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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES\
(WHOLE | Q 1
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS/ ' # * ( NUMBER l O J
M I S C E L L A N E O U S

S E R I E S :

N o .

~2

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT
IN THE WOMEN’ S READY-TOWEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES




OCTOBER, 1915

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1916




CONTENTS.
Pago.

Introduction.................................................................................................. 7-10
Scope of inquiry.................................................... ........................................ 10-13
Growth of industry........................................................................................ 13-17
Labor supply................................................................................................. 17,18
Description of occupations............................................................................. 18-20
Classification of industries..............................................................................20-22
Regularity of employment............................................................................. 22-73
New York City.......................... . ........................................................... 22-44
Growth of womens ready-to-wear garment industries.........................22,23
Seasonal fluctuations of employment............................ ................. 23-44
Summary................................................................................... 23-27
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry.................................................... 28-30
Dress and waist industry............................................................. 31-34
Children’s and misses’ dress industry.......................................... 34r-36
Women’s muslin-underwear industry.......................................... 37-39
House-dress and kimono industry............................................... 39-42
Women’s custom-tailoring industry............................................. 42-44
Chicago................................................................................................... 44-59
Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.........................44,45
Seasonal fluctuations of employment................................................. 45-59
Summary....................................................................................45-47
Cloak and suit industry.............................................................. 48-50
Dress and waist industry............................................................. 50-53
Skirts, and dresses and skirts...................................................... 53-55
House-dress and kimono industry............................................... 56,57
Petticoats...................................................................................58,59
Cleveland................................................................................................ 59-65
Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.........................
59
Seasonal fluctuations of employment................................................. 60-65
Summary................................................................................... 60,61
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry.................................................... 62-64
Dress and waist industry............................................................. 64,65
Boston..................................................................................................... 66-73
Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.........................
66
Seasonal fluctuations of employment............................................ . 66-73
Summary................................................................................... 66-68
Cloak, suit, and skirt industay.................................................... 68-71
Dress and waist industry............................................................ 71-73




3

4

CONTEXTS.
Page.

Caiises of seasonal fluctuations........................................................................ 74-94
Primary cause.........................................................................................
74
Contributory causes............................................................... .................74-90
Changes of styles............................................................................... 76,77.
Degree of specialization..................................................................... 77-84
Cloak, suit, an<l sldrt industry.................................................... 78-80
Dress and waist industry.............................................................80-82
House-dress and kimono industry............................................... 82-84
Method of production........................................................................ 84-87
Quality of product............................................................................ 87-90
Related factors........................................................................................ 91,92
Summary................................................................................................ 92-94
Regularization of employment.................................................... .................94-108
Seasonal fluctuations of employment in one Chicago establishment manu­
facturing more than eight lines of women’s garments............................. 94-97
Actual dovetailing of allied occupations in the dress and waist industry in
Chicago.............................................................................................. 97-104
Seasonal fluctuations of employment in two establishments manufacturing
men’s ready-to-wear clothing............................................................ 104-106
Other examples of dovetailing.............................................................. 107,108
Appendix A.—Earnings and regularity of employment in certain branches of
the women’s ready-to-wear garment industry in New York, Boston, and
Cleveland................................................................................................ 109-135
Introduction........................................................................................ 109-111
Muslin-underwear industry, New York City...................................... .. 112-122
Summary.....................................................................; ................112-114
Constancy of employment in different occupations......................... 114-116
Average earrings per week............................................................. 116,117
Total earnings for the year................................................................
117
Weekly and hourly wages.............................................................. 118-120
Earnings per hour.......................................................................... 120,121
Overtime worked...........................................................................121,122
Dress and waist industry, Boston, Mass................................................. 122-129
Summary.............................. ....................................................... 122-124
124
Constancy of employment in different occupations............................
Average earnings per week............................................................. 125,126
Total earnings for the year.................................................................
126
Weeks worked during the year....................................................... 127-129
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, Cleveland, Ohio.................................... 129-135
Summary...................................................................................... 129-131
Constancy of employment in different occupations............. 1............. 131
Average earnings per week.............................................................
131
Total earnings during period covered............................................. 132-134
Weeks worked dming the year....................................................... 134,135
Appendix B.—General tables................................................... •
................. 135-151




LIST OF CHARTS.

Page.

Chart No. 1.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 6 principal industries manufacturing women’s
Chart No. 2.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 75 establishments in the cloak, suit, and skirt
industry and in 10 large and 10 small establishments—New York City........
Chart No. 3.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 260 establishments in the dress and waist
industry and in selected large and small establishments—New York City...
Chart No. 4.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 117 establishments in the children’s and
misses’ dress industry and in 5 large and 5 small establishments—New York
City...........................................................................................................
Chart No. 5.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 30 establishments in women’s muslin-underwear industry and in 5 large and 5 small establishments—New York C ity...
Chart No. 6.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 13 establishments in the house-dress and
kimono industry and in 3 large and 3 small establishments—New York City..
Chart No. 7.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 4 establishments in the women’s customtailoring industry—New York City.................... ........................................
Chart No. 8.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 6 principal industries manufacturing women’s
ready-to-wear garments—Chicago..........................................................Facing
Chart No. 9.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 14 establishments in the cloak and suit in­
dustry and in 5 large and 5 small establishments—Chicago.........................
Chart No. 10.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 10 establishments in the dress and waist in­
dustry and in selected large and small establishments—Chicago...................
( -hart No. 11.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 2 establishments manufacturing skirts only—
Chicago......................................................................................................
Chart No. 12.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 3 establishments manufacturing dresses and
skirts—Chicago...........................................................................................
Chart No. 13.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 3 establishments manufacturing house dresses
and kimonos—Chicago................................................................................
Chart No. 14.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 3 establishments manufacturing petticoats—
Chicago......................................................................................................
Chart No. 15.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 2 principal industries manufacturing women’s
ready-to-wear garments—Cleveland............................................................
Chart No. 16.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 18 establishments in the cloak, suit, and skirt
industry and in selected large and small establishments—Cleveland...........
Chart No. 17.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 6 establishments manufacturing dresses and
waists—Cleveland....................................................................................



5

30
34

36
39
42
44
47
50
53
54
55
57
59
61
64
65

6

U S X OF CHARTS.
P .
ag©

Chart No. 18.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 2 principal industries manufacturing women’s
ready-to-wear garments—Boston..................................................................
Chart No. 19.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 10 establishments in the cloak, suit, and skirt
industry and in 1 large and 1 small establishment—Boston..........................
Chart No. 20.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 20 establishments in the dress and waist in­
dustry and in 3 large and in 3 small establishments—Boston........................
Chart No. 21.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry: 75 estab­
lishments, New York; 14 establishments, Chicago; 18 establishments, Cleve­
land; and 10 establishments, Boston............................................................
Chart No. 22.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in the dress and waist industry: 260 establish­
ments, New York; 10 establishments, Chicago; 6 establishments, Cleveland;
and 20 establishments, Boston.....................................................................
Chart No. 23.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in the house-dress and kimono industry: 13
establishments, New York, and 3 establishments, Chicago...........................
Chart No. 24.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in the children’s and misses* garment industry:
2 inside and 2 outside shops—New York City....................... .....................
Chart No. 25.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by biweekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in the house-dress and kimono industry: 1 highgrade shop and 1 low-grade shop—New York City.......................................
Chart No. 26.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in the dress and waist industry: 6 high-grade
and 6 low-grade shops—New York City.......................................................
Chart No. 27.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in 1 establishment manufacturing more than
eight lines of women’s ready-to-wear garments—Chicago..............................
Chart No. 28.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in establishments manufacturing dresses, waists,
and petticoats: Shop No. 1—Chicago..........................................................
Chart No. 29.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in establishments manufacturing dresses, waists,
and petticoats: Shop No. 2—Chicago...........................................................
Chart No. 30.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in establishments manufacturing dresses, waists,
and petticoats: Shop No. 3—Chicago...........................................................
Chart No. 31.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in the men’s clothing industry: 1 large estab­
lishment, Chicago, and 1 large establishment, Cleveland.............................
Chart No. 32.—Seasonal fluctuations of employment as shown by weekly pay
rolls for all productive labor in the women’s custom-tailoring and women’s
muslin-underwear industries—New York City.............................................
Chart No. 33.—Number of employees working each classified number of weeks,
May, 1913, to April, 1914, in 5 establishments in the dress and waist indus­
try—Boston................................................................................................
Chart No. 34.—Number of employees earning each classified amount during
the year, May, 1913, to April, 1914, in 5 establishments in the dress and
waist industry—Boston...............................................................................



68
71
73

80

82
84
87
89
90
97
100
102
104
106
114
127
128

BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WHOLE NO. 183.

WASHINGTON.

OCTOBER, 1915.

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE WOMEN’S
READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES.
INTRODUCTION.
Thk study was undertaken by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in
cooperation with the United States Commission on Industrial Rela­
tions and is part of a series of studies of problems of unemployment
carried on by the commission.
The question of unemployment lies, in a great measure, at the
root of many of our modem social problems. The First Annual
Report of the United States Commission on Industrial Relations,
1914, mentions unemployment and insecurity of employment as
one of the main causes of the existing industrial unrest. The ill
effects of uncertain and irregular employment need not be empha­
sized. The -worker and his family both suffer from periods of feverish
overwork, alternating with underemployment or no employment
at all.
Unemployment, on account of its chronic recurrence, has par­
ticularly grave consequences in the women’s garment industries.
In these trades the workers find their means of livelihood periodically
interrupted through no fault of their own. Recent studies by this
bureau1 of regularity of employment in the dress and waist, and
cloak, suit, and skirt industries of New York City, revealed the fact
that only one-half of the number of workers actually employed
during the busiest seasons of the year were found employed in the
respective industries during the dull seasons.
The amount of employment found in the cloak, suit, and skirt
industry of New York during one of the dullest weeks of the year
was only 43 per cent of the average week, and slightly over onefourth of the busiest week of the year. In the cloak and suit industry
i Bulletin No. 146, Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in the dress
and waist industry of New York City, and Bulletin No. 147, Wages and regularity of employment in the
cloak, suit, and skirt industry, with plans for apprenticeship for cutters and the education of workers in
the industry.




7

8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

of Chicago the pay rolls during the dullest week were less than onehalf of the average week, and only one-third of the amount paid out
during the busiest week* With some modifications, similar fluctua­
tions of employment hare b$en found in the other branches of the
women’s garment industries.
The meaning of this irregularity of employment in these trades
becomes more apparent when the so-called seasonal demand for
workers is compared with the number that could actually do the
work had it been distributed evenly throughout the year.
Calculations based upon the aggregate of regular and overtime
hours actually worked in the course of one year by 4,858 week
workers in 16 of the principal week-work occupations of the cloak,
suit, and skirt industry of New York show that 4,481 male workers
were required to perform the work that under an even distribution
through 52 weeks per year, 50 hours per week less usual holidays,
could have been performed by 1,151 workers, slightly over one-fourth
of those actually utilized. Three hundred and seventy-seven.female
workers were required to do the work that imder the above-men­
tioned conditions of even distribution could have been performed by
less than one-third of them, 110.1
The result of the existing irregular distribution of employment
throughout the year was that out of the total required to man these
trades about one-tenth, approximately 6,000 individuals, were
utilized for less than 10 weeks, and that less than one-fifth of those
actually required in the course of the year had more or less permanent
employment for 40 to 52 weeks.
This inquiry relates to employment as measured by the amount of
the pay roll from week to week rather than with numbers of em­
ployed individuals. It is not customary in these trades to discharge
workers to any large extent as the dull seasons come on. Instead,
most of the workers are retained, and the amount of work available
is distributed equally among them. Hence, the number of workers
employed is not as good an indication as the pay-roll figures of the
actual amount of employment at any specified period of the year.
The matter of regularization of employment in these trades has
so far received but scant attention on the part of manufacturers or
of their organizations. Individual employers, when first inter­
viewed, stated that for the most part their own business showed
very little irregularity in employment in the course of a year, and
that, generally speaking, employment in the garment trades is as
regular as it could possibly be under the existing circumstances.
They were of the opinion that the chief cause of the fluctuations of
employment lies in the whim of the ultimate consumer, and the
fickleness of styles, and that hence the only way to regularize em­




i Bulletin No. 147, pp. 34-39.

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W O M E N 's GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

9

ployment is to educate the desires and tastes of the ultimate con­
sumer. Some of them maintained, furthermore, that they can do
little or nothing to regularize employment in their establishments,
“ because we are at the absolute mercy of the retailer and department
stores,” and the latter refuse to place their orders in any considerable
quantity sufficiently in advance of delivery. Some of them also
maintain that unemployment in recent years has been aggravated
by the emphatic insistence of labor organizations upon the carrying
out of the principle of equal distribution of work during the dull
seasons.
The matter of regularization of employment in these trades is of
vital interest to all concerned. It is of importance to the manu­
facturer because the more regular the manufacturing the better the
distribution of the overhead expense, an item amounting generally
to about 10 per cent of the total sales. Seasonality in employment,
again, means that wages in many instances during the height of the
season have to be high enough to support workers in comparative
idleness during slack periods, a decided factor in increasing cost of
production and an additional expense to the ultimate consumer.
To the worker the matter of regularization of employment is of
a still more vital significance. He is interested in a steady income.
The rate of compensation and hours per week are important enough;
it is still more important for him, however, to have steady employ­
ment. It is obvious that in the course of the year, at a rate of $20
per week, with 40 working weeks, he can earn more money than, say,
at $22.50 per week with only 30 working weeks.
In spite of the tremendous advances made in late years in the
women’s garment industries in matters relating to conditions of work,
elimination of excessive overtime, shortening of the regular hours of
labor, and raising rates of weekly earnings, the matter of unemploy­
ment at the present time seems to be more acute than ever. Somehow
or other, in spite of all the advances made and reforms introduced,
the cardinal problem—the matter of more steady employment—still
remains unsolved. Contrary to his custom of former times, however,
the cloak maker of to-day refuses to resign himself to what once
seemed to be inevitable. Shorter hours, better treatment, and
better weekly pay, he says, have not been accompanied by a length­
ening of the working season.
That considerable relief from the unemployment prevalent in these
trades has been secured by providing opportunities for the system­
atic dovetailing of occupations in some of the allied branches of
these trades can be seen from the experience of some manufac­
turers in matters of dovetailing, described on pages 97 to 104 of this
report. Dovetailing, as it was found in the establishments referred to,
consisted in utilizing the existing working organizations of these



10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

establishments during the dull seasons of the year for the manufac­
ture of garments of a relatively simpler variety (petticoats, in one
instance, in establishments specializing usually on dresses and waists)
than the line ordinarily manufactured, articles to the manufacture
of which a garment worker of average experience can easily adjust
himself at short notice, and garments that can be manufactured in
considerable quantities regardless of their seasonal demand; that is,
in advance of sales.
One of the primary obstacles to dovetailing is the particular
specialization called for in skilled trades. In some of these the
transition from one to another similar occupation is often very diffi­
cult. A worker on light shoes can seldom turn out a well-finished
pair of heavy ones; leather binders may take up cloth work, but
cloth work can not be done in a leather shop.
The majority of workers in the women’s ready-to-wear garment
trades, however, are not highly skilled; they could more properly
be classified as semiskilled; these trades would, therefore, lack the
primary obstacle to dovetailing mentioned above.
Other obstacles to dovetailing as a remedy against seasonality in
employment are: (1) Reluctance on the part of manufacturers,
who firmly believe in specialization as the only method of achieving
success in their business, and who, as a result of that, know relatively
little about materials, styles, marketing, or method of manufacture in
other lines; and (2) reluctance on the part of workers, who generally
hesitate to accept the relatively smaller rates of pay that usually
prevail in trades where simpler garments are manufactured, par­
ticularly for stock.
It was suggested by some employers that dovetailing could probably
be materially assisted by industrial training of a general or technical
character which would increase the adaptability of the worker and
counteract the restrictive tendencies of too great specialization.
Apropos of this latter suggestion it might be stated that recently
a comprehensive study of the dress and waist industry in New York
has been made for the purposes of vocational education, and that at
the present time plans are being put forward to establish an inde­
pendent school for this industry through a commission representing
the employers, the employees, and the public. In Boston a plan has
been proposed whereby the heads of the educational departments of
the State and city are to cooperate with persons engaged in the dress
and waist industry.

SCOPE OF INQUIRY*
The purpose of this inquiry was to ascertain, if possible: (1) The
degrees of relative regularity of employment—that is, the changes
in the amounts of employment in each specific industry at different



REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN ’ & GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

11

points of the year; (2) the causes, fundamental and contributory, of
seasonal changes of employment; and (3) the existence in any of the
industries of systematic methods for the regularization of employ­
ment.
The information presented here is based upon data secured from
employers’ pay rolls showing the actual amounts of wages paid out
to employees engaged in all productive occupations from week to
week for a period of 52 consecutive weeks, or one full year. It was
not deemed advisable to secure in each instance the weekly numbers
of employees engaged in these occupations for the reason that in
these industries, as shown in Bulletins No. 146 and No. 147 of this
bureau, steadiness of employment is measured much more accurately
by earnings than by number of employees. This is chiefly due to
the custom prevailing in these industries of the equal distribution of
work during the slack periods; that is, when dull seasons arrive the
larger part of the surplusage of workers instead of being discharged
are retained on part time.
In the majority of instances the period covered by this inquiry
consisted of 52 consecutive weeks, beginning with the first week of
August, 1912, or thereabouts, and ending with the last week of July,
1913. As far as could be ascertained, this period represented a year
of normal activity in the allied branches of the women’s garment
trades of the country. The above-mentioned period has been ad­
hered to in all of the industries covered in each locality, except in the
dress and waist industry in New York, for which the period covered
was the calendar year 1912; the dress and waist industry of Cleve­
land and Boston, for which the period covered was from May, 1913,
through April, 1914; and the women’s muslin-underwear industry
of New York, for which the period covered was from March, 1913,
through February, 1914. For purposes of comparison, however, the
data for the 52 weeks of the year have been arranged in the same
order throughout in the tables and charts, beginning with August and
ending with July.
The scope of the inquiry was extensive as well as intensive, and
included four out of the five so-called centers of manufacture of
women’s ready-to-wear garments, the cities of New York, Chicago,
Cleveland, and Boston. It was found necessary to omit Philadelphia
on account of serious interruptions in the activity of the industry
there due to aggravated labor disputes. The field thus covered, as
shown elsewhere in this report, embraced approximately 76 per cent
of the entire industry of the country. In the four cities mentioned,
pay-roll data were secured for more than 500 establishments, repre­
senting approximately 150,000 workers and 17 different groups of
manufacturers.



12

BULLETIN OF THE

BUREAU

OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Seasonal fluctuations of employment throughout this report are
shown in term? of percentages of the average weekly pay roll. To
obtain this the annual total of the pay roll of a single establishment
or of an entire group was divided by 52 in order to obtain the pay roll
of the average week, which was then taken as the unit of measure­
ment—100 per cent—and specific amounts indicating expenditures for
all productive labor for individual pay-roll weeks were then reduced
to a percentage of this unit.
The influence of the scale of production—size of the establishment—
upon seasonal fluctuations of employment is shown throughout this
report by comparisons, graphic and otherwise, of fluctuations of em­
ployment in representative groups of large and small shops. Spe­
cific groupings made were based upon the sizes of annual pay rolls of
individual establishments, an equal number of shops having been
selected from the top and the bottom of the series of establishment
schedules representing each industry. It is believed that this method
of presentation does not show extreme conditions for the reason that
very frequently the size of the largest establishment in the “ small”
group closely resembled the size of the smallest establishment in the
“ large” group.
This report, in each instance, deals with representative groups of
shops rather than with single establishments, it being obvious that
the seasonal fluctuations of employment of the industry at large
would thus be more accurately shown.
Table 1 shows the extent of the inquiry by comparing the wages
paid by the establishments covered with the total wages paid in the
industry according to the United States Census of Manufactures of
1909.
T able 1.—EXTENT OF INQUIRY AS SHOWN B Y TOTAL WAGES PAID OUT ACCORDING
TO UNITED STATES CENSUS OF MANUFACTURES OF 1909, AND TOTALS ON ES­
TABLISHMENT SCHEDULES SECURED.
Taid out 1 firms
by
covered.
City.

Total wages.1
Amount.

Per cent
of total
wages.

Cleveland......................................................... *..............................
Boston..............................................................................................

§53,517,000
2.996.000
2.903.000
1.649.000

$17,253,000
1.842.000
2.148.000
770,000

32.2
61.5
74.0
46.6

Total........................................................................................

61,065,000

22,013,000

36.0

New York........................................................................................

1 Figures taken from the Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IX —New York, p. 887; Chicago,
p. 297; Cleveland, p. 993; Boston, p. 537.

The extent of this inquiry thus comprises about 74 per cent of the
trade in Cleveland, 61.5 per cent of the trade in Chicago, 46.6 per cent
of tho Boston trade, and 32.2 per cent of the trade in New York
City.



REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT---- WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

13

In Table 2 the number of establishments covered by the inquiry
and the amount of their pay rolls are shown by specific industries for
each city.
Table 2 .—NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND COMBINED PAY BOLLS OF SPECIFIC
INDUSTRIES COVERED B Y THIS INQUIRY.
[The total shown in this table is somewhat smaller than that shown in Table 1 of this report, because a
number of the establishments covered could not be classified under any of the industries here specified.]

City and industry*

BBSS'

Number of Combined
establish­
ments.

NEW YOBK,

Cloaks, suits, and skirts....................................
Dresses and waists..................................—
Women’s muslin underwear............................
Children’s and misses’ dresses
House dresses a <
n
Custom tailoring,

17
13
4

$4,907,514
9,302,124
1,471 354
622,783
333,056
357,100

CHICAGO.

Cloaks, suits, and skirts.....................................
Dresses and waists............................................
Dresses and skirts...............................................
Skirts only...........................................................
House dresses and kimonos................................
Petticoats............................................................

14

10

Z
r
2

914,403
337,337
66,430
96,395
77,733
45,410

CLEVELAND.

Cloaks, suits, and skirts.....................................
Dresses and waists.............................................

18
6

1,843,295
304,700

BOSTON.

Cloaks, suits, and skirts.....................................
Dresses and waists..............................................

20

10

354,970
414,859

Total...........................................................

488

21,449,463

GROWTH OP INDUSTRY.
The manufacture of women's ready-to-wear clothing as an industry
of any importance had its beginning in the early sixties, being
confined almost entirely to cloaks. In the beginning of the eighties
an additional branch of the industry, known as “ ladies’ suits,” was
established. The manufacture of ready-to-wear dresses and waists
came into existence only in the middle of the nineties. Since then
not only suits and cloaks and dresses and waists, but also house
dresses, wrappers, kimonos, skirts, children’s and infants’ wear, and
all the different articles which are included under the collective name
of lingerie, have been put on the market ready made.
At first only the cheaper grades were manufactured, but before long
expensive material was made up into ready-to-wear garments. At
the present time all kinds of garments, under, outer, and street gar­
ments, varying in prico from the cheapest to the most expensive, can
be bought at a moment’s notice.
The census of 1859 was the first in which data concerning the manu­
facture of women’s ready-to-wear garments were given separately.
The small extent of the industry at that time and its growth since
then are shown in the following table:



14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 3 .—GROWTH OF WOMEN'S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRY, 1859 TO 1909.
[Figures for 1909 taken from the Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. VIII, Manufactures, p. 399;
figures for other years taken from the Twelfth Census of the United States, Vol. IX , p. 283.]

Year.

1859.............................................
1869.............................................
1879.............................................
1889............................................
1899.............................................
1909.............................................

Number
of
establish*
ments.
188
1,847
562
1,224
2,701
4,558

Wage
earners,
average
number.
5,739
11,696
25,192
39,149
83,739
153,743

Wages.

$1,193,032
2,513,956
6,661,005
15,428,272
32,586,101
78,568,261

Cost of
materials.

Value of
products.

$3,323,335
6,837,978
19,559,227
34,277,219
84,704,592
208,788,226

$7,181,039
12,900,583
32,004,794
68,164,019
159,339,539
384,751,649

105.8
186.0
75.2
147.1
146.5

79.6
148.1
113.0
133.8
141.4

Per cent of increase by decades.
1869.............................................
1879.............................................
1889.............................................
1899..................... .....................
1909.............................................

882.4
169.6
117.8
120.7
68.8

103.8
115.4
55.4
113.9
83.6

110.7
165.0
131.6
111.2
141.1

* Decrease.

With the exception of the number of establishments in the decade
ending 1879, the industry shows a marked growth in every particular
listed for each decennial period. By 1909 the number of establish­
ments was more than twenty-four tunes as large as in 1859, the
number of wage earners more than twenty-six times as great, and
the total amount of wages paid was more than sixty-five times as
great. The cost of the materials used had increased more than
sixty-two fold and the value of the products over fifty-three fold.
The rate of increase was greatest during the decade 1889-1899.
During this period the figures representing each item were more than
doubled. In 1899 the industry employed almost 45,000 more wage
earners than in 1889, the cost of the materials used had increased by
more than $50,000,000, and the value of the products was over
$90,000,000 greater than at the earlier date.
Along with the growth of the industry seems to have gone a
process of concentration. The following table, computed from the
figures in Table 3, illustrates this tendency with regard to wage
earners and output:
T able 4 .—AVERAGE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES AND AVERAGE VALUE OF PRODUCT
PER SHOP, 1859 TO 1909.

Year.

1859.....................................................................................................................
1869.....................................................................................................................
1879.....................................................................................................................
1889.....................................................................................................................
1899.....................................................................................................................
1909...................................................................................................................




Average
number Average
Number
value of
of
of shops. employ­ product
ees per per shop.
shop.
188
1,847
562
1,224
2,701
4,558

31
6
45
32
31
34

$38,192
6,985
56,947
55,690
58,252
84,412

BEGTJLABITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN’ s GARME-NTINDUSTBIES.

15

It will be noticed that the 188 shops reported by the census of
1859 must either hare been reasonably large or have included some
decidedly large establishments, since the average number of em­
ployees was 31 and the value of the output averaged very nearly
$40,000. During the next decade there seems to have been a mush­
room growth of very small shops, so that in 1869 the average number
of wage earners per shop had sunk to 6 and the average output to
$7,000. Many of these small shops probably went under in the hard
times of the early seventies; others perhaps realized the economy
of large-scale production. At any rate, by 1879 the number of shops
was less than one-third of what it had been 10 years earlier, while the
average number of employees was seven and a half times greater and
the value of the output was more than eight times as great. Since
then, while the average number of employees per shop has kept close
to 30, the value of the average output has increased by over $27,000.
The same tendency toward concentration is evidenced by the fact
shown in the preceding table, that while in the decade 1899-1909 the
number of establishments increased by 68.8 per cent, the average
number of wage earners increased by 83.6 per cent and the total
value of the product by 141.4 per cent.
From the standpoint of the present study, the peculiar importance
of this tendency lies in the fact, brought out in the following pages,
that large-scale production tends to regularize employment. In
every branch of the industry the large establishments showed less
violent fluctuations of employment than the small. It is true that
the scale of production is only one factor in the complex problem,
but since it is a constant and an important factor, the tendency
toward concentration shown by the industry as a whole is significant
and hopeful.
The United States Census of Manufactures of 1909 (Vols. VIII and
IX) names, consecutively, the States of New York, Pennsylvania,
Ohio, Illinois, and Massachusetts as the principal centers in the manu­
facturing of women’s wear.
The combined value of the output of the United States in women’s
wear, according to figures of the census of 1909, was estimated at
$384,751,649. The following table gives the specific places of manu­
facturing, showing the total value of the output and percentage that
the production of each constitutes of the output of the country at
large.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

16

T able 5 .—VALUE ANI) PER CENT OF TOTAL OUTPUT OF WOMEN'S W EAR IN FIVE
PRINCIPAL MANUFACTURING CENTERS.
[Figures taken from Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. VIII, p. 91.1

Value of out­
put.

City.

New York.................................................................................................................
Philadelphia1...........................................................................................; ..............
Cleveland...................................................................................................................
Total (five cities)........................................................................................... S
1

Percent
of total
output.

$266,477,000
30.130.000
15.677.000
12.789.000
7,842,000

69.3
7.8
4.1
3.3
2.0

332,915,000

86.5

i In the present investigation the city of Philadelphia was omitted, leaving the total output of cities
covered 78.7 per cent of the total production of the United States.

The following table, based upon the same census report as the
preceding one, throws some light upon the differences in the char­
acter of the women's garment industries of the four manufacturing
centers of this country, as indicated by the proportion of the expend­
itures for materials, wages, and salaries.
T able 6 .—RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF EXPENDITURES FOR MATERIALS, WAGES, AND
SALARIES IN FOUR PRINCIPAL CENTERS MANUFACTURING WOMEN’S READY-TOWEAR GARMENTS COVERED B Y THIS REPORT.
[Figures taken from Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IX —New York, p. 859; Chicago, p. 286;
Cleveland, p. 977; and Boston, p. 523.]
Actual amount and per cent of total expended on-—

City.

Wages.

Materials.

Amount.

New York.... $144,845,000
Chicago.........
8.658.000
Cleveland___
6.496.000
Boston..........
4.306.000

Per
cent.
68.5
68.9
61.7
67.9

Amount.

$53,518,000
2.997.000
2.903.000
1.649.000

Salaries.
Per
cent.
25.3
23.8
27.6
26.0

Amount.

$13,099,000
915.000
1,126,000
383.000

Total.
Per
cent.
6.2
7.3
10.7
6.0

Amount.
$211,462,000
12.570.000
10.525.000
6,338,000 !
|

Per
cent.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

From the amounts and percentages showing the costs of the mate­
rials it may be inferred that approximately materials of the same
degree of expensiveness are used in the manufacturing of New York
City, Chicago, and Boston. The industries of Cleveland appear to
have used somewhat cheaper fabrics. This may be inferred from
the fact that while the percentages expended on materials in New
York, Chicago, and Boston were 68.5, 68.9, and 67.9, respectively,
the percentage expended on the same item in Cleveland was only
61.7. This corroborates the generalization made in the body of this
report that, proportionately speaking, the Cleveland industries manu­
facture somewhat cheaper grades of garments and therefore are
enabled to do more manufacturing in advance of sales, a fact explain­
ing to some extent the somewhat greater regularity of employment
in that city.



REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT---- W OM EN’ s GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

17

The city of Cleveland also stands first in the percentage expended
on wages. This could naturally be expected in view of the fact that
tiie cheaper the materials used the relatively larger the cost of labor
per specific unit of production.
That competitive conditions tend to equalize the cost of production
in the different manufacturing centers can be seen from the fact that
the principal items entering into the cost of production vary to only
a relatively small degree, from about 1 to 7 per cent.

LABOR SUPPLY.
A study made by the United States Immigration Commission1 in
1910 of 19,502 employees in the men’s and women’s clothing indus­
tries of the principal centers of the country revealed that 72.2 per
cent of them were of foreign birth. Of these the southern and
eastern Europeans were represented in the greatest numbers by
the Russian Hebrews (18.6 per cent), Southern Italians (14.4 per
cent), and the Hebrews other than Russian (7.1 per cent). Of
the races of the old immigration from Great Britain and northern
Europe, the Germans appeared in by far the greatest numbers,
their 3.4 per cent being followed by 0.4 per cent of the Irish and 0.3
per cent of the Swedes.
Of the 28,484 female workers actually found in the dress and weist
industry of New York during the month of March, 1913,2 over 56
per cent were Hebrew, over 34 per cent Italian, and less than 7 per
cent native bom.
According to one of the reports of the joint board of sanitary
control of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York,8 23 per
cent of all the workers in the cloak and suit industry and 77 per cent
of the workers in the dress and waist industry are women. It is
estimated by officials of the respective employers’ associations that
the percentage of women in the children’s dresses, muslin-undorwoar, and house-dress industries is considerably over 90.
A study of 100 pressors and 100 cutters of the cloak and suit
industry of New York revealed the fact that all of the former and
79 per cent of the latter were foreign born.* All of the pressers and
at least 82 per cent of the cutters were Hebrews.
From a strictly industrial standpoint a fact of great import rela­
tive to those workers is that an exceedingly small proportion of them
have had any training or experience wliile abroad for the industrial
occupations in which they have found employment in this country.
i Abstract Report Immigration Commission, Vol. I, pp. 305,332,333.
* Joint Board of Sanitary Control of the Cloak, Suit, and Skirt Industry, special report, May, 1013.
•Idem, p. 7.
< Bulletin No. 147, p. 145.

7001°—Bull. 183—10----- 2



18

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

It was found upon examination of the previously mentioned cutters
and pressers that none of the latter and only 5 per cent of the former
had learned their trades before coming to this country. Every one
of the pressers and 90 per cent of the cutters learned their trades in
this country while “ on the job.”
Although in a general way the seasonal activities of the various
branches of the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries appear
to coincide, specific variations in individual industries seem to be
considerable; the busy seasons of one frequently overlap the dull
seasons of the other or others. It would be interesting, therefore, to
know to what extent workers actually secure temporary employ­
ment in allied trades wheh the dull period of their own trade com­
mences, and, furthermore, what use the employees are making of
their frequent and rather long periods of idleness.
When the inquiry described in Bulletin No. 147 of this bureau was
carried on, the agents made an effort to secure som 9 information
bearing on the questions mentioned. Although the information
secured at that time can not by any means be considered conclusive,
it is believed that the results give an approximately correct idea of
the existing conditions so far as the male workers in the cloak and
suit industry are concerned. Interviews with people whose famili­
arity with the lives of cloak makers extends years back would seem
to indicate that the information secured, in spite of its incomplete­
ness, is somewhat typical.
Of a total of 68 male workers—cutters and pressers—51, or 75
per cent, reported that they spent their unemployment periods in
comparative idleness.
Of the remainder, of the cutters, 3 at different intervals secured
employment cutting raincoats, 3 became salesmen in retail stores, 1
got a position as cutter on shirt waists, 1 helped his father, 1 secured
a clerical position in an office, and 1 temporarily became a traveling
salesman. Of the pressers, 2 at different times secured temporary
employment in contractors’ shops, 2 were engaged in peddling, 1
secured a position in a retail store, 1 worked at “ odd" jobs, and 1
found temporary employment in doing part pressing.
This summary of individual experiences, incomplete as it is, seems
to indicate that while the great bulk of the male workers in these
occupations spend their unemployment periods in comparative
idleness, some of the cutters and a few of the pressers do find tempo­
rary employment in allied and other trades.

DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPATIONS.
From the point of view of the amount of skill required, most of
the occupations may properly be classified among the semiskilled.
Adaptable inexperienced individuals of working age have a fair earn­



KEGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN’ s GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

1 &'

ing capacity the moment they enter the industry, and may become
very proficient workers in any of the occupations within a compara­
tively short period of time, a year or less at most.
The following are brief descriptions of some of the principal occu­
pations common to all of the industries discussed in this report:
Cutting.—In all of these industries cutting is done almost exclu­
sively by men, and consists of marking, laying up, and cutting textiles
in accordance with specific patterns. It is the most skilled and
responsible of all the occupations for the reason that upon the quality
of the cutting depends not only the fit and appearance of the gar­
ment, but also, to a considerable extent, its cost, inasmuch as the
ability of the cutter to lay out economically his pattern determines
the amount of cloth that is consumed. Cutting is the only occupa­
tion of the garment trades in which an apprenticeship is required.
Sample making.—Sample making is done by men and women, and
consists of making samples of new garments from models furnished by
the designer. This work calls for tailors (males, usually, in the cloak
and suit industry) and operators (usually females, in the other
industries) of rather exceptional ability and skill. Sample making
occupies a small number of workers for a short time at the b e g in n in g
of each season, the makers of samples being recruited temporarily
from among the more expert tailors and operators.
Operating.—Operating is done by men and women, and consists of
sewing the parts of the garment together, by machine, as they come
from the cutting department. In most instances it is one of the least
skilled occupations, manned to a considerable extent by inexperienced,
recently arrived immigrants. Except in the cloak and suit industry,
where the greater part of the operating is done by men, the operators
in these industries are predominantly female.
Basting.—In the cloak, suit, and skirt industry, and in the
dress and waist industry, basting is done mostly by females, and con­
sists of roughly sewing together by hand (“ basting") the partly
finished garment, for the purpose of placing it, at times, on a dummy
figure or living model, so that careful examination may be made by
the tailor or sample maker of the character of the work at various
stages of manufacture. In the cloak and suit industry approximately
two-thirds, and in the other industries almost all of these workers, are
women.
Finishing.—Finishing consists of doing most of the sewing on the
garment that has to be done by hand. So-called plain finishers sew
on hooks and eyes, buttons and belts; they also baste bottoms on
skirts. Any girl who can use a needle can easily adapt herself to this
work. In all of the industries except that of cloaks and suits, in
which some male finishers may be found, the work is done almost
exclusively by females.



20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Pressing.—Pressing is done by males and females and consists of
pressing out with a hot press or iron the seams and various parts of
the garment after they have been put together by the operators,
except in the case of the part presser, who is required to press out
pieces, such as sleeves, pockets, collars, cuffs, belts, etc. The under
presser presses the garment before it is lined, and the upper presser,
the most skilled of the three, presses the finished garment, shaping
and molding it, to some extent, into the finished product. In the
cloak and suit industry where the irons used, as well as the textiles,
are rather heavy, pressing is done almost exclusively by men. In the
other industries the ironing or pressing is done mostly by women.
Buttonhole making.—In all of these industries buttonhole making is
done by men mostly, and consists of making buttonholes by special
buttonhole machines. The skill of the buttonhole maker, aside from
operating the machine and correctness in spacing properly the button­
holes on the garments, consists also in the ability to do the necessary
repairing of the machine, which is subject to frequent breakdowns.
Cleaning.—In all of these industries cleaning is done by young, inex­
perienced girls exclusively. It forms the lowest step in the industrial
ladder of these industries, and consists of cutting off with scissors
(by hand) loose threads and, at times, of sponging and removing spots
from the finished garment.
Examining.—In all of these industries examining is done mostly by
females, and consists in inspecting the garments after they have been
completed by the workers, in order to see that they fit the figure and
that the measurements at the waistline are correct; also to see that
the corresponding parts match and that there is no flaw in the work
of the different individuals who made them.

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES.
There is a decided cleavage between the different branches of the
women’s ready-to-wear garment trades. The belief has often been
expressed by prominent manufacturers, as well as by the officers of
the various employers’ associations, that the most economical way to
manufacture wometi’s garments is to ‘‘ specialize/’ by which term is
usually meant to confine activities of individual manufacturing es­
tablishments to the production of definitely limited lines of clothing,
the prevailing groupings as they exist at present being: (1) Cloaks,
suits, and skirts; (2) dresses and waists; (3) misses’ and children’s
dresses; (4) muslin underwear; (5) house dresses, wrappers, and
kimonos, etc. These lines of demarcation seem to be particularly
prominent in New York City, where the following separate and dis­
tinct employers’ associations exist: Cloak, Suit, and Skirt Manufac­
turers’ Association, Dress and Waist Manufacturers’ Association,
Misses’ and Juniors’ Dress Manufacturers’ Association, Muslin



BEGTJLABITY OF EMPLOYMENT---- W O M EN’ s GABMENT INDUSTRIES.

21

Underwear (cotton garments) Manufacturers’ Association, and House
Dresses, Kimonos, and Wrappers Manufacturers’ Association.
The women’s ready-to-wear garment industries—the aggregate of
allied needle trades commonly known as the ladies’ garment trades—
thus embrace a number of specialized industries, the most important
of which are engaged in the manufacture of (1) cloaks, suits, and
skirts; (2) dresses and waists; (3) misses’ and children’s dresses; (4)
muslin underwear; (5) house dresses, wrappers, and kimonos; and
(6) petticoats.
Tie following is a brief description of the materials used, as well as
of the kinds of garments manufactured in each of the industries
mentioned:
Cloaks, suits, and skirts.—The manufacturing of cloaks, suits, and
skirts, while covering a wide range of “ models” or “ styles,” can
rightfully be considered as having a limited field of production in
women’s wear. The range of garments produced by most manufac­
turers includes cloaks, suits, skirts, and one-piece woolen or worsted
dresses, and, to a very limited extent, linen suits and skirts. The
fabrics used ineludo serge, worsted, cheviots, pongee, linen, voile,
taffeta, whipcord, broadcloth, tweed, rough woolens, homespuns,
silk, satin, velvet, cr&pc, and velours.
Dresses and waists.—The manufacturing of dresses and waists
probably covers the widest range of garments made in the allied
industries, inasmuch as it embraces many styles and qualities of
waists, as well as the widest possible range of dresses imaginable.
While the one-picce dress probably predominates, the products of
this industry, in so far as dresses are concerned, also include a tre­
mendous number of styles manufactured for evening wear or for
outdoor and the so-called sporting uses. The fabrics used covcr
such materials as lawn, cr£pe, voile, flannel, pongee, taffeta, satin,
meteors, moir6, chiffon, batiste, gingham, silk serge, velours, and
other fine fabrics.
Misses’ and children’s dresses.—The manufacturing of misses’ and
children’s dresses is the latest addition to the ready-made garment
industry, and probably the least developed. The industry is re­
stricted to the manufacture of one-piece dresses, skirts, waists, and
blouses for children and misses. To a very limited extent children’s
and misses’ cloaks and reefers are produced. The fabrics used in­
clude woolen, worsted, cotton cr&pe, silk cr£pe, percale, gingham,
lawn, serge, flannelette, foulard, blanket cloth, ratine, cponge, and
piqu&
Muslin underwear.—The range of garments in the undermuslin
industry includes underskirts, combinations, drawers, corset covers,
nightgowns, and brassieres, made of the following textiles: Cotton,
cambric, nainsook, silk, chiffon, cr6pe de chine, and crdpe cloth.



22

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Home dresses and Tcimonos.—The manufacturers of house dresses
and kimonos also produce so-called dressing sacks and many styles
and grades of aprons for misses and women. The range of styles
and quality of kimonos include the inexpensive garment as well as
the most expensive manufactured. The fabrics used in this product
consist of ginghams, calicos, cotton crSpe, silk cr&pe, percale, lawn,
ratine, piqu£, eponge, blanket cloth, flannelettes, foulards, serge, and
cashmere.

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.
NEW YORK CITY.
GROWTH OF WOMEN’S

READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

The growth of the women's ready-to-wear garment industries in
New York City during the decade ending in 1909 is indicated in the
following table taken from the United States Census, and showing
for each of the years 1899, 1904, and 1909 the number of establish­
ments, the average number of wage earners, the total capital in­
vested, the outlay for wages and for materials, and the total value
of products:
T a b l e 7 .— GROWTH OF WOMEN'S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES IN N E W

YOR K CITY, 1899 TO 1909.
[Figures taken from Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. I X , p. 859.]

Census.

Number Wage earn­
of estab­ ers, aver­
age
lishments. number.

1899.................
1904...................
1909...................

1,607
2,140
2,995

44,715
70,089
94,258

Capital.

Wages.

$27,389,000
43.804.000
80.762.000

$20,929,000
34.551.000
53.518.000

Cost of mate­
rials.

Value of prod­
ucts.

$54,639,000
89,092,000
144,845,000

$102,712,000
168.419.000
266.477.000

During the census decade 1899 to 1909 the women’s garment indus­
tries of New York City increased as follows: Number of establish­
ments, 86 per cent; average number of wage earners, 111 per cent;
wages, 156 per cent; value of products, 159 per cent; cost of mate­
rials, 165 per cent; capital, 195 per cent.
Proportionately speaking, the city of New York during this decade
had the greatest percentage of increase in the number of establish­
ments, 86, as compared with 39, 35, and 24 for the cities of Boston,
Chicago, and Cleveland, respectively.
On the basis of the total estimated value of its output as compared
with the rest of tha industries of the State, the manufacture of women’s
wear ranks first. The value of the manufactured articles, according
to the census of 1909, constituted 8.1 per cent of the total output of
all the industries of the State. The allied women’s clothing trades




REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN’s GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

23

furnished employment to 9.8 per cent of all the industrial wage earn­
ers of the State.1
These figures assume a greater significance when, the importance of
the State of New York as a manufacturing center is considered; as
brought out clearly by the census of manufactures of 1909, on the basis
of the total value of output in specific industries, the State of New
York ranked first in 104, or two-fifths of the entire number, of the
industries specified and reported upon by the Bureau of the Census.4
More than one-half of the total number of establishments of the coun­
try engaged in the manufacture of women’s wear, and considerably
more than one-half of the total number of workers, and of the total
capital, were located in the city of New York. The same census
records that in 1909 there were in the business of manufacturing
women’s garments in that city 2,995 establishments, employing about
95.000 workers.* It is estimated that at the present time the number
of establishments is far above 3,000 and the number of workers far in
excess of 100,000. Of the latter number it is believed that over
50.000 are engaged in the manufacturing of cloaks, suits, and skirts,
and more than 30,000 in the manufacture of dresses and waists, the
remaining workers being more or less evenly distributed among the
industries manufacturing children’s dresses, muslin underwear, and
house dresses and kimonos.
Except for the cloak, suit, and skirt industry, in which two-thirds
of the total number of establishments in 1912 employed less than 25
workers4 each, there is no information available on the prevailing
scale of production in specific branches of the allied industries. As a
matter of close observation, however, and in view of the fact that
relatively small amounts of capital are called for in the establishment
of garment factories, it is believed that there exist in each of the
branches of these industries unusually large numbers of very small
establishments.
SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT.
SUMMARY.

Table 9 and Chart No. 1 accompanying it show seasonal fluctua­
tions of employment in the leading women’s ready-to-wear garment
industries of New York City. They also show, for purposes of com­
parison, the seasonal fluctuations of employment in a representative
number of establishments in the women’s custom-tailoring industry.
It must be borne in mind, however, that the last-named industry
bears an in s ig n ific a n t relation to the women’s ready-to-wear garment
' Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IX , p. 801.
* Idem, Vol. V m , p. 69.
aIdem, Vol. IX , p. 859.
* Joint Board of Sanitary Control of the Cloak, Suit, and Skirt Industry, Bui. 5, January, 1912.




24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

tradest It represents an industry wliere custom work prevails,
in which no part of the output is manufactured in advance of the
sale; in fact, an industry where each garment is individualized, is
a style by itself. For this reason no garment of this industry is
manufactured in advance of sale. The primary reason for intro­
ducing information as to this industry into this report—a report deal­
ing wholly with ready-to-wear garments—was to show, in a com­
parative way, and as clearly as possible, the influence of manufac­
turing in advance of sales upon seasonal fluctuations of employment.
A glance at the chart shows that the highest degree of irregularity
is found in the custom-tailoring industry, and that next to this stands
the cloak, suit, and skirt industry. It is less easy to assign the four other
industries to their relative positions. There is no one satisfactory
measure of irregularity by which the standing of an industry may be
determined. The range of variation from the average pay roll is one
measure of irregularity, but not a sufficient one, since the low point
touched may last for only a short time. The number of weeks during
which a variation of at least a specified number of points from the
average endures is another measure, but this also is not wholly satis­
factory, since it gives no indication of how far beyond the specified
number of points the irregularity may go. Still another measure
might be found in the frequency of violent fluctuations. Table 9
shows, for instance, that in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry in New
York City the pay roll for week 13 stood at 92.5 per cent, which was a
fall of 33.5 points from the week before. In the dress and waist indus­
try a fall of almost the same degree was spread over weeks 11 to 15.
Evidently, in the latter case the dislocation was much less violent, and
a considerable portion of the workers displaced had from 1to 3 weeks*
more employment than if the change had been made within a single
week.
No one of these standards is wholly satisfactory, but perhaps a com­
bination of the three gives as close a measure of the relative irregu­
larity of the different industries as can at present be obtained. The
following table, derived from the pay-roll figures given in Table 9,
shows the results of testing the different industries by each of these
s tandards.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT---- WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

25

8 .— IRREGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT IN WOMEN’S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT
INDUSTRIES OF NEW YORK, AS MEASURED B Y THREE DIFFERENT STANDARDS.

table

[This table is based on data shown in Table 9, the range of variation being percentages of the average
weeldy pay roll for the year.]
Variation for year.

Industry.
Low point.

Cloaks, suits, and skirts....................
Dresses and waists.........................
Women’s muslin underwear............
Children’s and misses’ dresses.........
House dresses and kimonos..............
Custom tailoring................................

43.2
52.6
70.9
53.7
45.3
12.3

Bigh
point.

104.4
137.2
119.8
127.3
139.9
195.5

Range.

121.2
84.6
48.9
73.6
94.6
183.2

Number of weeks in
Num­
whieh pay roll varied by ber of
at least 20 points from weeks
average.
in
which
a varia*
tion of
atleast
20
Below. Above. Total. points
occur­
red.
19
8
3
6
7
23

19
9
7
13
90

38
17
3
13
20
43

8
2
3
3
5
10

It is evident that the relative irregularity of a given trade differs
considerably according to the particular measure applied. Thus the
manufacture of dresses and waists, which stands fourth in range of
variation, stands sixth in number of sudden and violent fluctuations.
Arranging the six industries, therefore, in the order of their irregu­
larity by each standard, and averaging their numerical positions in
each of these three categories, the following grouping is obtained,
which probably represents, as nearly as can be ascertained from the
data available, their comparative irregularity, b e g in n in g with the
most irregular:
1. Custom tailoring.
2. Cloaks, suits, and skirts.
3. House dresses and kimonos.
4. Dresses and waists.
5. Children’s and misses’ dresses.
6. Women’s muslin underwear.
In regard to this ranking, it must be said that the position of the
house-dress and kimono industry is rather doubtful. During the
year covered there was a strike in this industry lasting from weeks
23 to 29, inclusive. Naturally for these weeks the pay rolls reflect
highly abnormal conditions, so that it seems fairer to omit the whole
period of the strike. This period, however, includes what would
normally be the dullest season of the industry, when the pay roll
would reach its lowest point for the year. Hence the omission may
be unduly favorable to the industry. Possibly an offset to this is
secured by reckoning the difference between the pay rolls of week 22
and week 30 as occurring in a single week, but it is impossible to say
how far this is compensatory.




26

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Making all due allowance for this uncertainty, the regularity of
employment in these industries seems to coincide surprisingly with
the amount of skill that specific industries call for; the greater the
skill required the more irregular the fluctuations in the employment
in the course of the year. This is probably connected with another
factor—cost of material; the greater the skill required in an industry
the more expensive, as a rule, are the materials used. And these
two factors combined have much to do with a fundamental cause of
irregularity—the inability to manufacture in advance of sales. Of
course, the more a manufacturer must pay for labor and material,
the more serious becomes the question of tying up money in goods
which may never be sold. In custom tailoring, where the highest
degree of skill is required, and where, as a rule, the most expensive
materials are required, the risk of loss is too serious to be undertaken;
nothing is made until a definite order is received for it, and irregu­
larity of employment reaches its highest pitch. In relatively un­
skilled industries, in which cheaper materials are used, such as the
manufacture of muslin underwear, it is safe to make up goods to some
extent before an order has been received for them, and the greater
regularity which this gives to employment in the industry is reflected
in its pay rolls.
Turning from the question of relative irregularity to the general
characteristics of the industries considered, the pay-roll data show
that each has two busy and two dull seasons, the busy periods occur­
ring in the spring and fall and the dull in winter and summer. Custom
tailoring differs from the other industries considered in that the pay
roll reaches its highest point in the fall busy season. It, however,
is introduced only for purposes of comparison, and its conditions are
not indicative of those prevailing in the other lines of manufacture
considered.
Among the ready-to-wear garment industries in each case the high­
est pay-roll point, which means the greatest amount of employment,
is found at the peak of the spring busy season.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

27

T a b l e 9 . — SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W E E K L Y PAT

ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN 6 OF THE W OM ENS READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES, N EW YORK
CITY, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.
[This table is based on data from 75 establishments in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry, 260establishments
in the dress and waist industry, 30 establishments in the women’s muslin-underwear industry, 117estab­
lishments in the children’s and misses’ dress industry, 14 establishments in the house-dress and kimono
industry, and 4 establishments in the custom-tailoring industry.)
(Average weekly pay roll for the year—100.)
Per cent of average weekly pay roll in the -

Month.

Week
No.

Chil­
Cloak,
HouseDress Women’s dren’s
muslinsuit,
dress
Customand
and
underand
and
misses’ kimono tailoring
waist
skirt industry.1 wear
industry*
industry.2 dress
industry.
industry. industry.

1
2
3
4

July.....................................................

78.0
82.1
85.5
92.8

90.4
90.6
94.6
87.9

12.3
17.3
20.4
29.7

133.4
107.3
127.9
133.5

109.5
107.3
95.3
110.4

93.2
91.6
102.3
104.3

95.9
97.6
94.6
106.4

94.9
87.7
81.2
84.6

34.6
48.7
92.8
134.6

130.3
137.2
141.7
126.0
92.5

120.7
119.9
123.5
121.1
112.9

105.3
77.4
94.1
102.3
100.7

107.3
100.8
102.4
99.8
98.5

100.6
94.8
101.8
99.9
113.2

146.8
179.2
195.4
186.1
195.5

14
15
16
17

June.....................................................

81.8
80.1
87.2
91.2

9
10
11
12
13

May.....................................................

64.5
77.7
89.1
99.4

5
6
7
8

February............................................

103.6
114.7
126.5
135.4

66.7
67.0
59.3
45.4

105.2
92.6
93.8
90.6

109.2
109.5
114.9
114.8

101.4
98.9
98.8
92.5

101.3
92.7
94.9
99.3

159.4
150.0
139.0
120.8

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

45.7
43.2
50.1
55.1
61.1
87.5
99.6
119.7
131.9
139.5
134.6
154.9
164.4
161.7
161.2
152.5
142.9
125.3
109.0
87.5
69.8
66.2
65.7
65.1
58.0
50.6
57.4
59.2
73.9
84.9
73.6
88.7
98.5
106.0
106.6

83.4
90.8
94.5
95.3
84.3
72.9
85.9
92.5
101.0
107.5
113.2
119.1
124.1
134.5
136.9
137.2
137.1
132.5
108.8
112.5
116.3
113.8
107.6
103.8
99.6
93.3
87.7
93.6
94.7
89.2
79.0
59.0
53.3
52.6
58.9

104.0
108.3
109.2
105.3
86.2
78.9
91.6
96.4
102.5
101.1
100.5
96.4
101.0
94.7
105.4
108.6
111.7
112.6
115.1
118.1
119.8
99.3
90.5
109.7
116.6
117.8
107.3
112.0
102.9
99.8
92.3
70.9
84.1
85.4
83.5

87.5
94.8
101.4
98.1
81.4
89.5
102.2
109.7
110.5
116.7
119.3
123.0
126.4
125.8
127.3
99.5
123.3
124.5
116.6
120.9
117.4
114.4
115.2
111.5
111.3
105.5
95.9
87.8
81.9
74.6
77.1
53.7
60.6
78.6
83.1

92.2
96.2
94.6
96.1
82.8
98.5
63.9
51.6
47.9
45.3
46.8
64.1
120.4
104.5
136.0
125.6
137.8
128.5
131.2
139.9
133.4
119.9
110.1
115.5
121.5
120.9
128.4
123.4
121.9
107.4
112.7
80.0
81.4
92.9
115.9

109.7
100.0
88.6
81.9
67.8
52.9
63.5
71.8
75.1
78.1
75.9
54.7
62.9
90.3
124.4
141.3
149.3
170.8
184.2
178.6
170.8
160.1
145.7
141.9
117.4
111.9
73.9
82.1
72.1
70.5
54.3
34.5
30.8
28.5
21.1

1 Data for the first 21 week numbers are for August, 1912, through December, 1912; for the last 31 week
numbers, for January, 1912, through July, 1912.
2 Data for the first 30 week numbers are for August, 1913, through February, 1914; for the last 22 week
numbers, for March, 1913, through July, 1913.




28

BULLETIN OF IMF. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY.

Fluctuations of employment in this industry are more marked than
in any other industry manufacturing women’s ready-to-wear gar­
ments. Pay-roll data for all productive labor in 75 shops with a
total annual pay roll for productive labor of about $5,000,000 indicate
that the year is made up of two busy seasons and two dull seasons,
one busy season lasting about 14 weeks, from the end of July to the
latter part of October, and another 12 weeks, from the latter part of
January to the middle of April, and one dull season lasting 12 weeks,
from the end of October to the latter part of January and another of
14 weeks, from the middle of April to the latter part of July. The
pay roll for the busiest week in the year (the last week in February)
was over 280 per cent greater than for the dullest (the second week in
December).
Aside from showing seasonal fluctuations of employment in the
industry at large, Table 11 and the chart accompanying it show also
relative differences in the fluctuations of employment in representa­
tive groups of large and small shops. The following table summar­
izes the differences„in range briefly:
T able 10.—SIZES OF PAY ROLLS AT SIGNIFICANT POINTS OF THE YEAR IN LARGE AND

SMALL SHOPS OF TITE CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY OF NEW YO R K CITY
SHOWN IN PERCENTAGES OF AVERAGE W EE K LY PAY ROLLS FOR THE YEAR.
Per cent of average weekly pay roll at—
Size of estabiisliment.

Small shops....................................................
Large shops....................................................
All shops.........................................................

Busiest point, Dullest point, Busiest point, Dullest point,
fall, 1912. . winter, 1912-13. spring, 1913. summer, 1913.
165.5
138.5
141.7

34.8
52.4
43.2

158.1'
160.6
164.4

61.8
53.2
50. G

It will be noticed that the difference here shown is considerable,
the range of variation being 130.7 points for the small shops against
108.2 for the large. In regard to the length of time during which the
pay roll varied from the average by at least 20 per cent, Table 11
shows that the two groups are precisely alike; in each the pay roll
stood at least 20 per cent below the average for 16 weeks and at least
20 per cent above fur 17 weeks. In the matter of sudden fluctua­
tions the group of small shops makes a less favorable showing, a
change in the pay roll of at least 20 points in a single week having
occurred 12 times in the group of small shops and only 7 times in the
large group. On the other hand, the fluctuations in the large shops
are occasionally more violent than any found in the small shops.
Thus in week 6 the pay roll of the large shops falls from 137 to 106.4,
a fall of 30.6, and in week 37 it shows a fall of 31.5, while the greatest
variation in one week shown in the pay roll of the small shops is a fall
of 28.9 in week 14. Nevertheless, it seems evident that employment
is considerably more regular in the large than in the small shops.



CHART NO. t

WOMEN'S GARMENT TRADES - NEW YORK C ITY
SEASONAL. FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY WEEKLY PAY POLL
FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR
[average

DRESSES AND WAISTS
WEBB & BOCCRSELSKI. INC.. WASHINGTON




D. C.

w eekly

pay

r o ll

WOMEN'S UNDERMUSLINS

for

th e

year

= looj

CUSTOM TAILORING
Haas* Doe. Bo.

■ ■
; 64th Cong., 1st t i u .

KEGULABITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN ’ s GABMENTINDUSTBXES.

29

A question at once arises as to how far these groups are repre­
sentative of the large and small shops in the industry. The com­
bined annual pay rolls of the “ large” and "small” groups were
$2,083,692 and $173,675, respectively, the corresponding average for
each group being $208,369 and $17,367. The average for “ all
shops” group was $65,433. It is thought that while $208,369 repre­
sents fairly well the average large shop of the industry, the average
of*$l7,367 represents only the small shop of the organized part of the
trade; that is, of the membership of the Cloak, Suit, and Skirt Manu­
facturers’ Protective Association, from which all of the schedules
upon which this report is based have been secured. It is certain that
the so-called small shop here discussed does not represent the very
small business, usually associated with the New York garment trades,
operated and owned frequently by an associated group of members
of the same family. Consequently the comparison here made is
probably unduly favorable to the small shop.
T able 11.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y PAY
BOLLS FOB ALL PBODUCTIVE LABOR IN 75 BEPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTBY OF NEW Y O R K CITY, AUGUST, 1912, TO
JULY, 1913,INCLUSIVE.
(Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Wools
No.

All shops (75).

Large shops (10).

Small shops (10).

Amount. Percent. Amount. Per cent. Amount. Percont.
August...............................................

1
2
3
4

$97,807
108,268
119,427
127,786

103.6
114.7
126.5
135.4

$42,159
47,306
51,458
54,463

10$. 2
118.1
128.4
135.9

$4,032
3,972
4,468
4,817

120.7
118.9
133.8
144.2

Septamber..........................................

5
6
7
8

125,940
101.237
120,705
126,015

133.4
107.3
127.9
133.5

54,885
42,642
53,767
52,142

137.0
106.4
134.2
130.1

4,554
3,507
3,777
4,677

136.4
105.0
113.1
140.0

October..............................................

9
10
XI
12
13

122,968
129,446
133,683
118,942
87,283

130.3
137.2
141.7
126.0
92.5

49,174
54,980
55,501
50,964
40,871

122.7
137.2
138.5
127.2
102.0

4,437
5,119
5,528
5,039
4,411

132.8
153.3
165.5
150.9
132.1

November..........................................

14
15
10
17

62,907
63,264
55,968
42,838

66.7
67.0
59.3
45.4

33,128
32,724
28,984
22,971

82.7
81.7
72.3
57.3

3,447
2,713
2,098
1,638

103.2
81.2
62.8
49.0

December...........................................

18
19
20
21

43,109
40,741
47,271
52,042

45.7
43.2
50.1
55.1

22,200
20,988
23,146
24,229

55.4
52.4
57.8
60.5

1,290
1,592
1,445
1,161

38.6
47.7
43.3
34.8

January..............................................

22
23
24
25
26

57,654
82,565
94,001
113,005
124,495

61.1
87.5
99.6
119.7
131.9

28,531
39,848
37,610 •
44,665
50,840

71.2
99.4
93.9
111.5
126.9

1,299
2,114
2,486
2,920
3,420

38.9
63.3
74.4
87.4
102.4

February............................................

27
28
29
30

131,623
127,052
146,148
155,148

139.5
134.6
154.9
104.4

53,258
53,701
59,840
64,371

132.9
134.0
149.3
160.6

3,707
3,811
4,489
5,282

111.0
114.1
134.4
158.1




30

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

TABLE 11.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W E E K L Y PAY
ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 75 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY OF NEW YORK CITY, AUGUST, 1912, TO
JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE—Concluded.
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay roll in—
Week
No.

Month.

All shops (75).

Large shops (10).

Small shops (10).

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
March.................................................

31
32
33
34

$152,640
152,119
143,904
134,834

161.7
161.2
152.5
142.9

$63,432
60,293
54,648
46,145

158.3
150.5
136.4
115.2

$4,513
4,320
4,230
3,516

135.1
K9.3
126.6
105.3

Apra...................................................

35
36
37
38

118,227
102,869
82,540
65,845

125.3
109.0
87.5
69.8

40,068
37,160
24,521
26,086

100.0
92.7
61.2
65.1

2,932
2,720
2,642
2,002

87.8
SI. 4
79.1
59.9

39
40
41
42
43

62,501
62,030
61,475
54,695
47,798

66.2
65.7
65.1
58.0
50.6

22,570
24,824
25,831
24,234
21,303

56.3
61.9
64.5
60.5
53.2

2,158
2,494
2,369
2,228
2,064

64.6
74.7
70.9
66.7
61.8

44
45
46
47

54,125
55,904
69,745
80,141

57.4
59.2.
73.9
84.9

25,768
27,723
37,896
38,402

64.3
69.2
94.6
95.8

2,939
2,926
3,538
3,514

88.0
87.6
105.9
105.2

48
49
50
51
52

69,495
83,725
92,937
100,041
100,586

73.6
88.7
98.5
106.0
106.6

32,241
36,491
40,135
42,012
40,563

80.5
91.1
100.2
104.8
101.2

2,913
3,748
3,805
4,326
4,528

87.2
112.2
113.9
129.5
135.6

Total..........................................

4,907,514

Average.....................................

!

94,375

173,675

2,083,692
100.0

40,071

100.0

3,340

100.0

Chart H o. 2.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 75 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE CLOAK,
SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY AND IN 10 LARGE AND 10 SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS—
NEW YORK CITY.

ALL ESTABLISHMENTS—~




LARGE ESTABLISHMENTS—

SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS—

REGULARITY OP EM PLOYM ENT— W O M E N ’ s GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

31

DKESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY.

The figures presented in this section are based upon pay rolls
secured from 260 establishments, the combined pay rolls of which
amounted to more than $9,000,000. The period of investigation for
this industry was the year 1912—that is, from January 1, 1912, to
December 31, 1912. For purposes of comparison, however, it was
deemed necessary to rearrange the data for the 52 weeks’ pay
rolls, beginning with August and running in calendar order to the
end of the year and then from January to the end of July, as the bulk
of the information for the rest of the industries has been secured for
that period. Thus the percentages of the average weekly pay roll
of the dress and waist industry shown in the tables and charts of this
report covered the following period: August 3, 1912, to December 31,
1912, and from January 1, 1912, to August 2, 1912. In this investi­
gation, the details of which will be found in Bulletin No. 146, of this
bureau, almost the entire dress and waist industry of New York City
was covered.
Table 12 and Chart No. 3, following, show that the seasons in this
industry, as in the case of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New
York City, consisted mainly of four periods, two dull ones and two busy
ones. The first busy season began about the middle of September,
reached its highest point by the middle of October, and then began to
decline. The longest dull period of the year, lasting from about the
second week of November to about the first week of February, then
ensued. By the middle of February began the second busy season,
the busier of the two, lasting until well into May. The last of May
and the months of June, July, and August constituted the second dull
period of the year, the duller of the two. During the latter period the
pay rolls for all productive labor for the entire industry fell to only
52.6 per cent of the average of the year.
It is interesting to compare for each group of shops the figures for
the dullest and the busiest weeks of the year. In the group of large
shops the lowest point appears in the third week of July, when the pay
roll stands at 44.3 per cent of its average for the year, and the highest
point is found in the second week of March, when the pay roll reaches
146.4 per cent of the average. In the group of small shops the low
point, 51.6 per cent, and the high point, 157.5 per cent, occur one
week later than in the large shops. While the low point of the large
shops is lower and the high point of the small shops is higher than
the corresponding point for the other group, the relation between the
extremes is almost identical. In each group the pay roll at its
highest point is about three times as large as at its lowest; that is, in
both groups the amount of work to be found at the dullest season of
the year is only one-third of that at the busiest season. For the
industry as a whole the fluctuation is not quite so pronounced, the



32

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

weekly pay roll ranging from 52.6 per cent to 137.2 per cent of the
weekly average for the year.
In Table 12 and Chart No. 3 are also shown the relative differences
in the seasonal fluctuations of employment in representative groups
of largo and small shops of the industry. The combined pay rolls of
the large and small groups for the year were $1,489,290 and $84,442,
respectively, the corresponding average for each group being $148,929
and $8,444. As the inquiry into this industry was very thorough and
included almost all of the shops of the industry, it is believed that
the group averages mentioned, $150,000 for the large shops and
$8,400 for the small shops, are typical.
On the whole, as an inspection of Chart No. 3 will reveal, it appears
that employment in the large shops of the industry was more regu­
larly distributed about the “ normal” —the average for the year.
The range of variation is much the same for the two groups, 102 for
the large and 105 for the small shops, but the length of time during
which the pay roll varied from the average by at least 20 points was
only 15 weeks for the large shops against 24 for the small. Also, a
fluctuation of at least 20 points in a single week occurred only
once in the large shops, but nine times in the small. Several of these
fluctuations were particularly violent, the greatest being a fall of 42
points in week 7. The difference in regularity between the two
groups appears to be more pronounced in this industry than in the
manufacture of cloaks and suits.
T able 12.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEK LY PAY
ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 260 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY OF NEW YORK CITY, AUGUST, 1912, TO DECEM­
BER, 1912, INCLUSIVE, AND FOR JANUARY, 1912, TO JULY, 1912, INCLUSIVE.
(Average weekly pay roll for the ycar=100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Week
No.

All shops.1

Large shops.

Small shops.

Amount. Ter cent. Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
Aui'iist...............................................

1
2
3
4

$115,379
138,336
159,322
177,802

64.5
77.7
89.1
99.4

$20,693
23,032
25,333
27,495

72.2
80.4
88.4
96.0

$1,073
1,381
1,587
1,793

66.1
85.0
97.7
110.4

September..........................................

5
6
7
8

195,967
191,971
170,519
197,465

109.5
107.3
95.3
110.4

29,453
29,133
25,273
27,155

102.8
101.7
88.2
94.8

2,066
2,284
1,595
2,094

127.2
140.6
98.2
128.9

Oetol'or..............................................

9
10
11
12
13

215,996
215,151
220,809
216,626
202,148

120.7
119.9
123.5
121.1
112.9

30,558
31,145
30,314
29,884
28,003

106.7
108.7
105.8
104.3
97.8

2,124
2,190
2,255
1,988
1,609

130.8
134.9
138.9
122.4
99.1

November..........................................

14
15
16
17

188,115
165,736
167,753
162,302

105.2
92.6
93.8
90.6

28,355
26,711
26,868
25,432

99.0
93.2
93.8
88.8

1,307
1,060
1,338
1,387

80.5
65. S
82.4
85.4




i Bulletin No. 146, p. 160.

BEGTJLABITY OF EMPLOYMENT---- W O M E N G A B M E N T INDUSTRIES.

33

T able 12.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W E E K L Y PAY
BOLLS FOB ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOB IN 260 BEPBESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE DBESS AND WAIST INDUSTBY OF N EW Y O BK CITY, AUGUST, 1912, TO DECEMBEB, 1912, INCLUSIVE, AND FOB JANUABY, 1912, TO JULY, 1912, INCLUSIVE—Concluded.
Weekly amoant and per cent of average weekly pay roll in—
Week
No.

Month.

All shops, i

Large shops.

Small shops.

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent. Amount. Percent.
December...........................................

18 $149,128
19 162,455
169,000
20
170,462
21

83.4
90.8
94.5
95.3

$23,728
25,474
25,821
28,011

82.8
88.9
90.1
97.8

$1,230
1,242
1,585
1,600

75.7
76.5
97.6
98.5

January..............................................

22
23
24
25
26

150,827
130,484
153,598
165,549
180,673

84.3
72.9
85.9
92.5
101.0

23,535
25,314
29,789
32,141
34,176

82.2
88.4
104.0
112.2
119.3

1,463
1,038
1,152
1,395
1,571

90.1
63.9
70.9
86.0
96.7

February............................................

27
28
29
30

192,382
202,506
212,972
221,929

107.5
113.2
119.1
124.1

36,306
37,245
37,829
39,484

126.7
130.0
132.1
137.8

1,420
1,536
1,797
1,951

87.4
94.6
110.6
120.1

March................................................

31
32
33
34

240,614
244,981
245,494
245,177

134.5
136.9
137.2
137.1

41,685
41,932
41,191
40,731

145.5
146.4
143.8
142.2

2,160
2,526
2,557
2,502

133.0
155.6
157.5
154.1

April...................................................

35
36
37
38

236,951
194,583
201,271
208,053

132.5
108.8
112.5
116.3

38,498
31,261
32,181
31,571

134.4
109.1
112.3
110.2

2,162
1,647
1,744
1,812

133.1
101.4
107.4
111.6

May.....................................................

39
40
41
42
43

203,595
192,435
185,635
178,117
166,905

113.8
107.6
103.8
99.6
93.3

31,640
29,110
28,487
27,141
25,298

110.5
101.6
99.4
94.7
88.3

1,773
1,465
1,585
1,548
1,467

109.2
90.2
97.6
95.3
90.3

June....................................................

44
45
46
47

156,863
167,384
169,487
159,534

87.7
93.6
94.7
89.2

24,252
26,457
27,212
26,138

84.7
92.4
95.0
91.2

1,663
1,671
1,744
1,541

102.5
103.0
107.4
94.9

July ...................................................

48
49
50
51
52

141,406
105,559
95,279
94,149
105,290

79.0
59.0
53.3
52.6
58.9

22,009
16,538
12,679
13,000
16,589

76.8
57.7
44.3
45.4
57.9

1,079
959
920
838
959

66.4
59.1
56.7
51.6
59.1

Total.........................................

9,302,124

1,489,290

178,887
Average....................................
i Bulletin No. 146, p. 160.

7001°—Bull. 183—16----- 8




28,640 100.0
100.0

84,442
1,624

100.0

84

BULLETIN O f THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Chart N o. 8 —SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY W EE K LY
PAY ROLLS FOB ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 200 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE DRESS
AND WAIST INDUSTRY AND IN SELECTED LARGE AND SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS—
NEW YO R K CITY.

PER
CENT
/CO
/SO
k$o
no
/to
i/O
/oo
00
eo
70
60
so
40
so
20
/o

Al/Ct SEPT O ir
C
r'-O ,
't

m .W

Dlr

*
/9Z 8
4PR tWAY JUN£ JU
LY
/ TB A«ah 4
^ 3 *~ ''4 0 ^ 4
*

jsW

A
J k

n
:U
:

/

•/N ta
•i
r
*A V
▼
V

\
v

,

V

ALL ESTABLISHMENTS—

/
a> *

A "

/'

/

7

A /7

4
i

7 \
\
t

*

V

L A A fg ESTABLISHMENTS-- SMALL ESTABL tSHMENTS—’

CHILDREN’S AND MISSES’ DRESS INDUSTRY.

In point of general seasonal tendencies the children s and misses’
dress industry is not different from the cloak and suit industry and
the dress and waist industry.
Table 13 and the accompanying chart show that for the industry as
a whole the year consists of two busy and two dull seasons. The
first busy season, occurring in September and October, is followed
by a dull season which lasts through December. In January the
second busy season begins, reaches its highest points in the latter
part of February, March, and early April, falls off during May, and
is followed by the second dull season, which lasts until the renewal of
the fall activity in September.1
The table and chart show also the fluctuations of employment in
five representative large shops and in an equal number of small
shops. The aggregate annual pay roll of the five small shops was
$67,389, and of the five large shops $363,681. The respective average
annual pay rolls were $13,477 and $72,736. Comparing the curves
representing the seasonal fluctuations of the two groups, it appears
i The sudden decline in the curve showing the seasonal movement of employment in Oils industry during
the thirty-third week (middle of March) is of no seasonal origin. It is due chiefly to the general strike in
the industry that took place during this week and which resulted in the signing of a protocol agreement
between the unions and employers, given in Appendix C, Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,
No. 145.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN*S GARMENT INDUSTRIES,

35

that on the whole employment is somewhat steadier in the large
than in the small shops. The length of time during which employ­
ment rises above 100 per cent is almost the same for both groups, 26
weeks for the large shops and 27 for fche small, but in general the high
points of employment are higher and the low points lower in the
small than in the large shops. The range for the large shops is from
55.4 per cent to 135 per cent, and for the small shops from 33.7 per
cent to 139.1 per cent.
It will be noticed that in the small shops the fall busy season began
and closed earlier and was distinctly shorter than in the large shops.
On the other hand, their spring season began earlier and lasted longer
than that of the large shops.
T a b l e 13.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W E E K L Y PAY

ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 117 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE CHILDREN'S AND MISSES' DRESS INDUSTRY OF NEW YO RK CITY, AUGUST,
1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.
(Average weekly pay roil for the year=*100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Week
No.

All shops (117).

Large shops (5).

Small shops (5).

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
August................................................

1
2
3
4

19,341
9,835
10,238
11,119

78.0
82.1
85.5
92.8

$5,968
6,164
6,040
6,467

85.3
88.1
86.4
92.5

$883
978
1,032
1,230

68.1
75.5
79.6
94.9

September..........................................

5
6
7
8

11,491
11,684
11,333
12,744

95.9
97.6
94.6
106.4

6,764
6,866
6,660
7,419

96.7
98;2
95.2
106.1

1,222
1,397
1,366
1,492

94.3
107.8
105.4
115.1

October..............................................

9
10
11
12
13

12,845
12,077
12,263
11,950
11,795

107.3
100.8
102.4
99.8
98.5

7,627
7,491
7,506
7,026
7,186

109.1
107.1
107.3
100.5
102.7

1,515
1,415
1,367
1,359
1,292

116.9
109.2
105.5
104.9
99.7

November..*......................................

14
15
16
17

12,143
11,839
11,831
11.077

101.4
98.9
98.8
92.5

7,676
7,495
7,262
6,515

109.8
107.2
103.8
93.2

1,106
1,085
1,002
1,092

85.3
83.7
77.3
84.3

18
19
20
21

10,4b3
11,357
12,140
11,746

87.5
94.8
101.4
98.1

5,962
6,302
6,947
6,621

85.2
90.1
99.3
94.7

1,103
1,194
1,123
1,096

85.1
92.1
86.7
84.6

22
23
24
25
26

9,753
10,722
12,235
13,133
13,230

81.4
89.5
102.2
109.7
110.5

5,278
6,157
6,889
7,831
7,673

75.5
88.0
98.5
112.0
109.7

1,047
1,058
1,190
1,115
1,300

80.8
81.6
91.8
86.0
100.3

27
28
29
30

13,975
14,293
14,726
15,141

116.7
119.3
123.0
126.4

8,343
8,585
8,805
9,445

119.3
122.7
125.9
135*0

1,382
1,444
1,414
1,509

106.6
111.4
109.1
116.4

31
32
33
34

15,066
15,248
11,922
14,769

125.8
127.3
99.5
123.3

9,082
9,115
6,767
8,524

129.9
130.3
96.8
121.9

1,596
1,680
1,343
1,789

123.2
129.6
103.6
138.1

35
36
37
38

14,910
13,959
14,483
14,062

124.5
116.6
120.9
117.4

8,639
8,004
8,185
8,101

123.5
114.4
117.0
115.8

1,770
1,439
1,802
1,667

136.6
111.1
139.6
128.0

April...................................................




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

36

T able 1 3 .—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y PAY
ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 117 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE CHILDREN'S AND MISSES’ DRESS INDUSTRY OF NEW YORK CITY, AUGUST,
1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE—Concluded.

Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay roll in—
Week
No.

Month.

All shops (117).

Large shops (5).

Small shops (5).

j
Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
39
40
41
42
43

$13,699
13,794
13,360
13,325
12,635

114.4
115.2
111.5
111.3
105.5

$8,196
8,226
7,550
7,486
6,801

117.2
117.6
108.0
107.0
97.2

$1,637
1,679
1,736
1,758
1,703

126.3
129.6
134.0
135.7
131.4

June...........

44
45
46
47

11,480
10,515
9,804
8,931

95.9
87.8
81.9
74.6

6,031
5,121
5,073
4,729

86.2
73.2
72.5
.67.6

1,511
1,602
1,277
1,056

116.6
123.6
98.5
81.5

July............

48
49
50
51
52

9,237
6,433
7,255
9,413
9,954

77.1
53.7
60.6
78.6
83.1

5,532
4,089
3,878
5,67.1
5,911

79.1
58.5
55.4
81.1
84.5

993
437
504
730
872

76.6
33.7
38.9
56.3
67.3

Total.

363,681

622,783

Avera,ge....................................

11,977

100.0

6,994

67,389
100.0

1,296

100.0

Chart No. 4.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 117 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE CHIL­
DREN’S AND MISSES* DRESS INDUSTRY AND IN 5 LARGE AND 5 SMALL ESTABLISH­
MENTS—NEW YORK CITY.

ALL ESTABLISHMENTS—




LARGE ESTABLISHMENTS—

SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS-**

REGULARITY OF EM PLOYM ENT— W O M E N 's GABMENT INDUSTBIES.

37

WOMEN'S MUSLIN-UNDERWEAR INDUSTRY.

As in the instances of the dress and waist industries of Cleveland,
Boston, and New York City, the period of investigation of the women’s
muslin-underwear industry of New York City was different from the
period during which most of the inquiries described in this report were
made, namely, from August of one year through July of the next. The
period for the muslin-underwear industry was from March, 1913, to
February, 1914. For purposes of presenting the datain a comparative
way, however, it was deemed necessary to rearrange the material se­
cured in the August to July order. The amounts of the pay rolls as
well as the percentages of the average weekly pay roll given in this
section are therefore for the period from August 3, 1913, to Febru­
ary 28, 1914, and from March 5,1913, to August 2, 1913.
Table 14 and the' accompanying chart show that although in gen­
eral tendencies seasonal fluctuations of employment in the muslinunderwear industry follow the fluctuations of employment in the
other branches of the women’s-garment industries of New York City,
unemployment due to seasonality seems to have been a far less grave
problem in this industry. This can probably be accounted for by the
fact that a greater part of its product is manufactured in advance of
sales, for “ stock” —a factor making possible a relatively even dis­
tribution of work throughout the year.
The busy and dull seasons in this industry were as follows: The
first busy season, lasting from about the beginning of October to
about the end of December, was followed by a somewhat slacker
period of about two months; this comparatively dull period was fol­
lowed by the second busy season of the year, extending over a period
of about three and a half months, when business again began to
decline, reaching its lowest ebb during the months of July and
August. The difference between the highest and lowest pay rolls of
the year, in terms of the average weekly pay roll were: Highest 119.8
per cent (week 38), lowest, 70.9 per cent (week 49), the difference
between the size of the pay rolls at the busiest point of the year and
the pay rolls at the lowest point having been a little less than one-half
of the average weekly pay roll for the year.1
The table and chart also show that in this, as in the industries
already considered, employment is steadier in the large than in the
small shops. The range of pay-roll variation is half as large again
in the small as in the large shops—96.7 points against 64—while the
period during which employment varies by at least 20 points from
the average is only five weeks in the large against 24 weeks in the
small shops. Moreover, sudden and violent fluctuations are much
more numerous in the small shops. A further evidence of the greater
1The sadden drop in the pay roll during the weeks 22 to 24, in the month of January, was not caused by
any seasonal changes. It is to be attributed to the general strike in the industry which resulted in the
signing of the collective agreement described in Appendix D, Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics, No. 145.




38

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

stability of employment in the large shops is given by the pay-roll
fluctuations during the strike period, weeks 22 to 24. Both groups
are affected, but the small shops show a far more extreme depression
than the large ones.
T able 1 4 .—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY W EEK LY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 30 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISH­
MENTS IN THE WOMEN'S MUSLIN-UNDER W EAR INDUSTRY OF NEW Y O R K CITY,
AUG. 3, 1913, TO FEB. 28, 1914, AND MAR. 5, 1913, TO AUG. 2, 1913.
(Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay roll In—
Month.

Week
No.

All shops (30).

Large shops (5).

Small shops (5).

Amount. Percent. Amount. Per cent. Amount. Percent.

January..............................................

June....................................................

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

$23,148
22,676
24,678
25,797
26,378
25,917
28,953
29,502
29,806
21,911
26,635
28,939
28,489
30,910
31,000
32,507
32,476
29,430
30,641
30,911
29,804
24,385
22,332
25,932
27,286
28,999
28,608
28,432
27,282
28,584
26,804
29,836
30,728
31,596
31,853
32,558
33,431
33,892
28,090
25,604
31,043
33,006
33,345
30,363
31,704
29,129
28,241
26,113
20,054
23,800
24,178
23,638

Total.........................................

1,471,354

Average....................................

28,295

81.8
80.1
87.2
91.2
93.2
91.6
102.3
104.3
105.3
77.4
94.1
102.3
100.7
109.2
109.5
114.9
114.8
104.0
108.3
109.2
105.3
86.2
78.9
91.6
96.4
102.5
101.1
100.5
96.4
101.0
94.7
105.4
108.6
111.7
112.6
115.1
118.1
119.8
99.3
90.5
109.7
116.6
117.8
107.3
112.0
102.9
99.8
92.3
70.9
84.1
85.4
83.5




$9,664
9,527
10,536
10,353
10,404
9,986
10,860
11,460
11,706
9,787
10,572
11,833
11,575
11,943
12,199
13,116
13,217
11,839
12,687
12,991
11,901
10,263
10,176
11,573
11,457
11,329
10,688
10,197
10,036
10,581
9,609
11,072
11,529
11,517
11,670
11,776
12,341
12,373
10,858
10,878
11,447
11,754
12,607
11,088
12,047
11,244
9,956
8,518
6,215
8,164
8,671
9,234

88.3
87.1
96.3
94.6
95.1
91.3
99.2
104.7
107.0
89.4
96.6
108.1
105.8
109.1
111.5
119.9
120.8
108.2
115.9
118.7
108.8
93.8
93.0
105.8
104.6
103.5
97.7
93.2
91.7
96.7
87.8
101.2
105.3
105.2
106.6
107.6
112.8
113.1
99.2
99.4
104.6
107.4
115.2
101.3
110.1
102.7
91.0
77.8
56.8
74.6
79.2
84.4

569,024
100.0

10,943

$323
801
746
946
1,009
1,259
1,239
1,333
1,507
1,169
1,055
1,251
1,228
1,328
1,571
1,647
1,538
1,493
1,575
1,291
1,281
1,111
735
711
1,016
1,397
1,393
1,315
1,294
1,374
1,219
1,567
1,864
1,931
1,711
1,804
1,859
1,865
1,496
996
1,057
1,406
1,315
1,240
1,050
980
923
1,260
1,053
834
873
841

65.3
63.5
59.2
75.0
80.0
99.8
98.2
105.7
119.5
92.7
83.7
99.2
97.4
105.3
124.6
130.6
122.0
118.4
124.9
102.4
101.6
88.1
58.3
56.4
80.6
110.8
110.5
104.3
102.6
109.0
96.7
124.3
147.8
153.1
135.7
148.0
147.4
147.9
118.6
79.0
83.8
111.5
103.4
98.3
83.3
77.7
73.2
99.9
83.5
66.1
69.2
66.7

65,580
100.0

1,261

100.0

BEGTJLABITY OF EMPLOYMENT---- W O M E N 's GARMENT INDUSTBIES.

39

C h a r t No. 5.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEKLY

PAY BOLLS FOB ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOB IN 30 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE WOMEN’S
MUSLIN-UNDEBWEAB INDUSTBY AND IN 5 LABOE AND 5 SMALL ESTABLISH­
MENTS—N EW YOR K CITY.

PEP
CENT

913
AUG SEPr d c r m W Dtr

a

Is

1914
19\13
%N /TB A4AR A1
PR iM AY,JUNE JULY
0^3
r

160

/At
\j

i/tft

/M
MV
O
no
no
//V
iuuI
AO
QQ
/V
SO
w

i«
•
♦

i
•.. *

/
A

4
c
y

J
/

■v

m/%

&
m
V*

j # -\ A \
—
X

«
«" Q

V

V i
•
♦
♦
V

A

S

j
*
•
t *

fM

—

r
STRI tc

v t
?

[%
ii

\ \ \# r7
*
i\y /

V »w
1

\f

■ w

30
20
iO
ALL ESTABL/SHMENTS— LARGE ESTABUSHMENTS-- SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS-*
HOUSE-DRESS AND KIMONO INDUSTBY.

This industry represents the least skilled branch of the women’s
garment industries. The materials used for making house dresses and
kimonos are cheap, and the workmanship is usually of a low quality.
For this reason the bulk of the operating on wrappers, house dresses,
and kimonos is usually done in contractors’ shops without any direct
supervision on the part of the manufacturers.
Although numerous efforts were made, it appeared to be impossible
to secure information with reference to seasonal fluctuations of
employment from contractors. None of the many contractors visited
appeared to have any semblance of records for 52 consecutive weeks.
Therefore, the information for this section of the report had to be
secured from those manufacturers of house dresses and kimonos who
have the operating done under their immediate supervision in socalled inside shops. It is natural to suppose that the primary rea­
son why these manufacturers have their operating done inside is the
fact that they, more than the average manufacturer in this line, are
interested in the quality of the workmanship. Apparently the line
of house dresses and kimonos manufactured by them is of a higher
grade.
From the data secured from these inside shops Table 15 and the
accompanying chart were constructed. An examination of these



40

BULLETIN OP THE BUKEAU o r LABOB STATISTICS.

shows that the period of most intense activity in this industry during
the year under investigation occurred during weeks 80 to 48, during
the months of. March, April, May, and June. During this period the
pay roll for the industry at large was in each instance higher than
the average pay roll for the year, the point of maximum intensity
having been 140 per cent of the average weekly pay roll. In but
two instances during this period did it fall below 110 per cent of
the average. The fall busy period of this industry does not seem
to have been very pronounced. It extended from weeks 10 to about
18, the months of October and November. During this period the
activity of the industry was just about “ normal” ; that is, the pay
rolls for each of these weeks fluctuated about the average for the
year. The dullest period of the industry included the months of
July, August, and part of September.
The sudden drop of the pay rolls during weeks 23 to 29, in' the
months of January and the first part of February, is not seasonal in
character, but was due chiefly to a general strike which took place
in the entire industry during this period. This fact must be dis­
counted in the examination of the table and chart showing seasonal
fluctuations of employment. The probabilities are that had this
strike not taken place the curvc representing the fluctuations of
employment on and about this period as shown in the chart would
have appeared somewhat more regular.
As to relative regularity of employment in large and in small
shops, it is difficult to make any definite statement. The chart and
table show that the small shops had the wider range of variation,
from 48.7 per cent, to 143.9 per cent, against a variation from 74.6
per cent to 154.5 per cent in the large shops, the strike period being
omitted from consideration in both cases. On the other hand,
employment was below the normal for a longer period in the large
than in the small shops, and violent fluctuations were more frequent.
Perhaps the most that can be said is that in the matter of irregularity
of employment there is not much to choose between the two groups.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN ’ & GARMENT INDUSTRIES,

41

Table 15.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT, AS SHOWN B Y W E E K L Y PAY
ROLLS, FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 13 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE HOUSE-DRESS AND KIMONO INDUSTRY OF NEW YOR K CITY, AUGUST, 1912,
TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.

(Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.)
Weekly amounts and per cent of average weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Week
No.

All shops (13).

Large shops (3).

Small shops (3).

Amount. Percent. Amount. Percent. Amount. Percent,
$5,792
5,805
6,058
5,632

90.4
90.6
94.6
87.9

$2,716
2,797
3,072
2,683

85.1
87.7
96.3
84.1

$486
535
487
446

86.1
94.8
86.3
79.0

5
6
7
8

6,076
5,620
5,199
5,417

94.9
87.7
81.2
84.6

2,945
2,679
2,729
2,521

92.3
84.0
85.5
79.0

502
429
275
436

89.0
76.0
48.7
77.3

October.

9
10
11
12
13

6,446
6,071
6,520
6,400
7,252

100.6
94.8
101.8
99.9
113.2

3,109
2,981
3,172
3,071
3,911

97.4
93.4
99.4
96.3
122.6

615
551
561
575
595

109.0
97.7
99.4
101.9
105.5

November..

14
15
16
17

6,486
5,939
6,078
6,362

101.3
92.7
94.9
99.3

3,044
2,736
3.214
3,293

95.4
&5.8
100.7
103.2

598
557
527
526

106.0
98.7
93.4
93.2

December.

18
19
20
21

5,906
6,164
6,059
6,158

92.2
96.2
94.6
96.1

3,067
2,775
2,720
2,871

96.1
87.0
85.3
90.0

461
592
559
598

81.7
104.9
99.1
106.0

22
23
24
25
26

5,302
6,309
4,094
3,306
3,069

82.8
98.5
63.9
51.6
47.9

2,456
3,350
1,964
1,939
1,772

77.0
105.0
61.6
60.8
55.5

507
517
407
172
207

89.9
91.6
72.1
30.5
36.7

27
28
29
30

2,901
3,000
4,108
7,709

45.3
46.8
64.1
120.4

1,328
1,361
1,958
3,837

41.6
42.7
61.4
120.3

214
204
367
709

37.9
36.2
65.0
125.7

March

31
32
3‘i
34

6,693
8,713
8,047
8,823

104.5
136.0
125.6
137.8

2,907
4,910
4,157
4,928

91.1
153.9
130.3
154.5

734
725
750
743

130.1
128.5
132.9
131.7

April..

35
36
37
38

8,229
8,405
8,963
8,544

128.5
131.2
139.9
133.4

4,273
4,343
4,882
4,530

133.9
136.1
153.0
142.0

762
775
812
803

135.1
137.4
143.9
142.3

39
40
41
42
43

7,680
7,054
7,399
7,782
7,745

119.9
110.1
115.5
121.5
120.9

3,908
3,300
3,146
3,566
3,663

122.5
103.4
98.6
111.8
114.8

675
597
792
781
796

119.6
105.8
140.4
138.4
141.1

44
45
46
47

8,224
7,902
7,808
6,878

128.4
123.4
121.9
107.4

4,596
4,000
4,003
3,126

144.1
125.4
125.5
98.0

665
713
658
684

117.9
126.4
116.6
121.2

48
49
50
5J
52

7,219
5,127
5,212
5,950
7,421

112.7
80.0
81.4
92.9
115.9

3,457
2,379
2,942
2,754
4,060

108.4
74.6
92.2
86.3
127.3

762
479
275
554
586

135.1
84.9
48.7
98.2
103.9

August.

1
2
3

September..

4

January.
February..

May..
June..

July..
Total.




333,056

1

6,405

165,901
100.0

3,190

29,336
100.0

564

100.0

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS*

42

CHART N o. 6.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY W EE K LY
PAY BOLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 13 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE HOUSEDRESS AND KIMONO INDUSTRY AND IN 3 LARGE AND 3 SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS—
NEW YORK CITY.

PER
CENT

1913
AUC SEPT OCT'

N tW DiX

"Ti1
1

£60
iSO

S

/ f/
/>

n

3

a

f*J
x t

Aw

f yf

//V I
IW J
jM
W
B it

C
Q
70

OU

ji*
k
50

w

V
w )

p

A

\i

V

i

:
-

p/t

&

1
f
I
1
I 1
w f

k
m .jA

Q

\\ y7
P

&
r v
y *

JUNE JULY

TTT
i

\
'j1A

/a yt
/ iM
It /%
//V

wr
a

a9/5
J!a n r EB A4AR X PR i
1

i
j
!•

\

-i

*

W

0

m ft
imt
V
'i
; * w

'

STRIKE

20
10

ALL ESTABLISHMENTS— LARGE ESTABLISHMENTS— SMALL ESTABL£SHMENTS-*~
WOMEN’S CUSTOM -TAILORING INDUSTRY.1

Although this report concerns itself chiefly with the women’s readyto-wear garment industries, it was deemed advisable, for purposes of
comparison, to secure information for a representative number of
establishments in the women’s custom-tailoring industry. The fig­
ures in Table 16 and Chart No. 7 accompanying it represent pay
rolls for all productive labor of four more or less representative large
establishments manufacturing women’s high-grade garments—cloaks,
suits, dresses, gowns, wraps, etc.—to order. In these establishments
individual customers have the privilege of selecting not only the
materials and designs, but also the specific fitter, cutter, and tailors.
These establishments are to this country what certain celebrated
dressmakers of Paris are to France, and are turning out women’s
clothing of the most expensive variety and are also to a certain extent
creators of models.
It is believed that this industry, from the point of view of seasonal
fluctuations of employment, is very extreme; that is, in no allied
industry are seasonal fluctuations of employment so great, pay rolls
at the busiest point so large, and the pay rolls at the lowest point so
small.
1 The garments usually made by custom tailors are of the highest grade in women’s wear and include
cloaks, suits, opera cloaks, evening gowns, waists, and dresses. The materials used are of the most expen­
sive varieties and include serge, worsted, cheviots, pongee, linen, voile, taffeta, whipcord, broadcloth,
tweed, silk, satin crdpe, velvet, velours, and furs.




REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— W O M E N 's GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

43

The information secured shows that the seasonal fluctuations of
employment in this industry for the year under consideration were
as follows: The first busy period began about the third week in Sep­
tember and lasted until the middle of December. The climax of this
season occurred in October, when the pay rolls of the establishments
covered reached 195 per cent of the average weekly pay roll twice.
With November work began to decline from these high points, and
by the second week in December it had become normal, the pay roll
standing at exactly the average. The curve then sinks below the
normal and remains below for 12 weeks. With the beginning of
March the second busy season commences. This lasts 13 weeks.
Both the rise and the fall are a trifle more gradual than in the first
busy season, and the highest point reached is not quite so high, 184.2
per cent of the average weekly pay roll against 195.5 per cent reached
in October. The lowest point for the whole year is reached in the
first week of August, its pay roll being only 12.3 per cent of the
average.1 This gives a range of variation of 183.2 for the year, from:
12.3 per cent to 195.5 per cent. In other words, the volume of em­
ployment at the busiest point of the season was very nearly sixteen
times as great as at the dullest. If the pay roll for the first week of
August be taken as the standard, the pay roll for the last week of
October is represented by 1,589 per cent, an increase enormously
greater than is found in any of the industries heretofore considered.
T able 16.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W E E K L Y PAY
ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 4 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE WOMEN’S CUSTOM-TAILORING INDUSTRY OF NEW YO R K CITY, AUGUST,
1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.

(Average weekly pay roll for the years 100.)

Month.

W
eek
No

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay
roll.

Month.

Week
No.

Amount. Per cent.

Amount. Per cent.

August..

$842
1,189
1,402
2,041

12.3
17.3
20.4
29.7

January..

September.

2,377
3,342
6,371
9,246

34.6
48.7
92.8
134.6

February

October.

November.....................

December......................

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

10,080
12,306
13,418
12,779
13,424
10,949
10,297
9,548
8,298
7,533
6,871
6,087
5,625

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay
roll.

146.8 March....
179.2
195.4
186.1
195.5 April.....
159.4
150.0
139.0
120.8 May........
109.7
100.0
88.6
81.9

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

$4,656
3,635
4,359
4,932
5,157
5,361
5,210
3,754
4,318
6,203
8,541
9,706
10,251
11,727
12,652
12,262
11,732
10,997
10,004
9,742
8,061
7,687

* During this dull season some of the establishments shut down for a number of weeks.




67.8
52.9
63.5
71.8
75.1
78.1
75.9
54.7
62.9
90.3
124.4
141.3
149.3
170.8
184.2
178.6
170.8
160.1
145.7
141.9
117.4
111.9

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

44

T able 16.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K LY PAY
ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 4 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE WOMEN’S CUSTOM-TAILORING INDUSTRY OF NEW YO R K CITY, AUGUST,
1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE—Concluded.

Week
No.

Month.

Weekly amount and
percent of aver­
age weekly pay
roll.

Week
No.

Montli.

Amount. Percent, j
Jane...............................

44
45
46
47

$5,076
5,639
4,948
4,844

July...............................

48
49

3.728
2,369

73.9
82.1
72.1
70.5

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay
roll.
Amount. Per cent.

July (concluded).

54.3
34.5 {
I

50
51
52

$2,118
1,£57
1,449

Total....................

357,100

Average...............

6,867

30.8
28.5
21.1

100.0

Chart No. 7.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 4 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE WOMEN’S
CUSTOM-TAILORING INDUSTRY—NEW YORK CITY.

PN
CET
ER
2O
0
/0
S
/O
S
/0
7
/0
6
/O
S
/o
4
n0
/0
2
I/
O
/0
O
O
9
S
O
7
0
S
O
S
O
4
0
S
O
2
0
/
O

/ t2
9
A 93
AC S f* Oir AiWDV Jlw £ A R/ /R yMYJ N w r
V‘ £ T C / AC
A
>B 4 > P A ,U E a
t'^'3
i> 4 ^~3
4^4 .
'4

i
/
/
I
I

r

J

/I
J

rA w
\L
V ,

.

CHICAGO.
GROWTH OF WOMEN'S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

The following table shows the growth of these industries during
the last census decade:
T abli: 17.—GROWTH OF WOMEN’S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES IN
CHICAGO, 1899 TO 1909.
[Figures taken from Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IX , p. 286.]

Onsns.

IS O
O .................................
1;K .
)4.
laOj....*...........................................




Number
Wage
earners,
cf es­
tablish­ average
ments. number.
151
171
204

3,988
4,308
5,615

Capital.

Wages.

Cost of
materials.

Value cf
products.

$2,793,000
3,304,000
5,193,000

$1,400,000
2,a83,000
2,997,000

14,685,000
6,011,000
8,658,000

$9,208,000
.1*1,637,000
15,677,000

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT---- W OM EN'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

45

The rate of increase for the different items was as follows: Number
of establishments, 35 per cent; average number of wage earners, 41 per
cent; value of products, 70 per cent; capital, 86 per cent; cost of mate­
rials, 85 per cent; and wages, 114 per cent. By comparison with the
table on page 14, it will be seen that in each instance the rate of in­
crease for the industry in Chicago was less than for the industry as a
whole, the minimum difference being found in the rate of increase of
wages. The tendency toward concentration appears rather strongly,
the increase in number of establishments and in average number of
wage earners being relatively much less than in the other items.
SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT.
SUMMARY.

Table 18 and the chart accompanying it show seasonal fluctuations
of employment in the leading women’s garment industries in the city
of Chicago.
In order to form some judgment as to the relative regularity of
employment in these industries, the same tests were applied as in the
case of the New York industries—the range of variation above and
below the average weekly pay roll, the length of time a specified
divergence exists and the frequency of sudden and violent fluctua­
tions. Bringing together these details for the different industries,
the following table is obtained:
T a b l e 1 8.—IRREGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN WOMEN’S READY-TO-WEAR GAR-

MENT INDUSTRIES OF CHICAGO, AS MEASURED B Y THREE DIFFERENT STAND­
ARDS.
[This table is based on data shown in Table 19, the range of variation being percentages of the average
weekly pay roll for the year.)

Industry.
Low
point.

Cloaks and suits..............1................
Dresses and waists............................
Dresses and skirts.............................
Skirts only.........................................
House dresses and kimonos..............
Petticoats...........................................

38.5
69.8
69.5
50.3
56.8
68.0

High
point.

145.2
127.8
134.9
141.0
130.5
132.7

Num­
ber of
weeks
in
which
a varia­
tion
of at
Below. Above. Total. least 20
points
occur­
red.
Number of weeks in
whichjpay roll varied
by at least 20 points
from average.

Variation for year.

Range.

106.7
58.0
65.4
90.7
73.7
64.7

14
5
8
11
4
9

16
8
5
6
8
10

30
13
13
17
12
19

6
2
2
6
3

Averaging the numerical position of each industry under these
different details gives the following order, beginning with the most
irregular:
1. Cloaks and suits.
2. Skirts.
3. House dresses and kimonos; petticoats.
4. Dresses and skirts.
5. Dresses and waists.



46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

This presents some variations from the ranking for the New York
industries (see p. 25). In Chicago, as in New York, the manu­
facture of cloaks and suits shows more irregularity of employment
than any of the other industries dealing with ready-made gar­
ments. But the manufacture of dresses and waists, which in New
York stands fourth in irregularity, is in Chicago the most regular
of the six considered. The house-dress and kimono industry holds
the same rank in both cities. The other lines of manufacture are
hardly comparable. No absolute explanation can be given for the
greater steadiness of the dress and waist, industry in Chicago as
compared with New York, but it is probably due to the greater
importance of the industry in New York and the comprehensive
character of the investigation made there. In the clothing trades
there is a great tendency toward small shops, in which, as has
been already demonstrated, employment is less regular than in the
large. Naturally the more conspicuous an industry is, the more
likely it is to attract the man who can put in only a little capital, if,
as is the case in the clothing trade, he can thereby gain a foothold in
it. Therefore, in New York, where the manufacture of dresses and
waists is immensely more important than in Chicago, the small shops
with their extreme fluctuations in regularity of employment are prob­
ably correspondingly more numerous. The average annual pay roll
per shop of those investigated was, in New York, $35,777, in Chicago,
$33,734. This is not a wide difference, but while it is evident that in
Chicago this average can not conceal many divergences, the data
given for New York 1 shows that the divergences in each direction
were numerous and extreme. A number of the shops investigated
employed only a few workers relatively, i. e., were small shops, and
this brings up the degree of irregularity for the whole trade.
Table 19 and Chart No. 8 show that the industries in Chicago have
the same four seasons, two busy and two dull, that were found in the
clothing trades studied in New York. In general, the spring busy
season represented the greatest and the winter dull season the smallest
amount of employment. In the manufacture of cloaks and suits,
the highest point of the pay roil is reached in October and in the manu­
facture of skirts in July. In all these industries the variation in
amount of employment at different seasons is pronounced. In the
manufacture of dresses and waists, where the variation is small,
the difference between the highest and lowest points of the pay roll
nevertheless amounts to more than half the average weekly pay roll,
and in the cloak and suit industry it amounts to more than the whole
average weekly pay roll.




i See Bulletin No. 146,

CHART NO. 8

WOMEN'S GARMENT TRADES - CHICAGO
SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY WEEKLY PAY ROLLS
FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR
[ average

CLOAKS SUITS AND SKIRTS
DRESSES AND SKIRTS



w e ek ly

pay

ro ll

for

th e

year

= ioo ]

DRESSES AND WAISTS

HOUSE DRESSES WRAPPERS AND KIMONOS

SKIRTS

PETTICOATS

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

47

Table 19.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K LY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN 6 OF THE WOMEN’S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES, CHICAGO, AUGUST,
1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.
[This table is based on data from 14 establishments in the cloak and suit industry, 10 establishmentsin the
dress and waist industry, 3 establishments in the dress and skirt industry, 2 establishments in the skirt
industry, 3 establishments in the house-dress and kimono industry, and 3 establishments in the petticoat
industry.]

(Average weekly pay roll for the year=*100.)
Per cent of average weekly pay roll in the—
Month.

Week
No.

HouseCloak
Dress
Dress
Skirt dress and Petticoat
and suit and waist and skirt
kimono
industry. industry. industry. industry. industry. industry.

1
2
3
4

97.4
123.9
140.5
136.3

73.1
77.2
82.8
84.6

121.6
116.9
105.0
109.0

110.0
109.1
111.7
120.8

83.1
85.1
87.0
89.0

98.1
101.6
107.0
98.4

5
6
7
8

130.0
106.0
102.1
113.8

82.7
77.1
80.7
85.2

100.6
78.0
77.4
98.5

114.5
96.5
109.1
112.3

89.5
84.1
76.6
88.5

105.8
85.1
95.3
95.3

October..............................................

9
10
11
12
13

133.0
130.4
135.4
145.2
132.8

93.7
92.4
93.9
93.5
95.7

107.5
107.1
112.3
115.4
96.3

119.3
109.7
103.2
93.2
67.5

93.6
"99.5
97.1
93.9
90.3

109.5
111.0
98.0
95.9
99.9

November..........................................

14
15
16
17

115.4
97.3
79.6
70.0

98.4
94.4
93.2
90.6

90.4
91.1
75.9
70.8

50.7
50.3
53.6
60.7

87.1
97.5
96.0
93.1

96.8
94.0
94.9
92.8

December...........................................

18
19
20
21

62.6
59.7
60.3
48.1

81.0
85.8
86.5
84.0

69.5
70.8
83.4
93.2

61.2
57.0
69.2
79.5

91.0
81.7
99.0
97.1

85.8
104.2
114.3
122.0

January..............................................

22
23
24
25
26

38.5
44.1
69.6
97.3

69.8
75.8
90.1
106.7
116.7

76.7
91.3
109.9
103.3
110.4

73.0
73.0
91.2
94.1
103.7

87.2
56.8
79.8
102.0
104.3

108.2
91.2
116.4
129.5
118.9

February............................................

27
28
29
30

110.2
117.1
124.8
132.0

115.4
121.8
124.7
122.0

125.2
119.6
134.6
133.6

101.8
104.5
116.6
127.8

112.0
108.4
112.8
113.8

124.5
124.7
129.2
132.7

March.................................................

31
32
33
34

135.1
139.6
140.9
136.1

120.8
123.9
127.8
124.9

118.6
134.9
119.1
111.0

128.2
120.3
111.7
103.7

115.3
116.0
120.3
117.1

127.1
124.6
125.9
123.7

April..................................................

35
36
37
38

116.7
126.2
104.1
92.3

122.5
116.1
112.4
112.9

109.1
110.1
102.8
92.7

107.7
111.0
119.6
115.7

115.8
130.5
129.4
124.5

118.5
95.1
98.6
87.6

39
40
41
42
43

72.3
80.9
63.6
58.8
60.5

112.1
115.4
112.1
114.1
115.8

89.1
88.5
87.6
85.2
87.3

114.3
112.8
115.7
110.5
101.0

123.9
125.0
123.5
122.8
119.5

81.9
76.7
73.8
79.6
75.7

44
45
46
47

61.3
83.0
85.5
89.3

100.3
108.1
110.3
107.8

86.1
86.8
94.3
92.6

94.3
99.1
100.0
103.3

81.2
94.0
106.8
103.1

69.2
68.0
84.5
86.1

48
49
50
51
52

92.8
90.4
107.8
119.2
109.5

95.2
85.5
94.7
96.5
101.0

98.4
79.8
95.6
115.2
118.6

100.2
109.2
105.5
130.2
141.0

90.7
70.7
95.2
93.2
102.9

79.9
70.3
79.5
95.7
96.8

August....................................... ........

June....................................................

,..............




ai.3

48

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
CLOAK AND SUIT INDUSTRY.

Next in importance to the cities of New York and Cleveland in the
output of cloaks is the city of Chicago. In this inquiry the pay rolls
of 14 representative establishments, amounting to about $1,000,000,
were secured. The combined value of the annual output of these
establishments is estimated at considerably over $4,000,000.
The fluctuations of employment in the cloak and suit industry of
Chicago are similar to those of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of
New York, Table 20 and the chart accompanying it showing two pe­
riods of intense activity separated from each other by relatively long
periods of inactivity. The first period of intense activity for the
year under inquiry began in the early part of August and lasted until
about the first week of November. At the busiest point of this
season the combined pay rolls of the establishments exceeded the
average for the year by a little less than one-half, viz, 45.2 per cent
of the average. This period of intense activity was followed by the
dullest period of the year, lasting from about the beginning of Novem­
ber until about the middle of January, the point of lowest activity,
as registered by the pay rolls, having occurred in the first week in Janu­
ary. Manufacturing for the coming fall during the spring of 1913
began about the middle of January and reached its maximum point
in the middle of March, when the pay rolls mounted to a little over
140 per cent of the average. This busy spring season was then fol­
lowed by the second dull season of the year, lasting from about the
middle of April until the end of July.
For purposes of showing the relative regularity of employment in
the large and small shops of the industry, the pay rolls of five large
and of an equal number of small shops were combined. The total
annual pay roll of the five large establishments aggregated $677,632,
the average for the group having been about $135,000, as against a
total of $89,617, with an average of about $17,900, the respective
figures for the group of small establishments.
The results obtained, as shown in Table 20 and Chart No. 9,
indicate that during the months of August to December, 1912, rela­
tively larger amounts of employment were available in the larger
shops of the industry. On the other hand, the small shops seem to
have had relatively larger amounts of employment during the spring
and early summer of 1913, the aggregated pay rolls of the five small
establishments during the late part of March and the first part of
April having mounted to an altitude of 189 per cent of the average,
as against 145 per cent of the average for the large establishments
during the second week of March, the highest amount of employment
found in the large shops at this part of the year.
The range of variation was 149.6 for the small shops, as against
120.2 for the large; the number of weeks in which employment varied
by at least 20 points from the normal was 28 in the small shops, 34



REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN ’ & GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

49

in the large, and the number of times a variation of at least 20 points
within a single week occurred was for the small shops 12 and for the
large shops 7. In two of these three items the large shops make a
distinctly better showing than the small. Employment does not
show so wide a range of variation, nor are violent fluctuations so fre­
quent. On the whole, therefore, it appears safe to say that employ­
ment was more regular throughout the year in the large than in the
small shops of the industry.
T a b l e 2 0.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K LY

P A Y ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 14 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISH­
MENTS IN THE CLOAK AND SUIT INDUSTRY OF CHICAGO, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY,
1913, INCLUSIVE.
(Average weekly pay roll for the yew—100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay rolls in—
Month*

Week
No.

All shops (14).

Large shops (5).

Small shops (5).

Amount. Percent. Amount. Per cent. Amount. Percent.
1
2
3
4

$17,124
21,786
24,706
23,966

97.4
123.9
140.5
136.3

$13,602
17,876
20,372
19,153

104.4
137.2
156.3
147.0

$1,247
1,288
1,427
1,692

72.4
74.7
82.8
98.2

September..........................................

5
6
7
8

22.855
18,641
17,949
20,005

130.0
106.0
102.1
113.8

18,520
14,389
14.401
15,778

142.1
110.4
110.5
121.1

1,644
1,677
1,471
1,710

95.9
97.3
85.4
99.2

October...............................................

9
10
11
12
13

23,393
22,936
23,807
25,533
23,347

133.0
130.4
135.4
145.2
132.8

17,861
17,376
17,675
19,247
16,964

137.1
133.3
135.6
147.7
130.2

2,064
1,860
2,234
2,129
2,141

119.8
107.9
129.6
123.5
124.2

November..........................................

14
15
16
17

20,288
17,116
13,994
12,311

115.4
97.3
79.6
70.0

14,528
12,214
9,281
8,067

111.5
93.7
71.2
61.9

1,948
1,495
1,334
1,085

113.0
86.7
77.4
63.0

December...........................................

18
19
20
21

11,001
10,502
10,600
8,450

62.6
59.7
60.3
48.1

7,700
7,770
7,814
6,111

59.1
59.6
60.0
46.9

790
857
1,004
1,014

45.8
49.7
58.3
58.8

January..............................................

22
23
24
25
26

6,763
7,748
12,243
14,289
17,105

38.5
44.1
69.6
81.3
97.3

4,710
5,955
8,853
10,266
12,621

36.1
45.7
68.0
78.8
96.9

894
685
1,285
1,449
1,689

51.9
39.7
74.6
84.1
98.0

February............................................

27
28
29
30

19,376
20,588
21,939
23,205

110.2
117.1
124.8
132.0

14,574
15,560
16,452
17,578

111.8
119.4
126.3
134.9

1,691
1,875
1,986
1,889

98.1
108.8
115.2
109.6

March.................................................

31
32
33
34

23,752
24,541
24,770
23,931

135.1
139.6
140.9
136.1

18,030
18,952
17,533
16,342

138.4
145.4
134.5
125.4

2,349
2,327
2,822
3,043

136.3
135.0
163.7
176.6

April...................................................

35
36
37
38

20,513
22,187
18.308
16)237

116.7
126.2
104.1
92.3

13,183
14,763
11,371
9,844

101.2
113.3
87.3
75.5

3,170
3,262
2,824
2,633

183.9
189.3
163.9
152.8

May.....................................................

39
40
41
42
43

12,705
14,224
11,190
10,346
10,646

72.3
80.9
63.6
58.8
60.5

7,262
9,685
7,663
6,883
7,157

55.7
74.3
58.8
52.8
54.9

2,280
2,033
1,515
1,566
1,176

132.3
118.0
87.9
90.9
68.2

7001°—Bull. 183—1C------i



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

50

T a b l e 20.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W E E K L Y

PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 14 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISH­
MENTS IN THE CLOAK AND SUIT INDUSTRY OF CHICAGO, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY,
1913, INCLUSIVE—Concluded.

Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay rolls inMonth.

Week
No.

All shops (14).

Large shops (5).

Small shops (5).

Amount. Percent. Amount. Percent. Amount. Percent.
June..

$10,777
14.590
15,033
15,096

$7,740
10,971
11,035
11,841

59.4
81.2
84.7
90.9

16,322
15,895
18,953
20,962
19,259

July.

61.3
83.0
85.5
89.3
92.8
90.4
107.8
119.2
109.5

13.685
13,286
15,582
16,485
15,071

119.6
126.5
115.7

Total-----

914,403

Average..

17,585

105.0

102.0

677,632

100.0

13,031

$1,200
1,182
1,434
1,218

69. C
68.6
83.2
70.7

1,048
1,481
1,574
2,054
1,872

60.8
85.9
91.3
119.2
108.6

89,617

100.0

1,723

100.0

HART No. 9.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K LY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 14 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE CLOAK
AND SUIT INDUSTRY AND IN 5 LARGE AND 5 SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS—CHICAGO.

ALL ESTABLISHMENTS—

LAM E ESTABLISHMENTS™ SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS—
DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY.

Information was secured from 10 representative establishments
manufacturing dresses and waists, the total combined pay rolls of
which were considerably over $300,000. The seasons of the year
in the dress and waist industry of Chicago were to a certain extent
like those in the coat and suit industry in the same city, although the



REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN’ s GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

51

fluctuations from week to week were not so marked; that is, the
pay rolls in the busy seasons, as compared with the average for the
year, were not as large and the pay rolls of the dull seasons not as
low. Employment in the dress and waist industry was more equally
distributed about the average week.
The fall busy season, in which manufacturing was done for the com­
ing spring, began late in September and lasted well into November.
The spring busy season was much longer, beginning in January and
lasting throughJune, and also muchbusier, thopayrollremaming above
the average for the whole period, whereas in the fall busy season it
never quite reached the average. The busiest week of the year
occurred in the middle of March (week 33), when the combined pay
rolls of the 10 firms amounted to 127.8 per cent of the average. The
lowest points of the year, holidayweeks excluded, occurred duringweek
18, at the beginning of December, when the pay rolls fell to 81 per
cent of the average; during the first two weeks of August, when the
pay rolls were still lower, 73.1 and 77.2 per cent of the average;
and during week 6, when the pay roll was 77.1 per cent of the average.
From August until December the pay rolls of the s m a l l shops show
a considerably greater percentage of employment than prevailed in
the large. During 6 consecutive weeks of this time, while the pay
rolls of the large shops ranged from 15 to 23 points below normal,
those of the small shops ranged from 6 to 27 points above it. From
about the beginning of December until the second week in February,
the position is reversed, the large shops showing a greater percentage
of their normal pay r o l l . Then for some 7 weeks the s m a l l shops
take the lead, after which their pay rolls show a progressive diminu­
tion of employment, whereas in the large shops the busiest point of
the season is not reached until nearly two months later (week 43).
By the beginning of June the pay roll had sunk to 84 per cent of the
normal in the small shops, but in the large shops it remained at over
100 per cent until the first week in July.
In regard to regularity of employment, the two groups of shopsshow a curious similarity. The range of variation is almost the
same, 88.1 for the large and 88.7 for the small. The percentage of
employment varied from the normal by at least 20 per cent for a
longer period in the large than in the small shops, 26 weeks against
14, but, on the other hand, sudden and violent fluctuations were more
frequent in the small shops. *On the whole, employment seems to
have been rather more regular in the large shops, but the difference
is not marked.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

52

T a b l e 2 1 . — SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y PAY

ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 10 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY OF CHICAGO, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913,
INCLUSIVE.

(Average weekly pay ro!I for the year=100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay roll I n Month.

Week
No.

All shops.

Large shops.

Small shops.

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Percent. Amount. Percent.
August................................................

1
2
3
4

$4,744
5,010
5,375
5,489

73.1
77.2
82.8
84.6

$1,331
1,453
1,595
1,678

56.9
62.1
68.2
71.8

$643
683
720
772

82.2
87.4
92.1
98.7

September..........................................

5
6
7
8

5,367
5,001
5,239
5,527

82.7
77.1
80.7
85.2

1,734
1,692
1,714
1,699

74.2
72.4
73.3
72.7

811
723
740
780

103.7
92.5
94.6
99.8

October..............................................

9
10
11
12
13

6,082
5,998
6,095
6,066
6,209

93.7
92.4
93.9
93.5
95.7

1,820
1,797
1,878
1,832
1,898

77.8
76.9
80.3
78.4
81.1

999
974
878
881
852

127.8
124.6
112.3
112.7
109.0

November..........................................

14
15
16
17

6,383
6,123
6,049
5,880

98.4
94.4
93.2
90.6

1,979
1,965
1,935
1,984

84.6
84.0
82.8
84.9

835
739
708
626

106.8
94.5
90.5
80.1

December...........................................

18
19
20
21

5,256
5,564
5,615
5,451

81.0
85.8
86.5
84.0

1,886
2,221
2,223
2,236

80.7
95.0
95.1
95.6

613
649
664
620

78.4
83.0
84.9
79.3

January..............................................

22
23
24
25
26

4,598
4,916
5,844
6,921
7,570

69.8
75.8
90.1
106.7
116.7

1,963
2,090
2,334
2,319
2,562

84.0
89.4
99.8
99.2
109.6

561
431
446
714
821

71.7
55.1
57.0
91.3
105.0

February............................................

27
28
29
30

7,490
7,903
8,088
7,918

115.4
121.8
124.7
122.0

2,540
2,436
2,522
2,625

108.6
104.2
107.9
112.3

816
916
1,079
1,016

104.4
117.2
138.0
129.9

March.................................................

31
32
33
34

7,838
8,040
8,294
8,106

120.8
123.9
127.8
124.9

2,725
2,778
2,886
2,860

116.5
118.8
123.4
122.3

1,124
1,118
1,100
1,009

143.8
143.0
140.7
129.0

April...................................................

35
36
37
38

7,947
7,533
7,290
7,317

122.5
116.1
112.4
112.9

2,981
2,993
3,029
3,163

127.5
128.0
129.5
135.3

935
847
839
785

119.6
108.3
107.3
100.4

39
40
41
42
43

7,272
7,490
7,272
7,399
7,419

112.1
115.4
112.1
114.1
115.8

3,054
3,177
3,260
3,342
3,3.90

130.6
135.9
139.4
142.9
145.0

737
814
799
794
847

94.3
104.1
102.2
101.5
108.3

44
45
46
47

6,507
7,012
7,158
6,991

100.3
108.1
110.3
107.8

2,906
3,147
3,047
2,768

124.3
134.6
130.3
118.4

657
590
651
772

84.0
75.5
83.3
98.7

48
49
50
51
52

6,174
5,550
6,142
6,260
6,555

95.2
85.5
94.7
96.5
101.0

2,379
2,001
2,011
1,825
1,916

101.7
85.6
86.0
78.1
81.9

679
656
712
743
745

86.8
83.9
91.1
95.0
95.3

Total

................................

Average ...................................




6,487 I

40,663

121,579

337,337
100.0

2,338

100.0

782

100.0

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT---- WOMEN ’ & GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

53

Chart No. 10.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K LY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 10 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE DRESS
AND WAIST INDUSTRY AND IN SELECTED LARGE AND SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS—
CHICAGO.

SKIRTS, AND DRESSES AND SKIRTS.

The annual pay rolls of two establishments of medium size manu­
facturing skirts exclusively were secured. Table 22 and Chart No. 11
accompanying it show that, although the general tendencies of the sea­
sons in skirts are very similar to those in cloaks and suits, employment
in these two shops was somewhat more regular than in the 14 estab­
lishments manufacturing cloaks and suits; that is, as compared with
the average week of the year, the pay rolls in establishments making
skirts exclusively, during the busy periods do not mount as high and
during dull periods do not fall as low as in the cloak and suit industry.
Employment, generally speaking, appears to have been somewhat
more regularly distributed throughout the year, the reason for this
difference apparently having been the fact that in the manufacture
of skirts, to a somewhat greater extent than in coats and suits, manu­
facturing is done in advance of the sales.
The same, as shown in Table 23 and the chart accompanying it,
was apparently true of establishments in which the manufacturing
of skirts was combined with the manufacturing of dresses.




54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 2 2 .-SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y PAY

ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 2 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE SKIRT INDUSTRY OF CHICAGO, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.
(Average weekly pay roil for the year==100.)

Month.

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay
Week
roll.
No.

Month.

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay
Week
No.

Amount. Per cent.
August................... .

September.....................

October.......... .

November. . . . . . . . . . . . .

D e c e m b e r ..............

January.........................

February.......................

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

$2,040
2,022
2.071
2,240
2,123
1.789
2,022
2,082
2,211
2,034
1,914
1,727
1,251
940
933
993
1,126
1,135
1,056
1,283
1,473
1,354
1,354
1,690
1,745
1,922
1,888
1,938
2,162
2,370

110.0
109.1
111.7
120.8
114.5
96.5
109.1
112.3
119.3
109.7
103.2
93.2
67.5
50.7
50.3
53.6
60.7
61.2
57.0
69.2
79.5
73.0
73.0
91.2
94.1
103.7
101.8
104.5
116.6
127.8

Amount. Per cent.
March............................

May...............................

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

$2,376
2,231
2,070
1,923
1,996
2,057
2,217
2,144
2,119
2,092
2,144
2,048
1,872
1,749
1,837
1,853
1,915
1,858
2,025
1,955
2,413
2,613

Total....................

96,395

Average...............

1,854

128.2
120.3
111.7
103.7
107.7
111.6
119.6
115.7
114.3
112.8
115.7
110.5
101.0
94.3
99.1
100.0
103.3
100.2
109.2
105.5
130.2
141.0

100.0

C h ar t No. 11.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY W EEKLY

P AY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 2 ESTABLISHMENTS MANUFACTURING
SKIRTS ONLY—CHICAGO.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT---- WOMEN 9 GARMENT INDUSTRIES.
&

55

T able 2 3 .—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y PAY
ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 3 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE DRESS AND SKIRT INDUSTRY OF CHICAGO, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913,

(Average weekly pay roll for the year**100.)

Month.

Week
No.

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay

Month.

Week
No.

Amount. Percent.

Amount. Per cent.

October.........................

November....................

December......................

January..........................

February.......................

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

$1,554
1,493
1,342
1,392
1,285
997
989
1,258
1,373
1,368
1,435
1,474
1,230
1,155
1,164
970
905
888
905
1,065
1,191
980
1,167
1,416
1,320
1,411
1,599
1,528
1,719
1,707

121.6
116.9
105.0
109.0
100.6
78.0
77.4
98.5
107.5
107.1
112.3
115.4
96.3
90.4
91.1
75.9
70.8
69.5
70.8
83.4
93.2
76.7
91.3
109.9
103.3
110.4
125.2
119.6
134.6
133.6

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay
roll.

AprIL.............................

May................................

Jane...............................

July...............................

Total....................
Average...............

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

$1,515
1,723
1,521
1,418
1,394
1,407
1,313
1,184
1,138
1,131
1,119
1,089
1,116
1,100
1,109
1,205
1,183
1,257
1,020
1,221
1,472
1,515

118.6
134.9
119.1
111,0
109.1
110.1
102.8
92.7
89.1
88.5
87.6
85.2
87.3
86.1
86.8
94.3
92.6
98.4
79.8
95.6
115.2
118.6

66,430
1,278

100.0

CHART N o . 12.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEKLY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 3 ESTABLISHMENTS MANUFACTURING
DRESSES AND SKIRTS-CHICAGO.




56

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEATT OF LABOR STATISTICS.
HOUSE-DRESS AND KIMONO INDUSTRY.

As the United States Census of Manufactures does not classify
women’s ready-to-wear garment industries into specialized branches,
such as cloaks and suits, dresses and waists, children’s and misses’
dresses, etc., it was difficult to tell the precise proportion of each
specialized industry that is located in specific cities. It is known,
however, from personal observation and interviews with representa­
tive manufacturers, that the house-dress and kimono industry,
unlike the industries of cloaks and suits and dresses and waists,
is scattered throughout the country. There appears to be no specific
center of manufacturing for these garments. It was the opinion of
competent informants that the city of New York, without doubt the
most important women’s garment center of the country, produced
only between 15 and 20 per cent of the total output of house dresses
and kimonos.
The extent of manufacturing of house dresses and kimonos in the
city of Chicago, in terms of figures, is unknown. It was stated, how­
ever, by officers of the Chicago Women’s Garment Manufacturers’
Association that it probably is not over 10 per cent of the total output
of the United States.
In this inquiry pay-roll data was secured from three representative,
relatively large establishments, the owners of which are members of
the Chicago Women’s Garment Manufacturers’ Association.
Table 24 and the chart accompanying it show that, with the excep­
tion of the Christmas and Fourth of July weeks, employment,
measured in terms of the average week for the year, seldom fell below
80 per cent, and only in two instances exceeded 125 per cent, show­
ing that the range of variation was only one-fourth of the "normal”
(the average) in either direction. This relative regularity of employ­
ment, the employers maintained, should be ascribed chiefly to the
fact that in this industry, more than in any other branch of the
women’s wear industries, manufacturing is done “ for stock,” in
advance of sales.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W O M E N S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

57

T a b l e 24.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT, AS SHOWN B Y W EEK LY

PAY BOLLS FOB ALL PBODUCTIVE LABOB IN 3 REPBESENTATIVE ESTABLISH­
MENTS IN THE HOUSE-DBESS AND KIMONO INDUSTBY OF CHICAGO, AUGUST, 1912,
TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.

(Average weekly pay roll for the year= 100.)

Month.

Week
No.

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay

Month.

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver*
age weekly pay
Week
No.

Amount. Per cent.
August...........................

September.....................

October..........................

November....................

December....................

January..........................

February.......................

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

$1,242
1,273
1,300
1,330
1,338
1,257
1,145
1,323
1,399
1,487
1,452
1,404
1,350
1,302
1,458
1,436
1,392
1,360
1,222
1,480
1,451
1,304
849
1,193
1,525
1,560
1,674
1,621
1,687
1,701

83.1
85.1
87.0
89.0
89.5
84.1
76.6
88.5
93.6
99.5
97.1
93.9
90.3
87.1
97.5
96.0
93.1
91.0
81.7
99.0
97.1
87.2
56.8
79.8
102.0
104.3
112.0
108.4
112.8
113.8

Amount. Per cent.
M
forofr...................

April..............................

May...............................

June...............................

July...............................

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

$1,724
1,734
1,799
1,751
1,731
1,951
1,934
1,861
1,853
1,869
1,846
1,836
1,786
1,214
1,405
1,597
1,542
1,356
1,075
1,423
1,393
1,538

Total....................

77,733

Average...............

1,495

115.3
116.0
120.3
117.1
115.8
130.5
129.4
124.5
123.9
125.0
123.5
. 122.8
119.5
81.2
94.0
106,8
103.1
90.7
70.7
95.2
93.2
102.9

100.0

Ch a r t No. 13.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y WEEKLY

PAY BOLLS FOR ALL PBODUCTIVE LABOB IN 3 ESTABLISHMENTS MANUFACTURING
HOUSE DRESSES AND KIMONOS—CHICAGO.




58

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
PETTICOATS.

No establishment manufacturing petticoats exclusively was found.
The information showing the seasons in the manufacture of petti­
coats was secured from three establishments in which the manufac­
turing of petticoats is, to a certain extent, used as a means of equal­
izing employment during the slack periods in the dress and waist
industry.
This information, which is shown in Table 25 and Chart No. 14,
would seem to indicate that although, in a very vague way, the usual
two busy and two dull periods of the women's garment trades can
be discerned in the manufacture of petticoats, employment as com­
pared with the pay roll for the average week is fairly equally distrib­
uted throughout the year.
In the course oi the year under inquiry the pay rolls for the petti­
coat departments of the establishments concerned, holiday weeks
excepted, were one-third above the average during the busiest week,
number 30, in February, and about two-thirds of the average during
the dullest weeks of the year.
aS.-SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY WEEKLY
PAY BOLLS FOB ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 3 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISH­
MENTS IN THE PETTICOAT INDUSTRY OF CHICAGO, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913,
INCLUSIVE.
(Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.)

T able

Month.

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver*
age weekly pay
Week
roll.
No.

Month.

Week
No.

Amount. Percent.
August...........................

1
2
3
4

$857
887
934
859

98.1
101.6
107.0
98.4

September.....................

5
6
7
8

924
743
832
832

105.8
85.1
95.3
95.3

October..........................

9
10
11
12
13

956
969
864
837
872

November.....................

14
15
16
17

December......................

January

February.......................




Weekly amount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay

Amount. Percent.
Mftrqh...............

31
32
33
34

$1,110
1,088
1,099
1,080

127.1
124.6
125.9
123.7

April..............................

35
36
37
38

1,035
830
861
765

118.5
95.1
98.6
87.6

109.5
111.0
98.0
95.9
99.9

May...............................

39
40
41
42
43

715
670
644
695
661

81.9
76.7
73.8
79.6
75.7

845
821
829
810

96.8
94.0
94.9
92.8

June...............................

44
45
46
47

604
594
738
752

69.2
68.0
84.5
86.1

18
19
20
21

749
910
998
1,065

85.8
104.2
114.3
122.0

July........ ......................

22
23
24
25
26

945
796
1,016
1,131
1,038

108.2
91.2
116.4
129.5
118.9

48
49
50
51
52

698
614
694
836
845

79.9
70.3
79.5
95.7
96.8

27
28
29
30

1,087
1,089
1,128
1,159

124.5
124.7
129.2
132.7

Total....................

45,410

Average..............

873

100.0

BEGTJLABITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

59

Chart N o. 14.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OP EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY W EE K LY
PAY ROLLS FOB ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 3 ESTABLISHMENTS MANUFACTURING
PETTICOATS—CHICAGO.

PR
E
CN
ET
/
60
/O
S
f40
/O
S
/
20
N
O
1
00
so
so
70
60
S
O
40
SO
20
iO

/ 9/3

1912
A G S PT O t A0 D C J w /EB M
U E
Cr / V E
m
/
r^~4
r -'-'tJ^A

A
<

r 1A \ VN
A /\' *
V

/

V

\

UY
J A JVM? J L
HY
6~k'4 0 ^ *
*

aPR
1

A
\
\

V

\>

rsL
J V

r

>

/

CLEVELAND*
GROWTH OF WOMEN’S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

The following table giving statistics of the establishments engaged
in the manufacture of women's ready-to-wear garments in Cleveland
indicates the growth of that industry during the decade, 1899 to 1909:
T a b l e 2 6 .—GROWTH

OF WOMEN'S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES IN
CLEVELAND, 1899 TO 1909.
[Figures from Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IX , p. 977.J

Census.

77
78
96

2,362
3,394
5,41*

Capital.

Wages.

ill

1899...................................................
1904...................................................
1909...................................................

Number Wage
of estab­ earners,
lish­
average
ments. number.

Cost of
materials.

1842,000 $2,445,000
1,682,000 3.796.000
2,903,000 6.496.000

Value of
products.

$4,213,000
7,428,000
12,789,000

During the census decade 1899 to 1909 the women’s garment indus­
tries of Cleveland increased as follows: Number of establishments,
25 per cent; average number of wage earners, 129 per cent; cost of
materials, 166 per cent; value of products, 204 per cent; capital,
209 per cent; wages, 245 per cent. It is interesting to note that the
per cent of increase in the number of establishments was relatively
small, in spite of the fact that the value of the output had trebled.




60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OP EMPLOYMENT.
SUMMARY.

Table 28 and the accompanying chart show the fluctuations of
employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt and in the dress and waist
industries of Cleveland during the year covered. These industries
resemble those already studied in New York in that for each the
year consists of two busy seasons separated from each other by
periods of comparative dullness, but differ in the greater regularity
of employment they offer. The relative regularity, as shown by the
three tests already discussed, is as follows:
Table 2 7 .—COMPARATIVE REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN CLOAK, SUIT, AND
SKIRT INDUSTRY AND DRESS AND WAIST
CLEVELAND.

INDUSTRY, NEW YO R K CITY AND

New York.

Items.

Bange of variation in per cent of average weekly pay roll for the year...
Number of weeks showing variation of at least 20 points above or below
average.....................................................................................................
Number of sudden and violent fluctuations (20 per cent or over in 1 week)

Cleveland.

Cloak. Dress Cloak,
Dress
suit,
suit,
and
and
ana
ana
waist
waist
skirt indus­ skirt indus­
indus­
indus­
try.
try.
try.
try.
121.2
38
8

84.6

74.1

17
2

21
2

67.4
9
1

The greater steadiness of employment in the Cleveland industries
is apparent. One cause for this has already been discussed, the
degree of specialization in New York, which makes for greater irreg­
ularity. Another important cause is the difference in the method of
disposing of the manufactured product. Now York City is, as far as
women’s garments are concerned, what is technically called a
“ buying” market; that is, the goods are sold on the premises of the
manufacturer to buyers who come for the purpose of purchasing.
Cleveland, on the other hand, is a “ selling” market; that is, the
goods are disposed of by traveling salesmen who secure orders from
buyers outside the city. These salesmen make every effort to secure
orders as far in advance of the season as possible, a method that
diminishes the manufacturer’s risk and tends to regularize production.
As between the two industries, the differences are much greater in
New York than in Cleveland, but in both cases the manufacture of
dresses and waists shows greater regularity than that of cloaks and
suits. Chart No. 15 shows that while in Cleveland the range of
variation does not differ greatly, employment is on the whole more
evenly distributed about the average in the manufacture of dresses
and waists. Sudden and violent fluctuations were not in this city
characteristic of either industry.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

61

Table 28.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEK LY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN 2 OF THE WOMEN’S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES, CLEVELAND,
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.
[This table is based on data from IS establishments in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry and 0 establish­
ments in the dress and waist industry.]

(Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.)
Per cent of averare
weekly pay roll in
the—
Week
No.

Month.

September.. . ............

October............ .........

November..................

December...................

January... . . . . . . . . . . .

107.8
116.8
114.4
107.4
94.8
87.9
94.4
90.8
90.9
104.5
109.1
114.5
112.2
105.0
94.9
78.8
65.4
60.9
69.4
74.9
62.3
63.5
65.7
87.2
103.4
117.2

Week
No.

Month.

Cloak,
Dress
and
suit, and
waist
skirt
industry. industry.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

August.......................

Per cent of average
weekly pay roll in
the—

February...................

98.6
97.2
100.0
105.1
83.2
69.3
78.7
88;6
94.0
97.8
96.9
98.6
100.1
95.4
100.2
91.5
99.7
102.3
99.8
100.4
104.1
98.0
96.1
83.7
102.6
109.6

March.........................

June...........................

July............................

Cloak,
Dress
suit, and
and
skirt
waist
industry. industry.

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

118.1
128.1
131.1
133.9
135.0
132.1
125.4
98.3
99.7
100.8
94.5
78.4
72.7
64.8
79.9
85.5
92.5
95.5
104.4
111.3
110.5
108.2
116.0
122.6
133.3
132.4

103.4
116.4
119.5
118.3
125.9
120.9
116.3
120.5
115.7
112.4
111.3
102.6
112.1
113.5
113.5
113.3
105.2
104.7
109.5
97.1
78.7
73.6
58.5
68.5
85.3
90.6

Chart No. 15.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K LY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 2 PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES MANUFAC­
TURING WOMEN'S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENTS—CLEVELAND.

PER
CENT

ZO/2
Ai/G SEPT OCT A iW Okr
/

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a Q S /EB A4ARA%
A T
MAY 7VNE j u iy
PR 4
$ -''3

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HO
S
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a

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90
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/V

V n
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A

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—

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«

In
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30
ZO
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ciQAK.su/TAHo S M * rw w s T R r— ~




MESSaxv MUST /MK/STRT-~

"

62

BULLETIN OF THE BTXBEAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.
CLOAK. SU IT , AND SKIRT INDUSTRY.

In this investigation the pay rolls for all productive labor were
secured from 18 establishments, the total output of which is esti­
mated to have constituted approximately 85 per cent of the total
output of cloaks, suits, and skirts of the city of Cleveland.
There were two periods of great activity in the cloak, suit, and
skirt industry at Cleveland during the year of inquiry. The first
of these began about the end of July, 1912, and lasted until about
the end of August. This was followed by a period of about one
month of "subnormal” activity. In the beginning of October a
busy season, lasting until the beginning of November, followed.
The period of lowest activity occurred between weeks 15 and 25,
from the middle of November to about the middle of January. This
dull period was followed by the most intense activity of the year, the
so-called spring season, lasting from about the middle of January to
about the end of March.
The comparison of fluctuations of employment in representative
groups of large and small shops, as shown in Table 29 and Chart No.
16, seems to reveal the absence of the usual fall busy season in the
smaller shops of the industry, the total pay rolls of which at no point
during the months of August to December, 1912, reached the so-called
normal, the average of the year. During the same period the pay
rolls of the large shops, in most instances, show amounts of employ-^
ment considerably in excess of their average for the year. The spring
busy season of 1913 commenced about two weeks earlier in the small
shops, but terminated proportionately sooner, ther<j appearing little
variation in the relative amounts of employment found in each of the
groups of shops during this season.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

63

T a b l e 2 9 . — SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS

SHOWN BY W EEKLY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 18 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISH­
MENTS IN THE CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY OF CLEVELAND, AUGUST, 1912,
TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.
(Average weekly pay roll for the year—100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Week
No.

All shops.

Large shops.

Smo.ll shops..

Amount. Percent. Amount. Percent. Amount. Per cent.
August................................................

1
2
3
4

$38,205
41,408
40,564
38,081

107.8
116.8
114.4
107.4

$28,840
33-, 027
31,224
31,267

113.1
129.5
122.4
122.6

$1,949
1,941
1,979
2,109

86.4
80.1
87.7
93.5

September..........................................

5
6
7
8

33,601
31,162
33,467
32,178

94.8
87.9
94.4
90.8

26,056
26,510
23,954
23,895

102.2
104.0
94.0
93.7

1,919
1,595
1,405
1,639

85.1
70.7
66.3
72.7

October...............................................

9
10
11
12
13

32,230
37,059
38,671
40,572
39,755

90.9
104.5
109.1
114.5
112.2

24,581
26,244
25,967
27,579
26,877

96.4
102.9
101.8
108.2
105.4

1,710
1,944
2,052
2,227
2,134

75.8
86.2
91.0
98.7
94.6

14
15
16
17

37,222
33,651
27,928
23,169

105.0
94.9
78.8
65.4

27,033
24,604
19,444
16,404

106.0
96.5
76.3
64.3

1,986
1,912
1,720
1,477

88.1
84.8
70.3
65.5

December...........................................

18
19
20
21

21,573
24,617
26,550
22,074

60.9
69.4
74.9
62.3

12,437
14,931
14,838
14,351

48.8
58.6
58.2
56.3

1,651
1,850
1,759
1,725

73.2
82.0
78.0
76.5

January..............................................

22
23
24
25
26

22,515
23,310
30,920
36,667
41,552

63.5
65.7
87.2
103.4
117.2

13,462
13,468
19,060
23,701
28,430

52.8
52.8
74.7
92.9
111.5

1,613
2,170
2,974
3,236
3,211

71.5
96.2
131.9
143.5
142.4

February........................ ............

27
28
29
30

41,853
45,417
46,487
47,471

118.1
128.1
131.1
133.9

28,301
30,746
31,848
33,208

111.0
120.6
124.9
130.2

3,307
3,265
3,070
2,989

146.6
144.8
136.1
132.5

March.................................................

31
32
33
34

47,874
46,814
44,462
34,837

135.0
132.1
125.4
98.3

34,273
36,097
34,595
29,148

134.4
141.6
135.7
114.3

2,633
2,716
2,720
2,672

116.7
120.4
120.6
118.5

April...................................................

35
36
37
38

35,358
35,722
33,493
27,800

99.7
100.8
94.5
78.4

25,897
26,096
22,965
18,055

101.6
102.3
90.1
70.8

2,355
2,299
2,311
2,315

104.4
101.9
102.5
102.6

May....................................................

39
40
41
42
43

25,769
22,964
28,342
30,312
32,930

72.7
64.8
79.9
85.5
92.5

15,757
13,824
19,111
23,784
23,777

61.8
54.2
74.9
93.3
93.2

2,004
1,978
2,033
2,221
1,888

88.9
87.7
90.1
93.5
83.7

June....................................................

44
45
46
47

33,856
37,021
39,468
39,191

95.5
104.4
111.3
110.5

26,761
27,715
30,513
29,013

104.9
108.7
119.7
113.8

1,536
2,107
2,671
2,775

68.1
93.4
118.4
123.0

48
49
50
51
52

38,376
41,123
43,467
47,268
46,919

108.2
116.0
122.6
133.3
132.4

29,320
29,962
34,193
36,056
36,750

115.0
117.5
134.1
141.4
144.1

2,465
2,433
2,573
3,099
2,863

109.3
107.9
.114.1
137.4
126.9

Total.......................................

1,843,295

Average.....................................

35,448




117,275

1,325,949
100.0

25,499

100.0

2,255

100.0

64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Chart N o. 16.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OP EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K LY
PAY BOLLS FOB ALL PBODUCTIVE LABOB IN 18 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE CLOAK,
SUIT, AND SKIBT INDUSTBY AND IN SELECTED LARGE AND SMALL ESTABLISH­
MENTS—CLEVELAND.

DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTBY.

The period covered in this industry, for reasons explained else­
where, was from May, 1913, through April, 1914. For purposes of
comparison this information has been arranged to show changes in
employment for one year of 52 weeks from August, 1913, through
April, 1914, and from May, 1913, through July, 1913, pay-roll data
having been secured from six representative establishments engaged
in the manufacturing of dresses and waists. The total pay roll of
these shops amounted to over $300,000, and the value of their total
output was estimated at considerably over three-fourths of a million
dollars.
Table 30 and chart accompanying it show that fluctuations of em­
ployment in the dress and waist industry of Cleveland seem to have
been considerably less pronounced than in any of the similar indus­
tries in the cities of New York and Chicago. Hie point of most in­
tense activity in the dress and waist industry of Cleveland during the
year of inquiry occurred between weeks 25 and 46, during the months
of February, March, April, May, and June. The least amount of
employment was found in the months of July and September, the
respective sizes of the pay rolls in terms of percentage of the average
for the year having been: 125.9 per cent during week 31, early in
March, and the busiest of the entire year, and 58.5 during the second
week of July, the dullest of the year.



REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN ’ & GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

65

T a b l e 3 0 .— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y

P AY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 6 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY OF CLEVELAND, MAY, 1913, TO APRIL,

(Average weekly pay roll for the year—100.)

Month.

Weeklyamount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay
Week roll.
No.
Amount. Per cent.

October.........................

November.............

December......................

January.........................

February.......................

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

$5,776
5,698
5,863
6,160
4,876
4,060
4,614
5,193
5,510
5,734
5,681
5,779
5,868
5,590
5,873
5,364
5,845
5,998
5,848
5,886
6,101
5,743
5,632
4,906
6,015
6,426
6,061
6,819
7,005
6,933

98.6
97.2
100.0
105.1
83.2
69.3
78.7
88.6
94.0
97.8
96.9
98.6
100.1
95.4
100.2
91.5
99.7
102.3
99.8
100.4
104.1
98.0
96.1
83.7
102.6
109.6
103.4
116.4
119.5
118.3

Month.

May...............................

July...............................

Total....................
Average............

Weekly amount and
per cent of aver­
age weekly pay
Week roll.
No.
Amount. Percent.
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

$7,381
7,084
6,816
7,060
6,781
6,587
6,520
6,015
6,571
6.650
6.650
6,639
6,167
6,138
6,415
5,693
4,613
4,312
3,426
4,017
4,999
5,309

125.9
120.9
11C. 3
120.5
115.7
112.4
111.3
102.6
112.1
113.5
113.5
113.3
105.2
104.7
m s
97.1
78.7
73.6
58.5
C8.5
85.3
90.6

304,700
5,860

100.0

Chart No. 17.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEKLY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 6 ESTABLISHMENTS MANUFACTURING
DRESSES AND WAISTS—CLEVELAND.

7001°—Bull. 183—ie — 5



66

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

BOSTON.
GROWTH OP WOMEN’S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

The increase in number of establishments and wage earners and
in total capital invested, wages paid, cost of materials, and value of
products in the women’s garment industries of Boston is shown for
the period 1899 to 1909 in the following table:
T a b l e 8 1.—GROWTH

OF WOMEN'S READY-TO-WEAR
BOSTON, 1899 TO 1909.

GARMENT INDUSTRIES

IN

[figures taken from Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IX , p. 523.]

Census.

1899...................................................
1904................. ................................
1909...................................................

Number
Wage
of estab­ earners,
lish­
average
ments. number.
88
99
122

1,760
2,733
3,540

Capital.

Wages.

Cost of
materials.

$731,000
1,668,000
2,409,000

$625,000
1.073.000
1.649.000

$1,764,000
3.147.000
4.306.000

Value of
products.

$3,258,000
5.705.000
7.842.000

During the census decade 1899 to 1909 the women's garment indus­
tries of Boston increased as follows: Number of establishments, 39
per cent; average number of wage earners, 101 per cent; value of
products, 141 per cent; cost of materials, 144 per cent; wages, 164
per cent; capital, 230 per cent.
SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT.
SUMMARY.

In this section information is presented for the largest part of the
industries of cloaks, suits and skirts, and dresses and waists of the
city of Boston, information of the seasonal fluctuations of employ­
ment having been secured from 10 representative establishments
manufacturing cloaks, suits, and skirts, and 20 establishments manu­
facturing dresses and waists. An examination of Chart No. 18, rep­
resenting the two industries, shows that employment is far more
regular in establishments manufacturing dresses and waists than in
those manufacturing cloaks, suits, and skirts.
T a b l e 32.-S IZ E S OF PAY ROLLS AT SIGNIFICANT POINTS OF

THE YEAR IN TWO
OF THE WOMEN'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES OF BOSTON, SHOWN IN PERCENTAGES
OF AVERAGE W EEK LY PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR FOR THE YEAR.

[Data for cloak, suit, and skirt industry are for August, 1912, to July, 1913, inclusive; for dress and
waist industry, for May, 1913, to April, 1914, inclusive.]
Per cent of average weekly pay roll at—
Industry.

Cloaks, suits, and skirts..........................t __
Dresses and waists........................................

Busiest point, Dullest point, Busiest point, Dullest point,
winter,
fall, 1912.
spring, 1913. summer, 1913.
1912-13.
134.5
114.9

155.6
74.5

146.6
120.0

* 78.8
74.5

1 The sudden drop in the pay rolls during weeks 31 and 32, March, 1913, was not of seasonal origin, but
was due chiefly to a general strike that took place in the industry of that city during that period,
s Holiday weeks omitted from consideration.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN ’ s GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

67

The largest amounts of employment in the two industries of Bos­
ton were found during the spring, when the respective pay rolls of
the cloak and suit and of the dress and waist industries, in terms of
the average for the year, amounted to 146.6 and 120, respectively.
The smallest amount of employment was found in the cloak and
suit industry during the winter of 1912-13, with pay rolls slightly
over half of the average, and in the dress and waist industry during
the summer of 1913, with pay rolls about three-fourths of the average.
Applying the usual tests, it appears that employment was con­
siderably more irregular in the cloak and suit industry than in the
dress and waist industry. In the cloak and suit industry the range
of variation was 91, the number of weeks during which employment
varied by at least 20 points from the normal was 26, and a variation
of at least 20 points in a single week occurred four times during
the year. For the dress and waist industry the figures for these same
items are, respectively, 45.5, 5, and 1. The difference is so marked
that a mere inspection of the chart gives conclusive evidence of the
greater regularity of the dress and waist pay roll.
T a b l e 33_ SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y
_

W EEKLY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN 2 OF THE WOMEN’S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRIES, BOSTON,
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.

[This table is based on data from 10 establishments in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry and 20 establish­
ments in the dress and waist industry.]

(Average weekly pay roll for the year—100.)
Per cent of average
weeklypay roll m
the—
Month.

Week
No.

Cloak,
suit, and Dress and
skirt inr Traist in­
dustry. dustry.!

August.........................

1
2
3
4

119.6
116.4
125.0
119.7

82.1
90.4
97.9
103.5

September.....................

5
6
7
8

110.0
97.4
118.8
131.7

October.........................

9
10
11
12
13

November.....................

Per cent of average
weekly pay roll m
the—
Month.

February.......................

No.

Cloak,
suit, and Dress and
skirt in­ waist in­
dustry. dustry.1

27
28
29
30

117.8
123.6
124.0
127.5

109.0
111.3
109.4
111.6

103.5
95.0
106.0
114.9

31
32
33
34

87.7
73.5
139.5
146.3

110.7
118.9
120.0
112.4

134.5
125.4
116.1
106.1
98.6

114.6
89.8
102.2
97.4
100.4

35
36
37
38

146.6
145.0
133.6
112.3

113.1
116.6
115.3
113.6

14
15
16
17

84.6
65.6
71.5
58.1

94.7
92.1
94.6
96.4

39
40
41
42
43

113.5
108.9
102.1
95.1
83.5

113.0
115.8
118.8
112.7
109.2

December......................

18
19
20
21

64.7
55.6
60.6
56.9

95.8
87.4
93.8
85.7

June...............................

44'
45
46
47

79.1
95.5
78.8
95.7

96.1
96.2
90.3
79.4

January.........................

22
23
24
25
26

61.1
73.2
82.4
93.2
106.6

74.5
88.7
96.1
104.4
101.2

July...............................

48
49
50
51
52

75.8
63.2
82.6
88.1
107.6

87.9
77.3
80.6
83.2
74.5

'
* Bata are for August, 1913, to April, 1914, and for May, 1913, to July, 1913,indusive.




BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

68

C h a r t No. 18.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEK LY

PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 2 PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES MANU­
FACTURING WOMEN’S READY-TO-WEAR GARMENTS—BOSTON.

PR
E
CA
E fT
A
50
i0
C%
W
/9A
/M
M
M
S
O
so
sv

60
w

JM
/9 3
/
S A O .r Nt> atr ja / IB A1A AP J4 Y ,J aeJ L
EV C
R 1 R \ A tm U Y
v
w
.
1 1 frs'~£
1 pITr'I
l Il
’
■ 1 1
^
Tl11
■m- i i i 1|| 1 T}' •1 r
rT
,1 1
"
y—
n
A
_ j ■A
_
\
_ A ! \
r
r r A
1 / SE
X
\ ^v__
\ \
ij
i
™
V V
• /
.
I
\ ' tT a
/L
53
/
\
f
W I V A 'K I I
\
>
\ i __ V i
wm
V
V
A t*

vv

JV

AO
w
iO
C AS
M K urrjum ia/ffiNousmr—
S

d £ S ^ waist in u
rS a>
d stry—

CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY.

In the following table and the chart accompanying it are shown
seasonal fluctuations in pay rolls for all productive labor of 10 repre­
sentative establishments with total pay rolls for all productive labor
of $354,970.
As usual, there are to be found four main seasonal periods in this
industry. The first busy season for the industry at large began on
or about the last week of July, and lasted approximately 12 weeks.
This was followed by a relatively short dull season, from the last
week in October to the fourth week in January. Then the spring
season, the busiest one of all, arrived. It lasted for over three months,
until about the third week in May. The second dull season, lasting
for about 10 weeks, then ensued.
The busiest week of the year was the first week in April; 146.6
per cent of the average pay roll was paid out to the workers in that
week; the dullest week was the second in December; only 55.6 per
cent of the average pay roll was paid out during this week. The
sudden drop of the pay roll during weeks 31 and 32 was abnormal.
It was due chiefly to the general strike in the industry which occurred
at that time and which resulted in the so-called protocol agreement
of March 8, 1913, described in Appendix E, Bulletin of the United
States Bureau of Labor Statistics, No. 145.
For the reason that the manufacturers, anticipating the approach­
ing crisis, worked their establishments at top speed just prior to the



BEGTJLARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN ’ g GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

69

strike period, the curve designed to show employment (Chart 19)
indicates rather early activity during the spring season of the year
1913. For an identical reason the length of the spring season appears
to be somewhat greater than usual. It may thus reasonably be in­
ferred that, had this strike not taken place, the fluctuations in this
curve would have appeared somewhat less violent during weeks 25 to
40, or from the fourth week in January to the second in May. Taken
as a whole, however, it is believed the occurrence of the strike men­
tioned affected very little the general tendencies of the movement of
the season in the industry. As can be seen, the seasonal fluctuations
of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of Boston, where the strike
occurred, are very much like those in the same industry in New York
City, where no strike occurred during the year under investigation.
On the same table and chart axe also shown the fluctuations of
employment as they appeared in one representative large shop and
one small shop. The small shop shows the greater degree of irregu­
larity. The range of pay-roll variation is greater, the period during
which the pay roll varies from the average by at least 20 points is
longer, and sudden violent fluctuations are more frequent in the
small than in the large shop.
The table and chart also show in striking fashion how, when a
number of shops are considered, the irregularities of one offset those
of another and bring about a degree of regularity wholly wanting in
the individual shop. Taking the 10 shops together, the variation
from one week to another is relatively small. During the year there
is a range of 91 points, but this is covered by gradual movements.
Omitting the period of weeks, 30-33, during which a strike caused
abnormal conditions, there are only two occasions, week 7 and week
38, when the pay roll varied by as much as 20 points from the pay
roll of the preceding week, but in the two single shops far more
extreme variations are frequent. Thus, in the large shop the pay
roll for week 13 is 34 points higher than for the preceding, and 44
points higher than for the following week. In week 49 there is a
fall of 46 points. This may possibly be due to the interruption of
work on July 4, but there is no explanation for the rise of 50 points
in week 52. In the small shop, variations of 30 to 40 points are
almost common. In week 30 there is a variation of practically 60
points. In week 26 the pay roll is more than double that of the
preceding week, rising from 62.8 per cent of the average pay roll to
129.6 per cent. The irregularity of the small shop as compared with
the large and of the individual shop as compared with the group
appears plainly in this table and chart.




70

BULLETIN" OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 8 4 . — SEASONAL

FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W E E K L Y
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 10 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISH­
MENTS IN THE CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY OF BOSTON, AUGUST, 1912, TO
JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.

(Average weekly pay roll for the year—100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay rolls In—
Week
No.

Month.

All shops (10).

Large shop (1).

Small shop (1).

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
1
2
3
4

$8,161
7,943
8,530
8,168

119.6
116.4
125.0
119.7

$1,201
1,156
1,339
1,259

123.2
118.6
137.4
129.2

$318
318
312
218

131.3
131.3
128.8
90.0

5
6
7
8

7,507
6,650
8,111
8,988

110.0
97.4
118.8
131.7

1,211
1,293
1,589
1,450

124.2
132.7
163.0
148.8

241
286
296
329

99.5
118.1
122.2
135.8

9
10
11
12
13

9,181
8,563
7,925
7,240
6,734

134.5
125.4
116.1
106.1
98.6

1,165
1,107
990
955
1,291

119.5
113.6
101.6
98.0
132.5

256
234
270
181
210

105.7
96.6
111.5
74.7
86.7

14
15
16
17

5,776
4,481
4,880
3,968

84.6
65.6
71.5
58.1

858
594
643
567

88.0
60.9
66.0
58.2

205
170
172
156

84.6
70.2
71.0
64.4

18
19
20
21

4,414
3,794
4,137
3,886

64.7
55.6
60.6
56.9

641
641
619
565

65.8
65.8
63.5
58.0

202
104
119
88

83.4
42.9
49.5
36.3

January..............................................

22
23
24
25
26

4,173
5,000
5,628
6,360
7,277

61.1
73.2
82.4
93.2
106.6

706
877
913
861
930

72.4
90.0
93.7
88.3
95.4

148
86
118
152
314

61.1
35.5
48.7
62.8
129.6

February............................................

27
28
29
30

8,041
8,438
8,464
8,704

117.8
123.6
124.0
127.5

1,028
1,160
1,199
1,443

105.5
119.0
123.0
148.0

352
368
269
414

145.3
151.9
111.1
170.9

31
32
33
34

5,987
5,016
9,526
9,984

87.7
73.5
139.5
146.3

1,012
708
1,446
1,546

103.8
72.6
148.4
158.6

168
222
417
430

69.4
91.7
172.2
177.5

35
36
37
38

10,008
9,896
9,121
7,664

146.6
145.0
133.6
112.3

1,509
1,396
1,344
1,077

154.8
143.2
137.9
110.5

442
429
380
411

182.5
177.1
156.9
169.7

39
40
41
42
43

7,747
7,431
6,973
6,492
5,703

113.5
108.9
102.1
95.1
83.5

1,213
1,183
923
730
806

124.4
121.4
94.7
74.9
82.7

280
305
204
231
223

115.6
125.9
84.2
95.4
92.1

44
45
46
47

5,402
6,519
5,377
6,536

79.1
95.5
78.8
95.7

567
753
691
853

58.2
77.3
70.9
87.5

229
193
133
175

94.5
79.7
54.9
72.3

48
49
50
51
52

5,159
4,315
5,636
6,013
7,343

75.8
63.2
82.6
88.1
107.6

696
246
524
360
850

71.4
25.2
53.8
36.9
87.2

136
116
118
171
275

56.2
47.9
48.7
70.6
113.5

August...............................................

September..........................................

April...................................................

Ju ty.................. ..............................

Total.........................................




-

50,684

354,970

6,826
Average....................................

100.0

975

12,594
100.0

243

100.0

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN’ s GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

71

C h a r t No. 19.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEKLY

PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 10 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE CLOAK,
SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY AND IN 1 LARGE AND 1 SMALL ESTABLISHMENT—
BOSTON.

DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY.

Information was secured from 20 representative establishments
with a total pay roll for all productive labor of $414,859. The
period covered by this inquiry, for reasons explained elsewhere, was
from May, 1913, through April, 1914. For purposes of comparison the
information secured was arranged to show changes of employment
for one year of 52 weeks from August, 1913, to April, 1914, and from
May, 1913, to July, 1913, inclusive.
Seasonal fluctuations of employment in this industry in Boston
appear to have been less violent than in the cloak, suit, and skirt
industry of the same city. The period of lowest activity occurred
between weeks 12 and 23, during the months of November, December,
and January. The periods of intense activity were not as marked as
in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry. The highest point of employ­
ment during the year under investigation occurred in the thirty-third
week, the middle of March, just after the general strike, when the pay
rolls mounted to 120 per cent of the average. The points of lowest
activity of the year occurred during the twenty-second and fiftysecond weeks—that is, the last week of July and the week between
Christmas and New Year’s.
For purposes of showing the influence of the scale of production
upon fluctuations of employment, the pay rolls of three representative



72

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

large establishments and three small ones are shown in the same
chart. The generalization, with reference to the same question, made
in previous sections of this report dealing with the cloak, suit, and
skirt industry appears also to apply to this industry, viz, in a general
way employment appears to have been more regular in shops where
manufacturing was done on a large scale than in the small shops.
The range of variation in the small shops is decidedly greater, 102.8
against 83.5 in the large; the duration of pronounced under and over
employment is greater, and the sudden fluctuations are more violent.
No fluctuation in the pay roll of the large shops, for instance, com­
pares with that of week 13 for the small shop, which varies by 50
points from the pay roll of week 12, while week 23 shows an even
greater difference.
T a b l e 8 8 . — SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY W EE K LY PAY

ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 20 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY OF BOSTON, AUGUST, 1813, TO APRIL, 1914,
AND MAY, 1913, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.

(Average weekly pay roll for the year** 100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Week
No.

All shops (20).

Large shops (3).

Small shops (3).

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent. Am ount. Per cent.
August...............................................

1
2
3
4

$6,549
7,215
7,810
8,260

82.1
90.4
97.9
103.5

$1,621
1,844
2,288
2,416

77.9
88.6
109.9
116.1

$391
430
470
528

83.7
9211
100.7
113.1

September.........................................

5
6
7
8

8,257
7,580
8,456
9,170

103.5
95.0
106.0
114.9

2,426
2,045
2,404
2,621

116.6
98.3
115.5
125.9

445
474
493
616

95.3
101.5
105.6
131.9

October..............................................

9
10
11
12
13

9,139
7,168
8,152
7,767
8,006

114.6
89.8
102.2
97.4
100.4

2,730
2,161
2,116
1,788
1,945

131.2
103.8
101.7
85.9
93.5

662
441
602
579
345

141.8
94.5
128.9
124.0
73.9

November..........................................

14
15
18
17

7,559
7,344
7,548
7,692

94.7
92.1
94.6
96.4

1,061
992
1,137
1,444

51.0
47.7
54.6
69.4

372
309
309
331

79.7
66.2
66.2
70.9

December...........................................

18
19
20
21

7,646
6,974
7,485
6,834

95.8
87.4
93.8
85.7

1,636
1,585
1,449
1,416

78.6
76.2
69.6
68.0

347
323
320
324

74.3
69.2
68.5
69.4

January.............................................

22
23
24
25
26

5,945
7,080
7,663
8,326
8,073

74.5
88.7
96.1
104.4
101.2

1,528
1,832
1,960
2,291
2,198

73.4
88.0
94.2
110.1
105.6

247
242
488
537
475

52.9
51.8
104.5
115.0
101.7

February................................. *........

27
28
29
30

8,696
8,876
8,729
8,907

109.0
111.3
109.4
111.6

2,407
2,275
2,143
2,127

115.7
109.3
103.0
102.2

475
480
526
593

101.7
102.8
112.7
127.0

March.................................................

31
32
33
34

8,832
9,486
9,577
8,966

110.7
118.9
120.0
112.4

2,085
2,435
2,485
2,390

100.2
117.0
119.4
114.8

566
561
550
513

121.2
120.2
117.8
109.9




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

73

T a b l e 3 5 . — SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W E E K L Y PAY

ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 20 REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY OF BOSTON, AUGUST, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914,
AND MAY, 1913, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.—Concluded.
Weekly amount and per cent of average weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Week
No.

All shops (20).

Large shops (3).

Small shops (3).

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
April...................................................

35
36
37
3S

$9,026
9,301
9,196
9,062

113.1
116.6
115.3
113.6

$2,392
2,194
2,182
2,164

114.9
105.4
104.9
104.0

$518
537
542
583

110.9
115.0
116.1
124.9

May....................................................

39
40
41
42
43

9,018
9,235
9,479
8,990
8,710

113.0
115.8
118.8
112.7
109.2

2,073
2,263
2,498
2,588
.2,537

99.6
108.7
120.0
124.4
121.9

537
591
722
628
604

115.0
126.6
154.6
134.5
129.4

June...................................................

44
45
46
47

7,669
7,676
7,203
6,331

96.1
96.2
90.3
79.4

2,306
2,453
2,618
2,367

110.8
117.9
125.8
113.7

558
476
440
483

119.5
101.9
94.2
103.4

July....................................................

48
49
50
51
52

7,015
6,166
6,433
6,638
5,944

87.9
77.3
80.6
83.2
74.5

2,386
1,809
1,966
2,280
1,768

114.7
91.3
94.5
103.6
85.0

392
320
339
321
326

84.0
68.5
72.6
68.8
63.8

Total.........................................

414,859

Average....................................

7,978

108,215
100.0

2,081

24,281
100.0

467

100.0

C h a r t No. 20.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEKLY

PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 20 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE DRESS
AND WAISTINDUSTRY AND IN 3 LARGE AND IN 3 SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS—BOSTON.




74

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

CAUSES OF SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS.1
PRIMARY CAUSE.
The fundamental factor in determining the nature of seasonal
fluctuations of employment in these industries is the change in
■weather due to the ordinary climatic conditions of the country.
That this cause exercises a predominating influence can be seen
from a cursory inspection of the charts showing movement of em­
ployment in the branches of the women’s garment trades. Curves
indicating such movements of employment in the different industrial
groups discussed throughout this study clearly show that there are,
in general, two periods of intense activity in the women’s garment
trades of the country, one in the fall and one in the spring, attributa­
ble almost entirely to the changes in weather conditions, during
which time the making up of heavy fabrics is undertaken for cold
weather and light-weight fabrics for summer wear.
CONTRIBUTORY CAUSES.
Specific degrees of variation in seasonal amounts of employment
can be traced to a certain extent to numerous causes, changes in
weather conditions, primarily, and, secondarily, to (1) changes in
styles (inasmuch as these determine the amount of manufacturing
that can without risk be done in advance of sales), (2) degree of spe­
cialization, (3) scale of production, (4) the method of production
(whether the articles are manufactured on the premises of the firm or
in contractors’ shops), and (5) quality of the goods.
Changes in styles.—The information presented in this report would
tend to indicate that the prevailing popular opinion with reference
to the direct influence of constant changes in styles upon seasonal
fluctuations of employment in these industries is rather overesti­
mated.
That changes in styles do not have as predominating an influence
as is popularly ascribed to them can be seen from the fact (shown in
Table 50 and chart accompanying it) that although the number of
styles in the manufacture of overcoats and suits in the men’s clothing
trades are far less numerous than in the manufacture of cloaks, suits
and skirts in the women’s garment trades—in fact, less than onethird—curves showing seasonal changes in employment in the abovementioned industries look surprisingly alike.
The indirect influence of changes in styles upon seasonal fluctua­
tions of employment, however, appears to be very powerful, inasmuch
as the possibility of such changes limits to a great extent the amount
i By seasonal fluctuations, as distinguished ftom cyclical and casual fluctuations, in this report, are meant
fluctuations in employment recurring with some regularity within one year, from month to month.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN’ s GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

75

of manufacturing that can without risk be done in advance of sales,
a factor very potent in regularizing employment.
Degree of specialization.—By specialization, as commonly under­
stood in these trades, is meant confining the activities of individual
manufacturing establishments to the manufacture of one specific,
somewhat broad, line of wearing apparel, such as cloaks, suits and
skirts, or dresses and waists.
This sort of specialization appears to be most prevalent in the
larger centers of manufacturing, particularly in New York City,
where the employers’ as well as the employees’ organizations seem
to follow this line of cleavage. Curves showing fluctuations of em­
ployment in the same industries (cloaks, suits, and skirts, or
dresses and waists), for instance, in New York, Chicago, Cleveland,
and Boston, seem to indicate that the higher the degree of this sort
of specialization the more violent the fluctuations of employment in
the course of the year.
Scale of production.—That the scale of production-—
size of the
establishment—seems to exercise considerable influence upon the
minor fluctuations in the amounts of employment is shown repeatedly
in this report by comparisons of seasonal fluctuations of employment
in representative groups of small and large shops of the same industry.
Employment in most instances appears to have been more regularly
distributed about the average in establishments where the manufac­
turing was done on a relatively large scale. One of the reasons for
this fact was apparently the circumstance that the importance of
fixed charges—rental, cost of clerical and selling force, designing,
insurance, depreciation, etc.—items of expense usually said to amount
to at least 10 per cent of the total value of the output, was more
keenly appreciated in the larger establishments, where the manage­
ment, as a rule, appears to be far more efficient, and where the records
showing the actual conditions of the business at any moment of the
year are usually more detailed. Hence the conscious endeavor on
the part of the larger manufacturers to distribute the work as evenly
as the circumstances of the trade will permit.
Method of production.—Persistent efforts to secure a representative
amount of pay-roll data to show seasonal fluctuations of employment
in “ outside” or contractors’ shops were of no avail. After visits
were made to more than 40 such establishments it was found that
the contractors kept no permanent records for any considerable length
of time, and in paying off their help generally used what they call
“ memorandum slips” ; that is, die payments due the individual
workers were recorded on separate slips of paper, which, after pay
day, were usually destroyed.
After diligent search, however, complete annual pay-roll records
were secured from two relatively large outside establishments engaged



76

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOB STATISTICS.

in the manufacturing of misses’ and children’s dresses. These were
then combined and compared with the combined inside pay rolls of
the two firms that controlled the outside shops. The results, although
by no means conclusive, show the relative differences in seasonal
fluctuations of employment in inside and outside shops controlled
by the same firms.
Employment appears to have been more regular in shops where
manufacturing was done under the immediate supervision of the
manufacturer, in “ inside” shops. The greater irregularity of em­
ployment in “ outside” or contractors’ shops can probably be ex­
plained by the smaller scale of production and the less efficient
management usually prevailing in such establishments. A contribu­
tory cause of irregularity of employment in “ outside” shops is the
placing of “ reorders” for inexpensive garments by employers who
control these “ outside” shops in order to regularize employment in
their “ inside” establishments. At busy points of the year employers,
instead of overtaxing the capacity of their inside shops and going to
the trouble of looking for new help and extra space accommodations,
prefer to have the surplusage of their orders manufactured in their
outside shops.
The results here presented were subsequently verified by numerous
personal interviews with representative manufacturers in each of the
industries as well as by personal observation by the agents of the
bureau. The prevailing opinion of manufacturers and their contrac­
tors, as well as of workers, seems to be that generally employment
is considerably less regular in the outside shops.
Quality of product.—The quality of the goods manufactured, as
shown in Tables 43,44, and 45 and charts accompanying them, also
appears to have exercised some influence over minor seasonal fluctua­
tions of employment, employment appearing to have been somewhat
more regular in establishments manufacturing the cheaper grades of
goods. The explanation of this phenomenon lies probably in the fact
that the cheaper the grade of goods manufactured the greater the
amount which can be manufactured in advance of sales, a factor
making greatly for regularity of employment.
These different causes of unemployment here briefly outlined will
be discussed at greater length in the following pages.
CHANGES OF STYLES.

As stated in the previous section of this report, the influence of
changes in styles upon seasonal fluctuations of employment, although
indirect, is very powerful, inasmuch as the possibility of constant
changes in styles limits the amount of manufacturing that can without
serious pecuniary risk be done in advance of sales, a factor apparently




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W O M E N 's GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

77

very conducive to a more or less even distribution of employment
throughout the year.
It is practically impossible to measure the extent to which changes
of style are responsible for irregularity of employment. A com­
parison of the employment curves of two industries, one subject to
pronounced changes of fashion and the other but little affected by
such changes, suggests itself as one way of testing the importance of
this cause. Such a comparison is easily made by referring to the
table and chart given for six industries in New York (p. 27). Of the
ready-to-wear garment industries, the manufacture of cloaks, suits, and
skirts and of dresses and waists are both strongly affected by changes
of styles, while in the manufacture of women’s muslin underwear styles
and their changes are of relatively little importance. The difference
in steadiness of employment between the muslin-underwear industry
and either of the others is very marked. In the cloak, suit, and skirt
industry the range of pay-roll variation is two and a half times as
great, the number of weeks showing at least a 20 per cent variation
from the average more than 12 times as many, and the sudden and
violent fluctuations more than twice as numerous in the cloak, suit,
and skirt industry as in the manufacture of muslin underwear.
If these differencescould be ascribed solely to the effect of changes of
style, a tolerable estimate of the importance of this factor could be
obtained, but obviously other considerations must be taken into
account. Cost of material, skill required in making, degree of
specialization practiced, methods of selling, these, as well as changes
in style, affect regularity of employment, and in all these the two
industries do or may differ. All that can be said with certainty is
that there is a wide difference in the fluctuations of employment in
the two industries, and that part of the difference is due to the
difference in importance of changes in style.
DEGREE OF SPECIALIZATION.

By specialization, as commonly understood in these industries, is
meant the c o n fin in g of manufacturing of individual firms to one
rather broad line of garments, such as cloaks and suits, or dresses and
waists, or muslin underwear, or house dresses and kimonos. The
nature of this specialization is more fully described on page 20 of
this report.
The four garment manufacturing centers covered by this inquiry,
with reference to degrees of specialization, as far as it could be
ascertained by interviews with representative employers and per­
sonal observation by agents of the bureau, from the more to the
less specialized, can be grouped as follows:




78

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
TAM* *6.—RANK OF CITIES IN SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES.
Cities in specified industries ranking—
Industry.
First.

Second.

Third.

Fourth.

Boston.
Cloaks, suits, and skirts...................... New York.......... Cleveland...........
Dresses and waists............................... ....... do................. Chicago.............. Boston............... Cleveland.
House dresses and kimonos................. ....... do................. ....... do................

Tables 11, 12, 15, 20, 21, 24, 29, 30, 34, and 35, and charts accom­
panying them show seasonal fluctuations of employment in the
cloak, suit and skirt, and dress and waist industries of New York,
Chicago, Cleveland, and Boston, and in the house-dress and kimono
industries of New York and Chicago.
CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY.

With reference to relative regularity of employment in this branch
of the women’s ready-to-wear garment trades, the four lines shown
on Chart No. 21 would seem to indicate that the greater the degree
of specialization the more marked the fluctuations of employment
throughout the year. Employment, as shown in terms of percentages
of the average weekly pay rolls for the specific industry in each one
of the cities, is less regular in New York than in Cleveland, somewhat
more regular in Chicago than in Cleveland, and somewhat more regular
in Boston than in either New York, Chicago, or Cleveland.
The differences in regularity of employment in the cloak, suit,
and skirt industry in the four principal manufacturing centers are
brought out more clearly by the following table, in which the three
tests already used are applied to the industry in each of the four
cities in turn:
T a b LK 87.—COMPARATIVE

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE CLOAK, SUIT,
AND S O R T INDUSTRY IN DIFFERENT CITIES.
Number of weeks in Number
which pay roll varied of weeks
by at least 20 points in which
from average.
a varia­
tion of
at least
High
20 points
point. Range. Below. Above. Total. occurred.

Variation for year.
City.
Low
point.
New York........................................................
Chicago............................................................
Boston.............................................................
Cleveland.........................................................

43.2
38.5
55.6
60.9

164.4
145.2
146.6
135.0

12 1.2
106.7
91.0
74.1

19
14
*13
12

19
16
12
9

38
30
125
21

8
6
12
2

1 Strike weeks omitted.

The greater irregularity in the trade in New York is very marked.
In every ,particular it stands first. Cleveland should stand next if
specialization were the only cause of irregularity, but Cleveland has
two steadying factors—the cheaper quality of the goods manufac­
tured and the method of selling goods (p. 60). These, or other fac­
tors not disclosed in this investigation, so far offset the effect of



REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

79

specialization that Cleveland, which stands second in degree of spe­
cialization, is fourth in degree of irregularity. Chicago and Boston
hold, relatively to New York and to each other, the same position
as in regard to specialization. The charts and pay-roll data for
the cloak, suit, and skirt industry presented in the following pages
show the situation in greater detail.
T able 38.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY W EEKLY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISH­
MENTS IN THE CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY OF 4 CITIES, AUGUST, 1912, TO
JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.
(This table is based on data from 75 establishments in New York City, 14 establishments in Chicago, 18
establishments in Cleveland, and 10 establishments in Boston.]

(Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.)
Per cent of average weekly pay roll i n Month.

August.....................................................................

September................................................................

October....................................................................

November................................................................

December................................................................

January...................................................................

February.................................................................

March.................................................... ..................




Week
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

New York.
103.6
114.7
126.5
135.4
133.4
107.3
127.9
133.5
130.3
137.2
141.7
126.0
92.5
66.7
67.0
59.3
45.4
45.7
43.2
50.1
55.1
61.1
87.5
99.6
119.7
131.9
139.5
134.6
154.9
164.4
161.7
161.2
152.5
142.9
125.3
109.0
87.5
69.8
66.2
65.7
65.1
58.0
50.6
57.4
59.2
73.9
84.9
73.6
88.7
98.5
106.0
106.6

Chicago.
97.4
123.9
140.5
136.3
130.0
106.0
102.1
113.8
133.0
130.4
135.4
145.2
132.8
115.4
97.3
79.6
70.0
62.6
59.7
60.3
48.1
38.5
44.1
69.6
81.3
97.3
110 .2
117.1
124.8
132.0
135.1
139.6
140.9
136.1
116.7
126.2
104.1
92.3
72.3
80.9
63.6
58.8
60.5
61.3
83.0
85.5
89.3
92.8
90.4
107.8
119.2
109.5

Cleveland.
107.8
116.8
114.4
107.4
94.8
87.9
94.4
90.8
90.9
104.5
109.1
114.5
1 1 2 .2
105.0
94.9
78.8
65.4
60.9
6V.4
74.9
62.3
63.5
65.7
87.2
103.4
117.2
118.1
128.1
131.1
133.9
135.0
132.1
125.4
98.3
99.7
100.8
94.5
78.4
72.7
64.8
79.9
85.5
92.5
95.5
104.4
111.3
110.5
108.2
116.0
122.6
133.3
132.4

Boston.
119.6
116.4
125.0
119.7
110.0
97.4
118.8
131.7
134.5
125.4
116.1
106.1
98.6
84.6
65.6
71.5
58.1
64.7
55.6
60.6
56.9
61.1
73.2
82.4
93.2
106.6
117.8
123.6
124.0
127.5
87.7
73.5
139.5
146.3
146.6
145.0
133.6
112.3
113.5
108.9
102.1
95.1
83.5
79.1
95.5
78.8
95.7
75.8
63.2
82.6
88.1
107.6

80

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Chart No. 2 1 .—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K LY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN THE CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUS­
T R Y: 75 ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW YORK; 14 ESTABLISHMENTS, CHICAGO; 18 ESTAB­
LISHMENTS, CLEVELAND; AND 10 ESTABLISHMENTS, BOSTON.

NEW YORK
CHICAGO

CLEVELAND —
— .

BOSTON

—

»

DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY.

Table 40 anil chart accompanying it show seasonal fluctuations of
employment in the dress and waist industry in New York, Chicago,
Cleveland, and Boston. Though, in general, the tendencies of the
seasons seem to be the same, employment taken as a whole seems to
have been less regular in New York than in Chicago and more regular
in Boston than in either New York or Chicago. Regularity of em­
ployment in the dress and waist industry in the city of Cleveland
seems to be somewhat less than in the same industry in the city of
Boston. As specialization in the dress and waist industry in New
York is greater than in either Chicago or Cleveland, the point made
that specialization makes seasonal changes more marked seems to
hold true also of the dress and waist industry.
The different degrees of irregularity of employment in the dress
and waist industry in the four principal cities are shown more
clearly in the following table:
TABLE 3 9 .—COMPARATIVE REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN DRESS AND WAIST
INDUSTRY IN FOUR CITIES.

Variation for year.
€ity.
Low
point.
New Y o r k ............................ ........................
Cleveland.........................................................
Chicago............................................................
Boston.............................................................




52.6
58.5
69.8
74.5

High
point. Range.
137.2
125.9
127.8
120.0

84.6
67.4
58.0
45.5

Number of weeks in Number
which pay roll varied of weeks
by at least 20 points in which
a varia­
from average.
tion of
at least
Below. Above. Total. 20 points
occurred.
8
9
2
17
9
1
6
3
5
8
13
1
5
4
1

REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

81

The greater irregularity of the industry in New York is evident.
The pay roil falls lower and rises higher than in the other cities, the
number of weeks in which there are variations of at least 20 per cent
from the pay-roll average is markedly greater, and sudden and vio­
lent fluctuations, though rare, are less so than in Cleveland and Bos­
ton, while in Chicago they do not appear at all.
Table 4 0 .—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEK LY PAY
ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS IN
THE DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY OF FOUR CITIES, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913,
INCLUSIVE.
[This table is based on data from 260 establishments in New York City, 10 establishments in Chicago,
6 establishments in Cleveland, and 20 establishments in Boston.]

(Average weekly pay roll for the year—100.)

Montib.

Per cent of average weekly pay rolls i n Week
No. New York. Chicago. Cleveland.1 Boston.i
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

64.5
77.7
89.1
99.4
109.5
107.3
95.3
110.4
120.7
119.9
123.5
12 1 .1
112.9
105.2
92.6
* 93.8
90.6
83.4
90.8
94.5
95.3
84.3
72.9
85.9
92.5
101.0
107.5
113.2
119.1
124.1
134.5
136.9
137.2
137.1
132.5
108.8
112.5
116.3
113.8
107.6
103.8
99.6
93.3
87.7
93.6
94.7
89.2
79.0
59.0
53.3
52.6
58.9

73.1
77.2
82.8
84.6
82.7
77.1
80.7
85.2
93.7
92.4
93.9
93.5
95.7
98.4
94.4
93.2
90.6
81.0
85.8
86.5
84.0
69.8
75.8
90.1
106.7
116.7
115.4
121.8
124.7
122.0
120.8
123.9
127.8
124.9
122.5
116.1
112.4
112.9
1 1 2 .1
115.4
11 2 .1
114.1
115.8
100.3
108.1
110.3
107.8
95.2
85.5
94.7
96.5
101.0

98.6
97.2
100.0
105.1
83.2
69.3
78.7
88.6
94.0
97.8
96.9
98.6
100.1
95.4
100.2
91.5
99.7
102.3
99.8
100.4
104.1
98.0
96.1
83.7
102.6
109.6
103.4
116.4
119.5
118.3
125.9
120.9
116.3
120.5
115.7
112.4
111.3
102.6
11 2 .1
113.5
113.5
113.3
105.2
104.7
109.5
97.1
78.7
73.6
58.5
68.5
85.3
90.6

i Data are for August, 1913, to April, 1914, and for May, 1913, to July, 1913, inclusive.

7001°— B u ll. 183—16----- 6



82.1
90.4
97.9
103.5
103.5
95.0
106.0
114.9
114.6
89.8
102.2
97.4
100.4
94.7
92.1
94.6
96.4
95.8
87.4
93.8
85.7
74.5
88.7
96.1
104.4
10 1.2
109.0
111.3
109.4
111.6
110.7
118.9
120.0
112.4
113.1
116.6
115.3
113.6
113.0
115.8
118.8
112.7
109.2
96.1
96.2
90.3
79.4
87.9
77.3
80.6
83.2
74.5

82

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Chart No. 22.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY W EEKLY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN THE DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY:
260 ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW YOR K ; 10 ESTABLISHMENTS, CHICAGO; 6 ESTABLISHMENTS, CLEVELAND; AND 20 ESTABLISHMENTS, BOSTON.

NEW YORK
CHICAOO

CLEVELAND —
•••

BOSTON

—

■

HOUSE-DRESS AND KIMONO INDUSTRY.

In Table 42 and chart accompanying it are represented seasonal
fluctuations of employment in establishments manufacturing house
dresses and kimonos in New York City and Chicago.
Applying to this industry the tests of irregularity used for the
others, the following table is obtained:
T able 4 1 .—COMPARATIVE REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN HOUSE-DRESS AND
KIMONO INDUSTRY IN NEW YO R K CITY AND CHICAGO.
Number of weeks in Number
which pay roll varied of weeks
by at least 20 points in which
from average.
a varia­
tion of
at least
High
20 points
point. Range. Below. Above. Total. occurred.

Variation for year.
City.
Low
point.
New York........................................................
Chicago............................................................

180.0
*70.7

139.9
130.5

59.9
59.8

U
»3

13
8

'14
* 11

24
84

i Strike weeks omitted.
* Four if change between last week preceding and first week following strike be counted and holiday
week be omitted.
* Holiday week omitted.

This shows very little difference in irregularity between the two
cities. It must be borne in mind, however, that the strike weeks
omitted from consideration in New York covered a portion of what



BEGULABITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN 'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

83

would normally be the winter dull season. Omitting them may,
therefore, hare lessened the range of variation and have given the
industry in New York an appearance of greater steadiness than
it deserves. It is evident from the pay-roll figures given that during
the spring season the New York industry fluctuated considerably
more than that of Chicago, although the fluctuations were by no
means so extreme as in some of the other industries covered.
T a b le 4 2 .— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEKLY

PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE HOUSE-DRESS AND KIMONO INDUSTRY OF NEW YOR K AND CHICAGO,
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.
[This table is based on data from 13 establishments in New York and 3 establishments in Chicago.]

(Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.)

Month.

Week
No.

Per cent of average
weekly pay roll
in Month.
New
York.

New
York.

Chicago.

August. . . .......

1
2
3
4

90.4
90.6
94.6
87.9

83.1
85.1
87.0
89.0

September

...........

5
6
7
8

94.9
87.7
81.2
84.6

89.5
84.1
76.6
88.5

............

9
10
11
12
13

100.6
94.8
101.8
99.9
113.2

93.6
99.5
97.1
93.9
90.3

14
15
16
17

101.3
92.7
94.9
99.3

87.1
97.5
96.0
93.1

December... . . . . . . . . . .

18
19
20
21

92.2
96.2
94.6
96.1

January .. ..............

22
23
24
25
26

82.8
98.5
63.9
51.6
47.9

October.




Week
No.

Per cent of average
weekly pay roll
in -

February.......................

Chicago.

27
28
29
30

45.3
46.8
64.1
120.4

112.0
108.4
112.8
113.8

31
32
33
34

104.5
136.0
125.6
137.8

115.3
116.0
120.3
117.1

April..............................

35
36
37
38

128.5
131.2
139.9
133.4

115.8
130.5
129.4
124.5

May................................

39
40
41
42
43

119.9
110.1
115.5
121.5
120.9

123.9
125.0
123.5
122.8
119.5

91.0
81.7
99.0
97.1

June...............................

44
45
46
47

128.4
123.4
121.9
107.4

81.2
94.0
106.8
103.1

87.2
56.8
79.8
102.0
104.3

July...............................

48
49
50
51
52

112.7
80.0
81.4
92.9
115.9

90.7
70.7
95.2
93.2
102.9

84

BULLETIN' OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Ch a e t N o. 23.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY W EEKLY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN THE HOUSE-DRESS AND KIMONO
INDUSTRY: 13 ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW YORK, AND 3 ESTABLISHMENTS, CHICAGO.

/ /2
$
9S
/
PN
A N L
SP
C£T M !N E T O, ■fWDr jtW F BA ft A MYJU EJU Y
ER S /^2 C At t j i€ lA
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A

A
w

tzo
SQ
J
i/y
)
/W
Q
/
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oO
•f/%
7v
w
'M

Q
Q

A/%
TV
M
W

V

A
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v— V

a
,

\A
y\I
Vv

V

V*A >

7\ n

i

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%
%
$

1
/ ^

i
t

V

w
y

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SB
T IK

20
/£

N£W YORK INDUSTRY*-*

CHICAGO iN W STR Y*-*

METHOD OF PRODUCTION.

The term “ method of production” is used in this report to differen­
tiate between production carried on in so-called “ inside” and “ out­
side” shops. By an “ outside” shop in the garment industries is
usually meant an establishment manufacturing garments without the
immediate supervision of the manufacturer who received the order
and who owns the materials and accessories from which the garments
are made, as distinguished from an “ inside” shop, an ordinary manu­
facturing establishment owned by a manufacturer and operated under
his immediate supervision. “ Outside” shops are otherwise known
as “ contractors’ ” shops. To the manufacturer the “ outside” shop
offers a number of advantages. It relieves him of the necessity of
organizing a manufacturing department, giving him freedom to devote
himself almost exclusively to the commercial aspect of his business—
the buying of raw material and the sale of the finished product. This
is particularly of great advantage to the small manufacturer, who is
thus able to go into business with a small capital, being obliged to
pay less rent and getting along without any technical training in the
manufacturing branch of the industry. The “ outside” shop also
affords to the individual manufacturer a very elastic system of manu­
facture—he has no extensive shop organization to maintain when
work is dull and no heavy fixed charges. If he maintains shops of
both kinds it also gives him an opportunity to regularize the employ­



BEGTJLABITY OP EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN*S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

85

ment in his “ inside” shop by leaving the contractor without work in
dull periods and throwing to him the work which the “ inside” shop
can not cope with in the rush seasons.
It is but natural to expect that manufacturers would be more inter­
ested in their “ inside” than in their “ outside” shops, for the reason
that in the “ inside” shops the whole burden of fixed charges rests
upon themselves, while in the “ outside” shops the matter concerns
almost entirely the contractor. This view seems to be confirmed by
an examination of Table 43 and Chart No. 24. Employment in the
two “ outside” shops during the year was decidedly less regular. The
point of lowest activity in the “ outside” shops is occasionally below
one-third of the average for the year, as compared with about one-half
of the average for the “ inside” shops. The same results are apparent
when a comparison is made of the points of highest activity. While
the pay rolls of the “ inside” shops were never higher than 144 per
cent of the average, the pay rolls of the “ outside” shops frequently
mounted as high as 190 per cent of the average. At one point, fol­
lowing the general strike in the industry in March, 1913, the pay
roll mounted to over 210 per cent of the average.
The results, as shown here, were verified to some extent by inter­
views with representative manufacturers, contractors, and workers in
each of the specialized industries, almost all of the informants sub­
stantially agreeing that employment is considerably less regular in
“ outside” shops.




86

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 48 .—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 2 INSIDE AND IN 2 OUTSIDE SHOPS, AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR
IN REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE CHILDREN’S AND MISSES' DRESS
INDUSTRY OF NEW YO R K CITY, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.

(Average weekly pay roll for the year=>100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average
weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Week
No.

2 inside shops.

2 outside shops.

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
August...................................................................................

1
2
3
4

$1,458
1,507
1,602
1,716

67.5
69.8
74.2
79.4

$991
762
1,306
967

48.6
37.4
64.1
47.5

Septembei.............................................................................

5
6
7
8

1,771
1,646
1,817
2,199

82.0
76.2
84.1
101.8

869
1,328
924
915

42.6
65.2
45.3
44.9

October..................................................................................

9
10
11
12
13

2,039
2,113
2,207
2,152
2,055

94.4
97.8
102.2
99.6
95.1

1,131
1,113
1,543
1,851
1,451

55.5
54.6
75.7
90.8
71.2

November..............................................................................

14
15
16
17

2,367
2,218
2,231
2,033

109.6
102.7
103.3
94.1

1,462
548
1,020
1,489

71.8
26.9
50.1
73.1

December..............................................................................

18
19
20
21

1,817
1,780
1,954
2,416

84.1
82.4
90.5
111.9

1,931
1,560
2,349
2,666

94.8
76.6
115.3
130.8

January.................................................................................

22
23
24
25
26

1,268
1,336
1,683
2,718
2,813

58.7
61.9
77.9
125.8
130.2

2,090
2,248
2,050
2,264
2,931

102.6
110.3
100.6
111.1
143.8

February...............................................................................

27
28
29
30

2,887
2,888
2,945
2,897

133.7
133.7
136.4
134.1

2,748
2,615
2,635
2,963

134.9
128.3
129.3
145.4

31
32
33
34

2,932
2,808
1,350
2,606

135.7
130.0
62.5
120.7

3,051
3,293
2,061
746

149.7
161.6
101.1
36.6

35
36
37
38

2,806
2,980
2,995
3,117

129.9
138.0
138.7
144.3

3,529
3,884
4,349
4,246

173.2
190.6
213.4
208.4

39
40
41
42
43

2,779
2,874
2,448
2,486
2,520

128.7
133.1
113.3
115.1
116.7

2,879
3,301
3,870
3,714
3,198

141.3
162.0
189.9
182.3
156.9

44
45
46
47

2,376
1,537
1,399
1,630

110.0
71.2
64.8
75.5

2,432
2,302
921
1,205

119.4
113.0
45.2
59.1

48
49
50
51
52

1,831
1,139
1,150
1,857
2,161

84.8
52.7
53.2
86.0
100.1

479
280
1,351
2,244
1,899

23.5
13.7
66.3
110.1
93.2

Total...........................................................................

112,314

Average......................................................................

2,160




105,954
100.0

2,038

100.0

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W O M E N 's GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

87

C h ar t No. 24.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K LY

PAY BOLLS FOB ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN THE CHILDREN’S AND MISSES’ GAR­
MENT INDUSTRY: 2 INSIDE AND 2 OUTSIDE SHOPS—NEW YOBK CITY.

QUALITY OP PRODUCT.

In Table 45 and chart accompanying it figures are given for two
shops of a concern which manufactures silk kimonos. In the lowgrade department of the concern silk kimonos of a cheap quality are
produced, the selling price of which is from $5 to $50 per dozen.
The other department of the same concern manufactures an article
of a much higher quality, the selling price of which is usually from
$10 to $100 apiece.
A comparison of the seasonal movements of the pay rolls of the
two departments seems to indicate that the higher the grade of goods
manufactured the more marked the seasonal changes. This seems
but natural, in view of the fact that the cheaper an article the more
safely it can be manufactured in advance of sale, a factor very
conducive to a more equal distribution of employment from week to
week throughout the year.
In Table 46 and accompanying chart are shown the influence of
the quality of the goods manufactured upon seasonal fluctuations of
employment in six shops manufacturing cheap waists and a similar
number manufacturing waists of a better quality.
The results, as can be seen from the table and chart, although not
as pronounced as in the shops manufacturing kimonos just discussed,
show a decided difference in seasonal fluctuations between pay rolls
for six high-grade and six low-grade shops, employment having been



88

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

more regular in establishments manufacturing cheaper grades of
goods.
Applying the tests for irregularity to these two sets of pay-roll
figures, the following table is obtained. The differences shown here
are too pronounced to need discussion.
REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT IN ESTABLISHMENTS
MAKING HIGH-GRADE AND LOW-GRADE KIMONOS, AND DRESSES AND WAISTS, NEW
YOR K CITY.

T a b l e 4A*—COMPARATIVE

Number of weeks in
which pay roll varied Number
by at least 20 points of weeks
in which
from average.
variation
of at least
mgh Range. Below. Above. Total. 20 points
occurred.
point.

Variation for year.

Low
point.
Kimonos (biweekly pay roll):
High grade................................................
Low grade.................................................
Dresses and waists (weekly pay roll):
High grade................................................
Low grade.......................... ...................

20.2
59.6

141.6
127.5

121.4
67.9

5

a

9
4

14
7

9
2

60.5
45.9

147.0
127.1

86.5
81.2

15
9

13
8

28
17

3
3

T a b l e 45 .—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN HIGH-GRADE AND IN

LOW-GRADE SHOPS AS SHOWN B Y BIW EEK LY PAY ROLL FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE
LABOR IN AN ESTABLISHMENT MAKING KIMONOS, NEW YOR K CITY, AUGUST, 1912,
TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.

(Average biweekly pay roll for the year—100.)
Biweekly amount and per cent of
average biweekly pay roll in^Month.

.ray
roll
No.

1 high-grade shop.

1 low-grade shop.

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
August...................................................................................
September.............................................................................
October...'...........................................................................
November.............................................................................
December..............................................................................
January.................................................................................
February...............................................................................

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

$598
734
782
854
555
748
757
667
537
497
327
332
122
661
686
717
762
724
767
724
717
663
682
575
327
171

Total............................................................................

15,686

Average.......................................................................

603

99.1
121.7
129.6
141.6
92.0
124.0
125.5
110.6
89.0
82.4
54.2
55.0
20.2
109.6
113.7
118.8
126.3
120.0
127.1
>
120.0
118.8
109.9
113.0
95.3
54.2
28.3




$950
884
991
1,000
998
898
877
899
877
848
835
660
569
908
856
902
1,038
1,151
1,178
1,115
1,218
1,069
1,089
1,167
1,126
733

99.5
92.5
103.7
104.7
104.5
94.0
91.8
94.1
91.8
88.8
87.4
69.1
59.6
95.1
89.6
94.4
108.7
120.5
123.3
116.7
127.5
111.9
114.0
122.2
117.9
76.7

24,836
100.0

955

100.0

REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— W OMEN' S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

89

Chart No. 25.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y BIWEEKLY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN THE HOUSE-DRESS AND KIMONO
INDUSTRY: 1 HIGH-GRADE SHOP AND 1 LOW-GRADE SHOP—NEW YORK CITY.

T abus 4 6.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K L Y
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 6 HIGH-GRADE AND 6 LOW-GRADE
SHOPS IN THE DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY OF NEW YOR K CITY, AUGUST, 1912,
TO DECEMBER, 1912, AND JANUARY, 1912, TO JULY, 1912, INCLUSIVE.
Weekly amount and per cent of average
weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Week
No. 6 high-grade shops.

6 low-grade shops.

Amount. Pot cent. Amount. Percent.
August...................................................................................

1
2
3
4

16,216
6,742
7,405
7,878

92.2
100.1
109.9
116.9

16,018
6,917
7,915
8,905

52.6
60.5
69.2
77.9

September.............................................................................

5
6
7
8

8,582
8,183
7,845
8,764

127.4
121.5
116.4
130.1

10,044
10,389
8,049
9,584

87.8
90.9
70.4
83.8

October.................................................................................

9
10
11
12
13

9,043
8,777
8,217
8,195
8,017

134.2
130.3
122.0
121.6
119.0

11,956
12,930
13,633
13,940
13,881

104.6
113.1
119.2
121.9
121.4

November..............................................................................

14
15
16
17

7,588
6,863
6,386
5,858

112.6
101.9
94.8
87.0

14,256
13,907
14,528
14,291

124.7
121.6
127.1
125.0

December..............................................................................

18
19
20
21

4,284
5,062
5,199
6,149

63.6
75.1
77.2
91.3

13,159
13,927
13,040
12,867

115.1
121.8
114.0
112.5

January.................................................................................

22
23
24
25
26

5,360
4,701
5,107
6,647
7,181

79.6
69.8
75.8
98.7
106.6

10,596
9,616
10,752
11,333
12,112

92.7
84.1
94.0
99.1
105.9




90

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 4 6 .—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W E E K L Y
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 6 HIGH-GRADE AND 6 LOW-GRADE
SHOPS IN THE DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY OF NEW YORK CITY, AUGUST, 1912,
TO DECEMBER, 1912, AND JANUARY, 1912, TO JULY, 1912, INCLUSIVE—Concluded.
Weekly amount an<1 per cent of average
weekly pay roll in—
Week
No. 6 high-grade shops. 6 low-grade shops.

Month.

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
February...............................................................................

Julr.........................................................

Total..........................................................................
Average.......................................................................

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

$7,216
7,999
8,114
8,050
9,185
9,907
9,885
9,216
8,332
6,846
7,030
6,953
6,659
6,024
5,525
5,117
4,467
4,676
5,218
4,364
4,253
4,804
4,073
4,927
5,496
5,738

107.1
118.7
120.4
119.5
136.3
147.0
146.7
136.8
123.7
101.6
104.3
103.2
98.8
89.4
82.0
76.0
66.3
69.4
77.5
64.8
63.1
71.3
60.5
73.1
81.6
85.2

$11,847
12,204
12,548
12,768
13,411
13,497
13,129
13,701
14,260
11,092
11,944
13,002
13,604
13,083
13,066
12,848
12,768
11,151
11,664
11,504
10,646
9,322
7,154
5,275
5,250
5,270

103.6
103.7
119.7
111.7
117.3
118.0
114.8
119.8
124.7
97.0
104.5
113.7
119.0
114.4
114.3
112.4
111.7
97.5
102.0
100.6
93.1
81.5
62.6
46.1
45.9
46.1

350,323
6,737

100.0

594,553
11,434

100.0

Ch a r t No. 26.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEKLY

PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN THE DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY:
6 HIGH-GRADE AND 6 LOW-GRADE SHOPS—NEW YORK CITY.

six shops




t v r n m h m h -«m o c • arnenvs

SIX SHOPS MAKING LOW-ORAOC GARMENTS

•—

REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN’ S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

91

RELATED FACTORS.

Both rate of wages and length of the working-day have a relation
to the problem of irregular employment in the garment-making
trades, but the opinion of students as to the nature of this relation
has changed of late years. For some time it was supposed that
irregularity was an inherent characteristic of garment-making trades,
and that therefore efforts to modify it were necessarily fruitless.
Under these circumstances, the most effective way of meeting the
situation seemed to lie in the effort to secure for the worker so high
a wage that during the busy seasons he could make enough to support
himself through the long periods of idleness due to no fault of his own.
The main emphasis, therefore, was laid on the attempt to secure
better wages.
Since 1910 this attempt may be considered to have succeeded, but
its success has increased the original difficulty. If the skill required
be taken into consideration, the weekly rates of wages in these trades
seem fairly high. As an illustration, one may take the occupation of
presser in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry in New York or Boston.
During the year 1913, pressers received by agreement $22.50 per week,
a relatively high rate in view of the fact that an adaptable man of
working age may become a proficient presser in less than one year.
An ordinary operator (and an adaptable recently-arrived immigrant
may become such an operator in less than a year) may earn, during
the busy seasons, in a week of 50 hours a wage of from $30 to $35.
These relatively high wages, however, did not insure the worker
a satisfactory annual income, since they immediately attracted new
workers in great numbers, thus increasing unduly the supply of
labor, which was already too large. But the oversupply of labor
tends directly to increase irregularity of employment. Without the
existence of large reserves of workers ready to be utilized for very short
periods at any time throughout the year, the recurrence of the great
rush seasons would be practically impossible. The situation ap­
proaches a vicious circle; irregular employment justifies high wages,
high wages increase the oversupply of workers, and the oversupply
of workers increases irregularity of employment.
As to the relation in these trades between the hours of labor and
irregularity of employment, experience has shown that the view of its
nature generally accepted some years ago is untenable. The pre­
vailing hours were formerly rather excessive, usually 60 or 70 per
week. It was maintained that a considerable part of the unem­
ployment in existence at certain points of the year could be accounted
for by a more or less chaotic distribution of work during the rush
seasons, that as a result, while many of the workers were employed 60




92

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

and 70 hours per week, others remained idle, and consequently, one
of the ways to relieve the gravity of unemployment would be to re­
duce the number of weekly hours of labor. This view was held by
the United States Industrial Commission of 1900. It says, “ The
effort of labor organizations in these occupations to reduce the hours
of labor to eight per day and to reduce overtime, provided they are
successful, will result in the extension of the period of employment
through a large part of the year. ” 1
The influence of the factors just mentioned—method of distribu­
tion of work, hours of labor, etc.—upon seasonal fluctuations of em­
ployment in these industries at the present moment would seem to
be rather negligible in view of the fact that the 50-hour week, and elimi­
nation of excessive hours of overtime, as well as the principle of equal
distribution of work have been introduced almost universally into
these trades and that, in spite of these changes, as revealed by a recent
study of this bureau2 unemployed garment workers may still be
found at the points of most intense activity during the year in the
garment trades of New York.
SUMMARY.

This discussion has dealt with six factors which influence regularity
of work in the garment trades—seasonal changes, changes in style,
degree of specialization required, quality of product, scale of produc­
tion, and method of production, i. e., whether in an inside or an
outside shop. It is evident that these factors differ considerably both
in the extent to which they affect regularity of employment and in
the degree to which they can be controlled. Seasonal changes, for
instance, are absolutely beyond control and as the industry is now
managed affect employment strongly, but this influence is by no
means inherent and inevitable. If seasonal changes were the only
variable factor it would be entirely possible for a manufacturer to
determine by experiment what volume of custom he could secure and
handle, and then to distribute this work through the year, making up
his goods in advance of sales, and employing no more workers than he
could keep steadily occupied.
Four of the other factors fall into two groups, scale and method of
production forming one, and specialization of work and quality of
product the second. The first two seem inevitably connected with
fluctuations of employment; it is difficult to see how small-scale pro­
duction can possibly be made as steady as large, while one of the im­
portant reasons for the existence of the outside shop is that it may
take the overflow, in times of pressure, from the inside shop, a con­
dition which naturally makes employment in the outside shop irregular
* Report of U. S. Industrial Commission, vol. 19, p. 751.




8 Bulletin No. 147, p. 12.

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W O M EN'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

93

to the highest degree. The outside shop does not seem a necessity;
many manufacturers dispense with it altogether, and its abolition
would tend to regularize employment in the trade.
The other two factors, specialization and quality of product, like
the seasonal changes, do not seem inevitably productive of irregular­
ity. It seems indisputable that the greater the specialization prac­
ticed by a given manufacturer, and the better the quality of the goods
he turns out, the greater is the irregularity of his pay-roll figures. Yet
except in so far as specialization limits his volume of business, the
irregularity ascribed to these factors seems to hark back to another
cause, the risk involved in putting high-priced labor and expensive
material into garments which if not sold at once may be rendered
almost worthless by a change of styles. In other words, the fickleness
of fashion and the unsalability of a garment that is out of style seem
the real explanation of the irregularity of which these two factors are
the superficial causes.
This would make changes of style the most important cause of
fluctuations of employment in the garment trade, the cause on which
all the others really depend. This is the view of many of the manu­
facturers, who say that it is useless to attempt to regularize employ­
ment, since it is impossible to know beforehand what can safely be
made up. The whim of the customer determines what will sell, and
since no mortal can tell beforehand what style will strike the popular
fancy, goods of any value can not be made up in advance and the
year must consist of alternate rush and slack seasons.
On closer inspection, however, it seems doubtful whether fashion is
as uncontrollable and incalculable an element as the manufacturers
profess to believe. Fundamentally, which is more responsible for
changes of fashion, the demand of the public or the competition of
the manufacturers ? Each manufacturer is bidding frantically against
all the others for the favor of the buying public. Each is racking his
brains to introduce some novelty which may make his line, instead
of his rivaVs, the hit of the season. Each is doing all that in him lies
to create and foster the widest caprice, the greatest fickleness on the
purchaser’s part. Undoubtedly the customer does not wish to buy
this fall an exact replica of last fall's suit or dress, but a much nar­
rower range of variation than is offered would meet her needs. If
all the manufacturers devoted the same effort to pushing standard
lines with moderate variations from year to year that they now give
to introducing novelties, it is impossible to say how far irregularity
of employment would be reduced, but it is evident that the situation
would be changed materially for the better.
In fact, viewing the whole question of unemployment in the
garment-making trades, it seems probable that the present highly
undesirable situation has developed more because no pains were taken



94

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

to prevent it than from any inherent necessity. To a considerable
extent the employers have risen from the ranks of the workers. Each
is intent on getting the most trade with the least risk possible; each
accepts the conditions of the industry as he has known it. Rush
seasons alternating with dull seasons are the natural order to him,
and unless he is a rather unusual man the idea of modifying this order
does not occur to him. A few, but only a few, were found who had
deliberately tried to regularize employment within their establish­
ments. The methods adopted and the degree of success attained are
set forth in the following pages.
REGULARIZATION OF EMPLOYMENT.

In the course of this investigation two methods of diminishing
seasonal fluctuations of employment were found in use, though neither
was extensively employed. The first consisted of manufacturing
more than one line of goods, the articles produced being so selected
that the dull season of one coincided with the busy season of another.
Two conspicuous examples of this were found, one a mail-order house
which manufactured eight or more lines of articles for women’s wear,
and the other a dress and waist making establishment, in which the
manufacture of petticoats was used to regularize employment, a con­
siderable part of the force being transferred from one line to the other
as the dull or busy season required. Two other establishments were
found in which these same two lines of manufacture were carried on,
but in these the main purpose was to keep the plant busy, and little or
no effort was made to transfer workers from one line to the other.
The second method, found in an establishment manufacturing men’s
garments, consisted of an attempt to secure orders as far in advance of
delivery as possible, combined with the introduction and pushing of a
standard garment which could be made up during the dull season.
The working of these different methods will be described in some
detail.
SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN ONE CHICAGO
ESTABLISHMENT MANUFACTURING MORE THAN EIGHT LINES OF
WOMEN’S GARMENTS.

Information was secured from a Chicago establishment which pre­
sents a unique situation, for the reason that its entire product is dis­
posed of by its principal owner, who is the proprietor of a large mail­
order house in that city. Thus, this establishment finds itself in a
position where to a significant degree it may influence the demands of
its buyers. This establishment manufactures eight distinct lines of
garments as follows: House dresses, dressing sacks, wrappers, kimonos,
aprons, maternity dresses, petticoats, women’s sanitary appliances,
millinery, and garters. The annual pay roll amounted to about
$200,000, with a total output estimated at approximately $750,000.



REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN’ s GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

95

Table 47 and the chart accompanying it show the seasonal fluctua­
tions of employment in this establishment in two different ways: (a)
In terms of percentage of the average weekly pay roll for all pro­
ductive labor for the year, and (b) in terms of percentages of the
average weekly number of workers for the year.
Employment in this establishment, as is the case in most of the
establishments manufacturing women’s garments, is more steady
than earnings. This is due to the fact that, when the dull seasons
approach, the surplusage of workers instead of being discharged are
retained on part time. Thus, in week 28, the middle of February, when
the pay roll amounted to only 70 per cent of the average, the number
of workers was much higher, 90 per cent of the average. On the other
hand, in the busy seasons the percentage of the normal pay roll
usually increases more rapidly than the percentage of the number of
employees, which is pretty good evidence that during the dull seasons
at least the workers are underemployed, so that a considerable
increase in the output is possible without a corresponding increase in
the number of workers. Thus, in weeks 16 and 17, when the pay roll
percentages rose to about 114 and 111, the percentage of workers did
not rise even to the normal.
Employment in this establishment is rather evenly distributed
throughout the year. The chart shows how closely the pay-roll line
keeps in the main to the average for the year. At its highest point,
in week 3, it is less than 20 points above the average. During the
winter dull season it shows a greater variation downward, sinking in
week 28 to 71 per cent of the normal. This is very unusual. In
general the pay roll does not vary by more than 10 per cent from the
average, and for over three-fourths of the year its variation is even




.9 6

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 47.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT, AS SHOWN BY W EE K LY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR AND NUMBER OF WORKERS, IN ONE
CHICAGO ESTABLISHMENT MAKING MORE THAN EIGHT LINES OF WOMEN'S GAR­
MENTS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913, INCLUSIVE.

(Average weekly pay roll for the year=»100.)
Weekly pay roll.
Month.

Week
No.

Amount.

Workers.

Per cent
Per cent
of
Number.
of
average.
average.

August..................................................................................

1
2
3
4

13,444
4,196
4,353
4,282

93.9
114.4
118.7
116.7

477
486
503
501

106.4
108.4
112.2
111.8

September.............................................................................

5
6
7
8

4,042
3,925
3,948
3,924

110.2
107.0
107.6
107.0

477
472
478
484

106.4
105.3
106.6
108.0

October.................................................................................

9
10
11
12
13

3,822
3,247
3,591
3,631
3,576

104.2
88.5
97.9
99.0
97.5

458
423
415
404
402

102.2
94.4
92.6
90.1
89.7

November.............................................................................

14
15
16
17

3,580
3,972
4,162
4,066

97.6
108.3
113.5
110.8

401
405
435
433

89.4
90.3
97.0
96.6

December..............................................................................

18
19
20
21

3,877
3,856
3,899
3,671

105.7
105.1
106.3
100.1

430
437
438
423

95.9
97.5
97.7
94.4

January.................................................................................

22
23
24
25
26

3,381
3,842
3,811
3,867
2,724

92.2
104.7
103.9
105.4
74.3

411
449
451
463
407

91.7
100.2
100.6
103.3
90.8

27
28
29
30

2,721
2,586
2,877
4,143

74.2
70.5
78.4
112.9

409
401
501
500

91.2
89.4
111.8
111.5

31
32
33
34

4,063
4,058
3,731
3,861

110.8
110.6
101.7
105.2

519
515
490
489

115.8
114.9
109.3
109.1

35
36
37
38

3,770
3,548
3,446
3,336

102.8
96.7
93.9
90.9

471
445
430
428

105.1
99.3
95.9
95.5

39
40
41
42
43

3,526
3,411
3,463
3,701
3,873

96.1
93.0
94.4
100.9
105.6

426
424
444
445
425

95.0
94.6
99.0
99.3
94.8

44
45
46
47

3,960
3,850
3.885
3,372

107.9
104.9
105.9
91.9

427
439
478
443

95.2
97.9
106.6
98.8

48
49
50
51
52

3,363
3,334
3,529
3,348
3,321

91.7
90.9
96.2
91.3
90.5

459
457
430
426
430

102.4
101.9
95.9
£5.0
95.9

May.......................................................................................

Total............................................................................

190,765

Average......................................................................

3,669




23.314
100.0

448

100.0

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W O M E N 'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

97

27.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EE K LY
PAYROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN ONE ESTABLISHMENT MANUFACTUR­
ING MORE THAN EIGHT LINES OF WOMEN’S BEADY-TO-WEAR GARMENTS—CHICAGO.

C h a b t No.

ACTUAL DOVETAILING OF ALLIED OCCUPATIONS IN THE DRESS
AND WAIST INDUSTRY IN CHICAGO.

The experiences of some of the manufacturers described in this
section apparently would tend to show that seasonal unemployment
in establishments manufacturing dresses and waists could be reduced
by conscious endeavors on the part of manufacturers to dovetail
their work during dull seasons on dresses and waists with the manu­
facturing of petticoats. Although, taken by itself, the seasonal
fluctuations of em ploym ent in petticoat shops (shown on p. 59 of this
report) also present considerable fluctuations at different points of
the year, the dull seasons in the manufacture of dresses and waists
seem, at least as far as the establishments here described are con­
cerned, to coincide with periods of fairly intense activity in the manu­
facture of petticoats. The possibility of dovetailing the seasons in
the two mentioned lines becomes still more apparent when the fact
that most of the petticoats are manufactured in advance of sales is
taken into consideration. •
Tables 48, 49, and 50 and the charts accompanying them give the
pay rolls of three different establishments in which this dovetailing
has been actually accomplished with a fair degree of success.
Establishment No. 1 stands high in repute among the dress and
waist manufacturers of the city of Chicago, and is a relatively young
concern, in the-process of constant growth. In this establishment the
7001°—Bull. 183—16----- 7



98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

working forces of the dress and waist and petticoat departments are
interchangeable; that is, the same workers are engaged in manufac­
turing petticoats when the season for the manufacture of dresses and
waists is at its lowest ebb. Some measure of the effect of this dove­
tailing is found by comparing the pay roll of the dress and waist
department with that of the two departments combined. The
pay roll stands at or above 100 per cent in the dress and waist depart­
ment for 23 weeks, against 32 weeks in the combined departments, a
fact which seems to show that for the majority of the employees the
addition of the petticoats department has lengthened the period of
full-time work by something over two months. In other words, as a
result of this dovetailing the number of working weeks in the course
of a year was considerably larger and the fixed charges per unit of
production were not as high as they would have been had the plant,
machinery, and clerical force been idle for some weeks longer. This
dovetailing of allied occupations, it would seem, has been of great
benefit to the owners of the establishment as well as to their em­
ployees.
In the two other establishments, Nos. 2 and 3, the dovetailing is on
an entirely different basis. In both the effort is to avoid irregular
working for the plant rather than irregular employment for the
workers. The dovetailing practiced has reduced considerably the
burden of fixed charges to the employers, but has been of little
advantage to the employees on account of a lack of interchangeability
in the working organizations of the two allied departments. In these
establishments only a limited number of the dress and waist operators
are allowed to work on petticoats during the dull seasons in the dress
and waist line.
Interchangeability between the working organizations of the two
specified departments, the employers say, can not be effected for two
reasons: (a) Operators on dresses and waists, they say, are not willing
to work for smaller wages, which naturally are paid for work of an
inferior quality, on petticoats; (b) in some instances, dress and waist
operators are not competent to work on petticoats.
An examination of these objections through numerous interviews
with employers would seem to indicate that although the reason
mentioned under the first heading—unwillingness of worker to work
for smaller pay—is of considerable significance; the second reason—the
incompetency of dress and waist operators to work on petticoats—is
not valid. Most of the employers seem to be of the opinion that with
some preparation, that is, with some time given for the necessary
adjustment, operators on dresses and waists can become thoroughly
proficient in operating on petticoats. This is the opinion of the
owner of establishment No. 1, where this adjustment has been suc­
cessfully accomplished.



REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN' s GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

99

T able 48.— REGULARIZATION OP EMPLOYMENT IN A SEASONAL INDUSTRY B Y COM­
BINING THE MANUFACTURE OF PRODUCTS WHERE THE BUSY SEASON FOR ONE
PRODUCT CORRESPONDS WITH THE DULL SEASON OF ANOTHER—SHOP NO. 1.

(Average weekly pay roll for the year—100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of aver­
age weekly pay roll in—
Week
No.

Month.

Dress and waist
department.

Petticoat depart­
ment.

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
August...................................................................................

1
2
3
4

$363
342
317
337

100.5
94.6
87.7
93.3

$273
302
315
295

107.0
118.4
123.5
115.6

September.............................................................................

5
6
7
8

309
264
295
324

85.5
73.1
81.6
89.7

316
266
313
287

123.9
104.3
122.7
112.5

October..................................................................................

9
10
11
12
13

427
409
352
369
354

118.2
113.2
97.4
102.1
98.0

291
291
246
247
276

114.1
114.1
96.4
96.8
108.2

November..............................................................................

14
15
16
17

357
323
335
301

98.8
89.4
92.7
83.3

319
321
327
326

125.0
125.8
128.2
127.8

December..............................................................................

18
19
20
21

304
314
359
286

84.1
86.9
99.4
79.1

281
346
355
316

110.1
135.6
139.2
123.9

January.................................................................................

22
23
24
25
26

223
169
151
298
360

61.7
U9.1
114.1
82.5
99.6

282
132
146
314
322

110.5
112.5
118.0
123.1
126.2

February...............................................................................

27
28
29
30

345
389
466
408

95.5
107.7
129.0
112.9

329
366
383
336

129.0
143.5
150.1
131.7

31
32
33
34

495
466
440
436

137.0
129.0
121.8
120.7

365
348
319
344

143.1
136.4
125.0
134.8

35
36
37
38

430
416
411
435

119.0
115.1
113.7
120.4

329
232
215
202

129.0
90.9
84.3
79.2

39
40
41
42
43

461
522
515
528
486

127.6
144.5
142.5
145.6
134.5

166
109
124
152
143

65.1
42.7
48.6
59.6
56.0

44
45
46
47

333
264
312
378

92.2
73.1
86.3
104.6

117
70
148
198

45.9
27.4
58.0
77.6

48
49
50
51
52

345
349
363
405
352

95.5
96.6
100.5
112.1
97.4

188
163
173
222
220

73.7
63.9
67.8
87.0
86.2

May.......................................................................................

Total............................................................................

18,790

Average.......................................................................

361




i Holiday.

13,266
100.0

255

100.0

100

BULLETIN' OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Chart No. 28.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY W EEKLY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN ESTABLISHMENTS MANUFACTURING
DRESSES, WAISTS, AND PETTICOATS: SHOP NO. 1—CHICAGO.




DRESS AM ). WAIST DEPARTMENT _

PETTICOAT DEPARTMENT •—

REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

101

TABLE 4 9 .—REGULARIZATION OP EMPLOYMENT IN A SEASONAL INDUSTRY B Y COM­
BINING THE MANUFACTURE OF PRODUCTS WHERE THE BUSY SEASON FOR ONE
PRODUCT CORRESPONDS W ITH THE DULL SEASON OF ANOTHER—SHOP NO. 2.

(Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average
weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Week
No.

Dress and waist
department.

Petticoat depart­
ment.

Amount. Per cent. Amount. Per cent.
August................................................................................

1
2
3
4

$502
536
525
475

88.2
94.2
92.3
83.5

$137
122
122
139

87.5
77.9
77.9
88.8

September..........................................................................

5
6
7
8

367
334
360
394

64.5
58.7
63.3
69.3

123
105
116
140

78.6
67.1
74.1
89.4

October...............................................................................

9
10
11
12
13

416
505
546
515
425

73.1
88.8
96.0
90.5
74.7

140
222
226
200
160

89.4
141.8
144.4
127.8
102.2

November.........................................................................

14
15
16
17

500
429
463
449

87.9
75.4
81.4
78.9

145
152
126
142

92.6
97.1
80.5
90.7

December...........................................................................

18
19
20
21

446
435
558
527

78.4
76.5
98.1
92.6

122
138
164
202

77.9
88.2
104.8
129.1

Jantiaty............................................................................

22
23
24
25
26

375
566
662
770
810

65.9
99.5
116.4
135.4
142.4

200
198
223
206
178

127.8
126.5
142.5
131.6
113.7

February............................................................................

27
28
29
30

868
866
727
664

152.6
152.2
127.8
116.7

178
198
212
238

113.7
126.5
135.5
152.1

31
32
33
34

583
587
566
584

102.5
103.2
99.5
102.7

281
294
311
273

179.5
187.8
198.7
174.4

35
36
37
38

540
680
790
764

94.9
119.5
138.9
134.3

227
117
181
142

145.0
74.8
115.6
90.7

39
40
41
42
43

735
829
705
563
530

129.2
145.7
123.9
99.0
93.2

129
100
69
85
62

82.4
63.9
44.1
54.3
39.6

44
45
46
47

715
735
701
629

125.7
129.2
123.2
110.6

43
76
134
124

27.5
48.6
85.6
79.2

48
49
50
51
52

351
293
535
580
570

61.7
51.5
94.0
102.0
100.2

72
60
82
152
150

46.0
38.3
52.4
97.1
95.8

Total.........................................................................

29,580

Average....................................................................

569




8.138
100.0

157

100.0

102

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOB STATISTICS.

Chart N o. 29.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEKLY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN ESTABLISHMENTS MANUFACTURING
DRESSES, WAISTS, AND PETTICOATS: SHOP NO. 2—CHICAGO.

PER
CN
ET
200
190
/O
S
/O
T
m
/O
S
m
to0
/20
no
/oo
90
so
70
60
so
40
so
20
/O

/9/2
AUG SE T O 7
P C
'it^ a

/ 9/3
m W D£C -SIN / ■£B A1AK A P iVfAY JUNE ju ty
XR
6~s'3 0 ^ 4
f-'-Z
r
J
f
*
0

A
*\—
\
I

\
r

V
1
y
T\
ts l V
•
•
\
r\
A v\
f
5I
J
j
/
J' W \
I
I—
V
• V
/
A \
\
- vs
V
•VS
A it s /
fi
M 11
f N
S i f
.
*
f
VV A / / \ /
%
t•
/ v f if
\\ •
I
v y
L I•
0 *VI f
Ms
\a
f
vv t
J
x

\

O

J

\

\

v

\/

DRESS AND W A/ST DEPARTMENT’ — -




/H Y A 0 i.£ .-4 * * $ & 0 .

PETT/COAT DEPARTMENT - - 44 r AOU>r0 6/36.

&

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOM EN'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 0 3
T a b l e SO.—REGULARIZATION OF EMPLOYMENT IN A SEASONAL INDUSTRY B Y COM­

BINING THE MANUFACTURE OF PRODUCTS W HERE THE BUSY SEASON FOR ONE
PRODUCT CORRESPONDS W ITH THE DULL SEASON OF ANOTHER—SHOP NO. 3.

(Average weekly pay roll for the year—100.)
Weekly amount and per cent of average
weekly pay roll in—
Month.

Week
No.

Dress and waist
department.

Petticoat depart­
ment.

Amount. Percent. Amount. Per cent.
August................................................................................

1
2
3
4

$2,031
1,908
1,759
1,583

93.4
87.7
80.9
72.8

$447
463
497
425

96.8
100.3
107.6
92.1

September..........................................................................

5
6
7
8

1,310
1,062
1,265
1,499

60.2
4a 8
58.2
68.9

485
372
403
405

105.0
80.6
87.3
87.7

October..............................................................................

9
10
11
12
13

1,498
1,608
1,753
2,007
2,068

68.9
73.9
80.6
92.3
95.1

525
456
392
390
436

113.7
98.8
84.9
84.5
94.4

November..........................................................................

14
15
16
17

2,164
2,367
2,510
2,553

99.5
108.8
115.4
117.4

381
348
376
342

82.5
75.4
81.4
74.1

December...........................................................................

18
19
20
21

2,137
2,676
2,532
2,547

98.3
123.0
116.4
117.1

346
426
479
547

74.9
92.3
103.7
118.5

January..............................................................................

22
23
24
25
26

1,864
2,122
2,404
2,430
2,431

85.7
97.6
110.5
111.7
111.8

463
566
747
611
538

100.3
122.6
161.8
132.3
116.5

February............................................................................

27
28
29
30

2,464
2,616
2,533
2,537

113.3
120.3
116.5
116.6

580
525
533
585

125.6
113.7
115.4
126.7

31
32
33
34

2,528
2,644
2,597
2,399

116.2
121.6
119.4
110.3

464
446
469
463

100.5
96.6
101.6
100.3

35
36
37
38

2,390
2,408
2,354
2,560

109.9
110.7
108.2
117.7

479
481
465
421

103.7
104.2
100.7
91.2

39
40
41
42
43

2,314
2,265
2,259
2,371
2,396

106.4
104.1
103.9
109.0
110.2

420
461
451
458
456

91.0
99.8
97.7
99.2
98.8

44
45
46
47

1,925
2,342
2,256
2,141

88.5
107.7
103.7
98.4

444
448
456
430

96.2
97.0
98.8
93.1

48
49
50
51
52

2,229
1,833
2,220
2,274
2,160

102.5
84.3
102.1
104.6
99.3

438
391
439
462
475

94.9
84.7
95.1
100.1
102.9

Total.........................................................................

113,103

Average....................................................................

2,175




24,006
100.0

462

100.0

104

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

CHART No. SO.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEK LY

PAY BOLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN ESTABLISHMENTS MANUFACTURING
DRESSES, W AISTS, AND PETTICOATS: SHOP NO. 8-CHICAGO.

CENT
Z60
ISO
MO
/20
HV
/W
A
A
J
tik
QV
T
O
SO
|
M
>f/>
30
ZO '
to

JM

19/2
jV/3
Cr m IV DtC JAN FEB A
SEPT O
MR *xph iMAY JUNE ju ty
T -'-j
T

••
••
•%
•
f
• \
•
• *v\ , A j
K
r
*
JA r A i i V y y \
•
A /«
!\
i
/
V /
/%
:
' \ f V
V
V
r%
t
\
\r
7\ V \J
\
/

A

~ r\
f V

V
V

\ /
V

DR£SSAND WAIST DEPARTMENT— PETTICOAT DEPARTMENT'—
SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OP EMPLOYMENT IN TWO ESTABLISH­
MENTS MANUFACTURING MEN’S READY-TO-WEAR CLOTHING.

In Table 51 and chart accompanying it are shown seasonal fluctua­
tions of employment in two representative establishments manufac­
turing ready-to-wear men’s clothing, located in the cities of Chicago
and Cleveland, respectively. The object of introducing this informa­
tion into this report is to show another way in which regularization
of employment has actually been effected.
As can readily be seen from an examination of Chart No. 31, employ­
ment in the establishment of the Cleveland firm is considerably more
regular than employment in the establishment of the Chicago firm.
As compared with its pay roll for the average week of the year of
May 1, 1913, to April 30,1914, the pay roll of the busiest week in the
establishment of Chicago (week 40,131.1 per cent of the average) was
proportionately larger than the pay roll of the Cleveland firm during
its busiest week (week 14, 113.8 per cent). At the same time the
pay rolls of the Cleveland firm during the dull seasons seldom fell as
far below their average as did the pay rolls of the Chicago firm.
Employment in the Cleveland establishment was far more regularly
distributed about the average.
The facts with reference to the situation in the establishment in
Cleveland, as related by the owners and manager of the firm, were as



REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 0 5

follows: Regularization of employment has been accomplished
through a conscious effort on the part of the firm, the members of
which realize clearly the wastefulness and inefficiency resulting from
irregularity of employment. At first an effort was made to “ make
salesmen understand that delivery dates should not be fixed without
the consent of the superintendent in charge of manufacturing.” “ We
can not promise too quick delivery,” the salesmen were told. The
salesmen kicked, a number of customers were lost, but the efficiency
resulting from a more steadily employed working force reduced the
cost of production and put the firm on a footing in which, to a certain
degree, it could well afford to pay little attention to the amount of
trade thus lost. The quality of the output improved and the amount
of it increased.
The actual regularization of employment in the establishment of
this firm is a part of the general scheme of scientific management and
efficiency.
Besides refusing to turn out orders on too short a notice, a purely
negative feature in the operation of its plant, the firm employed posi­
tive means to stabilize employment, and to have its people employed
as regularly as possible.
The owners of the firm decided upon filling up the gaps created by
the dull seasons by the manufacture of some staple article, a garment
that could be manufactured in advance of sales. The so-called
stabilizer of employment in this establishment is a popular priced blue
serge suit of two different weights, No. —, of lightweight, for summer
wear, and No. —, of heavier weight, for winter wear. Before the
arrival of the dull seasons of the year the firm conducts an aggressive
advertising campaign for the blue serges just mentioned. Then, as
soon as the busy periods are over, cutting and operating upon the blue
serges begins. For six weeks in the fall and about eight weeks in the
summer the entire factory force of the firm is engaged in working on
them. The manufacture of these suits occurs exactly at the slackest
point of the normal business year of the clothing trades. Without
this stabilizer the owners of the firm maintain that their people would
have to go idle at least two or three months during the year.




106

BULLETIN’ OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 51.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y BIW EEK LY

PAYROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN REPRESENTATIVE ESTABLISHMENTS
MANUFACTURING MEN’S CLOTHING IN CHICAGO AND CLEVELAND, M AY, 1913, TO
APRIL, 1914, INCLUSIVE.
(Average biweekly pay roll for the year=»100.)

Month.

Pay
roll
No.

May.........

Per cent of average
biweekly pay-roll.
Month.
Chicago.

Cleve­
land.

75.0
81.6
96.4
107.6
102.4
126.2
126.1
120.9
104.4
94.2

June.........
July.........
August___
September

11
0 .2

October...

82.4
83.7
89.3

November.

Per cent of a1
Pay
roll
No.

10
0 .1

89.6
95.3
82.4
103.2
105.3
109.5
113.8
67.7
113.8
110.3
108.6

Chicago.

December

109.9
103.1
95.5
127.7
130.9
126.4
103.5
80.6
73.4
81.0
76.4

January...
February.
M arch ....
April........

10
0 .1

Cleve­
land.
74.6
107.1

12
0 .1
108.8
109.4

11
1 .0
10
1 .6
107.1
104.9

11
0 .0

100.7

83.1
92.0

8 .0
8

Chart No. 31.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y BIW EEK LY
PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN THE MEN’S CLOTHING INDUSTRY:
1 LARGE ESTABLISHMENT, CHICAGO, AND 1 LARGE ESTABLISHMENT, CLEVELAND.

per

CENT

iMAY' jm r

/9/S
m r aoIP SEPT OifT

m4
AW AEC .fAN FEB MAR,APR
t^'%

160
ISO

(40
/O
S
/O
Z
i/O
/O
O

s

\/j
N

30
SO

70
60

0 ,-%
l
% 9\ ' X l
%#
\
• %$
%•
19

\V

f

L .
t^ f
i

.
\
\

•
•

SO

40
30
20
to
C IC G ESTABLISHMENT*—**
H AO




CLEVELAND ESTABLISHMENTo ~ - o

__

REGULARITY OP EM PLO YM EN T— W O M E N ’ S GARM ENT IN DUSTRIES. 1 0 7

OTHER EXAMPLES OF DOVETAILING.

Dovetailing is taking place in many seasonal trades. Examples
of how this has been done in England are given in “ Seasonal Trades/’
a work by various authors under the editorship of Sidney Webb:
The amount of actual unemployment among the seasonal and
casual workers depends upon the opportunities for sandwiching or
dovetailing occupations or jobs. The professional casual of the
unskilled class, well known to foremen, and with a highly developed
talent for piecing together scraps from everywhere, may have, on the
whole, fairly regular employment, while the highly skilled artisan,
specialized m his own trade, may be for six months or more without
work. A large amount of dovetailing takes place among seasonal
workers. Many regular waiters, gas workers, go to the brickfields
in the summer, while others work at deal-carrying, dock labor and
building work. Some even act as bricidayers’ laborers, or go house
painting or decorating in the summer. The women who work at
mdia-rubber works in the winter go to laundries in the summer.
Workers in piano manufacturing, which is slack in winter, spend the
summer as cabinetmakers, an allied trade which is active then. The
“ sandwich man” often goes to the country in the summer picking
peas, hops, and fruit. Other transitions are from pattern making
to carpentering, from instrurfient making to electrical work, from
military harness making to bootmaking. Match girls go to the jam
factories and hop fields m the slack months. Boatmen who work at
boating at Brighton for about five months of the year are sometimes
employed as fish-hawkers in the winter or as at Scarborough go
“ stoning” for the county council.
The dovetailing of industrial with agricultural occupations did
much to mitigate the evil effects of the industrial revolution by sup­
plementing industrial employment. This form of dovetailing is
still prevalent on the Continent. In northern Russia it has done
much to alleviate the condition of the peasants, while in Belgium
it is widespread. There the “ half and half” laborers—half agricul­
tural, half industrial—work in the sugar factories at certain periods,
harvesting at others, going to the collieries in winter to resume work
in the fields in the spring.1
To a limited extent, there is an interchange of workers in the
occupation of clothing cutters in New York and Chicago. Cutters
in the cloak industry find employment quite frequently during the
dull season of that industry in the dress and waist industry, while
cutters in the dress and waist industry, in lesser numbers, enter the
cloak industry when work on dresses and waists is lacking.
Buttonhole makers, also, are accustomed to supplement their earn­
ings by seeking employment in the alternating busy seasons of the
allied industries, or in other words, when the dull season is approach­
ing in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry, the buttonhole makers in
this industry seek employment in the men’s clothing industry, trade1 Seasonal Trades by various authors, edited by Sidney Webb, London, 1912, pp. 46,47.




108

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

unions accepting and exchanging the card of the worker in the ladies'
garment trades for the union card in the men’s clothing trades.
Apropos, the following is an interesting description of dovetailing
actually taking place in two somewhat allied industries—in the
making of fancy feathers and artificial flowers:
Nearly half of the 174 flower makers interviewed had worked on
fancy or ostrich feathers during their careers. Ability to turn to
this trade is the solution of the seasonal problem most often urged
by employers and workers. The close connection between these
two industries has already been described. The manufacture of
ostrich feathers usually stands as a separate industry with a longer
season of work, but fancy feather making and the manufacture of
artificial flowers are twin trades whose seasons for the most part do
not overlap but rather fit into one another, making it possible for
workers to turn from one to the other. Of the 114 flower shops
investigated, 54 manufactured also fancy feathers. This number is
not a toed one, for flower factories may add feather departments, and
vice versa, or the flower or feather department of a millinery supply
house may be discontinued without mvolving any great change of
policy on the part of the firm. From the point of view of the work­
ers, however, opinions differ as to the feasibility of thus combining
the two occupations.
A large Broadway flower and feather factory employing 100 girls
is an example of the combination of the two occupations, since the
same workers are taught both. The forewoman said that the flower
season begins in October and ends in May, and the feather season
is nominally from May to October. Usually, however, there is a
month or two between seasons, so that the workers who combine
the two trades can not count on more than 10 months of employ­
ment-in the year. This statement was borne out by the testimony
of a worker who had learned the flower trade 15 years ago and who
is now employed alternately in flower making and fancy feather
making. She has advanced to the position of forewoman and
designer in both trades. She said that the flower season lasts from
September to May, that there is very little occupation in it in June,
and that then the fancy feather season starts, lasting until Thanks­
giving Day, thus overlapping a little with the autumn season in
flower making. Thus, although June is dull, and the autumn flower
season uncertain, the worker who understands both flower and feather
making will have a much longer period of employment than would
be possible if she had learned only flower making.1
i Russell Sage Foundation. Artificial Flower Makers, by Mary Van Kleeck, pp. 52-54, inclusive.




APPENDIX A.—EARNINGS AND REGULARITY OF EMPLOY­
MENT IN CERTAIN BRANCHES OF THE WOMEN’S READYTO-WEAR GARMENT INDUSTRY IN NEW YORK, BOSTON,
AND CLEVELAND.
INTRODUCTION.

The extent to which the wage workers dependent upon certain
branches of the women's ready-to-wear garment industry are steadily
employed throughout the year has also been made the subject of a
statistical inquiry, the results of which are presented in the detailed
tables of this report. The purpose of the inquiry has been twofold:
(1) To determine the extent to which employment in specified
occupations is continuous; or, stated conversely, to determine
what may be briefly designated the incidence of unemployment in
these occupations; and, (2) by relating wage rates to time worked, to
determine actual earnings of individual workers. The data presented
relative to weeks worked and wages earned during a specified period,
generally of 12 months, have been taken from the pay rolls of
selected shops representing several branches of the women's ready-towear garment industry, the establishments covered including two
muslin-underwear factories located in New York City, five dress and
waist factories located in Boston, and two cloak, suit, and skirt
factories located in Cleveland. The 3,454 workers employed in these
factories during some portion of the period covered were distributed
by cities as follows:
New York City.......................................................................... 1,150
Boston.......................................................................................
778
Cleveland...................................................................................1,526
Total........................................................ ....................... 3,454

Restriction of the inquiry to selected shops has been necessary,
partly because in the case of many shops accurate data are not avail­
able, and partly because the nature of the inquiry itself, which under­
took to secure and to tabulate data in full detail for individual
workers, imposed limitations. While an extension of the scope of
the inquiry to cover a longer period, and to include other shops,
might have increased the value of the data as. a basis for determining
more accurately the extent to which conditions of employment as
regards constancy vary from year to year and from shop to shop,
the basis of the present inquiry seems sufficiently broad to indicate
with approximate accuracy conditions which tend to prevail per­
manently and generally.



109

110

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Statistics of seasonal fluctuations in employment, showing changes
in the number employed each week throughout the year in the several
branches of the women’s ready-to-wear garment industry indicate
that as regards a large proportion of the working force, employment
in these industries i3 not constant; that, on the contrary, the number
of workers who find employment in the industries for a portion of
the year only constitutes a very considerable proportion of the total
number of workers who are in some degree dependent as wage earners
upon these industries.
Statistics showing fluctuations from week to week in the number
of the aggregate working force do not, however, indicate accurately,
and may not indicate even approximately, the degree of constancy
or inconstancy of employment as regards individual workers, since
such data do not take into account the changing personnel of the
working force, but take account only of changes in the aggregate
number employed. While any fluctuation in the aggregate number
employed necessarily implies a degree of inconstancy of employment
for individual workers sufficient to account for that fluctuation, the
inconstancy of employment itself may obviously exceed to any degree
. the amount indicated by changes in the aggregate number employed.
Any degree of inconstancy of employment is entirely consistent with
the maintenance of the number of the working force unchanged from
week to week. In any given shop, for example, it is entirely con­
ceivable that each week a certain number of workers should either
voluntarily leave or be discharged and new workers be taken on to
fill the vacancies. In such a case, while the total number employed
might remain unchanged throughout the year, it might nevertheless
be true that no worker, or only a few workers, would be retained on
the pay roll for so long a period as one year.
As regards the individual workers, constancy of employment obvi­
ously can not be determined from statistics showing seasonal fluctua­
tion. Neither can it be determined from statistics showing weeks
worked by individual workers during a year in any one or in any
given number of selected shops, or even in all the shops of any given,
industrial character. While the pay roll of any manufacturing estab­
lishment for any year may be a complete record of employment
within that establishment, it obviously can not be taken as a com­
plete record of employment for any of the workers who may have
been employed in the establishment during the year, except in the
case of those who have been employed therein during the full 52
weeks. As regards all employees who have worked in the given
shop less than 52 weeks, the record of their employment for the year
as a whole is incomplete. Some of these workers may have entered
the industry for the first time during the year; some may have died
during the year or have suffered permanent or temporary disability



REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W O M E N 's GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

I ll

from sickness, accident, or old age; some may have found employ­
ment in the same or in some other occupation in another shop,
located in the same or in some other community, either immediately
upon leaving the given shop or after a more or less prolonged period
of unemployment; and, finally, some may have remained unem­
ployed. None of these factors can be accurately determined from
available shop records for any large group of workers.
These indeterminable factors must be borne in mind in analyzing
the data of employment for individual workers when those data are
found on the pay-roll records of selected shops; and since, as regards
a large proportion of the working force, the pay-roll record is an
incomplete record of employment for the individual workers covered
by the data, it is important to determine precisely what the signifi­
cance of such data is.
Obviously the general significance of such data depends entirely
upon the extent to which the conditions of employment in the
selected shops fairly represent the conditions prevailing generally
and permanently in the industry—the extent, in other words, to
which the selected shops may be regarded as typical representative
shops—and the period covered as a normal period. In both these
respects the data presented in this report may be accepted as being
significant, and it may be fairly assumed that the conditions shown
to obtain in the selected shops in the given year do, in fact, obtain
more or less generally throughout the industry in other shops and
in other years. On this assumption the data acquire an important
though clearly a somewhat indefinite significance.
Where, for example, the data show that a large proportion of the
workers have been employed for a portion of the year only, the con­
dition reflected may be seasonal fluctuation in employment; but it
is not necessarily that, since the same proportion might result from
a tendency on the part of certain workers to float from shop to shop,
or from a general instability of employment extending throughout
the year.
The classification of the workers according to the number of weeks
worked during the year covered, indicates with approximate accuracy
what may be termed the shop expectation of continuous employment,
or, conversely, the frequency of the occurrence of unemployment.
As regards the duration of unemployment in the case of individual
workers dropped from the pay roll, no data are available, but that
some time will be lost in seeking new employment seems inevitable,
the amount of unemployment tending to increase roughly in propor­
tion as the shop expectation of employment decreases.




112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

MUSLIN-TOfDERWEAR INDUSTRY, NEW YORK CITY.
SUMMARY.

Data relating to weeks employed, hours worked of regular and oyer
time, and earnings during a specified year for employees in 32 occu­
pations of the muslin-underwear industry were taken from the pay
rolls of two New York establishments—designated in this report as
Shop No. 1 and Shop No. 2, respectively. In the manufacturing
processes Shop No. 1 employed 614 and Shop No. 2 536 workers dur­
ing the year (March, 1913, through February, 1914), giving a total
of 1,150 workers for the two establishments. Aftqr a survey of some
30 manufacturing establishments in the industry these two shops
were selected as being representative of the better grade of shops as
regards opportunity provided by the industry for steady employment
of workers throughout the year. While conditions of employment
undoubtedly vary from shop to shop throughout the industry, the
extent to which the industry provides workers with steady employ­
ment is determined by characteristics of the trade which affect all
shops in common, and the conditions of employment shown to prevail
in the two selected shops are, with due allowance for shop variations,
typical of the industry as a whole.
In the aggregate the 1,150 workers entered upon the pay rolls of
these two shops at some time during the year covered by the inquiry
worked 31,517 weeks, or an average per worker of 27.4 weeks for the
year.
This average, however, while it indicates accurately the amount of
employment provided by these shops for the working force as a
whole, does not indicate a usual or common period of employment for
individual workers. Only 8 of the 1,150 workers were employed
exactly 27 weeks, and only 118 from 21 to 33 weeks. If the workers
be classified according to weeks worked, it will be found that the
average given above represents not a usual period of employment, but
rather a combination of relatively short with relatively long periods.
This will be apparent from the summary Table 52 following, which
groups the workers according as they were employed 13 weeks or
less, 14 to 26, 27 to 39, and 40 to 52 weeks, the last group being sub­
divided to show separately those employed 40 to 46 and 47 to 52
weeks.




REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— W O M E N S GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 1 8
T a b le « 2 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES WORKING EACH CLASSIFIED

NUMBER OF W EEKS AND AVERAGE W EEKS W ORKED, IN 2 MUSLIN-UNDERWEAR
ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW YO R K CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE.

Weeks employed.

1 to 13 weeks......................................................................................................
14 to 26 weeks........................................... ........................................................
27 to 39 weeks....................................................................................................
40 to 52 weeks....................................................................................................
40 to 46 weeks...........................................................................................
47 to 52 waaItc__________________________________ ________________
Total....... ...........

Number. Percent.

Average
weeks
worked.

424
163
96
467
83
384

36.9
14.2
8.3
40.6
7.2
33.4

5.3
19.5
33.1
49.0
43.2
50.3

1,160 ,

100.0

27.4

Of the total number of workers, it will be noted, 424, or nearly twofifths (36.9 per cent), were retained on the pay roll not over 13
weeks, the average period of employment for these workers being 5.3
weeks; 467, or two-fifths (40.6 per cent) of the workers were em­
ployed 40 to 52 weeks, or for an average of 49 weeks; the remaining
259—of whom 163 were employed 14 to 26 weeks, and 96, 27 to 39
weeks—constitute a little over one-fifth (22.5 per cent) of the total
number.
If employment for 47 to 52 weeks in a year be regarded as per­
manent employment, it would appear that permanent employment
was provided for one-third of the working force, the number em­
ployed 47 to 52 weeks being 384, or 33.4 per cent of the total number.
For more than one-half (51 per cent) of the working force the
period of employment did not in any case exceed 26 weeks and the
average duration of employment for the 587 workers employed 1 to
26 weeks was in fact only 9.3 weeks. The data indicate that for at
least one-half of the working force employment in the industry is
unstable.
In the general tables on pages 136 and 137 the number and the
percentage employed under 5 weeks, 5 to 9 weeks, and by 5-week
periods covering the year are shown and the data for the two shops
combined are made the basis of the chart on page 114. Table 53,
following, summarizes the totals included in these tables, which also
give detail for occupational groups considered in a following section.
7001°—BulL 18a—16----- 8




114

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 5 3 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES WORKING EACH CLASSIFIED

NUMBER OF W EEKS IN EACH OF 2 MUSLIN-UNDER W EAR ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW
YORK CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE.

Workers employed specified number of weeks.
Per cent.

Number.

Weeks worked.
Shop
No. I.

Shop •
No. 2.

Total.

Shop
No. 1.

Shop
No. 2.

Total.

Under 5 weeks..............................................
5 to 9 weeks...................................................
10 to 14 weeks...............................................
15 to 19 weeks............................................
20 to 24 weeks................................................
25 to 29 weeks................................................
30 to 34 weeks................................................
35 to 39 weeks...............................................
40 to 44 weeks...............................................
45 to 49 weeks...............................................
50 to 52 weeks...............................................

103
55
52
47
23
23
17
25
33
85
148

112
77
41
25
31
20
17
12
21
43
137

215
132
93
72
54
46
34
37
54
128
285

16.8
9.0
8.5
7.7
3.7
4.2
2.8
4.1
5.4
13.8
24.1

20.9
14.4
7.7
4.7
5.8
3.7
3.2
2.2
3.9
8.0
25.5

18.7
11.5
8.1
6.3
4.7
4.0
3.0
3.2
4.7
11.1
24.8

Total....................................................

614

536

1,150

100.0

100.0

100.0

C h a r t No. S2.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y W EEK LY

PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN THE WOMEN’S CUSTOM-TAILORING
AND WOMEN’S MUSLIN-UNDERWEAR INDUSTRIES—NEW YORK CITY.

As has been stated, the 1,150 workers covered by the inquiry
represent 32 occupations in the muslin-underwear industry. These
occupational groups range in size from 2 to 273 workers. It wil
be obvious that comparatively little significance attaches to the



REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 1 5

average duration of employment shown for the smaller occupational
groups, since in the case of these groups the average might be mate­
rially affected by the inclusion of a larger number of workers had the
inquiry been more extensive. For the larger groups, however, the
average has occupational significance. Some such significance
certainly attaches, for example, to the average duration of em­
ployment of 6.1 weeks shown for 19 pressers, folders, as also to the
average of 12.9 weeks shown for 44 layers-up, of 13.5 weeks for 17
markers, and of 14.2 weeks for 44 operators not classified. In Table
54, following, the average number of weeks worked is shown for the
32 occupational groups, the occupations being ranged in order with
reference to the average shown.
Table 54.—AVERAGE W EEKS W ORKED B Y EMPLOYEES IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS
IN 2 MUSLIN-UNDERWEAR ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW YORK CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO
MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE.

Occupation.

Number Average
of
weeks
workers. worked.

1. Slopers...........................................................................................................................
2. Operators, special machines........................................................................................
3. Operators, sample........................................................................................................
4. Operators, high-class....................................................................................................
5. Lace runners.................................................................................................................
6. Operators, scallops.......................................................................................................
7. Ruffle setters.................................................................................................................
8. Operators, princess......................................................................................................
9. Scallop cutters..............................................................................................................
10. Operators, zigzag..........................................................................................................
11. Operators, chemise.......................................................................................................
12. Operators, drawers.......................................................................................................
13. Operators, corset-cover combination................................................................... .
14. Button sewers...............................................................................................................
16. Embroiderers................................................................................................................
16. Trimmers......................................................................................................................
17. Hemstitchers.................................................................................................................
18. Cutters...........................................................................................................................
19. Examiners....................................................................................................................
20. Tuckers.........................................................................................................................
21. Operators, embroidery................................................................................................
22. Operators, skirts...........................................................................................................
23. Pressers.........................................................................................................................
24. Button-hole makers.....................................................................................................
25. Operators, gowns.........................................................................................................
26. Ribboners......................................................................................................................
27. Operators, fancy work.................................................................................................
28. Hemmers.......................................................................................................................
29. Operators, not classified.............................................................................................
80. Markers.........................................................................................................................
31. Layers up.....................................................................................................................
32. Pressers, folders............................................................................................................

3
4
5
9
19
4
6
23
4
21
10
42
34
3
2
48
3
29
88
30
22
86
78
16
273
88
10
66
44
17
44
19

51.3
51.fr
47.0
44.9
42.3
42.2
41.5
41.3
39.7
39.0
38.1
37.6
36.8
36.3
34.0
33.7
33.0
32.7
31.0
30.6
29.7
29.6
28.0
27.2
24.9
23.3
20.0
19.0
14.2
13.5
12.9
6.1

Total.........................................................................................................................

1,150

27.4

In the general tables on pages 136 and 137 the workers in each occu­
pational group in each shop are distributed according to number of
weeks worked, the number and the percentage of workers in each
occupation who worked less than 5 weeks, 5 to 9 weeks, etc., being
shown separately for each shop.
The factors determining constancy of employment in the different
occupations are not simple. In the case of certain unskilled employ­
ments which yield low rates of wages, the proportion of workers who



116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

drift from shop to shop is undoubtedly large; while in the case of more
skilled work the seasonal activity of the trade may affect the several
occupations unequally, the demand for work in certain lines being
relatively more seasonal than it is in others.
AVERAGE EARNINGS PER WEEK.

In Table 55, following, the 1,150 workers are classified according to
average earnings per week worked. Of the total number 54.9 per
cent, or more than one-half, earned on the average from $5 to $9.99
per week worked, 18.3 per cent earned less than $5, and 26.8 per cent
earned $10 or more.
T a b le 5 5 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OP EMPLOYEES EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED

AMOUNT PER W EE K W ORKED IN 2 MUSLIN-UNDERWEAR ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW
YOR K CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE.

Workers whose earnings averaged speci­
fied amount per week worked.
Average amount earned per week worked.

Total, two shops.
Shop
No. 1.

Shop
No. 2.
Number. Per cent.

7
Under $1...........................................................................................
3
4
12
7
$1 to $1.99.........................................................................................
19
$2 to $2.99.........................................................................................
13
17
30
22
$3 to $3.99.........................................................................................
28
50
64
41
105
$4 to $4.99.........................................................................................
$5 to $6.99.........................................................................................
76
52
128
$6 to$3.99.........................................................................................
52
58
110
74
$7 to $7.99.........................................................................................
74
148
$8 to $8.99.........................................................................................
67
64
131
$9 to $9.99.........................................................................................
67
47
114
42
$10 to $10.99......................................................................................
56
98
$11 to $11.99......................................................................................
49
28
77
$12 to $12.99......................................................................................
22
34
56
11
$13 to $13.99......................................................................................
$14 to $14.99......................................................................................
22
12
10
$15 to $19.99......................................................................................
23
10
13
3
7
4
$20 and over.....................................................................................
Total......................................................................................

614

536

1,150

0.6
1.7
2.6
4.3
9.1
11.1
9.6
12.9
11.4
9.9
8.5
6.7
4.9
'2.2 14
1.9
2.0
.6
100.0

Of the 211 workers who earned on the average less than $5 per
week, a large proportion were employed for a few weeks only—146,
or more than two-thirds of them, being employed 1 to 5 weeks, and
only 33, or less than one-sixth, for a longer period than 13 weeks.
These workers are classified, according to weeks worked, in Table 56,
following. By comparison with foregoing tables it may be seen that
as a group they are much less steadily employed than are workers
whose average earnings are greater. It has been shown, for example,
that 63.1 per cent of the total number of workers were employed for
a longer period than 13 weeks; the corresponding percentage for
workers earning less than $5 is 15.6 per cent.




BEGTJLABITY OP EMPLOYMENT— W O M EN'S GARMENTINDUSTRIES. 1 1 7
TABLE 5 6 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OP EMPLOYEES EARNING LESS THAN $5 PER

W EEK WHO WORKED EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF W EEKS, IN 2 MUSLIN-UNDERW EAR ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW YORK CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE.
Workers earning on the average less than
$5 per week who worked each specified
number of weeks.
Weeks worked.
Shop
No. 1.

Shop
No. 2.

Total, two shops.
Number. Percent.

1 to 13 weeks..
1 week............
2 weeks..........
3 weeks..........
4 weeks.........
5 weeks.........

178
60
32
18

7weeks...........

9

2
0
16
4
4
4
3
3
4

8 weeks...........
9 weeks...........
10 weeks.........
11 weeks.........
12 weeks.........
13 weeks.........
14 to 26 weeks.
27 to 39 weeks.
40 to 52 weeks.

1
8

18

7

Total..

114

97

21
1

84.4
28.4
15.2
8.5
9.5
7.6
1.9
4.3
1.9
1.9
1.4
1.4
1.9
.5
8.5
3.8
3.3

10
0 .0

TOTAL EARNINGS FOR THE YEAR.

Of the 1,150 workers entered upon the pay roll of the two shops,
304, or 26.4 per cent, earned less than $50 during the year; 266, or
23.1 per cent, earned from $50 to $199; 374, or 32.5 per cent, earned
from $200 to $499; and 206, or 17.9 per cent, earned $500 or more.
The total earnings of individual workers are shown in the general
table on pages 138 to 141. In summary Table 57 below, the workers
in all occupations combined are classified according to amounts earned.
T able 57.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED

AMOUNT DURING THE YEAR IN 2 MUSLIN-UNDERWEAR ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW
YORK CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE.
Workers who earned specified amounts
during the year.
Amounts earned during the year.

Total, two shops.
Shop
No. 1.

Shop
No. 2.
Number. Percent.

Under $ 5 0 .....
$50 to $ 9 9 .......
$100 to $149....
$150 to $199....
$200 to $249....
$250 to $299.....
$300 to $349....
$350 to $399......
$400 to $449......
$450 to $499.....
$500 to $599......
$600 to $699......
$700 to $799......
$800 to $899.....
$900 to $999.......
$1,000 and over.
Total___




141
56
57
33
32
29
41
34
43
37
76
26
3

163
55
35
30
17
24
32
31
26
28
42
33
13

3

4

1
2

614

2
1

304

11
1

92
63
49
53
73
65
69
65
118
59
16
3
3
7
1,150

26.4
9.6

8
.0

5.5
4.2
4.6
6.3
5.7

6
.0

5.7
10.3
5.1
1.4
.3
.3

10
0 .0

118

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WEEKLY AND HOURLY WAGES.

These two establishments were among those which paid the highest
wages or piece prices. Both had agreements with the International
Ladies’ Garment Worked Union. The pay rolls were examined for
12 months, from April, 1913, to March, 1914, and a record was made
of the number of weeks worked by each direct labor employee and of
the amount of wages that each one received each week. The data
are shown in condensed form in the following tables:
T a b l e 5 8 . — NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, AVERAGE W EEKS WORKED DURING YEAR ,

AVERAGE ACTUAL W EEK LY EARNINGS DURING W EEKS WORKED, AVERAGE RATE
PER HOUR, AND NUMBER WORKING EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF W EEKS, BY
OCCUPATIONS, IN 2 ESTABLISHMENTS IN NEW YOR K CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO MARCH,
1914, INCLUSIVE.

Occupation.

Layers up.............. ...................
Cutters.......................................
Cutters, scallop............... .
Slopers.......................................
Operators, chemises.................
Operators, corset covers and
combinations..........................
Operators, drawers....................
Operators, nightgowns.............
Operators, princess slips...........
Operators, skirts.......................
Operators, zigzag......................
Operators, tuckers..... . .............
Operators, lace runners.........
Operators, embroidery..............
Operators, scallops. . . . . . . . . . . .
Operators, ruffle setters...........
Operators, hemstitchers...........
Operators, hemmers.................
Operators, buttonholes............
Operators, button sewers.........
Operators, special machines....
Operators, fancywork. . . . . . . . . .
Operators, high class................
Operators, samples...................
Operators, not classified...........
Markers....................................
Embroiderers ...........................
Ribboners..................................
Trimmers...................................
Examiners.................................
Pressers......................................
Folders.......................................
Total................................
Aggregate.........................

Num­
ber
Shop of
No. em­
ploy­
ees.

Average
earningsaur- Employees working each classified
ing weeks
number of weeks during year.
Aver­
worked.
age
weeks
worked
10
20
30
40
50
during Per
Per Un­ and and and and
year. week. hour. der iin. un­ un­ un­ weeks
der der der der and
10.
20.
50. over.
30.
40.

1
2
1
2
1
2
1

41
3
17
12
4
3
10

12.32
20.33
32.12
33.58
39.75
51.33
38.10

$6.23 $0,136
6.82 .146
18.46 .385
16.94 .356
7.34 .157
8.29 .176
9.09 .219

25
1
3
4
1
1

1

1

1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1

34
42
71
202
23
28
58
21
9
21
9
10
22
4
6
3
2
64
5
11
3
4
3
7
9
5
44
17
2
46
42
16
32
43
45
61
17
19

36.79
37.64
33.77
21.84
41.26
34.68
27.19
39.00
33.33
29.38
38.44
45.70
29.74
42.25
41.50
33.00
27.50
18.72
34.20
24.00
36.33
51.25
46.33
8.71
44.89
47.00
14.16
13.47
34.00
22.98
23.71
32.94
34.09
29.65
32.24
24.61
40.24
6.05

9.31
7.40
10.24
9.151
10.68
8.81
10.34
9.71
9.24
12.06
9.97
11.09
9.73
10.42
11.54
10.76
7.75
9.70
8.53
7.46
6.11
10.85
10.59
10.99
13.62
9.99
8.03
4.67
8.16
8.27
9.29
8.04
8.30
7.27
8.02
8.94
11.52
5.18

2
3
9
89
1
5
18

8
8
14
24
2
4
8
3
2
1
2

1
1
7
22
1
2
2
1
1
6

4
2
5
4
2
1
8
2

4

2
1

1
1

.127

1
2

614
536

28.80
25.80

8.77 .201
9.66 M 93

1,150

27.41

9.18

.225
.182
.241
.264
.204
.221
.218
.235
.226
.236
.278
.260
.175
.177
.158,
.132
.205
.251
.213
.188
.103
.181
.185
.170
.176
.159
.174
.206

7
1
3

4
1
1

2
1
1

1

1
1

1
28

1
16
1
1

1
1
1
9
4

1

7
16
14
27
10
5
6
7
3
5
5
1
3
3
2
1
5

5
2

3
5l
1
1

1

1
2

4
6
2
3
6
12
12
22
36
7
11
16
7
2
3
1
8
7
2
2
10
3
3
1
4
1

1

2

1
3

3

5
4
2

1
1
3
4
6
7
6
2

1
8
4
2
2
8
5
12
5

9
10
3
15
10
15
9
7

16

2
7
1
3
10
2
10
1
2

6
1
1
5
5
7
1
1
5
3
1
1

158
189

100
66

48
51

42
30

120
63

146
137

347

166

99

72

183

283

23
21
15

11
21

i For only employees in the following occupations, all of whom were time workers: Layers up, cutters,
slopers, buttonhole workers, trimmers, and examiners.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

119

TABLE 5 9 .—NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, AVERAGE W EEKS WORKED DURING YE AR ,
AVERAGE W EEK LY EARNINGS COMPUTED ON FULL-TIME (50 HOUR) BASIS, AVER­
AGE ACTUAL EARNINGS DURING W EEKS W ORKED, AVERAGE RATES PER HOUR
AND NUMBER EMPLOYED AT EACH CLASSIFIED HOURLY RATE, B Y OCCUPA­
TIONS, IN 1 ESTABLISHMENT IN NEW YOR K CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO MARCH, 1914,
INCLUSIVE.

Occupations.

Average
earnings
during
weeks
worked.

Employees receiving each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver­
Num­ Aver- age
ber
age
weeks time
em- worked week­
14
16
18
pipy- during ly
and and and and and and and
30
eamr
Per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cents
ings. week.
hour. der der der der der der der and
14
25
30 over.
16
18
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

fu
il-

o
r

2
0

1 1
0 2

2
0

1
2

Layers up.........
Cutters.............. _
Cutters, scallop___
Operators,chemises
Operators, corset
covers and com­
binations............
Operators, drawers
Operators, night­
gowns..................
Operators,princess
slips.....................
Operators, skirts...
Operators, zigzag. .
Operators, tuckers.
Operators, lace
runners...............
O p erators, em­
broidery..............
Operators,scallops.
Operators, ruffle
setters.................
Operators, hem­
stitches..............
Operators, hemmers....................
Operators, button­
h o le s.................
Operators, button
sewers.................
Operators, special
machines............
Operators, fancywork...................
Operators, samples
O p era tors, not
classified.............
Markers..................
Embroiderers.........
Ribboners..............
Trimmers...............
Examiners.............
Pressers..................
Folders...................
Total............

2
0

12.32 $6.80 $6.23 $0,136
32.12 19.25 18.46 .385
39.75 7.85 7.34 .157
38.10 10.95 9.09 .219
36.79 11.25
37.64 9.10

9.31
7.40

.182

33.77 12.05 10.24

.241

41.26 13.20
34.68
39.00 11.05
33.33 10.90

1 .2
00

38.44 11.75

1 .6
08
8.81
9.71
9.24

1
5
2
1

.264
.204

.2 1
2

.218

9.97

.235

29.74 11.30 9.73
42.25 11.80 10.42

.226
.236

41.50 13.90 11.54

1
3

.278

33.00 13.00 10.76

.260

27.50

$.75

7.75

.175

34.20

8.85

8.53

.177

36.33

6.60

61
.1

.132

51.25 10.25 10.85

.205

46.33 12.55 10.59
47.00 10.65 9.99

.251
.213

14.16 9.40
13.47 5.15
34.00 9.05
22.98 9.25
32.94 8.50
29.65 7.95
24.61 10.30
6.05 6.35
614

14

8.03
4.67
8.16
8.27
8.04
7.27
8.94
5.18

.188
.103
.181
.185
.170
.159
.206
.127

28.80 10.09

8.77

.2 1
0

1 Including 1 at less than 10 cents per hour.
3 Including 2 at less than 10 cents per hour.
* Including 5 at less than 10 cents per hour.

*2
1

1
1

*16

<9
25
4

U
0
5

75

51

80

52

141

84

4Including 3 at less than 10 cents per hour.
6 Including 20 at less than 10 cents per hour.

In both shops the regular working time was 50 hours a week.
During the 12 months there were 614 employees on direct labor in
Shop No. 1 and 536 in Shop No. 2, but many of them worked for
only a short period, in some cases for a week or less. In both
shops the total number of weeks that the employees in each direct



120

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

labor occupation worked was recorded, and, by dividing the total
number of weeks by the number of employees, the average number
of weeks worked during the year was found.
In both shops the total amount paid in wages to employees in each
direct labor operation was recorded, and, by dividing this amount
by the total number of weeks worked, the average earnings per week
during the weeks worked were found. It should be understood, how­
ever, that the average earnings during the weeks worked, as shown
in Table 58, were not the average earnings on a full-time basis, but
the average of the actual weekly earnings of the direct labor em­
ployees, many of whom did not work six days in each week that
they worked.
In Table 59 the average earnings per hour during the time worked
are shown for the direct labor employees in Shop No. 1. The average
earnings per hour were not available for employees in Shop No, 2,
except for a few occupations in which there was time work, the em­
ployees in other occupations working on piece rates, and no record of
the time they worked was kept.
In Table 58 the number of direct labor employees in both estab­
lishments are classified according to the number of weeks that they
worked during the year. From the aggregate of Table 58 it will be
seen that the 1,150 employees in the two establishments worked on an
average of 27.41 weeks, and the average of their actual weekly earn­
ings was $9.18. Further details regarding Shop No. 1 are shown in
Table 59, such details for Shop No. 2 not being presented because in
the case of the latter establishment the average earnings per hour
were obtainable for employees in only a few occupations.
From the footing to Table 59 it will be seen that the average weekly
earnings, computed on a full-time basis (50 hours), of the 614 direct
labor employees in Shop No. 1 were $10.09, while their average actual
earnings were $8.77 per week. The average rate of earnings per
hour was 20.1 cents, as appears in both tables.
EARNINGS PER HOUR.

Data for hours worked were obtained for 720 workers. In Table
60, following, these workers are classified according to their average
earnings per hour.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN 'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 2 1
Table 60.—NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES REPORTING SPECIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR
IN 2 MUSLIN-UNDERWEAR ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW YORK CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO
MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE.

Average earnings per hour.

Under 8 cents............
8 and under 9 cents...
9 and under 10 cents..
10 and under 11 cents.
11 and under 12 cents.
12 and under 13 cents.
13 and under 14 cents.
14 and under 15 cents.
15 and under 16 cents.
16 and under 17 cents.
17 and under 18 cents.
18 and under 19 cents.
19 and under 20 cents.
20 and under 21 cents.
21 and under 22 cents.

Workers
earning
specified
amount
per hour.

Workers
earning
specified
amount
per hour.

Average earnings per hour.

22 and under 23 cents.,
23 and under 24 cents.,
24 and under 25 cents..
25 and under 26 cents..
26 and under 27 cents..
27 and under 28cents..
28 and under 29 cents.,
29 and under 30 cents..
30 and under 35 cents..
35 and under 40 cents..
40 and under 45 cents..
45 and under 50 cents..
50 cents and over........

25
31
30
25
18
14
17
13
29

Total....... I..........

720

1
1
2
3
2

While the foregoing table indicates a wide range of variation in the
earning capacity of workers, it may be noted that nearly three-fifths
(420) of the total number earned on the average from 10 to 20 cents
an hour, another fifth (146) earning from 20 to 25 cents. The pro­
portion earning 25 cents or more was 18.6 per cent, and the propor­
tion earning less than 10 cents, 2.8 per cent. These proportions
are shown more clearly in the following summary Table 61, which
combines the workers into larger wage groups.
T able 61__ NUMBER AND FEB CENT OF EMPLOYEES REPORTING EACH CLASSIFIED
AMOUNT OF EARNINGS FEB BOUB IN 2 MU SLIN-UNDERWE AR ESTABLISHMENTS,
NEW YO BK CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO MABCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE.

Average earnings per hour.

Workers earning
specified amount
per hour.
Number. Per cent.

Under 10 cents....................................................................................................................
10 and under 15 cents..........................................................................................................
15 and under 20 cents..........................................................................................................
20 and under 25 cents..........................................................................................................
25 and under 30 cents..........................................................................................................
30 cents and over................................................................................................................
Total.....................................................................................................................

20
207
213
146
87
47

2.8
28.7
29.6
20.3
12.1
6.5

720

100.0

OVERTIME WORKED.

Generally, in the case of the occupational groups for which data
are available, the amount of overtime worked does not amount to so
much as 1 per cent of the total time worked. In Table 62 following,
the totals for occupational groups shown in the general table are
brought together. In Shop No. 1, for which the data are complete,
the 614 employees worked in the aggregate 762,059} hours, the



122

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

amount of overtime being 4,461 i hours, or 0.6 per cent of the total
time worked. This is equivalent approximately to 1 hour of over­
time for 169 hours of regular time.
T able 62 .—HOURS OF REGULAR TIME AND OF OVERTIME W ORKED B Y EMPLOYEES
IN 2 MUSLIN-UNDERWEAR ESTABLISHMENTS, NEW YO R K CITY, APRIL, 1913, TO
MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE, B Y OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS.

Honrs worked.
Shop No. 1.

Occupation.

Regular
time.

1 Cutters....................................
.
2 Scallop cutters.......................
.

26,031
7,377
22,885*
15 791
64,089f
27,898
5,849
101,455}
51,727$
38,376
10,955
7,377f

3. Layers up...............................
4. Operators, chemise................
5. Operators, drawers................
Operators, embroidery..........
7. Operators, fancywork............
Operators, nightgowns.........
9. Operators, corset covers........
Operators, princess slips.......
Operators, samples................
Operators, scallops................
13. Operators, skirts...................
14. Operators, special machines.
15. Operators, zigzag..................
16. Operators, not classified.......
17. Embroiderers.........................
18. Ribboners...............................
19. Pressers..................................
Pressers, folders.....................
Trimmers...............................
Examiners.............................
23. Buttonhole makers................
Button sewers........................
Ruffle setters..........................
26. Markers..................................
27. Hemstitchers..........................
28. Hemmers................................
29. Lace runners..........................
30. Tuckers..................................
31. Operators, high class.............
Slopers....................................

6
.
8
.
1.
0
1.
1
1.
2

Shop No. 2.

Over­
time.
14U
56
208
3
89*
145

Regular
time.

Over­
time.

19,069

99

2,843

‘ii*

51,293}
66,806
12,483*

4
lt

47

2
1
3
*

*8 6091

%

44,939
63,863|
4,614
24,001
57,953
8,066
4,950
10,288
10,219
4,083
2,404
14,673
12,687

2.
0
2.
1
2.
2

4

18
7,252*

Alloocupations................................................................

757,597|

4,461f

*159,747f

* 170

i Data not available.
s Owing to the incompleteness of data received from Shop No. 2, this total is not representative.

DRESS AND WAIST INDUSTRY, BOSTON, MASS.
SUMMARY.

Data for the dress and waist industry were taken from the pay
rolls of five shops located in Boston, which, during the year 1913-14,
employed for the whole or for some portion of the year respec­
tively, 95, 139, 107, 262, and 175, workers in the manufacturing
processes. Of these 778 workers, 70 were males and 708 were females.
Tables 63 and 64 following, which summarize the detail for these
workers, correspond in form to those covering the New York data,
and are to be interpreted similarly.
Of the workers in the five shops 4 males and 98 females worked
only one week, while 7 males and only 1 female worked 52 weeks.



REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— WOM EN'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 2 3

The aggregate working time of the 778 workers was 13,271 weeks,
which gives an average per worker of 17.1 weeks. The average for
the males is markedly higher than that for the females, being 27.8
as compared with 16. In the case of the males the aggregate number
of weeks worked is equivalent approximately to full time (52 weeks)
for 38 workers, and in the case of females to full time for 218 workers—
the actual weeks worked by the 778 workers being equivalent to full
time (52 weeks) for 255 workers. While the data do not enable one
to determine even approximately the amount of time actually lost
during the year, they indicate that, as regards individual shops, em­
ployment for a large proportion of the workers is inconstant. This
will be apparent from the summary Table 63, following, which classi­
fies the workers as employed, 1 to 13, 14 to 26, 27 to 39, and 40 to 52
weeks:
Table 63.—NTTMBER AND PER CENT OP EMPLOYEES OP EACH SEX WORKING EACH
CLASSIFIED NTTMBER OP WEEKS AND AVERAGE WEEKS WORKED, IN 5 DRESS AND
WAIST ESTABLISHMENTS, BOSTON, MASS., MAY, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914, INCLUSIVE.
Workers employed specified number of
weeks.
Weeks employed.

Average weeks
worked.

Per cent.

Number.

Males.
Males.

Females.

Males.

Females.

Females.

1 to 13 weeks.................................................
14 to 26 weeks...............................................
27 to 39 weeks...............................................
40 to 52 weeks...............................................
40 to 46 weeks.........................................
47 to 52 weeks.........................................

26
8
8
28
8
20

451
64
62
131
56
75

37.1
11.4
11.4
40.0
11.4
28.6

63.7
9.0
8.8
18.5
7.9
10.6

6.7
17.5
34.4
48.6
44.0
50.4

4.5
19.4
31.5
46.6
43.5
49.0

Total...................................................

70

708

100.0

100.0

27.8

16.0

Of the 708 females, 451, or 63.7 per cent, worked 1 to 13 weeks
during the year, the average number of weeks worked for this group
of workers being only 4.5. Less than one-fifth of the females, 18.5
per cent, worked 40 weeks or more. Twenty males and 75 females,
constituting, respectively, 28.6 and 10.6 per cent of the total number
of males and females, were employed 47 weeks or more, and these
percentages may be taken as indicating approximately the propor­
tion of the working force which is steadily employed throughout the
year. Nearly three-fourths of the females, 515, or 72.7 per cent,
are classified as working 1 to 26 weeks. The average number of
weeks worked by this group was only 6.3.
The totals for individual shops classifying the workers as employed
under 5 weeks, 5 to 9 weeks, and by five-week periods covering the
year are shown in Table 64, following:




BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

124

T a b l e 64^-NUM BER OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX WORKING EACH CLASSIFIED NUM­

BER OF WEEKS IN EACH OF 5 DRESS AND WAIST ESTABLISHMENTS, BOSTON, MASS.,
MAY, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914, INCLUSIVE.

Workers employed specified number of weeks.
Shop No. 1. Shop No. 2. Shop No. 3. Shop No. 4. |Shop No. 5.
Weeks
worked.

Total, five shops.
Number.

J 8- | •
J
Fe­
Fe­
Male. Fe- Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. ! Male. Fe­
male.
male.

1
1

23
14
11
2
4
13
5
2
9
7
1

4

Under 5 weeks.
5 to 9 weeks
10 to 14 weeks.
15 to 19 weeks.
20 to 24 weeks.
25 to 29 weeks.
30 to 34 weeks.
35 to 39 weeks.
40 to 44 weeks
45 to 49 weeks.
50 to 52 weeks.

91

1

1

TotaL...

1
1
1
2
1
3

38
22
21
5
1
4
2
4
6
14
8

6
2
4
3
1

14

125

2
3

3
1
3
5
9

11
11
5
6
3
4
3
3
5
13
6

37

70

3
4
2
2

1
1

124
47
19
13
5
6
7
1
10
24
4

2

260

13

1

1

Per cent.

Fe­
Male. male. Male. Fe­
male.

75
23
11
5
9
5
5
5
7
7
10

9
8
10
5
1
2
4
3
5
9
14

271
117
67
31
22
32
22
15
37
65
29

12.9
11.4
14.3
7.1
1.4
2.8
5.7
4.3
7.1
12.9
20.0

,38.3
16.5
9.5
4.7
3.1
4.5
3.1
2.1
5.2
9.2
4.1

162

70

708 100.0

100.0

CONSTANCY OF EMPLOYMENT IN DIFFERENT OCCUPATIONS.

Thirteen occupational groups are distinguished in the general
tables. In Table 65 following, the number of workers in each group
and the average number of weeks worked by males and females are
given, the occupations being arranged in order with reference to
average weeks worked for both sexes combined. The highest average,
34.6 weeks, is for the small group, “ machine operators.” The aver­
ages are lowest for the two largest groups, being 15.2 weeks for the
382 female waist operators and 13.1 weeks for the 192 female
finishers.
T a b l e 65.—AVERAGE W EEKS WORKED B Y EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX IN SPECIFIED

OCCUPATIONS IN 5 DRESS AND WAIST ESTABLISHMENTS, BOSTON, MASS., M AY,
1913, TO APRIL, 1914, INCLUSIVE.

Number.

Average weeks worked.

Occupation.
Male.
MaphfoA operators........................................
Sample makers.............................................
Folders........................................................
Pressers........................................................
C u tters........................................................
Hemstitches................................................
Drapers.........................................................
Slopers...........................................................
Operators, skirts..........................................
Examiners.....................................................
Operators, petticoats...................................
Operators, waists.........................................
Total....................................................




Female.

Total.

Male.
30.7

............ 6*
19
9
22
31
11
26
382
192

5
7
7
32
29
6
19
9
53
11
26
382
192

70

778

3
16
29

2
7
7
16

708

Female.
40.5
31.0
29.0
25.6

Total.

25.5

24.8
24.4
23.4
20.4
21.0
15.5
15.2
13.1

34.6
31.0
29.0
28.2
27.7
24.8
24.4
23.4
22.4
21.0
15.5
15.2
13.1

27.8

16.0

17.1

30.8
27.7

RE G U L A R ITY OF E M P L O Y M E N T — W O M E N 'S G A R M E N T IN D U ST R IE S.

125

AVERAGE EARNINGS PER WEEK,

The classification of workers according to average earnings per
week, in Table 66 following, shows that nearly two-fifths, 39.9 per
cent, of the females earned on the average from $3 to $5.99 per week
worked, while only 1.4 per cent of the males earned less than $6 and
none less than $5 per week. Of the females, approximately one-tenth,
10.7 per cent, earned $10 or more, only 5 of the 708 earning as much
as $14, while of the males, nearly one-half, 47.1 per cent, were earning
$15 or more.
T able 66.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OP EMPLOYEES EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED
AMOUNT PER W EEK W ORKED IN 5 DRESS AND W AIST ESTABLISHMENTS, BOSTON,
MASS., M AY, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914, INCLUSIVE.

Employees whose earnings averaged specified amount per week worked.
Amount of
average
earnings
per week
worked.

Total, five shops.
Shop
No. 1.

Snop
No. 2.

Shop
No. 4.

Sh<

Bhop
No. 5.
Number.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. Male. Fe-

Fe­
Fe­
Male. male. Male. male. Male. Fe­
male.

1

Under $1.......
$1 to $1.99....
$2 to $2.99....
13 to $3.99....
$4 to $4.99....
$5 to $5.99....
$6 to $6.99....
$7 to $7.99....
$8 to $8.99....
$9 to $9.99....
$ip to $10.99..
$11 to $11.99. .
$ m o $12.90..
$13 to $13.99. .
$14 to $14.99..
$15 to $19.99..
$20 to $24.99..
$25 to $29.99..
T otal..

Per cent.

44
69
74
107

11
0
59
81
55
41
31
17
13

1
0
3
2

0
.1
6
.2

4.3
5.7

9.7
10.5
15.1
14.3
8.3
11.4
7.8
5.8
4.4 .
2.4

4.3
7.1
35.7

1.4
.4
.3

1.4
1.4
5.7
5.7

8
.6
8
.6

1 .0
0

1
.8

1.4

91

14

125

37

70

2

260

13

162

70

708 100.0

10
0 .0

More than three-fourths of the 295 workers earning less than $5
per week worked were employed not over 5 weeks, nearly one-half
of them only 1 or 2 weeks, during the year. As was shown to be
true in the case of the New York shops, the proportion employed for
a few weeks only is much higher among workers earning less than $5
than, it is for workers earning higher wages. Number of weeks worked
by workers earning on the average less than $5 is shown in Table 67,
following:




126

BULLETIN' OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

T a b l e 67•
—NUMBER AND PER CENT OP EMPLOYEES EARNING LESS THAN $5 PER

W EE K WHO WORKED EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF W EEKS, IN 5 DRESS AND WAIST
ESTABLISHMENTS, BOSTON, MASS., M AY, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914, INCLUSIVE.
Workers earning on the average less than $5 per week—number
working specified number of weeks.
Weeks worked.

Total, five shops.
Shop
No. 1.

Shop
No. 2.

Shop
No. 4.

Shop
No. 3.

Shop
No. 5.
Number. Percent.

1 to 13 weeks...............................
1 week...................................
2 weeks.................................
3 weeks.................................
4 weeks.................................
5 weeks.................................
6 weeks.................................
7 weeks.................................
8 weeks.................................
9 weeks................................
10 weeks................................
11 weeks................................
12 weeks...............................
13 weeks................................
14 to 26 weeks.............................
27 to 39 weeks.............................
40 to 52 weeks.............................

20
6
5
2
3
1
2
1

7
4
1

35
4
10
5
2
6
1
2

1
1

2
3

1
2

Total................................

20

35

10

146
38
32
21
17
13
8
4
2
2
5

73
21
26
12
4
3
1
1
1

281
73
74
40
26
23
12
9
3
2
9
5
2
3
7
5
2
295

1
2
1

1
3
3
2

3
3

151

79

95.3
24.7
25.1
13.6
8.8
7.8
4.0
3.0
1.0
.7
3.1
1.7
.7
1.0
2.4
1.7
.7
100.0

TOTAL EARNINGS FOR THE YEAR.

Of the females 51.7 per cent earned less than $50 during the year.
This large proportion is, of course, accounted for by the large pro­
portion who were employed for a few weeks only. Only 7 of the
females earned as much as $600 and none earned as much as $800.
Thirteen of the 70 males earned $800 or more, 4 of them earning
$1,000 or more. The classification of workers according to total
amount earned during the year follows, Table 68:
T a b l e 6 8 . — NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED

AMOUNT DURING THE Y E A R , IN 5 DRESS AND WAIST ESTABLISHMENTS, BOSTON,
MASS., M AY, 1913, TO APR IL, 1914, INCLUSIVE.
Total, five shops.
Shop N o.l. Shop No. 2. Shop No. 3. Shop No. 4. Shop No. 5.
Amounts
earned during
the year.

Number.

Per cent.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. Male. Fe­ Male. Fe­
male.
male.
Under $50 . . . .
$50to $99 . . . .
$100 to $149
$150 to $199....
$200 to $219
$250 to $299
$300 to $349
$350 to $399
$400 to $449___
$450 to $499
$500 to $599
$600 to $699
$700 to $799___
$800 to $899
$900 to $999___
$1,000 and over

1

T otal....

4




1

34
13
7
10
7
2
3
6
4
2
3

1

3
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1

1
91

14

58
18
12
3
5
9
5
6
3
2
2
2

125

6
1
1
5
1
2
2
3
3
6
3
2
2
37

170
24
11
6
7
12
8
4
6
4
6
2

13
14
9
3
8
5
1
9
3
2
3

5
2
2
1
1

260

13

1
1

91
22
8
7
7
5
6
4
4
3
4
1

11
6
4
8
2
1

162

1
1
70

2

5
3
1
5
4
7
4
5
4

366 15.7
91
8.6
47
5.7
26 11.4
32 2.9
29
1.5
27
28 "7 .T
23
4.3
14
1.5
18 7.1
5
5.7
2 10.0
5.7
7.1
5.7

51.7
12.8
6.6
3.7
4.5
4.1
3.8
4.0
3.2
2.0
2.5
.7
.3

:o

708 100.0

100.0

R E G U L A R ITY OF E M P L O Y M E N T — W O M E N 'S G A R M E N T IN D U ST R IE S.

127

WEEKS WORKED DURING THE YEAR.

In the diagram below the workers in the five shops are classified
according to weeks worked, the data for this diagram being given in
Table 64, page 124. The diagram on page 128 classifies the workers
according to total amount earned during the year, the data for this
diagram being given in Table 68, on page 126.
CHART N o. 33.—NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WORKING EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF
W EEKS, M AY, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914, IN 5 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE DRESS AND WAIST
INDUSTRY—BOSTON.

U«oc*5 S-S




#H4

tS-W

go-2* & &

30-M

4<b&

4S-4S ShS2

128

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

No. 34.—NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT
DURING THE YE AR , M AY, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914, IN 5 ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE
DRESS AND W AIST INDUSTRY—BOSTON.

Ch a r t




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN's GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

129

T a b l e 6 9 . — NUMBEH OF EMPLOYEES W ORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF W EEKS,
IN EACH OF 5 DRESS AND W AIST ESTABLISHMENTS, BOSTON, MASS., M AY, 1913, T O

APR IL, 1914, INCLUSIVE.

Employees who worked specified number of weeks.
Total, five shops.

Weeks worked.
Shop
K o .l.

Shop
No. 2.

O l/W
V N
onop
No. 3.

Shop
No. 4.

onop
No. 5.

1 week..................................................
2 weeks.................................................
3 weeks.................................................
4 weeks
..............- - ...........
5 weeks.......... ...................
- .........
6 weeks
............ ...... .........
7 weeks.. - - r..... ........ - - - ..........- ..........
8 weeks.................................................
9 weeks. . , T T r.......... ........... .............
, 10 weeks. . . . . . . . .
____, - - - ..........
11 weeks............... r, -,, r- - -,, _______
12 weeks
...............................................
13 weeks...............................................
14 weeks...................... ..............
15 weeks...............................................
16 weeks...............................................
17 weeks...............................................
18 weeks...............................................
19 weeks...............................................
20 weeks...............................................
21 weeks...............................................
22 weeks...............................................
23 weeks...............................................
24 weeks...............................................
25 weeks...............................................
26 weeks...............................................
27 weeks...............................................
28 weeks...............................................
29 weeks...............................................
30 weeks................................................
3 1 weeks...............................................
32 weeks...............................................
33 weeks...............................................
34 weeks...............................................
35 weeks...............................................
36 weeks...............................................
37 weeks...............................................
38 weeks...............................................
39 weeks...............................................
40 w eeks..............................................
41 w eeks.................... .......................
42 weeks...............................................
43 weeks.......... .....................................
44 weeks...............................................
45 weeks...............................................
46 weeks...............................................
47 weeks...............................................
48 weeks...............................................
49 weeks...............................................
50 weeks...............................................
51 weeks...............................................
52 w eek s.............................................

10
5
2
6
2

11
14
9
4
11
6
5
2

11
4
1
1
5
2
3
1
2
7
1

41
36
26
21
15
15
s
4
5
5
3
3

1
1
2
2
3
1

1
3
2
3
3
2

29
28
13
8
7
5
7
5
3
6
4
2
1

2

1
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
4
4
5
6
5

Total...........................................

95

139

2
5
3
3
2
1
3

5
14
2
3
i
3
1

2
2

1

1
1
2
2
3
1
o
1
2
1
1
1
2

4
3
2
3
2
2
1

2
2
1
3

3

2

1
1

1
2
1
2
1

2
2
1
1
2

1
1
3
1
1
2

4
2
1

Fe­
Males. males.
4
2
1
2
3
2
3
4
1
1
3
1
3
1
1

2
3
3
1

1

1
2

1
1

2

3
2

3
1
3

3
3
1

1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
3
1

1

3

2
4
1
4
4
4
6
6
3
6

1
3
3
6
1
6
5
7
2
2
1

3
4
5
1

107

262

175

2
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
4
4
3
7
70 |

Both
sexes.

98
85
50
38
37
33
23
14
10
22
23
9
9
4
6
6
7
7
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
3
12
1
12
4
6
4
4
4
3
3
4
3
2
6
2
10
9
10
10
9
14
14
18
14
14
1

102
87
51
40
40
33
25
17
10
26
24
10
12
5
9
7
8
7
5
5
4
6
4

703

778

4
4
4

13
1
12
4
$
4

7
5
3
3
4

5
3
6
2
11
12
11
U
11
15
15
22
18
17

8

CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY, CLEVELAND, OHIO.
SUMMARY.

Two shops located in Cleveland, Ohio, were selected as being rep­
resentative of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry, and data relating
to the employment of 1,526 workers were secured, similar in char­
acter to the data secured in New York and Boston, but not entirely
comparable. In the case of one of the two shops, data regarding
7001°—Bull. 183—16----- 9



130

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

weeks worked and earnings during the year were obtained for four
occupational groups embracing 669 workers. Data relating to earn­
ings and to weeks worked on the other hand were also obtained for
857 individual workers employed in one shop, but were available
covering a period of 10 months only. The data are presented not
as being entirely comparable with the data for the New York and
Boston shops, but rather as a record of employment for a very con­
siderable number of workers during a period of 10 or 12 months.
The classification according to weeks worked for 857 workers in
Shop No. 1 is given in Table 77, page 135, and is summarized in
Tables 70 and 71 following.
T a b l e 7 0 «— NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SE X W ORKING EACH

CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF W EEKS AND AVERAGE W EEKS W ORKED, IN ESTABLISH­
MENT NO. 1, CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY, CLEVELAND, OHIO, 10 MONTHS,
191J-14.
Workers employed specified number of weeks.
Number.

Weeks employed.

Average weeks worked
per worker.

Per cent.

Male.

Fe­
male.

Both
sexes.

Male.

Fe­
male.

Both
sexes.

Male.

Fe­
male.

1 to 13 weeks.....................
14 to 26 weeks.........................
27 to 39 weeks.........................
40 to 44 weeks.........................

54
81
76
99

123
154
172
98

177
235
248
197

17.4
26.1
24.5
31.9

22.5
28.2
31.4
17.9

20.7
27.4
28.9
23.0

7.2
18.1
36.5
40.6

8.5
17.6
35.2
40.6

8.1
17.8
35.6
40.6

Total.............................

310

547

857

100.0

100.0

100.0

27.9

25.2

26.2

Both
sexes.

T abi* 7 1 . — NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX W ORKING EACH
CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF W EEKS IN ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1, CLOAK, SUIT, AND
SKIRT INDUSTRY, CLEVELAND, OHIO, 10 MONTHS, 1913-14.
Number.
Weeks employed.
Male.

Female.

Per cent.
Both
sexes.

Male.

Female.

Under 5 weeks..............................................
5 to 9 weeks...................................................
10 to 14 weeks................................................
15 to 19 weeks................................................
20 to 24 weeks................................................
25 to 29 weeks................................................
30 to 34 weeks................................................
35 to 39 weeks................................................
40 to 44 weeks................................................

19
16
30
44
24
6
10
62
99

25
37
76
99
36
16
43
117
98

44
53
106
143
60
22
53
179
197

6.1
5.1
9.7
14.2
7.7
2.0
3.2
20.0
31.9

4.6
6.7
13.9
18.1
6.6
2.9
7.9
21.4
17.9

Total....................................................

310

547

857

100.0

100.0

Both
sexes.
5.1
6.1
12.4
16.7
7.0
2.6
6.2
20.9
23.0
m o

During the period of 10 months covered by the inquiry the 310
males worked on the average 27.9 weeks, and the 547 females 25.2
weeks. Approximately one-fifth (20.7 per cent) of the workers were
employed 1 to 13 weeks, the average number of weeks worked by
this group of workers being 8.1; 27.4 per cent worked 14 to 26 weeks,
or an average of 17.8 weeks per worker; 28.9 per cent worked 27 to
39 weeks, or an average of 35.6 weeks per worker, and 23 per cent



REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN ’& GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 3 1

worked 40 to 44 weeks, or an average of 40.6 weeks per worker.
While these percentages, since they represent a period of 10 months
only, are not entirely comparable with corresponding percentages
shown for the Boston and the New York shops, the proportion of
workers employed for a few weeks only would seem, as in the case
of the Cleveland shop, somewhat smaller.
CONSTANCY OF EMPLOYMENT IN DIFFERENT OCCUPATIONS.

In Table 72, following, the number of workers, males and females,
is given for 39 occupational groups, together with the average weeks
worked per worker in each group. As in a similar table for Boston
and New York, the occupational groups are arranged according to
the average number of weeks worked. For the largest single group
shown in the table—i. e., 206 female jacket finishers—the average
weeks worked was 21.9, and for the second largest group—i. e.,
106 female jacket operators—the average weeks worked was 29.4,
the average for 70 male jacket operators being practically the same,
29.3. It must be borne in mind that these averages do not repre­
sent a full year, but a period of 10 months only.
T a b l e 7 2 .—AVERAGE W EEKS W ORKED B Y EMPLOYEES IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS

IN ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1, CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY, CLEVELAND, OHIO,
10 MONTHS, 1913-14.

Occupation.
1. Skirt presser.................................................................................................
2. Head cutters................................................................................................
3. Skirt graders................................................................................................
4. Sample maker.............................................................................................
5. Sample pressers...........................................................................................
6. Skirt basters................................................................................................
7. Skirt makers................................................................................................
8. Repair busheling.........................................................................................
9. Skirt operators............................................................................................
10. Jacket operators, working foremen...........................................................
11. Trimmers on embroidery...........................................................................
12. Pattern cutters............................................................................................
13. Labels..........................................................................................................
14. Button sewers.............................................................................................
15. Sample makers............................................................................................
16. Examiners...................................................................................................
17. Sample finishers..........................................................................................
18. Jacket operators..........................................................................................
19. Jacket operators..........................................................................................
20. Button making...........................................................................................
21. Skint operators............................................................................................
22. Jacket pressers.............................................................................................
23. Cloth cutters...............................................................................................
24. Skirt finishers..............................................................................................
25. Pressers........................................................................................................
26. Trimmers.....................................................................................................
27. Button making...........................................................................................
28. Jacket basters..............................................................................................
29. Buttons, buttonholes, etc..........................................................................
30. Jacket finishers............................................................................................
31. Assorters......................................................................................................
32. Lining cutters.............................................................................................
33. Trimmers on...............................................................................................
34. Trimmers on embroidery...........................................................................
35. Finishers......................................................................................................
36. Buttons, buttonholes, etc...........................................................................
37. Repair busheling.........................................................................................
38. Trimmers.....................................................................................................
39. Skirt pressers...............................................................................................
All occupations:
Males................................................................................................
Females.............................................................................................




Number of workers. Average
weeks
Males. Females. worked.
1
2
3
2
23
11
8
19
19
70
22
49
26
4

2
1
2
2

9
7
1$
8
106
5
75
5
22
20
35
206
16

37
2
7
4
2

3
10
7

310
547

42.0
41.0
40.0
40.0
39.3
39.0
39.0
37.0
36.7
35.6
34.2
32.1
31.3
31.3
30.4
30.3
30.1
29.4
29.3
29.0
27.8
27.5
27.0
26.4
25.8
24.6
24.2
24.1
21.9
21.9
21.7
20.7
20.3
16.5
16.4
14.9
14.8
14.2
13.0
27.9
25.2

132

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.
AVERAGE EARNINGS PER WEEK.

For the same group of workers average earnings per week are
shown in Table 73. None of the 857 workers earned on the average
less than $5 per week, and only 11 of them earned less than $6. Of
the 547 females 111, or more than one-fifth (20.3 per cent), earned
$8 to $8.99 per week; 176, or nearly one-third (32.2 per cent), earned
on the average $10 or more; and 186, or a little over one-third (34
per cent), of the total number of females employed earned $5 to $7.99.
Of the 310 males, approximately one-fifth—i. e., 63, or 20.3 per
cent—earned $25 or more per week worked; nearly one-half—i. e.,
150, or 48.4 per cent—earned $15 to $24.99; 69, or 22.3 per cent,
earned $10 to $14.99; and 28, or 9 per cent, earned less than $10.
T abus 7 8 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OP EMPLOYEES OF EACH SEX EARNING EACH
CLASSIFIED AMOUNT PER W EE K W ORKED IN ESTABLISHMENT NO. I, CLOAK, SUIT
AND SKIRT INDUSTRY, CLEVELAND, OHIO, 10 MONTHS, 1919-14.
’

Workers whose earnings averaged specified
amount per week worked.
Average amount earned per week worked.

Number.

Males.
Under $5.........................................................................
$5 to $5.99.......................................................................
$6 to $6.99.......................................................................
$7 to $7.99.......................................................................
$8 to $3.99.......................................................................
$9 to $9.99.......................................................................
$10 to $10.99............................: ......................................
$11 to $11.99....................................................................
$12 to $12.99....................................................................
$13 to $13.99....................................................................
$14 to $14.99....................................................................
$15 to $15.99....................................................................
$16 to $16.99....................................................................
$17 to $17.99....................................................................
$18 to $18.99....................................................................
$19 to $19.99....................................................................
$20 to $20.99....................................................................
$21 to $21.99....................................................................
$22 to $22.99....................................................................
$23 to $23.99....................................................................
$24 to $24.99....................................................................
$25 to $25.99....................................................................
$26 to $26.99....................................................................
$27 to $27.99....................................................................
$28 to $28.99....................................................................
$29 to $29.99....................................................................
$30 to $34.99................................................. .................
$35 and over...................................................................

1
2
3
9
13
12
8
10
17
22
15
19
18
10
19
17
13
16
10
13
19
21
10
1
4
7
1

Total.....................................................................

310

Females.

10
80
96
111
74
63
35
27
17
12
5
8
3
2
1
1
1

i.........

1

547

Per cent.
Both
sexes.

Males.

Females.

11
82
99
120
87
75
43
37
34
34
20
27
21
12
20
17
13
17
11
13
19
22
10
1
4
7
1

0.3
.6
.9
2.9
4.1
3.9
2.6
3.2
5.4
7.1
4.8
6.1
5.8
3.2
6.1
5.4
4.1
5.1
3.2
4.1
6.1
6.7
3.2
.3
1.3
2.2
.3

1.8
14.6
17.5
20.3
13.5
11.5
6.4
4.9
3.1
2.1
.9
1.4
.5
.3
.1

857

100.0

100.0

.1
.1
.1

TOTAL EARNINGS DURING PERIOD COVERED.

In Table 74 the 669 workers in Cleveland Shop No. 2 are classified
in four occupational groups, according to total earnings during a
period of 12 months, 1913-14. For this group of workers, who
are entirely distinct from the group of 857 workers covered by
the foregoing tables, data were available for a full year, as regards



REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT---- W OM EN’ s GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 3 3

aggregate earnings of workers. In Table 75 a similar tabulation
is given for total earnings of 423 workers during a period of 10
months, in the same occupational groups, but in another shop,
Shop No. 1. These 423 workers (242 males and 181 females) con­
stitute a portion of the 857 workers for whom weeks worked and
average earnings per week have been shown in Tables 72 and 73.
Of the 178 male operators, classified in Table 74, 69, or 38.8 per cent,
earned during the year $1,000 or more. For this occupational
group in Table 75, as well as in Table 74, the proportion earning
$1,000 or more is relatively high, as compared with the corresponding
proportion for cutters and for pressers. Since the period covered in
the case of Table 74 is a full year, and in the case of Table 75, 10
months, the data as regards total earnings are not entirely com­
parable. It may be noted that of the 394 female operators covered
by the two tab1" only 13 earned less than $50 during 10 or 12
‘s,
months covered by the data, while 58 of them earned $500 or more.
Table 74.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS
EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT DURING THE YE AR IN ESTABLISHMENT
NO. 2, CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY, CLEVELAND, OHIO, Y E A R , 1913-14.
Workers who earned specified amounts during the year.
Males.

Female operators.

Amount earned during the
year.
Total.
Cutters. Pressers.

Opera­
tors.

Number. Percent.
Number. Per cent.

Under $50....................................
$50 to $99.....................................
$100 to $149..................................
$150 to $199..................................
$200 to $249..................................
$250 to $299..................................
$300 to $349..................................
$350 to $399..................................
$400 to $449..................................
$450 to $499..................................
$500 to $599..................................
$600 to $699..................................
$700 to $799..................................
$800 to $899..................................
$900 to $999..................................
$1,000and over............... ..........

6
8
4
12
6
12
5
5
7
6
6
10
9
19
7
18

2
3
14
6
9
9
2
3
5
11
15
26
21
10
2

6
3
5
2
2
3
4
2
4
3
15
15
4
16
25
69

12
13
12
28
14
24
18
9
14
14
32
40
39
56
42
89

2.6
2.8
2.6
6.1
3.1
5.3
3.9
2.0
3.1
3.1
7.0
8.8
8.6
12.3
9.2
19.5

7
16
26
18
16
21
22
20
14
20
18
11
3
1

3.3
7.5
12.2
8.4
7.5
9.9
10.3
9.4
6.6
9.4
8.4
5.2
1.4
.5

Total..................................

140

138

178

456

100.0

213

100.0




134

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 75.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS
EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT IN ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1, CLOAK, SUIT. AND
SKIRT INDUSTRY, CLEVELAND, OHIO, 10 MONTHS, 1913-14.

Workers who earned specified amounts during 10 months.
Males.

Female operators.

Amount earned during 10
months.
Total.
Cutters. Pressers.

Opera­
tors.

Number. Percent.
Number. Percent.

Under $50. ••...............................
$50 to $99.....................................
$100 to $149..................................
$150 to $199..................................
$200 to $249....... ..........................
$250 to $299....... ..........................
$300 to $349..................................
$350 to $399..................................
$400 to $449..................................
$450 to $499..................................
$500 to $599..................................
$600 to $699..................................
$700 to $799..................................
$800 to $899..................................
$900 to $999..................................
$1,000 and over.____ - .............. j
Total..................................

12
13
8
20
8
17
17
e
8
8
23
24
13
21
16
28

5.0
5.4
3.3
8.3
3.3
7.0
7.0
2.5
3.3
3.3
9.5
9.9
5.4
8.7
6.6
11.6

e
12
25
15
15
20
20
17
10
16
13
11
1

3.3
6.6
13.8
8.3
8.3
11.0
11.0
9.4
5.5
8.8
7.2
6.1
.6

2

96

6
3
3
2
2
2
4
2
3
1
10
9
2
7
15
22

53

6
8
4
10
3
9
5
3
4
5
5
8
8
13
1
4

93

242

100.0

181

100.0

2
1
8
3
6
8
1
1
2
8
7
3
1

WEEKS WORKED DURING THE YEAR.

In Table 76 the number of employees working each classified num­
ber of weeks is shown for the four occupational groups for which data
relating to earnings are given in Tables 74 and 75 and in Table 77 the
number of employees working each number of weeks from 1 to 44 is
given in detail for the establishment reporting for 10 months.
T able 76.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES WORKING EACH CLASSIFIED
NUMBER OF WEEKS IN EACH OF 2 CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT ESTABLISHMENTS,
CLEVELAND, OHIO.i
Number.
Workers employed specified number of weeks.1

Weeks worked.

Pressers—
males.

Cutters—
males.
Shop
N o .l.

Shop
N o .l

Shop
N o .l.

Shop
N o .l

Under 5 weeks......................................
5 to 9 weeks..........................................
10 to 14 weeks.......................................
15 to 19 weeks.......................................
20 to 24 weeks.......................................
25 to 29 weeks.......................................
30 to 34 weeks.......................................
35 to 39 weeks......................................
40 to 44 weeks.......................................
45 to 49 weeks.......................................
50 to 52 weeks.......................................

8
10
7
15
9
4
1
14
28

8
11
11
17
11
9
4
14
28
1
26

3
8
10
4
1
2
15
10

4
15
16
6
4
5
18
19
19
32

Total...........................................

96

140

53

138

Operators—
males.

Operators—
females.

Shop
N o .l.

Shop
N o .l

Shop
No. 1.

7
2
7
7
5
1
4
18
42

7
3
7
9
7
2
7
22
45
18
51

6
3
24
22
9
4
22
55
36

6
8
26
24
11
5
24
60
39
7
3

93

178

181

213

Shop
No. 2.

i During a period of 10 months, 1913-14, in the case of Shop No. 1, and 12 months ended 1913-14, in the




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN*S GARMENT INDUSTRIES,

135

Table 76,—NUMBER AND PER CENT OP EMPLOYEES WORKING EACH CLASSIFIED
NUMBER OP W EEKS IN EACH OP 2 CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT ESTABLISHMENTS,
CLEVELAND, OHIO—Concluded.

Per cent.
Workers employed specified number of weeks.1
Cutters—

Operators—
Males.

males.

Weeks worked.
Shop
No. 1.

Shop
No. 2.

8.3
10.4
7.3
15.6
9.4
4.2

5.7
7.9
7.9

1 .1
2

14.6
29.2

1 .0
0
2 .0
0

Under 5 weeks.
5 to 9 weeks___
10 to 14 weeks..
15 to 19 weeks..
20 to 24 weeks..
25 to 29 weeks..
80 to 34 weeks..
85 to 39 weeks..
40 to 44 weeks..
45 to 49 weeks..
50 to 52 weeks..

1
.0

7.9
6.4
2.9

.7
18.6

Shop
No. I.

Shop
No. 2.

>
p
No. 1.

7.5

Shop
No. 1.

3.9
1.7
3.9
5.1
3.9

3.3
1.7
13.3

4.3
2.9
3.6
13.0
13.8
13.8
23.2

7.5
7.5
5.4

4.3
19.4
45.2

3.9
12.4
25.3

100.0

100.0

100.0

No. I

5.7
15.1
18.9
7.5
1.9
3.8
28.3
18.9

1 0 100.0 100.0
0 .0

Total.

Operators—
females.

2
.1

2.9
10.9

1 .6
1

1
.1

1
.1

1 .1
0

1 .1
2
5.0
2.2
12.1

30.4
19.fr

28.6

100.0

Shop
No. 2.

2.8
3.8
1 .2
2

11.3
5.2
2.3
11.3
28.2
18.3
3.3
1.4

100.0

1See note on p. 134.

T able 77.—NUMBER OP EMPLOYEES OP EACH SEX WORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUM­
BER OF W EEKS IN ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1, CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY,
CLEVELAND, OHIO, 10 MONTHS ENDED, 1914.
Workers employed speci­
fied number of weeks.
Weeks employed.

Weeks employed.
Males.
1 week...
2 weeks..
3 weeks..
4 weeks..
5 weeks..
6 weeks..
7 weeks..
8 weeks..
9 weeks..
10 weeks.
11 weeks.
12 weeks.
13 weeks.
14 weeks.
15 weeks.
16 weeks.
17 weeks.
18 weeks.
19 weeks.
20 weeks.
21 weeks.
22 weeks.
23 weeks.

Fe-

Both

Males.

Fe-

24 weeks.,
25 weeks..
26 weeks..
27 weeks..
28 weeks.*.
29 weeks..
30 weeks..
31 weeks..
32 weeks..
33 weeks..
34 weeks..
35 weeks..
36 weeks..
37 weeks..
38 weeks..
39 weeks..
40 weeks..
41 weeks..
42 weeks..
43 weeks..
44 weeks..
Total.

Both

15

4

2
6
6

4
10
4

12
8
19
18
45
45
99
76
20

1
1

310

547

857

APPENDIX B.—GENERAL TABLES.
The following tables present in more detailed form the information
relating to time worked and annual earnings shown in the preced­
ing text. They show by occupations the number and per cent of
employees working each classified number of weeks and the number
and per cent earning each classified amount during the periods cov­
ered in the various establishments considered. The figures are based
on details obtained directly from the pay rolls and relating to indi­
vidual employees.



136

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 78.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES W ORKING EACH CLASSIFIED
2 ESTABLISHMENTS, MUSLIN-

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1.
Number and per cent of employees who worked
each classified number ol weeks.
Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Total
num­
ber em­
ployed.

Occupation.

Under 5

5 to 9

10 to 14

15 to 19

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber.

IS

*9.8

11.8
7
.3

4.8
9.1

11.9
9.1

7.1
9.1

7.0
5.9

5.6

11.8

14.1

43.9

17.6
25.0
17.1

2.4
13.6

Cutters....................................
Scallop cutters........................
Layers up...............................
Operators, chemises..............
Operators, drawers................
Operators, embroidery..........
Operators, fanr.ywork............
Operators, nightgowns..........
Operators, corset covers........
Operators, princess slips.......
Operators, samples................
Operators, scallops.............
Operators, skirts....................
Operators, special machines.
Operators, zigzj
Operators, not
Embroiderers..
Ribboners.

5.9

10.0

5.6
*4*3

10.0

3.6

14.3
4.8
34.1

10.7

18.2

34.8
26.2
57.9

26.3

9.5
18.2

8.2

6.6

2.3
20.0

20.0

29.4
33.3

23.5

614

103

16.8

55

9.8
10.5
6.3
7.0

16.3

16.7
23.5
50.0
11.1
11.1

11.1

Total..

4.8
2.3

4.3

10.9

16.3

Pressers, folders___
Trimmers................
Examiners..............
Buttonhole makers..
Button sewers.........
Ruffle setters...........
Markers...................
Hemstitchers..........
Hemmers.................
Lace runners...........
Tuckers...................

11.8

8.7

52

8.5

42.8
20.3
12.1
9.5

18
4
5

8.9
6.9
11.9

9.4
8.9

2

6.2

*ii*6*

1
10

9.1
15.6

14.3

1

11.1
11.1

4.8

9.0

47

7.7

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 2.
1 Cutters.................................................
2 Layers up.............................................
3 Operators, fancywork.........................
4 Operators, nightgowns........................
5 Operators, skirts..................................
6 Ribboners............................................
7 Pressers................................................
8 Trimmers.............................................
9 Examiners...........................................
10 Buttonhole makers.............................
11 Hemmers.............................................
12 Lace runners........................................
13 Tuckers................................................
14 Operators, high class...........................
15 Slopers.................................................

12
3
7
202
58
42
17
32
45
11
64
10
21
9
3

2
1
2
48
11
11
1
4
7
4
18
1
2

Total...........................................

536

112

2
16.7
33.3
28.6
3
23.8
41
19.0
7
26.2
4
5.9
12.5
3
4
15.5
36.4
28.1 ’ **10*
10.0
9.5
3

16.7

1 33.3
1 14.3
6
3.0
4
6.9
2
4.8
1
5.9
1
3.1
2
4.4
. . . . . .

*9.4*
1

20.9

77

14.4

11.1

7.7

25

4.7

1
51
7
4
2
7
11
1
2
7

3.5
8.7
8.0
4.1
4.2
8.0
16.7
5.3
6.7
7.1

2
36
2
9
2
5
6
1
1
8

6.9
6.2
2.3
9.3
4.2
5.7
9.1
5.3
3.3
8.2

93

8.1

72

6.3

41

SUMMARY, ESTABLISHMENTS NO. ] AND NO.. 2.
I
1 Cutters.................................................
2 Operators.............................................
3 Ribboners............................................
4 Pressers................................................
5 Trimmers.............................................
6 Examiners...........................................
7 Hemmers..............................................
8 Lace runners........................................
9 Tuckers................................................
10 Other occupations...............................

29
587
88
97
48
88
66
19
30
98

2
90
27
28
4
14
18
1
2
29

6.9
15.3
30.7
28.9
8.3
15.9
27.3
5.3
6.7
29.6

5
72
9
10
3
5
10

Total...........................................

1,150

215

18.7

132




17.2
12.3
10.2
10.3
6.2
5.7
15.2

4' 13.3*
14 14.3
11.5

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT---- W O M E x /s GARMENT INDUSTRIES, 1 3 7
NUMBER OF W EEK S, APRIL, 1913, TO MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE, B Y OCCUPATIONSUNDERW EAR INDUSTRY, NEW YO R K CITY.

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1.
N um ber and per cen t o f em ployees w ho w orked each classified num ber o f w eeks.

20 to 24

25 to 29

30 to 34

35 to 39

40 to 44

45 to 49

50 to 52

Mar­
ginal
num­
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per ber.
cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber, cent. ber. cent.
ber. cent. ber. cent.

4.2

5.6

20.0

4.3

*4*3

4.8
6.8
50.0
4.3
3.3
5.3
6.3

4.3

39.1

3.6

14.3
28.6
2.3
8.7

19.6
14.8

6.3
16.3

18.8
23.3
60.0
33.3
33.3

9.5

4.9

11.8

25.0
7.1

6.5

1
.6

37.5
2.3

4.9
12.5
2.3

6.3
11.6

6.3
2.3

2.3

26

4.2

17

2.8

66.7

11.1

4.1

33

5.4

11.1

44.4

22.2

11.1
25

!3.3
4.5

3.3

50.0

11.1

100.0

8.2

16.7

5.9

11.8

11.1
3.7

*4*9

20.6

4.8
4.5
50.0
8.7
11.5

2.2

5.9

23

33.3
2.8

4.3

*i.*4

33.3
13.6
33.3
17.0

4.5

5.6
2.9

10.0
4.8

25.0
3.6

4.5

2.4
4.5

6
.8

23.5
50.0
7.3
60.0
28.6
31.8
33.3
31.0
35.3
30.4
80.0
50.0
39.3

23.5

4.8

*7.3

10.0

5.9
25.0

5.9

5.9
2.4

85

13.8

22.2

148

3
4
5

6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

2
0
2
1
2
2

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

24.1

SUMMARY, ESTABLISHMENTS NO. 1 AND NO. 2.

26
7

4.4
8.0

7
4
3

14.6
4.5
4.5

1 1
.0

‘Y
2

4.7

1
2
2

‘ ii*3*

54

2

23
3
4

6.9
3.9
3.4
4.1
2.1
2.3
3.0
*io.*o*

16

2.7

1 1
.1

5
4
3

‘T

5.2
8.3
3.4

*5*3*

6.1

2.0

46




. ...

*4.T

4.0

34

3.0

1 3.5
2.7
1 1
.1

3
3

1
0

2

4

3.3

2
1
6
1
0
3
2
2
1
2

3.2 !

54

16

3.1

6.2

11.4

2.0

82

6.9
14.0

6
.8
7.2
7
.1
1 2
1 12.5
1
4
6
.1
6

5
6
4

3

4.7

26.3
20.0
4.1

128

11.1

1
0

9
5
19

34.5
26.2
21.6
16.5
37.5
28.4
15.2
47.4
16.7
19.4

285

24.8

154
19
16
18
25

1
0

1
2

3
4
5

6
7
8
9
1
0

138

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 79. -NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED
TIONS—2 ESTABLISHMENTS, MUSLINESTABUSHMENT NO. 1.
Number and per cent of employees who earned during the year
in this shop—
Marginal
num>
her.

Occupation.

Total
number Under $50
em­
ployed.

$50 to $99

$100 to $149 $150 to $199 $200 to $249

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
.15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Cutters.................. ........
Layers up......................
Operators, chemises___
Operators, drawers.......
Operators,embroidery..
Operators, fancywork...
Operators., nightgowns.
Operators, corsetcovers.
Operators,princess slips.
Operators, samples.......
Operators, scallops........
Operators, skirts..........
Operators, special ma­
chines.
Operators, zigzag..........
Operators, not classiu6(l«
Embroiderers................
Ribboners......................
Pressers..........................
Pressers, folders.. . . . . . .
Trimmers.......................
Examiners.....................
Buttonhole m akers.....
Button sewers.. . . . . . . . .
Ruffle setters...............
Markers..........................
Hemstitchers.................
Hemmers .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Lace runners.................
Tuckers.. . ....................
Total....................

1

3

17.6
14.6
10.0
9.5
4.5

3
2
1
2

7.4
20.0
2.4
9.1

2

4.9

2

4.9

4 ‘ "9*5
5 22.7

6
1
4
1

3
1

7.1
4.5

7
2

16.7
9.1

5
1
1

7.0
2.9
4.3

3
6
1

4.2
17.6
4.3

11
2
1

15.5
5.9
4.3

6
1

8.5
2.9

4
2
1

5.6
5.9
4.3

1
5

17.9

2

7.1

2

7.1

1

3.6

25.0

1
19

4.8
43.2

8

18.2

2
7

9.5
15.9

1
2

4.8
4.5

2

4.5

4
4
3
3
4

8.7
6.6
15.8
18.8
9.3

1
5

2.2
8.2

1
4

2.2
6.6

2
4

12.5
9.3

3

18.8

1
3

16.7
17.6

2

11.8

1
1

11.0
11.1

2

22.2

2

22.2

57

9.3

33

5.4

32

5.2

1
12
1
3
7
3
202
79
58
16
12
42
1
17
7
32
9
45
11
4
64
27
1
10
2
21
< .........
3
a

1
2 16.7
8.3
8.3
1 33.3
33.3
1 14.3
2 28.6
42.8
24 11.9
12
5.9
39.1
6 10.3
2
3.5
27.6
6 14.3
2
28.6
4.8
1
5.9 .........
5.9
2
2 ***6.2
21.9
6.2
2
4.4
3
20. C
6.7
1 9.1
1
36.4
9.1
s 14.1
7 10. fl
42.2
10. C.........
1
2
4.8
9.5
9.S

11
2
3
1
2
4
1
4

5.4
9
5
3.5
7.1
3
5.9 .........
6.2
8.9 .........
9.1
6.3

4.4
8.6
7.1

1
1

4.8 .........
11.1

5C
3

30.4;

30

17
4
41
10
42
22
3
71
34
23
5
4
28
4
21
44

1 25.0
25 60.8

2
2
4.3
46
20 43.5
8.2
5
31.1
6l!
16 84.2
19
....... i *’ *6*3
16
6 14.0
43 ....... 8 **i§.*6
5
2 40.0
3
1 33.3
6
9 53.0
3 17.6
17
1 33.3
3
1 50.0
2
9
1 11.1
9
614

141

23.0|

56

9.1

5.9

ESTABLISHMENT NO. ii.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Cutters...........................
Layers up......................
Operators, fancywork...
Operators, nightgowns.
Operators, skirts..........
Ribboners......................
Pressers..........................
Trimmers.......................
Examiners.....................
Buttonhole makers.......
H em m ers....................
Lace runners................
Tuckers..........................
Operators, high class___
Slopers...........................
Total....................

163

5£

10.3

35

6.5

5.6

17

3.2

i Of these, 1, or 5.9 per cent of the total, receives $800 to $899; 2, or 11.8 per cent, $900 to $999, and 3, or
17.6 per cent, $1,000 and over.
*$700 to $799.
* Of these, 3, or 0.5 per cent of the total, receive $700 to $799; 1, or 0.16 per cent, $800 to $899; 2, or 0.3 per cent,
$900 to $999, and 3, or 0.5 per cent, $1,000 and over.
* Of these, 1, or 8.3 per cent of the total, receives $900 to $999, and 2, or 16.7 per cent, $1,000 and over.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES,

139

AMOUNT DURING THE YE AR , APRIL, 1913, TO MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE, B Y OCCUPAUNDERW EAR INDUSTRY, NEW YORK CITY.

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1.

N um ber and p er cen t o f em ployees w ho earned during the year in this shop—

Mar­
ginal
$250 to $299 $300 to $349 $350 to $399 $400 to $449 $450 to $499 $500 to $599 $600 to $699 $700 and num­
over.
ber.
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
1 5.9
1 25.0

1

5.9

1
1
7

2.4
10.0
16.7

1

1

25.0

1
3
2
1
3
3
2

5.9

10.0
7.1
9.1
33.3
4.2
8.8
8.7

1 ***2.4
1 10.0
4
9.5
1
4.5

1 25.0
1 2.4
1 10.0
2 4.8
1 4.5

6
2
2

8.5
5.9
8.7

6 8.5
4 11.8
1 4.3
2 40.0

25.0
3.6

2

7.1

4 14.3

3
1

7.1
4.5

3
1
1

4.2
2.9
4.3

3
2
1
1

4.2
5.9
4.3
20.0

3

10.7

2

7.1

1
1

2

9.5

3
1

14.1
2.3

2
1

9.5
2.3

2
3

9.5
6.8

1
1

4.8
2.3

1
3
3

50.0
6.5
4.9

1
2
3

50.0
4.3
4.9

1
3

2.2
4.9

4
6

8.7
9.8

2
3

12.5
7.0

1
6

6.3
14.0

8

18.6

2

2
3
1

12.5
7.0
20.0

66.7

1

16.7

1

11.1

29

4.7

1 50.0
1 11.1
1 11.1
41

6.7

1

5.9

3
4
4
2
11
9
6
2
2
6
3

30.0
9.5
18.2
66.7
15.5
26.5
26.1
40.0
50.0
21.4
75.0

3 17.6

2

16 35.3

3
4
5

6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2

9.1

10 14.1
1 2.9
6 26.1

1 25.0

13
14

6 28.6

1

4.8

1
5
1
0

7 15.2
1 1.6

1 2.2
5 8.2

2

3.3

1 6.3
1 2.3
2 40.0

1

21

1.6

6.3

21 16.7

3 50.0
2 66.7

1
34

11.1
5.5

1

7.0

21 11.1

2 22.2
3 33.3

11.1

43

1
2

37

6.0

76 12.4

26

4.2

*C

17
18
19

2
0
2
1
25
26
27
28
29

1.5

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 2.
16.7

25.0

<3 25.0

3.3
14.3

2
.0

4.4

11.8
*i3.*3
9.1

'io.'o
24

4.5

32

6.0

31

5.7

11.8

*3.*i

9.1
3.1
10.0
19.0

26

2
.2

10.0

33.3

4.9
13.8
2.4
17.6

12.5

8.9

1
.6
10.0

33.3

7.1

11.8
6.2

9.4
13.3
9.1

15.5
9.1
4.7
20.0

1
.6
9
.5

1
.6

8
.6

ii.'9

11.8

6
.2

8.4

3.5

3.5
3.5
4.8

6.9
2.4

33.3

4.9

9.5

28

5.2

9.4

10.0

4.8
33.3

6
2
«3

1.0

5.2

1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
1
0
«1 1 1
.6 1
2
2 30.0 1
3
*2 9.5 13
8
3
14
7 11.8
2
U 3.1

15

42

7.8

6
.1

>20

3.7

5 Of these, 1, or 0.5 per cent of the total, receives $700 to 1799, and 1, $800 to $899.
* Of these, 2. or 3.5 per cent of the total, receive $700 to $799, and 1, or 1.7 per cent, $1,000 and over.
7 Of these, 1, or 5.9 per cent of the total, receives $700 to $799 and 1, $1,000 and over.
8 Of these, 2, or 22.2 per cent of the total, receive $700 to $799, and 1. or 11.1 per cent. $800 to $899.
•Of these, 13, or 2.4 per cent of the total, receive $700 to $799; 2, or 0.37 per cent, $800 to $899; 1, or 0.18
per cent, $900 to $999, and 4, or 0.74 per cent, $1,000 and over.




140

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 79.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED
TIONS—2 ESTABLISHMENTS, MUSLIN-UNDER W EAR

SUMMARY, ESTABLISHMENTS NOS. X AND 2.
Number and per cent of employees who earned during the year
in this shop—
Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Total
number Under $50
em­
ployed.

$50 to $99

$100 to $149 $150 to $199 $200 to $249

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Cutters...........................
Operators.......................
Ribboners......................
Pressers..........................
Trimmers.......................
Examiners.....................
Hemmers........................
Lace runners.................
Tuckers..........................
Other occupations.........

29
587
88
97
48
88
66
19
30
98

Total....................

1,150

1 3.4
5
58
139 23.7
8
32 36.4
6
36 37.1
3
7 14.6
8
17 19.3
8
27 40.9
1 5.3
3 10.0 ....... i “
14
41 41.8
304

26.4

111

*3*3
14.3

1
45
6
7
5
7
9
1
3
8

9.7

92

17.2
9.9
9.1
6.2
6.2
19.1
2.1

1
3.4
7.7
29
4.9
33
6.8
4
4
4.5
7.2
4
6
6.2
10.4
4
8.3
3
s
8.0
9.1
4
13.6
6.1
5.3
2
10.0 ....... 3 **io.’ o
8.2
5
5.1 ....... 2 *
8.0

63

5.5

49

3.4
5.6
4.5
4.1
6.2
10.5
*2*0
4.3

1 Of these, 1, or 3.5 per cent of the total, receives $800 to $899; 3, or 10.3 per cent, $900 to $999, and 5, or
17.2 per cent, $1,000 and over.
* Of these, 5, or 0.9 per cent of the total, receive $700 to $799; 2, or 0.3 per cent, $800 to $899, and 1, or 0.17
per cent, $1,000 and over.




BEGULABITY OP EMPLOYMENT— WOM EN'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 4 1
AMOUNT DURING THE Y E A R , APRIL, 1913, TO MARCH, 1914, INCLUSIVE, B Y OCCUPAINDUSTRY, NEW YO R K CITY—Concluded. '
SUMMARY, ESTABLISHMENTS NOS. I AND 2.

Number and per cent of employees who earned during the year in this shop—
Mar­
1
ginal
$250 to $299 $300 to $349 $350 to $399 $400 to $449 $450 to $499 $500 to $599,$600 to $699 $700 ana nnm.
over.
ber.
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
1
23
4
5
2
9
1
1
4
3

3.4
3.9
4.5
5.2
4.2
10.2
1.5
5.3
13.3
3.1

1
34
6
4
8
9
2
1
3
5

53

4.6

73

3 10.3
3.4
32
5.5
5.8
1.1
1
6.8
4.1
3
3.1
4.2
2
16.7
15 17.0
10.2
4.5
3
3.0
3 15.8
5.3
10.0 •• . . . .........
3
3.1
5.1
6.3

65

5.7

1
32
6
8
5
9
1
1
1
5

3.4
5.5
6.8
8.2
10.4
10.2
1.5
5.3
3.3
5.1

69

6.0

2 6.9
30 5.1
12 13.6
3 3.1
3 6.2
5 5.7
2 3.0
1 5.3
2 6.7
5 5.1
65

5.7

1
82
4
7
5
1
2
3
7
6

3.4
3 10.3
*9 31.0
42 7.0
*8 1.4
14.0
4.5
1 1.1 ......... ••••
*3 3.1
7.2
5 5.2
10.4 •••••• .......
<1 2.1
1.1
3.0
6 9.1
* 1 1.5
*4 21.1
1 5.3
15.8
23.3
1 3.3
<2 6.7
6.1
♦1 1.0

118 10.3

59

5.1

*29

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

2.6

i * Of these, 2, or 2.1 per cent of the total, receive $700 to $799 and 1, or 1 per cent, $1,000 and over.
* Receive $700 to $799.
•Of these, 16, or 1.4 per cent of the total, receive $700 to $799:3,or 0.3 per cent, $800 to $899:3,or 0.3 per
cent, $900 to $9J9; and 7, or 0.6 per cent, $1,000 and over.




142

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 80.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES WORKING EACH CLASSIFIED
ESTABLISHMENTS, DRESS AND
ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1.
Number and per cent of employees who worked
each classified number of weeks.
Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Total
num­
Sex.
ber
em­
ployed.

Under 5

5 to 9

10 to 14

15 to 19

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
1 Cutters......................................
2 Slopers......................................
3 Sample makers........................
4 Operators, waists.....................
5 Operators' skirts.. .............
6 Operators' petticoats...............
7 Operators, special machines...
8 Drapers.....................................
9 H«mst;itfihers_____ ____ ____
10 Finishers., . ................. . ....... .
11 Examiners.................... ........ .
12 Pressers.....................................
13 Folders......................................

4

34
1
1
2

Total...............................

F.
F.

F.
F.
F.
F.

1

M.

2
51

25.0

15.7

7

13.7

8

15.7

15

44.1

•7

20.6

3

8.8

2

5.9

23

95

8

24.2

14

14.7

12

12.6

2

2.1

1

20.0

7
2

17.1
11.8

3
2

7.3
11.8

5

3.6

1

20.0

1
1
1

4.3
14.3
4.5

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 2.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Cutters......................................
5 M.
Slopers......................................
2 F.
Sample makers.........................
Operators, waists.....................
41
F.
Operators, skirts
......................
17 F.
Operators, petticoats................
Operators, special machines
Drapers.....................................
13 F.
Hemstitchers............................
52 F.
Finishers...................................
Examiners................................
Pressers.....................................
9 M.
Folders......................................
Total...............................

17.1
41.2

5

38.5

2

15.4

16 30.8

15

28.8

2

22.2

2

22.2

27

19.4

24

17.3

35

139

7
1

7
7

25.2

17.1
5.9

12 23.1

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 3.
1 Cutters......................................
2 Slopers......................................
3 Sample makers.........................
4 Operators, waists.....................
5 Operators, skirts...................... {
6 Operators, petticoats...............
7 Operators, special machines...
8 Drapers.....................................
9 Hemstitchers............................
10 Finishers...................................
11 Examiners................................
12 Pressers.....................................
13 Folders......................................
Total...............................




5

M.

23
22

F.
F.
M.

3
4

M.
F.

4
1
4

17.4
14.3
18.2

5
2

2
8.7
71.4 . . . . . .
*i8.*2
9.1

1 33.3
1 25.0

36

F.

6

16.7

7

M.

2

28.6

17

15.9

107

4

11.1

3

8.3

5

13.9

13

12.1

9

8.4

9

8.4

REGULARITY OP EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 4 3
NUMBER OF W EEKS, M AY, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914, INCLUSIVE, B Y OCCtJPATIONS-5
W AIST INDUSTRY, BOSTON.




ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1.

144

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 80.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES WORKING EACH CLASSIFIED
ESTABLISHMENTS, DRESS AND W AIST
ESTABLISHMENT NO. 4.
Number and per cent of employees who worked
each classified number of weeks.
Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Total
num­
Sex.
ber
em­
ployed.

Under 5

5 to 9

10 to 14

15 to 19

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
1 Cutters......................................
2 Slopers......................................
3 SamplA matArs „_. t r,., . .....
4 Operators, waists.....................
5 Operators' skirts......................
6 Operators' petticoats................
7 Operators, special machines...
8 Drapers.....................................
9 Hfimst.itchftrs _ ,___
10 Finishers- .................................
11 Examiners........ ......................
12 Pressers.....................................
13 Folders......................................

2
9

M.
F.

1

11.1

1

11.1

2

22.2

1

11.1

225

F.

117

52.0

42

18.7

17

7.6

9

4.0

1
3

25.0
27.3

1
1
1

25.0
9.1
20.0

47

17.9

19

7.3

13

5.0

4

30.8

2

15.4

2

15.4

2

F.

4

F.

2

50.0

4
11
5

F.
F.
F.

3
1

27.3
20.0

124

47.3

262

Total...............................

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 5
1 Cutters......................................
2 Slopers......................................
3 Sample makers.........................
4 Operators, waists.....................
5 Operators, skirts......................
6 Operators, petticoats................
7 Operators, special machines
8 Drapers.....................................
9 Hemstitchers............................
10 Finishers...................................
11 Examiners................................
12 Pressers.....................................
13 Folders......................................

13

M.

3
42
7
26

F.
F.
F.
F.

2
2
70
6
4

F.
F.
F.
F.
F.

Total...............................

175

3

23.1

1 33.3
22 52.4
4

15.4

45
3

64.3
50.0

78

44.6

1 33.3
6 14.3

2

4.8

1

2.4

8

30.8

3

11.5

2

7.7

1
7

50.0
10.0

6

8.6

1
1

1.4
16.7

27

15.4

13

7.4

7

4.0

4
2

13.8
22.2

3
1

10.3
11.1

36
2
4
3

9.4
6.5
18.2
11.5

14
2
2
2

3.7
6.5
9.1
7.7

24

12.5

SUMMARY, ESTABLISHMENTS NOS. 1 TO 5.
1 Cutters......................................
2 Slopers......................................
3 Sample makers.........................
4 Operators, waists.....................
5 Operators, skirts...................... (
\
0 Operators, petticoats................
f
7 Operators, special machines...
I
8 Drapers.....................................
9 Hemstitchers...........................
10 Finishers...................................
11 Examiners................................
/
12 Pressers.....................................
13 Folders................ ..................... {
Total.................................




29
9
7
382
31
22
26
2
3
19
6
192
11
16
U
7
778

M.
F.
F.
F.
F.
M.
F.
F.
M.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
M.
F.

3
1
1
158
8
4
4

10.3
11.1
14.3
41.4
25.8
18.2
15.4

5 26.3
2 33.3
85 44.3
3 27.3
3 18.8
2 12.5
1 14.3
280 36.0

4
1
1
62
7
1
8

13.8
11.1
14.3
16.2
22.6
4.5
30.7

1 33.3
3 15.8
1 16.7
30 15.6
1 9.1
3 18.8
2 12.5
125

16.1

z
77

8
4.2
2 18.2
1
6.3
12.5 . . . . . .

'i i . Y

9.9

36

4.6

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— WOMEN *S GARMENT INDUSTRIES.

145

NUMBER OF W EEKS, M AY, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914, INCLUSIVE, B Y OCCUPATIONS— 5
INDUSTRY, BOSTON—Concluded.

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 4.

N um ber and per cen t o f em ployees w ho w orked each classified num ber o f w eeks.

Mar­
20 to 24

25 to 29

30 to 34

35 to 39

40 to 44

45 to 49

50 to * 2
>

ginal
num­
ber.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.

11.1

“ i*
8

50.0

22.2

11.1

2
.2

2.7

*i.*8

0.4

16

’50*6'

7.1

2.7

1
0

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 5.

7001°—Bull. 183—16----- 10




25.0
18.2

3.8

20.0
25

9.5

3
4
5

6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2

25.0

25.0
9.1
40.0

9.1
2.3

1
.8

50.0
25.0

1.9

50.0

13

1.9

146

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T ab le 8 1 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OP EMPLOYEES EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED

TIONS—5 ESTABLISHMENTS, DRESS

ESTABLISHMENT NO. I.
Number and per cent of employees who earned during the
year in this shop—
Mar­
gin­
al
No.

Occupation.

Total
num­
ber em­ Sex. Under $50
ployed.

$50 to $99

$100 to $149 $150 to $199 $200 to $249

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Cutters....................
Slopers....................
Sample makers.......
Operators, waists...
Operators, skirts. . .
Operators,petticoats
Operators, special
machines.
Drapers...................
Hemstitchers........ .
Finishers................
Examiners.............
Pressers................. .
Folders...................
Total..

25.0

1
2

23.5

17.6

5.9

13*7

11.8

2
2

64.7

11.8

8.8

5.9

2.9

50.0

5 :6'
6

7.4

11.6

34

95

35.8

13

13.7

7.4

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 2.
1 Cutters...................
2 Slopers... . . . . . . . . . .
3 Sample makers.......
4 Operators, waists...
5 Operators, skirts....
6 Operators,petticoats
7 Operators, special
machines.
8 Drapers...................
9 Hemstitchers..........
10 Finishers................
11 Examiners..............
12 Pressers . . . . . . . . . . .
13 Folders...................
Total.............

1

20.0

22.0
47.1

9

22.0

6

46.2

1

7.7

35

67.3

8

15.4

1

1.9

2

22.2

1

11.1

1

11.1

21

15.1

13

9.4

1

.7

2

8.7

1

4.5

4

18.2

1

33.3

5

M.

2
41
17

F.
F.
F.

9
8

13

F.

52

F.

9

M.

139

58

41.7

ESTABLISHMENT
1 Cutters . . . . . . . . . . .

2
3
4
5
6
7

8
9
10
11
12
13

Slopers....................
Sample makers.......
Operators, waists...
f
Operators, sk irts... {
Operators,petticoats
Operators, special
machines.
Drapers...................
Hemstitchers..........
Finishers.................
Examiners..............
Pressers...................
Folders...................
Total..............

5

M.

3

14.6
23.5

2

4.9

1 . 7.7

1

7.7

3

2.2

2

8.7

1

4.5

1
a.

M.

23
7
22

no.

6
4

M.

F.
F.

4
1
4

17.4
14.3
18.2

1 4.3
6 85.7
4.5
1

1

4

F.

36

F.

8

22.2

7

M.

2

17.8

16.7

7

19.4

3

8.3

5

13.9

15

14.0

10

9.3

8

7.5

9

8.4

28.6

19

25.0

6

107

1 25.0

1 Of these, 1 received $700 to $799, and 1, $900 to $999.
2 Of these, 1, or 20 per cent of the total, received $800 to $899, and 1, $900 to $999.
* Each of these received $700 to $799.
4 Received $1,000 and over.
e Of these, 2, or 1.4 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799, and there was 1, or 0.7 per cent, in each of
the groups $800 to $899, $900 to $999, and $1,000 and over.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN's GARMENT INDUSTRIES, 1 4 7
AMOUNT DURING THE Y E A R , M AY, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914, INCLUSIVE, B Y OCCUPAAND W AIST INDUSTRY, BOSTON.

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1.

N um ber and per cen t o f em ployees w h o earned during th e year in th is shop—

Mar­
$250to $299 $300to $349 $350to $399 $400 to $449 $450to $499 $500to $599 $600to $699 $700to $799 ginal
num­
ber.
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber, cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent,

1 50.0
2

25.0

2.0

3.9

5.9

9.8

100.0

2.0

3.9

1
2

3
4
5

6
7

8

2.9

2.9

9
10
11

100.0
100.0

12

13
2

2.1

3

3.2

6

6.3

5

5.3

2

2.1

3

2

3.!

2.1

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 2.

20.0

•4 80.0

21.7

8.7

*4.'5

13.0

*9*i

8.7

8.7
*4.5

13.6

7 4 18.2
“ s*2

25.0

25.0

2.8

66.7

2.8

*8*3

2.8

2.8
28*6

9 3 42.8

6
7

8
9
10
11
12

13
5

4.7

.9

11

10.3

4.7

1.9

6

5.6

2.8

W3 12.2
1

• Of these, 2, or 40 per cent of the total, received $800 to $899; 1, $900 to $999; and 1, $1,000 and over.
7 Of these, 2, or 9.1 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799; 1, $800 to $899; and 1, $1,000 and over.
8 Each of these received $700 to $799.
• Of these, 2, or 28.6 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799; and 1, or 14.3 per cent. $900 to $999.
to Of these, 6, or 5.6 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799; 3, or 2.8 per cent, $800 to $899; 2, or 1.9
per cent, $900 to $999; and 2, or 1.9 per cent, $1,000 and over.




148

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 81.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED
TIONS—5 ESTABLISHMENTS, DRESS AND
ESTABLISHMENT NO. 4.
Number and per cent of employees who earned during the
year in this shop—
Mar­
gin­
al
No.

Total
num­
ber em­ Sex. Under $50
ployed.

Occupation.

$50 to $99

$100 to $149 $150 to $199 $200 to $249

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Cutters....................
Slopers....................
Sample makers......
Operators, waists...
Operators, skirts , ,
Operators,petticoats
Operators, special
machines.
Drapes...................
Hemstitchers..........
Finishers.................
Examiners..............
Pressers...................
Folders...................

2
9

M.
F.

2

22.2

3

33.3

225

F.

159

70.7

19

8.4

2

F.

4

F.

2

50.0

4
11
5

F.
F.
F.

1 25.0
5 45.5
1 20.0
170

262

Total.

64.9

1 25.0
1 9.1
21

9.2

9

4.0

1
1

9.1
20.0

11

4.2

6

2

15.4

1

6

2.7

5

2.2

1
1

9.1
20.0

2.3

7

2.7

7.7

1

7.7

11.5

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 5.
1 Cutters....................
2 Slopers....................
3 Sample makers.....
4 Operators, waists...
5 Operators, skirts....
6 Operators,petticoats
7 Operators, special
machines.
8 Drapers...................
9 Hemstitchers..........
10 Finishers.................
11 Examiners..............
12 Pressers..................
13 F olders.......... .
Total.............

M.

5

38.5

3
42
7
26

F.
F.
F.
F.

2
24

66.7
57.1

6

14.3

1

2.4

3

7.1

7

26.9

9

34.6

3

11.5

1

3.8

3

2
2
70
6
4

F.
F.
F.
F.
F.

1
54
3

50.0
77.1
50.0

5
..

7.1

2
2

2.9
33.3

2
1

2.9
16.7

......

96

175

54.9

2

15.4

13

i

25.0*
23

13.1

10

5.7

3

4.3
’io’o'

8

4.6

9

5.1

6.9

1

3.4

SUMMARY, ESTABLISHMENTS NOS. 1 TO 5.
1 Cutters....................
2 Slopes....................
3 Sample makers.......
4 Operators, waists...
/
5 Operators, sk irts... \
6 Operators,petticoats
/Operators, special /
7 \ machines.
I
8 Drapers...................
9 Hemstitchers..........
10 Finishers.................
11 Examiners..............
12 Pressers................... /
13 Folders....................
Total............

29
9
7
382
31
22
26
2
3
19
6
192
11
16

778

M.
F.
F.
F.
F.
M.
F.
F.
M.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
M.
F.

5 17.2
2 22.2
2 28.6
208 54.5
9 29.0
4 18.2
7 26.9

3
3

10.3
33.3

2

6.9

2

44 11.5
6 19.4
1 4.5
9 34.6

21
4
1
3

5.5
12.9
4.5
11.5

16

4.2

15

3.9

4
1

18.2
3.8

1
3

4.5
11.5

2

10.5

1 33.3

6
3
119
4
5
2
1

31.6
50.0
62.0
36.4
31.3
12.5
14.3

2

10.5

1

5.3

24
1
2
2

12.5
9.1
12.5
12.5

13
2
1
1
2

6.8
18.2
6.3
6.3
28.6

7
1
1
1

6.3
14.3

377

48.5

97

12.5

51

6.6

34

4.4

3.6
9.1

......
......
8

34

4.2
*i8.T
*i4.*3*
4.4

* Each of these receive $1,000 and over.
* Of these, 1, or 3.4 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799; and there were 3, or 10.3 per cent of the
total, in each of the groups $800 to $899, $900 to $999, and $1,000 and over.
* Each of these received $700 to $799.
* Of these, 2, or 9.1 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799, and there was 1, or 4.5 per cent, in each of
the groups, $800 to $899, and $1,000 and over.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 4 9
AMOUNT DURING THE Y E A R , M AY, 1913, TO APRIL, 1914, INCLUSIVE, B Y OCCUPAW AIST INDU STRY, BOSTON—Concluded.
ESTABLISHMENT NO. 4.

N um ber and per cen t o f em ployees w h o earned during th e year in th is shop—

Mar*
$250to $299 $300 to $349 $350 to $399 $400 to $449 $450 to $499 $500to $599 $600 to $699 $700to $799 ginal
num­
ber.Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber, cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber, cent. ber.
ber. cent.

22.2
i.3

11.1
3.6

1 100.0
2

11.1

‘\9
*

1
.8

2.2

0.9

5
6

50.0

50.0

7

25.0

8

25.0

25.0*

2*"
56

20.0
12

1.3

9.1

2.3

9

10
11

20.0

2.7

4.6

9.1

1

2
3
4

12

9.1
2.3

1.5

13
1.9

.8

12

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 5.

7.7
33.3
2.4

2.4
14.3
7.7

4.8
28.6

1

7.7
2.4
28.6

28.6
3.8

4.8

2.4

2
3
4
5

6
7

100.0

50.0
1.4

2.9

8
9

10

1.4

11
12
13

25.*0
5

2.9

6

3.4

5

2.9

2.3

4

2.3

2.3

1 .6

SUMMARY, ESTABLISHMENTS NOS. 1 TO 5.

» Of these, 2, or 12.5 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799, and there was 1, or 6.3 per cent, in each
of the groups, $900 to $999, and $1,000 ana over.
* Of these, 9, or 1.2 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799; 4, or 0.5 per cent, $800 to $899; 4, or 0.5 per
cent, $900 to $999; and 5, or 0.6 per cent, $1,000 and over.




150

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b le 8 2 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS

MENTS, CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 1: DATA
Number and per cent of employees who worked
each classified number of weeks.
Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Total
number
em­
ployed.

Occupation.

Under 5

5 to 9

10 to 14

15 to 19

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Cutters, male.......................................
Pressers, male......................................
Operators, male...................................
Operators, female................................

96
53
93
181

Total...........................................

1
2
3
4

423

8

8.33

m7 7.53
m
6 3.31
21

4.96

10 10.42
3 5.66
2 2.15
3 1.66

7 7.29
8 15.09
7 7.53
24 13.26

15 15.63
10 18.87
7 7.53
22 12.15

18

46 10.87

54 12.77

4.26

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 2 : DATA
1
2
3
4

Cutters, male.......................................
Pressers, male......................................
Operators, male................................... 4
Operators, female................................

140
138
178
213
669

Total..........................................

8 5.71
...... ......
7 3.93
6 2.82
21

3.14

11
4
3
8

7.86
2.90
1.69
3.76

11 7.86
15 10.87
7 3.93
26 12.21

26

3.89

59

8.82

17 12.14
16 11.59
9 5.06
24 11.27
66

9.87

TABUS 8 3 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS

CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT IN

ESTABLISHMENT NO. I : DATA

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Number and per cent who earned during the 10 months in
this sh op Total
number Under $50 $50 to $99 $100 to $149 $150 to $199
$200 to $249
em­
ployed.
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.

Cutters, male.................
Pressers, male................
Operators, male.............
Operators, female..........

96
53
93
181

Total.....................

1
2
3
4

423

.

6

6.25

6
6

6.45
3.31

8
2
3
12

8.33
3.77
3.23
6.62

4 4.17
1 1.89
3 3.23
25 13.81

10 10.42
8 15.09
2 2.15
15 8.29

3 3.13
3 5.66
2 2.15
15 8.29

18

4.26

25

5.91

33

35

23

7.80

8.27

5.44

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 2: DATA
1
2
3
4

Cutters, male.................
Pressers, male................
Operators, male.............
Operators, female..........
Total.....................

6 4.29
140
138
178 ....... 6 **3.37
7 3.29
213

8
2
3
16

5.71
1.45
1.69
7.51

4 2.86
3 2.17
5 2.81
26 12.21

12 8.57
14 10.14
2 1.12
18 8.45

6 4.2«
6 4.35
2 l.la
16 7.51)

19

29

4.33

38

46

30

669

2.84

5.68

6.88

4.4ft

i Of these, 8, or 8.33 per cent, received $700 to $799; 13, or 13.53 per cent, received $800 to $899; 1, or 1.04
per cent, received $900 to $999, and 4, or 4.17 per cent, received $1,000 and over.
* Of these, 3, or 5.66 per cent, received $700 to $799; 1, or 1.89 per cent, received $800 to $899; and 2, or 3.77
per cent, received $1,000 and over.
* Of these, 2, or 2.15 per cent, received $700 to $799; 7, or 7.52 per cent, received $800 to $899; 15, or 16.13
per cent, received $900 to $999, and 22, or 23.66 per cent, received $1,000 and over.
* Received $700 to $799.
« Of these, 14, or 3.31 per cent, received $700 to $799; 21,or 4.96 per cent, received $800 to $899; 16, or 3.78
per cent, received $900 to $999, and 28, or 6.62 per cent, received $1,000 and over.




REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT— W OM EN'S GARMENT INDUSTRIES. 1 5 1
WORKING EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF W EEKS, BY OCCUPATIONS—2 ESTABLISHINDUSTRY, CLEVELAND, OHIO.

FOR 10 MONTHS* 1913-14.
N um ber and per cen t o f em ployees w ho w orked each classified num ber o f w eeks.

20 to 24

35 to 39

30 to 34

25 to 29

40 to 44

45 to 49

50 to 52

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
4.17
1.89
1.08

2.21

9.38
7.55
5.38
4.97
27

6.38

10

1.04
3.77
4.30
12.15

14.58
28.30
19.36

29.17
18.87
45.18
19.89

2.36

6.86

102 24.11

116 27.42

FOR 12 MONTHS, 1913-14.
11
6
7
11

7.86
4.35
3.93
5.16

9
4
2
5

6.43
2.90
1.12
2.35

4
5
7
24

2.86
3.62
3.93
11.27

14
18
22
60

10.00
13.04
12.36
28.17

35

5.23

20

2.99

40

5.98

114

17.04

20.00
13.77
25.28
18.31

1
19
18
7

0.71
13.77
10.11
3.29

26 18.57
32 23.19
51 28.65
3 1.41

131 19.58

45

6.73

112 16.74

28
19
45
39

1
2
3
4

EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT. BY OCCUPATIONS— 2 ESTABLISHMENTS,
DUSTRY, CLEVELAND, OHIO.

FOR 10 MONTHS, 1913-14.
Number and per cent who earned during the 10 months in this shop—
vr0Mar­
$700 ana ginal
$250 to $299 $300to $349 $350to $399 $400 to $449 $450 to $499 $500 to $599 $600to $699
num .
over.
ber.
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber; cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
ber. cent.

9 9.38
6 11.32
2 2.15
20 11.05

5 5.21
8 15.09
4 4.30
20 11.05

37

37

8.75

8.75

3 3.13
1 1.89
2 2.15
17 9.39
23

5.44

4 4.17
1 1.89
3 3.23
10 5.52

5
2
I
16

5.21
3.77
1.08
8.84

5 5.21
8 15.09
10 10.75
13 7.18

8 8.33
7 13.21
9 9.68
11 6.08

126 27.08
*6 11.32
*46 49.46
U
.55

18

24 5.67

36 8.51

35 8.27

6 79 18.67

7 5.00
3 2.17
4 2.25
14 6.57

6
5
3
20

6
11
15
18

4.29
7.97
8.43
8.45

10 7.14 «53 37:86
15 10.87 »59 42.75
15 8.43 8 114 64.04
11 5.16
•4 1.87

28

34 5.08

51 7.47

51 7.62 10 230 34.38

4.26

1
2
3
4

FOR 12 MONTHS, 1913-14.
12
9
3
21

8.57
6.52
1.69
9.86

5 3.57
9 6.52
4 2.25
22 10.33

5 3.57
2 1.45
2 1.12
20 9.39

45

6.73

40

29

5.98

4.33

4.19

4.29
3.62
1.691
9.39|

1
2
3
4

* Of these, 9. or 6.43 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799; 19, or 13.57 per cent, received $800 to $899;
7, or 5 per cent, received $900 to $999, and 18, or 12.86 per cent, received $1,000 and over.
7 Of these, 26, or 18.84 percent of the total, received $700 to $799; 21. or 15.22 per cent, received $800 to $899;
10, or 7.25 per cent, received $900 to $999, and 2, or 1.45 per cent, received $1,000 and over.
* Of these, 4, or 2.25 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799; 16, or 8.99 per cent, received $800 to $899;
25. or 14.04 per cent, received $900 to $999, and 69, or 38.76 per cent, receivecf$l,000 and over.
* Of these, 3, or 1.41 per cent of the total, received $700 to $799. and 1, or 0.46 per cent, received $800 to $899.
Of these, 42, or 6.28 per cent of the total, received $700to $799; 57, or 8.52 per cent, received $800 to $899;
42, or 6.28 per cent, received $900 to $999, and 89, or 13.30 per cent, received $1,000 and over.







INDEX.
g, description of occupation.............................................................................................................
19
Boston:
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, seasonal fluctuations in................................................................... 68-71
Dress and waist industry, earnings of employees in ......................................................... 125,126,146-149
Dress and waist industry, seasonal fluctuations in............................................................................71-73
Dress and waist industry, weeks worked by employees in....................................... 123,124,129,142-145
Establishments and total pay roll covered in present inquiry, by industries.................................
13
Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries................................................................66
Output of women’s wear, value of......................................................................................................
16
Bank of city in specified industries.....................................................................................................
78
Regularity of employment...................................................................................................................66-73
Regularity of employment and earnings, dress and waist industry............................................... 122-129
Seasonal fluctuations of employment..................................................................................................66-73
Busy seasons and dull seasons. (See Seasonal fluctuations of employment.)
Buttonhole making, description of occupation.........................................................................................
20
Capital, wages, cost of material, etc. (See Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.)
Causes of seasonal fluctuations of employment......................................................................................... 74-94
Changes in style, and seasonal fluctuations of employment.................................................................... 74-77
Chicago:
Cloak and suit industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment in....................................................48-50
Dress and skirt industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment in.................................................
55
Dress and waist industry, dovetailing of allied occupations........................................................... 97-104
Dress and waist industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment in................................................. 50-53
Establishments and total pay roll covered in present inquiry, by industries................................
13
Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries..................................................................... 44,45
House-dress and kimono industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment in................................... 56,57
Men’s ready-to-wear clothing industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment in..........................
106
Output of women’s wear, value of......................................................................................................
16
Petticoat industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment in .«......................................................... 58,59
Rank of city in specified industries.....................................................................................................
78
Regularity of employment...................................................................................................................44-59
Seasonal fluctuations of employment................................................................................................. 45-59
Seasonal fluctuations, 1 establishment making more than 8 lines of women's garments................94-97
Skirt, and dress and skirt industries, seasonal fluctuations of employment in............................... 53-55
Women’s ready-to-wear garment industries, seasonal fluctuations of employment in...................
47
Children’s and misses’ dresses:
Fabrics used..........................................................................................................................................
21
Seasonal fluctuations of employment in industry, New York City....................................... 34-36,86,87
Cleaning, description of occupation...........................................................................................................
20
Cleveland:
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, earnings of employees in................................................. 132-134,150,151
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment in.........................................62-64
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, weeks worked by employees in........................ 130,131,134,135,150-151
Dress and waist industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment in................................................. 64,65
Establishments and total pay roll covered in present inquiry, by industries.................................
13
Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries............................................................... : . . .
59
Men’s ready-to-wear clothing industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment in............................ 106
Output of women’s wear, value of.............................. ........................................................................
16
Rank of city in specified industries......................................................................................................
78
Regularity of employment................................................................................................................... 59-65
Regularity of employment and earnings, cloak, suit, and skirt industry.................................... 129-135
Seasonal fluctuations of employment.................................................................................................. 60-65
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry:
131
Constancy of employment in different occupations, Cleveland.......................................................
Earnings of employees, Cleveland...................................................................................... 132-134,150,151
Fabrics used...........................................................................................................................................
21
Regularity of employment and earnings, summary, Cleveland.....................................................129-131
Seasonal fluctuations of employment in, Boston............................................................................... 68,71
Seasonal fluctuations of employment in, Cleveland...........................................................................62-64
Seasonal fluctuations of employment in, New York City.................................................................28-30
Specialization, degree of, and seasonal fluctuations........................................................................... 78-80
w eeks worked by employees, Cleveland.............................................................. 130,131,134,135,150,151
Constancy of employment in different occupations:
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry. Cleveland . ........................................................................................
131
Dress and waist industry, Boston.......................................................................................................
124
Muslin-underwear industry. New York City.................................................................................. 114-116
Cost of material, wages, product, etc. (See Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.)
Custom-tailoring industry, women’s, seasonal fluctuations of employment in, New York City....... 42-44
Dovetailing of occupations.................................................................................................. 9,10,97-104,107,108
Dress and waist industry:
Constancy of employment in different occupations, Boston.............................................................
124
Dovetailing of allied occupations, Chicago........................................................................................ 97-104
Earnings of employees, Boston............................................................................................125,126,446-149
Fabrics used...........................................................................................................................................
21
High-grade and low-grade shops, seasonal fluctuations of employment in, New York City..........89,90
Regularity of employment ana earnings, summary, Boston........................................................ 122-124




153

154

INDEX.

Dress and waist industry—Concluded.
page.
Seasonal fluctuations of employment, Boston.................................................................................... 71-73
Seasonal fluctuations of employment, Chicago................................................................................... 50-53
Seasonal fluctuations of employment, Cleveland................................................................................ 64,65
Seasona fluctuations of employment. New York City...................................................................... 31-34
Specialization, degree of, and seasonal fluctuations........................................................................... 80-82
Weeks worked by employees, Boston................................................................... 123,124,127-129,142-145
Dresses, misses’ and children’s. (See Children’s and misses* dresses.)
Dull seasons and busy seasons. (See Seasonal fluctuations of employment.)
Earnings:
Amounts per year, classified, cloak, suit, and skirt industry. Cleveland....................... 133,134,150,151
Amounts per year, classified, dress and waist industry. Boston............................................ 126,146-149
Amounts per year, classified, muslin-underwear industry, New York City..........................117,138-141
Average per hour, muslin-underwear industry. New York C ity...........................................118,119,121
Average per week, cloak, suit, and skirt industry. Cleveland..........................................................
132
Average per week, dress and waist industry. Boston.....................................................................125,126
Average per week, muslin-underwear industry, New York City.................................................. 116-120
Regularity of employment and, cloak, suit, and skirt industry, Cleveland...............................129-135
Regularity of employment and, dress and waist industry. Boston............................................ 122-129
Regularity of employment and, muslin-underwear industry, New York City.......................... 112-122
Examining, description of occupation.......................................................................................................
20
*Fabrics used, women’s ready-to-wear industries..................................................................................... 21,2 2
Finishing, description of occupation...........................................................................................................
19
Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries:
Boston....................................................................................................................................................
66
Chicago................................................................................................................................................. 44,45
Cleveland...............................................................................................................................................
59
New York City......................................................................................................................................22,23
United States.........................................................................................................................................13-17
High-grade and low-grade shops, seasonal fluctuations of employment in:
Dress and waist industry. New York City.........................................................................................88-90
House-dress and kimono industry, New York City..........................................................................
89
House-dress and kimono industry:
Fabrics used..........................................................................................................................................
22
Seasonal fluctuations of employment, Chicago...................................................................................39-42
Seasonal fluctuations of employment, New York City..................................................................... 56,57
Specialization, degree of, and seasonal fluctuations. New York City and Chicago..........................82-84
Industries covered by present inquiry, rank of specified cities in...........................................................
78
Industries, establishments, and combined pay rolls covered by present inquiry..................................
13
Industries, women’s ready-to-wear garment, classification of..................................................................20-22
Inside and outside shops, seasonal fluctuations of employment in, children’s and misses’ dresses,
New YorkCity....... .....................................................f . . ; .............. ................................................... . 86,87
Kimono industry, high-grade and low-grade shops, seasonal fluctuations in, New York City............
88
Kimonos and house dresses. (See House dress and kimono industry.)
Labor supply of industries of present study..............................................................................................17,1$
Large ana small shops, seasonal fluctuations in:
Children’s and misses’ dress industry, New York City..................................................................... 34-36
Cloak and suit industry, Chicago.........................................................................................................48-50
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, Boston...............................................................................................69-71
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, Cleveland..........................................................................................62-64
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry. New York City................................................................................28-30
Dress and waist industry, Boston....................................................................................................... 71-73
Dress and waist industry, Chicago...................................................................................................... 51,53
Dress and waist industry. New York City......................................................................................... 31-34
House-dress and kimono industry, New York City.......................................................................... 40-42
Men’s clothing industry, Chicago and Cleveland........................ ....................................................104-106
Muslin-underwear industry, New York City..................................................................................... 37-39
Materials and fabrics used, women’s ready-to-wear industries........................................................ : 2 1,2 2
Men’s ready-to-wear clothing, seasonal fluctuations in, Chicago and Cleveland................................ 104-106
Misses’ and children’s dresses. (See Children’s and misses’ dresses.)
Muslin-underwear industry:
Constancy of employment in different occupations. New York City...........................................114-116
Earnings and regularity of employment in, New York City........................................................112-122
Earnings per hour, week, and year, New York City........................................................ 116-121,138-141
Fabrics used..........................................................................................................................................
21
Overtime worked, New York City.................................................................................................. 121,122
Regularity of employment and earnings, summary, New York City...........................................112-114
Seasonal fluctuations of employment in. New York City.................................................................37-39
Weeks worked by employees in, New York City............................................................. 113-115,136,137
New York City:
Children’s and misses’ dress industry, inside and outside shops, seasonal fluctuations in.............86,87
Children’s and misses’ dress industry, seasonal fluctuations in........................................................ 34-36
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, seasonal fluctuations in.................................................................. 28-30
Custom-tailoring industry, women’s, seasonal fluctuations in.......................................................... 42-44
Dress and waist industry, high-grade and low-grade shops, seasonal fluctuations in ..................... 89,90
Dress and waist industry, seasonal fluctuations in............................................................................ 31-34
Establishments and total pay roll covered in present inquiry, by industries.................................
13
Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries...................................................................... 22,23
House-dress and kimono industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment in...................................39-42
Kimono industry, high-grade and low-grade shops, seasonal fluctuations of employment in........
88
Muslin-underwear industry, earnings of employees.......................................................... 116-121,138-141
Muslin-underwear industry, overtime worked................................................................................121,122
Muslin-underwear industry, seasonal fluctuations in.........................................................................37-39
Muslin-underwear industry, weeks worked by employeeb.............................................. 112-115,136,137
Output of women’s wear, value and per cent of................................................................................
16
Rank of city in specified industries......................................................................................................
78
Regularity of employment................................................................................................................... 22-44
Regularity of employment and earnings, muslin-underwear industry...*................................ 112-122
Seasonal fluctuations of employment, summary................................................................................ 23-27




INDEX.

155

Occupations:
Page.
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, earnings of workers, Cleveland....................................................160,151
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, weeks worked by employees, Cleveland.................................... 150,151
Description of........................................................................................................................................ 18-20
Dovetailing of................................................................................................................ 9,10,97-104,107,108
Dress and waist industry, earnings per year, Boston....................................................................146-149
Dress and waist industry, weeks worked by employees, Boston....................... 122,124,127-129,142-145
Muslin-underwear industry, earnings per year, New York City..................................................138-141
Muslin-underwear industry, weeks worked by employees, New York City. . . 112,115,118,119,136,137
Operating, description of occupation..........................................................................................................
19
Output or production of women’s wear, value of. 5 cities........................................................................
16
Overtime worked, muslin-underwear industry, New York City........................................................ 121,122
Petticoat industry, seasonal fluctuations of employment, Chicago......................................................... 58,59
Pressing, description of occupation.............................................................................................................
20
Product, quality of, and seasonal fluctuations of employment........................................................... 76,87-90
Product, value of, wages, capital, etc. (See Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.)
Production, method of, and seasonal fluctuations of employment................................................ 75,76,84-87
Production or output of women’s wear, value of, 5 cities.........................................................................
16
Regularity of employment.......................................................................................................................... 22-73
Boston.....................................................................................................................................................66-73
Chicago................................................................................................................................................... 44-59
Cleveland................................................................................................................................................59-65
New York City...................................................................................................................................... 22-44
Regularity of employment and earnings. (See Earnings.)
Regularization of employment.................................................................................................................. 94-108
Dovetailing of awed occupations, dress and waist industry, Chicago............................................ 97-104
Dovetailing of occupations, other examples of................................................................................ 107,108
Hen’s ready-to-wear garments, Chicago and Cleveland................................................................. 104-106
Women’s garments, Chicago................................................................................................................ 94-97
Sample making, description of occupation................................................................................................
19
Scope of present inquiry..............................................................................................................................10-13
Seasonal fluctuations of employment:
Boston, summary.................................................................................................................................. 66-71
Cause, primary.......................................................................................................................................
74
Causesof................................................................................................................................................. 74-94
Causes of, contributory......................................................................................................................... 74-90
Causes of, summary............................................................................................................................... 92-94
Changesm styles, as a cause of.............................................................................................................74-77
Chicago a n d g eveland, 2^tabjlishments making men’s ready-to-wear garments.......................104-106
Chfcafo\summary................ .. .f ................................................. ? ..
Children’s and misses’ dress industry, New* York City................................................ ..................34-36
Cleveland, summary............................... ............................................................................................. 60,61
Cloak and suitindustry, Chicago......................................................................................................... 48-50
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, Boston..............................................................................................68-71
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, Cleveland......................................................................................... 62-64
Cloak, suit, and skirtindustry, New York City................................................................................ 28-34
Custom-tailoring industry.women’s, New York City....................................................................... 42-44
Dress and waistlndustry, Boston........................................................................................................71-73
Dress and waist industry, Chicago.................................................................... ..................................50-53
Dress and waist industry, Cleveland................................................................................................... 64,65
Dress and waistlndustry. New York City.......................................................................................... 31-34
House-dress and kimono industry, Chicago........................................................................................56,57
House-dress and kimono industry, New York City...........................................................................39-42
Method of production, a contributory cause............................................................................. 75,76,84-87
Muslin-underwear industry, New York City.....................................................................................37-39
New York City, summary................................................................................................................... 23-27
Petticoat industry, Chicago..................................................................................................................58,59
Quality of product, a contributory cause..................................................................................... 76,87-90
Relatedfactors........................................................................................................................................91,92
Skirt, and dress and skirt industry, Chicago......................................................................................53-55
Specialization, degree of, a contributory cause.............................................................................. 75,77-84
Shops. (See High-grade and low-grade shops; Inside and outside shops; Large and small shops.)
Skirt, and dress andskirt industries, seasonal fluctuations of employment in, Chicago.......................53-55
Slack seasons and busy seasons. ' (See Seasonal fluctuations of employment.)
Specialization,'degree of, and seasonal fluctuations of employment................................................... 75,77-84
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry.............................................................................................................78-80
Dress and waist industry......................................................................................................................80-82
House-dress and kimono industry......................................... ..............................................................82-84
Styles, changes in, cause of seasonal fluctuations......................................................................................74-77
Wages! c a p it e lj^ !"? ^ Growth of women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.)
Waists and dresses. (See Dress and waist industry.)
Weeks worked by employees:
Cloak, suit, and skirt industry, Cleveland................... ...................................... 130,131,134,135,150,151
Dressand waist industry. Boston............................... , ...................................... 122,124,127-129,142-145
Muslin-underwear industry New York City.................................................................... 112-115,136,137