View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

RW.A.
*

and

INDUSTRY

A F O U R - Y E A R S T U D Y OF

REGENERATIVE EMPLOYMENT

UNITED STATES DEP ART M EN T O F L A B O R
Frances Perkins, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Isador Lubin, Commissioner

F o r s a le b y t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C .




-

P r ic e 10 c e n t s







MEN

AND

ROCK

AT

GRAND

COULEE




I NT RODUCI NG
A

STUDY

* ---------------------

c o n s tr u c tio n

o f p u b lic

a g a in s t u n e m p lo y m e n t in
e ffe c tiv e n e s s o f a n y

w o r k s h a s lo n g

p e r io d s

program

o f severe

been

a fir s t lin e o f d e fe n s e

d e p r e s s io n .

o f p u b lic w o rk s

m e n t, s e v e ra l g r o u p s o f w o r k e rs m u s t b e c o n s id e r e d .
m en w h o w ork

on

sto n e

d itc h

m asons,

s k ille d ,
th e re

s e m is k ille d ,

a re

th e

m en

th e jo b

its e lf.

d ig g e r s ,
and
in

T hey

cem en t

u n s k ille d

th e

fa c to r ie s

fin is h e r s ,
w ho

w h ic h

lu m b e r , o r s te e l t o b e u s e d o n th e j o b .
lo g g e r s , a n d o th e r s w h o s u p p ly

are th e

m en

ju d g in g

th e

F ir s t, th e r e a re th e

c a r p e n te r s , b r ic k la y e r s ,
and

w ork

th e

w ith

p r o v id e

B a ck o f th em

th e ra w

In

as a m ea n s fo r r e e m p lo y ­

host
th em .

th e

b r ic k ,

of

o th er

S econ d ,
cem en t,

a re t h e m in e r s , t h e

m a te r ia ls f o r th e fa c t o r ie s ;

and

la s t , th e r e a re th e m e n o n t r a n s p o r t a t io n s y s te m s w h ic h c a r r y th e m a te r ia ls
t o th e fa c t o r y a n d , la te r , t o th e jo b .
E m p l o y m e n t o f t h e s e s e c o n d a r y g r o u p s o f w o r k e r s is j u s t a s i m p o r t a n t
in

any

r e e m p lo y m e n t

o f c o n s tr u c tio n .
and

p rogra m

F or m any

tr a n s p o r ta tio n

m en

as

ty p e s

th e

e m p lo y m e n t

o f m en

on

th e

s it e

o f p u b lic w o r k s th e m a te r ia ls -m a k e r s

a re n u m e r ic a lly

m ore

im p o r ta n t th a n

th e

m en

o n th e jo b .
N o tw ith s ta n d in g
t r a n s p o r ta tio n
m easu re

w ith

th e

r e c o g n iz e d

e m p lo y e e s ,
any

accu racy

it

has
th e

im p o r ta n c e
been

and

im p o s s ib le ,

am ount

u n til

r e c e n t ly ,

to

o f in d ir e c t

la b o r

p r o v id e d

by

p u b lic w o r k s p r o je c t s in t h e U n it e d S ta te s .
or a new

o f m a te r ia ls -m a k e r s

W h e n a n e w r o a d o r b r id g e

s c h o o l b u ild in g w a s p r o p o s e d , e v e r y o n e k n e w

th a t cem en t and

b r ic k a n d s te e l a n d lu m b e r w o u ld b e n e e d e d , b u t n o o n e k n e w h o w m a n y
m en

w o u ld b e

e m p lo y e d

in fa c t o r ie s t o

r a ilr o a d s o r s te a m s h ip lin e s t o s h ip t h e m




3

m ake

th e s e m a te r ia ls o r o n

to m a rk et.

th e

T h e im p o r ta n c e o f

su ch

in fo r m a tio n , n o w

and

in

th e

in a p p r a is in g a p r o p o s e d p r o g r a m

fu tu r e , t o

th e

D ep a rtm en t

o f p u b lic w o rk s fr o m

of Labor

th e s ta n d p o in t o f

r e e m p lo y m e n t , a n d t o t h e F e d e r a l a g e n c ie s w h ic h a re e n g a g e d in s u p e r ­
v is in g a n d o p e r a t in g p u b lic w o r k s p r o g r a m s , c a n h a r d ly b e o v e r e m p h a s iz e d .
F o r th a t rea son , th e B u rea u

of L abor

S ta tis tic s w e lc o m e d

th e o p p o r ­

t u n it y p r o v id e d b y th e p r o g r a m o f th e F e d e r a l E m e r g e n c y A d m in is tr a tio n
of

P u b lic

W ork s

in

1933,

to

b e g in

^ b e h in d -th e -lin e s e m p lo y m e n t ”

th e

fir s t

c o m p r e h e n s iv e

stu d y

of

o n p u b lic w o rk s jo b s .

E v e r y c o n t r a c t o r o r G o v e r n m e n t e m p lo y e e in c h a r g e o f a p r o je c t w a s
r e q u ir e d b y
w h ic h

th e A d m in is tr a to r o f P u b lic W o r k s t o k e e p p a y -r o ll re c o rd s

show ed

num ber

of

th e n u m b e r o f m en

h ou rs

th ey

w orked,

e m p lo y e d

and

th e

on

ea ch

am ount

P . W . A . jo b , th e

of

pay

th ey

ea rn ed .

S u m m a r ie s o f th e s e r e c o r d s w e r e s e n t e a c h m o n t h t o t h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r
S ta tis tic s
E ach

to

g iv e

a

r u n n in g

record

of

d ir e c t

c o n t r a c t o r o r b u ild e r a ls o n o t ifie d

v a lu e o f m a te r ia ls w h ic h h e o r d e r e d .

th e

e m p lo y m e n t

B u reau

at

o f th e

th e

s it e .

am ount and

T h is p r o v id e d a r e c o r d o f th e t o ta l

v a lu e o f m a te r ia ls u s e d in r e la tio n t o t h e c o s t o f th e j o b a s a w h o le a n d t o
t h e s iz e o f t h e p a y
fa c t u r e r

o f th e

ro ll.

T he

m a te r ia ls

to

B u rea u

w hom

a

th en

s e n t in q u ir ie s t o

co n tra ct h a d

been

th e m a n u ­

le t a s k in g

how

m a n y m a n -h o u r s o f la b o r w o u ld b e r e q u ir e d in th e p r o c e s s o f fa b r ic a t io n .
T h is g a v e a m e a s u r e o f th e a m o u n t o f la b o r r e q u ir e d b y th e m a n u fa c tu r e r
o r d e a le r w h o s o ld t h e m a t e r ia ls , t h u s m e a s u r in g t h e fir s t s ta g e o f in d ir e c t
e m p lo y m e n t .
T h is

file

o f record s

has

been

m a in ta in e d

th rou g h ou t

th e

life

o f th e

p u b l i c w o r k s p r o g r a m , f o r m o r e t h a n 4 y e a r s , a n d is b e i n g b u i l t u p e v e r y
day.

T h e s t u d y h a s h a d th e g e n e r o u s c o o p e r a t io n a n d a s s is ta n c e o f th e

F e d e ra l E m e r g e n c y A d m in is tr a tio n o f P u b lic W o r k s , a n d o f th e th o u s a n d s
o f co n tra cto rs

and

G overn m en t

c o n s tr u c tio n

a g e n ts

w ho

have

been

in

c h a r g e o f a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t io n j o b s ; o f th e m a k e r s o f s te e l, o f c e m e n t , o f
b r ic k , a n d o f th e m a n y o t h e r p r o d u c t s u s e d in th e p r o g r a m .
E v e n th e s e r e c o r d s d id n o t t e ll t h e fu ll s t o r y a s t o th e a m o u n t o f la b o r
w h ic h h a d
fa c tu r e r

o r ig in a lly

w ho

s o ld

it

g o n e in to th e p r o d u c t b e fo re it re a ch e d
to

th e

P.

W .

A.

co n tra cto r.

F or

th e m a n u ­

s te e l,

cem en t,

lu m b e r , b r ic k , a n d p lu m b in g a n d h e a t in g s u p p lie s t h e r e c o r d w a s t r a c e d
fa r b a c k

a lo n g t h e lin e t o

th e

o r ig in a l s u p p lie s

o f raw

m a te r ia ls , t o

th e

r a ilr o a d s , in t o t h e f a c t o r y fo r fa b r ic a t io n a n d a g a in a lo n g t r a n s p o r t a t io n




4

c a l c u l a t io n s




:

in

search

of

labor

f ig u r e s

sy ste m s
lin e s

to

th e

opened

P . W . A . jo b .

th e ir

record s

M in e s , ra ilr o a d s , fa c t o r ie s , a n d

fo r

th e

p e r s o n a l in s p e c t io n

of

s h ip p in g

a g en ts

o f th e

B u r e a u , s o t h a t th e s e fa c t s c o u ld b e o b ta in e d .
In

1 9 3 3 it w a s n o t p o s s ib le t o g a g e a c c u r a t e ly w h a t w o u ld h a p p e n a s a

r e s u lt o f a n e x p e n d it u r e o f a w o r k s f u n d o f $ 3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
jo b le s s a n d in d u s t r y id le , th e p r o g r a m

W it h m illio n s

h a d th e g e n e r a l a im

o f p u t t in g t o

w o r k a s m a n y m e n as p o s s ib le , a n d r e v iv in g in d u s t r y as w id e ly as p o s s ib le .
B u t n o m e a s u r e d , s p e c ific , s h a r p ly d e fin e d o b je c t iv e , in te r m s o f a d e fin ite
n u m b e r o f p e o p le t o b e a id e d in d e s ig n a te d a re a s o r p a r t ic u la r s e c t o r s o f
b u s in e s s , w a s p o s s ib le , f o r n o f a c t u a l b a s is e x is t e d w it h w h ic h t o m e a s u r e .
The

s tu d ie s

th e b e n e fits
o f p u b lic

w ere

e re cte d ,

and

of

w a terw ork s
tra ced

and

d ir e c t

th e

w hen

and

L abor

S ta tis tic s

have

e m p lo y m e n t a r is in g fr o m

c o n s tr u c tio n .

w hen
T hey

m easured

B u rea u

in d u s tr y

w orks

m a c h in e s
w ork s.

o f th e

to

T hey

and

ord ers

show

sew ers

r e c la m a t io n

in d ir e c t

la b o r

w hat happened

w ere

w h ic h

now

ch osen

r e s u lte d

p r o je c ts
crea ted

w ere

m a jo r ty p e
to

m en

and

as d e s ir a b le p u b lic

w hen

w hen

seg reg a ted

ea ch

p u b lic

b u ild in g s

u n d e rta k e n .

r a ilr o a d

T hey

c o n s tr u c tio n

w a s a u th o r iz e d .
W it h th e m a te r ia l fr o m

t h e s e s u r v e y s , i t is p o s s i b l e t o f o r e c a s t w i t h a

r e a s o n a b le d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y t h e r e s u lts w h ic h m ig h t b e e x p e c t e d fr o m
new

w orks

p o s s ib le
ta k e n

to

program s

a ls o t o
b r in g

s h o u ld

ch oose
a id t o

ty p e s

th ey

be

deem ed

o f needed

a s p e c ifie d

area

d e s ir a b le .

p r o je c ts

o f th e

w h ic h

cou n try

b r a n c h o f in d u s t r y w h ic h m a y b e s u ffe r in g fr o m

It

c o u ld

or to

s h o u ld
be

be

u n d er­

a p a r t ic u la r

la c k o f a c t iv ity .

T h u s,

k n o w le d g e o f h o w t h e e r e c tio n o f p u b lic b u ild in g s o r o f w a t e r w o r k s a ffe c ts
th e b u ild in g
in d u s tr y ,

tra d es, th e

p r o v id e s

m ore

m a te r ia l a n d
exact

p r o g r a m t h a n w e r e a v a ila b le in 1 9 3 3 .




c o n s tr u c tio n -s u p p ly

p roced u res

6

fo r

any

new

c o m p a n ie s in
p u b lic

w orks

P U B LIC

W O R K S

P R O G R A M

1 9 3 3 -3 7

* -----------------------------------------------

T

h

E n e e d f o r e m p l o y m e n t in

in d u s tr ie s
e n la r g e d

w h ic h

s u p p ly

p u b lic

w orks

its

th e

c o n s tr u c tio n

m a te r ia ls

p rogra m

w as

o f th e

in d u s tr y

g rea test

F ed eral

in

and

a ll o f t h e

1933,

G overn m en t

w hen
w as

th e

s e t in

m o t io n b y th e N a tio n a l I n d u s tr ia l R e c o v e r y A c t o f 1 9 3 3 , w h ic h P r e s id e n t
R o o s e v e lt s ig n e d o n J u n e 1 6 o f t h a t y e a r .
v ir tu a lly n o n e w
tio n s .
p u b lic

b u ild in g

c o n s tr u c tio n
as in

c o n s tr u c tio n

A lt h o u g h th e
to

in

w ork had been

G overn m en t h ad

som e

th e

ex ten t,

w as

th e

c o n s tr u c tio n .

th e

fir s t 6 m o n t h s

th e c o r r e s p o n d in g p e r io d

a c tiv ity

D u r in g t h e fir s t h a lf o f 1 9 3 3

c u lm in a t io n

to ta l

v o lu m e

o f 1933 w as

o f 1929.
of

done b y

5

p r iv a te o r g a n iz a ­

a lr e a d y in c r e a s e d its p r o g r a m
o f co n tra cts

o n ly

of

new

1 4 p e r c e n t a s la r g e

T h is e x tr e m e ly

yea rs

fo r

of

d r a s tic

lo w

v o lu m e

r e d u c tio n s

in

of

new

C o n t r a c t o r s a n d b u ild e r s , w o r k e r s in t h e b u ild in g tr a d e s ,

a n d e m p lo y e e s n o r m a lly a t w o r k in fa c t o r ie s fa b r ic a t in g b u ild in g m a te r ia ls
w ere

w id e ly

u n e m p lo y e d .

C o n s tr u c tio n

w as

th a n a n y o t h e r m a jo r A m e r ic a n in d u s t r y .

m a k in g

m an y m en
cem en t

d u r a b le

a s in

m ills

44

goods

p e rce n t,

In

o f a ll k in d s

1 9 2 9 , lu m b e r m ills h a d
and

ste e l

s e v e r e ly

d ep ressed

A s a n in e v it a b le c o n s e q u e n c e ,

t h e h e a v y in d u s tr ie s w e r e a ls o d e p r e s s e d .
to r ie s

m ore

t h e fir s t h a l f o f 1 9 3 3 f a c ­

e m p lo y e d

o n ly

44

percen t

as

4 5 p e r c e n t o f th e ir 1 9 2 9 cr e w s ,

m ills

54

p e rce n t.

M any

of

th e se

w o r k e r s th e m s e lv e s w e r e o n s h o r t t im e .
The

o r ig in a l a c t

p r o v id e d

w h ic h

a to ta l fu n d

e s ta b lis h e d

th e

o f $ 3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

P u b lic

to

o f p u b lic w o r k s a n d p u b lic r e lie f p r o je c t s .
and

ex ten d ed

th e

life

of

th e

o r g a n iz a t io n

June 1937 P . W . A . has h ad n o n ew




be

W ork s

a llo t e d

A d m in is tr a tio n

fo r

v a r io u s k in d s

L a te r a c ts e n la r g e d th e fu n d s
th rou gh

June

1939.

S in c e

fu n d s , b u t h a s fin a n c e d c e r ta in p r e -

7

v io u s ly a p p r o v e d t y p e s o f p r o je c t s u s in g its r e m a in in g u n e x p e n d e d fu n d s
a n d p ro ce e d s fr o m
The

P u b lic

t h e s a le o f s e c u r it ie s .

W ork s

th re e m a jo r d iv is io n s :
th e

P rogra m

w h ic h

P r o je c ts

began

in

1933

to

be

con d u cted

F e d e ra l G o v e r n m e n t, p r o je c ts

to

be

w as u n d e rta k e n

d ir e c t ly

u n d e rta k e n

by

by

in

a g e n c ie s o f

S ta te

a n d lo c a l

a u t h o r it ie s o r o t h e r n o n -F e d e r a l b o d ie s , a n d lo a n s t o in d u s t r y o n a c o m ­
m e r c ia l b a s is fo r s u c h p u r p o s e s as t h e d e v e lo p m e n t a n d im p r o v e m e n t o f
th e r a ilr o a d s o r o t h e r p r iv a t e c o n s t r u c t io n a c t iv itie s .
S ta te a n d lo c a l a u t h o r it ie s w h ic h o p e r a t e d u n d e r t h e p r o g r a m p r o v id e d
m o s t o f th e fu n d s f o r th e ir p r o je c t s , b u t P . W . A . w a s a u t h o r iz e d in it ia lly
t o m a k e d ir e c t g r a n ts fr o m

th e F e d e r a l T r e a s u r y a m o u n tin g t o 3 0 p e r c e n t

o f th e c o s t o f la b o r a n d m a te r ia ls t o b e u s e d o n th e p r o je c t s .
m a x im u m
lo ca l

gran t w as

agency

fin a n c e d

r a is e d
th e

to

45

percen t

r e m a in in g

70

o f to ta l cost.

or

55

p e rce n t.

L a te r th e

The
In

S ta te

som e

P . W . A . p r o v id e d n e c e s s a r y fu n d s fo r lo c a l p r o je c t s in th e fo r m
A ll p u b lic w o r k s

p r o je c t s , in

ord er to

be

or

ca ses,

o f lo a n s .

a p p r o v e d , w e r e r e q u ir e d

to

h a v e s p e c ific s o c ia l v a lu e a n d t o b e c o n d u c t e d in s u c h a w a y a s t o re lie v e
u n e m p lo y m e n t in a re a s w h e r e th e lo c a l e m p lo y m e n t s it u a t io n h a d b e c o m e
s e r io u s .

R u le s

v a ilin g

w ages

g o v e r n in g
in

th e

a g a in s t " k ic k - b a c k s .”

th e

lo c a lit y

w ork
and

p r o v id e d

fo r

th e

fo r

th e

p r o te c tio n

paym ent
of pay

o f p re­

e n v e lo p e s

M o s t o f th e h ir in g w a s d o n e e ith e r t h r o u g h tr a d e -

u n io n s , w h e r e c o n t r a c t o r s h a d a n a g r e e m e n t w it h a u n io n , o r t h r o u g h th e
o ffic e s o f t h e U n it e d S ta te s E m p lo y m e n t S e r v ic e .
T o

assu re th e

p u b lic

w ork s,

p la n n e d

and

P.

w id e s t p o s s ib le
W .

A.

use

re q u ir e d

co n stru cte d .

M ost

p r o je c t s , w ith th e e x c e p tio n

o f th e

th a t
of

a p p r o p r ia tio n s fo r

every

th e

p r o je c t

w ork

on

be

th ese

fin a n c in g

e c o n o m ic a lly
p u b lic

w orks

o f so m e F e d e ra l p r o je c t s , w a s d o n e b y

tr a c ts a w a rd e d t o p r iv a te c o n tr a c to r s .

A ll w o r k

con ­

w as u n d er th e gen eral

s u p e r v is io n o f P . W . A . e n g in e e r s a n d in s p e c t o r s .
F rom

its b e g in n in g in J u ly

1933 t o th e e n d o f 1 9 3 7 , th e P u b lic W o rk s

A d m in is t r a t io n fin a n c e d t h e c o n s t r u c t io n o f n e a r ly 1 6 ,0 0 0 F e d e r a l p u b lic
w o rk s p r o je c ts a n d
a g e n c ie s .
p e r io d fr o m
B u rea u

1 0 ,5 0 0 p u b l i c w o r k s f o r S t a t e , lo c a l, a n d c o m m e r c ia l

T h e v a lu e o f c o n t r a c t s a w a r d e d f o r c o n s t r u c t io n in t h e s h o r te r
J u ly

of L abor

1 9 3 3 t o J u n e 1 9 3 7 , c o v e r e d b y th e s p e c ia l s tu d y o f th e
S ta tis tic s , t o t a le d

n e a r ly

$ 3 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 , a s u b s t a n t ia l

s h a re o f w h ic h w a s p r o v id e d b y S ta te a n d lo c a l a g e n c ie s .




VALUE OF R W A. CONSTRUCTION AWARDS BY TYPE OF PROJECT
.
JU N E

O
B U IL D I N G

too

1 9 3 3 -J U L Y 1937

200

300

400

MILLIONS OF DOLLARS

500

600

700

800

900

1000 1
100 1200

C O N S T R U C T IO N

P U B L IC

ROADS

W ATER

a

SEW ER

SYSTEM S

R IV E R , H A R B O R , a F L O O D C O N T R O L
NAVAL VE S S E LS
R E C L A M A T IO N
R A IL R O A D

STR EETS

C O N S T R U C T IO N

a

ROADS

FOR ESTR Y
M IS C E L L A N E O U S

U S BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

M any
gram .

d iffe r e n t k in d s o f p u b lic w o r k s w e r e u n d e r ta k e n u n d e r th e p r o ­
T h e m o s t p o p u la r t y p e w a s p u b lic b u ild in g s , c o n s t r u c t e d b y S ta te

a n d lo c a l a u th o r itie s .

T hey

b u ilt s c h o o lh o u s e s , c o u r th o u s e s , c it y

h a lls ,

h o s p ita ls , a n d m a n y o t h e r n e e d e d p u b lic b u ild in g s , v a lu e d a t m o r e t h a n
$ 1 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
R oads
and

and

R o a d w o r k u n d e rta k e n b y th e F e d e ra l B u re a u o f P u b lic

oth er

sew era ge

F e d e r a l a g e n c ie s

sy ste m s

fo r

lo c a l

c o s t n e a r ly

use

over

$ 7 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 , a n d

$ 4 5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

F ed eral

w a ter
arm y

e n g in e e r s a n d o t h e r F e d e r a l a g e n c ie s s p e n t $ 3 6 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o n f l o o d c o n t r o l
a lo n g t h e M is s is s ip p i, M is s o u r i, O h io , a n d o t h e r r iv e r s , a n d in d e e p e n in g
r iv e r c h a n n e ls a n d h a r b o r s .
The

v a lu e

F ed eral an d
T hese

o f d iffe r e n t k in d s

o f p u b lic w o r k s

n o n - F e d e r a l a g e n c ie s is s h o w n

a re th e p r o je c t s fo r w h ic h m e n

in

p r o je c ts

th e

u n d e rta k e n

a c c o m p a n y in g

by

ch a rt.

a n d m a te r ia ls w e r e r e q u ir e d .

T h e p r o g r a m g o t u n d e r w a y in 1 9 3 3 , fir s t o n r o a d w o r k f o r w h ic h p r o je c t
p la n s w e r e a lr e a d y c o m p le t e d , a n d la te r o n th e la r g e r a n d m o r e c o m p le x
e n g in e e r in g j o b s w h ic h r e q u ir e d
t io n

p r o je c ts ,

sew erage

and

a lo n g e r t im e t o p la n , s u c h as r e c la m a ­

w a ter

B y th e s p r in g o f 1 9 3 4 t h e p r o g r a m
1 9 3 4 a c t iv it y r e a c h e d its p e a k .
th e

B u reau

of

Labor

P . W . A . p r o je c ts .




sy ste m s,

and

lo c a l p u b lic

b u ild in g s .

w a s e x p a n d in g r a p id ly a n d in A u g u s t

A t t h a t tim e , a c c o r d in g t o th e r e c o r d s o f

S ta tis tic s ,

th ere

w ere

6 3 0 ,0 0 0

m en

engaged

on

I n th is 1 p e a k m o n t h o f A u g u s t 1 9 3 4 t h e r e w e r e m o r e

9

t h a n 6 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m a n - h o u r s w o r k e d a t t h e s it e o n t h e s e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o ­
je c t s .

P a y r o lls w e n t u p w it h c o r r e s p o n d in g r a p id it y .

I n t h e b e g in n in g

o f 1 9 3 4 m o n t h l y p a y e n v e l o p e s f o r w o r k e r s a t t h e s it e t o t a l e d $ 1 2 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0
a m on th

and

a t th e h e ig h t o f th e p r o g r a m

in A u g u s t $ 3 5 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

F r o m t h e p e a k o f a c t iv it y in A u g u s t 1 9 3 4 , as s h o w n o n t h e c h a r t , th e r e
w a s a s e a s o n a l d e c l i n e t h r o u g h o u t t h e a u t u m n a n d w i n t e r a s is a l w a y s t h e
c a s e o n o u t d o o r c o n s t r u c t i o n w h e r e b a d w e a t h e r s lo w s u p w o r k .
a n d 1 9 3 6 e m p lo y m e n t o n th e p r o g r a m
A t th e

s e a s o n a l h e ig h t o f a c t iv it y

In 1935

w a s s o m e w h a t lo w e r t h a n in 1 9 3 4 .

in

th e

s u m m e r o f 1 9 3 5 , 4 5 0 ,0 0 0 m e n

w e r e e m p lo y e d , a n d in t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 3 6 a b o u t 4 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

T h ey w orked

a p p r o x im a t e ly 4 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m a n -h o u r s a m o n t h a t t h e p e a k s e a s o n a n d h a d
peak

m o n th ly

p a y r o lls o f $ 2 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

T h e p rogra m
1937.

in 1 9 3 5

and

s la c k e n e d g r a d u a lly t h r o u g h th e

P r iv a t e e m p lo y m e n t w a s in c r e a s in g

fa c t u r in g in d u s tr ie s ,

a n d in

c e r ta in

ty p e s

$ 2 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 in 1 9 3 6 .

la tte r p a r t o f 1 9 3 6 a n d

r a p id ly

in

o f p r iv a te

th e h e a v y m a n u ­

c o n s tr u c tio n .

The

F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t a ls o u n d e r t o o k o t h e r t y p e s o f p r o je c t s f o r t h e r e lie f
o f u n e m p lo y e d
o f m a n -h o u r s
fr o m

J u ly

but

e m p lo y a b le

o f la b o r

and

1933 th rou g h

w ork ers.

m o n th ly

June

1937

pay
is

The
r o lls

show n

m o n th -b y -m o n th
on

on

th e
th e

record

P . W . A . p rogram
ch a rt.

A ll

o f th e

d e t a ile d fig u r e s a re g iv e n in t a b le 4 o f t h e a p p e n d ix t o t h is b u lle t in .
T h r o u g h o u t th e 4 -y e a r p e r io d

to

th e e n d

o f June

m a n -h o u r s o f d ir e c t la b o r w e re w o r k e d o n jo b




10

s it e s .

1 9 3 7 , 1 ,4 2 3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
O f t h is t o t a l 8 6 7 ,-

0 0 0 ,0 0 0 w e r e p u t in o n F e d e r a l j o b s a n d 5 5 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o n n o n - F e d e r a l w o r k .
P a y r o lls f o r m e n o n t h e j o b t o t a l e d $ 9 6 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 f o r t h e e n t ir e p r o g r a m .
F iv e h u n d r e d t h ir t y -fo u r m illio n

d o lla r s o f t h is w e n t in t o p a y e n v e lo p e s

o n F e d e r a l p r o j e c t s a n d o v e r $ 4 2 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o n n o n - F e d e r a l p r o j e c t s .
T h is

m easu res

b r ic k la y e r s ,

sto n e

o n ly

th e

m asons,

w ork

on

th e

jo b — th e

e m p lo y m e n t

ca r p e n te r s , p lu m b e r s , tr u c k

g iv e n

to

d r iv e r s , c e m e n t

fin is h e r s , d a y la b o r e r s o n t h e r o a d s , a n d m a n y o t h e r s k ills w h ic h t h e p u b l i c
w orks p rogram

STEEL

c a lle d in t o a c t io n .

m il l




: P. W . A . ORDERS

MEAN

EM PLOYM ENT

HERE

T h e c r e a t io n o f p a y r o lls b e c a u s e o f t h is d ir e c t e m p lo y m e n t h a d o b v io u s
secon d ary

b e n e fits .

W ork ers

p r e v io u s ly

w it h o u t

jo b s

ca n

d ev ote

c h e c k s t o t h e p u r c h a s e o f n e c e s s it ie s h it h e r t o d e n ie d t h e ir fa m ilie s .

pay
N ew

c l o t h i n g is p u r c h a s e d , f u r n it u r e a n d h o u s e h o l d e q u i p m e n t b o u g h t , m e d ic a l
c a r e p r e v i o u s l y p o s t p o n e d is o b t a i n e d .
board.
T h is

has

w ork ers.
put on
goods

If

a

d ir e c t
th e ir

e ffe c t

b u s in e s s

a d d it io n a l h e lp .
m ust

p ic tu r e .
m en t,

F a m ilie s c a n e n jo y a m o r e a m p le

B u y i n g p o w e r is p u t i n t o a c t io n .

be

on

m e rch a n ts

im p r o v e s

w ho

s e ll

m e a s u r a b ly ,

to

A s t h e ir s h e lv e s a re c le a r e d

s u p p lie d .

H ere

con su m ers’

goods

th e

th ey

r e e m p lo y e d

a re

o f o ld

e n a b le d

to

sto ck s, n ew

in d u s t r ie s

en ter

th e

W it h re n e w e d o r d e r s , t h e y m a y h a v e t o a u g m e n t th e ir e m p lo y ­
h e ld

dow n

d u r in g

le a n

yea rs.

A n

e n la r g e d

dem and

fo r

ra w

m a t e r i a l s is f e l t .
I t is o b v i o u s l y i m p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e t h e e n t i r e e f f e c t s o f t h e s t i m u l u s
g iv e n b y e m p lo y m e n t c r e a te d o n a p r o je c t .

H o w e v e r , s e c o n d a r y b e n e fits

d o e x is t, a n d t h e y a d d th e ir fo r c e t o w a r d g e n e r a l e c o n o m ic s tim u la tio n .




12

F A C T O R Y

W H E E LS

TU R N

*

A*

f l o

p la n s w e r e c o m p le t e d a n d g r o u n d b r o k e n fo r p r o je c t s , o r d e r s w e n t

fo r w a r d t o fa c to r ie s fr o m

th e c o n tr a c to r s , fo r m a c h in e r y t o d o th e w o r k

a n d fo r m a te r ia ls fo r th e j o b .

F a c t o r ie s c a lle d m e n b a c k t o w o r k a n d , in

t h e ir t u r n , o r d e r e d r a w m a t e r ia ls o r p a r t ly f a b r ic a t e d s u p p lie s w h ic h t h e y
n e e d e d fr o m
m ills .

m in e s , q u a r r ie s , c o t t o n w a r e h o u s e s , lu m b e r c a m p s , a n d s te e l

R a il, t r u c k , a n d w a t e r tr a ffic in c r e a s e d a s th e s e m a te r ia ls m o v e d

t o fa c t o r ie s , a n d fin is h e d s te e l, p lu m b in g , o r c e m e n t m o v e d
on

w h ic h

th ey

w ere

to

to

th e jo b s

be

used.
EXPENDITURES
I n a lm o s t a ll k in d s o f p u b l i c
w orks

th e

cost

of

m a te r ia ls

MATERIALS,

FOR

AND

DIRECT

OTHER

LA BO R,

ITEMS

1 9 3 4 -1 9 3 5

e x ce e d e d th e a m ou n t o f m on ey
p a id

out

s k ille d

in

engaged

The

th e

re la tiv e

of

th e

ch art

cost

and

ord ers fo r

th e
m en

c o n s tr u c tio n

s it e .

s it e

to

u n s k ille d

in

th e

th e

w ages

and

at

show s

o f la b o r

th e

v a lu e

m a te r ia ls

p r in c ip a l

fo r

at
of

each

typ es

of

p u b lic w o rk s

u n d e rta k e n

by

th e p ro g ra m .

O n n o n -F e d e ra l

b u ild in g
la b o r

c o n s tr u c tio n

a t th e

p ercen t

of

s it e

th e

jo b s

r e c e iv e d

to ta l

28

o u tla y ,
CONSTRUCTION

m a te r ia ls

55

oth er expen ses
p e rce n t.

p e rce n t,
and

p r o fit

and




I
IH H H

17

O n stre e t a n d r o a d

ON

COMPLETED NON-FEDERAL PW.A. PROJECTS

a ROADS
SEWER
SYSTEMS
Other Expenses Q Profits
M aterials
Labor at Site

U S . BUREAU OF LABOR ST A TIS TIC S ____________________________

13

Pereent

D IS T R I
A

S

t u d y

i n

t h

e

s

;

IR O N S STEEL PRODU CTS
V a lu e o f M a te r ia ls ~
M a n -H o u rs ~ ~
~

$ 1 5 0 ,0 0 0
2 0 1 ,9 0 0

LUMBER 5 M IL L W O R K
V a lu e o f M a t e r i a l s
M a n -H o u rs
^ **




~
**

$ 5 3 ,0 0 0
5 1 ,0 0 0

B RIC K l H O L L O W
V a lu e o f M a t e r ia ls ^
M a n -H o u r s

~

~

~

T IL E
$ 4 2 ,0 0 0
3 7 ,8 0 0

Pay Rolls at
Man-Hours a

C j h e ERECTION OF A #1,000,000
AT ITS SITE BUT SPREADS EM PLOYM ENT
TIMES AS MUCH INDIRECT L A B O R A S 1

7 ,0 0 0 .0 0 0

T 0 N -A

t U T IO N
3
• R EAD

O F

B E N E F I T S

CEM ENT
V a lu e o f M a te r ia ls ^
M a n -H o u rs

** **

HEATIN G S V E N T IL A T IN G
V a l u e o f M a t e r ia ls ^
M a n -H o u r s ^

^

^

P L U M B IN G M A T E P IA L S
$ 2 9 3 ,0 0 0
3 4 4 ,0 0 0

V a lu e o f M a t e r i a l s

~

$ 2 8 ,0 0 0

M a n -H o u r s

~

2 1 ,9 0 0

~

~

PUBLIC BUILDING N O T ONLY GIVES WORK
IN INDUSTRIES CREATING TWOANDAHALF
VAS USED IN ACTUAL C O N S T R U C T IO N .

OF F R E I G H T




$ 3 6 ,0 0 0
2 8 ,8 0 0

*

$ 3 9 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,6 0 0

p r o je c ts

u n d e rta k e n

percen t

to

by

m a te r ia ls ,

lo c a lit ie s ,

and

24

26

p ercen t

p ercen t

fo r

oth er

W a t e r a n d s e w e r a g e p r o je c t s a ls o e x p e n d e d
55

p ercen t

fo r

m a te r ia ls ,

and

19

and

w ere

expended

lo c o m o tiv e s ,

a lo n e

p a id

p r o je c ts

out

th a n

la n d a n d

fo r

and
m ore

fo r

m a k in g

p a rts

25

p ercen t

fo r

th e

m a te r ia ls .
t r a ils

shop

and

and

fo r

d ir e c t

T h is
cam p

of

w ork

s it e

to

and

exp en ses.
75

b u ild

la b o r .
m en

la b o r ,

la b o r ,

H ig h e s t

p e rce n t o f th e
and

r e p a ir

F orestry

engaged

c o n s is ts

50

p r o fits .

p e rce n t fo r

w h ere

m a te r ia ls

s a la r ie s

26

oth er

w ork,

to

expen ses

about

p e rce n t fo r

m a t e r ia l c o s t o f a ll w a s o n r a ilr o a d
fu n d s

w ent

cars

p r o je c t s

d ir e c tly

la r g e ly

of

on

c le a r in g

s it e s , a n d r e q u ir e s c o m p a r a t i v e ly fe w

s u p p lie s .
O rd e rs p la c e d
$ 1 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
w ent

to

fo r

in

m a te r ia ls

on

4

years

fro m

p r a c t ic a lly

every

lin e

P.

J u ly

W .

A . p r o je c ts

1933

o f in d u s tr y

to

June

in

th e

to ta le d

1937.

m ore

T hese

cou n try .

s h o w s t h e k in d o f m a t e r ia ls P . W . A . d o lla r s b o u g h t .

The

th a n

orders
ta b le

C e m e n t a n d s te e l,

f o u n d r y a n d m a c h in e -s h o p p r o d u c t s , a n d p r o d u c t s o f lu m b e r le a d t h e lis t .
F o r s o m e h e a v y in d u s tr ie s th e s e o r d e r s w e r e s tr o n g c o n t r ib u t in g fa c t o r s
fo r

s ta b ilit y

in

th e

e a r ly

yea rs

o f th e

program

b e fo re

p r iv a te

in d u s tr y

72 p e r c e n t o f t h e e n tir e

d o m e s tic

a g a in b e g a n t o u s e h e a v y m a te r ia ls .
C e m e n t ord e rs fro m
c e m e n t o u t p u t in 1 9 3 4 .

T

able

P . W . A . took

A s g e n e r a l b u s in e s s r e v i v e d , t h e s e o r d e r s b e c a m e

1.— M aterials Ordered f o r P . W . A . Jobs , J u ly 1 9 3 3 — u n e 1 93 7
J
[Millions of dollars]

Stone, clay, and glass__________ 495

Machinery_______________________ 292

Cement______________ 185
Sand and gravel______ 98
Concrete, etc_________ 54
Brick, tile, etc_________ 52
Other__________________ 106

Foundry and machineshop products__________ 150
Electrical machinery and
supplies_______________ 74
Other___________________ 68

Iron and steel products_______ 466

Lum ber_________________________ 104

Structural and rein­
forcing steel__________ 172
Cast-iron pipe________ 51
Heating and ventila­
tion equipment_____ 43
Other__________________200

Miscellaneous___________________ 235

Transportation equipm ent___

Petroleum products_____
Plumbing supplies______
Electric wiring and fix­
tures__________________
Paving materials________
Nonferrous metals_______
Textiles_________________
Other___________________

90

Railway freight ca rs ... 39
Locomotives___________ 18
Other_________________
33




16

46
31
33
24
12
2

87

r e la t iv e ly le s s im p o r t a n t , a lt h o u g h in 1 9 3 5 t h e y a c c o u n t e d f o r 3 7 p e r c e n t
o f th e to ta l.

B y 1 9 3 6 th e y h a d d r o p p e d t o 17 p e r c e n t o f d o m e s tic o u tp u t.

P . W . A . o r d e r s f o r b r ic k a n d h o llo w b u ild in g t ile in c r e a s e d e a c h y e a r
fr o m

1934 to

1936.

In

1 9 3 4 , th e y a m o u n te d t o a b o u t o n e -fo u r th o f th e

e s t im a t e d v a lu e o f a ll s h ip m e n t s , in 1 9 3 5 t o 2 7 p e r c e n t , a n d in 1 9 3 6 t o 4 3
p e rce n t.
S t e e l r a il m ills b e n e fit e d a lm o s t a s m u c h a s c e m e n t a n d b r i c k .

In 1934,

th e r a ilr o a d s w h ic h w e r e g r a n te d P . W . A . lo a n s t o m a k e r e p a ir s t o th e ir
r o a d b e d s o r t o e x t e n d t h e ir lin e s , p la c e d o r d e r s a c c o u n t in g fo r 4 8 p e r c e n t
o f t h e v a lu e o f a ll r a ils p r o d u c e d in t h a t y e a r .
c o n s id e r a b ly d u r in g th e n e x t 2 y e a r s .

T h e se ord ers ta p ered o ff

In 1935 th e y a m ou n ted to 9 p ercen t

o f th e v a lu e o f th e N a t io n ’ s p u r c h a s e s a n d in 1 9 3 6 t o 6 p e r c e n t.
I n t h e lu m b e r in d u s t r y P . W . A . o r d e r s in t h e 3 y z y e a r s fr o m

J u ly 1 9 3 3

t h r o u g h D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 6 t o t a l e d 3 ,3 7 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 b o a r d fe e t .
M a n y o f th e o t h e r h e a v y in d u s tr ie s , s e v e r e ly d e p r e s s e d in 1 9 3 3 a n d 1 9 3 4 ,
w ere

g iv e n

a n in it ia l im p e t u s in

1934

and

1935 fro m

P.

W . A . b u y in g .

T h e y c o n t in u e d t o p r o v id e m a te r ia ls fo r th e P u b lic W o r k s P r o g r a m in 1 9 3 6
an d 1937.

D u r i n g a ll o f t h is p e r i o d e m p lo y m e n t in t h e h e a v y in d u s t r ie s

r e c o v e r e d r a p i d ly , a s is i n d i c a t e d o n t h e c h a r t .

I t is c le a r t h a t i n

som e

in d u s tr ie s , P . W . A . o r d e r s p la y e d a v it a l p a r t in in c r e a s in g e m p lo y m e n t .




1
7

T h e a m o u n t o f e m p lo y m e n t a c t u a lly g iv e n t o fa c t o r y la b o r as a r e s u lt
o f th e s e o r d e r s fo r m a te r ia ls w a s s h o w n b y m o n t h ly r e p o r ts s u b m it te d b y
n e a r ly 4 0 ,0 0 0 c o n t r a c t o r s w h o p la c e d h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f c o n t r a c t s ,
a n d b y th e fa c to r ie s fr o m
In

w h ic h th e m a te r ia ls w e r e o r d e r e d .

fiv e o f th e m a jo r in d u s tr ie s w h ic h

s u p p lie d th e p r in c ip a l m a te r ia ls

f o r p u b lic w o r k s , th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta t is t ic s m a d e in t e n s iv e s tu d ie s o f
th e

a ccou n ts k e p t b y

in d iv id u a l c o m p a n ie s t o

d e t e r m in e

as p r e c is e ly

p o s s i b le t h e a m o u n t o f l a b o r g e n e r a t e d a ll a lo n g t h e lin e — f r o m

as

t h e m in e

t h a t s u p p lie d th e o r e , o r th e lo g g in g c a m p in w h ic h t h e o r ig in a l tr e e s w e r e
fe lle d

to

fa cto ry .

m ake

th e

T hese

lu m b e r ,

p ro d u cts

th ro u g h

w ere

th e

s te e l,

tr a n s p o r ta tio n

cem en t,

c l a y p r o d u c t s , a n d p l u m b i n g s u p p lie s .

lu m b e r ,

sy ste m

b r ic k

to

and

th e

oth er

T r a n s p o r t a t io n a g e n c ie s w e r e a ls o

s tu d ie d in d e ta il.
T hese

a n a ly s e s

in d ic a te d

th a t

fo r

every

hour

o f la b o r

crea ted

on

a

p u b l i c w o r k s p r o j e c t u n d e r t a k e n b y a n o n - F e d e r a l a g e n c y , 2 .5 h o u r s w e r e
s p e n t b y e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in s u p p ly in g a n d t r a n s p o r t in g t h e m a te r ia ls
fo r th e p r o je c t.
m a n -h o u r s

of

O n t h is b a s is i t is e s t i m a t e d t h a t m o r e t h a n 1 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
la b o r

w ere

re q u ir e d

in

m in e s ,

fo r e s ts ,

fa c to r ie s ,

and

on

t r a n s p o r ta t io n s y s te m s t o s u p p ly th e n e c e s s a r y m a te r ia ls a n d t a k e th e m
t o n o n - F e d e r a l P . W . A . j o b s , a n d in a d m in is t r a t io n .

W h e n t h is is c o m ­

b in e d w it h t h e 5 5 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m a n -h o u r s o f d ir e c t e m p lo y m e n t a t t h e s it e ,
it a p p e a r s t h a t th e n o n -F e d e r a l P . W . A . c o n s t r u c t io n p r o g r a m
crea ted

1 ,9 5 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m a n -h o u r s o f w o r k .

e m p lo y m e n t

of

9 8 0 ,0 0 0

m en

fo r

one

yea r,

r e p r e s e n t a n o r m a l y e a r o f fu ll e m p lo y m e n t .
p le te d

o f p r o je c ts

on

th e

a s a w h o le

T h i s is t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e
a s s u m in g

th a t

2 ,0 0 0

h ou rs

A n a ly s is h a s n o t b e e n c o m ­

F e d e r a l p r o g r a m , w h ic h

in

th e

a gg rega te p r o ­

v i d e d m o r e l a b o r a t t h e s it e t h a n t h e n o n - F e d e r a l p r o g r a m .
T h e r e w a s c o n s id e r a b le d iffe r e n c e in t h e a m o u n t o f in d ir e c t la b o r n e e d e d
to

s u p p ly

m a te r ia ls

fo r

d iffe r e n t

ty p es

o f p r o je c ts .

F or

e x a m p le , c o n ­

s t r u c t i o n o f w a t e r s u p p ly s y s t e m s i n v o l v e d m u c h le s s i n d i r e c t l a b o r t h a n
lig h t

a n d p o w e r p la n ts , w h ic h

re q u ir e

f o r e s t r y p r o j e c t s r e q u i r e d l e a s t o f a ll.




18

e x p e n s iv e

heavy

m a c h in e r y , a n d

FO R

FUTURE

USE

*

a lo o k t o t h e fu t u r e , t h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta t is t ic s s in g le d o u t
fo r

s p e c ia l

stu d y

th re e

P . W . A . p rogra m

ty p es

fr o m

o f p r o je c t s

1933 th rou g h

s e w e r a g e p r o je c t s , a n d r e c la m a t io n
w ith

h u n d red s

d e v e lo p e d

o f m illio n s

fu n d a m e n ta l

p r o je c ts .

o f d o lla r s

r a t io s

w h ic h

fo r

fig u r e d

h e a v ily

in

th e

1 9 3 7 — p u b lic b u ild in g s , w a t e r a n d

w o rth

O n t h e b a s is o f e x p e r ie n c e
o f c o n s tr u c tio n , th e

d e t e r m in in g

p lo y m e n t b e n e fits w h ic h w o u ld r e s u lt fr o m

th e

in d u s tr ia l

B u reau
and

em ­

a n e x p e n d it u r e o f $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

o n e a ch ty p e o f p r o je c t.
The

in d ir e c t la b o r

crea ted

by

every

$ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

o f co n tra cts

aw ard ed

f o r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s is i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e c h a r t o n t h e c e n t e r p a g e s o f t h i s
book.

A b o u t 3 4 4 ,0 0 0 m a n -h o u r s

F o r th e m in in g a n d p r o d u c t io n

o f la b o r w o u ld

o f raw

be

crea ted

a t th e

s it e .

m a te r ia ls , tr a n s p o r ta t io n , m a n u ­

f a c t u r e , a n d d is t r ib u t io n n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p ly t h e n e e d s o f t h e $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
c o n t r a c t , 7 4 0 , 0 0 0 m a n - h o u r s o f i n d i r e c t o r ffb e h i n d - t h e - l i n e s ” l a b o r w o u l d
b e r e q u ir e d .
a

to ta l

of

T h u s , f o r t h e e x p e n d it u r e o f $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o n a p u b l i c b u ild in g ,

1 ,0 8 4 ,0 0 0

th e to ta l, o n ly
b e in g
raw

spread

th ro u g h

m a te r ia ls ,

sh ow n

in

th e

m a n -h o u r s

a p o r tio n

and
ch a rt.

of

w o u ld

e m p lo y m e n t

appear

d ir e c tly

w o u ld

be

at th e

crea ted .

m a n u fa c tu r in g , tr a n s p o r ta tio n , a n d p r o d u c tio n

in

a d m in is tr a tio n
T h u s , th e

and

e x p a n d in g

overhead
w ave

O f

s it e , t h e b a la n c e

on

th e

p r o je c t ,

of
as

o f e m p lo y m e n t w o u ld

m o v e o u t t o m a n y p o in t s in th e in d u s tr ia l s y s te m .
S ix m a j o r t y p e s o f b u i l d in g m a t e r ia ls w e r e f o u n d t o b e n e f i t c h ie f l y f r o m
th e

c o n s tr u c tio n

o f p u b lic

b u ild in g s .

If

a

$ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

co n tra ct

w ere

to

b e a w a r d e d f o r a p u b lic b u ild in g u n d e r t h e s a m e c o n d it io n s a s t h o s e w h ic h
p r e v a ile d
v o lu m e
ty p e s

d u r in g

o f ord ers

th e

h e ig h t o f th e

in d ic a te d

o f m a te r ia ls .

in

M a n -h o u r s

P.

ta b le

W . A . p ro g ra m , th e
2

be

e x p e cte d

o f e m p lo y m e n t r e q u ir e d

m a te r ia ls a re a ls o s h o w n .




m ig h t

1
9

to

a p p r o x im a te
fo r

th e se

s ix

m a k e th ese

T a b l e 2 . — V alue o f Specified T yp es o f M aterials Purchased p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o f Contracts

A w ard ed f o r P . W . A . B uilding Construction Projects

Estimated man­
hours created
in mining, trans­
porting, and
manufacturing
materials

Estimated
value of orders
placed

Type of material

i
Iron and steel products, n. e. c
Lumber and millwork ____ _______________________________ _____
Brick and hollow tile
. _ ___
______________________ .
Cement
Heating and ventilating materials___
...
.. . _
_______________
Plumbing materials________
.. .
_____________

On

w a ter a n d

o n -s ite

s e w e ra g e p r o je c t s

e m p lo y m e n t

m ay

be

$150, 000
53, 000
42,000
39, 000
36, 000
28, 000

201, 900
51, 000
37, 800
25, 600
28, 800
21, 900

a s o m e w h a t la r g e r v o lu m e

ex p e cte d .

F or

$ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

of

of

d ir e c t

co n tra cts

a w a r d e d , i t is e s t i m a t e d t h a t 3 8 7 ,0 0 0 m a n - h o u r s o f s it e e m p l o y m e n t w o u ld
r e s u lt.

T o

s u p p ly

m a n -h o u r s b e h in d
b u tio n

ya rd s, on

th e m a te r ia ls fo r th e p r o je c t s

w a ter

and

ra ilr o a d s

and

tru ck

sew erage

p r o je c ts ,

lin e s

h a n d lin g

7 6 0 ,0 0 0

tr a n s p o r ta tio n ,

F o r a $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 a w a r d in c o n t r a c t s
th e re fo re ,

a

to ta l

m a n -h o u r s o f d ir e c t a n d in d ir e c t la b o r w o u ld b e
A

r e q u ir e

t h e lin e s in t h e m in e s , fo r e s t s , m ills , f a c t o r i e s , d is t r i­
th e

a n d o th e r e x p e n se s o n th e p r o je c t.
fo r

w o u ld

of

about

1 ,1 4 7 ,0 0 0

a n tic ip a te d .

w i d e v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s is r e q u i r e d f o r p r o j e c t s o f t h i s t y p e .

orders

to

be

e x p e cte d

by

in d u s tr y

fr o m

th is

k in d

of

The

u n d e r ta k in g

are

s h o w n in t a b le 3.
T

able

3 . — Value o f Specified T yp es o f M aterials Purchased p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o f Contracts
A w arded f o r P . W . A . W ater and Sewerage Projects

Estimated value
of orders placed

Type of material

All materials______ ____ ____________

________

$520, 000

Iron and steel products, n. e. c
Cast iron pipe and fittings _____
_
___ __ ____________ ______ . ___ ________
Foundry and machine shop products, n. e. c
Concrete pipe, premixed concrete, etc______ ._ _ ________ _________ ____ _________
C e m e n t._____ _______________ __________ . .
.

112 , 0 0 0
88, 000

Sand, gravel, and crushed stone______ ____ . . . . _. ______________ _____ ___ __ . . .
Terra-cotta pipe, and other clay products ______ ______________
___________ _
Lumber and timber products
______ ___ . . . ___ _______________ . . _____________
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies____________ . . . ____ _____ __ ________
Other m aterials... _____ __ . . . ____ __ . . . . . _________ . . . . _____ . _______

29, 000
26, 0 0 0

R e c la m a t io n
b ilit ie s .

_ __ . .

.

. _ _

...

d e v e lo p m e n ts w e re n e x t a n a ly z e d

fo r

th e ir fu tu r e

82,000
50, 000
39.000

2 1 .0 0 0
18, 0 0 0

55, 000

p o s s i­

I n t h is c a s e it w a s f o u n d t h a t f o r e v e r y $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o f c o n t r a c t s ,




20

S O C IA L L Y




U SEFU L

P R O J E C T S , S E R V IN G

A

D E F IN IT E

PU RPOSE

4 0 2 ,0 0 0 m a n -h o u r s o f d ir e c t e m p lo y m e n t w o u ld b e c r e a t e d .

T h is w o u ld

m ean

r e q u ir e d

in

tu rn

"u n seen ”
id e a
th e

th a t

c lo s e

e m p lo y m e n t t o

o f th e ty p e
a m ou n ts

to

6 9 1 ,0 0 0

m a n -h o u r s

o f m a te r ia ls n e c e s s a r y

o f each

w o u ld

s u p p ly th e n e e d s o f th e m e n

k in d

is p r o v i d e d

by

be

in

o n t h e lin e .
ta b le

o f m a te r ia l n e c e s s a r y fo r e v e r y

An

4 , s h o w in g

$ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

of

co n tra cts a w a rd ed .
T

able

4 .— Value o f Specified T yp es o f M aterials Purchased p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o f Contracts
A w arded f o r P . TV. A . Reclamation Projects

Estimated value
of orders placed

Type of material

A ll materials.

$480, 000

Iron and steel products, n. e. c _______________
Cement______________________________________
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies.
Foundry and machine shop products, n. e. c_ _

108,000
106,000
82,000
58,000

Engines, turbines, etc_______
Lumber and timber products.
Sand and gravel_____________
Other materials_____________

30, 000
23, 000
13, 000
60, 000

A c r o s s -s e c t io n o f th e e x p e n d it u r e s o f p u b lic w o r k s fu n d s o n th e s e th r e e
ty p es

o f program s

is

P . W . A . p rogram

T

able

g iv e n

in

th e

a n a ly s is

o f c o n s tr u c tio n

on

th e

5 .—-A n a lysis o f Construction Costs on the P . TV. A . Program

Building
construc­
tion

Item

Man-hours of site labor created per $1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
Average hourly earnings at the site___
.
Relative cost of:
Labor
. . . __ _ _______
.
Material.
. . . __ ________
.
Other expenses and profit
...

A n a ly s is

costs

in t a b le 5.

o f cost

on

m ore

of contracts awarded..
_
..
_

344,000
$0. 854
Percent

.

____

one

th ou sa n d

Reclama­
tion proj­
ects

387, 000
$0. 749
Percent

29.3
54. 1
16. 6

. . .
__

th a n

Water and
sewerage
systems

c o m p le te d

402, 000
$0. 673
Percent

29.0
52.0
19. 0

27.0
48.0
25.0

n o n -F e d e r a l

P . W . A . p r o je c t s in d ic a te s t h a t th e e q u iv a le n t o f th e e m p lo y m e n t o f o n e
m a n fo r
by

th e

1 m on th

in la b o r a t th e

e x p e n d it u r e

s it e a n d o n

o f a p p r o x im a te ly

$136.

m a te r ia ls c a n h e p r o v id e d
O f t h is

a m ou n t,

about

$61

o r 4 5 p e r c e n t w a s p r o v id e d b y th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t d u r in g th e la tt e r
p a r t o f th e P . W . A . p r o g r a m , a n d $ 7 5 w a s p a id b y th e c o m m u n it y w h ic h
u n d e rto o k

th e




p r o je c t .

T h is

c o m p o s ite
22

m a n -m o n th

o f la b o r

w o u ld

be

w orked

a t th e

c o n s tr u c tio n

tr a n s p o r ta tio n
th e

p r o je c t .

s it e

a n d d is t r ib u t io n
In

m a k in g

th is

o r in

a

m in e , fo r e s t

o r f a c t o r y , in

o f m a te r ia ls , o r in th e a d m in is tr a t io n

e s tim a te , th e

B u reau

based

its

fig u r e s

th e
of
on

w a g e s a n d w o r k in g c o n d it io n s p r e v a ilin g in

1 9 3 7 in th e c o n s t r u c t io n i n ­

d u s tr y a n d in o t h e r in d u s tr ia l e n te r p r is e s .

T h u s , t h e e s t im a t e is u p - t o -

d a te w it h r e fe r e n c e t o w a g e le v e ls a n d o t h e r c o s t s , a lth o u g h m u c h o f th e
in fo r m a tio n

on

w h ic h

th e

stu d y

is b a s e d

w as

o b ta in e d

fro m

P.

W .

A .

p r o je c t s b e g u n in 1 9 3 4 a n d 1 9 3 5 .
T h u s , t h r o u g h m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e r e s u lt s o f t h e p u b lic w o r k s p r o g r a m
in a c t u a l o p e r a t io n , y a r d s t ic k s h a v e b e e n e v o lv e d b y w h ic h t h e e ffe c t s o f
fu t u r e p r o g r a m s c a n b e e v a lu a t e d in a d v a n c e .
S h o u ld a n e w p u b lic w o r k s p r o g r a m b e u n d e r ta k e n a t s o m e fu t u r e t im e ,
th e

fa c ts

p r o v id e d

by

t h is

stu d y

w ill e n a b le

t o a p p r a is e p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t s w it h a v i e w

th o se

w ho

a re p la n n in g it

t o p r o v id in g t h e w is e s t d is t r i­

b u t io n o f e m p lo y m e n t a n d th e m o s t e ffe c t iv e u se o f la b o r .




M A C H IN E R Y

AT

REST

A P P E N D IX
* -----------------------

T,

HE f o l l o w i n g

ta b le s c o n ta in

th e s ta t is t ic a l s u m m a r ie s

w ork ed

out

by

t h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s d u r in g its s u r v e y o f t h e 4 -y e a r r e c o r d o f
th e P u b lic W o r k s A d m in is tr a tio n .
T able

1.—

Value o f Contracts A w ard ed and F orce-A ccou n t W ork Started on P . W . A .
Construction P rojects , J u ly 1 9 3 3 to J u n e 1 9 3 7
[Subject to revision]
Type of project

All types-----

----------------

Total

--------------------------------

Building construction________
_ _ _ . _ ___
Forestry. ___________ . . . . . . . _ _ ____ __ _
N aval vessels_____ __
_ _______ _________
P ublic roads2_____ __
__________ __
Railroad construction and repair. __ _______ _ _
Reclamation___ _ __ _ ____ _____ _ _
River, harbor, and flood control___ ___ ------------Streets and road s3 _ ___
----------- ---------------------Water and sewerage systems-------------------------------Miscellaneous _ _________ _ ____ __
_ _ _ _
1 Includes
2 Includes
3 Includes

T able

Federal

Non-Federal

i $3, 674, 243, 875

$1, 705, 796, 600

i $1, 968, 447, 275

i 1,197,183, 257
16, 083, 745
247,053,184
699, 232, 574
209, 972, 738
222,112, 579
362, 345, 299
146, 175, 370
460,040, 458
114, 044, 671

186, 273,197
16, 083, 745
247,053,184
600, 313, 217

11,010. 910, 060

201, 378, 782
355,817, 456
41,324, 684
6, 595, 360
50, 956, 975

98,919, 357
209, 972, 738
20, 733, 797
6, 527, 843
104, 850, 686
453, 445, 098
63, 087, 696

$88,602,456 low-cost housing projects (Housing Division, P. W . A .).
data for which contracts were awarded b y the Bureau of Public Roads.
data other than those for which contracts were awarded b y the Bureau of Public Roads.

2 . — P a y -R o ll Disbursem ents

W ork ed at Site , on P .

and M a n -H o u r s

W. A.

Projects b y T y p e o f P roject , J u ly 1 9 3 3 to J u n e 1 9 3 7
[Subject to revision]
Pay-roll disbursements
T ype of project
Total
All types_________________

Number of man-hours worked

NonFederal

Federal

Total

NonFederal

$959, 897, 748 $533, 655, 845 i$426, 241, 903 1,423,183,090 866,976,153 1556, 206, 937

Building construction___ _ 280, 070, 877 52, 285, 296 1 227, 785, 581
10, 322, 965 10,322, 965
Forestry. _ _______ ____
97,175, 330 97,175, 330
Naval vessels
___
189, 738, 304 189, 738, 304
Public roa d s 2_________
(3)
21,667, 922
21,667,922
Railroad construction. _ _
Railroad shops, operated b y
16, 724,789
16, 724, 789
railroads
_
_ __ _
____ __ 56,491,685 56, 491,685
R eclam a tion ___
River, harbor, and flood
control
8 8 , 717, 398
8 8 , 717,398
56,848,656 16, 276, 066
40, 572, 590
Streets and roads 4_ ___
W ater and sewerage sys­
1, 780, 432 105,064,153
tems. _____ __
_______ 106, 844, 585
35, 295, 237 20,868,369
14,426,868
Miscellaneous____________
1 Includes data for low-cost housing projects (Housing Division,
2 Under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Public Roads.
3 Data for non-Federal public roads included under “ streets and
4 Other than those reported b y the Bureau of Public Roads.




Federal

24

332, 759, 215 69, 387,334 1263, 371,881
16,920, 816 16,920, 816
118, 734,157 118, 734,157
379,805, 751 379,805, 751
(3
)
40, 531,839
40, 531, 839
25, 967, 243
84, 300, 486

25, 967, 243
84, 300,486

130, 276,076 130, 276,076
94,392, 399 29, 969,626
143, 531, 667
55, 963,441

P. W . A .).
roads.”

64,422, 773

2, 920,040 140, 611,627
34,661, 867 21, 301, 574

T a b l e 3 . —P a y -R o ll Disbursem ents and Value o f M ateria l Orders Placed , on P . TV. A

P rojects , b y T y p e o f P roject, J u ly 1 9 3 3 to J u n e 1 9 3 7
[Subject to revision]
Pay-roll disbursements

Value of material orders placed

T ype of project
Total

A ll types

NonFederal

Federal

Total

Federal

NonFederal

$959, 897, 748 $533, 655, 845 i $426, 241,903 $1, 708,685, 535 $816,174,530 1$892, 511,005

_ __

Building construction___
Forestry
__ _
Naval vessels.
Public roa d s2. . . _ _
Railroad construction___
Railroad shops, operated
b y railroads . ..
Reclamation _
River, harbor, and Rood
control
Streets and roads 4 _____
W a te r and sew era ge
systems___
M iscellaneous... ._ .

280, 070, 877
10, 322,965
97,175, 330
189, 738, 304
21, 667, 922

52, 285, 296 i 227, 785, 581
10, 322,965
97,175, 330
189, 738, 304
( 3)
21, 667,922
16, 724, 789

16, 724, 789
56, 491, 685

56, 491, 685

8 8 , 717,

8 8 , 717,

398
56,848, 656

106,844, 585
35, 295, 237

524,689, 557 92, 845, 848 i 431,843, 709
4,952, 266
4, 952, 266
108, 621,882 108, 621,882
316, 612,154 316, 612,154
( 3)
45, 564, 592
45, 564, 592
50, 802,876
101,458, 910 101, 458,910

50, 802, 876

398
16, 276,066

40, 572, 590

130, 581, 707 130, 581, 707
83,730, 668 12,443, 541

71, 287,127

1, 780,432
20, 8 6 8 , 369

105,064,153
14, 426, 868

194,163,160
147, 507, 763

2, 772, 309
45, 885,913

191, 390, 851
3 101, 621, 850

1 Includes data for low-cost housing projects (Housing Division, P. W . A .).
2 Under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Public Roads.
3 Data for non-Federal public roads included under “ streets and roads.”
4 Other than those reported b y the Bureau of Public Roads.
5 Includes orders placed b y railroads for new equipment ($62,715,301).

T a b l e 4 . — E m p lo ym en t and P a y R olls , J u ly 1 9 3 3 to J u n e 1 9 3 7 , Inclusive , on Projects

Financed F rom P u blic W orks Adm inistra tion F unds
[Subject to revision]
Maximum num­
ber employed

Year and month

July 1933 to June 1937, inclusive

Pay-roll dis­
bursements

Number of man­
hours worked

$959,897, 748

1,423,183, 090

267
4, 848
48,177
146, 747
255, 512
300, 758

26, 433
133, 955
2, 085, 709
6, 353,835
11, 552, 547
13,091, 587

35, 217
210,064
3, 783, 656
12,029, 751
21, 759, 245
24, 391, 546

298, 259
310, 992
306, 079
380, 714
501, 640
602, 227
630,807
618, 341
565, 318
518, 608
495, 331
402, 238

12, 789, 566
14, 318, 493
14, 024,138
18, 663, 297
25, 578, 001
32, 976, 636
33, 646, 557
35, 347, 983
31,901, 539
29,451,008
29,936,060
22, 954, 456

23, 632, 952
26, 478, 853
25, 342, 244
32, 692, 707
45, 367, 508
58, 437, 049
58, 697,169
60,014, 561
52,042,176
46,625, 988
47, 798,180
35,117,118

324, 259
281, 548
295,820
361, 527
421, 646
449,055

19,191,932
16,905,427
17,892,117
22, 359,160
25, 243, 625
26, 782, 555

28, 257, 570
24,840, 503
26,352, 787
33,023,874
37,956, 223
40, 461, 556

_. ________ .

193 3

J u ly_____________________________________________
August
_ _ ____ _ _____ . . . . . . . . ..
September .
_ ______ ______
______ ..
October. _ ._ . _ _____________________ _____
November
___
__ ._ . . . ______ ______ _
December ____
_
...
.
_
1934

January __ . . _. _ ___________ ____
. _. ..
February _ . . . . . __ _____ . . . ____________
M a rch ..
____ . . . . . ______
. ._
April. _ . . . .
.
M a y ____ ____ _______________________________ . .
J u n e ________
______
.
. _______
J u ly_____________________________________________
August. _ ____________________________________
Septem ber.._ _
. . . _____
. ..
___
October____ ___ _
_
__ . .
N o v e m b e r____
___________________________ . .
December _____________________________________
193 5

January
___
. . . ____ _
. . . . . __ .
F e b r u a r y .___
_
- - - - - - M arch_________ . . __________ ____________ . . .
April__________
...
. .
..
.. ..
M a y______________ _____________________________
June_____ _______________ - - -- ---




25

T a b l e 4 . — E m p lo ym en t and P a y R olls , J u ly 1 9 3 3 to J u n e 1 9 3 7 , In clu siv e , o n P rojects

F in a n ced F ro m P u b lic W ork s A dm inistration F u n d s — Continued
[Subject to revision]
Maximum num­
ber employed

Year and month

Ju ly_____________________________________________
August. ________
September. _ __
_______ _______ __ _____ _
October
. ____
_ ___
Novem ber____
_ _
...
_ _ _
____
December
_ __ __ ___ __ ______ _____________

Pay-roll dis­
bursements

Number of man­
hours worked

436,873
425,853
369, 384
335, 280
287,954
242, 537

$26, 216,922
26, 752, 570
23, 708, 368
22, 946, 402
20,080,187
16, 511, 274

39, 307,151
38, 934, 639
33, 606,096
31,890,006
26,950, 580
21,848, 366

220, 858
201 , 218
246, 933
310, 282
364, 565
399, 302
386, 698
379, 718
359, 243
327, 076
301, 742
262,094

14, 972, 514
13, 664, 760
15, 745,842
21, 571, 609
25, 565,929
28,941, 224
27,801, 505
27,879,471
26, 759, 495
24,883, 489
22,841,926
19, 733, 777

20,088,051
18,117, 548
20, 826, 799
28,945, 769
34, 289, 525
40, 598,174
36, 262, 924
36,196, 768
34,131, 952
31, 397, 657
28, 529, 977
24, 658, 500

202,175
174,990
173, 574
192, 201
206,019
204,098

15, 439, 981
13, 796, 390
13,353, 904
15,242, 390
15,850, 554
16, 430, 649

18, 768, 676
16, 580, 393
16, 341, 250
19,068, 352
19, 984, 975
20, 510, 465

1 93 6

January ______________ ______________________
February. .
_. _
_.
__ ___ __ . . . .
M arch___________________ ______________________
A pril. _________________________________________
M a y _______
_ ____ _________________________
June____ . . . . ______ . . . ______________________
July___ ________________________________________
August. _______ _______ ______ _____________
September
October
...
_ ...
__
. _ _
N ovem ber.
. ___ .
___ _
December ________ _________________________
.
193 7

J a n u a r y ___ _____ ___ ___________ _________
F ebruary..
_____
.
__ __ _.
.. _
M arch____
_ . _______ . . . _________ _______
A pril.
----------------------------------------------M a y _____ _____ ____ . . . _____ __ ______________
June____ _____
.
. ---------------------------------

T able

5 . — Value o f M aterial Orders P laced on P .

W . A . Construction P rojects , b y

T y p e o f M ateria l , J u ly 1 9 3 3 to J u n e 1 9 3 7

1

[Subject to revision]
T yp e of material

All types of material

Value of material
orders placed
$1, 708, 685, 535

Textiles and their products________________________
Awnings, tents, canvas, etc___________________
Carpets and rugs______________________________
Cordage and tw ine____________________________
Cotton goods_________________________________
Felt goods-------------------------------------------------------Jute goods-------------------------------------------------------Linoleum _____________________________________
Sacks and bags________________________________
Upholstering materials, not elsewhere classified.
Waste________________________________________
Forest products_________________________________________
Cork products_______________________________________
Lum ber and tim ber products, not elsewhere classified.
Planing-mill products_______________________________
W indow and door screens and weatherstrip__________

2, 385,
280,
128,
325,
171,
212,
101,
924,
68,
143,
27,

018
859
548
393
939
837
383
415
502
373
769

103,853,
392,
82, 830,
20, 324,
305,

435
794
783
005
853

14, 738, 044
1,186, 217
473, 731
449,738
6, 585, 292
6,043, 066

Chemicals and allied products________
Am m unition and related products.
Chemicals, miscellaneous_________
Compressed and liquefied gases. _.
Explosives_______________________
Paints and varnishes--------------------

1 This table includes certain items which are not actually construction materials, i. e., fuel, transportation
equipment, tools, furniture, etc.




26

T able

5 . — Value o f M ateria l Orders Placed on P .

W . A . Construction P rojects , b y

T y p e o f M a teria l , J u ly 1 9 3 3 to J u n e 1 9 3 7 — Continued
[Subject to revision]
Type of material

Stone, clay, and glass products_____________________________________
Asbestos products, not elsewhere classified_ ______
_________
B rick, hollow tile, and other clay products_______
_______
C em ent______________________________ ________ _
___
Concrete products___________________________________
____
Crushed stone_____________________________ ________
______
Glass__________________________________ ___________ ______
L im e___________________________________________ ___
________
M arble, granite, slate, and other stone p ro d u c ts ___
___
Minerals and earths, ground or otherwise treated __
Sand and gravel________________________________
_
_
Tiling, floor and wall, and terrazzo_____________ ..
_ ___ _
W all plaster, wall board, insulating board, and floor composition

Value of material
orders placed
$494, 506, 215
294, 453
52, 224, 717
184, 573, 417
53, 671, 731
51,377,104
3,361, 478
550, 845
32,477,155
222, 654
97,992, 814
6, 739,340
11,020,507

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery ___________
Bolts, nuts, washers, etc___________________________________________
Cast-iron pipe and fittings_________________________________________
Doors, shutters, window sash and frames, molding, and trim (metal)
Firearms___________________________________________________________
Forgings, iron and steel____________________________________________
Hardware, miscellaneous______________
______________________
Heating and ventilating equipment _..
_..
___________________
N ails and spikes_____________________
____________ ___
R ail fastenings, excluding spikes___
______________
Rails, steel___________________________________________________
Springs, steel_______________________________________________________
Steel-works and rolling-mill products, not elsewhere classified _ ____
Stoves and ranges, other than electric______________________________
Structural and reinforcing steel______________________________ ______
Switches, railway____________________ ____________________________
T ools, other than machine tools____________________________
W ire products, not elsewhere classified______________ ____________
W rought pipe_________________________________ _____ ___________

465, 552, 370
5, 256,431
50, 659, 530
18,589, 855
813,468
7,447, 642
15,217, 688
43, 293,846
2, 280,486
6,747,133
22,864, 574
629,141
92, 254, 582
794,326
172, 096, 054
1,000,818
6,072, 593
9, 273,027
10, 261,176

Nonferrous metals and their products___________________________
___
Aluminum manufactures__________________________________________
Copper products__________________________________________________
Lead products_____________________________________________________
Ncnferrous-metal alloys and products, not elsewhere classified______
Sheet-metal w ork__________________________________________________
Zinc products_____________________________________________________

11,600,465
561,951
1,414, 243
604, 220
2, 212, 227
6, 739, 481
68, 343

M achinery, not including transportation equipment____________
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies______________
Elevators and elevator equipment__________________________
Engines, turbines, tractors, and waterwheels________________
F oun d ry and machine-shop products, not elsewhere classified
M achine tools______________________________________________
M eters (gas, water, etc.) and gas generators_________________
Pum ps and pumping equipment___________________________
Refrigerators and refrigerating and ice-making apparatus____
Transportation equipment, air, land, and water.
Aircraft (new )_____________________________
Airplane parts_____________________________
B oats, steel and wooden (small)____________
Carriages and wagons_________________ ___
Locom otives, other than steam____________
Locom otives, steam__________________ ___
M otorcycles and parts________________
__.
M otor vehicles, passenger_____________ ___
M otor vehicles, trucks_______________
___
Railw ay cars, freight______________________
R ailway cars, m ail and express_____________
R ailway cars, passenger_______________ ___

90, 032, 332
6, 036,370
5, 086, 400
1, 413, 875
61, 874
11,830,133
6,841,170
274,395
561,036
9, 764,368
38,839,968
429, 443
8,893, 300

Miscellaneous_________________
Belting, miscellaneous_____
Coal______________________
Creosote__________________
Electric wiring and fixtures.




291, 537, 827
73, 986, 356
7, 202, 389
26, 984, 936
150,187, 660
7, 950, 094
1, 398, 420
20, 720, 713
3,107, 259

234,479,829
47, 013
2,071,311
548, 206
32,512,199

27

T able

5 . — Value o f M ateria l Orders P la ced on P .

W . A . Construction P rojects, by

T y p e o f M ateria l, J u ly 1 9 3 3 to J u n e 1 9 3 7 — C on tin u ed
[Subject to revision]
Value of material
orders placed

T yp e of material

Miscellaneous—C ontinued.
Furniture, including store and office fixtures__________________
Instruments, professional and scientific_______________________
Mattresses and bedsprings____________________________________
Models and patterns__________________________________________
Paper products________________________________________________
Paving materials and mixtures, not elsewhere classified________
Petroleum products___________________________________________
Photographic apparatus and materials_________________________
Plum bing supplies, not elsewhere classified____________________
Radio apparatus and supplies_________________________________
Roofing materials, not elsewhere classified_____________________
Rubber goods_________________________________________________
Steam and other packing, pipe and boiler covering, and gaskets.
Theatrical scenery and stage equipm ent_______________________
W indow shades and fixtures___________________________________
Other materials_______________________________________________

$13,915, 839
2,152, 435
139,010
40, 895
153, 568
23, 871, 835
45, 603, 780
282, 039
30, 521, 159
982, 321
9, 369, 474
900, 941
2, 324, 278
322, 012
452, 733
68, 268, 781

T a b l e 6 . — Relative Cost o f Labor, M ateria l, and Overhead and P rofit on 2 ,7 9 5 C om ­

pleted N on -F ed era l P . f t . A . P rojects, b y T y p e o f P roject

Number
of
projects

Type of project

Building construction__ _
Streets and roads.
_
Water and sewerage.

__ _ _
__ __ _

Percentage o f contract prices
chargeable to—

Value of
contracts
awarded

1,161
490
1,144

Labor at
site

$140, 951, 767
46, 314, 915
88, 320, 677

Material

28. 5
25. 6
25. 6

54. 9
50. 4
55. 4

Overhead
and profit
16. 6
24.0
19.0

T a b l e 7 . — P a y -R o ll D isbursem ents in Relation to M ateria l Expenditures on P . W . A .

P rojects, b y T y p e o f P roject, J u ly 1 9 3 3 to J u n e 1 9 3 7




[Subject to revision]
Percentage
Type of project
Labor at
site
Entire P. W . A. program.

_

Material

36.0

Building construction____________
Forestry__________________________
Naval vessels___
. . _. . . . ___
Public roa d s1____ ______ . . . _ . .
Railroad construction___ ________
Railroad shop w ork___ . _____ _
Reclamation . . . ___ _
. . . ___
River, harbor, and flood control. __
Streets and roads 2___________. . .
Water and sewerage systems______

64.0

34.8
67.6
47.2
37.5
32.2
24.8
35.8
40.5
40.4
35.5

65.2
32.4
52.8
62.5
67.8
75. 2
64. 2
59.5
59.6
64.5

1 Under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Public Roads.
2 Other than those reported b y the Bureau of Public Roads.
28
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1 38—62225
9