 . 8  17 18  +4  +11 .8  .6 1. 3 1.0 2. 1 .4  -32 5 -58 0 -17 -56 3 -13 3  -10 . 7 -29 . 2 -1. 6 -60 .0 -16 . 4  -2 +5 +5  -10 . 5 +38 . 5 +10 0. 0  10  8 3  ---- ---- - -  +1 --  +50 . 0  TABLE  1962 and Jwne 5.-Ame rican Indwn and total employment by grade and salary groups, Jwne States selected of 1963, suwma ry South Dakotal [Arizona, California, Montana, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and  Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  America n Indian Total employees  Total  America n Indian  Percent  Percent  Percent  Number  Total all pay plans ________  393, 705  10,592  2. 7  +14, 405  +3. 8  +1, 679  +18. 8  Act or Total Classification similar _________________  177,350  5,315  3. 0  +9, 094  +s. 4  +486  +10.1  gs-1 through 4 _______ ____ - - - _- GS-5 through 1 L _______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through 1 L _______________ S-12 through 18 _______________  59,424 93,005 51,314 41, 691 24,921  3,373 1,792 1,311 481 150  5. 7 1. 9 2. 6 1. 2 .6  -290 +6, 169 +2, 753 +3, 416 +3, 215  -. 5 +7.1 +5. 7 +8. 9 +14. 8  +296 +147 +73 +74 +43  +9. +8. +5. +18. +40.  Total Wage Board ________  129,001  4,949  3. 8  +3, 811  +3.0  +1, 251  +33. 8  through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over _________________  10,803 109, 944 63,614 46,330 8,254  2,540 2,377 2,113 264 32  23. 5 2. 2 3. 3 .6 .4  4 4 5 0 1  +940 +303 +183 +120 +8  +58. 8 +14.6 +9. 5 +83. 3 +33. 3  Total Postal Field Service __  80, 214  286  .4  +1, 678  +2.1  +12  +4. 4  ~FS-1 through 4 1________ _______ p:S-5 through lL ______________ PFS-5 through 8 ________________ PFS-9 through 1 L ______________ S-12 through 20 ______ ________  70,537 9,272 7,479 1,793 405  238 48 45  .3 .5 .6 .2  +1, 687 +61 +51 +10 -70  +2. 5 +.7 +. 7 +. 6 -14. 7  -2 +15 +15  -0. 8 +45. 5 +so.o  Total other pay plans ______  7,140  42  .6  -178  -2. 4  -70  -62. 5  1, 136 4,838 3,377 1,461 1,166  11 31 28 3  1.0 .6 .8 .2  -145 +223 +17 +206 -256  3 8 5 4 0  -66 -2 +1 -3 -2  -85. 7 -6.1 +3. 7 -50. 0 -100. 0  rp  ______ ¥P through $4,499 ________ _____ - - - - - -  $:,500 $ ,500 $ 6,500 8,000  -  1  through $7,999 through $6,499 ____ _______ through $7,999 ___________ and over _________________  3  -------- -- -------- --  -------- -- ---- -- ----  -1, +2, -6, +9, +2,  677 627 642 269 861  -13. +2. -9. +25. +53.  -11. +4. +. +16. -18.  ..  6 9 9 2 2  --- ---------------1 -100. 0  Includes 4th cl~s postmasters and rural carriers.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  43  TABLE  6.-0riental-American and total employment by grade and salary groups, Ju,ne 1962 and June 1963, surrvmary of selected States [California, Oregon, and Washington]  Change from 1962  1963 Oriental-American  Pay category Total employees  Total Number  Total all pay plans ________ Total Classification Act or similar ________ - - - - - - _- _  325,418 142, 295  Percent  OrientalAmerican  Percent  10,158  3. 1  + 11, 163  +3. 6  +780  +8. 3  3,400  2. 4  +7, 987  +5. 9  +362  +11. 9 +1. +16. +16. +17. +25.  GS-1 through 4 _____ - ___ - _- - __ - _ GS-5 through 1 L _______________ GS-5 through 8_________________ GS-9 through 1 L _______________ GS-12 through 18_____________ __  48,043 73,460 40,430 33,030 20,792  1, 108 2,037 1,279 758 255  2. 2. 3. 2. 1.  3 8 2 3 2  -480 +5, 615 +2, 848 +2, 767 -2, 852  -1. 0 +8. 3 +7. 6 +9. 1 +15. 9  +16 +295 +184 +111 +51  Total Wage Board ________  108,569  ·4, 399  4. 1  +886  +o. 8  +1, 124  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and o,ver ___ - - - _____ - - - - - _  4,388 95,002 46,742 48,260 9,179  136 4,177 2,461 1,716 86  3. 1 4. 4 5. 3 3. 6 .9  -653 -1, 278 -13, 193 +11, 915 +2, 817  -13. 0 -1. 3 -22. 0 +32.8 +44. 3  -25 +1, 096 +472 +624 +53  Total Postal Field Service __  67,372  2,228  3. 3  +858  +1. 3  +78  PFS-1 through 4 1_______________ PFS-5 through lL ______ ________ PFS-5 through 8__ - - - - - - - - - - - - - PFS-9 through 1 L _- - - __ - - _- - - - PFS-12 through 20_ - _- - - - - - - - - -.-  59,441 7,440 5,929 1, 511 491  2,129 98 92 6 1  3. 6 1. 3 1. 6 .4 .2  +581 +340 +348 -8 -63  Total other -pay plans ______  7,182  131  1. 8  +1, 432  +24. 9  -784  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 _________ - $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _________________  861 5,198 3,490 1,708 1, 123  72 58 45 13 1  8. 4 1. 1 1. 3 .8 .1  -149 +1, 767 +936 +831 -186  -14. +51. +36. +94. -14.  +60 -834 -747 -87 -10  1 Includes  4th class postmasters and rural carriers.  44  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Percent  +1. +4. +6. -. -11.  0 8 2 5 4  8 5 6 8 2  +67 +11 +12 -1  5 9 8 2 0  +34. 3  -V>. 5 +35. +23. +57. +160.  6 7 1 6  +3. 6 +3. +12. +15. -14.  2 6 0 3  ---------- ----------85. 7 +500. -93. -94. -87. -90.  0 5 3 0 9  TABLE  1.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 1963, Washing ton, D .0., Metropolitan Area Change from 1962  1963 Pay categor y  Negro Total employees  Number  Total  Negro  Percent  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans _______ _  247,094  59,832  24. 2  +4, 665  +1. 9  +4, 468  +8. 1  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  192,252  33,098  17. 2  +3, 844  +2.0  +2, 116  +6. 8  :~~~~g~ fi- --------------8t~ GS-5 through --------------- G S-9 through ~ i- ---------------------------g 18- -_______________ GS-12 through  49,368 89,569 59,778 29,791 53,315  19,913 12,503 10,814 1,689 682  40. 14. 18. 5. 1.  3 0 1 7 3  - 1, 884 +2, 425 + 2, 139 +286 +3, 303  -3. +2. +3. +1. +6.  7 8 7 0 6  +98 +1, 857 +1, 586 +271 +161  +.5 +17. 4 +17. 2 +19. 1 +30. 9  Total Wage Board ________  36,958  20, :t25  54. 7  -882  -2. 3  +1, 844  +10. 0  6 !~~~~~1'$7,999 _ - - - - - - - - - $8:888  $ ,500 through $6,499 __ _________  9,729 23,552 18,012 5,540 3,677  8,743 11, 345 10,665 680 137  89. 48. 64. 12. 3.  9 2 8 3 7  - 2, 578 -556 -49 -507 +2, 252  - 20. 9 - 2. 3 - .3 -8. 4 +l-58.0  -1, 151 +2, 890 +2, 671 +219 +105  Total Postal Field Service __  12,173  6,059  49. 8  +335  +2. 8  +380  !~~~g~ f--------------iit1 PFS-5 through L _-- -- - - - -- -- --  PFS-9 ______________ L -------------g ~-PFS through -12 through 20 ______________  9,740 2,256 2,038 218 177  5,506 560 545 5 3  56. 24. 26. 2. 1.  5 4 7 3 7  +370 -29 -37 +8 -6  +3. -1. -1. +3. -3.  9 3 8 8 3  +404 -26 -30 +4 +2  Total other pay plans _____ _  5,711  450  7. 9  +1, 368  +31. 5  +128  ,500 through $6,499 ___________ ___________ ;~~~~her$7,999 $6 __ _______________ 8  709 972 558 414 4,030  322 78 55 23 50  45. 4 8.0 9. 9 5. 6 1. 2  -2 -179 -165 -14 +1, 549  -. -15. - 22. -3. +62.  3 6 8 3 4  +91 +7 -2 +9 +30  through $4,499 __________ ____ ff $4'500 through $7,999 ___________  through $4,499 ______________ ff $4'500 through $7,999 ___________ $  ;888  -11. +34. +33. +47. +328.  6 2 4 5 1  +6. 7 +7. -4. -5. +400. +200.  9 5 2 0 0  +39. 8 +39. +9. -3. +64. +150.  4 9 5 3 0  1  Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers. NOTE: Includes the District of Columbia· Alexandria and Falls Church cities, Arlington and Fairfax Counties, Va.; and Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties, Md. '   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  45  TABLE  8.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, Jwne 196f and June 1963, Boston Civil Service Region . [Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont,  Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  .113,351  3,662  3. 2  +3, 447  +3.1  +128  +3. 6  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  39,410  1, 128  2. 9  +1, 836  +4. 9  +6  +.5  GS-1 through 4 _______ __________ GS-5 through lL _______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through 1 L - - - - - - - _- - _- - - GS-12 through 18 _______________  13,461 19,558 10,352 9,206 6,391  743 340 223 117 45  5. 5 1. 7 2. 2 1. 3 .7  -380 + 1, 339 +557 +782 +877  Total Wage Board ____ - ---  31,466  1,186  2,873 27,460 19,396 8,064 1,133  401 783 614 169 2  Total Postal Field Service __  4°1,063  PFS-1 through 4 1- - - - - - - - - - - - - - PFS-5 through 1 L __ - - -- - - - _- - __ PFS-5 through 8 ___ - - - - - - - __ - - - PFS-9 through lL ___________ --PFS-12 through 20 _____ - - _- - - ___  7 3 7 3 9  -28 +23 +9 +14 +11  -3. +7. +4. +13. +32.  +824  +2. 7  +89  +8. 1  14. 0 2. 9 3. 2 2. 1 .2  - ·386 +666 -3, 559 +4, 225 +544  -11. 8 +2. 5 -15. 5 +110.1 +92. 4  -62 +149 +34 +115 +2  ----------  1,333  3. 2  +264  +. 6  +29  +2. 2  35,246 5,560 4,664 896 257  1,223 109 101 8 1  3. 5 2. 0 2. 2 .9 .4  -154 +414 +416 -2 +4  -.4 +8. 0 +9. 8 -. 2 +1. 6  +19  +1. 6 +10. 1 +11. 0  Total other pay plans ______  1,412  15  1. 1  +523  +58. 8  Up through $4.499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ____________ $4,500 through $6.499 ____________ $6 500 through $7,999 ____________ $8,000 and over _________________  454 706 369 337 252  10 4 3 1 1  2. 2 .6 .8 .3 .4  -4 +406 +138 +268 +121  Up through $4,499 ______ __ _____ __ $4 500 through $7,999 ____________ $4,500 through $64, 99_ -· - - - - - - - - - I\ $6,500 through $79,99 ____________ $8,000 and over ______ __ __ _______  1  Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers.  46  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3. 8 .  -2. +7. +5. +9. +15.  -. + 135. +59. +388. +92.  9 3 7 4 4'  +10 +10  -13. +23. +5. +213.  6 3 2 6 4  4 5 9 0  ---------- ------------------- ---------+4  +36. 4  ---------- ---------+300. 0 +3 +3 ------------------- ---------+1  ---------,  TABLE  groups, June 1962 and June 1963, New 9.-Ne gro and total emplo ymen t by grade and salary egion R ce York Oivil Servi [New Jersey and New York]  -  Chang e from 1962  1963 Pay catego ry  Negro Total employees  Numb er  Total  Percen t  Negro  Percen t  Percen t  Total all pay plans ________  231,47 3  34,328  14. 8  +726  +. 3  +2, 020  +6. 3  or Total Classif ication Act simila r _________________  87,947  10,200  11. 6  +717  +. 8  +355  +3. 6  ------ -----gti f~~~gg~ h------------ -- -- -- GS-  GS-g f~;~~g~ ~i- ------ -- -- ------- - - - - -___ - - - - - ______ g h 18- -______ GS-12 throug  28, 251 44,052 22,241 21, 811 15,644  6,742 3,212 2,309 903 246  23. 7. 10. 4. 1.  9 3 4 1 6  -1, 132 +535 -601 +1, 136 + 1, 314  -3. +1. -2. +5. +9.  9 2 6 5 2  +4 +289 +189 +100 +62  Total Wage Board ________  42, 918  6,822  15. 9  -3, 378  -7. 3  -251  $ , 50g throug h $6,499 ___________ throug h $7, 999 ___________ 8, 000 and over _________________  5,350 34,866 20,918 13,948 2,702  ·2, 232 4,546 3,360 1, 186 44  41. 13. 16. 8. 1.  7 0 1 5 6  -894 -2, 874 -5, 296 +2, 422 +390  -14. 3 -7. 6 -20. 2 +21. 0 +16. 9  -220 -48 -990 +942 +17  Total Postal Field Servic e __  98,492  17,003  17. 3  +3, 313  +3. 5  +1, 966  +13.1  throug h 4 1 ______ ______ __ PFS throug h lL ______________ PFS- 5 throug h 8 _______ _________ PFS- 9}hrou gh lL ______________ - 1 throug h 20 ______________  87,379 10, 661 8,738 1,923 452  16, 245 751 709 42 7  18. 6 7. 0 8. 1 2. 2 1. 5  + 1,853 +1, 446 +1, 259 +187 +14  +2. 2 +15. 7 +16. 8 +10.8 +3. 2  +1, 867 +98 +86 +12 +1  +13. 0 +15. 0 +13. 8 +40. 0 +16. 7  Total other pay plans ______  2,116  303  14. ·3  +74  +3. 6  -50  -14. 2  $4 , 500 throug h $6' 499 - - - - - - - - - - $6 1 500 throug h $7' 999 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I $8 , 000 and over ______ ___________  882 728 500 228 506  240 50 43 7 13  27. 6. 8. 3. 2.  2 9 6 1 6  -13 -52  -1. 5 -6. 7  -41 -15 -9 -6 +6  -14. -23. -1 7. -46. +85.  throug h $4,499 ______________ ff $4' 5 0 throug h $7,999 ___________ $ 6, 50  iit1  h $4,499 ______________ ff,5tiroug throug h $7 999  1  ------- ------------52 -18. 6 +139  +37. 9  +. +9. +8. +12. +33.  1 9 9 5 7  -3. 5 -9. -1. -22. +386. +63.  0 0 8 1 0  6 1 3 2 7  Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  47  TABLE  10.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, Philadelphia Oivil Service Region [Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia]  Change from 1962  1963 Negro  Pay category  Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans _______ _  265,929  46,561  17. 5  -1, 549  -0. 6  -1, 416  -3. 0  Total Classification Act or similar ___ __ _____ ____ ___  123,849  14,091  11. 4  +2, 627  +2. 2  -173  -1. 2  GS-1 through 4_- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-5 through 11 _- - _- - - - - - - _- - - _ GS-5 through 8_- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-9 through 1 L _- - - _- - - - - - - - - _ GS-12 through 18 ______ ____ __ __ _  44,255 62, 640 34,539 28,101 16,954  9,193 4,669 3,467 1,202 229  20. 7. 10. 4. 1.  8 5 0 3 4  -1, 657 +2, 067 +726 + 1,341 +2, 217  -3. 6 +3. 4 +2. 1 +s. o +15. 0  - 302 +so -60 +110 +79  Total Wage Board _____ ___  80,852  21,419  26. 5  -3, 952  - 4. 7  -1, 302  -5. 7  Up through $4,499 ______ - - __- - - _ $4,500 through $7,999 _______ __ __ $4,500 through $6,499 ____ - __ - - - _ $6,500 through $7,999 ___ _ - - -- --$8,000 and over _____ __ ______ ____  9,685 68,043 51,799 16,244 3,124  5,114 16,282 14,987 1,295 23  52. 8 23. 9 28. 9 8. 0 .7  -5, 705 +732 -5, 514 +6, 246 +1, 021  -37. 1 + 1. 1 - 9. 6 +62. 5 +48. 5  -3, 398 +2, 085 +1, 225 +860 +11  -39. 9 +.L4. 7 + 8. 9 +197. 7 +91. 7  Total Postal Field Service __  57,164  9,840  17. 2  +616  +1. 1  +134  +1. 4  PFS- 1through4 1____ _ __ _ _ ____ _ _ PFS-5 through IL ___ ____ _______ PFS-5 through 8 __ ___ ____ _______ PFS-9 through IL ____ _____ _____ PFS-12 through 20 ______ ___ ___ __  48,530 8,319 7,012 1,307 315  9, 115 724 709 15 1  18. 8 8. 7 10. 1 1. 1 .3  +43 +565 +462 +103 +s  +.1 +7. 3 +7. 1 +8. 6 +2. 6  +4 +129 +128 +1 +1  ----------  Total other pay plans __ __ __  4, 064  1,211  29. 8  -840  -17. 1  -75  -5. 8  Up through $4,499 ______ ____ ____ $4,500 through $7,999 ___ ___ ___ - _ $4,500 through $6,499 ____ _____ - _ $6,500 through $7,999 ____ ---- ___ $8,000 and over ___ _____________ _  2,228 1,167 786 381 669  1,152 51 40 11 8  51. 4. 5. 2. 1.  -237 -529 +78 -607 -74  -9. 6 -31. 2 +11.0 -61. 4 -10. 0  +17 -95 - 65 - 30 +3  +1. 5 -65. 1 -61. 9 -73. 2 +60. 0  1\  1 Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers. ' Less 0.05 percent.  48  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  7 4 1 9 2  -3. +1. -1. +10. +52.  2 1 7 1 7  (2)  +21. 7 +22. 0 +7. 1  TAB LE  , e and salary groups, Jwne 196~ and Jun e 196$ 11.- Neg ro and total emp loym ent byCivgrad il Service Reg ion Atla nta Islands] ssee, and Virgin , North Carolina, South Carolina, Tenne [Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi  Chan ge from 1962  1963 Pay cate gory  Negro Tota l empl oyee s  Num ber  Tota l  Negr o  Perc ent  Perc ent  Perc ent  275, 407  30,5 91  11. 1  +2, 603  +1. 0  -281  -0. 9  Tota l all pay plan s ________ sific ation Act or To~al. Clas s1m1lar ______ ___________  4,28 6  3. 5  +1, 872  +1. 6  +12 6  +3. 0  120, 747  g~-1 thro ugh 4 __ ________ ___ ____ GS-5 thro ugh IL ___ ________ ____ GS-5 thro ugh 8 ____ ______ _______ GS-9 thro ugh 11_ ____ ___________ -12 thro ugh 18 _______________  40,6 40 61,7 27 34,2 82 27,4 45 18,3 80  3,16 6 1,05 3 799 254 67  7. 8 1. 7 2. 3 .9 .4  -2, 194 +2, 042 +43 3 +1, 609 +2, 024  -5. 1 +3. 4 +1. 3 +6. 2 +12. 4  -84 +17 8 +98 +so +32  -2. 6 +20. 3 +14 . 0 +46 . 0 +91 . 4  22. 9  -2, 046  -2. 3  -1. 6  rt  86,9 05  19,8 95  -316  Tota l Wag e Boar d ________ thro ugh $4,499 ______________ 5 0 thro ugh $7,999 _____ ______ $4'/ $ , /0 thro ugh $6,499 ___________ 6 0 thro ugh $7,999 _____ ______ $B'o8 , 0 and over _________ ________  18,2 50 63,8 74 46,9 83 16, 891 4,78 1  10,7 94 9,09 8 8,64 0 458 3  59. 1 14. 2 18. 4 2. 7 .1  -4, 322 +93 6 -2, 791 +3, 727 +1, 340  -19. 1 + I. .5 -5. 6 +28. 3 +38. 9  -1, 432 +1, 114 +84 8 +26 6 +2  -11. 7 +14. 0 +10. 9 +138 . 5 +200 . 0  5,84 9  IO. 0  +2, 261  +4. 0  +0.1  58,6 76  +3  Tota l Post al Field Service __ i:~-1th roug h41 _______________ PFS -5 thro ugh IL ____________ __ PFS -5 thro ugh 8 ________________ __ PFS -9 thro ugh lL ____________ - 12 thro ugh 20 ______________  49,3 47 8,91 7 7,38 8 1,52 9 412  5,51 1 337 331 6 1  11. 2 3. 9 4. 5 .4 .2  +1, 874 +37 7 +27 9 +98 +10  +3. +4. +3. +6. +2.  9 4 9 8 5  -13 +16  Tota l othe r pay plan s ______ ~iou gh $4,499 ______________ ${' 5 thro ugh $7,999 ___________ __ $ , 500 thro ugh $6,499 _____ ____ 6 500 thro ugh $7,999 _____ ______ $B' , 000 and over _________________  9,07 9  561  6. 2  +51 6  1,98 4 4,05 9 2,87 4 1,18 5 3,03 6  417 136 123 13 8  21. 0 3. 4 4. 3 I. 1 .3  +22 +19 3 +24 7 -54 +30 1  ff  1  2 0 1 0  +13 +3 --- ---- --- ---- ---- --  +6. 0  -94  1 0 4 4 0  +75 -125 -55 -70 -44  +1. +5. +9. -4. +11.  -0. +5. +4. +100 .  -14. 4 +21. -47. -30. -84. -84.  9 9 9 3 6  carriers. Includes 4th class postmasters and rural and Virgin Islands for 1962. Excludes Puert o Rico for 1963 and 1962;  NOTE :   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  49  TABLE  12.-Negro and total employment 'by grade and salary groups, Jwne 196~ and Jwne 1963, Ohicago Oivil Service Region [Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin]  Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total  Total employees Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans _____ __ _  311,680  58,317  18. 7  +3, 288  +1. 1  -1, 130  -1. 9  Total Classification Act or similar ______ ______ _____  133,921  19,966  14. 9  +5, 872  +4. 6  +691  +3. 6  GS-1 through 4 __ ___ __ __ __ _____ _ GS-5 through 1 L _______________ GS-5 through 8 __ ___ ____________ GS-9 through 11 ____ _______ _____ GS-12 through 18 ___________ ____  46,150 65,377 35,199 30,178 22,394  13,455 6,087 4,523 1,564 424  29. 9. 12. 5. 1.  -1, +3, +1, +2, +3,  362 957 089 868 277  -2. 9 +6. 4 +3. 2 +10. 5 +17.1  -304 +864 +561 +303 +131  Total Wage Board ____ __ __  50,303  9,901  19. 7  -2, 728  -5.1  -446  Up through $4,499 _____ ____ _____ $4,500 through $7,999 ___ ______ __ $4,500 through $6,499 ______ _____ $6,500 through $7,999 __ _____ ____ $8,000 and over _________ ________  5,981 41,034 25,945 15,089 3,288  3,128 6,752 5,958 794 21  52. 3 16. 5 23.0 5. 3 .6  -1, 492 -1, 111 -2, 514 +1, 403 -125  Total Postal Field Service __  124,217  28,158  22. 7  PFS-1through4 1_____ __ ______ _ _ PFS-5 through lL ___________ --PFS-5 through 8 ________________ PFS-9 through lL ______________ PFS-12 through 20 ______________  106,725 16, 816 14,124 2,692 676  26,134 2,016 1,959 57 8  Total other pay plans ______  3,239  Up through $4,499 ___ __ _________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _________________  1,249 1,298 1,016 282 692  1  Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers.  50  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  2 3 8 2 9  -20. -2. -8. +10. -3.  -2. +16. +14. +24. +44.  2 5 2 0 7  -4. 3  0 6 8 3 7  -332 -105 -212 +107 -9  +142  +.1  -1, 317  -4. 5  24. 5 12.0 13. 9 2. 1 1. 2  -96 +211 +220 -9 +27  -.1 +1. 3 +1. 6 -.3 +4. 2  -1, 532 +213 +209 +4 +2  -5. 5 +11.8 +11.9 +7. 5 +33. 3  292  9.0  +2  +.1  -58  -16. 6  237 43 39 4 12  19.0 3. 3 3. 8 1. 4 1. 7  -258 +147 +167 -20 +113  -74 +11 +12 -1 +5  -23. 8 +34. 4 +44. 4 -20. 0 +71.4  -17. +12. +19. -6. +19.  1 8 7 6 5  -9. -1. -3. +15. -30.  6 5 4 6 0  TAB LE  e 1968, ry groups, Jwne 1962 and Jun salm and de gra by ent ym plo 13 .-N egr o and total em St. Lou-is Civil Service Region and South Dakota] ouri, Nebraska, North Dakota [Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Miss  Cha nge from 1962  1963 Pay cate gor y  Neg ro Tot al emp loye es  Tot al  Per cen t  Neg ro  Per cen t  Per cen t  Num ber  . Tot al all pay plan s ________ Act or ssif icat ion ___ Tot al Cla___ _____ ______ sim ilar  144 ,71 0  11, 565  8. 0  +7, 848  +5. 7  +1, 086  +10 . 4  4,5 20  6. 7  +5, 061  +8 .1  +87 1  +23 . 9  67, 184  _________ - _ g~- 1 thro ugh 4 ______ __________ ___ __ IL ugh thro 5 GS_____ ___ ___ ___ ___ 8 ugh thro GS- 5 _____ _ ___ ___ ___ IL ugh GS- 9 thro _____ _ ___ ___ ___ 18 ugh thro -12 Tot al Wa ge Boa rd _____ ___  22, 409 36, 561 20, 274 16, 287 8,2 14  3,1 18 1,3 60 1,0 55 305 42  13. 9 3. 7 5. 2 1. 9 .5  +1, 500 +2, 764 +1, 625 +1, 139 +79 7  +7. 2 +s. 2 +8. 7 +7. 5 +10 . 7  +49 6 +36 3 + 282 +81 +12  +18 . 9 +36 . 4 +36 . 5 +36 . 2 +40 . 0  2,2 58  13. 1  + 1, 639  + 10. 5  + 313  +16 . 1  17, 195  ______ ~p thro ugh $4,499 ___ ___ __ __________ _ $4'500 thro ugh $7,999 _ _______ $ ,~00 thro ugh $6,499 ___ 99 __________ _ $6, 00 thro ugh $7,9 _ 8,000 and ove r __ ____ __________  4,4 19 12, 128 9,0 39 3,0 89 648  1,1 53 I, 098 995 103 7  26. 1 9. 1 11. 0 3. 3 1. 1  -12 1 +1, 523 +55 0 +97 3 +23 7  -2. 7 +14 . 4 . +6. 5 +46 . 0 +57 . 7  +77 +23 2 +17 8 +54 +4  +7. 2 +26 . 8 +21 . 8 +11 0.2 +13 3. 3  8. 1  +1, 282  +2. 2  -. 7  59, 063  4,7 59  -35  Tot al Pos tal Fie ld Service __ ___ ___ ,i:~ -1 thro ugh 4 1 ____ __ ___ _____ ___ PFS - 5 thro ugh IL ______ _______ PFS-5 thro ugh 8 ____________ _____ PFS-9 thro ugh IL ___________ ___ -1 2 thro ugh 20 ______  48, 586 10, 032 8,7 04 1,3 28 445  4,4 09 349 333 16 1  9. 1 3. 5 3. 8 1. 2 .2  +1, 090 +20 3 +15 9 +44 -11  +2. 3 +2. 1 +1. 9 +3. 4 -2. 4  -60 +24 +19 +5 +1  -1. 3 +7. 4 +6 .1 +45 . 5  --- --- --- -  2. 2  -13 4  -9 . 6  -69 . 2  1,2 68  28  -63  Tot al oth er pay plan s ____ __ __ ihro ugh $4,499 _______________ ___ ___ __ 99 $7,9 5 ugh thro 0 5 $4' thro ugh $6,499 ____________ $ , 6 5 thro ugh $7,999 ______ ____ 0 , $ 8,00 0 and over_ ________________  20 4 2 2  3. 9 .8 .5 1. 5  +5 -14 7 -12 5 -22 +8  0 7 4 2 3  -3  513 501 368 133 254  -59 -50 -9 -1  -13 . 0 -93 . 7 -96 . 2 -81 . 8 -2 0. 0  rf  go  1  4  1. 6  +1. -22 . -25 . -14 . +3.  and rural carriers. Includes 4th class postmasters  726 -390 0-6 4-- 5  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  51  TABLE  14.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and Jwne 1968, Dallas Civil Service Region [Arkansas,-Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas]  Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total  Total employees Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  197,907  16, 128  8. 1  +635  +o. 3  +33  +o. 2  Total Classification Act or similar ________________ ~  95, 714  3,237  3. 4  +1, 231  + 1. 3  +74  +2. 3  GS-1 through 4 ___ _____ _________ GS- 5 through lL _____ __________ GS- 5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through l L _____ ____ ______ GS-12 through 18 ___ ________ __ __  31,508 52,403 28,908 23, 495 11, 803  2,420 804 628 176 13  7. 7 1. 5 2. 2 .7 .1  -1, 508 + 1, 545 +575 +970 + 1, 194  -4. 6 +3. 0 +2. 0 +4. 3 +11.3  -12 +79 +48 +31 +7  Total Wage Board ____ __ __  56,723  7,790  13. 7  -717  -1. 2  -92  Up through $4,499 _____________ _ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _________________  12,936 43,024 37, 715 5,309 763  4,012 3,778 3,703 75  31. 0 8. 8 9. 8 1. 4  -4, 029 +3, 088 +1, 604 +1, 484 +224  Total Postal Field Service __  43,647  4,972  11. 4  PFS-1 through 4 1 ______________ _ PFS- 5 through 1 L ______________ PFS-5 through 8 ________________ PFS-9 through lL ______________ £FS-12 through 20 ______________  37,323 6,071 4,930 1, 141 253  4,771 201 198 3  12. 8 3. 3 4. 0 .3  Total other pay plans ______  1,823  129  Up through $4,499 _______ _____ __ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 __________ _ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _________________  758 661 500 161 404  110 18 14 4 1  1 Includes  4th class postmasters and rural carriers.  52  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  5 9 3 4 7  -1. 2  -12. 5 +14. 7 +14. 0 +66. 7 -5_ ----------  7 7 4 8 6  -572 +485 +455 +30  +1, 474  +3. 5  +225  + 1, 124 +354 +267 +87 -4  +3. +6. +5. +8.  7. 1  -1, 353  -42. 6  -174  -57. 4  14. 5 2. 7 2. 8 2. 5 .2  -310 -1, 126 -826 -300 +83  -29. 0 -63. 0 -62. 3 -65. 1 +25. 9  -137 -38 -40 +2 +1  -55. 5 -67. 9 -74. 1 +100. 0  ---------- ----------  ---------- ----------  -23. +7. +4. +38. +41.  -. +10. +8. +21. +116.  1 +187 2 +38 +37 7 3 +1 -1. 6 ----------  +4. 7 +4. +23. +23. +50.  1 3 0 0  ----------  ----------  TABLE  salary groups, June 196~ and June 1963, 15.-Negro and total emplo ymen t -by grade and n Denv er Oivil Servw e Regio  [Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming]  1963 Pay catego ry  egro Total emplo yees  . Chang e from 1962  umber  Total  egro  Percen t  Percen t  P rcent  Total all pay plans ________  117,08 2  3,338  2. 9  +3, 642  + 3. 2  +24  + o. 1  or Total Classif ication Act simila r _______________ - -  65,163  1,493  2. 3  + 2, 278  +3. 6  +42  + 2. 9  1 throug h 4 _____ ____________ G 5 throug h 1 L _______________ G 5 throug h 8 _________________ G S-9 throug h 1 L _______________ 12 throug h 1 _______ _______ _  22,443 33,665 18,726 14,939 9,055  77 676 521 55 39  3. 5 2. 0 2. 8 1.0 .4  -274 +1, 630 +254 +1, 376 +922  -1. 2 +5.1 +1. 4 +10.1 +11. 3  -34 +74 + 31 +43 +2  Total Wage Board ________  34,941  1, 176  3. 4  +635  +1. 9  -26  -2. 2  4,500 throug h $6,499 __________ $~,500 throug h $7,999 ______ _____ ,000 and over _________________  6,022 27,915 21,166 6,749 1,004  320 855 795 60 I  5. 3 3. I 3. 8 .9 .1  -11 +383 -1, 424 +1, 807 +263  2 4 3 6 5  -72 +47 +27 +20 -1  -18. 4 +5. 8 +3. 5 +so. o -50. 0  Total Postal Field Servic e __  15,727  642  4. 1  +661  +4. 4  +2  +o. 3  I throug h 4 1______ ______ ___ PFS-5 throug h IL ______________ PFS-5 throug h 8 ______ __ _____ ___ PFS-9 tµroug h IL ______________ 12 throug h 20 __ ____________  13,259 2, 331 1,983 348 137  620 22 21 1  4. 7 .9 1. 1 .3  +496 +148 +104 +44 +11  9 8 5 5 2  -4 +6 +6  -0. 6 +37. 5 +40. 0  Total other pay plans _____ _  1,251  27  2. 2  +68  +5. 7  +6  +28. 6  ____ __________ $,i through $4,499 h $7,999 __________ _  446 427 333 94 378  27  6. I  -113 +11 +20 -9 +110  2 6 4 7 7  +10 -3 -3  +58. 8  8t  h $4,499 ___ ___ _______ f$4,500throug throug h $7,999 ________ ___ P  ~it  $ ,500 4 ,500 $6,500 8,000 1  throug throug h 6,499 ____ _______ throug h $7,999 ___________ and over _________________  ------ ---- ------ --------- ---- ------ --------- ---- --- ------ ------ ---- --- ------ ------ ---- ------ ----  -. +1. -6. +36. +35.  +3. +6. +5. +14. +14.  -20. +2. +6. -8. +81.  -4. +12. +6. + 38. +5.  2 3 3 4 4  ------ ---- ------ --------- ---- ------ ----  ------ --------- --------- -------------1 -- --- -----  Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  53  TABLE  16.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, Jwne 1962 and June 1963, San Francisco Civil Service Region [California and Nevada]  1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro Total  Total employees Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  263,096  34,205  13. 0  + 10, 754  +4. 3  +3, 216  +10. 4  Total Classification Act or similar ________________ -  112, 315  8,603  7. 7  +6, 854  +6. 5  +811  +10. 4  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through 1 L ______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through lL _______________ GS-12 through 18 _______________  37,465 57,739 31,776 25,963 17, 111  6,132 2,357 1,868 489 114  16. 4 4. 1 5. 9 1. 9 .7  -112 +4, 535 +2, 401 +2, 134 +2, 431  -. 3 +8. s +8.2 +9. 0 +16. 6  +352 +429 +337 +92 +30  +6. 1 +22. 3 +22. 0 +23. 2 +35. 7  Total Wage Board ________  90,807  15,067  16. 6  +2, 574  +2. 9  +1, 363  +9. 9  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ____________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over_ _______________ _  2,040 81, 117 39,518 41,599 7,650  852 14,151 10,726 3,425 64  41. 8 17. 4 27. 1 8. 2 .8  -545 +480 -7, 314 +7, 794 +2, 639  1 6 6 1 7  -295 + 1,619 +448 +1, 171 +39  -25. 7 +12. 9 +4. 4 +52. 0 +156. 0  Total Postal Field Service __  54,474  10,096  18. 5  +318  +. 6  +960  +10. 5  PFS-1 through 4 1 _______________ PF -5 through 11_ _____________ _ PFS-5 through 8 ___ - - - - - - - - - - - - PFS-9 through lL ______________ PFS-12 through 20 _____ __________  48,684 5,448 4,299 1,149 342  9,631 462 433 29 3  19. 8 8. 5 10. 1 2. 5 .9  +435 -46 +21 -67 -71  Total other pay plans ______  5,500  439  8. 0  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 _______ _- __ $4,500 through $6,499 __________ $6,500 through $7,999 ________ ___ $8,000 and over_ ___ _____________  543 4,184 2,888 1,296 773  101 334 282 52 4  18. 6 8. 0 9. 8 4. 0 .5  Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers. NOTE: Excludes Hawaii.  1  54  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -21. +. -15. +23. +52.  +. -. +. -5. -17.  +10. +9. +8. +45. +200.  5 7 o 0 0  9 8 5 5 2  +917 +41 +32 +9 +2  +1, 008  +22. 4  +82  +23. 0  +83 +1, 228 +697 +531 -303  +18. +41. +31. +69. -28.  +36 +so +30 +20 -4  +ss. 4 +17. 6 +11.9 +62. 5 -50. 0  0 5 8 4 2  TABLE  17.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June. 1962 and June 196·J, Seattle Civil Service Region [Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington]  1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro Total  Total employees Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  89,595  1,961  2. 2  +3, 705  +4. 3  - 12  -. 6  Total Classification Act or similar ____ _________ ____  45,336  558  1. 2  +3, 449  +8. 2  +59  +11.8  GS-1 through 4 _________________ gs-5 through 1 L _________ - - - - - G S-5 through 8 ___ __ __ __________ G S-9 through 1 L _______________ S-12 through 18 _______________  15,881 23,894 13,110 10,784 5,561  403 143 106 37 12  2. 5 .6 .8 .3 .2  +373 +2, 231 +936 +1, 295 +845  +2. 4 +10. 3 +7. 7 +13. 6 +17.9  +36 +16 +16  +9. 8 +12. 6 +11. 8  Total Wage Board ________  24,605  810  3. 3  -1, 317  -5. 1  P through $4,499 ______________  through $7,999 _________ __ through $6,499 ___________ through $7,999 ___________ and over ______ _____ __ __ __  4,762 18,092 10,395 7,697 1,751  211 599 506 93  r  $4,500 $4,500 $6,500 8,000  ----------  4. 4 3. 3 4. 9 1. 2 ----------  -155 -1, 438 -5, 786 +4, 348 +276  -3. -7. -35. +129. +18.  2 4 8 8 7  ------- --- ---------+7 +140. 0 -124 ..  -158 +34 -30 +64  -13. 3 - 42. +6. -5. +220.  8 0 6 7  ------- --- ----------  Total postal field service ___  17,640  554  3. 1  +1, 102  +6. 7  +38  +7. 4  ~~S-1through4 1 ____________ ___ PFS-5 through lL ________ __ ____ PFS-5 through 8 __ __ __ ____ __ __ __ PFS-9 through ll __ ______ __ ____ S-12 through 20 ___________ ~ --  14,696 2,781 2,307 474 163  532 22 22  3. 6 .8 1.0  +563 +533 +462 +71 +6  +4. 0 +23. 7 + 25. 0 +17.6 +3. 8  +21 +17 +19 - 2  +4.1 +340. 0 +633. 3  Total other pay plans ___ ___  2,014  39  1. 9  +471  +30. 5  +15  +62. 5  $:,500 through $6,499 ___ _________ $ ,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over _______ ________ __  442 1, 151 719 432 421  6 30 28 2 3  1. 4 2. 6 3. 9 .5 .7  -303 +597 + 283 +314 +177  -40. 7 +101. 8 +64. 9 +266. 1 +72. 5  +1 +16 +15 +1 -2  +20.0 +114. 3 +115. 4 +100. 0 -40. 0  ff,500through $4,499 __ __ ____ ______ through $7,999 ___________ $  1  ---------- ------------------- ----------  ---- -- ---------- -- - ----------  Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers. Excludes Alaska.  NOTE :   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  55  Negro and Total Employment in Selected Agencies June, 1963 INDEX Negro and Total Employment, 1962-1963 Table 1-1  1-la 1-2 1-3 1-3a 1-3b 1-3c 1-3d 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-11 1-12  Coverage Department of State (Including AID, Peace Corps, and IB & WC) Department of State (Excluding AID, Peace Corps, and IB & WC) Department of the Treasury Summary, Department of Defense Office of Secretary of Defense and other defense activities Department of the Army Department of the Navy Department of the Air Force Department of Justice Post Office Department Department of the Interior Department of Agriculture Department of Commerce Department of Labor Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Veterans Administration Federal A via ti on Agency  56  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Table Coverage 1-13 General Services Administration 1-14 National Aeronautics and Space Administration 1-15 Tennessee Valley Authority 1-16 Housing and Home Finance Agency 1-17 Atomic Energy Commission 1-18 Government Printing Office 1-19 Selective S~rvice System 1-20 Civil Service Commission 1-21 Information Agency 1-22 Small Business Administration 1-23 Interstate Commerce Commission 1-24 Railroad Retirement Board 1-25 National Labor Relations Board 1-26 Smithsonian Institution 1-27 Federal Communications Commission 1-28 Securities and Exchange Commission 1-29 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 1-30 Federal Home Loan Bank Board 1-31 Federal Trade Commission 1-32 Federal Power Commission 1-33 oldiers'Home  TABLE  1-1.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, Department of State [Includes Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, and the International Boundary and Water Comm.ission)  1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro Total  Total employees Number  -  P ercent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  21, 476  2, 042  9. 5  +1, 009  +4. 9  + 368  + 22. 0  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  8,408  1, 592  18. 9  -34  -. 4  +294  +22. 7  gs-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through 1 L _____ ____ ______ GS-5 through 8 ______ ___ ________ G~-9 through 1 L _______________ -12 through 18 _______________  1,708 4,480 3,292 1,188 2,220  646 909 835 74 37  37. 20. 25. 6. 1.  8 3 4 2 7  - 74 +322 +456 -134 - 282  -4. 2 +7. 7 +16. 1 -10. 1 - 11. 3  -12 +288 +264 +24 +18  -1. +46. +46. +48. +94.  Total Wage Board ________  434  223  51. 4  +19  +4. 6  +38  141 288 246 42 5  45 177 160 17 1  31. 61. 65. 40. 20.  9 5 0 5 0  -3 +23 +11 +12 -1  f P through $4,499 __________ - - - $4,500 through $7,99\:1 ___ ________ $4,500 through $6,499 ________ -- $~,500 through $7,999 _________ - ,000 and over_ _____ ___________ Total other pay plans  1 _____  ff through $4,499 ____________ __ $ ,500 through $7,999 ___ ________ $i,500 through $6,499 ____ _______ $ ,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over _________________  -  1  12,634  227  1.8  220 5, 169 3,332 1,837 7,245  1 112 84 28 114  .5 2. 2 2. 5 1. 5 1. 6  - 2. +8. +4. +40. -16.  8 4 2 0 7  +20. 5  1 1 7 0 7  +2 +35 +26 +9 +1  --- ----- --  +1, 024  +8. 8  +36  +18. 8  -608 +542 +311 +231 +1, 090  -73. 4 +11.7 +10. 3 +14.4 +17.7  -12 +21 +11 +io +21  -92. 3 +31. 8 +25. 4 +55. 6 +22. 6  +4. +24. +19. +112.  7 6 4 5  Includes Foreign Service Personnel.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  57  TABLE  1-la.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, Department of State [Excludes Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, and the International Boundary and Water Commission]  Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total employees  Total Number  P ercent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ___ _____  13, 968  1,260  9. 0  +877  +46. 7  +144  +12. 9  Total Classification Act or similar 1 ____ - _ - - - - - - - - - -  13,743  1,064  7. 7  +851  +6. 6  +115  +12. 1  GS-1 through 4 ____ __________ ___ GS-5 through 11_ ______ _________ GS-5 through 8 ______ - - __ - - _- - - _ GS-9 through 1 L ___ - - - _- - - _- - - _ GS-12 through 18 _______________  1,312 7,555 5,291 2,264 4,876  446 578 512 66 40  34. 0 7. 7 9. 7 2. 9 1.8  -549 +1,073 +785 +288 +327  -29. 5 +16. 6 +17.4 +14.6 +7. 2  -23 +124 +100 +24 +14  -4. +27. +24. +57. +53.  Total wage board _________  225  196  87. 1  +26  +13. 1  +29  +17.4  Up through $4,499 _______ - ____ - _ $4,500 through $7,999 __ __ _______ $4,500 through $6,49-9 - ____ - _- - - _ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _______________ __  54 167 142 25 4  45 150 133 17 1  83. 89. 93. 68. 25.  +19 +6 +11 -5 +1  +54. +3. +8. -16. +33.  +12 +16 +5 +11 +1  +36. 4 +11.9 +3. 9 + 183. 3  3  8 7 0 0  3 7 4 7 3  9 3 3 1 8  ---------Total other pay plans ______ ------------ ---------- --- ------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------Up through $4,499 __ ___ _________ ---------- -- ---------- --------- - ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$4,500 through $7,999 _________ - _ ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- --------- - --- ------- ------ ---$4,500 through $6,499 _____ - - - - - _ ------------ ---- -- ---- ---------- -- --- -- --- - ------ - -- ---------- ---------$6,500 through $7,999 ___________ --------- --- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$8,000 and over ____ ______ _______ --------------------- -------- -- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------1  Includes foreign service personnel.  58  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  TABLE  1-2.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June . 196~ and June 1963, Department of the Treasury Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total  Total employees Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  85,791  10,965  12. 8  +6, 103  +7. 7  + 1, 337  +13. 9  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  78,037  8,329  10. 7  +6, 233  +8. 7  +1, 266  +17.9  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through 1 L _____ - - - - - - - - - gs-5 through 8 _________________ S-9 through lL _______________ GS-12 through 18 _______________  22,912 41,701 20,904 20,797 13,424  5,996 2,214 1, 5 0 634 119  26. 2 5. 3 7. 6 3. 0 .9  +2, 853 + 1,821 +569 + 1,252 + 1, 559  +14. 2 +4. 6 +2. 8 +6. 4 +13. 1  +968 +260 +167 +93 +38  +19. 3 +13. 3 +11.8 +17. 2 +46. 9  rp  Total Wage Board ________  6,360  2,630  41. 4  +7  +.1  +97  +3. 8  through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 _________ - $4,500through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ________ - - 8,000 and over _________________  863 4,902 4,325 577 595  734 1,8 9 1,862 27 7  85. 38. 43. 4. 1.  1 5 1 7 2  -860 +607 +682 -75 +260  -49. 9 +14.1 +18. 7 -11. 5 +77.6  -727 +817 .. +811 +6 +7  -49. 8 +76. 2 +77.2 +28. 6  ----------  r  Total other pay plans _____ -  1,394  6  .4  -137  -8. 9  -26  -81. 3  P through $4,499 ______________ $:,500 through $7,999 ___ ____ - - -$ ,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over _________________  35 953 611 342 406  2 4 1 3  5.-7 .4 .2 .9  -102 -110 -164 +54 +75  -74. 5 -10. 3 - 21. 2 +18. 8 +22. 7  -24  -92. 3 -33. 3 -83. 3   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ------- --- ----------  -2 -5 +3  ------------------- ----------  59  TABLE  1-3.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, w rnonary, Depart1nent of Defense 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  947,979  110,771  11. 7  -9, 953  -1. 0  -897  - 0. 8  Total Classification Act or similar ___ _______ _______  503,168  38,634  7. 7  +3, 620  +. 7  +159  +.4  - 1 through 4 _________________ -5 through 1 L _______________ -.5 through 8 _________________ - 9 through 1 L ____ - - - _- - - - - - _ -12 through 18 _______________  167,189 258,734 144,007 114, 727 77,245  22,799 14,974 11,544 3,430 861  13. 5. 8. 3. 1.  Total Wage Board ____ ____  434,041  70,252  16. 2  -12, 871  Up through $4,499 ____ _________ _ %4, 500 through $7,999 _____ ______ $4,500 through $6,499 ____ _______ . 6,500 through $7,999 ____ _______ W ,000 and over __________ ._______  37,838 372,399 249,968 122,431 23,804  15,834 54,197 46,702 7,495 221  41. 8 14. 6 18. 7 6. 1 .9  -15, -4, -37, +32, +6,  Total other pay plans ____ __  10,770  1,885  17. 5  -702  Up through $4,499 ____ __________ $4,500 through $7,999 ____ _______ 'S4,500 through $6,499 _____ ______ $6,500 through $7,999 ____ _______ $ ,000 and over _________________  2,730 6,731 4,561 2,170 1,309  1,447 436 374 62 2  53. 0 6. 5 .2 2. 9 .2  - 621 +748 +677 +71 -829  G, G G G G  60  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  6 8 0 0 1  -12, +9, +3, +5, +6,  323 283 694 589 660  227 464 232 768 820  9 7 6 1 4  -1, 511 +1, 479 +1, 031 +448 +191  -2. 9  -685  -6. +3. +2. +5. +9.  -6. +11. +9. +15. +28.  2 0 8 0 5  -1. 0 -25. +9. +2. +90. +72.  9 6 6 1 7  7 2 0 5 2  -5, 529 +4, 751 +1, 199 +3, 552 +93  -6. 1  -371  -16. 4  -296 -70 -53 -17 -5  -17. 0 -13. 8 -12. 4 -21. 5 -71. 4  - 28. -1. -13. +36. +40.  -18. +12. +17. +3. -38.  5 5 4 4 8  TABLE -  1-3a.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 1963, Office of Secretary of Defense and other defense activitws . 1963  Pay ca.tegory  Change from 1962 egro  Total emplo~'ees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  -  Total all pay plans ________  30,692  6,208  20. 2  +6, 979  +29. 4  +1, 257  +25. 4  Total classifi:ca tion act or similar ___ __ __________ __  23,879  3,488  14. 6  +5, 161  +27. 6  +665  +23. 6  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through 1 L ______ - - - - - - - - GS-5 through 8 _________________ gs-9 through 1 L ______ - - - - - - - - S-12 through 18 __ ____________ _  7,544 12,531 7,371 5,160 3,804  1,914 1, 516 1, 121 3t5 58  25. 12. 15. 7. 1.  4 1 2 7 5  + 1, 364 +2, 855 + 1, 501 +1, 354 +942  +22. +29. +25. +35. +32.  1 5 6 6 9  +183 +451 +341 +110 +31  r  Total Wage Board ________  4,970  1,625  32. 7  +1, 830  +58. 3  +602  +58. 8  P through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 _____ __ __ __ 8,000 and over_ ____________ ____  191 4,665 3,889 776 114  86 1,535 1,468 67 4  45. 32. 37. 8. 3.  0 9 7 6 5  -131 +1, 932 + 1, 585 +347 +29  -40. 7 +10. 7 +68. 8 +so. 9 +34. 1  -41 +643 +620 .. +23  -32. 3 +72. 1 +73.1 +52. 3  r  Total other pay plans ______  1,843  1,095  59. 4  -12  -0. 6  1,060 35 29 6  70. 15. 16. 11.  P through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ______ -- -- $:,500 through $6,499 _____ - - - - - $ ,500 through $7,999 ___ ________ 8,000 and over_ ________________  -   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1,496 230 177 53 117  9 2 4 3  ------- --- ----------  -121 +93 +59 +34 +16  -7. +67. +50. +178. +15.  5 9 0 9 8  +10. +42. +43. +38. +114.  6 3 7 6 8  ---------- --------- -10  -0. 9  +23 -33 - 32 -1  +2. 2 -48. 5 -52. 5 -14. 3  ---------- --------- -  61  TAB LE  l-3 b.-N egr o and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196~ and Jun e 196$, Department of the Arm y -  1963  Cha nge from 1962 -  Pay cate gory Tota l emp loye es  Neg ro Tota l umb er  Tota l all pay plan s ________ Tota l Classification Act or simi lar _________________ G -1 thro ugh 4 ________________ _ G -5 thro ugh 11 ____________ ____ G -5 thro ugh ________________ GS- 9 thro ugh 11 _________________ G -12 thro ugh 1 __________ -___ Tota l Wag e Boa rd ________ p thro ugh $4,499 ______________ $4,500 thro ugh $7,999 ___________ 4,500 thro ugh 6 499 ___________ 1 $6,500 thro ugh $7,9 _________ __ ,000 and over ____99 __________ ___ Tota l othe r pay plan s ______ Up thro ugh 4,499 ______________ $4,500 thro ugh $7,999 ___________ $4,500 thro ugh $6,499 ________ ___ $6,500 thro ugh $7,999 ___________ ,000 and over _________________  62  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Perc ent  Neg ro  Perc ent  Perc ent  325, 117  38,9 65  12. 0  - 20, 952  - 6.1  - 3, 569  -8. 4  198 ,652  17,8 36  9.0  -7, 622  - 3. 7  - 953  65,5 54 102, 616 59,6 44 42,9 72 30,4 82  - 5. 1  10,5 90 6,91 7 5,57 6 1,34 1 329  16. 2 6. 7 9.3 3. 1 1. 1  - 9, 578 +38 9 -67 +45 6 +1, 567  - 12. 7 +.4  124, 176  +1. 1 +5. 4  -1, 351 +34 7 +25 7 +90 +51  - 11. 3 +5. 3 +4. 8 + 7. 2 +18 . 3  20,8 91  16.8  - 13, 878  - 10. 1  15,9 22 102, 539 73,9 08 2 ,631 5,71 5  - 2, 295  - 9. 9  7,01 0 13,8 42 12,6 00 1,24 2 39  44. 0 13. 5 17. 0 4. 3 .7  - 7, 024 - 7, 591 - 12, 099 +4, 508 +73 7  6 9 1 7  2,28 9  - 30. - 6. - 14. +1 . +14 .  -1, 569 - 715 - 9 4 +26 9 -11  -18 . 3 - 4. 9 - 7. 2 +27 .6 -22 . 0  238  10. 4  +54 8  +31 . 5  649 1,34 1 90 433 299  - 321  -57. 4  186 51 46 5  2 .7 3. 8 5. 1 1. 2 .3  - 306 +79 2 +52 8 +26 4 +62  - 344 +22 +22  -64 . 9 +75 . 9 +91 . 7  1  -.1  - 32. +14 4. +13 8. +15 6. +26 .  0 3 9 2 2  -  ---- ---- -- ---- ---- -+1  ----------  TABLE  1-3c.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 196,1, Department of the Navy Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total employees Number  -  Total  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  320,440  45,018  14. 1  +8, 754  +2. 8  +2, 151  +5. 0  To~al. Classification Act or similar _________________  128,093  9,784  7. 6  +6, 260  +5. 1  +600  +6. 5  GS- 5 through 8 _________________ 9 11 ________________ Gs=1i%hough rough 18 _______________  46,002 61,838 32,946 28,892 20,253  6, 153 3,426 2,559 867 205  13. 4 5. 5 7. 8 3. 0 1.0  -46 +3, 740 +1, 627 +2, 113 +2, 566  Total Wage Board _________  190,825  35,226  18. p  +6, 393  ~p through $4,499 _______ __ ~ _____ $4, 5 0 through $7,999 ____________ $ ,50 0 through $6,499 ____________ $6,50 0 through $7,999 ____________ 8,00 0 and over _________________  12,524 164,109 94,410 69,699 14,192  5,726 29,342 23,828 5,514 158  45. 17. 25. 7. 1.  Total other pay plans __ __ __  1, 522  8  ~P through $4,499 ________ _______ $4' 5 0 through $7,999 ____________ $ ,50 0 through $6,499 ____________ $6,50 ~ through $7,999 ___ ________ _ 8' 00 and over _________________  56 885 494 391 581  g~-~ through 4 _________________ GS- through 1 L _________ _____ _   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  7 9 2 9 1  .5  ---------7  ---------.8 7 1. 4  ------------ -----------1  .2  -3, +4, -18, +23, +5,  560 683 387 070 270  -0. +6. +5. +7. +14.  1 4 2 9 5  +69 +476 +337 +139 +55  +3. 5  +1, 900  -22. +2. -16. +49. +59.  1 9 3 5 1  -2, 854 +4, 655 +1, 613 +3, 042 +99  -3, 899  -71. 9  -349  -55 -2, 869 -1, 785 -1, 084 -975  -49. -76. -78. -73. -62.  -2 -342 -277 -65 -5  5 4 3 5 7  +1. +16. +15. +19. +36.  1 1 2 1 7  +5. 7 -33. +18. +7. +123. +167.  3 9 3 1 8  -97. 8 -100. -98. -97. -100. -83.  0 0 5 0 3  63  TABLE  1-3d.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 196,1, Department of the Air Force 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Negro  Percent  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  271,730  20,580  7. 6  -4, 734  -1. 7  -736  -3. 5  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  152,544  7,526  4. 9  -179  -.1  -153  -2. 0  GS-1 through 4 ______________ - __ GS-5 through 11 __ ______________ GS-5 through 8_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-9 through 1 L _______________ GS-12 through 18 __ - - - __ - - __ - - - _  48,089 81,749 44,046 37,703 22,706  4,142 3, 115 2,288 827 269  8. 3. 5. 2. 1.  6 8 2 2 2  -4, 063 +2, 299 +633 +1, 666 +1, 585  -7. +2. +1. +4. +7.  8 9 5 6 5  -412 +205 +96 +109 +54  -9. 0 +7. 0 +4.4 +15. 2 +25. 1  Total Wage Board ________  114,070  12, 510  11. 0  -7, 216  -5. 9  -892  -6. 7  Up through $4,499 ____ __________ $4,500 through $7,999 _____ ______ $4,500 through $6,499 _____ - - - - - $6,500 through $7,999 ______ - - - - $8,000 and over _________________  9,201 101,086 77,761 23,325 3,783  3,012 9,478 8,806 672 20  32. 7 9.4 11. 3 2. 9 .5  -4, 512 -3, 488 -8, 331 +4, 843 +784  -32. 9 -3. 3 -9. 7 +26. 2 +26. 1  -1, 065 +168 -50 +218 +5  Total other pay plans ______  5, 116  544  10. 6  +2, 661  +108. 4  +309  + 131. 5  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 _______ ____ $4,500 through $6,499 _______ - - __ $6,500 through $7,999 ______ _____ $8,000 and over_ ________________  529 4,275 2,982 1,293 312  201 343 292 51  38. 8. 9. 3.  -139 +2, 732 +1, 875 +857 +68  -20. 8 +111. 1 +169. 4 +196. 6 +27.9  +27 +283 +234 +49 -1  +15. 5 +471. 7 +403. 4 +2, 450. 0 -100. 0  64  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ----------  --  0 0 8 9  -- - -----  -26. +1. -. +48. +33.  1 8 6 0 3  TABLE  1-4.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 196-1, Department of Justice ·  -  1963  Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Numbei\\  -  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  31,290  1,213  3. 9  +1, 256  +4. 2  +112  +10. 2  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  28,951  1,072  3. 7  +1, 279  +4. 6  +93  +9. 5  gs..-1 through 4 ____ ------------GS-5 through 1 L _______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS- 9 through 1 L _______________ S-12 through 18 __ _____________  6,861 15, 102 10,270 4,832 6,988  666 384 315 69 22  9. 7 2. 5 3. 1 1. 4 .3  -256 +1, 399 +784 +615 +136  -3. 6 +10. 2 +8. 3 +14. 6 +2.0  +42 +48 +42 +6 +3  Total Wage Board ________  1,533  93  6. 1  +81  +5. 6  ~ through $4,499 ______________ $ ,500 through $7,999 _________ -$:,500 through $6,499 ___ - _- - - - - $ ,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over _________________  52 1,234 299 935 247  8 83 76 7 2  15. 4 6. 7 25:} .8  -10 -3 +29 -32 +94  -16. 1 -.2 +10. 7 -3. 3 +61. 4  -7 +6 .. +5 +1 +1  Total other pay plans ______  806  48  6. 0  -104  -11. 4  +19  +65. 5  through $4,499 _______ - _- - - - ${'500 through $7,999 _______ - - - $ ,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over _________________  26 130 11 119 650  9 8  34. 6 6. 2  +14 -283 -196 -87 +165  +116. 7 -68. 5 -94. 7 -42. 2 +34. 0  +9 -4 -5 +1 +14  ----------33. 3  l1f   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ·.  ------------------6. 7 8 31  4. 8  +6. +14. +15. +9. +15.  7 3 4 5 8  ---------- ----------46. +7. +7. +16. +100.  7 8 0 7 0  -100. 0 +14. 3 +82. 4  65  TABLE  1-5.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, Post Office Department 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  584,140  89, 512  15. 3  +11, 980  +2. 1  +2, 493  +2. 9  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  1,619  168  10. 4  +81  +5. 3  +51  +43. 6  Z62  +19 +29 +29  +23. 8 +93. 5 +120. 8  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through ll_ _______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through 1 L __________ _ - - __ GS-12 through 18 _______________  774 535 239 583  99 60 53 7 9  37. 7. 9. 2. 1.  8 8 9 9 5  -18 +26 +35 -9 +73  -6. 4 +3. 5 +7. 0 -3. 6 +14.3  Total Wage Board ________  37  21  56. 8  -2  -5.1  -1  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 _________ __ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over ___________ ______  1 34 23  1 20 16 4  0 8 6 4  -1 -11  -50. 0 -2. 9  -1  Total Postal Field Service __  582,475  89,323  15. 3  +11, 907  +2. 1  +2, 443  +2. 8  PFS-1through4 1 _____ _ ______ _ __ PFS-5 through lL ___________ ___ PFS-5 through 8 _________ ______ _ PFS-9 through lL ____ ___ - __ - - - PFS-12 through 20 ______________  499,630 79,216 66,205 13, 011 3,629  83,747 5,551 5,366 185 25  16. 8 7. 0 8. 1 1. 4 .7  +7, 713 +4, 200 +3, 630 +570 -6  +1. +5. +5. +4. -.  +1, 860 +574 +534 +40 +9  +2. 3 +11. 5 +11.1 +27.6 +56. 3  11  2  Total other pay plans ______ Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ____ __ _____ $6,500 through $7,999 _____ ______ $8,000 and over _____________ __ __ 1 Includes  4th class postmasters and rural carriers.  66  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  +3  -- -----------------------------------1 -8. 3 ----------- -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  9 ----------  --------------------------------------------9  100. 58. 69. 36.  ---------- ---------+so. o  ----------------------------------------------  ----------  -6  ---------- ----------- -- -- -- -- ------------------- --- ----- ----------- ----------6 -------- --  6 6 8 6 2  -40. 0 ----------  ---------- ------------------- ------------------- ----------------------------40. 0 ----------  -4. 5 -50. 0  ----------------------------- --- -----  -------------------------------------------------------  TABLE  June _1962 and June 1963, 1-6.-N egro and total employ ment by grade and salary groups, r Depar tment of the Interio Change from 1962  1963 Pay categor y  Negro Total employe es  rumber  Total  Negro  Percent  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  65,076  2,346  3. 6  +10, 337  +18. 9  +415  +21. 5  Act or Total Classifi cation similar ________ ______ __ _  47,992  1,215  2. 5  +6, 454  +15. 5  +147  +13. 8  GS-1 through 4 _____ ___ - - - - - - - - GS-5 through lL _______________ GS-5 through 8 ____ _____________ GS-9 through 1 L ____ - __ - - - - - - - GS-12 through 18 __ ___ ____ ______  13,927 25,643 13, 975 11,668 8,422  520 669 537 132 26  3. 7 2. 6 3. 8 1. 1 .3  +2, 234 +2, 565 +960 +1, 605 + 1, 655  +19. 1 +11.1 +7. 4 +15. 9 +24. 5  +63 +10 +25 +45 +14  +13. 8 +11.7 +4. 9 +51. 7 +116. 7  Total Wage Board ________  16,245  1,092  6. 7  +4, 481  +38. 1  +254  +30. 3  through $4,499 ___ ___________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ ,500 through $6,499 _________ - 16,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over _______________ __  5,247 10, 118 7,640 2,478 880  232 853 810 43 7  4.4 8. 4 10. 6 1. 7 .8  +1, 629 +2, 444 +1, 981 +463 +408  +45. 0 +31. 8 +35. 0 +23. 0 +86. 4  -125 +375 ·· +368 +1 +4  Total other pay plans ____ __  839  39  4. 6  -598  -41. 6  +14  +56. 0  Up through $4,499 ______ ---- - - - $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ r,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over ___ ___ _____ ______  300 432 281 151 107  2 22 7 15 15  .7 5. 1 2. 5 9. 9 14. 0  -476 -178 -225 +47 +56  3 2 5 2 8  +2 -1 -:7 + 6 +13  ---------4. 3  ~  -61. -29. -44. +45. +109.  -35. +78. +83. +19. +133.  0 5 3 4 3  -50. 0 +66. 7 + 650. 0  -  67 726-390 0-64 -6   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  TABLE  l-7.-Negro and total employment by grade alfld salary groups, Jwn,e 196~ and Jwn,e 1968, Department of Agriculture Change from 1962  1963  Pay category  Negro Total  Total employees Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  95,623  3,105  3. 2  +3, 513  +3. 8  +214  +7. 4  Total Classification Act or similar ____ _____________  82,072  2,326  2. 8  +3, 409  +4. 3  +61  +2. 7  GS-1 through 4 _________ ________ GS-5 through lL_ - - - ___ - _- __ - - GS- 5 through 8 _________________ GS- 9 through lL __ _____ ____ ____ GS- 12 through 18 _______________  24,534 46,772 26,737 20,035 10,766  1,296 975 828 147 55  5.3 2. 1 3. 1 .7 .5  -122 +2, 592 +1, 290 +1, 302 +939  -. 5 +5. 9 +5. 1 +1. 0 +9. 6  -39 +91 +84 +7 +9  -2. 9 +10. 3 +11.3 +5. o +19. 6  Total Wage Board ________  11,604  765  6. 6  +123  +1. 1  +143  +23. 0  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 _____ ___ ___ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over __________ ______ _  6,966 4,558 3,937 621 80  401 364 351 13  5. 8. 8. 2.  -494 +602 +399 +203 +15  -6. 6 +15. 2 +11.3 +48. 6 +23. 1  +42 +101 +98 +3  +11.7 +38. 4 +38. 7 +30. 0  Total other pay plans ___ ___  1,947  14  .7  -19  -1. 0  +10  +250. 0  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ______ _____ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over_ ___________ _____  484 1,088 796 292 375  8 6 6  1. 7 .6 .8  -142 +17 -3 +20 +106  -22. 7 +1. 6 -.4 +7. 4 +39. 4  +5 +s +5  +166. 7 +soo. o +500. o  68  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  8 0 9 1  ------ ---- ----------  ---------- ----------------- -- ----------  ---------- ----------  ---------- --- -- -------------- ----------  TABLE  June 196f and June 1963, 1-8.-N egro and total employ ment by grade and salary groups, Depar tment of Oommerce Change from 1962  1963 Pay categor y  Negro Total employe es  Numbe r  Total  Negro  Percent  Percent  Percent  -  Total all pay plans ________  29,891  3,832  12. 8  +502  +1. 7  +392  +11.4  or Total Classifi cation Act'-- ___ similar _____________  26,517  2,958  11. 2  +291  +1. 1  +235  +8. 6  gs-1 through 4 _______ - - - - - - - - -_GS-5 through 11_ ______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through 1 L _______________ S-12 through 18 _______________  6,190 13,246 7,209 6,037 7,081  1,741 1,122 920 202 95  28. 8. 12. 3. 1.  1 5 8 3 3  -128 -193 -59 -134 +612  -2. -1. -. -2. +9.  0 4 8 2 5  +89 +124 +86 +38 +22  Total Wage Board _________  2,354  799  33. 9  -383  -14. 0  +94  P through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 __________ $4,500 through $6,499 ____________ $6,500 through $7,999 ________ - -8,000 and over _________________  225 1,970 1,472 498 159  161 636 593 43 2  71. 6 32. 3 40. 3 8. 6 1. 3  -237 -170 -200 +30 +24  -51. -7. -11. +6. +17.  3 9 7 4 8  +43  +36 +14 +1"  +36. +8. +6. +48. +100.  Total other pay plans ______  1,020  75  7. 4  +594  +139. 4  +63  +525. 0  P through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ____________ $i,500 through $6,499 ___________ $ ,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over ___ -'------ --------  484 298 208 90 238  64 10 9 1 1  13. 2 3. 4 4. 3 1. 1 .4  +363 +198 +160 +38 +33  +300. 0 +198. 0 +333. 3 +73. 1 + 16. 1  +62  +3100. 0  r  r  +so  +5. +12. +10. +23. +30.  4 4 3 2 1  +13. 3 4 5 5 3 0  ----- --------------1 -10. 0 +1 ------- --+1 ------- ---  -   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  69  TABLE  1-9.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, Jwne 1962 and June 1963, Department of Labor 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  9,018  1,719  19. 1  +623  +7. 4  +188  +12. 3  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  8,879  1,619  18. 2  +592  +7.1  +159  +10. 9  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through lL _______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through lL _______________ GS-12 through 18 _______________  2,246 4,296 2,417 1,879 2,337  86"8 652 522 130 99  38. 15. 21. 6. 4.  6 2 6 9 2  -263 +498 +240 +258 +357  -10. 5 +13. 1 +11.0 +15. 9 +18. 0  -30 +138 +108 +30 +51  Total Wage Board ________  113  82  72. 6  +13  +13. 0  +12  +11. 1  Up through $4, 499 ______________ $4, 500 through $7, 999 _____ ______ $4, 500 through $6, 499 ___________ $6, 500 through $7, 999 ___________ $8, 000 and over ______________ __  45 66 54 12 2  28 53 43 10 1  62. 80. 79. 83. 50.  +3 +9 +9  +7. 1 +15. 8 +20. 0  -4 +15 +14 +1 +1  -12. 5 +39. 5 +48. 3 +11.1  ----------  Total other pay plans ______  26  18  69. 2  +11  +1, 700. 0  Up through $4, 499 ______________ $4, 500 through $7, 999 ___________ $4, 500 through $6, 499 ___________ $6,500 through $7, 999 ___________ $8, 000 and over ________________  70  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  2 3 6 3 0  ---------- ---------+100. 0 +1  +18  +225. 0  17 17 100. 0 +17 ---------+17 ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- --------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ------ ------------------------------------------ ------------------1 11. 1 9 +12. 5 ---------+1  -3. +26. +26. +30. +106.  3 8 1 0 3  ----------------------------------------------  TABLE  -  salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963 1-10. -Neg ro and total employment by grade and ' Depa rtmen t of Health, Education, and Welfare Chang e from 1962  1963 Pay catego ry  --  Negro Total employees  Numb er  Total  Percen t  egro  Percen t  Percen t  Total all pay plans ________  77, 798  14,992  19. 3  + 7, 423  + 10. 5  +1, 107  +8. 0  Total Classification Act or simila r _________________  66,102  11,402  17. 2  +3, 182  +5.1  +1, 017  + 9. 8  throug h 4 ____ ___ ________ __ GS throug h lL _______________ GS: 5 throug h 8 __ _______________ GS 9 throug h IL _______________ - 12 throug h 18 _______________  26,756 32,680 21,904 10, 776 6,666  7, 561 3,735 3,194 541 106  28. 3 11. 4 14. 6 5. 0 1. 6  + 62 +2, 059 + 1, 338 +121 + 1, 061  +. 2 + 6. 7 +6. 5 +1. 2 + 18. 9  + 538 + 451 + 365 +86 +28  Total Wage Board _____ ___  6,341  3,314  52. 3  +237  +3. 9  +21  5tiou gh $4,499 ______________ throug h $7,999 ___________ $4' $ , 500 throug h $6,499 ____ ___ ____ 6, 500 throug h $7 999 ' ----_____ $8, ooo and over ______ ______------  3,130 3,147 2,635 512 64  2,208 1, 106 1,073 33  70. 35. 40. 6.  5 1 7 4  -331 +524 +273 +251 +44  6 0 6 2 0  -317 +338 +317 + 21  gt1  ff  ------ ---- ------ ----  Total other pay plans ______  5,355  276  5. 2  ~P itroug h $4,499 ________ ______ ${' 55 throug h $7,999 ___________ $ , 00 throug h $6,499 ________ ___ $6, 500 throug h $7, 999 ______ _____ 8, 000 and over _________________  592 1,647 1, 154 493 3, 116  184 65 56 9 27  31. 1 3. 9 4. 9 1. 8 .9   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -9. +20. +11. +96. +220.  +1.  + 13. +12. + 18. +3 5.  7 7 9 9 9  + o. 6 -12. + 44. + 41. +175.  6 0 9 0  ------ ---- ----------  +4, 004  +296. 4  +69  +33. 3  +185 +1, 264 +839 +425 +2, 555  +45. + 330. +266. +625. +455.  5 0 3 0 4  +1 +49 +40 +9 +19  +o. 5 +306. 3 +250. 0  --------+ 237. 5  71  TABLE  l-ll.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, Veterans Administration 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Percent  Negro  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  150,273  35,986  23. 9  -447  -0. 3  +707  +2. 0  Total Classification Act or similar 1________________  112,530  21,662  19. 2  +1, 822  +1. 6  +639  +3. 0  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through 11 _______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through lL _______________ GS-12 through 18 __ __ ______ - _- - -  53,924 45,979 30,255 15,724 12,627  17,098 4,344 3,382 962 220  31. 9. 11. 6. 1.  7 4 2 1 7  -1, 620 +2, 009 +918 + 1,091 + 1, 423  Total Wage Board ________  35,094  13,764  39. 2  -867  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 _____ _______ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over_ ________________  19,766 15,026 12,214 2,812 302  9,929 3,830 3,584 246 5  Total other pay plans ______  2,649  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _____ ______ ______  2,198 353 268 85 98  1  50. 25. 29. 8. 1.  -2. +4. +3. +7. +12.  9 6 1 5 8  -56 +616 +381 +235 +79  -2. 4  +160  2 5 3 7 7  -2, 300 +1, 370 +454 +916 +63  -10. +10. +3. +48. +26.  4 0 9 3 4  -687 +844 +727 +117 +3  560  21. 1  -1, 402  -34. 6  -92  528 30 24 6 2  24. 8. 9. 7. 2.  +535 -1, 285 -846 -439 -652  +32. -78. -75. -83. -86.  0 5 0 1 0  Doctors, dentists, and nurses of the Department of Medicine and Surgery included as similar to Classification Act.  72  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  2 4 9 8 9  +213 -251 -161 -90 -54  -0. +16. +12. +32. +56.  3 5 7 3 0  =+=  +1. 2 -6. +28. +25. +90. + 150. --  5 3 4 7 0  -14. 1 +67. -89. -87. -93. -96.  6 3 0 8 4  TABLE  1-12.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, Jwne 196<2 and June 1963, Federal Aviation Agency 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  42,366  1,217  2. 9  +2, 570  +6. 5  + 186  +18. 0  Total Classification Act or similar ___________ ______  39,390  937  2. 4  +2, 210  +5. 9  +134  +16. 7  GS-1 through 4 ____________ - - - - GS-5 through lL ___________ - - - GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through lL _______________ GS-12 through 18 ___________ ____  2,917 24,012 9,108 14,904 12,461  269 586 343 243 82  9. 2 2. 4 3. 8 1. 6 .7  +134 +301 - 1, 263 +1, 564 + 1,775  +4. 8 +1. 3 -12. 2 +11.7 +16. 6  +59 +43 -3 +46 +32  +28. +7. -. +23. +64.  Total Wage Board ________  2,962  280  9. 5  +391  +15. 2  +53  +23. 3  Up through $4,499 _________ ____ _ $4,500 through $7,999 _________ __ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over ___ ______________  206 2,671 1,962 709 85  71 209 193 16  Total other pay plans ______ Up through $4,499 ________ __- - - $4,500 through $7,999 _____ ______ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7, 999 _________ $8,000 and over _________________  -   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ------------------2 --------------------- --------------------- -----------------------------12 ---------14  34. 7. 9. 2.  5 8 8 3  ---------------------------------------------------- ------------  -38 +372 +177 +195 +57 -31 -1 -18 -16 -2 -12  -15. +16. +9. +37. +203.  1 9 9 4 0  6 2 9 9 6  - 25 +79 +68 .. +11 -1  ----------  -68. 9  -1  -100. 0  -33. 3  -]  -100. 0  -26. +60. +54. +220.  0 8 4 0  ---------- ---------- ------------------- ------ --- - ---------------------------- ----------50. 0 ---------- ----------  73  TABLE  1-13.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196'2 and June 1963, General Services Administration Change from 1962  1963 Negro  Pay category Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ______ __  33,447  11, 704  35. 0  +2, 540  +8. 2  +1, 296  +12. 5  Total Classification Act or similar ____________ _____  16,948  2,980  17. 6  +21. 5  +2, 047  +13. 7  +527  2,352 599 543 56 29  30. 9. 13. 2. ].  2 2 5 2 1  +807 +886 +578 +308 +354  +11.6 +15. 7 +16. 8 +13. 9 +15. 7  +334 +173 +165 +8 +20  16,487  8,724  52. 9  +481  +3. 0  +769  +o. 1  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 _______ ____ $6,500 through $7,999 _________ __ $8,000 and over_ ________________  6,827 9,446 7,348 2,098 214  5,148 3,576 3,370 206  75. 4 37. 9 45. 9 9. 8  -294 +642 -169 +811 +133  -4. 1 +7. 3 -2. 2 +63. 0 +164. 2  +226 +546 +454 +92 -3  +4. 6 +18. 0 +15. 6 +80. 7 -100. 0  Total other pay plans ______  12  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through 11_ _______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through 1 L ____________ ___ GS-12 through 18 _______________  7,797 6,546 4,017 2,529 2,605  Total Wage Board ________  ------------------Up through $4,499 _____ ________ _ 5 --- ------$4,500 through ,$7,999 ___ __ ______ 2 ------ ---$4,500 through $6,499 _________ __ 2 ---------$6,500 through $7,999 ___________ ------------ ---------$8,000 and over_ ________________ 5 ----------  74  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ---------+12 ---------+5 ---------+2 ---------+2 ------------------- ---------+5 --------- -  ----------------------------- --------------------------  -------------------------------------------------------  +16. +40. +43. +16. +222.  6 6 7 7 2  ----- -- ---- ------------------------------------------- -  TABLE  l-14.-Negro and total employm,ent by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, National Aeronautics and Space Admvnistration 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ____ ____  29,656  756  2. 5  +6, 380  +27.4  +1 02  +15. 6  Total Classification Act or similar _______________ __  22,753  426  1. 9  +6, 149  +37. 0  +98  +29. 9  +867 +2, 158 +100 +1, 458 +3, 124  +26. +31. +20. +43. +48.  6 3 0 0 3  +19 +57 +29 +28 +22  + 25. 0 +21.0 +20. 6 +40. 0 +53. 7  +4. 8  +4  +1. 2  GS-1 through 4 _________ - - - - - -- GS-5 through 11_ _______________ GS-5 through 8 __ - - - - - -- -- - - - - - GS-9 through 1 L _________ - - - - - GS-12 through 18 . ______________  4,122 9,044 4,195 4,849 9,587  95 268 170 98 63  2. 3 3. 0 4. 1 2. 0 .7  Total Wage Board __ ______  6,679  329  4. 9  +304  lJp through $4,499 _________ __ ___ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ f4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___ ___ _____ 8,000 and over _________________  452 5,317 2,349 2,968 910  101 228 205 23  22. 3 4. 3 8. 7 .8  -102 +517 +65 +452 -111  -18. +10. +2. +18. -10.  4 8 8 0 9  -75 +79 +75 +4  .. ---------- -------------------73 1 Total other pay plans ______ .4 -24. 6 ---------224 through $4,499 ______________ ------------ ---------- -------- -- ---------- --- ------- -------- -1 8. 3 12 +12 ---------$4,500 through $7,999 ______ - - - - - +1 1 ---------- ---------$4,500 through $6,499 _______ - - - +1 ---------- ---------$6,500 through $7,999 ____ ________ 1 9. 1 11 +11 ---------+1 -85 -1 212 ---------- ----------28. 6 8,000 and over _______ - - - - - - - - - I  rp  -   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -42. +53. +57. +21.  6 0 7 1  -------------------- -------------------- ---- -----------100. 0  75  TABLE  1-15.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, Tennessee Valley Authority 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Total all pay plans ________ Total Classification Act or similar _____ ____________  17,831  ------------ -------------------------------------------------------  Total Wage Board ________ Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 _____ ____ __ $8,000 and over _________________  10,953  Negro  Percent  Percent  1, 102  GS-1 through 4 ________ _________ 11 ________________ -----------G S-5 through GS-5 through 8 ________________ _ ----- --- ---11 _______________ _ --------- --GS-9 through 18 _______________ -- ----- ----GS-12 through ------------  Percent  6. 2  ----------- -- ------------------------------------------  753  6. 9  -------7,935 ----- ------------------752 9. 5  -623  ------- ------------------------------------------------845 -994 - 219 +956 -1, 175 +368  -3. 4  -48  ----- ----- --------------- --- - ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- -- -- ------7. 2  ----------2. 7  -4. 2  ------------------------------------ ------- ----------- -  -52  -6. 5  -174 + 122 +i::rn -11  ----+i9.-4 +22. 5 -27. 5  4,683 3,252 3,018  723 29 1  Total other pay plans ______  6,878  349  5. 1  +222  +3. 3  +4  +1. 2  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _________________  740 3,434 2,403 1,031 2,704  234 110 98 12 5  31. 6 3. 2 4. 1 1. 2 .2  -86 +67 +77 -10 +241  -10. 4 +2. 0 +3. 3 -1. 0 +9. 8  +1 +5  +o. 4 +4. 8  1  Less than 0.05 percent.  76  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  15. 4 .9  (1)  +25. 7 -26. 5 +13. 9  ----------  -------- --  ---------- ----+7i:4 +5 -2  -28. 6  TABLE  , J une 196f and J une 1963 1- 16.-Negro and to tal employ ment by grade and salary groups y Agenc e Housin g and Home Financ  ~  Change from 1962  1963 Pay categor y  egro Total employe es  Total  egro  P er cent  P ercent  P ercent  Number  Total all pay plans ________  13, 721  1,590  11. 6  + 652  + 5. 0  +305  + 23. 7  Act or Total Classifi cation similar __ ______ _________  13,589  1, 501  11.  + 639  + 4. 9  + 295  + 24. 5  gt1 through 4 ________ _________ Gi:5 through lL __ ____ _____ ____ GS-5 through 8 ________ _________ GS-9 through lL ___________ ____ 12 through 18 _______________  3,340 7, 321 3,199 4, 122 2,928  830 604 490 114 67  24. 9 8. 3 15. 3 2. 8 2. 3  - 18 + 448 + 271 + 177 + 209  -. 5 + 6. 5 + 9. 3 + 4. 5 + 7. 7  +76 + 212 + 166 + 46 +7  + + + + +  Total Wage Board ________  127  88  69. 3  + 13  + 11.4  + 10  + 12.  ~ through $4,499 ______ ________ _  11 113 96 17 3  8 80 74 6  72. 7 70. 8 77. 1 35. 3  - 2 +13 +9 +4 +2  4 0 3 8 0  - 2 + 12 + +4  - 20. 0 + 11. 6 + 12. 1 + 200. 0  1  20. 0  $4'500 $ ,500 , 6,500 8,000  through $7,999 ____ _____ - through $6,499 __ _ ________ through $7,999 ___________ and over ________ _________  - 15. + 13. + 10. + 30. + 200.  1 1 2 6 7  10. 54. 51. 67. 11.  ------- --- ------- --5 ------- --- ------- --- ------- --- ------- --Total other pay plans ______ P through $4,499 ___ ___________ ------- ----- ------- --- ------- --- ------- --- ------- --- ------- --- ------- --~,500 through $7,999 __ _________ ------- ----- ------- --- -- ------- - ------- --- ---- ------ ------- --- ------- --$ ,500 through $6,499 _______ ____ ------- ----- ------- --- ------- --- ------- --- ------- --- ------- --- ------- -- __ -- -- ------- - ------- --- ------- --- ------- --- ------- -- - ------- --- ------- --;g6,500 through $7,999 ______________ 20. 0 ------- --- ------- --- ------- --- ------- --1 5 8,000 and over ________ ____ ------- --- -- ------- -  f   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  77  TABLE  1-11.-Negro and total employnwnt by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 1963, Atomic Energy Commission Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  7, 197  132  1.8  +447  +6. 6  -4  -2. 9  Total Classification Act or similar ___________ .,. _____  6,842  111  1. 6  +239  +3. 6  -5  -4. 3  GS-1 through 4 __ ___ ____________ GS-5 through l L _______________ GS-5 through 8 __ ___ ____ ________ GS-9 through 1 L _______________ GS-12 through 18 _______________  885 3,325 2,409 916 2,632  26 77 67  2. 9 2. 3 2. 8 1. 1 .3  -34 +79 +104 -25 +194  -3. +2. +4. -2. +8.  -15 +9 +8 +1 +1  -36. 6 +13. 2 +13. 6 +11.1 +14. 3  10  8  7 4 5 7 0  +5. o +6. 3 +1 +3 Up through $4,499 _________________ ___ ____ ___________ _______ __ __ ___ ____________________ ___ _____ ________ _ 51 21 41. 2 +3 +6. 3 +1 +5. 0 $4,500 through $7,999_ __________ 36 19 52. 8 -4 -10. 0 -1 -5. 0 $4,500 through $6,499___________ 15 2 13. 3 +7 +87. 5 +2 _________ _ $6,500 through $7,999___________ $8,000 and over _________________________________________ ____________________ ________ ---------- _________ _ Total Wage Board __ ____ ___  Total other pay plans___ ___ Up through $4,499____ __________ $4,500 through $7,999___________ $4,500 through $6,499___________ $6,500 through $7,999___________ $8,000 and over___ _____ _______ __  78  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  51  21  41. 2  304 ___ _____ __ __________  +205  + 207. 1 ___________________ _  l=====~=====l=====l=====l:= = = =l= = = = =I======  2 57 44 13 245  __________ __________ __________ ____ __ ____ _____ _____  __________ __________ __________ __________ __________  +2 +57 +44 +13 +146  + 147. 5  ___________________ -  TABLE  1-18.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196~ and June 1963 ' Government Printing Office Change from 1962  1963 Negro  Pay category Total employees  Number  Total  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans _____ ___  6,845  2,659  38. 8  +288  + 4. 4  -60  -2. 2  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  t, 197  429  35. 8  +12  +1. 0  -133  -23. 7  throu h 411 ________________ GS-1 through GS-5 GS-5 through 8 ---------------GS-9 through 11 ____ ___ _________ - - - - - -- - -- - - - g 18- -_______________ GS-12 through  730 418 345 73 49  -370 59 58 1  50. 14. 16. 1.  7 1 8 4  -22 +20 +17 +3 +14  -2. 9 +5. 0 +5. 2 +4. 3 +40. 0  - 158 +25 +25  -29. 9 + 73. 5 +75. 8  Total Wage Board ________  5,325  +251  +4. 9  + 73  +3. 4  3 2 0 7 1  -245 + 242 +258 -16 +76  -14. 0 +61. 1 +94. 2 -13. 1 +760. 0  ~Psttrough $4,499 ______________ $7 ' 999 - - - - - - - - - - $4' 500 through · $6,499 ____ ___ ____ through $ , 6 500 through $7,999 ___________ $S' ,000 and over _______ __ ___ __ ___ Total other pay plans ______  ~P t1cf~~h $4,499 ______________ h ough $7, 999 ___________ ${' 5 rough $6,499 ___________ $ ,500 6 500 hrough $.7,999 ___________ $S' ' 000 and over _________________  !   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1,750 1,747 890 857 1,828  ------- --- ---------2,226  1,502 638 532 106 86  41. 8 85. 36. 59. 12. 4.  8 5 8 4 7  -340 -992 +390 - 1, 382 +1, 583  -16. - 36. +78. -61. +646.  323  4  1. 2  +25  +8. 4  19 8 296  2 1 1  10. 5 12. 5 .3  +5 -27 +47  +35. 7 -77. 1 +18. 9  ---------- ----------  ---------- ----------  ---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------ -- ------- 1 -44. 9 -25. 0 -22 11. 1 3 27 - 1  -33. 3  ---------- ---------+1 ----------  79  TABLE  1-19.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 1963, Selective Service System Change from l 96i  1963 Pay category  I  Negro Total employees  Total Number  I  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ____ ____  4,977  214  4. 3  -25  -0. 5  +8  +3. 9  Total Classification Act or similar __ __________ _____  901  39  4. 3  +13  +1. 5  +4  +11.4  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through 11 ____________ ____ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through l L _____________ __ GS-12 through 18 _______________  365 490 426 64 46  24 15 12 3  6. 3. 2. 4.  +9 +2 -6 +8 +2  +2. 5 +.4 -1. 4 +14. 3 +4. 5  +2 +2  +9.1 +15. 4  Total Wage Board ________  17  15  -2  -10. 5  -3  -16. 7  Up through $4,499 __________ ____ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ________ ___ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _________________  6 11 10 1  4 11 10 1  7 0 0 0  -3 +1 +1  -33. 3 +10. 0 +11.1  -4 +1 +1  -50. 0 +10. 0 +11. 1  Total other pay plans ______  4,059  160  3. 9  -36  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 _______ __ __ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 _______ ____ $8,000 and over_ ________________  2,804 1,255 1,245 10  109 51 51  3. 9 4. 1 4. 1  -609 +573 +569 +4  80  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  6 1 8 7  ---------- ---------88. 2 66. 100. 100. 100.  ---------- ---------+200. 0 +2 ---------- --------- -  ---------- ---------- ---------- --------- ------------ ---------- ---------- --- ------- ------ ---- --- ---- --- ----------. 9 -17. +84. +84. +66.  8 0 2 7  +7  +4. 6  -19 +26 +26  -14. 8 +1 04. 0 +104. 0  ---------- ------ --- ---------- --------------------- -- ----- --- ---------- --- ------- ---------- ----- -- --- -------- --  and salary groups, Jwne 1962 and June 1968, TaBLE 1-20. -Negr o and total employment by grade  Civil, Serv'ice Commission  Change from 1062  1963 Negro  Pay categor y Total employees  Numbe r  Total  Percen t  Negro  Percen t  Percen t  Total all pay plans ________  3,995  835  20. 9  -28  -0. 7  -56  -6. 3  or Total Classif ication Act similar _________________  3,936  801  20. 4  -32  -. 8  -61  -7.1  1,420 1,803 786 1,017 713  637 161 141 20 3  44. 9 8. 9 17. 9 2. 0 .4  -139 +103 -9 +112 +4  -8. +6. -1. +12. +.  9 1 1 4 6  -93 +32 +30 +2  -12. 7 +24. +21.0 +11.1  __________ gti lt~~g~h 8ii ______ ------ ------ ----  GS-5 throug GS-9 throug h 11 ________________ -- ------___ GS-12 thro~gh 1-8 -----____________ Total Wage Board ________  55  34  61. 8  +4  +7.  ~\i~o ugh $4,499 ______________ throug h $7,999 ____________ $4' $ , 500 ttough $6,499 ____________ 6, 500 t ough $7,999 ____________ $8 •000 and over _________________  15 39 35 4 1  13 21 19 2  86. 53. 54. 50.  7 8 3 0  +2 +2 +1 +1  +15. +5. +2. +33.  4 4 9 3  ------ ---- ---------+5  +17.:.::  +2 +3 +2 +1  +1 .2 +16. 7 +11. +100. 0  ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---4 ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---Total other pay plans _______ ---- ------ ---~\tir~ ~h $4,499 _______________ ------ ------ ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ --------- ---though $7,999 ____________ ------ ------ ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- -----$4' $6•500 ~ough $6,499 ____________ ------ ------ ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---- ---------$8•500 t ough $7,999 ____________ ------ ------ ------ ---- ------ ---- ---------- ------ ---- ------ ---- ---------4 ------ ---- ------ ---- ---------- ------ ---- ------ ---- ------ ---' 000 and over _________________   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  81  TABLE  l-21.-Negro and total employm,ent by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 1963, Information Agen.oy 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent "  Total all pay plans ________  4,563  417  9. 1  +333  +7. 9  -28  -6. 3  Total Classification Act or similar __ _______________  2,781  326  11. 7  +442  +18. 9  -40  -10. 9  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through 1 L _______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through 1 L _______________ GS-12 through 18 _______________  385 1,367 705 662 1,029  105 211 183 28 10  27. 3 15. 4 26. 0 4. 2 1.0  ·+16 +169 +84 +85 +257  +4. +14. +13. +14. +33.  3 1 5 7 3  -51 +13 +4 +9 -2  -32. +6. +2. +47. -16.  Total Wage Board ________  305  44  14. 4  +86  +39. 3  +7  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ____ _______ $4,500 through $6,499 __ __ _______ $6,500 through $7,999 _________ __ $8,000 and over _________________  6 159 84 75 140  4 40 38 2  66. 25. 45. 2.  -3 +64 +21 +43 +25  Total other pay plans ______ Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ____ _______ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _______ _________ _  82  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1,477 12 354 200 154 1, 111  7 2 2 7  ---------- ---------47  3. 2  -----------------10 2. 8 4 6 37  2. 0 3. 9 3. 3  -195 -46 +9 -10 +19 -158  -33. +67. +33. + 134. +21.  3 4 3 4 7  -4 +11 +10 +1  7 6 2 3 7  +18. 9 -50. +37. +35. +100.  0 9 7 0  ------ ---- ------ ----  -11. 7  +5  + 11. 9  -79. +2. -4. +14. -12.  -2 -2 -1 -1 +9  -100. 0 -16. 7 -20. 0 -14. 3 +32.1  3 6 8 1 5  TABLE  -  e and salary groups, June 1962 and Jwne 1963' l-22 .-Ne gro and total employment by grad Sma ll Business Adm inut ratio n Chan ge from 1962  1963 Pay categ ory  -  Negr o Tota l emplo yees  Num ber  Total  Perce nt  Negr o  Perce nt  Perce nt  Tota l all pay plans _______ _  3,075  180  5. 9  +104  +3. 5  +17  +10. 4  ion Act or Total Class ificat simil ar _________ ______ __  3,060  170  5. 6  +99  +3. 3  +11  +11. 1  GS-5 throu gh 8 _________________ GS-9 throu gh IL _______________ - 12 throu gh 18 _______________  891 1, 131 684 447 1,038  114 53 52 1 3  12. 8 4. 7 7. 6 .2 .3  -91 +39 +28 +11 +151  -9. 3 +3. 6 +4. 3 +2. 5 +17. 0  -4 +19 +20 -1 +2  Total Wage Boar d ________  IO  10  100. 0  throu gh 4 __ _____________ __ g~-i GS- throu gh IL _______________  ~ p throu gh $4,499 ______ ________ $4' 5 throu gh $7,999 ______ _____ $ , 50 throu gh $6,499 ____ _______ 6 500 throu gh $7,9 99 ___________ $S' , 000 and over _________________  g  ---------100. ----- -----10-- ----- ----0 IO IO  10  100. 0  -3. +55. +62. -50. +200 .  4 9 5 0 0  ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----2 +2 +2  -100 . 0 +25. 0 +25. 0  -2 +2 +2  - 100. 0 +25. 0 +25. 0  ----- --------- ----- ----- ----- ----- -------------- ----- -- ----- ----- ---------------------------------------------------- ----- -- -----~ +5 -------------- ----5 ---------- ----- ----Tota l other pay plans ______ ----- ----- ---------- ---------~ P tirou gh $4,499 ______________ ----- ----- -- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ------- ----- ----- -·---- ----- ----- ----$4' 5 throu gh $7,999 _____________ _---- ·- ----- -- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ------ ---------- -------------- ----- ----- ---------$ , 500 throu gh $6,499 ____ _____ ----- ----- - ----- ----- -------------- ----- ------------------ ----6 50 +5 ----- ----- ---------- ----- ----$8; 00g!~~o~~~r$7,999 ____ ____ ____ ----- - --- 5-- ----- ----- ----- --------- ----- -----  7 . 726-3 90 0-64 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  83  TABLE  1-23.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, Interstate Oommerce Oommission Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  2,387  285  11. 9  -46  - 1. 9  -2  - 0. 7  Total Classification Act or similar ____________ ___ __  2,361  265  11. 2  -45  -1. 9  -1  -0. 4  GS-1 through 4 _____________ ____ GS-5 through lL __________ _____ GS-5 through 8 ____ - _- - - - - - - - - - _ GS-9 through lL_ - - _____ - ______ GS-12 through 1 _______________  561 939 526 413 861  223 42 40 2  39. 8 4. 5 7. 6 .5  - 7 -42 -28 - 14 +4  - 1. 2 -4. 3 - 5. 1 -3. 3 +. 5  -4 +3 +2 +1  Total Wage Board ________  26  -1  -3. 7  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $ ,000 and over _________________  24 19 5  ---------- ---------20  76. 9  -1. +7. +5. +100.  8 7 3 0  ---------- ----------1  -4. 8  - 6 - 75. 0 -75. 0 +33. 3 +38. 5 +5 +35. 7 +38. 5 +5 +25. 0 ---------- ------------------- ---------- 100. 0 ---------- --------------------- ---------- ---------Total other pay plans ___________________________________________________ _________________ _________ _ ~  2 18 18  100. 0 75. 0 94. 7  -6 +6 +5 +1 -1  Up through $4,499 ______________ ------------ _______ ___ ---------- __________ ---------- ---------- ---------$4,500 through $7,999 ____________ - ______________ __________________ - - - - __ - _ - - _- ________ - - - - ____ - ________ $4,500 through $6,499 ______ _______ ____________ _____________________ - - - ____ - - __________ - _-- ____ - _____ ___ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ ------------ __________ --- - -- ---- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$8,000 and over ___________________________________________________________ --·-------- ___________________ _  84  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  TABLE  1-24.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 196/J, Railroad Retirement Board Change from 1962  1963 Negro  Pay category  Total employees  Number  Total  Percent  egro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ___ ____ _  1,976  399  20. 2  -122  Total Classification Act or similar ________________ _  1,942  381  19. 6  -125  -5. 8  +7  +1. 8  i=====l====l====i====i=====Ji== ==,1====  -6. 0  +7  +1. 9  l==~==l====l====i====i====i== ===i====  + 1. 1 +3 -8. 9 -64 43. 6 287 g~-1 through 4 ________________ _ 659 +4. 4 +4 -5. 3 -62 8.4 94 G -5 through 11_ ______________ _ 1,113 +2. 5 +2 -5. 1 -31 14. 1 81 G -5 through 8 ________________ _ 573 +18. 2 +2 -5. 4 -31 2. 4 13 G -9 through lL ______________ _ 540 +. 6 ---------- ---------+1 170 ---------- ----------12 through 18 ______________ _ l====l= ==,l====i====i====1====1f=== Total Wage Board ________ 31 18 58. 1 ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  Dp through $4 499 _________ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$4,500 through$7 9_9_9_________ _____ _______ 3_0_ 18 60. 0 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$4 , 500 through $6 ' 499 - - - - - - - - - - 22 16 72. 7 ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  f~;ggg !~~i°~~~r~~~9-~9-=-~~===== === Total other pay plans______  ~  --------~- -----~~~~-  3 __________ --------  ========== ========== ========== ========== +3 _______ :, __ ---------- ----------  ~!im~~~iDnr~~i~~i) ~~~)=\~ -----:=::: ==------:: :~~<(/'./'. L'.'.L L'.L'.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  85  TABL"F1  1-25.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, National Labor Relations Board 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro Total  Total employees Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  P ercent  Total all pay plans ___ -- - --  1,940  227  11. 7  +so  +2. 6  -6  -2. 6  Total Classification Act or similar __________ - - - - - - - -  1,910  205  10. 7  +44  +2. 4  -5  -2. 4  GS- 1 through 4_ - _- - _- - - - - - - - - - GS- 5 through 11 ________________ GS- 5 through 8---------------- GS-9 through 11 _____ ___________ 18 __ ____________ _ GS-12 through  387 743 447 296 780  92 102 87 15 11  23. 8 13. 7 19. 5 5. 1 1. 4  -55 +48 +40 +8 +51  -12. 4 +6. 9 +9. 8 +2. 8 +7. 0  -16 +1 0 +11 -1 +1  Total Wage Board _______ _  24  22  91. 7  ----------  - - - - ------  -1  2 2 100. 0 -4 -66. 7 Up through $4,499 ____ -- _- - - - - - - -4 22 20 90. 9 $4,500 through $7,999 _________ - - - +22. 2 +4 +3 21 20 2 95. +4 +23. 5 $4,500 through $6,499 ------------+3 1 $6,500 through $7,999 ------ - _- - - - ---------- ---------- ------- - - - - - - - - - ---- --- ----- -an v over ___ ___ _ __ _ $8,000 ------------ ---------- ---------- ---- ---- -- -- --- ----- - - - -- - 6  Total other pay plans __ - _- _ Up through $4, 499 ______________ $4,500 through $7, 999 _____ - - - - - - - $4,500 through $6,499------ - - - - - - $6,500 through $7,999 -------- - - -- $8,000 and over ______ ___________  86  +6  -- --------  8 9 5 3 0  -4. 3 -66. 7 +17.6 +11. 6  ----------  - - - -- -  -------- - - - -------  --- ---- ----- ----- --- -- ---------- --- ---- -- - ------ -- -- ------ ---- --- ------------------ ---------- ---------- --- --- ---- ---------- ---------- -- --- -- - - ---- -------- --------- - ---------- --------- - ------ -- -- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- - ------ --- --------------------6 ---------- - --------+6 ------ --- - ------ --- - ---------\   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ----- ----- ----------  - 14. +10. +14. -6. +10.  TABLE  1-26.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196<2 and Jwne 196.1 Smithsonian Institution [Includes National Gallery of Art]  -  1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  -  Percent  egro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  1,887  599  31. 7  +243  +14. 8  +57  +10. 5  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  1,219  258  21. 2  +101  +9. 6  +33  +14. 7  gs-1 through 4 ___ ______________ G S-5 through lL __ _______ ______ GS-5 through 8 _________________ G S-9 through 1 L _______________ S-12 through 18 _______________  461 581 380 201 177  178 80 69  38. 6 13. 8 18. 2 5. 5  +22 +57 +24 +33 +28  +5. 0 +10. 9 +6. 7 +19. 6 +18. 8  +20 +13 +8 +5  +12. +19. + 13. + 3.  Total Wage Board ______ - -  668  341  51. 0  +136  +25. 6  +24  +7. 6  ~p through $4,499 __________ - - - ,500 through $7,999 _______ ____ $4,500 through $6,499 _________ - $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over_ ________________  296 363 275 88 9  207 134 124  69. 36. 45. 11.  9 9 1 4  +53 +76 +13 +63 +7  8 5 0 0 0  -9 +33 +25 +8  -4. 2 +32. 7 +25. 3 +400. 0  11  ---------- ----------  10  +21. +26. +5. +252. +350.  7 4 1 3  ---------- - - --------  ---------- ------------------- --------- Total other pay plaus ______ ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- - - - - --------------- ---------rp through $4,499 ______________ ------------ ---------- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------~,500 through $7,999 ___________ ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------------,500 through $6,499 _____ -- - -- - ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------------f6,500 through $7,999 ___________ ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ------ ... ------------ ---------8,000 and over _________________ ------------------------------------------------ ----------   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  87  TABLE  1-27.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, Jwne 196f and June 1963, Federal Oommunications OommVJsion Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total employees  Total Number  Negro  Percent  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans __ - __ - __  1,488  147  9. 9  -16  -1. 1  +30  +25. 6  Total Classification Act or similar ____ - _- _- - - __ - ___  1,440  121  8. 4  -21  -1. 4  +25  +26. 0  GS-1 through 4 __ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-5 through 11 ________________ GS-5 through 8_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-9 through 11 ________________ GS-12 through 18 _______________  297 673 444 229 470  67 48 38 10 6  22. 6 7. 1 8.6 4. 4 1. 3  -25 -23 -10 -13 +27  -7. 8 -3. 3 -2. 2 -5. 4 +6.1  +13 +12 +6 +6  Total Wage Board ________  40  26  65. 0  +4  +11.1  60. 71. 69. 83.  -6 +9 +6 +3 +1  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999_ - - - -- - -- -$4,500 through $6,499 ___ - _- - - - __ $6,500 through $7,999 ____ ------$8,000 and over _________________  3 5 32 23 26 18 6 5 3 ------ - - - -  0 9 2 3  - 54. +39. +30. +100. +50.  5 1 0 0 0  +24. +33. +18. +150.  1 3 8 0  ---------- ---------+5  +23. 8  -4 +9 +6 +3  -57.1 +64. 3 +so. o + 150. 0  ---------- ----- ----+14. 3 ---------- ---------+1 ---------Up through $4,499 ______________ ------------ ---------- ------------ ------- ---------- ---------- ---------$4,500 through $7,999_ - __ ------- ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$4,500 through $6,499 _____ - - - - - _ ------------ ---------- ---------- ------ ---- ---------- ---------- -- ---- ---$6,500 through $7,999 ______ - - ___ ------------ ---------- ---------- ------------------- ------------------$8,000 and over _________________ 8 ---------- --------- +1 +14. 3 ---------- ---------Total other pay plans ______  8  \  88  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ----------  - - --------  T ABLE  1-28.-Negro and total employment, by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963 Securities and Exchange Commission ' 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  1,382  113  8. 2  Total Classification Act or similar ____________ ._____  1,360  104  7. 6  gs-1 through 4 __________________ GS-5 through IL _______________ GS-5 through 8 _________________ GS-9 through IL _______________ S-12 through 18 _______________  247 633 292 341 480  63 40 36 4 1  25. 5 6.3 12. 3 1. 2 .2  Total Wage Board ________  17  9  52. 9  $4,500 through $6,499 _________ - $6,500 through $7,999 ________ - - 8,000 and over _________________  16 11 5 1  7 2  56. 3 63. 6 40. 0  f P through $4,499 ______________ ---------$4,500 through $7,999 ___________ -----------9  Percent  +4. 1  +3  +2. 7  +50  +3. 8  +2  +2. 0  -11 +11 -30 +41 +50  -4. 3 +1. 8 -9. 3 +13. 7 +11.6  -8 +10 +8 +2  +55  -11. +33. +28. +100.  3 3 6 0  ---------- ----------  +1 +12. 5 ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------- ------------------+1 +12. 5 ----------2 -15. 4 +2  +66. 7  -1 +2  -12. 5  ------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ------ - - - - ---------+5 ---------- ---------- ------ - - - Total other pay plans ___ __ 5 ---------- - - - ------through $4,499 ______________ ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$4,500 through $7,999 _______ - - - - ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$4,500 through $6,499 ___________ ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$6,500 through $7,999 ___________ -------------- ---------- ---------5 ---------- ---------- ---------+5 ---------- ---------- ---------8,000 and over __ .:,. ______________ ---------- ----------  rp -   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  89  TABLE  1-29.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 1969, Federal Deposit Insurance Oorporation Change from 1962  1963  Pay category  Negro Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  1,226  33  2. 7  -19  -1. 5  -3  -8. 3  Total Classification Act or similar _______ - _- __ - _- - _  1,223  33  2. 7  -18  -1. 5  -3  -8. 3  GS-1 through 4_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _GS-5 through lL- - - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-5 through 8---------------11 ________________ GS-9 through GS-12 through 18 _______________  227 732 381 351 264  29 4 4  12. 8 .5 1.0  -18 +9 +9  -7. 3 +1. 2 +2. 4  -4 +1 +1  -12. 1 +33. 3 +33. 3  ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------9 -3. 3 ---------- ------------------- ----------  Total Wage Board ________________________________________________________________________________ _  mtm!f;iiY(;ir~~~~~)~~ ~~~~~~~~)= ~=~=~~~~==  ========== ~=~~====== ========== ========== =======~~~  $8,000 and over ________________________________________________________________________________________ _  Total other pay plans _____ _  3 ---------- ----------  -1  - 25. 0 ___ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  ~{8fl~i~!\Y:i~r==: =:: :: :: =:::::: ::::: ::: :-----------: ::_: : ====== == ====== == == ===== == ==== ======= === $6 500 through $7,999 _____________________________ _____________ $8;000 and over_________________  90  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3  ---------  ---------= ------~i- ---~25.-0- ========== ==========  TABLE  1-30.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963 Federal Home Loan Bank Board . ' 1963  Change from 1962 Negro  Pay category Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  1,056  22  2. 1  - 117  - 10. 0  +1 0  +83. 3  Total Classification Act or similar ______ - - - - - - - - - -  1, 039  19  1.8  -118  -10. 2  +9  + 90. 0  16 3 3  11. 0 .5 1. 4  +4 -133 -24 -109 +11  +2. -18. -10. -21. +4.  +6 +3 +3  +60. 0  +1  +so. 0  GS-1 through 4 _________ - - - - - - - GS-5 through 1 L ________ - - - - - - GS-5 through 8_____ ______ - - - - - GS-9 through 1 L ________ - - - - - - GS-12 through 18________ ---- - - -  145 605 211 394 289  Total Wage Board________  14  3  21. 4  Up through $4,499______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___ ________ $4,500 through $6,499___________  2 12 9  1 2 2  50. 0 +1 +100. 0 +1 _______ ___ 16. 7 ---------- ---------- ---------- _________ _ 22. 2 ----- ---------- ---------- _________ _  ---------- ------------------- ----------  +1  8 0 2 7 0  +8. 0  ---------------------------- ------------------- ----------  itggg !~~o~~~r~~~~~~~~========= ----------~- ========== ========== ========== ========== ========== ========== Total other pay plans______  3 ---------- ---------- ----------  -------- ---------- ----------  ft:m~JIIDl)~t\\\ --========~-\/\\?\?Lt \\H ?L? t?L   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  91  TABLE  1-31.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 1963, Federal Trade Oommission Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Negro Total employees  Total Number  Negro  Percent  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ___ - - - - _  1, 171  96  8. 2  +56  +5. 0  +24  +33. 3  Total Classification Act or Similar ____ - ___ - - - - - - - _  1,146  88  7. 7  +52  +4. 8  +20  +29. 4  GS-1 through 411__________________ --------------GS-5 through GS-5 through 811__________________ --------------GS-9 through 18_______________ GS-12 through  236 509 289 220 401  57 31 24 7  +9 +11 +8 +3  +18. +55. +so. +75.  Total Wage Board ________  20  7  35. 0  +5  Up through $4 499 - _ - _- - - - - - - _- _ $4,500 through $7,999 - _ - - _- _- - __ $4,500 through $6,499 ___ - ___ - ___ $6,500 through $7,999 ___ - _______ $8,000 and over _________________  4 15 10 5 1  2 5 5  50. 0 33. 3 50. 0  +3 +1 +2 -1 +1  24. 6. 8. 3.  2 1 3 2  ---------- ----------  ---------- ------------------- - - - -------  +11 -4 -35 +31 +39  +7. -. -10. +16. +10.  8 8 8 4 8  +33. 3 +300. +7. +25. -16.  0 1 0 7  8 0 o 0  ---------- ---------+3  +75.0  +2 +1 +1  ---------+25. 0 +25. 0  ---------- ------------------- ---- ------ ---------5 1 Total other pay plans ______ 20. 0 -1 -16. 7 +1 ---------Up through $4,499 __________ - - __ ------------ ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------$4,500 through $7,999 ___________ ------------ ---------- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------$4,500 through $6,499 __ - - _- - - - - - ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- -- -------- ---------- ---------$6,500 through $7,999 __ - - _- _- - __ ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$8,000 and over _________________ 5 1 20. 0 -1 -16. 7 +1 ----------  92  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  TABLE  1-32.-Negro and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196~ and June 1963 Federal Power Commission ' 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962 Negro  Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Negro  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  1,210  156  12. 9  +223  +22. 6  +69  +79. 3  Total Classification Act or similar______________ -  1, 181  136  11. 5  +222  +23. 1  +69  +103. 0  101 35 30 5  38. 6. 10. 2.  +61 +90 +66 +24 +71  +29. 8 +20.4 +29. 9 +10. 9 +22. 7  +46 +23 +20 +3  +83. +191. +200. +150.  6 7 0 0  +4. 3  -50. +21. +18. +33.  0 4 2 3  0 6 5 0  GS-1 through 4 ________ - _- - - - - - GS-5 through 1 L _______ - - - - - - - GS-5 through 8_________ - - - - - - - GS-9 through 1 L _____ ___ - - - - - - GS-12 through 18_______________  266 531 287 244 384  Total Wage Boa:-d ________  24  20  83. 3  +1  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ________ - - $6,500 through $7,999 ______ --- - $8,000 and over _______ _____ _____  4 20 14 6  3 17 13 4  75. 0 85. 0 92. 9 66. 7  -2  ---------- ----------  +3 +2 +1  -33. +11. +16. +20.  3 6 7 0  ---------- ------------------- -- --------3 +3 +2 +1  ------------ ---------- ---------- ------------ -------- ---------- ---------5 ---------- ---------- ------------ -------- ---------- - - -------Total other pay plans _____ Up through $4,499 ______________ ------------ ---------- ---------- ------------ -------- ---------- ---------h,500 through $7,999 _____ --- - - - ------------ ---------- ---------- ------------ -------- ---------- ---------$4,500 through $6,499 _______ - - - - ------------ ---------- ---------- ------------ -------- ---------- ---------$6,500 through $7,999 ______ - - - - - ------------ ---------- ---------- ------------ -------- ---------- ---------$8,000 and over_________________ 5 ---------- ---------- ------------ -------- ---------- --------   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  93  TABLE  1-33.-Negro and total employment by_ grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 1963, Soldwrs' Home 1963  Change from 1962  Pay category  Negro Total employees  Total Number  Negro  Percent  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  1,021  456  44. 7  Total Classification Act or similar _____________ - - _-  343  192  56.0  GS-1 through 4----------------GS-5 through 11 ________________ GS-5 through 8----------------11 ________________ GS-9 through 18 _______________ GS-12 through  250 85 67 18 8  188 4 4  75. 2 4. 7 6. 0  Total Wage Board ______ ·__  449  243  54. 1  +11  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ____ - ______ $4,500 through $6,499 _ - - - - - - - - - $6,500 through $7, 999 - - - - - - - - - - $8,000 and over _________________  237 211 190 21 1  209 34 34  88. 2 16. 1 17. 9  -23 +33 +23 +10 +1  Total other pay plans _____ -  229  21  9. 2  +25  +12. 3  +6  +40. 0  Up through $4,499 __ - --- - -- - - -- $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 __ - - - - --- -$8,000 and over _____________ ____  223 5  21  9. 4  +25  +12. 6  +6  +40. 0  94  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  +36  +8  +1.8  +7  +3. 8  7 0 1 5  +6 +1 +1  +3. 3 +33. 3 +33. 3  +2. 5  -5  -2. 0  -3 -2 -2  -1.4 -5. 6 -5. 6  +3. 7  ---------- ----------7 +7 +5 +2  -2. +9. +8. +12.  ---------- ------------------- ------------------- -------- - - ---------- ---------- ---------- --------- -  ---------- ------------------- --------- -  -8. +18. +13. +90.  8 5 8 9  ---------- ----------  ---------- ---------- ----------  ---------- -------- - - ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----- ----5 ---------- ---------- ------------------- ---------- ---------1 ---------- -------- - - ------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------  Spanish-Speaking and Total Employment in Selected Agencies June, J963  INDEX Spanish-Speaking and Total Employment, 1962-1963 Table  Coverage  2-1 Department of the Army 2-2 Department of the Navy 2-3 Department of t he Air Force 2-4 Post Office Department   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Table  2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8  Coverage  Department of the Interior Department of Agriculture Veterans Administration Summary, all other agencies  95  TABLE  2-1.-Spanish-speaking and total employment by grade and salary group, June 1961£ and June 1963, Department of the Army 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962  Spanish-speaking Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Spanishspeaking  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans_ - - - - - - -  325, 117  9,219  2. 8  -20, 952  -6.1  - 131  -1. 4  Total Classification Act or similar ___________ - __ - - _  198,652  3,233  1. 6  -7, 622  -3. 7  +119  +3. 8  GS-1 through 4 __ - - _- - - - - - - - - - - GS-5 through 1 L_ -- - - __ - - - - - - - _ GS-5 through 8- -------- - ------GS-9 through 1L - - _- - _- - ___ - - - _ GS-12 through 18 _______________  65,554 102,616 59,644 42,972 30,482  1,549 1,548 1,122 426 136  2. 4 1. 5 1. 9 1.0 .4  -9, 578 +389 -67 +456 +1, 567  -12. 7 +. 4 -. 1 +1. 1 +5. 4  -70 +165 +82 +83 +24  -4. 3 +11.9 +7. 9 +24. 2 +21. 4  Total Wage Board ________  124,176  5,967  4. 8  -13, 878  -10. 1  -258  -4. 1  Up through $4,499 __ -----------$4,500 through $7,999_ - _ - - __ - ___ $4,500 through $6,499 ___ - - ______ $6,500 through $7,999_ - - - - - - -- - $8,000 and over _________________  15,922 102,539 73,908 28,631 5,715  1,052 4,827 3,767 1,060 88  6. 4. 5. 3. 1.  6 7 1 7 5  -7, 024 -7, 591 -12, 099 +4, 508 +737  -30. 6 -6. 9 -14. 1 +18. 7 +14.8  -256 -39 -489 +450 +37  Total other pay plans ______  2,289  19  .8  +548  +31. 5  +8  +72. 7  Up through $4,499 ___ - -- __ - __ - - _ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 - - - - - - - - - - $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _________________  649 1,341 908 433 299  5 13 2 11 1  .8 1.0 .2 2. 5 .3  -306 +792 +528 +264 + 62  -32. 0 +144. 3 + 138. 9 + 156. 2 +26. 2  +4 +4 +2 +2  +400. 0 +44. 4  \  96  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -19. -. - 11. +73. +72.  6 8 5 8 5  --- --+---22. 2 --- ------- ----------  TABLE  2-2.-Spanish-speaking and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and Jwne 1963, Department of the Navy t\  1963  Change from 1962  Spanish-speaking  Pay category  Total  Total employees Number  Percent  Spanishspeaking  +154  +2. 3  +83  +7. 2  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  320,440  6,838  2. 1  +8, 754  +2. 8  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  128,093  1,230  1.0  +6, 260  +5. 1  GS-I through 4 _________________ gs-5 through 1 L __ ____________ S- 5 through 8 __ _________ ______ gs-9 through lL _______________ S- 12 through 18 __ _____________  46,002 61,838 32,946 28,892 20,253  655 530 325 205 45  1. 4 .9 1.0 .7 .2  -46 +3, 740 +1, 627 +2, 113 +2, 566  Total Wage Board ___ _____  190,825  5,596  2. 9  +6, 393  Up through $4,499 ___ ___________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ $8,000 and over _________________  12,524 164, 109 94,410 69,699 14, 192  642 4,840 2,925 1,915 114  5. 2. 3. 2.  Total other pay plans ______  1,522  P through $4,499 __ ____________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ________ - -$6,500 through $7,999 ______ ___ -8,000 and over _________________  56 885 494 391 581  r   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -. +6. +s. +7. +14.  Percent  1 4 2 9 5  -20 +101 +39 +62 +2  +3. 5  -106  -1. 9  1 9 3 5 1  +18 +3 -762 +800 +50  +2. 9 +. 8 -20. 7 +71.7 +7 . 1  -3. +23. +13. +43. +4.  0 5 6 4 7  1 9 1 7  .8  -3, 560 +4, 6 3 -18, 387 +23, 070 +5, 270  12  .8  -3, 899  -71. 9  -35  -74. 5  2 9 8 1 1  3. 6 1.0 1. 6 .3 .2  -55 -2, 869 -1, 785 -1, 084 -975  -49. -76. -78. -73. - ·62.  5  +2 - 30 --,- 26 -4 - 7  ----------76. 9  -22. +2. -16. +49. +59.  4 3 5 7  - 76. 5 0. 0 -87. 5  -  97  TABLE  2-3.-Spanish-spea king and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 1963, Department of the Air Force Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Spanish-speaking Total employees  Total Number  Spanishspeaking  Percent  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans_-------  271,730  15,482  5. 7  -4, 734  -1. 7  -1, 143  -6. 9  Total Classification Act or similar __________ _______  152,544  4,467  2. 9  -179  -.1  -238  -5. 2  GS-1 through 4 _________________ GS-5 through 11 _- - - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-5 through 8----------------GS-9 through 1 L _- _- - - _- - - - - - - GS-12 through 18 _______________  48,089 81,749 44,046 37,703 22,706  2,322 2,022 1,432 590 123  4. 8 2. 5 3. 3 1. 6 .5  -4, 063 +2, 299 +633 + 1,666 +1, 585  -7. +2. +1. +4. +7.  8 9 5 6 5  -324 +79 +95 -16 +7  Total Wage Board ____ - ___  114,070  10,162  8. 9  -7, 216  -5. 9  -1, 705  -14. 4  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 _ - - - -- -- - - $4,500 through $6,499 - - - - - - - - - - $6,500 through $7,999 _____ ______ $8,000 and over_ ________________  9,201 101,086 77,761 23,325 3,783  2,235 7,883 7, 247 636 44  24. 3 7. 8 9. 3 2. 7 1. 2  -4, 512 -3, 488 -8, 331 +4, 843 +784  -32. -3. -9. +26. +26.  9 3 7 2 1  -1, 079 -646 -654 +8 +20  -32. -7. -8. +1. +83.  Total other pay plans ______  5,116  853  16. 7  +2, 661  +108. 4  +800  +1509. 4  Up through $4,499 _____ - - - - - - - - - $4,500 through $7,999-- --------$4,500 through $6,499 __ - - - _- - - - _ $6,500 through $7,999 ________ ___ $8,000 and over_ ________________  529 4,275 2,982 1,293 312  22 826 658 168 5  4. 19. 22. 13. 1.  -139 +2, 732 + 1,875 +857 +68  -20. +177. +169. +196. +27.  -16 +811 +643 +168 +5  -42.1 +5406. 7 +4286. 7  \  98   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  2 3 1 0 6  8 1 4 6 9  -12. +4. +7. -2. +6.  2 1 1 6 0  6 6 3 3 3  -- --------  ----------  TABLE  2-4.-Spanish-speaking and total employment by grade and salary groups, June J96t2 and June 1963, Post Office Departm,ent 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962  0  Spanish-speaking Total  Total employees Number  Percent  Spanishspeaking  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  584, 140  9,739  1. 7  +6, 501  +1. 1  +1: 121  To~al. Classification Act or s1m1lar _____________ :.. ___  1,619  2  1  +81  +5. 3  +2  2  .8  0 ~-5 through 8 _________________ 0 -9 through lL _______________ 08-12 through 18 _______________  262 774 535 239 583  -18 +26 +35 -9 +73  -6. 4 +3. 5 +7. 0 -3. 6 +14. 3  Total Wage Board ________  37  P through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $~,500 through $7,999 ___________ ,000 and over _________________  1 34 23  Total postal field service ___  582,475  9,737  1. 7  +6, 428  +1. 1  +1, 119  +13. 0  ::~-1 through 4 1 ______________ PF -5 through lL ______________ PF~-5 through 8 _______________ _ PF -9 through lL ______________ S-12 through 20 ______ ____ ____  499,630 79,216 66,205 13, 011 3,629  9, 194 534 472 62 9  1. 8 .7 7  +2, 234 +4, 200 +3, 630 +570 -6  +. 4 +5. 6 +5. 8 +4. 6 -. 2  + 1, 035 +79 +65 +14 +5  +12. 7 +17. 4 +16. 0 +29. 2 +125, 0  gs-1 through 4 ______________ - - S-5 through lL_ :.. _____________  r  11  2  +13. 0  ------------ ---------------- ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- ---------+2  ---------- ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- ---------- - -2 -5. 1 ---------- ------------------- ----------1 -50. 0 ---------- ------------------- ----------1 -2. 9 ---------- -------------- --- -- ---------------------------- ---------- ------------------- ----------1 -8. 3 ------------------- -------------------------------- ----- ------------------- ------ --- - ----------  .5 2  -6 -40. 0 -------------------------- -- ---------through $4,499 _______________ ----------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$4'500 through $7,999 ___________ - ----------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$ ,500 through $6,499 ____________ ----------- - --------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------$ 6,500 through $7,999 ____________ ----------- - --------- ------- --- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------40. 0 ---------- ----------6 8,000 and over _________________ 9 ---------- ---------Total other pay plans ______  ff  1  9  Includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers.  99 726-390 0-64-8   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  TABLE  2-5.-Spanish-speaking and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 196f and June 1963, Department of the Interior Change from 1962  1963 Pay category  Spanish-speaking Total employees  Total Number  Spanishspeaking  Percent  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans __ - - - - - _  65,076  1, 106  1. 7  + 10,337  +18. 9  +121  +12. 3  Total Classification Act or similar ____ - _- __ - _- __ - __  47,992  614  1. 3  +6, 454  +15. 5  +54  +9. 6  GS-1 through 4_ - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - GS-5 through 11 __ - - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-5 through 8----------------GS-9 through 11 ________________ GS-12 through 18 _______________  13,927 25,643 13,975 11,668 8,422  310 273 195 78 31  2. 2 1. 1 1. 4 .7 .4  +2, 234 +2, 565 +960 +1, 605 +1, 655  +19. 1 +11.1 +7. 4 +15. 9 +24. 5  +47 -3 -2 -1 +10  +17.9 -1. 1 -1. 0 -1. 3 +47. 6  Total Wage Board ______ - _  16,245  471  2. 9  +4, 481  +38. 1  +63  +15. 4  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 __ - - _- - - - - $6,500 through $7,999 __ - - _______ $8,000 and over _________________  5,247 10, 118 7,640 2,478 880  246 220 183 37 5  4. 7 2. 2 2.4 1. 5 .6  +1, 629 +2, 444 +1, 981 +463 +408  +45. +31. +35. +23. +86.  0 8 0 0 4  +2 +58 +43 +15 +3  +.8 +35. 8 +30. 7 +68. 2 + 150. 0  Total other pay plans ______  839  21  2. 5  -598  -41. 6  +4  +23. 5  -476 -178 -225 +47 +56  -61. 3 -29. 2 -44. 5 +45. 2 + 109. 8  +2 +2 +2  +12. 5 +200. 0 +200. 0  Up through $4,499 _____ - -- _- ---$4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___ - _- - - - - $6,500 through $7,999 __________ $8,000 and over _________________  100  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  300 18 6. 0 432 3 .7 281 3 1. 1 151 ---------- - - -------107 - - -------- ----------  ---------- -- ----------------- ----------  TABLE  2--6.-Spanish-speaking and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, Department of Agriculture n  1963  Pay category  Change from 1962  Spanish-speaking Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Spauishspeaking  Percent  Percent  -  Total all pay plans ________  95,623  1, 410  I. 5  +3, 513  +3. 8  -81  -5. 4  To~al. Classification Act or s1m1lar _________________  82,072  743  .9  +3, 409  +4. 3  -62  -7. 7  g~-1 through 4 _______________ - _ GS -5 through IL _______________ GS -5 through 8 _________________ GS -9 through IL _______ ________ -12 through 18 _______________  24,534 46,772 26,737 20,035 10,766  409 316 245 71 18  I. 7  .7 .9 .4 .2  -122 +2, 592 + 1,290 +1, 302 +939  -. 5 +5. 9 +.5. 1 +7. 0 +9. 6  -89 +20 +3 +17 +7  Total Wage Board ________  11,604  665  5. 7  +123  +1. 1  - 20  -2. 9  P through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ____________ $~,500 through $7,999 ___________ ,000 and over ______ ___________  6,966 4,588 3,937 621 80  565 100 97 3  8. 1 2. 2 2. 5 .5  -494 +602 +399 +203 +15  -6. 6 +15. 2 +11.3 +48. 6 +23. 1  -36 +16 +15 +1  -6. 0 +19. 0 +18. 3  Total other pay plans ______  1,947  2  .I  -19  -1. 0  rp through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 _________ -$4,500 through $6,499 __________ $~,500 through $7,999 ___________ ,000 and over _________________  484 1,088 796 292 375  1 1 1  .2 .1 .1  -142 +11 -3 +20 +106  f  -   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ---------- ----------  ---------- ------------------- ----------  -22. +1. -. +7. +39.  7 6 4 4 4  -17. +6. +1. +31. +63.  9 8 2 5 6  +so. o  ---------- ---------+1  +100. 0  ---------- ---------+1 ---------+1 --------------- ---- ------------------- ----------  101  TABLE  2-1.-Spanish-speakvng and total employment by grade and salary groups, June 1962 and June 1963, Veterans Administration Change from 1962  1963  Spanish-speaking  Pay category  Total employees  Total Number  Spanishspeaking  Percent  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans_ - - - - - - -  150,273  2,621  1. 7  -447  -0. 3  +134  +5. 4  Total Classification Act or similar __ - __ - - - - - - - - - - - -  112,530  1,559  1. 4  +1, 822  +1. 6  +189  +13. 8  GS-1 through 4_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-5 through 1 L_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-5 through 8 _____ ____________ GS-9 through 11 ___ - - - - - - - - - - - - GS-12 through 18 _______________  53,924 45,979 30,255 15,724 12,627  986 391 309 82 182  1. 8 .9 1.0 .5 1. 4  -1, 620 +2, 009 +918 + 1,091 + 1,433  -2. 9 +4. 6 +3. 1 +7. 5 +12. 8  +55 +78 +66 +12 +56  +5. 9 +24. 9 +27. 2 +17.1 +44. 4  Total Wage Board ________  35,094  1,028  2. 9  -867  -2. 4  +19  +1. 9  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___ ____ - - - $6,500 through $7,999 ___ - __ - - - - $8,000 and over _______ ___ - ____ - -  19,766 15,026 12,214 2,812 302  648 380 340 40  3 5 8 4  -2, 300 +1, 370 +454 +916 +63  -10. +10. +3. +48. +26.  4 0 9 3 4  -92 +111 +90 +21  -12. 4 +11. 3 +36. 0 +110.5  Total other pay plans ______  2,649  34  1. 3  -1, 402  -34. 6  -74  Up through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ___________ $4,500 through $6,499 ___________ $6,500 through $7,999 ____ ____ ___ $8,000 and over _________________  2,198 353 268 85 98  28 6 6  1. 3 1. 7 2. 2  +535 -1, 285 -846 -439 -652  +32. -78. -75. -83. -86.  2 4 9 8 9  -30 -34 -32 -2 -10  \  102  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3. 2. 2. 1.  ---------- ----------  ---------- ------------------- ----------  ---------- ----------68. 5 -51. -85. -84. -100. -100.  7 0 2 0 0  TABLE  2-8.-Spanish-speaking and total employment by grade and salary groups June J96i and June 1963, summary, all other agencies ' 1963 Pay category  Change from 1962  Spanish-speaking Total employees  Total Number  Percent  Spanishspeaking  Percent  Percent  Total all pay plans ________  486,409  5,267  1. 1  +38, 023  +8. 5  +820  +18. 4  Total Classification Act or similar _________________  379,549  3,444  .9  +29, 178  +8. 3  +425  +14. 1  gs-1 through 4 ____________ - _- - G S-5 through 1 L _________ ____ __ ~-5 through 8 _________________ 0 -9 through 1 L _______________ G S-12 through 18 __ _____________  103,037 193,157 107, 065 86,092 83,355  1,287 1,907 1, 181 726 250  1. 2 1.0 1. 1 .8 .3  +4, 916 +13, 222 +5, 544 +7, 678 + 11,040  +5. 0 +7. 3 +5. 5 +9. 8 +15. 3  +118 +252 +105 +147 +55  +10.1 +15. 2 +9. 8 +25. 4 +28. 2  r  Total Wage Board ________  68, 160  1,286  1. 9  +2, 564  +3. 9  +160  +14. 2  P through $4,499 ______________ $4,500 through $7,999 ________ - -$4,500 through $6,499 _________ - $6,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over ______ ___ ________  14, 641 45,107 31,364 13,743 8,412  404 855 713 142 27  2. 8 1. 9 2. 3 1.0 .3  -3, 387 +3, 499 +3, 878 -429 +2, 502  -18. 8 +8. 3 +14. 1 -3. 0 +42. 3  -57 +208 +123 +85 +9  -12. 4 +32. 1 +20. 8 +149. 1 +50. 0  r  Total other pay plans ______  38,700  537  1. 4  +6, 281  +19. 4  +235  +77. 8  P through $4,499 ______________ $:,500 through $7,999 ___________ $ ,500 through $6,499 ___________ $ 6,500 through $7,999 ___________ 8,000 and over _________________  7,492 13,988 9,599 4,389 17,220  252 156 107 49 129  3. 4 1. 1 1. 1 1. 1 .7  -334 +2, 336 + 1,675 +661 +4, 279  -4. 3 +20. 0 +21. 1 +17.7 +.33. 1  +139 +49 +24 +25 +47  +123. 0 +45. 8 + 28. 9 +104. 2 +57. 3  -   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  103  CHAPTER SEVEN Government Complaint System Prior to the issuance of Executive Order 10925, complaint processing was the primary method by which previous antidiscrimination Executive Orders carried out the Federal policy of nondiscrimination. Consequently, it has been the means by which administering agencies have both implemented a nondiscriminatory policy and have attempted to redress grievances stemming from race, religion, color, or national origin. In relying upon the complaint process, Government action rested h0avily upon the willingness and perhaps in some situations, the temerity of a~ individual to sign an allegation of discrimination against an employer who had economic power over his welfare and might conceivably retaliate against him for such action. Thus, it is unlikely that the number of cases filed reflected the magnitude of discrimination or even the number of grievances minorities harbored against their employers. Fear of reprisal may still deter many from filing complaints. The Committee's correspondence tends to support such a view. Anonymous letters giving allegations and detailed supporting evidence; complaints filed directly with the Committee with insistence that the Committee staff investigate; and letters of withdrawal without reasons stated or evidence of corrective action received after the agency begins investigation show that some who feel discriminated against still are fearful of submitting a signed complaint. However, the quantitative significance of this would be hard to determine. Limited educational attainment, particularly illiteracy and 1ow aspiration level, no doubt, also restrict the aggrieved in actually filing formal written complaints. On the other hand, there is some evidence that the complaint load rises, at least temporarily as discrimination declines. During the life of ~his Committee, significant growth in minority group employment has occurred ( see Government Employment Census). 104  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  When the complaint load is related to number of employees, it is apparent that its numerical significance is small. But it should be noted that, prior to Executive Order 10925, case processing has been virtually the sole means by which discriminatory patterns involving whole business units ( and Government agencies) have been changed by various President's Committees, and State and municipal Fair Employment Commissions. Some Pattern Changes  Illustrative of employment pattern changes resulting from complaints are two cases recently closed by the Committee. One involved the U.S. Patent Office, Department of Commerce. The ?ther involved the Bureau of Engraving and Printmg, U.S. Treasury Department. These cases are especially significant in that actions taken to resolve them indicate a change in the utilization pattern of minorities and further show that new procedures have been instituted as an integral part of a system aimed at full compliance with the Executive Order. These procedures include a new promotion plan, the posting of all vacancies, employee review of supervisory ratings with right of appeal, selection for appointment from the first t~ree names on the promotion selection lists, extens10n. of ~rea of consideration for promotions and momtormg of promotion practices by the Deputy Employment Policy Officer. In both instances, the complaints filed by a few h_ave bro~ght about changes in policies and pract1ce.g which affect all minority group employees. The complaints received are understandably concentrated in a few larger agencies-as are the employees of the Federal Government. Four-fifths of the complaints received by the Committee, and about the same fraction of the total Government e~ployees, are in seven departments and agencies-Post Office Department, Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force Veterans Administration, Department of Agric~lture, and Treasury  Department. On March 1, 1963, the Committee had received 1,631 complaints or 81.3 percent of the total received from these agencies. Their total employment was approximately 1,835,303 or 81.2 percent of total -Government employment. However, the case load of each individual agency did not appear to be in proportion to the number of persons employed by it. Some had a complaint load which was more than, ,some less than proportionate to total employment. Complaints received by the Committee in its first 2 full years vary widely geographically. About one-fourth of them have come from the two civil service regions comprising most of the South, i.e., the Atlanta and Dallas Regions, 23.2 percent. The New York, Philadelphia and Boston Regions, which include most of the populous Middle Atlantic and New England States, account for 24.3 percent of all complaints received. Metropolitan Washington, D.C. has accounted for 18.8 percent, the Far West, 13.6 percent ( San Francisco and Seattle Regions) ; and the Midwest 13.5 percent ( Chicago Region) .  Case Load and Affirmative Action If positive approaches are developed and change overall agency-wide or installation-wide patterns positively, the number of complaints should decline at some point because the basic causes for them will have been more effectively reduced. This, however should not be expected to occur 1.?1mediately. 'The rapid development of affirm~tive action programs which eliminate the basic causes of complaints provides the only permanently effective long-range answer to large complaint loads. Furthermore, this process serves as a check on the compliance approach-failures of Particular units or agencies to expeditiously develop corrective procedures may in the long run cause the number of complaints filed against them t? appear high as compared with the more aggressive agencies.  Complaint Processing as a Specialized Grievance Procedure Without regard to the impact of complaint Processing on the overall scope of discriminatory Practices or agency- or Committee-initiated pos~tive programs, complaint processing will be a very 1Inportant cog in the machinery used to carry out Executive Order 10925 for some time to come.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The establishment of a process for handling complaints on behalf of individuals who feel aggrieved because of alleged discriminations bas d on race creed, color, or national origin, is firmly set in the' public mind-particularly that of the minority public. Any steps that appear to weaken or threaten the integrity of this assumed "right" would be detrimental to the overall program. Virtually all of the laws and executive orders established by Government to eliminate discrimination against minorities have been legally based upon rights granted to an individual and, consequently the enforcement machinery of this order has been oriented primarily toward the protection of the individual against unequal treatment. In some cases these rights are guaranteed under the Constitution. Others are established by legislation; still others result from a mutual agreement appearing as a clause in a contract, e.g., a labormanagement contract or a contract between the Federal Government and a Government supplier. Each of these confers a right to protection upon the individual. Consequently, the initiating force which activates the policy is a complaint, generally from an aggrieved party. There is a tacit assumption that persons should have such protection if they want it and seek it. The complaint process provided by Executive Order 10925, is responsive to our ancient tradition of individual rights. The procedures established by the Committee for handling complaints provide for:  (1) Filing of the complaint with the Committee or with the agency concerned. (2) Investigation of the complaint by designated agency representatives. (3). Hearing procedures. ( 4) Review by the Committee of agency actions with the right to concur, reject, alter or reverse. (5) Right of appeal to Executive Vice Chairman of Committee for final decision. Analysis of Complaints Over First Two Years  As of March 1, 1963, the Committee had received 2,005 complaints of discrimination because of race, creed, color, or national origin. A total of 1,169 complaints had been closed. Corrective action had been taken in 423 cases (36.1 percent). No discrimination was found in one-half (50.5 percent) of them, while the remaining one-fifth (18.1 percent) were distributed al105  DISTRIBUTION oF TCYrAL FEDERAL EMPWYEES AND TCYrAL CoMPLAINTS RECEIVED BY THE CoMMITrl!lE BY CIVIL SERVICE REGIONS IN DESCENDING ORDER  Negro employment  csc  Total employees  regions  Total _________________________________________ Chicago _____________________________________________ - - - - - - - - _- ______ ___ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -________________ Philadelphia Atlanta _____________________________ San Francisco ________________________________________ D.C ____________________________________ Washington, New York __ __________________________________________ Dallas ______________________________________________ St.Louis ____________________________________________ Denver _____________________________________________ Boston ______________________________________________ Seattle _____________________________________________ _  Complaints received  1  Number  Percent of total  Number  2,231,579  292,703  13. 1  1,995  308,506 279,956 272,792 252,262 242,039 231,201 198,746 136,536 113,634 109,886 86,021  59,447 47,976 30,935 30,993 55,356 32,635 16,105 10,432 3,317 3,534 1,973  19.3 17. 6 11. 3 12. 3 22. 8 14. 1 8. 1 7. 6 3. 0 3. 2 2. 3  271 281 304 245 378 175 161 82 38 32 28  Percent of total 2 3  99. 5 13. 5 14. 1 15. 2 12. 2 18. 9 8. 7 8. 1 4. 1 1. 8 1. 5 1. 4  1 Chicago-Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin; Philadelphia-Delaware, Marylan_d, Pennsyr vania, Virginia, West Virginia; Atlanta-Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolma, Tennessee Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands; San Francisco-California, Hawaiian Jsland8, Nevada, Pacific overseas a~ea; New Yo~k-New Jersey, New York; Dallas-Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas; St. Louis-Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota: Denver-Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah; Boston-Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont; Seattle-Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, 2 As of Mar. 1, 1963 a Europe 0.5.  DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYEES BY MAJOR FEDERAL AGENCIES AND TOTAL COMPLAINTS RECEIVED BY COMMITTEE IN DESCENDING ORDER  Agency  Total employees  Negro employment Number  Total ________________________________________ _ Post Office Department_ ___ - _________________________ _ Department of Army ____ - _- _________________________ _ Department of Navy ________________________________ _ Department of Air Force _____________________________ _ Veterans Administration _____________________________ _ Department of Agriculture ___________________________ _ Department of Treasury _____________________________ _ Department of Health, Education, and Welfare ________ _ Department of Interior ______________________________ _ Federal Aviation Agency _____________________________ _ Department of Commerce ____________________________ _ Department of Defense ______________________________ _ All others __________________________________________ _ 1  Percent of total  Complaints received Number  Percent of total 1  2,259,993  293,353  13. 0  2,005  100. 0  577,639 345,851 312,798 276,373 150,847 92, 104 79,691 70,489 55,093 39,795 29,383 23,712 206,218  86,981 42,838 42,880 21,316 35,281 2,890 9,627 13,882 1,933 1,031 3,440 4,951 26,303  15. 1 12. 4 13. 7  369 317 343 282 164 29 127 62 14 13 81 15 189  18. 4 15. 8 17. 1  7. 7  23. 4  3. 1  12. 1 19. 7 3. 5 2. 6  11. 7 20. 9 12. 8  14. 1  8. 2 1. 5 6. 3 3. 1 ,7 .7  4. 0 .7 9.4  As of Mar. 1, 1963.  most equally among cases withdrawn, dismissed, and those which complainants failed to prosecute (see Table No. 1). A look at the distribution of the 2,005 complaints received, by kinds of discrimination, reveals that 1,840 ( 91.8 percent) alleged discrimination be106  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  cause of race; 83 (4.5 percent), discrimination because of creed; and 82 (4.1 percent) discrimination because of national origin. The distribution of total complaints received, by basis of complaint, reveals that 378 ( 18.8 percent) were filed as the result of failure of appoint-  ment; 882 (44.0 percent) failure of promotion; 210 (10.5 percent) separation; and 535 (26.7 percent) for "other" reasons. The distribution of cases closed by basis of complaint follows approximately the pattern of cases received. However, the distribution of cases closed with corrective action deviates significantly.  A more than proportionate share of the cases resulting in corrective action involved promotion (52.7 percent) and "other" bases of action (34.0 percent) while corrective action concerned with appointment (7.8 percent) and separation ( 5.4 percent) constituted a smaller proportion than that of all cases closed.  GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMPLAINTS AS OF MARCH  6, 1961  THROUGH MARCH  1, 1963  [Figures following regional designation are total Federal employment 1n that region and that region's percentage of total Federal employment}  No.  Atlanta Region: 284,019-11.3 percent_____ Alabama __ __________________________ _ Florida ______________________________ _ Georgia _____ ________________________ _  M·lSSlSSl . .ppL . ___ ____ ____________ - _ - - - - -  North Carolina ________________ - - - - - - - South Carolina ____________ - - - - - -- -- -- Tennessee _______________________ ____ __ Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands _________ _ Boston Region: 117,856-4.7 percent _____ _  Percent  304 (15.16) 53 48 71 37 11 43 39  Dallas Region: 204,877-8.1 percent ___ - - -  San Francisco Region: 281,224-11.2 percent_ 32  (1.59)  ITf~ Mexico ______________ -===========  (802)  1  (0.49)  Total complaints _________________ 2,005  Total complaints_______________ (I.8 9)  (8-72)  Philadelphia Region: 271,739-10.8 percent __ 281 (14.0l) Pennsylvania ___ ______________________ ~~:;:~~-:=========================== Virginia _______________________ - - - - - - West Virginia ________________________ _  !-~  STATUS OF COMPLAINTS AGAINST GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AS OF MARCH 1, 1963 Number Percent  9 3  ~::t~:~~============================ Ii~  1 9 11  Europe: 1 30,761-1.2 percent _______________  8  ==  (1.39)  District of Columbia Metropolitan Region 257,349-10.2 percent_ _-- ------ ------- 378 (18.85)  18  New York Region: 243,586-9.7 percent ____ ~  28  Montana-- -------------------------~Oregon ___ _______ ______ ~-------------Washington____ _______________________  20 21 25 95  Denver Region: 116,603-4.6 percent ______ ~  California ___ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - __________ 234 Ha waiL _______ - _- _- _- _- _- _- ______ ____ 2 Nevada __________________ ___ _____________ _ Pacific Overseas Area __________________ 9  Alaska ______ _____ ________ ____________ 7 Idaho ____________________________________ _  7  --  245 (12.21)  Seattle Region: 99,479-4.0 percent_______  82 23 14 60 85 161  Arizona _____________________________ _ Colorado ____________________________ _  (4.08)  2  Chicago Region: 328,137-13.1 percent ___ _ 271  i~:::-:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~=~~  Percent  82  Iowa___________ ______________________ 3 14 Kansas________________ ___________ ___ _ Minnesota _______ - _____ - ______________ 9 Missouri_ ___ - - - - - _- ___ - ______________ 51 Nebraska_____________________________ 4 North Dakota _______ _________________ I South Dakota _____________________________ _  Connecticut _____ _____________________ 11 Maine ____________________________________ _ Massachusetts ___ ____________________ 15 New Hampshire ______________________ 1 Rhode Island ______________________ - - 5 Vermont ___ ________________________ ______ _  Illinois _____________________________ Indiana ____ _________________________ _  No.  St. Louis Region: 148,749-5.9 percent_ __ __  2,005  100. 0  Cases pending ______ _____ ___________ _ 570 In agencies_________________ 442 In committee (on appeal)____ 128 Cases close<i_____ __________ ______ ____ 1,435 Subject to routine committee check____ ___ _____________ 266 Review and formally closed by committee ________________ 1,169  28. 4 71. 6  DISPOSITION OF FORMALLY CLOSED CASES AS OF MARCH  1, 1963 Di1po1ition  Number  1:}5j  Corrective action taken __ ------------Finding of no discrimination __ ________ _ Withdrawn_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Dis missed_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Failure to prosecute_ - - - -- - - - - - ---- -- -  423 591 49 60 46  2  TotaL __ __________ -- - -- --- - -- -  1, 169  Percent  36. 1 50. 5 4. 1 5. 1 3. 9  Does not include foreign nationals.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  107  CHAPTER EIGHT  Plans for Progress In its Plans for Progress program, the President's Committee has formulated a plan that will contribute significantly to achieving equal employment opportunity in all of American industry. In the absence of a Federal Fair Employment Practices Act, this phase of the Committee's programs extends its policies to companies not falling under the Executive orders, and_amplifies the activities of the Government contractors. A major effort is now being made to enlist more companies which do not fall under the Executive orders. The program is essentially a cooperative venture between business and Government-the type of cooperation that has accomplished so much throughout American history. Participation in Plans for Progress is strictly voluntary. It in no way relieves a Government contractor of its contractual obligation to comply with the Executive orders and the Rules and Regul~tions of the Committee, but it does open up new avenues for the attainment of the goals of the Executive orders. The Origins  Less than a month after the Committee started operations, then Vice President Johnson, as Committee chairman, called a meeting of the presidents of the 50 largest Government contractors. At the meeting on May 2, 1961, Mr. Johnson called forand obtained-pledges of cooperation and assistance from these major industrial firms in providing equality of opportunity. Most of these firms later signed Plans for Progress. Robert B. Troutman, an attorney and businessman from Atlanta, Ga., who was an original Committee member, was instrumental in launching this cooperative effort between industry and Government to bring about equality of opportunity. Even as the industrialists were meeting, negotiations were underway with one firm-the Lockheed Aircraft Corp.-for development of a specific pro108  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  gram to supplement the requirements of the Executive order and thus to provide greater equality of employment opportunity. Complaints of unequal opportunity at the company's plant at Marietta, Ga., had resulted in a series of conferences involving company management, Mr. Troutman, and Committee staff members. Out of these negotiations came the first Plan for Progress. It covered not only the Lockheed facility at Marietta, but all corporate facilities. The Plan for Progress was signed in the_White House on May 25, 1961, in the presence of the late President John F. Kennedy, by Mr. Johnson for the Committee and by Courtlandt Gross, president of Lockheed Aircraft. Shortly thereafter, eight other major industrial firms signed similar Plans for Progress with Mr. Johnson. The then Vice President appointed a subcommittee of five members to expand and develop the Plans for Progress program. Members of the subcommittee were Mr. Troutman, chairman; Edgar Kaiser, Fred Lazarus, Jr., Walter Reuther and the then Secretary of Health, Education and W elfare, Abraham Ribicoff. Mr. Troutman devoted a major part of his time to the program and directed operations of the Plans for Progress staff until his resignation :from the Committee in August 1962. Since that time the program has been united with the compliance program under the immediate supervision of the Executive Vice Chairman, currently Hobart Taylor, Jr. First Anniversary  By the Committee's first anniversary., 52 companies had signed Plans for Progress. In J anuary, 1963, the number reached 104 and it currently stands at 115 companies (including several national concerns which do not hold Government contracts) with more than 5½ million employees. Participants in Plans _for Progress now file a  l'epor~ form ( Plans for Progre s Form EEO 10) that 1s statistically compatible with the regular compliance fom1 (Form 40). . Information received from the companies is compiled for tatistical studies of employment patterns • and js made available to the contractinob agencies and to the Government contractors. In the event of any complaint of unequal opportunity, the complaints are investio-ated and processed ju t as are those against other companies. Under Plans for Progre s, the Committee also ~as .made certain pledges. It has assured the signmg companies that it will press its efforts, through recruitment, training and labor liaison Programs, to encourage the development of qualified applicants for referral to Plans for Proo-ress employers and to work with the appropriate contra?ting agencies to assist employers to carry out their programs for equal opportunity. Program Expansion  One of the significant features of the Plans for Progress is that the program is constantly expandinO' to include companies that do not have Government contracts. It seeks to reach beyond the Executive order and enlist the aid of industrial and mercantile leaders who agree-though they are not subject to the Executive order and therefore face no possibility whatsoever that punitive action or sanctions may be imposed upon their companies-to advance the cause of equal employrnent opportunity. The procedure in developing a Plan for Progre~s calls for discussion, study and negotiation with the individual company management. Then f~llows the execution of a formal joint statement with the Committee, sirned by the company president and the President. Each step taken in the execution of these agreements is designed to develop pragmatic and workable policies appropriate to the situation involved. On January 17, 1962, a seminar of 300 officials from 150 of the nation's largest business firms was organized in Washin_ofon, D.C., to provide a means ~or a mutualJy helpful exchange of information, l~eas and experiences. The seminar was oro-anized by a representative o-roup of companies who had ~irned Plans for Proo-ress. The seminar was st affed by personnel from Plans for Proo-ress companies and was attended solely by repre entatives of firms on the proo-ram or firms which had been i • 0 nv1ted to develop such plans.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Tl:e Plans fo~· Progre s staff has proYided a me~nun for con~muous interchano-e amono- participatmg compames of ideas which have been developed, problems which have ari en, and solutions "·hich have been achieved. This information is available to companies for their own adoption and use. Other companies are in varyino- stao-es of development. of Plans for Progress and it is anticipated that the number of participatincr companie will increase substantially in the near futur . University Participation  Plans for Progress received another stimulant in July 1963 with it expansion to include universities. Members of minority groups frequently do not recoQ'nize the educational proO'rams and career opportunities open to them, because of past discrimination and sometimes because of active community discourao-ement. This problem has been discussed in conferences with university representatives and recognition has been given to the need to develop O'uidance materials and program for high school and community colleo-e teachers which will repair this breakdown in communications. Already one major educational institution, 1iVa.yne State University, after meeting with representatives of The President's Committee on Equa] Employment Opportunity, has sio-ned a Plan for Proo-ress. It recognizes that a university is first and foremost an educational institution and therefore has obligations jn the areas of human dignity and civil rights in addition to those it has as an employer. The university prohibits any form of discrimination in admission, advancement and all other activities affecting students; it also prohibits any affiliation of any of its divisions with other institutions which permit discrimination in providing educational service , in athleti omp tition, or in student accommodation . More importantly, Wayne State's Plan for Progress recognizes the university's responsibility to arouse the entire community, majority and minority, to the necessity for equality of opportunity. Followino- several preliminary conferences on the 1Vayne State campus in Detroit, a conference was held at Ann Arbor, Mich., on October 21, 1963, with the Bia 10 universities and the University of hicago participatino-. This conference was the real beginning of the mobilization of the educa109  tional and intellectual :forces of the Nation behind the Government's cooperative program for improving the opportunities of minority group citizens on a broad scale. These great universities, which have more than 350,000 students, decided to take a more vigorou part in assistino- minority youth, in encouraging them through high school and on through higher education and advanced study. The universjties also are seeking direct relationships with southern Negro colleges, through "-hich they will pro,·ide fa ulty help and graduate facilities for students from these schools. The Advisory Council  As a further extension of Plans :for Progress, in August 1963, a special Advisory Council for Plans :for Progress was :formed by 19 leading industrial executives to administer the cooperative program of the Committee. The Council functions through six committees covering the full range of activities concerned with equal employment opportunity. This Council has a full-time staff of five experts in personnel techniques and recruitment, each loaned by a participating corporation :for up to a year, who will work with the Plans :for Progress companies, present and future, to develop programs for implementing their individual plans. Council members are : G. William Miller, president, Textron, Inc. ( hairman of the Coun il); R.H. Berqui t, dire tor, ompensation Admini tration and Employees ervice, Colgate-Palmolive; W . D . Coursey, a • i tant vice president, Texas Instruments, Inc. ; Robert F . Crowel, manager, employee relations dept., International Harvester Co. ; P . B. Lewi , manager, employee relations dept., E. I. du Pont de Jemours and Co., Inc. ; E . G. Mattison, director of jndu trial relations, Lockheed-Georgia Co. ; Harold Mayfield, d irector of personnel, OwensI l]inois Glass Co.; Edward Cudahy, .Tr., president,  The Cudahy Packing Co.; Arthur M. Doty, manager of personnel relations, Aluminum Co. of America; A. H. Evans, manager employment, Radio Corporation of America; Edward A. Franks, manager, corporate employment, Chrysler Corp. ; Dr. Roy Fugal, consultant, personnel practices, General Electric Co.; Paul S. Kempf, director, Industrial Relations, Hughes Aircraft Co.; Dr. Frank Metzger, director, Manpower Adminjstration, International Telephone & Telegraph Corp. ; Dr. C. E. Scholl, director of labor relations, Defense and Space Groups, Burroughs Corp.; Harold H. Schroeder, Assistant Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Co.; R. A. Whitehorne, manager, personnel research and services, International Business Machines Corp., and H. W. ,vittenborn, Vice President, personnel and industrial relations, Cook Electric Co. The Council staff consists of : G. A. M Lellan, director of per onnel ervices, Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp. ( Administrative Director of the ouncil) · James H. Burg, manager of professional recruitment, IBM Federal Systems Division in Bethesda (Administrative Coordinator for the Council) ; Howard C. Lockwood, manao-er of the management per onne.l department, Lockheed-California Co. of Burbank (Administrative oordinator for the oun il) ; Clarence E . Lynn, staff assistant to the president of Townsend Division of Textron Inc. of Providence ( Administrative Coordinator for the Council), and Harold M. F. Rush, assistant o the corporate secretary, Thiokol Chemical Corp. (Administrative Coordinator :for the Council) . Prior to August 1963, the Plans for Progres staff consisted of J . Joseph Kru e and E. William Bohn, who served devotedly and apably during the formative tag-es of the program. It was mainly through their per onal efforts that enroll ment in the proITT'am had reache l the ize it had when the dvi ory Council was formed .  EMPLOYERS PARTICIPATING IN PLANS FOR PROGRESS (November, 1963) Aerojet-Gener al Cor p. Aerospace Corp. Affiliated Kaiser companies. Allied Chemical Corp. Allis- 'halmer Mannfatturing Co. Aluminum Co. of America Amer ican Airlines, Inc. American Bosch Ar ma Corp.  110  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  American Can Co. American Cyanamid Co. American Machine and Foundry Co. American Motors Corp. American Telephon and Telegraph o. Atch i on, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway y tern Avco Corp. Babcock & Wilcox Co.  Bell Telephone of Nevada Bell Telephone Co. of Penn ylvania Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. Bendix Corp. Boeing Airplane Co. Brown and Root, Inc. Burroughs Corp. Caterpillar Tractor Co. Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Co. Chry ler Corp. Qleveland Electric Illuminating Co. Colgate-Palmolive Co. Collins Radio Co. Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. Continental Can Co., Inc. Continental Motors Corp. Cook Electric Co. Cudahy Packing Co. Curtis -Wright Corp. Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc. Dow Chemical Co. du Pont de Nemours, E. I., & Co., Inc. Eastman Kodak Co. Fairchild Stratos Corp. Federated Department Stores, Inc. Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. Ford Motor Co. Garrett Corp. General Dynamics Corp. General Electric Co. General Motors Corp. General Precision Equipment Corp. General Telephone & Electronics Corp. Goodrich, B. F., Co. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co., Inc. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp. llercules Powder Co. II ugh es Aircraft Co. Illinois Bell Telephone Co. International Busine s Machines Corp. International Harve ter Co. International Telephone & Telegraph Corp. Lever Brothers Co. Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc. Lockheed Aircraft Corp. Marlin Rockwell Corp. Martin Co. l\1:a sey-Ferguson, Inc. -McDonnell Aircraft Corp. :\ferritt-Chapman and Scott Corp. :\Iichigan Bell Telephone Co. Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. -Monsanto Chemical Co. 1\1:on anto Research Corp. National Biscuit Co. National Cash Register Co., The National Lead Co. National Tea Co. New England Telephone & Telegraph Co. :New Jersey Bell Telephone Co. Newport ews Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. New York Telephone Co.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  North American Aviation, Inc. orthrop Corp. rorthwe tern Bell Telephone Co. Ohio Bell Telephone Co. Olin Mathie on Chemical orp. Owens-Illinois Glass Co. Pacific Northwe t Bell Telephone Co. Pacific Telephone and Telegraph o. Pan American ,vorld Airway', Inc. Philco Corp. Procter and Gamble Co., The Radio Corp. of America Raytheon Co. Republic Aviation Corp. Ryan Aeronautical Co. St. Regis Paper Co. Sanders A ociates, Inc. Singer Manufacturing Co. Socony Mobil Oil Co., Inc. Southern Pacific Co. perry Rand Corp. Standard Oil Co. ( Ohio Corp.) tauffer hemical Co. Texas Instruments, Inc. Textron, Inc. Thiokol Chemical Corp. Thomp on Ramo Wooldridge, Inc. U.S. Indu tries, Inc. Union Carbide Corp. United Aircraft Corp. nited States Rubber o. Walgreen Co. Wayne State University We tern Electric Co. We tern Union Telegraph Co. We tinghouse Electric Corp.  Model Plan for Progress This company reco<mizes that the national policy enunciated by the President of the United States that all persons are entit Jed to equal employment opportunity re<Yard]ess of their r, ce, creed, color, .or national origin, is in keepi1w with the best tradjtions and spirjt of the American way of life. J\dherence to such a policy, moreover, is essential if all of this ation's human resources are to be effectively utilized. This Company i therefore to enter into this Plan for Pro<Yress v,ith the President's C.ommittee on Equal Employment Opportunity, and to reaffirm and reemphasize it continued commitment to a program of providing equal employment opportunity solely on the basis of ability and accomplishment. The company further recognizes that the effective practice of a policy of merit employment involves more than the nondiscriminatory hiring 111  and promotion of minority group persons. Full realization of the goal of equal employment opportunity requires, in .addition, that various measures be taken to reassure minorjty group persons that. equal employment opportunities do, in fart, exist, so that they -will be motivated to seek such opportunities and the training and education necessary to prepare for them. Thi company \Yil1, therefore, undertake a pro<Yram of .affirmative action to make known to members of minority groups that equal employment opportunities are available to them on the basis of individual merit, and to encourage such persons to seek employment with the Company and to strive for advancement within it. UNDERTAKINGS BY THE COMPANY I Di ssem ination of Policy  The company wil1 take appropriate steps to in ··ure that all employees are advised of the company's policy of nondiscrimination and of its interest in actively and affirmatively providing equal employment opportunity. To this end, the company will utilize, as appropriate, such media of communication as notices -on bulletin boards, statements in employee handbooks, discussions or films in orientation programs for new employees, and articles in company publications. The company will make certain that all members of management, supervisors, and others in a position to implement the equal employment opportunity policy ( such as those en<Yaged in recruiting, training, and other personnel activities) are fully advised of the policy and of their responsibilities ,,ith respect to its effectuation and will schedule appropriate discussions at regular meetings of these groups. II Recruitment  The company ,vill vigorou ly seek qualified minority group applicants for all job categories, and will make particular efforts to increase minority <Yroup representation in occupations at the hi<rher levels of skill and responsibility. All b school , olleges, employment offices, and other recruiting sources util ii ed by the company will be .advised in ,nit ing of the company's equal employment opportunity policy, and will be urged to refer qualified minority group applicants. vVhere appropriate as a means for encouraging members of minority groups to apply, employment advertisements will be placed in newspapers 112  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  which are w·idely read by, and specially devoted to the interests of, minority groups; .a nd recruiting programs at schools and colleges ,vill include schools and colleges ·which are attended by substantial numbers of minority group members. In addition, the company will request appropriate minority group agencies to assist in making known the company's policy and will advise such groups of available employment opportunities. It will also encourage similar employment referrals from present employees. 111 Placemen t and Promotion  1. The company will review job categories where few minority group persons are presently employed, and seek to determine the cause for such situation. ·w-iien the need for remedial effort is indicated, appropriate action will be taken. Remedial efforts may include such actions as the following : a. More vigorous recruitment of qualified minority group can di dates. b. Special discussions with approp iate management, supervisory, or other personnel reo-arding the company's policy and its desire to insure the utilization of qualified minority group personnel at all job levels. c. Review of the records of minority group employees to determine whether their skills and capabilities may be more fully utilized at higher job levels, or would warrant their transfer to other types of jobs more readily leading to advancement. 2. Placement, promotion, and transfer activities at all levels will be monitored to insure that full consideration, as required by the company policy, has been given to qualified minority group employees. 3. The company will undertake an active program for the appraisal and counselling of minority group employees who appear to have potential for advancement into sup:rvisory and management positions. IV Training  1. In-plant and on-the-job trammg programs, as well as all other training and educational programs to which the company gives support or sponsorship will be regularly reviewed to insure that minority group candidates are given equal opportunity to participate. 2. Appropriate steps will be taken to give active encouragement to minority group employ-  ees to increase their skills and job potential through participation in available training and education programs. 3. The company will take steps to insure that qualified minority group employees are included in supenisory training classes. 4. The company will seek the inclusion of qualified minority group members in any apprenticeship program in ,Yhich the company participates, and will report to the Committee any fai lure to obtain inclusion of qualified minority group candidates in such programs. V Layoffs, Terminations, and Downgrading  The company will take appropriate measures to insure that layoffs, terminations, downgrading, and recalls from layoffs are made without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin. VI Other Matters Affecting Employee Benefits and Status  1. The company wi ll insure that there is no dis-  parity in the compensation received by minority group employees and other employees for performing equivalent duties, and that opportunities for performing overtime work or other wise earning increased compensation are afforded without discrimination to all employoos. 2. It is the company's policy that none of its facilities such as ,York areas, cafeterias, restrooms, recreation areas, and transportation will be segregated, and if any such segregated facilities exist the company will work toward their prompt elimination. The same policy will be ·observed with respect to any other employee activities which are sponsored or supported by the company. VII Unions  In carrying out its affirmative policy of providinO' equal employment opportunity, the company will actively sook the support of all unions repr~senting its employees, and will attempt t~ ?bta~n the inclusion of a nondi crimination prov1s10n m all coIJective bargaining agreements into which it enters. The company " ·ill repor t to the P resident's Committee "·henever the actions or poli ies of a un ion repre enting its employees ar impedinO' the implementation of thi s program . VIII Assignment of Responsibilities  The head of each division of the company will  be assigned the re ponsibil ity for implement ing the program within his di vision. The----------   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  will be responsible for coordinating the effort of each division and for furnishing advice and a _ sistance to division head . He shall periodically report directly to the president of th company concerning the progress b ing made and shall recommend to the president any n e<led improv ments in the program. IX Reporting to the President's Com mittee  The company will periodically furnish the President's Committee with stati ti al data and other information refleding its proo-re under thi Plan. Such reports shall be mad at least semiannually for the first year the Plan is in effect, and at least annually thereafter.  UNDERTAKINGS BY THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EQUAL ~MPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Recruiting  The Committee will: 1. Continue to work with the United  tates Department of Labors employment specialists to cooperate with the appropriate State Employment Services in reviewing and intensifyinO' efforts to obtain qualified applica"nts for referral to the company without regard to race, creed, color or national origin. 2. Upon request, solicit the support of appropriate specialized community ao-encies to assist recruiting efforts under this Plan for Progress. II Training  The Committee will work with the U. . Department of Health, Education, and W Ifar in reviewing, encouraginO' and strengthening counsellinO' and guidance ervices in school y t m where the company ha major op ration . That Department has as igned per onnel to ncourag participat ion of persons in minority groups in it vocational education program . In nddition, n w programs are being develop d aimed at th ncouragement of cooperative efforts b twe n educational facilitie , community agencies and employers as to this program. Ill Labor Liaison  The Committee will work cooperatively with appropriate union , at both the Io al and national levels, in reviewing and supporting constructive action on problems connected with apprenticeship 113  training, transfer procedures and seniority rights where union action may be useful. IV Contracting Agencies  The Committee will work with the appropriate contracting agencies to assist the company and the Committee in coordination and follow-through on their undertakings under this Plan for Progress.  114  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  V General  The company officials should feel free to report to the Committee any difficulties encountered in achieving this Plan for ProITT"ess in those instances where it is reasonably believed services of the Committee can be materially constructive in overcoming them.  CHAPTER NINE Progress Report of Plans for Progress Companies A company entering the Plans for Progress program submits to the President's Committee a report showing its employment breakdown at the time of entering the program-a self-analysis report. Six months later, and annually thereafter, it files progress reports. Included herein is a summary of reports filed as of July 1963. It covers 91 companies. These firms joined the program at different times (see list of companies) . Therefore, their self-analysis reports and their latest progress reports on which these statistics are based, fall at different times during the period. In the case of nine companies, the latest report is their third progress report; in the case of 32 companies, the report is their second, and in the case of 50, it is their first. This summary is not intended to show progress rnade during any one reporting period; it is rather a composite showing the relative progress, by numbers and percentages, of these companies in the employment of non whites. Total employment in the 91 companies increased by 452,543, or 12.4 percent. Employntent of nonwhites increased by 27,180, or 14.7 Percent. Overall employment of all salaried employees ( clerical to management) increased by only 13.8 percent. Nonwhite employment in these categories increased by 23.5 percent. As of the initial reports of these companies, there were 65.1 white salaried employees for each nonwhite. As of the latest reports of these companies, there were 60 white salaried einployees for each nonwhite. The latest reports also show that the per ·entage of total nonwhite employment represented. b_y White collar workers has increased since the or1g 1nal self-analysis reports were filed. These changes  indicate the efforts being made by manao-ement of Plans for Progress companies to hire and upgrade nonwhites to more significant positions in their work force. Other interesting facts from the summary :  I-Increases were shown in every categoryfrom laborers to officials and supervisors. A total of 3,266 nonwhites were placed in management, professional, sales and technical jobs during the various periods covered by the reports. It was in these areas the number of nonwhites showed the largest percentage increase: 46.5 percent in management categories; 37.4 percent in professional and administrative categories; 53.1 percent in sales categories, and 31.6 percent in technical categories. 2-A total of 2,884 nonwhite clerical and office employees were placed in positions during the periods covered by the reports-an increase over the initial report of 16.4 percent. 3-0verall employment of all salaried employees increased by 13.8 percent, but nonwhite employment in these categories increased by 23.5 percent. 4-The percentage increase of nonwhite employees in salaried jobs (23.5 percent) is greater than their percentage increase in hourly jobs (13.3 percent). 5-An analysis of hourly classifications indicates that the percentage of nonwhites in the lowest job levels (laborers, etc.) is decreasing, while the number of nonwhites assigned to the higher ( operative and craftsmen) levels is increasing. These facts are taken as indications of the upward move of nonwhites in the reporting Plans for Progress companies. Further breakdowns of Plans for Progress reports will be made as they are compiled.  115 726 -390 0 - 64 - 9   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  PLANS FOR PROGR ESS PROGR AM JorNED DURING PERIOD M AY, 1961 TO J ANUA RY 17, 1£63 SELF-ANALYSIS vs. LATEST PROGRESS REPORT OF 91 CoMPANIES THAT Self-analy sis r eport  Change  La t est progress report  1  Nonwhite employees  All employee s Total employees  Total nonwhite P ercent employees (2)  (1)  Total employees (4)  (3)  Total nonwhite P ercent employees (5)  (6)  Actual total  P ercent change  Actual total  P ercent change  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  12. 22. 8. 16. 9.  S alary e mployees 5 4 1 6 4  2 8 9 5 4  748 1,458 164 896 2,884  46. 37. 53. 31. 16.  239,158  13. 8  6, 150  23. 5  3 2 5 2  74,240 129, 623 7, 351 2, 171  11. 1 11. 8 8. 2 3. 3  1,964 17,557 971 538  13. 3 16. 3 4. 9 3. 4  179,228  8. 4  213,385  11. 1  21,030  13. 3  211,572  5. 1  452,543  12. 4  27,180  14. 7  Officials and superviso rs _________ __ ators _____ Profession al and administr Sales _________ _________ _________ _ T echnicians _________ _________ ____ Offic and clericaL __ _________ ___ __  373, 328 390,743 66,035 201,264 701,093  1, 607 3,894 309 2,836 17,548  0. 4 1.0 .5 1. 4 2. 5  418,847 479,658 71, 906 234,469 766, 741  2,355 5,352 473 3,732 20,432  0. 6 1. 1 .7 1. 6 2. 7  45, 519 88, 915 5,871 33;205 65, 648  T otaL __________ _____ - - - - - -  1, 732, 463  26,194  1. 5  1, 971, 621  32,344  1. 6  Crafts m en __ _______ __ ____ ________ Operatives _________ _________ _____ Service _________ ___ _____ ___ _____ _ Laborers _______________ _________ _  668, 372 1, 101, 779 89,178 65, 009  14, 787 107, 866 19, 799 15, 746  2 8 2 2  742,612 1, 231, 402 96,529 67, 180  16, 751 125,423 20, 770 16,284  TotaL ________ __ - - - _- - - - - -  1,924,338  158, 198  8. 2  2,137,723  Grand totaL _________ ______  3, 656, 801  184,392  5.0  4, 109, 344  Hou rly employees  1  2. 9. 22. 24.  2. 10. 21. 24.  elf-Analy sis R eports are complet ed upon joining.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Decembe r 6, 1963  Plans for Progress Companies Included in 91 Company Reports 1. Aerojet-General Corp. 2. Aero pace Corp. 3. Affiliated Kai ·er ompanie'-l. 4. Allied Chemical Corp. 0. Aluminum Co. of America 6. American Airlines, Inc. 7. American Bosch Arma Corp. 8. American Can Co. 9. American Machine and Foundry Co. 10. American Telephone & Telegraph Co. 11. Avco Corp. 12. Bell Telephone Co. of Penn ylvania 13. Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. 14. Bendix Corp. 15. Boeing Airplane Co. 16. Brown and Root, Inc. 17. Burroughs Corp. 18. Caterpillar Tractor Co. 19. Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co. 20. hrysler Corp. 21. leveland Electric Illuminating o. 22. Colgate-Palmolive o. 23. Collins Radio Co. 2-!. Continental Motor Corp. 2:3. ook Electric Co. 26. Cudahy Packing Co. 27. Curti ·s-Wright Corp. 28. Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc. 29. Dow Chemical Co. 30. du Pont de Nemour , E. I., c· Co., Iuc. 31. Ea tman Kodak Co. 32. Fairchild Stratos Corp. 33. Firestone Tire and RublJer Co. 34. Ford Motor Co. 35. Garrett Corp. 36. General Dynamics Corp. 37. General Electric Co. 3 . General Motors Corp. 39. General Preci ion Equipment orp. 40. General Telephone & El ctronics Corp. 41. Goodyear Tire· and Rubber o. -:1:2. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp. -:1:3. Hercules Powder Co. -:I:{. Hughe Aircraft Co. 45. Illinois Bell Telephone Co. 46. International Busine · Machine Corp.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  47. International Harvester o. 4 . International Telephone and T legraph orp. 49. Ling-Temco-Vought Inc. 50. Lockheed Aircraft Corp. 51. Marlin Rockwell orp. 52. Martin Co. 53. McDonnell Air raft Corp. 54. Merritt-Chapman and cott orv. 55. Michigan Bell Telephone o. 56. Minneapolis-Honeyiw ell Regulator o. 57. Mon anto hemical o. 58. New England Telephone & Telegraph 0 . 59. Tew Jer ey Bell Telephone o. 60. ewport ?\'ews , hipbuilding & Dry Do k o. 61. ew York Telephone Co. 62. North Ameri an Aviation, Inc. 63. I orthrop Corp. 64. North\vestern Bell Telephone 'o. 65. Ohio Bell T lephone o. 66. Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp. 67. Owen. -Illinoi. Glas Co. 68. Pacific rorthwest Bell Telephon 'o. 69. Pacific Telephone and T legraph Co. (Bell Telephone of Nevada) 70. Pan American World Airways, Inc. 71. Philco orp. 72. Radio orp. of America 73. Raytheon Co. 74. Republi Aviation Cor~. 75. Ryan Aeronautical Co. ,76. St. Regi Paper Co. 77. Sanders As ·ociates, Inc. 7 . Socony Mobile Oil o., Inc. 79. Southern Pacific Co. 80. Sperry Rand orp. 1. Standard Oil o. (Ohio orp.) 2. Texa In truments, Inc. 3. Textron, Inc. 4. Thiokol hemical Corp. Thompson Ramo Woolridge, Inc. nion Carbide orp. United Aircraft Corp. United tates Rubber o. 9. Western Ele tric Co. 90. Western ·nion Telegraph 'o. 91. Westinghou El ctric orp.  117  CHAPTER TEN  Equal Opportunities in Organized Labor The American tra.de union movement has a vital role in t110 effort to achieve equal employment opportunity because of the extent to which the collective bargaining agreements and employment practices unions participate in or control, determine the conditions of hiring, promotion and layoff. The problem of securing equal employment opportunity is not confined to any single industry or union, to 'a ny type of industry or union, or to any part of the country. In all the many subdivisions of commerce and industry, employment patterns have generally tended to restrict various minority groups from time to time-and Negroes most of the time-to semiskilled, seasonal and laborer or service jdb classifications. Such designation of "Negro" and "white" jobs, has sometimes been made formal in collective bargaining agreements. Racially identified job classifications also have affected the bargaining process itself. In some cases, where a single contract covers the entire plant, white representatives of the union bargain on matters affecting "their" workers and Negro representatives bargain on "Negro" job matters. In other cases there are segregated locals within the plant-each with jurisdiction over part of the jobs. 'Wherever craft lines exist, whether in the construction field or as part of an industrial structure, the problem of attaining equal opportunity without regard to race or other ancestral considerations is more complex. Tradition restricts the jurisdiction of each craft to its specialty. This in turn limits the number of members of any craft who can be employed at a given time. Since there are a limited number of openings during any period, the successful applicants for admission are often confined to those persons who have direct know ledge of the craft or direct contact with those in the craft who know of vacancies and 118  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  of the time, place, and procedures for making application. In dealing with the problems of racial discrimination concerning unions, it is important to realize the nature and structure of the trade union movement. Individual unions have historically sought to retain as much autonomy and individual authority as possible. Local unions of specific crafts or industries have combined into international unions for the purpose of obtaining more effective organization. In turn, these bodies have combined into national organizations, the largest of which is the AFL-CIO. It is not uncommon for local unions to take exception to the direction of the international, and for the international to take exception to the direction of the federation. In many cases, therefore, the correction of problems in dealing with local unions req_uires the concerted efforts of both the international and the federation. Union Programs for Fair Practices  In recognition of this fact, on ovember 15, 1962, leaders of the AFL-CIO and 115 internaFL-CIO tional unions affiliated with the gathered in the White House to sign with the then Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, as Chairman of the President's Committee, nion Programs for Fair Practices. In that ceremony a major portion of the organized labor movement in the United States-with a member hip of around 11 million workers-pledged to a elerate its programs to insure equal opportunity in union membership, in union fa ilities, and in all a pects of employment in which the unions are involved. These international unions have been asked as part of their voluntary efforts to distribute a detailed questionnaire to their lo al unions. The questionnaire seeks to determine the racial composition of local unions and apprenti e hip proo-ram . An wers have so far been received from  approximately one-third of these local unions. In addition, i\.FL-CIO Presid~nt George Meany has appointed and staffed a special committee to work with local councils throughout the country and with all departments of the AFLCIO to mount a campaign to ' wipe out discrimination wherever it exists-on the jobs, in the schools, in the voting booth, in the housing developments, stores, theaters or recreation areas." The reorganization of the AFL-CIO Civil Rights Committee with provision for complaint procedures also has tended to promote an a warene~s of the need for affirmative action at all levels of that organization. AFL-CIO Civil Rights Department  On the national level, day-to-day operations have included the exchange of information on an informal as well as on a formal basis. Joint meetings with international union officials and repre entatives of the President's Committee and the AFL-CIO Civil Rights Department have helped spot areas where a union should take action to achieve necessary corrective action by its local unions. The AFL-CIO Civil Rights Department also has kept the President's Committee informed of positive actions various unions have voluntarily undertaken and has investigated complaints which involved its con tituent unions based on information furnished by the President's Committee. During recent months, convention action to trengthen and emphasize civil rights programs a,nd responsibilities has been reported by AFLCIO State Councils in Texas, Virginia, and Utah. Many locals and internationals have also established special civil rights committees. Examples of Union Effort  ~ome specific examples of the effo~t~ m~de to achieve equal employment opportumties m cooperation with the union movement include: In the tobacco industry, the Tobacco Workers International nion as well as the locals con' collective bargaining and cerned, have worked out jurisdictional problems to provide wider o?portunities in the plants with which they bargam. All segregated local within this International are being merged. In the steel industry, the United Steel W?r~ers of Amer ica has helped in eliminating discrimma-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tory line of promotion and providing equal transfer opportunities in Birmingham, Ala. A clause of nondi~crimination, with access to grievance procedures m_ the event of violation, is now a part of the basic steel agreement. A broader exercise of plant-_wide seniority has provided expanded opportumty for Negro workers of long servi e and limited training opportunity to a void layoff and to move into positions for acquisition of wider experience. The union currently is working on the elimination of discriminatory pra tices in promotion and transfer-wherever they can be found-through a review of current seniority agreements. The Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union has worked closely with Committee representatives in correcting situations in several major refinery and chemical plants along the gulf coast. Segregated locals within this International Union have been eliminated. Metal Trades Councils, which bargain for as many as 20 affiliated unions, have cooperated in opening up job promotion, transfer and apprenticeship opportunities in tho shipbuilding and petrochemical industries in Mississippi and Louisiana. The Pulp and Sulphite Workers, in keeping with pledges under the Union Program for Fair Practices, has directed the elimination of all segregated locals within its jurisdiction. The Industrial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers worked with the President's Committee in a situation on the West Coast to eliminate segregated units in a department, a move oppo ed by the local union. Insistence by the international union that this was contrary to its policy resulted in the necessary changes and proper seniority adjustments for the individuals concerned. In a southern plant, complaints were filed concurrently with the Committee and the United Automobile Workers. Action by union representatives resulted in correction of inequities in the plant even prior to investigation by the Committee. In another situation, when the UAW was unable to obtain corrective action, tl1e UAW international helped its members file complaints. The building trades and other unions interested in apprenticeship have cooperated and assisted in the establishment of an Apprenticeship Information Center in Washington, D.C. The center, which operates within the Youth Employment Section of the U.S. Employment Offi e, has al119  ready s reened and referred applicants to apprenti e hip program in the printing and building tra le . The Construction Industry  Much attention has been focused on the construction industry this year in the area of equal employment opportunity. One situation which received national attention developed in Washington, D.C., where protests by students and officials at Howard University resulted in an investigation of the policies and practices of unions and contractors building a university gymnasium. Secretary of Labor W. Willard Wirtz, as Vice Chairman of the Committee, directed the taking of whatever action was necessary and appropriate-including referral for legal action by the Justice Department-to insure that. the contractors on this project complied with the Executive order. During the course of this inve tigation, considerable effort was made to locate Neo-ro craftsmen who would be available for the various crafts involved on this job. Some were employed, despite the fact that the relatively small job was more than 60 percent finished at the time of the complaints. Since it became clear that equal opportunity on construction projects in the District of Columbia could not be provided e:ffectively on the basis of individual complaints or on a project-by-project basis, Secretary Wirtz directed that attention be focused on the apprenticeship programs, the source of skilled craftsmen for most construction projects in Washington. Following these directions, meetings were held with those Joint Apprenticeship Committees which indenture the most apprentices each year to consider ways of assuring equal opportunity for qualified Negro applicants in those programs during the current year. At the same time, the U.S. Employment Service made available testing and interviewing facilities for recruits sought through visits to all high schools in the District of Columbia. Additional meetings were also held with contractor associations and some of the international unions. Partly as a re ult of these efforts the electrici~ns, plumber , steamfitter , carpenters and iron workers sele ted 32 Jeo-roe for their apprenticeship proo-ram . These five trades indentured a total of seven Negro apprentices in 1962. Additional results in these and other trades are anticipated. 120  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  In addition, significant action has been taken elsewhere in the construction industry. Of general interest, the Presidents of the International Unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO Building Trades Department have adopted a four-point program designed to insure the consideration of all applicants on the basis of qualifications without regard to race, creed, color, or- national origin. The Carpenters' International Executive Board has ordered elimination of segregated locals wherever they are found to exist. Also the Construction Industry Joint Conference, consisting of representatives of international building trades unions and national contractors associations, has recently recommended detailed procedures to assist local Joint Apprenticeship Committees in assuring equal opportunity in this essential phase of employment. The recommendations include the establishment of an appeals procedure so that any questions as to treatment of applicants may be adjudicated at the local level. Local Activities  Action has also been taken at the local level. In Chtcinnati, the Building Tirades Council adopted an agreement which embodies the four points of the Building Trades Presidents' statement and creates a committee for implementation.  In Newark, Trenton and Elizabeth, N.J., the Build]Jlo- Trades Councils have reached agreements with local government and civil rights o-roups providing for additional opportunities for Jeo-roes as journeymen and in apprenticeship programs. In Philadelphia, agreements have been worked out which provide for additional opportunities with the plumbers, steamfitters, electricians, sheet metal workers and omposition roofer . The ao-reements include provi ion for an impartial review of qualification tests administered by the union. ...\.pprenti eship opportunitie also will be in reased and in some cases nonwhites will be recruited for these proo-rams. In New York, the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers has actively recruited Neo-roes for its apprenticeship program. In Milwaukee, the Buildino- Trades Council has adopted and published a program designed to encourage minority group individuals to make application for apprenticeship training and to  jnsure a ceptanc e of all qualifie d applica nt wjthou regard to race, creed, olor, or nationa l orjo-in. In Detroit, the Buildino- Trades Council and mploye r repre entative unanim ou ly adopted a proo-ram for elimina tion of di crimina tion in ontruction in the Detroit area. The basic points utlined in thi agreeme n include : (1) eekino- a i tance from local, tate and Federal Agencie s and intere ted commu nity o-roup in th recruitin o- and entry of qualifie d minorit y o-roup appli ants into apprent ice hip prooTam s. (2) The adoptio n by all affiliated local of the policy of acceptin<Y all qualifie d applica nts for m mber hip without regard to race, ere d, color or nationa l orio-in. ( 3) The en ourao-ement of nonunio n craftstabljsh qualific ations and seek union men to  Pitt buro-h Human R 1at·10ns dertake. n . by the T r ulted in an agreem enthey omm_1 s10n. r of th P nnsylva nia ord an ~s later 1ssu d jon-wh ich includ d ommi ns Human Relat10 e the followi ng: (1) Qualifie d nonwhi te craftsm en wI10 meet th pr ent tandard for kill and qualific a ion for imm diatel ac pted for m mb r hip will concern ed. union the by hjp member (2) An imparti al and neutral ob rver selected uo-ge ted by the union involv d from nam would be allow d to be pre ent at written , oral and/ or perform ance examin ation giv n by any of the unions. (3) Qualifie d applica nts would be enrolled in an apprent i e hip trainin program withou t r _ ere d color or nationa l origin. gard to ra ( 4) The tate commi ion would be notified when apprent iceship testing proo-ram s are to be conduct d _and an ap~rop riat number of appliant quahfi d accordrno- to ither P nnsylva nia or Fed ral apprent i e hip tandard s would be a pted. pon requ t b th tat commi sion th ,-) approp riate unions ould submit r ports bowing th nu~1b r. of applica nt for rnemb r hip and apprent ice h1p and the number ac pted and reje ted.  member ship. ( 4) Th publica tion for the b nefi of all conmed of the qualific ation and ru1 regardin oappli ation for, or employ ment of, apprent ice . ~ uch rule and qualific ations ar to be review d b a ommitt ee of the Joint onstruc tion Activitie Commi ttee to determi ne if changes are necesary to in ure non-di crimina tion. The proo-ram has been quite sue essful. There has been an almost total absence of picketin g of con truction ite in the metropo litan area; almo t Sample Union Program for Fair ev ry trade union ha been integrat ed, both at th Practices apprent ice and at the journey man level; Negro . program the upport ful1y ation labor oro-aniz .Uo t of th unions ignino- nion Program s for In Cleveland, compla int wer fil d allegin !air _Pra tice on ov mber 15 signed program s dis riminat ion by the Plumbe rs and heet Metal 1dent1 al to the one b low. In some instance s nion . N eo-otiation , which include d "\Vorker to onform to special particip ation b rnder e r tary of Labor John w re the chan<Yes of tan it.nation but in no in F. H 1rn ino-, re ulted in an ao-re ment wh reby ub tanti e na ure. nonwhi te contrac tors in each of the e trades who urrent tandard would b com union conm Joint Statement on Union Program for tractor . Qualifie d journ ym n and apprent ice d accepte be to Fair Practices workin<Y for these contrac tors were into membe r hip withou regard to ra e, creed, Name of Union color or nationa l orio-in. On one of the job subwas work the of then undenv ay, a portion The President's Committee on contrac ted to one of th nonwhi te ontra tor . r Equal Employment Opportunity lit Pittsbu rgh, foJlowino- omplain t alleginc di crjmina tion by the painters , electrici ans, iron Th mun of uni n) w !corned Pr id nt Kenwork 1 elernto r on tru tor , plumbe rs, pipe.fitn d ' hi toric Ex utiv-e Order 10925 e ablishter and a be to worker negotia tion were un-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  '  12 1  ing a unified, revitalized and greatly strengthened President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. We propose to cooperate with the Committee in attaining its goals of equal opportunity in all aspects of employment, tenure, terms and conditions of employment, in work assignment, promotion and transfer, without regard to race, creed, color or national origin. While the Committee's program is confined to employment under Federal Government contracts and to Federal employment, we shall continue to extend our union program for fair practices to all emplqyment. It is our purpose to give full effect within our ranks to the civil rights policy of the AFL--CIO to eliminate discrimination and unfair practices wherever they exist. It is our policy to accept into our ranks as fellow unionists all eligible applicants for membership without regard to or indication of race, creed, color or national origin. It is our purpose to forther equal opportunity in all union services and benefits, in employment, tenure, terms and conditions of employment and in work assignment, promotion and transfer, and in all aspects of work training. We reaffirm ·our policy of accepting all eligible applicants for membership without regard to race, reed, color or national origin and of insuring for all such workers the full benefits of union organization without discrimination, segregation, separation or exclusion of any kind. We shall not _charter any local unions in which membership would be separated on the basis of race, creed, color or national origin. If we should find evidence in any of our locals of separation, segreo-ation or exclusion on the basis of race, creed, color or national origin, we would make every possible effort to end such segregation, separation or exclusion with all possible speed. Where local unions accept transfer applications from members of other locals, all such applications shall be , ccepted without discrimination because of race, creed, color or national origin. )Ve shall seek agreement from manao-ement to write into joint apprenticeship training proo-rams in which we participate a nondi crimination clause in regard to admissions and conditions of 122  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  employment of apprentices and shall see that this clause is administered in such a ·way as to gi Ye full and effective application of nondiscrimination throuo-hout all such training. We shall make a pec:al effort ,,ithin the framework of the International Union Constitution and policy to obtain agreement from employers to embody in all collective bargaining contracts with the union, nondiscrimination clauses covering hire, tenure, terms, conditions of employment, work assignment and advancement, and providing for effective administration and enforcement of such clauses. "\Ve shall insist that each local union of this International Union, seek management agreement that any facilities provided by it for the employees will not exclude or segregate on the basis of race, creed, color or national origin. It shall be our policy that our local unions, in their relationship with management, insist that all re alls, layoffs, overtime Ii ts, work rosters and assignments and all training programs are maintained and operated without dis rimination because of race, creed, color or national origin, and that all workers covered by collective baro-aining agreements with them have equal opportunity for promotion and transfer. "\Ve shall assio-n to an executiYe officer or a national staff officer the duties of administration, dissemination and implementation of this Program for Fair Practices. We shall bring the Proo-ram for Fair Practices to the attention of all our affiliates and will encourage them to carry out this Program for Fair Practices. We shall make new effort to review the conditions in our organization and where we find evidence 0£ , iolations of the pirit of this program, we will use our efforts to correct them. The President's Oom.mittee will: Cooperate with the International Union in effecting· procedures for preventino- and eliminatino- discrimination by employers and by union. Work with the International Union and the various Government ao-encies in the development of proo-ram and in the olution of problems of mutual concern, particularly in the fields of vocational education, apprenticeship and other training, and employment services.  Confer with the International Union and employers in seeking mutually agreeable solutions of problems which may arise in any phase of employment .and/or labor-management relations with reo-ard to equal employment opportunity. Assi~t in formulation of information and/or community relations programs at the state and local levels and will assist in securing the support of state and local agencies in furtherance of equal employment opportunities.  (Name of Union)  By·------------------------------------President  The President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity  By:  ----------------------  LYNDO B. JOHNSON President of the United Stales.  UNIONS THAT HAVE SIGNED THE PROGRAM FOR FAIR PRACTICES (NOVEMBER, 1963) International Brotherhood of Boiler Makers Iron builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers,' Russell K. Berg, President, New Brotherhood Building, 8th Street at State Avenue, Kansas City, Kans. International Brotherhood of Bookbinders, Joseph Denny, President, AFL-CIO Building, Room 506, 815 16th treet W., Washington 6, D.C.  Associated Actors & Artistes of America, Conrad age!, President, 226 West 47th Street, New York 36, N.Y. Air Line Dispatchers Associatiop., Robert E. Commerce, President, 4620 Lee Highway, Suite 1, Arlington 7, Va. Aluminum Workers International Union, Eddie R. Stahl, President, Suite 338, Paul Brown Building, 818 Olive Street, St. Louis 1, Mo.  Boot and Shoe Workers' Union, John E. Mara, President, 246 Swnmer Street, Boston 10, Ma s.  International Association of Heat and Frost In ulators and Asbestos Workers, C. W. Sickles, President, 505 Machinists Building, 1300 Connecticut A venue NW., Washington 6, D.C. International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Walter P. Reuther, President, 8000 East Jefferson Avenue, Detroit 14, Mich. American Bakery and Confectionery Worker tional Union, Daniel E. Conway, Pre ident 1120 Connecticut Avenue W., Washington 6, D.C.  Interna-  The Journeymen Barbers, Hairdres ers and Cosmetologists' International Union of America, W. C. Brithright, President, Barbers Building, 1141 North Delaware Street, Indianapolis 7, Ind. International Alliance of Bill Poster , Billers and Di tributors of the U.S. and Canada, John Gavin, President, 2458 Superior NW., Cleveland 13, Ohio.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  hiIJ-  International Union of United Brewery, Flour, Cer al, Soft Drink and Distillery Workers, Karl F. Feller, President, 2347 Vine Street, Cincinnati 19, Ohio. Bricklayer , Masons and Plasterers International Union of America, John J. Murphy, President, 815 15th Street NW., Washington 5, D.C. The United Brick and Clay Workers of America William Griffith, President, 9030 South Ashland Avenue, Chicago, Ill. National Association of Broadcast Employees and Technicians, George W. Smith, President, 80 East Jackson Boulevard, Room 711, Chicago, Ill. Building Service Employees International Union, David Sullivan, President, One East 35th Street, New York 16, N.Y. United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiner of Am r1ca, M.A. Hutcheson, President, Carpenter's Building, 101 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, D.C.  123  United Cement, Lime and Gypsum W.orkers International Union, Felix C. Jones, President, 7830 West Lawrence Avenue, Chicago 31, Ill. International Chemical Workers Union, Walter L. Mitchell, President, 1659 West Market Sitr eet, Akron 13, Ohio. Cigar Makers' International Union of America, Mario Azpetia, President, 604 Carpenter's Building, 1003 K Street NW., Washington 1, D.C. Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, Jacob S. Potofsky, President, 15 Union Square, New York 3, N.Y. The Commercial Telegraphers' Union, W. L. Allen, President, 418 Silver Spring Building, 8605 Cameron Street, Silver Spring, Md. Communications Workers of America, Jo eph A. Beirne, President, 1925 K Street NW., Washington 6, D.C. Cooper International Union of North America, James J. Doyle, President, 120 Boylston Street, Room 527, Boston 16, Mass. Distillery, Rectifying and Wine Workers International Union of America, Mort Brandenburg, President, 707 Summit Avenue, Union City, N.J. International Union of Doll and Toy Workers of the U.S. and Canada, Harry O. Damino, President, 132 West 43d Street, New York 36, N.Y. International Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers, James B. Carey, President, 112616th Street NW., Washington 6, D.C. International Union of Operating Engineers, Hunter P. Wharton, President, 112u 17th Street NW., Washington 6, D .C. International A ·sociation of Fire Fighters, William D. Buck, President, AFL-CIO Building, Room 404, Wa hington 6, D.C. International Brother hood of Firemen and Oilers, Anthony E. Matz, President, 100 Indiana Avenue NW. (Suite 401), Washington 1, D.C.  124  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  United Furniture Workers of America, Morris Pizer, President, 700 Broadway, 4th Floor, New York 3, N.Y. United Garment Workers of America, Joseph P. Mccurdy, President, 31 Union Square West, Room 1401-12, New York 3, N.Y. International Ladies Garment Workers Union, David Dubinsky, President, 1710 Broadway, New York 19, N.Y. United Glass and Ceramic Workers of North America, Ralph Reiser, President, 556 East Town Street, Columbus 15, Ohio. Glass Bottle Blowers' AssociaU.on of the U.S. and Canada, Lee W. Minton, President, 226 South 16th Street, Room 501, Philadelphia 2, Pa. American Flint Glass Workers Union, George M. Parker, President, Rooms 200-214, Rainer Building, 204 Huron Street, Toledo 4, Ohio. American Federation of Government Employees, John F. Griner, President, 900 F Street NW., Washington 4, D.C. American Federation of Grain Millers, Roy 0. Wellborn, President, 4949 Olson Memorial Highway, Minneapolis 22, Minn. Granite Cutters International Association of Amerioa, The, Costanzo Pagnano, President, 18 Federal Avenue, Quincy 69, Mass. International Union United Hatters, Cap and Millinery \Vorkers, Alex Rose, P r esident, 245 Fifth Avenue, ~ew York 16, N.Y. International Hod Carriers, Building and Common La borers Union of America, Joseph V. More 'Chi, President, 903 16th Street rw., Washington 6, D.C. International Union of Journeymen Horse Shoers of U.S. and Canada. George C. Miller, President, 120 Prichard Street, Hot Springs, Ark. American Federation of Hosiery Workers, Andrew Janaskie, President, 2319 North Broad Street, Ph~adelphia 32, Pa.  Hotel and Re taurant Employees' Bartenders' Interna• tional Union, Ed. S. Miller, General President, 525 Walnut Street, Room 1021, Cincinnati 2, Ohio. International Union, Allied (AFL-CIO) Industrial Workers of America, · Carl '-'r. Griepentrog, President, 3520 West Oklahoma Avenue, Milwaukee 15, Wis. Insurance Workers International Union, AFL-CIO, George L. Russ, President, 1017 12th Street NW., Washington 5, D.C. International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers, John H. Lyons, Jr., President, Suite 300, Continental Building, 3615 Olive Street, St. Louis 8, Mo. International Jewelry Workers Union, Harry Spodick, President, 152 West 42d Street, Suite 1131, New York 36, N.Y. International Union of Wood, Wire, and Metal, Lather , Lloyd A. Mashburn, President, 6530 New Hampshire A venue, Takoma Park, Md. Laundry and Dry Cleaning International Union, AFLCIO, Russell R. Crowell, President, 61016th Street, Room 301, Oakland 12, Oalif. International Leather Goods, Plastics and Novelty Workers Union, Norrnan Zukowsk y, President, 26,5 West 14th Street, 14th Floor, New York 11, N.Y. Leather Workers International Union of America, Richard B. O'Keefe, Pt'esident, 10 Lowell treet. Pea body, Mass. National Association of Letter Carriers, .Jerome J. Keating, Pre ident, 100 Indiana Avenue NW., Wa. hington, D.C. International Longshoremen's Association, Captain William V. Bardley, President,  AFL-CIO,  19th Floor, 265 West 14th Street, New York 11, N.Y. Brotherhood of, Maintenance of Way Employees, Harold C. Crotty, President, 12050 Woodward Avenue, Detroit 3, Mi-ch.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  International As o iation of Marble, 'late tone Polisher Rubber and Sawyers, Tile and Marble etters Helver~ and Terrazzo Helpers, William Peitler, President ' Room 232, 82115th Street W., Washington 5, D.C. Indust~al Union of Marine and Shipbuildin W orker of g America, John G. Grogan, President, 534 Cooper Street, Camden 2, N.J. . . National Marine Engineers' Benefici·ai A ssociat10n ' Edward Altman, President, Room 2344, 17 Battery Place, New York 4, N.Y. National Maritime Union of America, Joseph Curran, President ' 346 West 17th Street, New York 11, N.Y. National Association of Ma t r Mechani·cs and For men of Navy Yards and Naval Stations David Himmelfarb, President ' 117 Beaumont Avenue, Newtonville 60, Mass. Amalgamated Meat utter North America, T. J. Lloyd, President, 2800 orth Sheridan Road ' Chicago 14, Ill.  an d B utcher ,vorkmen of  Mechanics Educational Society of America, George White, ational President ' 1974 National Bank Building, Detroit 26, Mich. International Molders and Allied Workers CIO, William A. Lazzerini, President, 1225 East McMillan Street, Cincinnati 6, Ohio.  nion, AFL-  American Federation of Musicians, Herman D. Kenin, President, 425 Park A venue, New York 22, N.Y. American ewspaper Guild, William J. Farson, Executive Vice Pre ident ' 1126 16th Street NW., Washington 6, D.C. Office Employees International Howard Coughlin, President, 265 We t 14th Street, New York 11, N.Y. Oil. Chemical and Atomi 0. A. Knight, President, Post Office Box 2812, Denver 1, Colo.  nion,  \V or J,er  International  , · mou,  125  United Packinghou e, Food and Allied Workers, Ralph Helstein, President, 608 South Dearborn Street, Suite 1800, Chicago 5, Ill. Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America, L. M. Raftery, President, Painters and Decorators' Building, Lafayette, Ind. United Papermakers and Paperworkers, Paul L. Phillip , President, Paper Makers Building, orth Pearl Street, at Wolfert Avenue, Albany 1, N.Y. International Photo Engravers Union of North America, William H. Hall, President, 3405 Kemper Insurance Building, 20 orth Wacker Drive, Chicago, Ill. Operative Plasterers' and Cement Masons' International As ociation of the U.S. and Canada, Edward J. Leonard, President, 112517th Street NW., Washington 6, D.C. United Association of Journeymen and Apprentice of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the .S. and Canada, Peter T. Schoemann, President, 901 Massachusetts Avenue, W., Washington 1, D.C. Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, A. Philip Randolph, President, Room 301, 217 West 125th Street, New York, N.Y. National Federation of Post Office Motor Vehicle Employees, Lee B. Walker, President, 2815 Kingston Street, Dallas 11, Tex. National Association of Post Office and Postal Transportation Service Mail Handlers, Watchmen and Messengers, Harold McA voy, President, Room 916, 900 F Street, W., Washington, D.C. United Federation of Postal Clerks, E. C. Hallbeck, President, 817 14th Street, NW., Washington 5, D.C. International Brotherhood of Operative Potter , E. L. Wheatley, President, Box 752, East Liverpool, Ohio. International Printing Pressmen's and Assistants' Union of North America, Anthony J. De Andrade, President, Pressmen's Home, Tenn.  126  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers of the U.S. and Canada, John P. Burke, President-Secretary, 118 Broadway, Fort Edward, N.Y. American Radio Association, William R. Steinberg, President, 5 Beekman Street, ew York 38, N.Y. The Order of Railroad Telegraphers, G. E. Leighty, President, 3860 Lindell Boulevard, St. Louis 8, Mo. Brotherhood of Railway Carmen of America, A. J. Bernhardt, President, 4929 Main Street, Carmen's Building, Kansas City 12, Mo. Brotherhood of Railway Clerks, George M. Harrison, President, 1015 Vine Street, Cincinnati 2, Ohio. Railway Patrolmen's International William J. Ryan, President, 218 Mellon Place, Elizabeth 3, N.J.  nion,  The American Railway Supervisors Association, J.P. Tahney, President, 53 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago 4, Ill. Retail Clerks International Association James A. Suffridge, President, ' DeSales Building, Connecticut Avenue and DeSales Street, Washington 6, D.C. Retail Wholesale and Department Store Union Max Greenberg, President, ' 132 West 43d Street, New York 36, N.Y. United Slate, Tile and Composition Roofer , Damp and Waterproof Workers A ociation Charles D. Aquardro, President, ' 112517th Street NW., Washington 6, D.C. nited Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of America, George Burdon, President, URWA Building,  87 South High Street, Akron 8, Ohio. Seafarers International Union of North America Paul Hall, President, ' 675 Fourth Avenue, Brooklyn 32, .Y. United Shoe Workers of America George Fecteau, President, ' 1012 14th Street NW., Washington 5, D.C.  Brotherho od of Railroad Signalmen of America, Jesse Clark, President, 2247 West Lawrence Avenue, Chicago 25, Ill. The National Assodatio n of Special Delivery i!Iessengers, George L. Warfel, President, 112 C Street NW., Washingt on 1, D.O. Internatio nal Alliance of Theat1:ical Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, Richard F. Walsh, President, Suite 1099, RKO Building, 1270 A venue of the Americas, New York 20, N .Y. American Federatio n of State, County, and Municipal Employee s, Arnold S. Zander, President, 815 Mount Vernon Place NW., Washingt on 1, D.O. United Steelwork ers of America, David J. McDonald , President, 1500 Commonw ealth Building, Pittsburgh 22, Pa. United Stone and Allied Products Workers of America, Sam H. Scott, President, 442 South Sunset Drive, Winston-S alem, N.C. Journeym en Stonecutt ers Associatio n of orth America, Howard I. Henson, Presrident, 46 orth Pennsylva nia Street, Room 202, Indianapo lis 4, Ind. Stove, Furnace, and Allied Appliance Workers of North America, James M. Roberts, President, 2929 South Jefferson Avenue, St. Louis 18, Mo. Amalgam ated Associatio n of Street Railway Employee s of America, John M. Elliott, President, 5025 Wisconsin Avenue NW., Washingto n 16, D.O.  and  Electric  American Federatio n of Teachers. Carl J. Megel, President, 716 North Rush Street, Chicago 11, Ill. American Federatio n of Technical Engineers ( AFL-OIO ), Russell M. Stephens, President, 900 F Street NW., Washingto n, D.O. United Textile Workers of America, George Baldanzi, President, 44 East 23d Street, Room 316, New York 10, N.Y.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Textile Workers Union of America ' William Pollock, President, 99 University Place, New York 3, N.Y. Tobacco Workers Internatio nal nion, John O'Hare, President ' 1003 K Street ~ W., Room 801, Washingto n 1, D.O. American Train Di patcher Associatio n, R. 0. Coutts, President 10 East Huron Street, ' Chicago, Ill. United Tran port Service Employee s of America ' Eugene E. Frazier, President ' 444 East 63d Street, Chicago 37, Ill. Transport Workers nion of Ameri a ' Michael J. Quill, President ' 210 West 50th Street, New York 19, N.Y. Upholster ers' Internatio nal Union of North America ' Sal B. Hoffmann , President, 1500 North Broad Street, Philadelp hia 21, Pa. Utility Workers Union of America ' William J. Pachler, President1 1725 K Street NW., Suite 512, Washingto n, D.O. Internatio nal Woodwor kers of America ' A. F. Hartung, President 1622 North Lombard Str~et, Portland 17, Oreg. Railroad Yardmast ers of America M. G. Schoch, General President ' ' 537 South Dearborn Street ' Chicago 5, Ill. Switchme n's Union of North America ' Neil P. Speirs, President, 3 Linwood Avenue, Buffalo 2, N.Y. Brotherho od of Railroad Trainmen , AFL-OIO , Charles Luna, President ' Standard Building, 1370 Ontario Street, Cleveland , Ohio. 1asters, Mates and Pilots Charles M. Crooks, Presid~nt ' Suite 2221, 17 Battery Place, ew York 4, N.Y. Internatio nal Union of Metal Polishers, Buffers, Plat r and Helpers, Ray Muehlhoffer, President and Secretary -Trea ur r, 5578 Montgome ry Road, Cincinnati , 12, Ohio. 300 locals directly affiliated with the AFL-OIO .  127  CHAPTER ELEVEN In the Communities The Committee recognized from its inception the importance of action at the local level to both the immediate and long-range goals of equal employment opportunity. Accordingly, the Committee has conducted vigorous educational, informational and community relations programs embodying many activities. ome of the highlights of these programs include: - A National Community Leaders' Conference on Equal Employment Opportunity in Washing ton, D.C., on May 19, 1962. -Regional Conferences for Community Leaders throughout the United States on various aspects of equal employment opportunity. -Development of a pilot project for training underskilled workers in the Los Angeles area. -A conference with representatives of state and local agencies affiliated with the Conference of Commissions Against Discrimination. -Coordination of plans and programs with other Federal agencies with community programs, such as the President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime, the Bureau of Apprenticeship Training, and the Office of Manpower, Automation and Training. -Participation as speakers, consultants, panelists and conferees at meetings and conferences involving equal employment opportunity. -National distribution to news media of information concerning the Committee, its programs and activities. -The encouragement of local groups organized to promote equality of opportunity. All of these activities serve to enlist local support for th program of th President's Committee and to develop lo al activities designed to improve opportunities for employment without regard to race, creed, color or national or igin. 128  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Four of these programs are discussed below in more detail.  Community Leaders' Confe.rence On May 19, 1962, more than 600 of the ation's top community leaders met in Washington for a Conference which the then Vice President Johnson described as "a symbol of our desire to bring substance to the American dream of equal opportunity." The occasion was the Community Leaders' Conference on Equal Employment Opportunity, called by Mr. Johnson on behalf of the President's Committee. The Conference had five primary objectives : (1) To explain the work and accomplishments of the President's Committee. (2) To obtain ideas and suggestions of community leaders concerning the Committee's program. (3) To discuss with community leaders the nature of the problem of racial discrjmination as manifested in such issues as apprenticeship, unemployment, vocational education, etc. ( 4) To provide current factual information on manpower needs, trends, and methods of acquiring skills. ( 5) To obtain practical suggestions for implementation of community level programs. Throughout the conference, the participants studied and considered ways and means of achieving the goal of equal employment opportunity. Meeting in small workshop group , they made recommendations for action and programs, both nationally and at the community level. I n speeches, in workshop , in general discussion, it was recognized that the Federal Government, while it must play a vital and important part in achieving equal opportunity, cannot do the job alone. Among the recommendations of the conference were :  (1) that the President's Committee hold regional and, where appropriate, state meetings structured along the lines of the Community Leaders' Conference in order that local leaders unable to attend this conference should have a chance to benefit and to make their contribution. (Such regional conferences are being conducted.) (2) that community leaders check on the quality of local training facilities and practical accessibility to such programs for minority group youth. This may mean review of curriculum content in schools and preparation of teachers. (3) that community leaders push for taxsupported junior colleges in their communities to provide the level of training needed by otherwise qualified youth who have no funds for private or public 4-year colleges. ( 4) since aptitude and other entrance tests are used increasingly in the recruitment and selection for employment and training, that local leaders see that they are properly utilized as to their predictive value. Studies have revealed that such tests are not necessarily good indicators of success on the job for minority group youth and similarly deprived students. Frequently, minority group students score low in aptitude tests due to cultural lag and other factors not related to aptitude. (5) that the President's Committee assume a far more aggressive approach in stimulating the elimination of inequality in apprentice training programs. (6) that the President's Committee promote the development of training in the skilled trades and in technology at the secondary school level. (7) that the President's Committee promote a variety of in-service training programs in Government and in large corporations for staff persons dealing with equal opportunity in employment. (8) that the President's Committee encourage the combined efforts of schools, industry and Government to improve and extend vocational training opportunities for minority groups. ,(9) that the President's Committee stimulate appropriate Government agencies to assemble and disseminate material about future job opportunities and that greater effort be made to   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  forecast areas where job opportunities are likely to expand. (10) that the President's Committee broaden its activities in cooperating with religious and educational groups to encourage and assist them in advancing the objectives of the equal job opportunity program. (11) that there be more and better-trained counselors provided to assist minority group students and that such counselors encourage students in terms of their aptitudes and abilities rather than with a view to the availability of jobs based on racial or religious acceptance. Many of these recommendations are being followed. The one overriding conclnsion of the Community Leaders' Conference on Equal Employment Opportunity was the imperative necessity for stepped-up and expanded activities ,a nd programs at the community level. In &peeches, in workshops, in general discussion, it was recognized that the Federal Government, while it must play a vital and important part in achieving equal opportunity, cannot do the job alone. The Regional Conferences  During 1963, three Regional Conferences of Community Leaders on Equal Employment Opportunity were conducted by the President's Committee-in St. Louis, in Detroit, and in Los Angeles. Each served its purposes-liaison was established with the community to promote equal employment opportunity; the programs of the President's Committee were explained and related to local activity; the Federal agencies were given ideas of what programs were necessary in specific areas to promote equality of opportunity. In each instance, these regional conferences drew more than 1,500 participants. In each instance, Cabinet officers and top Federal officials participated in the conference activities, including acting as chairmen of workshop panels. The workshop panels have been the most successful and taiked about activity of the conferences. They have permitted not only Federal and local officials to discuss problems and methods of solving them, but questions from the audience have elicited ideas and opinions that have later been turned into solid programs. (A publication covering the regional conferences will soon be available from the Committee.) 129  The regional conferences will be continued during 1964.  The Vocational Education-Industry Pilot Proiect in the Los Angeles Area The pilot project in Los Angeles of the President's Committee is designed to provide expanded opportunities for minority citizens through improved coordination of rapidly changing industry manpower needs and local vocational education facilities. The project enables the President's Committee-and the Departments of Labor and Health, Education, and Welfare, the two executive agencies who have cooperated in the program-to fulfill one of the Government's commitments through the Plans for Progress Program, i.e., assisting industry in obtaining qu.alified persons to meet manpower needs. Los Angeles was chosen for the project because of (a) the large number of expanding aerospace industries and others with Government contracts; (b) the stated interest in equal employment opportunity of these companies; ( c) the good reputation of the schools in the area; ( d) several community agencies, especially in the field of human relations, which were willing to cooperate; ( e) the large population of the two major minority groups in the area ( 500,000 Negroes; 900,000 MexicanAmericans), as well as large numbers of orientalAmeric.ans. The program provides intensive training for persons who often have difficulty finding employment-those from culturally disadvantaged areas or members of various minority groups. None of the participants has pursued any type of posthigh-school training. The program is the first such ever conducted under a Manpower Development and Training Act grant administered by the Department of Labor with the assistance of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. A series of meetings to outline the project were held with the following, all of whom pledged cooperation: Los Angeles City and County Vocational Education Administrators; representatives of community human relations agencies; 21 representatives of 12 Los Angeles area government contractors; the Los Angeles Regional Director of Vocational Education; and the director of the 130  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Trades and Industry Division of the California State Vocational Education Board. At first, a local committee of community relations and industry representatives worked on the program. Later, they were joined by representatives of the Schools of the City and County of Los Angeles; the State Vocational Education Department, and the California Departll1:ent of Employment. Over a period, job analysts from the State Department of Employment consulted with 11 companies in the area and developed job specifications for 65 job classifications. Potential candidates were identified. Only those who had not intended to pursue any type of post-high school training were referred to the program after counselling with representatives of the city schools and the State Department of Employment. The state employment service then administered tests to those individuals identified as potential trainees. Those who qualified were admitted to the pilot program. While the screening process was being conducted, Los Angeles City school officials were busy obtaining facilities, instructors, equipment and supplies necessary for the program. A special effort was made to identify a few occupations for which training can be specifically scheduled in communities with large minority group populations for the second semester of the 1962-63 school year. On February 4, 1963, 75 students started training. Three classes now make up the program-machine shop, electronic assembling and clerical occupations ( typing, etc.). They are conducted in Jefferson and Manual Arts High Schools and are a part of the adult education program. Clas.ses meet immediately after the close of the high school class day, meeting 5 hours daily from 4 :30 p.m. to 9p.m. Thus far, more than 60 students have been graduated and virtually all have been placed. Only a few in the last class have not yet been placed and the program administrator expects 100 percent placement for these and all future graduates. The program has attracted a great deal of attention from other cities with large numbers of workers who are. unqualified for jobs that are open in industry. Meanwhile, the Los Angeles Youth Opportunities Board had applied to the Office of Manpower  and Apprenticeship Training in the Department of Labor for an MDTA grant to finance a longterm, broad-based project with special emphasis on minority youth. To broaden the scope of the project, John W. Macy, Jr., Chairman of the U.S. Civil Service Commission, has instructed his agency's Los Angeles regional offices to assist in the project;· the Los Angeles Federal Executive Board also is cooperating fully with the local committee. The President's Committee, the Department of Labor and the Department of Jlealth, Education and Welfare have discussed plans to initiate efforts similar to this pilot project in other communities in the near future. The Presidents Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime has projects in the Los Angeles area and 14 other cities which it feels will lend themselves to assimilating vocational preparation and industrial needs with available minority manpower.  Local Organizations The President's Committee has been instrumental in encouraging the formation of special local or area organizations to deal with equal employment opportunity problems. One such organization is the Association of Huntsville Area Contractors in Alabama. This association is composed of all major contractors doing business with Huntsville operations of the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Redstone Arsenal and the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. NASA acted to help form this group after the President's Committee found that no satisfactory program had been developed in Huntsville and met with NASA, the Department of Defense and other agencies. The intent of the contractors : to secure the support of all Huntsville business, civic  726 - 390 0 - 64 - 10   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and cultural leaders in a program of equal opportunity. The Association not only has been actively promoting equality of employment opportunity and training, but also has been active in efforts to desegregate all community facilities and public accommodations. When the Huntsville public schools were integrated this fall, there were no de]Ilonstrations such as there were in Birmingham and other cities in the State-and some of the credit for this peaceful integration goes to the Association of Huntsville Area Contractors. Another organization the President's Committee encouraged the formation of is the Washington, D.C., Plans for Progress Employers. These employers have formed a special cooperative group enabling them to work very closely with one another. These companies, which generate several hundred job openings a month, a~e now coordinating these opening and are actively recruiting minority group workers for them. In addition, representatives of the companies are participating in "Hiring Days" in the D.C. public schools-as well as "Career Days"-and are conducting on-site interviewing and testing of prospective employees. It is believed that contacts by nationally known firms will help motivate students to seek employment with business and will encourage them toward further self-development. Similar small groupings of Plans for Progress companies are being promoted nationwide as a further means of achieving the goal of equal employment opportunity. The President's Committee, through its Advisory Council on Plans for Progress, is also keeping in direct contact with local groups who wish to enlist companies in their area in programs similar to Plans for Progre.ss-voluntary cooperative efforts in behalf of basic human rights.  131  CHAPTER TWELVE Summary and ·Comment By Hobart Taylor, Jr., Executive Vice Chairman  vVe consider the preceding pao-es to be a record of substantial achievement-not only for the President's ommittee on Equal Employment Opportunity, but also for the Nation. This report demonstrates that through the efforts of the Committee and community leaders, substantial changes have been made, .and continue to be made, in historical employment patterns. Employment of minority group Americans at responsible levels in private industry has increased, both through cooperative action and the Committee's compliance program. Breakthroughs have been achieved in jobs traditionally hedged with color or religious barriers. Responsible government positions have been filled by Americans who formerly could not aspire to .anything beyond the service and maintenance level. The statistical record presented in this report is bound to be encouraging. It shows that it is possible to break patterns which have denied productive lives to so many-and that there are qualified persons available to fill posts of responsibility with dio-nity and ability. These are direct results of the programs of the Committee. There are others mentioned in this report:  -The cooperative effort being made at Huntsville, Ala., one of the South's leading industrial cities, to desegregate other aspects of the community life so all residents can lead more productive and useful lives. -The progress being made in cities such as Birmingham, despite the tense racial climate. -The rapid development of the Plans for Progress program and its expansion to include non-Government contractors. -The establishment of the Plans for Prog132  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ress Advisory Council and its development of committees to work on various aspects of employment of minorities, including work with foundations seeking to finance projects in this broad field. .-The establishment of local groups of Plans for Progress companies to take joint action on a community level to improve employment opportunities for minorities. -The marshaling of the forces of the Nation's educational community behind efforts to improve educational opportunities and future employment possibilities of the nation's minorities. The Big 10 and Wayne State University have provided much of the impetus for this program. -The high degree of success in processing complaints of employment discrimination and the consequent change effected in personnel policies by many companies. -The development of agency capability to handle both complaints and compliance reviews as methods of bringing about change. -The initiation of various projects on the community level, including the Regional Conferences, from which have come concrete results. -The efforts being made by labor leaders to cooperate in furthering the principles of the Executive orders. All these tangible things and more are included in this report. But the past 2½ years have produced yet another accomplishment, somewhat more intangible, but nevertheless worthy and one which in the long run perhaps may be more meaningful. This is the fact that there has been a basic change in attitude on the part of most of the man-  agers of American industry and the heads of our responsible labor unions. For the first time, these leaders of the private sector of our economy have undertaken a rigorous self-scrutiny to determine their true attitudes. For the first time, these leaders are throwing off the binding and restricting residue of the past. For the first time, there is underway in our Nation today an intensive exami- . nation of new human resources. For the first time, these leaders are realizing the value of following this type of program, both from humanitarian and practical motives. But despite this growing awareness of the moral, economic and social cost of discrimination, and despite our substantial record of progress, we cannot yet be satisfied. Despite the progress, the position of egroes and other minorities in the American economy and social system remains far too low. Their share of employment at decent levels can be measured in fractions. For example, in establishments filing compliance reports :  -About 95 percent of the Negro men and 81 percent of the Negro women employees of the companies were still in blue collar occupations. -Of the Negro blue collar workers, more than 90 ·percent were in jobs below the skilled level. About one in every three men in blue collar occupations was a skilled worker; among Negro men, the ratio was less than one in 10. -There were about 10 male Negro white collar employees for every 1,000 male white collar workers. -Negro women employees represented 5.3 percent of all female officials, professional employees and technicians; the corresponding rate for Negro men was one percent. -Only 330 Negroes were employed in sales occupations out of a total of 124,000 such jobs. -Negroes held only 6.3 percent of reported jobs, and only 1.3 percent of the reported white collar jobs. -Despite the fact that Negro white collar employment increased 17.4 percent while total .white collar employment increased by only L9 percent, the net gain increased the Negro share of total white collar employment in the reporting establishments only from 12 Negroes per 1,000 white collar workers in 1962 to 13 per 1,000 in 1963. -Approximately 1 out of every 12 Negroes   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (8 percent) were white collar workers in 1963 as compared to one out of 15 (7 percent) in 1962. Viewing these statistics in this way, we can see that despite the substantial accomplishments of the President's Committee, much must be done if we are to realize the goal of utilizing the full capabilities and talents of every man and woman in the development of our free democratic society. If this objective could be achieved merely through hard work, dedication and constant policing, the task of achieving equal employment opportunity-though difficult-would be manageable. But the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity must necessarily operate within the social and economic framework of our nation. Within that framework, considerable progress can be made-in fact has been made-simply by opening up jobs to members of minority groups who are qualified to fill them, but who have been barred from them because of prejudice. Their example spurs others to try. Unfortunately, however, prejudice erects its barriers not only at the employment office or the hiring hall, but at various and less obvious spots on the ap.p roaches to these entrances into the economic world. These secondary barriers are no less insidious and are fully as effective in maintaining job discrimination as the most blatant bias on the part of a personnel manager or a hiring foreman. F urthermore, these hard-to-discern barriers are not subject to the "direct attack" compliance procedures of the P resident's Committee--or even to the moral persuasion that has proven so effective with many employers. So it has become increasingly apparent in the past two years that the goal of equal opportunity cannot be achieved by ending job discrimination alone. The problem of job discrimination cannot be separated from the problem of economic, social and political discrimination. For ultimately there can be no true equality of opportunity in an unequal society. Under any realistic view of the circumstances, the most that can be achieved by an equal employment opportunity compliance program is to open up jobs to "qualified" workers, regardless of race, creed, color or national origin. There is a regrettable tendency to overlook the word "qualified"-or at least to underestimate its significance. Yet, the con133  cept of equal job opportunity can become a reality only when it is accompanied by equal opportunity to qualify. It is idle to contend that there is full equality of qualification opportunity in our society today. Minority group citizens do have some opportunities to receive the necessary training to engage in a wide variety of skills and professions-and these opportunities are increasing, otherwise the President's Committee would be unable to report any progress whatsoever. But in comparison to the majority of our people the hurdles between the minority group citizen and qualification opportunity are such that only the exceptionally alert and able-or lucky-can overcome them. The fact remains that in a long list of occupations, a minority American must have much greater capacity and ambition than his counterpart to obtain and hold a job. Inadequate trainin o- in a specific skill or profession is not, however, the main point. As a matter of ,fact, a minority group citizen who is qualified for, and who :fervently seeks, such training can usually-through extraordinary effortobtain it somewhere. The fact that so :few do so involves the problems of general American education at the secondary level and, necessarily, at the primary level. The minority group Americ,an starts life with handicaps; as he grows, so do they. Unequal education at the primary level leads to inability to qualify for education at the secondary level, which, in turn, leads to inability to qualify at the college or job-training level. These facts, in turn, lead to the inability to qualify for job opportunity. Decades of discrimination establish psycholoo-ical patterns for both employers and employees. Paradoxically, the pattern is often easier to break among employers than among workers. The employer under compulsion of o-overnment sanction or public morality, need only make the decision to hire minority workers and-if he can f:ind qualified applicants or can train them-it is done. The minority group American, on the other hand, must first make a binding decision to prepare himself for a lifetime career in a specific field. If he makes a mistake in his choice of a field, he likely will discover it is too late to go back, too late to retrace his steps, too late to start over again. For this reason, he generally demonstrates great reluctance to invade fields traditionally barred ,to 134  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  him because of conditions of his ancestry even when he is told that such fields are now open. The results are readily apparent in any survey of Negro colleges. The majority of studentsat least until very recently-fell into three classifications; teachers, preachers and doctors. They know that in these professions they could be assured of a o-ood living serving the citizens who shared their physical or ancestral characteristics, without regard to the prejudices of the remainder of their fellow Americans. From the standpoint of the minority students, this is understandable. But from the standpoint of our Nation, it is unfortunate. It means that many of the best and most alert minds of a large segment of our community-those who have proven their initiative and who have persevered against invisible but formidable odds-are restricting the paths which they intend to follow in life and are ignoring the opportunities which have opened up in'the physical and other sciences as a result of the Space Age.  ..The patterns of an unequal society have resulted in a heavy cost-both to the victims of · discrimination and to the society itself. But denying training, restricting education and killing initiative are not the only ways in which our currently unequal society erects barriers to equal employment opportunity. It is apparent that full equality of employment opportunity requires that we face up to the whole problem of equality itself. There is another point-too often considered as remote from employment opportunity-at which an unequal society places effective bars while still offering jobs in good faith. This is the matter of housing. A plant located in an area which denies housing facilities to minority citizens, for all practical purposes, denies those citizens jobs. o man is going to work in a plant where he must travel long distances every morning and evening merely because he cannot live near his job. Our country must realize that the right of a man to choose the neighborhood in which he will live is much more than a question of social prestige or "keeping up with the Joneses." This right is inextricably tied into . his ability to make a living and to provide his family with the decencies of life. To bar a man from living in a specific neighborhood does far more than cast a social stigma upon him; it also limits his capacity to do some-  thing that all men cherish-to provide their wives and their children with the maximum security and comfort and hope available to them. The impact of an unequal society upon equal job opportunity does not end, however, with education, with training, or with housing. At stake basically is the right of mobility in a free country that not only permits a worker to seek out the best job he can find, but also permits an employer to seek out the best workers he can find. Both these rights are still severely restricted in our country today, despite our advances. We should not expect a man to move to a community to take a job-no matter how attractive-if the community refuses to accept him and his family as human beings. We should not expect a man to subject his children to an inferior education; his wife to social humiliation; his family to second class citizenship-if he has an alternative. He may prefer to take an inferior job in which he has a feeling of dignity and decency and at a location where his children have a chance.  .T his problem of an unequal society has been confused on many occasions with the concept of free choice of associates; this viewpoint is not a useful one. Every man has the unchallenged right to select his own associates and his own intimate friends. This privilegewhether exercised foolishly or wisely, meanly or nobly-is not in question. -B ut, it should also be recognized that no man has the right to deny any other man equal access to the public institutions and facilities of our society because of race, creed, color or national origin. People must be judged on their merits and not on irrelevancies of their ancestry.  The President's Committee does not operate under any illusion that its efforts-or the efforts of its society as a whole-can grant to all men equal opportunity on every level of human endeavor. Even those who are normally acceptable members of our predominant social structure feel the pressure of inequality. The son of a successful and wealthy man obviously holds a head start over his poorer contemporaries, regardless of comparative capacity; his parents can offer him more materially and culturally. A child from a happy home should normally be better adjusted to life than most of his fellows. An individual of superior intelligence should obviously go further than the less gifted. But inequality brought about by circumstances such as these is not the issue. The real issue is whether men will be judged unequally and treated unequally because they-through their ancestors are part of a "group"-a label that has become as distinctive as a trade mark. The real issue is whether we will ask members of these "groups" to fulfill the obligations of citizenship without being accorded the rights-the working toolsneeded to carry out these obligations. It is the function of the President's Committee to strive-within the limits of governmental power-to abolish job discrimination against anyone because he is part of a group through circumstances over which he has had no control. We believe we have made considerable headway. We know we can make considerably more headway. We are determined to do so. _vYe are convinced that an equal employment opportunity program is an effective device to assist in the creation of a society in which men are judged solely on the basis of merit and not on the irrelevancies of their b1rth.  Equal Employment Opportunity in Federal Government and on Federal Contracts  EXECUTIVE ORDERS 10925 AND 11114 The President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity The President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity  B. JOHNSON President of the United States  EXECUTIVE VICE CHAIRMAN  HOBART TAYLOR,  Jr.  LYNDON  VICE CHAIRMAN  w. WILLARD WIRTZ Secretary of L abor   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  SPECIAL COUNSEL  N. THOMPSON  POWERS  Deputy Solicitor of Labor 135  PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS Title 3-THE PRESIDENT Executive Order 10925 Establishing  the  President's  Committee  on  Equal  Employmen,f  Opportunity  Whereas discriminatio n because oi race, creed, color, or national origin is contrary to the Constitutiona l principles a nd policies of the United States ; and Whereas it is the plain and positive obligation of the United States Government to promote and ensure equal opportunity for all qualified persons, without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin, employed or seeking employment with the Federal Government and on government contracts ; and Whereas it is the policy of the executive branch of the Government to encourage by positive measures equal opportunity for all qualified persons within the Government; and Whereas it is in the general interest and welfare of the United States to promote its economy, security, and national defense through the most efficient and effective utilization of all available manpower; and Whereas a review and a nalysis of existing Executive orders, practices, and government agency procedures relating to government employment and compliance with existing non-discrimin ation contract provisions reveal an urgent need for expansion and strengthening of efforts to promote full equality of employment oppo·r tunity; and Whereas a single governmental committee should be charged with responsibility for accomplishing these objectives: Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and statutes of the United States; it is ordered as follows: PART  I-ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY  SECTION 101. There is hereby established the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportµnity. SEC. 102. The Committee shall be composed as follows : (a) The Vice President of the United States, who is hereby designated Chairman of the Committee and who shall preside at meetings of the Committee. (b) The Secretary of Labor, . who is hereby designated Vice Chairman of the Committee and who shall act as Chairman in the absence of the Chairman. The Vice Chairman shall have general supervision and direction of the work of the Committee and of the execution and implementati on of the polic~es and purposes of this order. (c) The Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Secretary of Commerce, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretaries of the Army, Navy and Air Force, the Administrato r of General Services, the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission, and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Each such member may designate an alternate to represent him in his absence.  136  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (d) Such other members as the President may from time to time appoint. (e) An Executive Vice Chairman, designated by the President, who shall be ew officio a member of the Committee. The Executive Vice Chairman shall assist the Chairman, the Vice Chairman and the Committee. Between meetings of the Committee he shall be primarily responsible for carrying out the functions of the Committee and may act for the Committee pursuant to its rules, delegations, and other directives. Final action in individual cases or classes of cases may be taken and final orders may be entered on behalf of the Committee by the Executive Vice Chairman when the Committee so a uthorizes. SEC. 103. The Committee shall meet upon the call of the Chairman and at such other times as may be provided by its rules and regulations. It shall (a) consider and adopt rules and regulations to govern its proceedings ; (b) provide generally for the proc~dures and policies to implement this order ; ( c) consider reports as to progress under this order; ( d) consider and act, where necessary or appropriate, upon matters which may be presented to it by any of its members ; and ( e) make such reports to the President as he may require or the Committee shall deem appropriate. Such reports shall be made at least once annually and shall include specific references to the actions taken and results achieved by each department and agency. The Chairman may appoint sub-committe es to make special studies on a continuing basis. PART II-NONDISCRIMINATION IN GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT SECTION 201. The President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity established by this order is directed immediately to scrutinize and study employment practices of the Government of the United States, and to consider and recommend additional affirmative steps which should be taken by executive departments and agencies to realize more fully the national policy of nondiscrimina tion within the executive branch of the Government. SEc. 202. All executive departments and agencies are directed to initiate forthwith studies of current government employment practices within their responsibility . The studies shall be in such form as the Committee may prescribe and shall include statistics on current employment patterns, a review of current procedures, and the recommendat ion of positive measures for the elimination of any discrimination , direct or indirect, which now exists. Reports and recommendat ions shall be submitted to the Executive Vice Chairman of the Committee no later than sixty days from the effective date of this order, and the Committee, after considering such reports and recommendati ons, shall report to the President on the current situation and recommend positive measures to accomplish the objectives of this order. SEC. 203. The policy expressed in Executive Order No. 10590 of January 18, 1955 (20 F.R. 409), with respect to the exdusion •a nd prohibition of discriminatio n against any employee or applicant for employment in the Federal Government because of race, color, religion, or national origin is hereby reaffirmed. SEC. 204. The President's Committee on Government  Employment Policy, established by Executi,e Order No. 10590 of January 18, 1955 (20 F.R. 409), as amended by Executive Order No. 10722 of August 5, 1957 (22 E .R. 62 7), is hereby abolished, and the powers, functions, and duties of that Committee are hereby transferred to, and henceforth shall be vested in, and exercised by, the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity in addition to the powers conferred by this order. PART III-OBLIGATIONS OF GOVERNMENT CONTRACTORS  AND  SUBCONTRACTORS SUBPART A-CONTRACTORS' AGREEMENTS  SECTION 301. Except in contracts exempted in accordance with section 303 of this order, all government contracting agencies shall include in every government contract hereafter entered into the following provisions: "In connection with the performance of work under this contract, the contractor agrees as follows: "(1) The contractor will not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color, or national origin. The contractor will take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin. Such action hall include, but not be limited to, the following: employment, upgrading, demotion or transfer; recruitment or recruitment advertising; layoff or termination; rates of pay or other forms of compensation; and selection for training, including apprenticeship. The contractor agrees to post in conspicuous place , available to employees and applicants for employment, notice to be provided by the contracting officer setting forth the provisions of this nondiscrimination clause. "(2) The contractor will, in all solicitations or advertisements for employees placed by or on behalf of the contractor, state that all qualified applicant will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin. " ( 3) The contractor will send to each labor union or representative of worker with which he bas a collective bargaining agreement or other contract or under tanding, a notice, to be provided by the agency contracting officer, advising the said labor union or workers' repre ntative of the contractor's commitments under this section, and hall post copies of the notice in conspicuous place available to employees and applicants for employment. " (4) The contractor will comply with all provisions of Executive Order No. 10925 of l\Iarcb 6, 1961, and of the rules, regulations, and relevant orders of the Pre ident's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity created thereby. " ( 5) The contractor \7i7 ill furnish all information and reports required by Executive Order No. 10925 of March 6, 1961, and by the rules, regulations. and orders of the said Committee or pursuant thereto, and will permit acce s to his books, records, and accounts by the contractino- agency and the Committee for purpo. es of inve tigation to a certain compliance with uch rule , regulations, and order . " ( 6) In the event of the con tractor' non-compliance with the nondiscrimination clause of thi contract or with any of the aid rules, regulation , or order , thi contract may be cancelled in whole or in part and the c ntractor   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  may be declared ineligible for further government contracts in accordance with procedures authorized in Executive Order o. 10925 of March 6, 1961, and ucb other sanctions may be impo ed and remedies invoked as provided in the aid executive order or by rule, regulation, or order of the Pre ident' Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, or as otherwise provided by law. "(7) The contractor will include the provi ions of the foregoing paragraphs (1) through (6) in every subcontract or purchase order unless exempted by rules, regulations, or orders of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity issued pursuant to ection 303 of Executive Order ro. 10925 of March 6, 1961, so that such provisions will be binding upon each ubcontractor or vendor. Th~ contractor will take such action with re pect to any subcontract or purchase order as the contracting agency may direct as a :means of enforcing ucb provisions, including auctions for non-compliance : Provided, however, That in the event the contractor becomes involved in or i threatened with, litigation with a ubcontractor or vendor as a result of such direction by the contracting agency, the contractor may reque ·t the nited State to enter into such litigation to protect the interest of the ni ted States." SEc. 302. (a) Each contractor having a contract containing the provision pre cribed in ection 301 shall file, and shall cause each of its subcontractors to file, Compliance Reports with the contracting agency, w·h ich will be ubject to review by the Committee upon its request. Compliance Reports shall be filed within such times and shall contain such information as to·the practices, policies, program , and employment statistics of the contractor and each subcontractor, and shall be in such form, as the Committee may prescribe. ( b) Bidders or prospective contractors or subcontractors may be required to state whether they have participated in any previou contract subject to the provi ions of this order, and in that event to ubmit, on behalf <Yf themselves and their proposed ubcontractor , ompliance Reports prior to or as an initial part of their bid or negotiation of a contract. ( c) Whenever the contractor or ubcontractor has a collective bargaining agreement or other contract or undertanding with a labor union or other r pre entative of workers, the Compliance Report hall include uch information as to the labor union' or other repre entative's practices and policie affecting compliance as the Committee may prescribe: Provided, That to the xtent such information is within the exclusive po. ·e ion of a labor union or other workers' representative and the labor union or representative shall refu ·e to furnish such information to the contractor, the contractor ·hall so certify to the contracting agency as part of its Compliance Report ancl hall set forth what effort be ha made t obtain such information. ( d) The Comanitte may dir ct that any bidder or prospective contractor or subcontractor shall ubmit, as part of hi Compliance Report, a tatement in writing, igned by an authorized officer or agent of any labor union or other worker ' r pr entative with which the bidder or pro p ctive contra ·tor deals, together with supporting information, to the ff ct that the said labor union's or  137  representative's practices and policies do not discriminate on the grounds of race, color, creed, or national origin, and that the labor union or representative either will affirmatively cooperate, within the limits of his legal and contractual authority, in the implementation of the policy and provisions of this order or that it consents and agrees that recruitment, employment, and the terms and conditions of employment under the proposed contract shall be in accordance with the purposes and provisions of the order. In the event that the union or representative shall refuse to execute such a statement, the Compliance Report shall so certify and set forth what efforts have been :made to secure such a statement. SEC. 303. The Committee may, when it deems that special circumstances in the national interest so require, exempt a contracting agency from the requirement of including the provision of section 301 of this order in any specific contract, subcontract, or purchase order. The Committee may, by rule or regulation, also exempt certain classes of contracts, subcontracts, or purchase orders (a) where work is to be or has been performed outside the United State and no recruitment of workers within the limits of the United States is involved; (b) for standard commercial supplies or raw material ; or (c) involving less than specified amounts of money or specified numbers of workers. SUBPART  B-LABOR  UNIONS  AND  REPRESENTATIVES  OF  WORKERS  SEC. 304. The Committee shall use its best efforts, directly and through contracting agencies, contractors, state and local officials and public and private agencies, and all other available instrumentalitie , to cause any labor union, recruiting agency or other representative of workers who is or may be engaged in work under government contracts to cooperate with, and to comply in the implementation of, the purposes of this order. SEC. 305. The Committee may, to effectuate the purpo es of section 304 of this order, hold hearings, public or private, with respect to the practices and policies of any such labor organization. It sh·all from time to time submit pecial reports to the President concerning discrii;ninatory practices and policies of any such labor organization, and may recommend remedial action if, in its judgment, such action is necessary or appropriate. It may also notify any Federal, state, or local agency of its conclusions and recommendations with respect to any such labor organization which in its judgment has failed to cooperate with the Committee, contracting agencies, contractors, or subcontractors in carrying out the purposes of this order. SUBPART C-POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE PRIDSIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY AND OF CONTRACT! G AGENCIES SEC. 306. The Committee shall adopt such rules and regulations and issue uch orders as it deems ne essary and appropriate to achieve the purposes of this order, including the purposes of Part II hereof relating to discrimination in government employment. SEC. 307. Each contracting agency shall be primarily responsible for obtaining compliance with the rules, regulations, and orders of the Committee with respect to con-  138  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tracts entered into by such agency or its contractors, or affecting its own employment practices. All contracting agencies shall comply with the Committee's rules in discharging their primary respon ibility for securing compliance with the provisions of contracts and otherwise with the terms of this Executive order and of the rules, regulations, and orders of the Committee pursuant hereto. They are directed to cooperate with the Committee, and to furnish the Committee such information and assistance as it may require in the performance of its functions under this order. They are further directed to appoint or designate, from among the agency's personnel, compliance officers. It shall be the duty of such officers to seek compliance with the objectives of this order by conference, conciliation, mediation, or persuasion. SEC. 308. The Committee is authorized to delegate to any officer, agency, or employee in the executive branch of the Government any function of the Committee under this order, except the authority to promulgate rules and regulations of a general nature. SEC. 309. (a) The Committee may itself investigate the employment practices of any government contractor or subcontractor, or initiate such investigation by the appropriate contracting agency or through the Secretary of Labor, to determine whether or not the contractual provisions specified in section 301 of this order have been violated. Such investigation shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures established by the Committee, and the investigating agency shall report to the Committee any action taken or recommended. (b) The Committee may receive and cause to be investigated complaints by employees or prospective employees of a government contractor or subcontractor which allege discrimination contrary to the contractual provisions specified in section 301 of this Order. The appropriate contracting agency or the Secretary of Labor, as the case may be, shall report to the Committee what action has been taken or is recommended with regard to such complaints. SEC. 310. (a) The Committee, or any agency or officer of the United States designated by rule, regulation, or order of the Committee, may hold such hearings, public or private, as the Committee may deem advisable for compliance, enforcement, or educational purposes. (b) The Committee may hold, or cause to be held, hearings in accordance with subsection (a) of this section prior to imposing, ordering, or recommending the imposition of penalties and sanctions under this order, except that no order for debarment of any conti,actor from further government contracts shall be made without a hearing. SEC. 311. The Committee shall encourage the furtherance of an educational program by employer, labor, civic, educational, religious, and other nongovernmental groups in order to eliminate or reduce the basic causes of discrimination in employment on the ground of race, creed, color, or national origin. SUBPART D--SANCTIONS AND PENALTIES  SEc. 312. In accordance with such rules, regulations or orders as the Committee may issue or adopt, the Committee or the appropriate contracting agency may :  (a) Publish, or cause to be published, the names of contractors or unions which it has concluded have complied or have failed to comply with the provisions of this order or of the rules, regulations, and orders of the Committee. (b r Recommend to the Department of Justice that, in cases where there is substantial or material violation or the threat of substantial or material violation of the contractual provisions set forth in section 301 of this order, appropriate proceedings be brought to enforce those provisions., including the enjoining, within the limitations of applicable law, of organizations,, individuals or groups who prevent directly or indirectly, or seek to prevent directly or indirectly, compliance with the aforesaid provisions. (c) Recommend to the Department of Justice that criminal proceedings be brought for the furnishing of false information to any contracting agency or to the Committee as the case may be. ( d) Terminate, or cause to be terminated, any contract, or any portion or portions thereof, for failure of the contractor or subcontractor to comply with the nondiscrimination provisions of the contract. Contracts may be terminated absolutely or continuance of contracts may be conditioned upon a program for future compliance approved by the contracting agency. ( e) Provide that any contracting agency shall refrain from entering into further contracts, or extensions or other modifications of existing contracts, with any non-complying contractor, until such contractor has satisfied the Committee that he has established and will carry out personnel and employment policies in compliance with the provisions of this order. (f) Under rul~s and regulations prescribed by the committee, each contracting agency shall make reasonable efforts within a reasonable time limitation to secure compliance with the contract provisions of this order by methods of conference, conciliation, mediation, and persuasion before proceedings shall be instituted under paragraph ( b) of this section, or before a contract shall be terminated in whole or in part under paragraph (d) of this section for failure of a contractor or subcontractor to comply with the contract provisions of this order. SEC. 313. Any contracting agency taking any action authorized by this section, whether on its own motion, or as directed by the Committee, or under the Committee's rules and regulations, shall promptly notify the Committee of such action by reasons for not acting. Where the Committee itself makes a determination under this section, it shall promptly notify the appropriate contracting agency of the action recommended. The agency shall take such action and shall report the results thereof to the Committee within such time as the Committee shall provide. SEC. 314. If the Committee shall so direct, contracting agencies shall not enter into contracts with any bidder or prospective contractor unless the bidder or prospective contractor has satisfactorily complied with the provisions of this order or submits a program for compliance acceptable to the Committee or, if the Committee so authorizes, to the contracting agency.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  SEC. 315. ,vhenever a contracting agency ter minates a contract, or whenever a contractor has been debarred from further government contracts, because of noncompliance with the contractor provisions with regard t o nondiscrimination, the Committee, or the contracting agency involved, shall promptly notify the Comptroller General of the United States. SUBPART E-CERTIFICATES OF MERIT SEc. 316. The Committee may provide for issuance of a United States Government Certificate of Merit to employers or employee organizations which are or may hereafter be engaged in work under government contracts, if the Committee is satisfied that the personnel and employment practices of the employer, or that the personnel, training, apprenticeship, membership, grievance and representation, upgr,a ding and other practi~es and policies of the employee organization, conform to the purposes and provisions of this order. SEc. 317. Any Certificate of Merit may at any time be suspended or revoked by the Committee if the holder thereof, in the judgment of the Committee, has failed to comply with the provisions of this order. SEc. 318. The Committee may provide for the exemption of any employer or employee organization from any requirement for. furnishing information as to compliance if such employer or employee organization has been awarded a Certificate of Merit which has not been suspended or revoked. PART IV-MISCELL~NEOUS SECTION 401. Each contracting agency ( except the Department of Justice) shall defray such necessary expenses of the Committee as may be authorized by law, including section 214 of the Act of May 3, 1945, 59 Stat. 134 (31 U.S.C. 691) : Provided, that no agency shall supply more than fifty per cent of the funds necessary to carry out the purposes of this order. The Department of Labor shall provide necessary space and facilities for the Committee. In the case of the Department of Ju tice, the contribution shall be limited to furnishing legal services. SEC. 402. This order shall become effective thirty days after its execution. The General Services Administration shall take appropriate action to revise the standard Government contract forms to ac~ord with the provisions of this order and of the rules and regulations of the Committee. SEc. 403. Executive Order No. 10479 of August 13, 1953 (18 F.R. 4899), together with Executive Orders Nos. 10482 of August 15, 1953 (18 F.R. 4944), and 10733 of October 10, 1957 (22 F.R. 8135), amending that order, and Executive Order No. 10557 of September 3, 1954 (19 F.R. 5655), are hereby revoked, and _the Government Contract Committee established by Executive Order o. 10479 is abolished. All records and property of or in the custody of the said Committee are hereby transferred to the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, which shall wind up the outstanding affairs of the Government Contract Committee. JOHN  F.  KENNEDY  THE WHITE HOUSE, March 6, 1961. [F.R. Doc. 61- 2093; Filed, Mar. 7, 1961; 10 :06 a.m.]  139  Executive Order 11114 Extending the Authority of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity  Whereas it is the policy of the United States Government to encourage by affirmative action the elimination of discrimination because of race, creed, color, or national origin in employment on work involving Federal financial assistance, to the end that employment opportunities created by Federal funds shall be equally available to all qualified persons; and Whereas Executive Order No. 10925 of March 6, 1961, 26 F.R. 1977, reaffirmed the policy of requiring the inclusion of non-discrimination provisions in Government contracts and established the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity to administer the program for obtaining adherence to and compliance with such provisions ; and Whereas construction under programs of Federal grants, loans, and other forms of financial assistance to State and local government and to private organizations creates substantial employment opportunities; and Whereas it i deemed desirable and appropriate to extend the existing program for nondiscrimination in employment in Government coi:itracts established by Executive Order No. 10925 to include certain contracts for construction financed with assistance from the Federal Government ; and Whereas it is also desirable to amend Executive Order o. 10925 in certain respects in order to clarify the authority of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity: Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, it is ordered as follows: PART I-NON-DISCRIMINATION PROVISIONS IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS SECTION 101. Each executive department and agency which administer a program involving Federal financial a i tance shall, insofar ,a s it may be consistent with law, require a a condition for the approval of any grant, contract, loan, insurance or guarantee thereunder which may involve a construction contract that the applicant for Federal assistance undertake and agree to incorporate, or cau e to be incorporated, into all construction contracts paid for in whole or in part with fund obtained from the Federal Government or borrowed on the Credit of the Federal Government pursuant to such grant, contract, loan, in urance or guarantee, or undertaken pursuant to any Federal program involving such grant, contract, loan, insurance or guarantee, the provisions prescribed for Government contracts by . ection 301 of Executive Order No. 10925 or such modification thereof, preserving in subt:ance the contractor's obligations thereunder, as may be approved by the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity ( the "Committee"), together with uch additional provisions as the Committee deem appropriate to e tablish and protect the interest of the United States in the enforcement of these obligations. Each such applicant shall also undertake ,a nd agree (i)  140  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to assist and cooperate actively with the administering department or agency and the Committee in obtaining the compliance of contractors and subcontractor with said contract provi ions and with the rules, regulations, and relevant orders of the Committee, (ii) to obtain and to furnish to the administering department or agency and to the Committee such information as they may require for the supervision of uch compliance, (iii) to enforce the obligations of contractors and subcontractors under such provi ion , rule , regulations, and order , (iv) to carry out sanctions and penaltie for violation of such obligations imposed upon contractor and subcontractors by the Committee or the admini tering department or agency pur uant to Part III, Subpart D, of Executive Order No. 10925, and (v) to refrain from entering into any contract subject to this order, or extension or other modification of such a contract with a contractor debarred from Government contracts under Part III, Subpart D, of Executive Order No. 10925. SEc. 102. (a) 'Construction contract" as used herein means any contract for the con truction, rehabilitation, alteration, conver ion, extension, or repair of buildings, highways, or other improvements to real property. (b) The provisions of Part III of Executive Order No. 10925 shall apply to such construction contracts, and for purposes of such application the administering department or agency shall be considered the contracting agency referred to therein. ( c) The term "applicant" as used herein means an applicant for Federal assistance or, as determined by agency regulation, other program participant, with respect to whom an application for any grant, contract, loan, insurance or guarantee is not finally acted upon prior to the effective date of this part, and it include such an applicant after he becomes a recipient of such Federal as,. sistance. SEC. 103. (a) Each administering department and agency shall be primarily responsible for obtaining the compliance of such applicants with their undertakings hereunder and shall comply with the rules of the Committee in the discharge of this responsibility. Each admini tering department and agency is directed to cooperate with the Committee, and to furni h the Committee such information and assistance as it may require in the performance of its functions under this order. (b) In the event an applicant fails and refuses to comply with his undertakings, the administering department or agency may, and upon the recommendation of the Committee, shall take any or all of the following actions: ( 1) cancel, terminate, or uspend in whole or in part the agreement or contract with such applicant with respect to which the failure and refusal occurred; (2) refrain from extending any further assistance under any of its programs subject to this order until satisfactory assurance of future compliance has been received from such applicant; ( 3) refer the case to the Department of Justice for appropriate legal proceedings. ( c) o action shall be taken with respect to an applicant pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of ubsection (b) without notice and hearing before the administering  department or agency or the Committee, in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Committee. SEC. 104. The Committee may, by rule, regulation, or order, exempt all or part of any program of an administering agency from the requirement of this order when it deems that special circumstances in the national interest so require. SEC. 105. The Committee hall adopt such rules and regulations and issue such orders as it deems necessary and appropriate to achieve the purposes of this order. PART II-AMENDMENTS TO EXECUTIVE ORDER N 0. 10925 SECTION 201. Section 301 of Executive Order No. 10925 of March 6, 1961, is amended to read : "SECTION 301. Except in contracts exempted in accordance with section 303 of this order, all Government contracting agencies shall include in every Government contract hereafter entered into the following provi ions : 'During the performance of this contract, the contractor agrees as follo•w s : '(1) The contractor will not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color, or national origin. The contractor will take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin. Such action shall include, but not be limited to the following: employment, upgrading, demotion or transfer; recruitment or recruitment advertising; layoff or termination; rates of pay or other forms of compen ation; and selection for training, including apprenticeship. The contractor agrees to post in conspicuou place , available to employees and applicants for employment, notices to be provided by the contracting officer setting forth the provisions of this non-discrimination clause. '(2) The contractor will, in all solicitations or adver-tisements for employees placed by or on behalf of the contractor, state that all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin. ' ( 3) The contractor will send to each labor union or representative of workers with which he has a collective bargaining agreement or other contract or under tanding, a notice, to be provided by the agency contracting officer, advising the said labor union or workers'. representative of the contractor's commitments under thLs section, and shall post copies of the notice in conspicuous places available to employees and applicants for employment. ' ( 4) The contractor will comply with all provisions of Executive Order No. 10925 of March 6, 1961, as amended, and of the rules, regulations, and relevant orders of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity created thereby. '(5) The contractor will furnish all information and reports required by Executive Order No. 10925 of March 6, 1961, as amended, and by the rules, regulations, and orders of the said Committee, or pur uant thereto, and will permit access to his books, records, and accounts by the contracting agency and the Committee for purposes of investigation to ascertain compliance with such rules, regulations, and orders.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ' ( 6) In the event of the contractor's noncompliance with the nondiscrimination clauses of this contract or with any of the said rules, regulations, or orders, this contract may be cancelled, terminated, or su pended in whole or in part and the contractor may be declared ineligible for further Government contracts in accordance with procedures authorized in Executive Order o. 10925 of March 6; 1961, as amended, and uch other sanctions may be imposed and remedie invoked as provided in the said Executive Order or by rule, regulation, or order of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, or as otherwise provided by law. '(7) The contractor will include the provisions of paragraphs (1) through (7) in every subcontract or pur hase order unless exempted by rule , regulation , or orders of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity i ued pursuant to section 303 of Executive Order o. 10925 of March 6, 1961, a amended, o that such provisions will be binding upon each subcontractor or vendor. The contractor will take action with respect to any subcontract or purchase order as the contracting agency may direct as a means of enforcing such pr,ovisions, including auctions for noncompliance : Provided, however, that in the event the contractor becomes involved in, or is threatened with, litigation with a subcontractor or vendo-r as a result of uch direction by the contra ting agency, the contractor may request the nited States to enter into such litigation to protect the intere ts of the United States.' " SEC. 202. Section 303 of Executive Order No. 10925 is amended to read : "The Committee may, when it deems that pecial circumstances in tha national interest so require, exempt a contracting agency from the requirement of including any or all of the provisions of section 301 of this order in any specific contract, ubcontract or purchase order. The Committee may, by rule or regulation, also exempt certain clas e of contracts, subcontracts or purchase orders ( a:') where work is to be or has been performed outside the United States and no recruitment of workers within the limits of the United States is involved; (b) for standard commercial supplies or raw materials; (c) involving less than specified amounts of money or specified numbers of workers; or ( d) to the extent that they involve subcontracts below a specified tier. The Committee may al o provide, by rule, regulation, or order, for the exemption of facilities of a contractor which are in all respect sepa'r ate and distinct from activitie of the contractor related to the performance of the contract, provided that such an exemption will not interfere with or impede the effectuation of the purposes of this order and provided that in the absence of such an exemption an such facilities shall be covered by the provisions of this order.'' PART III-MISCELLA E0US SECTION 301. The Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Administrator of the Housing and Home Finance Agency are designated members of the Committee. Each such member may designate an alternate to represent him in his absence. SEC. 302. Section 401 of Executive Order No. 10925 shall  141  apply to the administering departments and agencies subject to this order. SEC. 303. Part I of thi order shall become effective thirty days after the execution of this order. Parts II and III shall be effective immediately. JOHN  F.  KENNEDY  THE WHITE HOUSE, June 22, 1963. [F.R. Doc. 63-6779; Filed, June 24, 1963; 10 :50 a.m.]  RULES AND REGULATIONS ON THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Title 41-PUBLIC CONTRACTS  Sec. 60-1.2  Opportunity to achieve compliance before referrals to the Department of Justice or contract termination 60-1.29 Contract ineligibility list 60-1.30 Notification of Comptroller General in cases of contract ineligibility or contract termination 60-1.31 Reinstatement of ineligible contractors or sub· contractors SUBPART C-CERTIFICATES OF MERIT By the Committee on its own initiative By the Executive Vice Chairman upon agency recommendation 60-1.42 [Deleted] 60-1.43 ,Suspension or revocation  60-1.40 60-1.41  SUBPART D-ANCILLARY MATTERS Chapter 60-The President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity PART 60-1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS  Part 60-1 was originally is ued by the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity for the purpose of implementing Executive Order 10925 (26 F.R. 1977) which provides for the promotion and insurance of equal employment opportunity on Government contracts for all qualified per ons without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin. The Committee now hereby revises this part in order to implement, in addition, Executive Order 11114 (28 F.R. 6485) which provides certain amendments to Executive Order 10925 and extends its requirements to certain contracts for construction financed with assistance from the Federal Government. This revision also incorporates amendments previously made to this part, and effects other miscellaneous changes. As revised, Part 60-1 reads as follows : SUBPART A-PRELIMINARY  MATTERS;  EQUAL OPPORTUNITY  CLAUSE; EXEMPTIONS; COMPLIANCE REPORTS  Sec. 60-1.1 60-1.2 60-1.3 60-1.4 60-1.5 60-1.6 60-1.7 60-1.8  Purpo e and application Definitions Equal opportunity clause Exemptions Duties of agencies Compliance reports Compliance by labor unions Use of. compliance reports  SUBPART B--OENERAL ENFORCEMENT ; COMPLAINT PROCEDURE  Compliance review by the agency Who may file complaints Where to file Contents of complaint Processing of matters by agencies Assumption of jurisdiction by the Executive Vice Chairman over matters before an agency 60-1.26 Processing of matters by the Executive Vice Chairman 60-1.27 Hearings  60-1.20 60-1.21 60-1.22 60-1.23 60-1.24 60-1.25  142  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  60-1.60 Solicitations or advertisements for employees 60-1.61 Access to records of employment 60-1.62 Rulings and interpretations 60-1.63 Reports to the Committee 60-1.64 Existing contracts and subcontracts  AUTHORITY: Sections 60-1.1 through 60-1.64 issued pursuant to section 306, E.O. 10925 (26 F.R. 1977), and section 105, E.O. 11114 (28 F.R. 6485) SUBPART A-PRELIMINARY MATTERS: EQ1JAL OPPORTUNITY CLAUSE: EXEMPTIONS : COMPLIANCE REPORTS 60-1. 1  Purpose and application.  The purpose of the regulations in this part is to achieve the aims of Part III of Executive Order 10925 and Executive Order 11114 for the promotion and insuring of equal opportunity for all qualified persons, without regard to race, color, creed, or national 01igin, employed or seeking employment with Government contractors or with contractors performing under federally assisted construction contracts. These regulations apply to all contracting agencies of the Federal Government and to contractors and subcontractors who perform under Government contracts, to the extent set forth in this part. These regulations also apply to all agencies of the Federal Government administering programs involving Federal financial assistance which may involve a construction contract, and, to the extent set forth in this part, to all contractors and subcontractors performing under con truction contracts which are related to any such programs. The rights and remedies of the Government hereunder are not exclusive and do not affect rights and remedies provided elsewhere by law, regulation, or contract; neither do the regulations limit the exercise by the Committee or by any other Government agencies of powers not herein specifically set forth, but granted to them by Executive Orders 10925 and 11114. 60-1 .2  Definitions.  (a) "Committee" means the Pre ident's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. ( b) "Chairman" means the Chairman of the Committee. (c) "Vice Chairman" means the Vice Chairman of the Committee. ( d) "Executive Vice Chairman" means the Executive Vice Chairman of the Committee.  (e) "Order" means Executive Order 10025 of March 6, 1961 (26 F.R. 1977), as amended by Parts II and III of Executive Order 11114 of June 22, 1963 (28 F.R. 6485). (f) "Orders" means those parts of Executive Order 10925 of March 6, 1961, relating to Government contracts and Executive Order 11114 of June 22, 1963. (g) "Contract" means any Government contract or any federally assisted construction contract. (h) "Government contract" means any binding legal agreement or modification thereof between the Government and a contractor for supplies or services, including construction, or for the use of Government property, in which the parties, respectively, do not stand in the rela• tionship of employer and employee. (i) "Federally assisted construction contract" means any binding legal agreement or modification thereof between an applicant and a contractor for construction work which is paid for in whole or in part with funds obtained from the Federal Government or borrowed on the credit of the Federal Government pursuant to any Federal program involving a grant, contract, loan, insurance or guarantee, or undertaken pursuant to any Federal program involving such grant, contract, loan, insurance or guarantee; or any approved application or modification thereof for a grant, contract, loan, insurance or guarantee under which the applicant itself performs construction work other than through the permanent work force di· rectly employed by an agency of government. (j) "Modification" means any written alteration in the terms and conditions of a contract accomplished by bilateral action of the parties to the contract, including supplemental agreements and amendments. (k) "Subcontract" means any agreement made or purchase order executed by a prime contractor where a material part of the supplies or services covered by such agreement or purchase order is being obtained for use in the performance of a contract. ( 1) "Prime contractor" means any person holding a contract. (m) "Subcontractor" means any person holding a subcontract. "First-tier subcontractor" refers to a subcontractor holding a subcontract with a prime contractor. "Second-tier subcontractor" refers to a subcontractor holding a subcontract with a first-tier subcontractor. (n) "Agency" means any contracting or any admini tering agency. ( o) "Contracting agency" :means any department (including the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force), agency and establishment in the Executive Branch of the Government, including any wholly owned Government corporation, which enters into contracts. (p) "Administering agency" means any department (including the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force), agency 'a nd establishment in the Executive Branch of the Government, including any wholly owned Government corporation, which admini ters a program involving Federally assisted con truction contracts. (q) "Applicant" means an applicant for Federal assistance or, as detern1ined by regulation of an ad.mini tering agency, other program participant, with re pect to whom an application for any grant, contract, loan, insurance or guarantee, or change therein, is not finally acted   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  upon prior to July 22, 1963, and it includes such an ap,plicant after becoming a recipient of such Federal assistance. (r) "Equal opportunity clause" means the contract provisions of section 301 of the order. (s) "Rules, regulations and relevant orders" of the Committee as used in paragraph 4 of the equal opportunity clause mean rules, regulations, and relevant orders issued pursuant to the orders and in effect at the time the particular contract subject to the orders was entered into. (t) "United States" ·a s used herein shall include the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Panama Canal Zone, and the possessions of the United States. (u) "Standard commercial supplies" means an article: (1) which in the normal course of business is customarily maintained in stock by the manufacturer or any dealer, distributor, or other commercial dealer for the marketing of such article; or (2) which is manufactured and sold by two or more persons for general commercial or industrial use or which is identical in every material respect with an article so manufactured and sold. ( v) "Construction work" mean the con truction, rehabilitation, alteration, conversion, extension, demolition or repair of building , highways, or other changes or improvements to real property, including facilitie providing utility services. ( w) "Site of construction" means the physical location of any building, highway or other change or improvement to real property which is undergoing con truction, rehabilitation, 'a lteration, conversion, extension, demolition, or repair and any temporary location or facility established by a contractor or subcontractor specifically to meet the demands of his contract or ubcontract. 60-1.3  Equal Opportunity Clause  (a) Government C()llitracts. Each contracting agency ball include the equal opportunity clause in each of its Government contracts (including modifications thereof) which is not exempt from the requirements of the clause. Government bills of lading may incorporate by reference the equal opportunity clause. (b) Federally assisted c011structicm contracts. (1) Each ·a dministering agency shall require the inclusion of the following language as a condition of any · grant, contract, loan, insurance or guarantee involving a Federally a sisted construction contract which is not exempt from the requirements of the equal opportunity clause: "The applicant hereby agrees that it will incorporate or cause to be incorporated into any contract for construction work, or modification thereof, as defined in the Rules and Regulations of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, which is paid for in whole or in part with funds obtained froon the Federal Government or borrowed on the credit of the Federal Government pursuant to a grant, contract, lo an, insurance or guarantee, or undertaken pursuant to any Federal program involving such grant, contract, loan, insurance or guarantee, the following equal opportunity clause: "During the performance of this contract, the contractor agrees as follows : "( 1) The contractor will not discriminate against any 1  143  employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color or national origin. The contractor will take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, creed, color or national origin. Such action hall include, but not be limited to the following: employment, upgrading, demotion or transfer; recruitment or recruitment advertising; layoff or termination ; rate of pay or other forms of compensation; and selection for training, including apprenticeship. The contractor agrees to post in conspicuous places, availab-le to employees and applicants for employment, notices to be provided setting forth the provisions of this nondiscrimination clause. "(2) The contractor will, in all solicitations or adverti ements for employees placed by or on behalf of the contractor, tate that all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin. "(3) The contractor will end to each labor union or repre entative of worker with which he bas a collective bargaining agreement or other contract or understanding, a notice to be provided advi ing the said labor union or workers' repre entative of the contractor's commitments under tbi ection, and shall post copies of the notice in con picuou place available to employees and applicants for employment. " ( 4) The contractor will comply with all provisions of Executive Order o. 10925 of March 6, 1961, as amended by Executive Order 11114 of June 22, 1963, and of the rules, regulations and relevant orders of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity created thereby. "(5) The contractor will furnish all information and reports required by Executive Order i0925 of March 6, 1961, as amended by Executive Order 11114 of June 22, 1963, and by the rules, regulations and orders of the said Committee, or pursuant thereto, and will permit access to his book , records and accounts by the admini tering agency and the Committee for purposes of inve tigation to a certain compliance with such rule , regulations and orders. "(6) In the event of the contractor's noncompliance with the nondiscrimination clause of this contract or with any of the said rules, regulations or order . thi contract may be cancelled, terminated or u pended in whole or in part and the contractor may be declared ineligible for further Government contracts or Federallya i ted construction contracts in accordance with procedures authorized in Executive Order No. 10925 of March 6, 1961, as amended by Executive Order 11114 of June 22, 1963, and uch other sanctions may be irnpo ed and remedie invoked a provided in the: aid Executive Order or by rule, regulation or order of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, or as otherwi e provided by law. "(7) The contractor will include the provisions of paragraphs (1) through (7) in every subcontract or purchase order unless exempted by rules, regulations or orders of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity i ued pur uant to Section 303 of Executive Order 10925 of March 6, 1961, as amended by Executive  144  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Order 11114 of June 22, 1963, so that such provisions will be binding upon each subcontractor or vendor. The contractor will take such action with respect to ,a ny subcontract or purchase order as the administering agency may direct as a means of enforcing such provisions, including sanctions for noncompliance : Provided, however, That in the event a contractor becomes involved in, or is threatened with, litigation with a subcontractor or vendor as a re ult of such direction by the agen y, the contractor may request the United States to enter into such litigation to protect the interests of the United States. "The applicant further agree that it will be bound by the above equal opportunity clau e in any federally assisted construction work which it performs itself other than through the permanent work force directly employed by an agency of government. "The applicant agrees that it will cooperate actively with the admini tering agency and the Pre ident's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity in obtaining the compliance of contractors and subcontractors with equal opportunity clau e and the rules, regulations and relevant orders of the Committee, that it will furnish the administering agency and the Committee such information as they may require for the supervision of such compliance, and that it will otherwise as ist the administering agency in the discharge of the agency' primary responsibility for securing compliance. The applicant further agrees that it will refrain from entering into any contract or contract modification subject to Executive Order 11114 with a contractor debarred from, or who has not demonstrated eligibility for, Government contract and Federally-a si ted construction contracts pursuant to Part III, Subpart D of Executive Order 10925 and will carry out such sanctions and penalties for vio1'ation of the equal opportunity clause as may be imposed upon contractors and ubcontractor by the administering agency or the Committee pursuant to Part III, Subpart D of Executive Order 10925. In addition, the applicant agrees that if it fails or refuses to comply with these undertakings, the administering agency may cancel, terminate or suspend in whole or in part thi grant [contract, loan, insurance, guarantee], may refrain from extending any further assistance under •a ny of its programs subject to Executive Order 11114 until sati factory assurance of future compliance bas been received from such applicant, or may refer the ca e to the Department of Justice for appropriate leg,al proceedings." (2) In any case in which the administering agency makes a determination that inclu. ion of the language prescribed in section 1.3 ( b) ( 1) for applicants would be incon istent with law, the agency shall notify the Executive Vice Chairman of the determination and the reason therefor. The Executive Vice Chairman hall requ t a ruling from the Attorney General regarding such determination and shall report thereon to the Committee. (c) Prime contractors and subcontractors. Each nonexempt prime contractor and subcontractor hall include the equal opportunity clause in each of their nonexempt subcontracts, provided that except upon special order of the contracting agency or the Executive Vice Chairman, and except in the case of subcontracts for the per-  formance of construction work at the site of construction, the clause shall not be required to be inserted in ubcontracts below the second tier. Subcontracts may incorporate by reference the equal opportunity clause. ( d) Adaptation of language. Such necessary change in language may be made in the equal opportunity clause, and in the clause pFescribed by paragraph ( b) ( 1) of this section, as shall be .appropriate to identify properly the parties and their undertakings. 60-1.4  Exemptions  (a) General-(1)  Transactions of $10,0-00 or under.  Contracts and subcontracts not exceeding $10,000, other than Government bills of lading, are exempt from the requirements of the equal opportunity clause. In determining the applicability of this exemption to any federally assisted construction contract, or subcontract thereunder, the amount of such contract or subcontract rather than the amount of the Federal financial assistance shall govern. (2) Standard commercial supplies and raw materials.  Contracts and subcontracts not exceeding $100,000 for standard commercial supplies or raw materials are exempt from the requirements of the equal opportunity clause, except that the Executive Vice Chairman may, whenever he finds it necessary or appropriate to achieve the purposes of the Orders, withdraw such exemption in whQle or in part with regard to any specified articles or raw materials. No agency, contractor or subcontractor shall procure supplies or materials in less than usual quantities to avoid applicability of the equal opportunity clause. (3) Contracts outside the United States. Contracts and subcontracts under which work is to be or has been performed outside the United States and where no recruitment of workers within the United States is involved are exempt from the requirements of the equal opportunity clause. To the extent that work pursuant to such contracts is done within the United States the equal opportunity clause shall be applicable. ( 4) Sales contracts. Contracts providing for the sale of Government real and personal property where no appreciable amount of work is involved are exempt from the requirements of the equal opportunity clause. (5) Contracts and subcontracts for an indefinite quantity. Contracts and subcontracts for an indefinite  quantity (including, without limitation, open-end contracts, requirement-type contracts, Federal Supply Schedule contracts, "call-type" contracts, and purchase notice agreements) which are not to extend for more than one year are exempt from the requirements of the equal opportunity clause if the purchaser determines that the amounts to be ordered under any such contract or subcontract are not reasonably expected to exceed $100,000 in the case of contracts or subcontracts for standard commercial supplies and raw materials, or $10,000 in the case of all other contracts and subcontracts. When not so determined to be exempt from the requirements of the equal opportunity clause, such contracts or subcontracts shall be subject to those requirements even though the amounts actually ordered do not exceed the appropriate dollar limitation. With respect to contracts or subcontracts for an indefinite quantity which are to extend for   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  more than one year or continue indefinitely, the equal opportunity clause shall be included unless the purchaser knows in advance that the amounts to be ordered in any year under such contract or subcontract will not exceed the appropriate dollar limitation. When so included in any contract the applicability of the equal opportunity clause shall be determined by the purchaser at the time of award for the first year, and at the end of each year for the succeeding year, based upon the amounts that are reasonably expected to be ordered during such year, and the purchaser shall notify the contractor or subcontractor in writing when the equal opportunity clause is so determined to be applicable. Once the equal opportunity clause is determined to be applicable, the contract or subcontract shall continue for its duration to be subject to such clause, regardless of the amounts ordered, or reasonably expected to be ordered, in any succeeding year. Whenever it has been determined in accordance with the provisions of this subparagraph (5.) that a contract or subcontract for an indefinite quantity is exempt from the requirements of the clause, or that such requirements are not to be applicable in any one year, such determination shall be controlling even though the amounts actually ordered exceed the appropriate dollar limitation. (b) Specific contracts and facilities-(1) Specific con-  The Executive Vice Chairman may, with the approval of the Vice Chairman, exempt an agency from requiring the inclusion of any or all of the equal opportunity clause in any specific contract, or subcontract, when he deems that special circumstances in the national interest so require. The Executive Vice Chairman may also, with the approval of the Vice Chairman, exempt groups or categories of contracts of the same type where he finds it impracticable to act upon each request individually or where group exemptions will contribute to convenience in the administration of the Orders. (2) Facilities not connected with contracts. The Executive Vice Chairman may, with the approval of the Vice Chairman, exempt from the requirements of the equal opportunity clause any of a contractor's or subcontractor's facilities which he finds to be in all respects separate and distinct from activities of the contractor or subcontractor related to the performance of the contract or subcontract, provided that he also finds that such an exemption will not interfere with or impede the effectuation of the Orders. (3) Review of exemptions. The Executive Vice Chairman shall report periodically to the Committee for its review any exemptions granted under subparagraphs (1) and (2) above. ( c) Effect of exemption. Notwithstanding the inclusion in any contract or subcontract of the equal opportunity clause, the contractor or sub<:!ontractor shall be exempt from compliance therewith if the contract or subcontract containing such clause is exempt. (d) Withdrawal of exemption. When any contract or subcontract is of a class exempted under this section, the Executive Vice Chairman may withdraw the exemption for a specific contract or subcontract or group of contracts or subcontracts when in his judgment such action is necessary or appropriate to achieve the purposes of the Orders. Such withdrawal shall not apply to any contracts.  145  tracts or subcontracts entered into prior to the effective date of the withdrawal. 60-1 .5  Duties of agencies.  (a) General responsibility. The head of each agency shall be primarily responsible for obtaining compliance with the equal opportunity clause, the Orders, the regulations in this part, and any relevant orders of the Committee. Each agency shall furnish the Committee such information and assistance as it may require in the performance of its functions under the Orders. (b) Contracts Compliance Officers and Depidy Contracts Compliance Officers; designations; duties. The  head of each agency shall appoint from among its personnel a Contracts Compliance Officer, who shall be subject to the immediate supervision of the head of the agency for carrying out the responsibilities of the agency under this part. The head of the agency or the Contracts Compliance Officer may also designate, when appropriate, Deputy Contracts Compliance Officers to assist the Contracts Compliance Officer in the performance of his duties. The name of each Contract Compliance Officer and any Deputy Contracts Compliance Officers, their addresses, telephone numbers, and any changes made in their designation shall be furnished to the Executive Vice Chairman. (c) Regulations. (1) The head of each agency may prescribe, subject to the prior approval of the Executive Vice Chairman, regulations not inconsistent with tho e in this part for the administration of the provisions of the Orders. ( 2) Each administering agency shall prescribe, ubject to the prior approval of the Executive Vice Chairman, regulation or other appropriate instructions requiring that applicants for Federal assistance shall undertake and agree to the clause set forth in section 60-1.3 ( b) ( 1) , and indicating that the agency shall be primarily responsible for compliance. ( 3) Prior to the receipt of the approval of the Executive Vice Chairman, current agency regulations, and proposed regulations or instructions relating to applicants, may be enforced to the extent that they are not inconsistent with the regulations in this Part and with the Orders. 60-1.6  Compliance reports.  (a) Requirements for contractors and subcontractors.  (1) Each agency shall require each nonexempt contractor to file, and each nonexempt contractor and subcontractor shall cause their nonexempt subcontractors to file timely, complete and accurate compliance reports in accordance with, and to the extent required by, the instructions attached to the official compliance report forms, as well as to furnish such other pertinent information as may be requested by the agency, the applicant, or the Executive Vice Chairman. (2) Compliance reports shall be filed at the times specified by the instructions attached to such forms or at such other time as may be required by the agency or the Executive Vice Chairman. The agency, with the approval of the Executive Vice Chairman, may, in appropriate cases, extend the time for the filing of compliance reports. ( 3) Compliance report forms may be obtained from the  146  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  agency, the applicant or from the prime contractor. Among other things, the forms shall provide that whenever the contractor or subcontractor has a collective bargaining agreement or other contract or understanding with a labor union or other representative of employees, information shall be furnished as to the labor union or other workers' representative's practices and policies affecting compliance and in connection therewith, the contractor or subcontractor shall request the union or workers' representative for any necessary data within its possession. Where such information is within the exclusive pos ession of a labor union or other workers' representative and the labor union or other workers' representative shall fail or refuse to furnish such information, the contractor or subcontractor shall so certify in his report and shall set forth what efforts he has made to obtain such information. When such failure or refusal is certified to an agency, it shall immediately advise the Executive Vice Chairman. (4) Failure to file timely, complete and accurate compliance reports as required constitutes noncompliance with the contractor's obligations under the equal opportunity clause and ·is ground for the imposition by the agency or the Committee of any of the sanctions available under the Orders. (b) Requirements of bidders or prospective contractors-(1) Compliance reports. Each agency shall require  any bidder or prospective contractor, or any of their proposed subcontractors, to state as an initial part of the bid or negotiations of the contract whether it bas participated in any previous contract or subcontract subject to the equal opportunity clause; and, if so, whether it has filed with the Committee or agency all compliance reports due under applicable instructions. In any case in which a bidder or prospective contractor or proposed subcontractor which bas participated in a previous contract or subcontract subject to the equal opportunity clause bas not :filed a compliance report due under applicable instruction, such bidder, prospective contractor or proposed subcontractor shall be required by the agency to submit a compliance report prior to the award of the proposed contract or subcontract. In all other cases, the agency may, or upon the direction of the Executive Vice Chairman, shall, require the submission of a compliance report by a bidder or prospective contractor, or proposed subcontractor, prior to the award of the contract or subcontract. When a determination bas been made to award a contract to a specific contractor, such contractor may be required, prior to award, to furnish such other pertinent information regarding its own employment policies and practices as well as of its proposed subcontractors as the agency, the applicant, or the Executive Vice Chairman may require. (2) Union statement. Each agency may as a part of the bid or negotiation of the contract, or upon the direction of the Executive Vice Chairman, shall, direct any bidder or prospective contractor, or any of their proposed subcontractors, to :file a statement in writing (signed by an authorized officer or agent of any labor union or other workers' representative with which the bidder or prospective contractor or subcontractor, deal or has reason to believe he will deal in connection with performance of the proposed contract), together with supporting information, to the effect that the said labor union's or other workers'  representative's practices and policies do not discriminate on the grounds of race, color, creed, or national origin, and that the labor union or other workers' representative either will affirmatively cooperate, within the limits of its legal and contractual authority, in the implementation of the policy and provisions of the Orders or that it consents and agrees that recruitment, employment and the terms and conditions of employment under the proposed contract shall be in accordance with the purposes and provisions of the Orders. In the event the union or other workers' representatives fails or refuses to execute such a statement, the bidder or prospective contractor shall so certify, and state what efforts have been made to secure such a statement. When such failure or refusal has been certified, the agency shall immediately advise the Executive Vice Chairman. 60-1.7  Compliance by labor unions.  (a) The Executive Vice Chairman shall use his best efforts, directly and through agencies, contractors, subcontractors, applicants, state and local officials, public and private agencies, and all other available instrumentalities, to cause any labor union, recruiting agency or other representative of workers who are or may be engaged in work under contracts to cooperate with, and to comply in the implementation of, the purposes of the Orders. ( b) In order to effectuate the purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the Executive Vice Chairman may hold hearings, public or private, with respect to the practices and policies of any such labor organization. ( c) The Executive Vice Chairman may also notify any Federal, state, or local agency of his conclusions and recommendations with respect to any such labor organization which in his judgment has failed to cooperate with the Committee, agencies, contractors, subcontractors, or applicants in carrying out the purposes of the Orders. 60-1.8  Use of compliance reports  The agency and the Committee shall use compliance reports only in connection with the administration of the Orders or the furtherance of their purposes. SUBPART B-GENERAL ENFORCEMENT ; COMPLAINT PROCEDUBE  60-1.20  Compliance review by the agency.  (a) General. The purpose of compliance reviews shall be to ascertain the extent to which the Orders are being implemented by the creation of equal employment opportunity for all qualified persons in accordance with the national policy. They are not intended to interfere with the responsibilities of employers to determine the competence and qualifications of employees and applicants for employment. Both routine and special reviews shall be conducted by agencies to ascertain the extent to which contractors and subcontractors are complying with the Orders, and to furnish information that may be useful to agencies and the Committee in carrying out their functions under the Orders.. If a contractor or subcontractor has contracts or subcontracts involving more than one agency, the agency having the predominant interest shall normally conduct compliance reviews. The agency under which the contractor or subcontractor holds the largest aggregate dollar value of contracts or subcontracts at the   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  time of filing of the most recent compliance report shall be deemed to have the predominant intere t in any proceeding under this part, unless otherwise provided by the Executive Vice Chairman. (b) Routine compliance review. A routine compliance review consists of a general review of the practices of the contractor or subcontractor to ascertain compliance with the requirements of the Order. A routine compliance review shall be considered a normal part of contract administration. ( c) Special oompli(]/Yl,ce review. A special compliance review consists of a comprehensive review of the employment practices of the contractor or subcontractor with respect to the requirements of the Order. Special compliance reviews shall be conducted by the Executive Vice Chairman ; or the agency ( 1) from time to time, ( 2) when special circumstances, including complaints which are processed under § 60-1.24, warrant, or (3) when reque ted by the Executive Vice Chairman. The agency shall report the results of any pecial compliance review conducted by it to the Executive Vice Chairman. 60-1.21  Who may file complaints.  Any employee of any contractor or sub ontractor or applicant for employment with su h contractor or subcontractor who believes himself to be aggrieved under the equal opportunity clause may, by hi:m elf or by an authorized representative, file in writing a complaint of alleged discrimination. Such complainl mu t be filed not later than 90 days from the date of the alleg d discrimination, unless the time for filing is··extended by the agency or the Executive Vice Chairman upon good cause shown. 60-1.22  Where to fl le.  Complaints may be filed with the agency or with the Committee. Tho e filed with the Committee may be referred to the agency for proce sing, or they may be processed in accordance with Section 60-1.26. Where complaints are filed with the agency, the Contracts Compliance Officer hall transmit a copy of th complaint to the Executive Vice Chairman within ten days after the receipt thereof and shall proceed with a prompt investigation of the complaint. When a complaint is filed against a contractor or ubcontractor who has contracts involving more than one agency, the agency having the predominant interest in uch contracts shall normally conduct the investigation and make such findings and determinations as shall be appropriate for the administration of the Orders. 60-1.23  Contents of compla int.  (a) The complaint should include the following information: The name and address (including t lephone number) of the complainant; the name and address of the contractor or subcontractor committing the alleged discrimination ; a description of the act con idered to be discriminatory; and any other pertinent information which will assist in the inve tigation and resolution of the complaint. The complaint shall be igned by the complainant or his -authorized representative. (b) Where a complaint contains incomplete information, the agency or the Executive Vice Chairman (when acting pursuant to § 60-1.26), shall seek promptly the  147  needed information from the complainant. In the event such information is not furnished to the agency or the Executive Vice Chairman within 60 days of the date of such request, the case may be closed. 60-1 .24  Processing of matters by agencies.  (a) Investigatioos. (1) The agency shall institute a prompt investigation if each complaint filed with it or referred to it, and shall be responsible for developing a complete case record. The investigation should include, where appropriate, a review of the pertinent personnel practices and policies of the contractor or subcontractor, the circumstances under which the alleged di crimination occurred, and other factors relevant to a determination as to whether the contractor or subcontractor has complied with the equal opportunity cl'ause. (2) Whenever a compliance review, report or other procedure indicate the po sible violation of the equal opportunity clause, the agency shall institute such investigation as shall be necessary and shall be responsible for developing a complete ca e record. (b) R esolilti on of matters. (1) If the investigation by the agency pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section shows no violation of the equal opportunity clause, the agency shall so inform the Committee. The Executive Vice Chairman shall review the findings and upon concurrence therewith he shall so advise the agency, which shall in turn notify the applicant, if any, the appropriate contractors and subcontractors, and the complainant, if any, and the ca e shall be clo. ed. If upon review, the Executive Vice Chairman does not concur with the findings of the agency, he may request further investigation by the agency or may undertake such investigation by the Committee as he may deem appropriate. (2) If any investigation under paragraph (a) of this section indicates the existence of an apparent violation of the equal opportunity clau e, the matter should be re olved by informal means whenever pos ible. (3) If a matter in which the investigation has shown apparent discrimination is not resolved by informal means, the agency may afford the contractor or subcontractor an opportunity for a hearing before reporting ·ts :findings and recommendations to the Executive Vice Chairman, as provided in paragraph ( c) of this section. If the agency's decision is that a violation of the equal opportunity clause has taken place, the agency may make recommendations to the Executive Vice Chairman, may cause the cancellation, termination, or suspension of the contract or subcontract pursuant to section 312 of the Order, or may with the approval of the Executive Vice Chairman impose such other sanctions as seem necessary and appropriate to carry out the purposes of the Orders. No case shall be referred to the Department of Justice under section 312 (b) of the Order and no contract or subcontract shall be cancelled or terminated in whole or in part under section 312 ( d) of the Order without compliance with section 60--1.28. Whenever debarment from contracts under section 312 ( e) of the Order may be proposed by the agency, it shall afford the contractor or subcontractor an opportunity for a hearing before the head of the agency or his authorized representative in accordance with section 60--1.27. When a contractor or subcontractor, without a hearing, shall have complied with the recom-  148  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  mendations or orders of an agency or the Executive Vice Chairman and believes such recommendations or orders to be erroneous, he shall upon filing a request therefor within 10 days of such compliance be afforded an opportunity for a hearing and review of the alleged erroneous action by the agency or the Executive Vice Chairman as the case.may be. (c) Report to the Executive Vice Chairman. (1) Within 60 days from receipt of a complaint by the agency, or within such additional time as may be allowed by the Executive Vice Chairman for good cause shown, the agency shall process the complaint and submit to the Executive Vice Chairman the case record and a summary report containing the following information: (a) Name and address of the complainant; (b) Brief summary of findings, including a statement as to the agency's conclusions regarding the contractor's compliance or noncompliance with the requirements of the Order; (c) A statement of the disposition of the case, including any corrective action taken and any sanctions or penalties imposed or, whenever appropriate, the recommended corrective action and .sanctions or penalties. (2) As to any other matter processed by the agency involving an apparent violation of the Orders, the agency shall submit to the Executive Vice Chairman a report containing a brief summary of the findings, including a statement as to the agency's ·conclusions regarding the contractor's compliance or noncompliance with the requirements of the Order, and a statement of the disposition of the case, including any corrective action taken and any .s anctions or penalties imposed or, whenever appropriate, the recommended corrective action and sanctions or penalties. 60-1.25  Assumption of jurisdiction by the Executive Vice Chairman over matters before an agency.  The Executive Vice Chairman may inquire into the status of any matter pending before an agency, including complaints and matters arising out of reports, reviews, and other investigations, and where he considers it necessary or appropriate to the achievement of the purposes of the Orders he may assume jurisdiction over the matter and proceed as provided in 60--1.26. 60-1 .2 6  Processing of matters by the Executive Vice Chairman.  (a) The Executive Vice Chairman may process matters over which he assumes jurisdiction under 60--1.25 or other matters, including complaints and matters arising out of special compliance reviews conducted or ordered by the Executive Vice Chairman. Whenever the Executive Vice Chairman processes any matter he may conduct, or have conducted, such investigations, hold such hearings, make such :findings, issue such recommendations and directives and order such sanctions and penalties as may be necessary or appropriate to achieve the purposes of the Orders. (b) No case .shall be referred to the Department of Justice under Section 312 of the Order and no contract shall be cancelled or terminated in whole or in part under Section 312(d) of the Order without compliance with Section 60--1.28. Whenever debarment from contracts under Section 312 ( e) of the Order may be proposed, the Executive Vice Chairman shall afford the contractor an  opportunity for a hearing in accordance with Section 6{}1.27.  (c) The Executive Vice Chairman shall promptly notify the agency of any corrective action to be taken or any sanctions to be imposed by the agency-. The agency shall take such action, and report the results thereof to the Executive Vice Chairman within the time specified in individual cases. 60-1.27  Hearings.  (a) General hearing procedure-(1) Notice. Whenever a hearing is to be held pursuant to Subpart B of this Part reasonable notice of such hearing shall be given by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the contractor or subcontractor complained against. Such notice shall include (1) a convenient time and place of hearing, (2) a statement of the provisions of the Order and regulations pursuant to ,w hich the hearing is to be held, and (3) a concise statement of the matters pursuant to which the action forming the basis of the hearing has been taken or is proposed to be taken. (2) Hearings. The Executive Vice Chairman, the head of the agency, or such other official or officials designated as hearing officers shall regulate the course of the hearing. Hearings shall be informally conducted. Every party shall have the right to counsel, and a fair opportunity to present his case or defense including such crossexamination as may be appropriate in the circumstances. Hearing officers shall make their proposed findings and recommended conclusions upon the basis of the record before them. (b) Contract ineligibility cases. When hearings are held pursuant to section 310 (b) of the Order to declare a contractor or subcontractor ineligible for further contracts, the procedure provided in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph shall be followed except as hereinafter set forth. (1) Notice of proposed ineligibility. Before any determination is made to declare any contractor or subcontractor ineligible for further contracts or subcontracts under Sections 301 and 312 of the Order, a notice of proposed determination in writing and signed by the Executive Vice Chairman or head of the agency, or his authorized representative, as the case may be, shall be sent to the last known address of the contractor or subcontractor, return receipt requested. (2) Hearing request. Whenever a contractor or sulr contractor has been notified by an agency of a proposed determination of contract ineligibility under the Orders, such contractor or subcontractor shall be entitled to request an opportunity to be heard by the agency. When such notice is received from the Executive Vice Chairman, a request for an opportunity to be heard may be made to the Committee. The letter to the Executive Vice Chairman or the head of the agency, or his authorized representative, as the case may be, may include a request for a written statement specifying charges in reasonable detail. The request for an opportunity to be heard shall be made within ten days from the date of receipt of notice of the proposed determination. If at the end of such ten day period, no request has been received, the Executive Vice Chairman or the head of the agency, or his authorized representative, may assume that an opportunity to be   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  heard is not desired, and the Executive Vice Chairman may enter an order declaring such contractor or subcontractor ineligible for further contracts, or exten ion or other modifications of existing contracts, until such contractor or subcontractor shall have atisfied the Committee that he has established and will carry out personnel and employment policies in compliance with the provisions of the Orders. (3) Hearing, time, and place. Upon receipt of a request for an opportunity to be heard, the Executive Vice Chairman or the head of the agency, or his authorized repre entative, shall arrange a timely hearing. The hearing shall be conducted by the head of the agency or his authorized representative or by a panel of the Committee con i ting of not less than three members thereof appointed by the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Committee. When the hearing is conducted by an agency, no decision by the head of the agency, or his authorized representative, shall be final without the prior approval of a panel of the Committee. 60-1.28  Opportunity to achieve compliance before referrals to the Department of Justice or cont~act termination.  No case shall be referred to the Department of Justice under Section 312 ( b) of the Order and no con tract shall be terminated in whole or in part under Section 312 ( d) of the Order until the expiration of at lea t ten days from the mailing of notice of such proposed referral or contract termination to the contractor or subcontractor involved. affording him an opportunity to comply with the provisions of the Orders. Reasonable efforts to persuade the contractor or subcontractor to comply with the provision of the Orders and to take uch corrective action as may be appropriate shall be made during this period. 60-1.29  Contract ineligibility list.  The Executive Vice Chairman shall distribute periodically a list to all executive departments and agencies giving the names of contractors and subcontractors who have been declared ineligible under these regulations and the Orders. The Executive Vice Chairman may also publish such a list together with a list of those contractors or subcontractors who may have re-established their eligibility in such form and in such places as he may deem appropriate. 60-1.30  Notiflcation of Comptroller General in cases of contract ineligibility or contract termination.  Whenever a contract or subcontract i terminated or whenever ,a contractor or subcontractor is declared ineligible from receiving further contracts or ubcontracts because of noncompliance with the equal opportunity clause, the E~ecutive Vice Chairman shall notify the Comptroller General of the United State . 60-1.31  Reinstatement of ineligible contractors and subcontractors.  Any contractor or subcontractor declared ineligible for further contracts or subcontract under the Orders may request reinstatement in a letter directed to the Executive Vi e Chairman. In connection with the remstatement proceeding, the contractor or subcontractor shall be required to show that it has now complied with  149  the Orders or that it has a program of compliance acceptable to the Executive Vice Chairman. SUBPART C-CERTIFICATES OF MERIT  60-1 .40  By the Committee on its own initiative.  The Committee acting through the Chairman or Vice Chairman may award United ·States Government Certificates of Merit to employers or employee organizations which are or may hereafter be engaged in work under contracts, if the Committee is satisfied that the personnel and employment practices of the employer, or that the personnel, training, apprenticeship, membership, grievance and representation, upgrading, and other practices and policies of the employee organization conform to the purposes and provisions of the Order. 60-1.41  By the Executive Vice Chairman . upon agency recommendation.  The Committee, acting through the Executive Vice Chairman, may award a United States Government Certificate of Merit upon the recommendation of an agency. The recommendation should include a st,a tement in sufficient detail to inform the Executive Vice Chairman of the basis for the proposed award. 60-1.42 60-1 .43  [Deleted) Suspension or revocation.  The Committee acting through the Chairman or Vice Chairman may at any time review the continued entitlement of any employer or employee organization to a United States Government Certificate of Merit, and may suspend or revoke in the public interest the Ce'r tificate if the holder thereof, in the judgment of the Executive Vice Chairman, is no longer in compliance with the provisions of the regulations and those of the Order. The Executive Vice Chairman shall notify all agencies of such suspension or revocation of the Certificate of Merit. SUBPART ]}-ANCILLARY MATTERS  60-1.60  Solicitations or advertisements for employees.  In solicitations or advertisements for employees placed by or on behalf of a contractor or subcontractor, the requirements of paragraph (2) of the equal opportunity clause shall be satisfied whenever the contractor or subcontractor complies with any of the following: (a) States expressly in the solicitations or advertising that all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, creed, color, 01· national origin ; (b) Uses display or other advertising, and the advertising includes an appropriate insignia prescribed by the Committee. The use of the insignia is considered subject to the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 701; (c) Uses a single advertisement, and the advertisement is grouped with other advertisements under a caption which clearly states that all employers in the group assure all qualified applicants equal consideration for employment without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin; ( d) Uses single advertisement in which appears in clearly distinguishable type the phrase "an equal opportunity employer."  150  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  60-1.61  Access to records of employment.  Each contractor and subcontractor shall permit access during normal business hours to his books, records, and accounts pertinent to compliance with the Orders, and all rules and regulations promulgated pursuant thereto, by the agency, the Committee, the Executiv.e Vice Chairman and the Secretary of Labor for purposes of investigatio~ to ascertain compliance with the Orders and the rules regulations, and relevant orders of the Committee. Infor~ mation obtained in this manner shall be used only in connection with the administration of the Orders. 60-1 .62  Rulings and interpretations.  The Executive Vice Chairman shall have authority t o issue rulings and interpretations regarding the contracts portion of the Orders and the regulations contained in this Part. The rulings and interpretations of the Executive Vice Chairman, unless and until modified or revoked shall be a uthoritative. ' 60-1 .63  Reports to the Committee.  The Executive Vice Chairman shall make periodic reports to the Committee and such other reports as may be requested by the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Committee. 60-1 .64  Existing contracts and subcontracts.  All government contracts and subcontracts in effect prior to April 5, 1961, which are not subsequently modified shall be administered in accordance with the nondiscrimination provisions of any prior applicable Executive Orders. Any government contract or subcontract modified on or after April 5, 1961, but before June 22, 1963, shall be subject to Executive Order 10925. Any government contract or subcontract modified on or after June 22, 1963, shall be subject to the Order, and shall include as part of such modification the equal opportunity clause contained in Part II of Executive Order 11114. All federally assisted construction contracts in effect prior to July 22, 1963, which are not subsequently modified shall be administered in accordance with the provisions of any prior applicable agency regulations or instructions. Any federally assisted construction contract or subcontract modified on or after July 22, 1963, shall be subject to Executive Order 11114. Complaints received by, and violations coming to the attention of agencies regarding contracts and subcontracts not subject to either Executive Order 10925 or 11114 shall be reported to the Executive Vice Chairman. The agency shall, upon its own initiative or upon the request of the Executive Vice Chairman investigate such complaints or alleged violations and ;ake such other action as may be appropriate. Efject'ive date. Because the requirements of this cha:pter concern matters excepted from the provisions of section 4 of the Administrative Procedure Act and because of the desirability of prompt implementation of the provisions of Executive Orders 10925 and 11114 this revision of Part 60--1 shall become effective upon pdblication in the Federal Register. Signed at Washington, D.C., this 30th day of August 1963. HOBART TAYLOR, Jr., Executive Vice Chairman.  [F.R. Doc. 63-9598; Filed Sept. 6, 1963; 8 :47 a.m.] U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE ; 1964  0 -726- 390   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis