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GIRLS
U . S. D E P A R T M E N T
W.

Willard

WOMEN'S

Wirtz,

OF

LABOR

Secretary

BUREAU

Mary D u b l i n K e y s e r l i n g ,

Director

bJEUPOSITOftY

Pamphlet

Seven




FUTURE JOBS
FOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMEN'S

BUREAU

• W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary

• Mary Dublin Keyserling, Director

PAMPHLET

SEVEN

-

Revised 1966




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This pamphlet is a revision of a jreport on occupations for girls with high
school education, first published by the Women's Bureau in 1959. The present
pamphlet is more comprehensive than the earlier report, and includes up-to-date
information on job opportunities, training programs, loans, and scholarships.
The occupational information in this pamphlet is drawn chiefly from basic
source materials of the Department of Labor, including "Occupational Outlook
Handbook 1963-64," Bureau of Labor Statistics; and "Job Guide for Young
Workers 1963-64," Bureau of Employment Security. The Women's Bureau
is indebted as well to the Department of Labor's Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, the Bureau of Programs and Standards of the Civil Service Commission, and the Department of State, the Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare, and the Department of Defense for review of sections of the manuscript. The cover art is adapted from a photograph by Scott Paper Company.
This pamphlet was revised by Janice N. Hedges under the direction of Kose
Terlin, Chief of the Division of Economic Status and Opportunities.

li
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price 30 cents




A FOREWORD—to high school girls—
"The times they are a-changing." So the folk singers express what we all
know. Perhaps no other generation before yours has encountered changes on
so grand a scale or at so rapid a pace.
This changing world is an exciting world, a creative world, a demanding
world. The likelihood is great that you will hold a job at various times in your
life. You will need to prepare yourself thoroughly and imaginatively for the
two careers—homemaker and paid worker—you probably will combine during
your lifetime.
Now is the time to take measure of your abilities and interests, and to set
your goals. In making your plans for tomorrow, forget yesterday's phrases
regarding "women's place" and "women's jobs." Women are represented today
in every occupation, and there is growing recognition that they have an important place to fill in the world outside the home as well as in the home.
If you do well in school, you should consider college. After you read this
pamphlet on jobs for girls with a high school education, read "Job Horizons
for College Women in the 1960's"—also published by the Women's Bureau.
An able girl need not limit her horizons. If she has an interest in the medical
field, for example, she should investigate a number of careers in that field.

iii




Some girls who would make good nurses, medical secretaries, or medical technologists also would make good doctors. If you want to continue your education, but feel you cannot afford to, read carefully the section on scholarships and
loans, and the list of references in the appendix on financing an education.
Whatever your plans for your life, remember that education should be a
lifelong process if you are to achieve the happiness that comes only with the
fullest development of your abilities.
Mary Dublin Keyserling
Director, Women's Bureau

iv

CONTENTS
Page

A CLASS REUNION
YOUR JOB FUTURE
Marriage and a Career
Jobs Reflect Education
If You Need More Education
How To Get Training
How To Get Job Experience
Becoming a Worker
Safeguards for Young Workers
CHOOSING THE RIGHT JOB
Health Services
Nurses' aide_
Licensed practical nurse (LPN)
Registered nurse (RN)
Dental assistant
Physician's assistant
Medical laboratory worker




1
4
4
6
7
11
15
16
19
20
20
21
21
22
23
24
24

CHOOSING THE RIGHT JOB—Continued
Health Services—Continued
Medical X-ray technician
Dental laboratory technician
Clerical Occupations
Typist, stenographer, secretary
Clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
File clerk
Bank clerk, teller
Bookkeeper
Cashier, grocery checker
Office machine operator
Telephone operator, PBX operator
Computer operating personnel
Receptionist
Assistant in a library

p ** e

25
27
27
28
29
30
31
31
32
33
35
37
39
40
41

v

Page

CHOOSING THE RIGHT JOB—Continued
Retailing.
Stockgirl
Saleswoman
Buyer
Food Services
Cook
Waitress
Counter girl
Factory Work
Assembler
Power machine operator
Inspector, examiner
Technical Work in Engineering and Science
Draftsman trainee

vi




41
42
42
44
45
46
46
47
48
49
49
50
51
51

CHOOSING THE RIGHT JOB—Continued
Technical Work in Engineering and Science—Con.
Engineering or science technician
Programer
Miscellaneous Services
Beauty operator
Airline stewardess
If You Want a Government Career
Under Civil Service
„
In the Armed Forces
In the Foreign Service
APPENDIX
Women Workers in Selected Occupations, 1960
For Further Information
Suggested Form of Application for Employment

Page

52
53
55
55
57
59
59
60
61
62
62
64
66




A CLASS REUNION
Let's take a look at the stories of five girls who
graduated from high school 10 years ago. One of them
had been the "big wheel" type; another, the "still waters
run deep" type. The others could not be said to fit
neatly into any type—they were just themselves.
These five girls—now 27 and 28—met recently at an
alumni dinner in their hometown. After reminiscing
about their schooldays, they begin to recount something
of their lives in the last 10 years.
Mary is the first to tell her story:
"Hank and I were married a month after graduation. He
still had a year of college to finish. So I got a job as a clerktypist to help out."

1

"Children?" suggests someone, and Mary smiles.
"We were married 2 years before our first baby came. By
that time I'd had two promotions and was a private secretary. The firm told me to let them know if I ever wanted to
come back. The summer Judy was 2, my mother took care of
her so I could fill in at the office for the girls on vacation—to
keep my skills from getting too rusty. Our little boy was born
that winter. Last fall when he started kindergarten, there
really wasn't enough to do around the house to use up my
time and energy.
"So one day I put on my hat and coat, and asked my former
boss if he had a part-time job for me. I go to work after the
children are in school and get home before they do. We're
starting an educational fund to see them through college when
the time comes."

Ruth tells her story next—quite a different one:
"You remember that in the spring of our senior year my
father died, and I went to work?"
"Oh yes," Mary whispers. " W e were all so terribly sorry."
Ruth nods her thanks and goes on.
"Well, I had no special training, and the new electronics
plant down on Main Street was offering a training course in
light assembly work. I applied there, and they took me on.
Most of the others were men, but I learned just as quickly

2




and as well as any of them. Soon I was putting together
complicated parts and earning more than I would have believed possible.
"But I wanted that high school diploma! As soon as things
eased up a bit at home, I went to night school and graduated. But that's not all. I went on studying mathematics
and drafting, and now I'm an electronics technician. I'm not
married yet, but give me time!"

Ann begins her story:
"You know Jack and I were married soon after graduation.
He earned a good salary, and didn't want me to work. He
was brought up in the European tradition. It was all right
with me; we both wanted a big family. We had four children.
Then last year Jack was disabled in an accident at the plant.
There was workmen's compensation and some insurance. But
I had to face it—our income wasn't enough for a family of
six, and the baby was only 2 years old.
"Luckily, there's a good day care center near our house.
When I found they would take care of the baby during the
day, I made the rounds of the stores downtown until I got
a job—selling children's wear. I know plenty about that!
I don't make so much for a family our size, but at least we're
all together—that's the most important thing."

Next it is Frances' turn:
" I went to college, you know, majored in math, and took
enough education courses to get a teaching certificate. I
taught for several years when Bob and I were first married.
Last year when our Kathy started in nursery school, I did
substitute teaching. This year, though, I'm taking a graduate course in math at the college here. Some day I'm sure
I'll go back to teaching—maybe even full time. Working
with youngsters gives me a feeling that I'm achieving something lasting."

Last of all, the group listens to Jean's story:
"Remember the summer I worked as a Red Cross aide in
the hospital? I made up my mind then and there that I
wanted to be a nurse, but I was afraid that training would
cost too much."
"What did you do, Jean?" Frances asks.




" I told the school counselor my problem," Jean explains.
"Well, she was full of ideas ! She told me about scholarships
and loans for nurses, and encouraged me to fill out some
application blanks. And sure enough, by fall I was training
in one of the best hospital schools in the State! Wasn't I
lucky?
" I finished training, and then a few years ago, I miarried
Jim. He's wonderful and we have a little boy 2 years old.
I'm still on call at the hospital for emergencies when they
need a special night nurse. Jim can take care of young Bill
easily enough at night, and the extra income helps to pay for
our new home."

And now we leave Mary, the secretary; Ruth, the
technician; Ann, the saleswoman; Frances, the teacher;
and Jean, the nurse, and come to you, the high school
girl of today.

3

YOUR JOB FUTURE
What will your story be? Are you the girl who will
marry the college student or some "wonderful Jim"?
Will you be working at some time in your life to buy
or furnish a home, provide necessities for your children,
build a college fund for them, or for some other reason ?
Let's look at the chances.
The tables of statisticians are better than the gypsy's
crystal ball. Great industries have been built on them.
But they also have several messages for you.
Marriage and a Career
The statisticians' forecasts show, for example, that
your chances of marrying are almost 10 out of 10. That
4




prediction comes as no great surprise, does it? They
predict further that your chances of having children—
perhaps one, perhaps a houseful—are at least 9 out of
10. I'm sure these two predictions, based on statistical
averages, please you, and that you look forward to an
apartment or a house and a family of your own.
Now let's look once again into your future. The
statisticians also estimate that chances are at least 8
or 9 out of 10 that you will be engaged in paid employment sometime in your life. The majority of you will
work for a while before marriage and return to work
after your last child enters school—for a total of
possibly 30 years. Are you surprised? Do you think

they're talking about someone else? Let's look at the
facts!
You no doubt know a number of women who work
in paid jobs. About 27 million do right now. Of
every three workers, one is a woman; and three out of
five women workers are married.
When you consider the women who work for a period
of years sometime in their lives, the figures are much,
much higher. Furthermore, the number of women who
work is growing faster than the population is growing.
The Department of Labor estimates that by 1970 there
will be 30 million women workers.
Who are these women who work ? And why do they
work? Some are young girls just out of high school,
or even high school girls on part-time jobs. They may
be working to support themselves or to save money for
more education or for marriage. Some working women
are newly-marrieds helping their husbands to finish
their education, or helping to buy or furnish their first
homes. Some are mothers whose husbands do not earn
enough for the many needs of a growing family. Some




are the sole support of their children or their parents.
Other working women are making sure that their children will be able to have technical training or a college
education.
Do you still think the statisticians must be talking
about someone else, not you? You're probably wrong,
but even if you're right, chances are that you'll want
to do volunteer work—not just casually a few hours
a month, but regularly each week. How many can say
that woman's work is never done? Household appliances still on the drawing board and new food products
will bring increased leisure to the homemaker of tomorrow and a desire on the part of many of you to find
useful work—paid or volunteer—beyond the confines of
your own home.
So let's look at the forecasts for the high school girls
of today—that at least 8 or 9 girls out of 10—and probably you—will be working for pay at some time, and
that many of the others will be regular volunteers.
You ask: "What does this mean for me?"

5

Doesn't it mean that you should be thinking seriously
about what you do best, what you enjoy doing most,
and how you can get the education and training you
will need for a rewarding, well-paying job rather than
just any job?
This pamphlet is intended to help you as you take
stock and make plans for your future. You can find
information here on a variety of occupations, from the
secretarial group to certain technical specialties where
women are just beginning to make their mark.
Many of the jobs described in this pamphlet can be
entered by high school graduates without further training. Although only the lowest rung of the ladder may
be within reach of a girl just out of high school, an
ambitious girl can obtain the training necessary for
advancement through part-time study or some other
arrangement while gaining work experience. Not every
employer requires a high school diploma for every job
mentioned in this pamphlet, but high school graduates
generally have better prospects than nongraduates of
being hired and winning promotions.

6




A few jobs requiring considerable training beyond a
high school diploma are included in this pamphlet because they offer a high school graduate the possibility of
obtaining the required training at low cost. The job of
registered nurse is in this category.
Many important and worthwhile occupations are not
included here, but it is hoped that the variety of occupations described will suggest others.
Jobs Reflect Education
Education brings many rewards. It makes possible
a deeper understanding of the issues and problems of
today, a greater appreciation of the arts, and the acquisition of knowledge and training that makes for the
fullest development of abilities. The educated woman
is a better wife and mother. She also is a better citizen and a more competent and skilled worker. She
lives a richer life.
The kind of work that a woman does depends to a
great extent on her education. Half of the employed

women who have completed less than 8 years of schooling are service workers in private homes, restaurants,
hotels, or other establishments. About half of the
women who have completed only high school are in clerical occupations, which include secretaries, typists,
bookkeepers, cashiers, and telephone operators.
Of the women college graduates who are working,
almost three-fourths are in professional or technical
occupations, while most of the others are in the clerical
or managerial groups.
As you would expect, more education usually means
more income. The median income in 1964 of women
with a high school diploma (no college) was 45 percent
more than that of women with 1 to 3 years of high
school. Women with 4 years or more of college received 84 percent more income than those with a high
school diploma and 166 percent more than those with
1 to 3 years of high school.
Today a high school diploma is considered essential
whether you plan to marry, to work, or to combine work
and marriage. If you need income before completing




high school, a part-time or summer job is the best solution. In many communities a Neighborhood Youth
Corps (NYC) specializes in placing students in parttime or vacation jobs. Students between the ages of
16 and 21 are eligible for the NYC program. Your
local State employment service office can advise you
where to apply for this program or for other work.
If You Need More Education
For teaching and many other kinds of work, you will
need more than a high school education.
If you want to continue beyond high school, but
can't clearly see your way, ask your school counselor
to help you with your plans. She can discuss with you
the steps which you might take to obtain more education. You might talk over with her, for example, the
possibilities for keeping the cost of a college education
at a minimum, obtaining a scholarship or a loan, and
locating a part-time job.

7

Low-cost arrangements
Perhaps there is a college in your hometown or within
commuting distance. If so, you can keep expenses
down by living at home while you continue your schooling. Or you may wish to consider a college which alternates academic terms with paid employment.
Scholarships
Most colleges, and some State governments, labor
unions, firms, and professional, religious, fraternal,
social, civic or veterans' organizations as well as the
Federal Government offer scholarships to eligible students. Some grants are limited to students in a specific
field or those who meet certain personal or residence
requirements. Your counselor or principal can advise
you concerning your eligibility for a scholarship.
Information on scholarships offered by colleges is
detailed in their catalogs. Many colleges also participate in the scholarship service sponsored by the College
Entrance Examination Board. Application forms are

8




available from the College Scholarship Service (Box
176, Princeton, N.J., 08540, or Box 1025, Berkeley,
Calif., 94701) or at your high school.
The Federal Government recently established educational opportunity grants for college students with special financial needs. The colleges select the students
who are eligible and determine the amount of individual
grants. You should apply directly to the college.
Specialized scholarships are provided in some fields
in which an acute shortage of workers exists. The
Health Professions Educational Assistance Amendments of 1965 provide scholarships for eligible students
from low-income families otherwise unable to pursue
a course of study in medicine, dentistry, osteopathy,
optometry, pharmacy, or podiatry. For further information contact the school of your choice. Information
on scholarships for nurses is available from the National League for Nursing, Committee on Careers, 10
Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y., 10019; for dietitians,
from the American Dietetic Association, 620 North
Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111., 60611; and for physical

therapists, from the National Foundation, 800 Second
Avenue, New York, N.Y., 10017.
Part-time jobs
If you want to earn part of your college expenses, you
might assist in the laboratory, the library, the college
business office, or work for a newspaper. Students also
earn money serving tables, operating switchboards, and
selling merchandise.
The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 establishes
a work-study program for students in institutions of
higher learning. Funds are available for the part-time
employment of students otherwise unable to continue
their education. Interested students should apply directly to their colleges.
Loan funds
Low-interest, long-term student loans are available
through federally subsidized programs.
The National Defense Education Act provides loans
to students from low-income families who are enrolled
at least half time in institutions participating in the




program. Interest and repayment begin after the student leaves school. The entire debt is canceled at the
rate of 15 percent a year for students who become teachers in low-income areas. Other full-time teachers are
forgiven up to 50 percent of the loan at the rate of 10
percent a year. Application should be made directly
to the college.
Qualified college students, regardless of family income, may receive loans under the Higher Education
Act of 1965. Under this act the Federal Government
assumes partial payment of interest for students whose
adjusted family income is less than $15,000. Applications should be made to the college or the local bank.
Loans to vocational, technical, and business students
are provided by the National Vocational Student Loan
Insurance Act of 1965. Conditions and procedures are
similar to those of the Higher Education Act of 1965.
Full-time nursing students may apply to their school
for a loan if the school participates in the loan program
under the Nurse Training Act of 1964. Interest and
repayment begin 1 year after leaving school. Up to 50

9




percent of the loan may be canceled at the rate of 10
percent a year when the borrower is employed as a professional nurse in a private or nonprofit institution.
The Health Professions Educational Assistance Act
of 1963, as amended, provides loans to full-time students of participating schools who are pursuing a
course of study leading to the degree of doctor of medicine, optometry, dentistry, osteopathy, podiatry, surgical
chiropody, or pharmacy, or of bachelor of science in
pharmacy. Applications should be made to the college. Interest and repayment begin 3 years after the
student leaves school. Up to 50 percent of the loan
may be canceled at the rate of 10 percent a year if the
borrower practices medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, or
optometry in a shortage area.
For further information on these and other loans,
including State programs, consult your school counselor or principal. Before accepting a loan, compare
interest rates, other charges, and repayment schedules.

How To Gel Training
The need for job training continues to grow as the
general skill level of jobs rises. Well-trained workers
are at a decided advantage in applying for the more
skilled, interesting, and better paying jobs. Training
may take place before entering employment or on the
job.
Training in high school
If you expect to go to work after graduation from
high school, you should obtain good preparation by
selecting your high school courses carefully and doing
your very best to master them. Your school adviser or
teacher can help you choose the courses best suited to
your purpose.
Business courses given in high schools almost everywhere include typing, shorthand, business arithmetic,
bookkeeping, spelling, and English composition.
Vocational education courses are provided in the public school system in every State and Territory and in the




District of Columbia.
fields of :

The basic programs are in the

Agriculture
Business education
Distribution and marketing
Health occupations

Home economics
Technicians
Trades and industries

In these broad fields, inst

tion may be offered in:

Advertising and commercial
art
Baking
Beauty culture (cosmetology)
Cafeteria and restaurant
management
Commercial foods
Dental assistant training
Drafting
Dress design
Dressmaking
Executive and institutional
housekeeping
Household and domestic
service

Laboratory technician training
Laundry, dryeleaning, and
pressing
Medical assistant training
Needle trades
Nursed aide training
Nursery assistant training
Photography
Power machine operation
Practical nursing
Tailoring
Tearoom and waitress training

11

Courses for high school students are offered in the
daytime; for employed persons 16 years of age or over,
usually in the evening.
For the most part, public vocational courses are free.
There may be a charge, however, for materials and
textbooks. Nonresidents and persons over 21 years of
age may have to pay a small tuition charge.
If you cannot find the course you want among those
given in your community, perhaps you can attend
classes in a nearby city. If enough persons request a
specific course, the high school principal or vocational
education director may be able to make arrangements
to add it to the curriculum.
Certain private schools also offer vocational courses
of varying standards, for which the student pays
tuition.
More complete information on public vocational
courses can be obtained from the Division of Vocational
and Technical Education, Office of Education, U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Wash-

12




ington, D.C., 20201, or from the Director of Vocational
Education in your State Department of Education.
Training through other public programs
Training for a variety of jobs is available through
programs under the Manpower Development and
Training Act in a number of localities across the country. Check with the nearest State employment office
to see if there are programs in your city in which you
might be interested. The employment service usually
is listed in telephone directories under the name of the
State, as "Employment Commission."
The Neighborhood Youth Corps (NYC) offers young
people job experience while they perform services which
are needed in the home community and are not otherwise available. Since the programs offered depend on
local needs, they vary from community to community.
The NYC is open to young people who are 16 through
21 years old. Jobs may be part time or vacation time
for those still in school, and full time for those out of
school. Girls enrolled in the Neighborhood Youth

Corps live at home and work in their home communities.
The State employment service, as well as your school
counselor, can give you information on NYC programs.
On-the-job training
Perhaps you have chosen to take a general or academic
course in high school, and you decide to go to work after
graduation. It is especially important in that case to
find a job that provides training. To mention one example, you would do better to start as a stockgirl in a
store that offers training in saleswork than as a soda
fountain clerk in a place where there is little chance
of promotion, even if the soda fountain job offers somewhat more pay at the start.
Training on the job is offered by many industrial and
business establishments to provide employees with a
ladder of promotion to positions of increasing skill.
Telephone companies not only train their own operators but provide training for P B X (private branch
exchange) operators. Banks usually provide training
for their employees. Large insurance companies may




provide inservice training for both clerical workers and
agents. High school graduation usually is required for
telephone, bank, and insurance company trainees.
Some industrial and business firms hire nongraduates
for training in the operation of office machines.
Most skilled production workers in factories have
developed their skill and speed through on-the-job
training and experience. Many service workers in restaurants, hotels, and other establishments also get their
training on the job.
Apprenticeship
Training for skilled trades or crafts that require a
highly specialized range of skills and knowledge is
obtained in a formal on-the-job program known as
apprenticeship.
An apprenticeship lasts from 2 to 5 years or even
longer, depending on the complexity of the trade. As
an apprentice you would receive progressive instruction
and experience, both on and off the job. You would

14




learn the practical and theoretical aspects of a skilled
trade. And while learning you w^ould be paid at rates
that increase as you progress. Apprenticeship programs have been set up by management and labor in
about 400 occupations, with promotional and organizational assistance from Federal and State apprenticeship
agencies. If you would like to become a skilled dental
worker, fur finisher, fabric cutter, printer, bookbinder,
or cosmetician, for example, you could learn the trade
by being hired as an apprentice by a firm conducting
an apprenticeship program in the occupation you wish
to learn.
In recent years, apprenticeship programs have been
developed for some of the newer specialties in rapidly
expanding occupations of special interest to women, as
in the fields of electronics or optics.
If you wish to become an apprentice, you may apply
to an employer, the local labor union in the trade you
wish to learn, a joint apprenticeship committee, or the
nearest office of your State employment service.

How To Get Job Experience

During school vacation

Students who work become accustomed to working
regular hours, to following directions, and to taking
responsibility for their share of the work. They learn
to reckon the value of a dollar in terms of the time it
takes to earn it.
Of course, a job that provides training for the work
you want to do later is especially desirable.

A summer vacation job is more desirable for most
girls—and probably for you—than working part time
while school is in session. A vacation job is less likely
to put a strain on your health or to pull down your
grades. Also, working 8 hours a day for several consecutive weeks is useful experience.
Offices sometimes hire girls 16 years of age or over
who can type with fair speed and accuracy to substitute for regular typists on vacation. This may lead to
a permanent position after graduation.
As summer is a busy season for farming, many students find vacation work on farms. Often their work
consists of picking small fruits and vegetables. In
many places, students are recruited for work on a "dayhaul" basis; that is, they are picked up by car or bus at
a central point close to their homes, transported to the
farm, and returned home at the end of the workday.
Sometimes day-hauls last a few weekends into the fall
school term.

Clara spent a few hours every Saturday during her senior
year helping an insurance agent in the neighborhood with
his billing, addressing, and other paperwork. She became
so competent that after graduation the company offered
her a well-paid secretarial job.
Betty worked 2 hours every noon in the school cafeteria
while taking the course in commercial food service. She
received her lunches without charge plus a small amount
of cash, as well as school credit for her work. As soon as
she graduated, she obtained a job assisting the food service
manager in a nearby restaurant and the promise of an early
promotion.




15

Any State and Federal requirements on minimum age,
minimum wage, and working and living conditions must
be met in all cases.
During the school term
About 950,000 schoolgirls 14 through 17 years of age,
or 1 out of 7, held a job outside of school hours in October 1964. If you have the health and self-discipline
necessary to do part-time work during the school term
without damage to your academic standing, there are
several possibilities.
Your own school may have a part-time job for you—
in the office, the library, the bank, cafeteria, or science
laboratory. Such work provides excellent experience.
Babysitting is another possibility, and the one that
a high school girl is likely to think of first. Because
this is almost always a part-time job, it is not described
elsewhere in this pamphlet.
As a sitter you are responsible for the welfare—and
the life—of the children in your charge. You will need

16




to know where you can reach the parents and the family
doctor in case of emergency. You also will need to
know the family rules, such as bedtime and infant
feeding. On the other hand, this work usually is not
covered by regulations that protect young people in
regular employment. Your employers should, therefore, safeguard your welfare while you are on their
premises and provide for your safe escort home. Your
parents are entitled to know where you are working and
may wish to have you accept jobs only with families
known to them.
Becoming a Worker—An Important Life Step
How does a person make the transition from a schoolgirl—Judy Parker, let us say—to a businesswoman,
Miss Judith Parker of the Claims Department.
There are five steps that sum up the process. You
can take the first step at any point in your high school
course. The other steps come when you are ready for
a job.

1. Selecting an occupation
After considering your abilities and your interests,
you will want to do some reading on fields of work and
specific occupations that seem suitable for you. The
statements that follow tell something about the nature
of the work, the qualifications and training needed, and
the opportunities for advancement in a number of specific occupations. Probable earnings are not given because they vary widely according to the section of the
country, the size of the city, and employment conditions. Your school adviser or the nearest office of the
State employment service can give you an idea of local
pay rates.
It is important to discuss your plans with your parents and your school adviser as early as possible in your
high school course. They can help you select subjects
that will take you in the direction you want to go and
that will not narrow your choice of occupation too
soon. Someone now in the occupation that interests
you can often give insight and valuable guidance.




2. Canvassing the possibilities
When you are ready for employment, register with
one or more employment agencies, such as the local
office of the State employment service, your high school
placement office, or a commercial employment agency.
The State employment service offices provide aptitude
tests and individual counseling, if needed, as well as
referral to job openings. Their services are available
without charge.
Other ways of locating a job include filing for civil
service examinations (municipal, State, and Federal);
scanning the "help wanted" advertisements; contacting
former employers, applying in person to firms where
you would like to work; and asking friends, relatives,
and teachers for leads.
Find out as much as you can about any job openings
which interest you. Check the requirements against
your qualifications carefully and objectively.
3. Preparing a personal folder
Before applying for a job, you should prepare a
personal folder that contains the following: a summary

17

of your training and experience;1 character and work
references; a list of your high school courses; your
official academic record if it is available from your
school; news clippings which tell of honors you have
received; and, if appropriate, published articles or
stories or examples of your work.
You should have several copies of all the papers in
your folder, so that you can leave a set with each
application.
Needless to say, the summary and any other papers
you prepare must be neat if you wish to leave the right
impression.
4. Submitting an application
Now you are ready to approach an employer, either
by letter or telephone. Telephoning is suggested if you
wish to ask for routine information, an appointment, or
if the employer or placement agency has asked applicants to telephone.
1

See appendix for a suggested form of application.

18



If you write, your letter should be addressed, if
possible, to an individual by name, rather than to the
firm. In larger firms, however, it may be addressed:
"Personnel Director." The letter should express your
interest in the job, state your qualifications, and request
an interview. It should be brief and, like the papers
in your personal folder, neatly written.
5. The interview
The interview is your chance to show that you are the
person for the job. Prepare for it by learning something about the firm. Arrive neatly dressed and on
time. Listen attentively to the person who interviews
you, and establish clearly what the job offers in terms
of promotion opportunities, salary, working hours,
security, and such fringe benefits as vacations and pension plans. If you decide that you want the job, say
that you do. Be prompt in leaving when the interview
is over, just as you were prompt in arriving.
If you are offered the job, be sure you have a clear
understanding with the employer as to what will be

expected of you, and when and where you are to report
for work.
If you are not successful on your first interview, or
even after several attempts, do not count the effort lost.
Profit from your experience by analyzing and improving your approach. You may decide to alter your immediate objective, or to take additional training.
Safeguards for Young Workers
All States have a minimum age for employment.
About half of the States require proof of age for those
under 18 years. The minimum age for general employment set by the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act
is 16 years. There is an 18-year minimum for employment in occupations found hazardous by the Secretary
of Labor. Children 14 and 15 years of age may work
in some jobs outside school hours, for a limited number
of hours, under regulated conditions.
If you are less than 18 years old, therefore, be sure
to check with your school adviser or with the office
that issues employment certificates, before applying for
a job.




Most States limit maximum hours of work and prohibit nightwork for employees under 16 years of age.
A few States prohibit night employment for all women.
In many States there are minimum wage laws, some
of which establish a learner's rate for beginners in the
occupation. You can write to your State department
of labor to find out if there is a learner's rate for the job
for which you are hired.
Organizations.—In practically every occupation there
are trade associations, professional organizations, or
labor unions that individual workers may join. Many
of these hold meetings and conventions, issue periodicals, help members find jobs, and in other ways encourage their advancement.
Many high schools have clubs for those who are interested in a particular occupation. Student clubs include
Future Business Leaders of America, Future Teachers
of America, Future Secretaries Association, Distributive Education Clubs of America, and Vocational
Industrial Clubs of America.

19




CHOOSING THE RIGHT JOB
Health Services
Many women are employed in the health field. Most
of them are nurses or auxiliary nursing workers, but
women also are working as medical, dental, or
X-ray technicians and in many other health service
occupations.
Training for jobs in the health services described in
the following pages often is available free or at low
cost. In some cases training is offered in public vocational or technical schools, or in community colleges.
Training in subprofessional health occupations is provided in programs under the Economic Opportunity
Act and the Manpower Development and Training Act.

Professional societies often offer training in night sessions for the girl who is already employed.
It is best to plan ahead to achieve licensing or certification if it is available in the occupation you choose.
Be sure to check schools with your adviser before enrolling, to make certain that your training will qualify you
for the certification examination.
Nurses' aide
A nurses' aide bathes and feeds patients, and attends
to their personal needs and comfort. She may make
beds and clean rooms and equipment.
The desire to serve, a sense of responsibility, patience,
physical stamina, and a pleasant manner are all important qualities for a nurses' aide. Training is available in some public high schools, or under Manpower
Development and Training Act programs, or on the job.
Although most nursing aides work in hospitals, some
are employed in convalescent homes, sanitoriums, and
homes for the aged. Those who work in mental hospitals are called psychiatric aides.




Nurses' aides, like other nursing personnel, are
needed around the clock, and so may be assigned the
night shift and weekend and holiday duty.
Licensed practical nurse (LPN)
The majority of practical nurses work in hospitals,
clinics, or homes for the aged, the ill, and the convalescing. Others work in private homes, doctors' offices,
schools, and public health agencies.
A practical nurse usually takes and records temperature, pulse, and blood pressure readings; gives
prescribed treatments and medications; and assists the
patient if necessary with personal hygiene. She may
provide general nursing care for newborn babies and
their mothers, the ill, or the handicapped. If she works
in a doctor's office, she may assist in the examination of
patients, give simple treatments and medications as
directed, change dressings, perform routine laboratory
tests, and carry out some clerical duties.
Not all practical nurses are licensed, but the trend
in this occupation is toward licensing. Requirements

21

for licensing include training in a State-approved
school of practical nursing, generally for a year, and
successful completion of an examination. The practical nurse may use the designation LPN only if she has
met the requirements.
Many public high schools offer courses in practical
nursing, either as part of their vocational school or
adult education program or as part of their regular
curriculum. There also are special schools for practical nurses, most of which charge tuition. In some
areas free training programs are available under the
Manpower Development and Training Act.
The qualities needed by a practical nurse include
the desire to help the sick or weak, patience, dependability, good judgment, emotional stability, good health,
and finger and manual dexterity.
Registered nurse (RN)
The registered nurse (RN) is a professional worker,
whose preparation includes classroom instruction in
basic sciences and nursing theory, and supervised nurs-

22




ing practice. A nursing candidate most often secures
her education in a "diploma" program of a hospital
school of nursing. The diploma program usually requires 3 years beyond high school. Other nursing
students pursue a 2-year program in a junior or community college; this program leads to an associate
degree. An increasing number of students follow a
4-year college program. The license to practice professional nursing requires passing a State examination
as well as completing an approved program.
Scholarships, loans, or part-time work often are available to student nurses. Loans under the Nurse Training Act of 1964 are cancellable at the rate of 10 percent
for each year of employment, up to a maximum of 50
percent of the total loan. For further information on
financial aid, write the National League for Nursing,
10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y., 10019.
Most hospital nurses are general duty nurses who
perform skilled bedside nursing, which includes assisting with blood transfusions and intravenous feedings

and caring for postoperative patients. They often
supervise practical nurses and nursing aides. Private
duty nurses give their constant attention to an individual patient and are hired directly by the patient or
his family. They may work in a hospital or in the
home of the patient. Other nurses work in the offices
of physicians and dentists, in public health clinics, in
schools, and in business and industry.
Dental assistant
If you work as an assistant in a dentist's office, you
prepare patients for treatment; you hand instruments to
the dentist and sterilize them after use; you probably
mix fillings and impression compounds and assist with
laboratory work; perhaps you help in taking, developing, and mounting X-rays. You check dental supplies
and place orders as needed, and keep a record of each
patient's dental condition, treatment, and appointments.
In addition, you may serve as receptionist, take telephone calls, schedule appointments, keep the books,
and make out the bills.




Some dentists employ girls who have followed a
general business program in high school, and train them
in the duties of a dental assistant. The American
Dental Assistants Association offers training through a
program that provides a total of 105 hours in 2-hour
periods 1 night a week. The number of 1- and 2-year
educational programs in community and junior colleges, vocational and technical schools, and other educational institutions has been increasing rapidly. It's
best to check the credentials of training schools with the
Council on Dental Education, 222 East Superior Street,
Chicago, 111., 60611.
An attractive appearance and a pleasing voice are important assets in this work. It takes tact and friendliness to reassure patients—especially children—and put
them at ease. A dental assistant also needs finger dexterity, good vision and hearing, and the ability to
follow instructions exactly as they are given.
As many dentists maintain offices in residential neighborhoods, it is often possible for a married woman to
obtain a part-time job near home as a dental assistant.

23

However, the hours may be irregular and may include
some work during the evening or weekends in order to
suit the convenience of patients who are employed or
are attending school. There is a high rate of turnover
in this occupation, as many girls marry and leave work
within a few years. Those who stay long enough to
acquire some experience are in great demand with
dentists who do not want to train a beginner.
A dental assistant may work for a dentist who has
his own office, for two or more dentists who work as
partners or who share office space, or for a dental clinic.
Physician's assistant
The assistant in a physician's office often has a wide
variety of duties. She may be receptionist, secretary,
bookkeeper, and nurse. Her clerical duties include receiving patients, making out personal data cards for new
patients, providing the physician with the medical history record of regular patients, and ushering the patients in turn into the consultation or examination office.
Other clerical duties may include ordering supplies, pre-

24




paring and mailing statements, and completing insurance forms.
In the examining room she may assist the physician
by handing him instruments and performing other
duties. She sterilizes instruments and keeps adequate
supplies in the examining rooms. Under the physician's
direction, she also may take a patient's temperature and
pulse, apply or remove surgical dressings, and make
simple laboratory tests.
Applicants for medical assistant positions should have
at least a high school education, preferably including
courses in biology, chemistry, health education, typing,
shorthand, and bookkeeping. Experience as a medical
secretary or training as a practical nurse also is helpful
preparation. Formal training in a 1- to 2-year program is given in a number of vocational schools and
colleges.
Medical laboratory worker
If you are good at chemistry and biology and enjoy
spending extra hours in the "lab," you might like a

career in a medical laboratory. As a high school graduate without additional training, the jobs for which you
would be most likely to qualify in the laboratory would
be laboratory aide or assistant. You would check supplies, label materials, sterilize laboratory utensils, make
simple solutions, perhaps take care of the laboratory
animals, and help with some of the testing. You might
also record test results. After a tryout period, if you
showed aptitude for the work, you might do some routine medical tests under supervision.
Advancement to technician status generally requires
2 years or more of science courses at the college level,
plus either 12 months' training in an approved school
for medical technicians or experience in an approved
laboratory. Hospital laboratories sometimes accept
and train high school graduates as tissue technicians if
they have successfully completed courses in chemistry,
biology, or physics. Depending on her specialty, the
laboratory technician may prepare culture media, produce bacteria under controlled conditions, isolate and
identify bacteria, type blood, or analyze body fluids.




Her work is more routine and requires less knowledge
than that of the medical technologist, who generally
must have completed 3 years of college plus 12 months
in a school of medical technology approved by the
American Medical Association.
Medical X-ray technician
The main duties of an X-ray technician are to put
the patient into the position required for the picture or
treatment indicated by the physician and to operate the
controls of the X-ray equipment. Other duties might
include preparing "opaque" for the patient to swallow,
processing the film, keeping records, and cleaning the
equipment. Technicians sometimes make a specialty of
X-raying teeth or other parts of the body. Some technicians also operate electrocardiograph and basal metabolism equipment.
X-ray technicians work in hospitals, medical laboratories, physicians' and dentists' offices or clinics, and
government agencies. Most X-ray technicians are
women.

25




If you want to be a medical X-ray technician, start
by taking science (biology, chemistry, physics) and
mathematics in high school, then follow up with an approved program for medical X-ray technicians. Programs offered in a number of hospital schools last 24
months. Some hospital schools charge little or no tuition. Training also may be obtained in some public
vocational or technical schools, community colleges,
private schools, the armed services, or on the job, under
the supervision of a radiologist. In addition to the
actual techniques of operating various types of X-ray
equipment and developing the films, training courses include anatomy, chemistry, physics, and instruction in
the proper safeguards against possible hazards of exposure to X-rays.
Since the effect of exposure to X-rays is cumulative
and may be harmful over a long period of time, the
National Bureau of Standards has set up minimum
standards of protection for technicians. Employers are
required to provide leaded walls or control panels, and
the technician must be careful to wear leaded gloves and

apron when it is necessary for her to be in the radiographic or fluoroscopic room during an X-ray exposure.
Technicians who have had at least 2 years' experience
under the direction of a radiologist, which may include
training time, and who pass the examination of the
Registry of Radiologic Technologists, may use the title
"Registered Technologist" (R.T.).
Dental laboratory technician
Dental technicians make artificial dentures—crowns,
bridges, and teeth—and orthodontal appliances. They
do not deal directly with patients, but receive orders
from dentists. Most of the women in this occupation
work in large commercial laboratories. The beginning
technician mixes and pours plaster into casts and molds.
As she progresses she is assigned to more difficult work.
Some technicians do all types of dental laboratory
work; others specialize.
Most dental laboratory technicians learn their craft
as trainees in a commercial laboratory or a hospital that




offers dental service. Such training generally requires
3 to 4 years. Courses also are offered in some public
vocational or technical high schools, a few private
schools, and some junior colleges.
Certification by the National Association of Dental
Laboratories and the American Dental Association requires 1 year of formal classroom instruction; 1 year of
supervised practical experience in an accredited school
or dental laboratory; and an additional 3 years of experience in a dental office or laboratory, plus successful
completion of the certification examination.
Dental laboratory technicians must have finger dexterity, good color perception, and a liking for detailed
work.
Clerical Occupations 2
Clerical jobs exist everywhere: in the offices of manufacturing plants, wholesale houses, and retail stores; in
professional, finance, and insurance firms; and in gova See "Clerical
Occupations
Women's Bureau, 1964.

for Women—Today

and

Tomorrow,"

27




ernment. There are clerical jobs in large cities, suburban areas, and the smallest towns.
Only a few clerical jobs are included in this pamphlet.
If you are a high school graduate, you can qualify for
many more.
Typist, stenographer, secretary
More women (over 2y2 million in 1964) are employed as secretaries, stenographers, and typists than as
any other kind of worker. Yet a shortage of well-qualified workers in these occupations has existed for years.
Most women employed as typists, stenographers, and
secretaries—about 9 out of 10—are at least high school
graduates; of these over a fifth have attended college.
The beginning typist should be able to type 40 to
50 words a minute; the beginning stenographer should
be able to take dictation or notehand at 80 to 100 words
a minute. Courses offered in most high schools combined with additional practice should make it possible
for you to reach these speeds. A vacation job or a part-

time job in your senior year will help you to improve
your speed and accuracy.
A sound educational background is important to the
girl who wants to advance from typing and stenographic work to secretarial or administrative work. For
this reason you may prefer to follow a general course in
high school. School hours spent in acquiring office skills
of course cut down the number of hours that can be devoted to English, math, science, social studies, or languages.
If your school adviser approves, you may decide to
follow the college preparatory course in high school
and postpone acquiring office skills. Then if you find
you want to go to college, you will have the academic
credits required for admission. A high school or college
graduate usually can learn typing and shorthand in a
year or less at a secretarial or business college.
Some stenographers and secretaries specialize in
medical, legal, engineering, and other fields. They may
have learned their specialty on the job, but a growing
number have taken special post-high-school training.




Typists sometimes specialize also. In the main office of
one national broadcasting network, for example, rapid
typists may become continuity typists.
A typist may advance to a supervisory position or
to such jobs as personnel records clerk or mail analyst.
A competent stenographer with a few years of experience and a good educational background is likely to
advance to a secretarial job. The secretary may advance
by becoming the secretary of successively higher officials. Occasionally she herself may move into an executive or a professional position.
Clerk
A girl without previous business experience and with
limited office skills may be assigned a number of general
office duties, such as answering the telephone, taking
orders, making out vouchers, requisitioning and sorting
supplies, filing, and doing errands. She may be known
as a general clerh.
Some special skill is desirable for promotion. This
may be typing, office machine operation, or ability to

29

handle a switchboard. Promotion usually is to a more
specialized clerical jdb or to a job supervising other
clerks.
Specialized clerks in large establishments are given
various titles depending on the kind of work they do.
A hilling clerk makes out bills and invoices to be sent to
customers, and records individual transactions. A cost
clerk computes the cost of articles made or sold, using
payrolls, timesheets, and materials records. A payroll
clerk figures the earnings of individual employees from
their timecards and production records. She may prepare paychecks. A production clerk keeps records of
the quantity of work completed. A time clerk keeps
records of the daily working hours of each employee.
The jobs of a shipping and receiving clerk and file clerk
are described in separate sections.
Some clerical jobs are characteristic of a particular
industry. For example, a major broadcasting company
with both radio and television programs lists three
clerical jobs for high school graduates for which previous experience is not necessary.

30




The mail analyst who reads and sorts mail in the
information division, routes it for proper handling, and
answers general telephone inquiries.
The photofile clerk who indexes and files publicity photographs.
The publicity file clerk who files publicity materials
(except photographs) and keeps reference files of firms,
papers, and clients interested in receiving publicity. For
this job, typing is required and some experience is desirable.

Shipping and receiving clerk
These clerks receive and unpack goods, wrap and
address goods for shipping, and maintain records of
the goods which are received and shipped. One clerk
may handle both receiving and shipping. In large
firms, however, shipping and receiving may be handled
in separate departments, each of which employs a number of workers.
On an outgoing shipment, the clerk's duties may include checking the order to make sure it has been correctly filled and properly addressed; preparing bills of
lading; determining transportation rates; affixing post-

age; and recording such items as the weight and cost of
a shipment.
On an incoming shipment, clerks verify the contents
and the condition of the shipment with the original
order, and maintain records of goods received.
Beginning clerks may be limited to checking contents
and addresses, attaching labels, and other routine tasks.
Experienced clerks may trace lost shipments and
process claims.
File clerk
Training and experience usually are not specified for
filing jobs, but typing skills are a help. Good spelling
is essential, as are a liking for detail, a sense of order,
and a recognition that information learned on the job
should be kept confidential.
Most files hold business correspondence, orders, and
invoices, but there are many kinds of files. In an engineering firm the files may hold blueprints; in a travel
agency they are likely to hold tour programs of exciting
places to go and things to do. There are several "sys798-001 O - 66 - 7




tems" for filing, such as by alphabet, date, or geography.
Working with files gives a girl a good chance to learn
something about the business. If she has typing or
other office skills, she's there "on the spot" when a better
paid job opens up in the office.
Bank clerk, teller
A high school graduate without experience may be
hired by a bank as a file clerk, a bookkeeping clerk, or
a transit clerk to sort and list checks and drafts on other
banks and prepare them for return to those banks.
Some beginners are trained by the bank to operate proof
machines, which sort checks and deposit and withdrawal slips, and add and record the amounts involved.
A few employees are hired as inside messengers or pages
to run errands within the bank and do miscellaneous
simple clerical tasks. The introduction of advanced
electronic data processing methods has created some
new clerical occupations which are unique in banks.
These include electronic reader-sorter operator and
check inscriber or encoder.
31

A bank clerk with several years' experience may be
promoted to a supervisory job or to teller. The number of women bank tellers has been increasing rapidly.
Many of them are paying and receiving tellers who
serve customers who wish to make deposits or withdrawals. In each such transaction, the teller must
verify the sum of money involved and the authenticity
of the signature, and then credit or debit the customer's
account. The paying and receiving teller may cash
checks and write up or sign withdrawal or deposit slips.
After public banking hours, she may enter deposits received by mail, calculate service charges, and balance
her accounts. Every bank needs at least one paying
and receiving teller. Larger banks usually employ
specialized tellers to handle promissory notes, collect
charges and payments on securities, or specialize in other
limited areas.
A bank teller's job requires accuracy and'speed in
arithmetic; legible handwriting; a good memory for
names, faces, and signatures; plus tact and courtesy.
Tellers must be able to meet the standards of bonding

32




companies. High school graduation is a general requirement, and preference often is given to students
with skills in bookkeeping, typing, or operating office
machines.
A woman who does outstanding work as a teller may
become a bank officer in time. The courses offered by
the American Institute of Banking present a welltraveled avenue for promotion.
Bookkeeper
There were some 764,000 women bookkeepers in 1960,
an increase of more than 200,000 over the number in
1950. The woman bookkeeper has held a secure niche
in the business world for many years. More than fourfifths of all bookkeepers are women.
As the name implies, a bookkeeper "keeps the books"
that record a firm's business transactions. The duties
include posting ledgers, balancing accounts, and compiling reports. In larger offices, the records usually
are divided into sections with one or more people working on each section.

Bookkeepers are employed by wholesale and retail
trade establishments, manufacturing firms, banks, insurance and real estate companies, and many other types
of business. The increasing adoption of office machines for bookkeeping operations is expected to reduce
the long-term demand for hand bookkeepers. However, smaller offices will continue to hire bookkeepers
who can assume responsibility for a complete set of
books. There is a continuing need for new employees
because of normal turnovers. In an occupation employing such a large number of workers, the new openings
are correspondingly great.
If you want to become a bookkeeper, the best training
is a business course that includes not only business
arithmetic and bookkeeping procedures but typing,
office machine operation, and general office procedures.
Accuracy and neat, legible handwriting also are required. Some large companies offer on-the-job training or cooperate with high schools to provide part-time
job experience for which the students receive school
credit as well as wages.




Most employers expect to fill beginning bookkeeper
or assistant bookkeeper jobs with girls who have had
courses in bookkeeping and business arithmetic, and are
graduates of a high school or a vocational or business
school. Some employers, however, require graduation
from a junior college.
Advancement may be to a more responsible position
in the bookkeeping department or to head bookkeeper.
With additional training, a bookkeeper may become an
accountant. A college degree with a major in accounting is recommended, however, for the girl who aims to
become a professional accountant.
Cashier, grocery checker
If you are good at figures and enjoy being where
people are constantly coming and going, you might like
to be a cashier, perhaps a grocery checker. There
usually are openings for cashiers even in small towns
and during dull seasons. Both full-time and part-time
workers are employed. About four out of five cashiers
are women.

33




^>

f

As defined here,3 a cashier is a worker who deals
directly with the customers, receiving their money, making change, and often giving a receipt. Many cashiers
prepare the daily bank deposits. Cashiers may use a
variety of machines to enable them to work more quickly
and accurately. The most common is the cash register.
The duties of a cashier differ according to the employer's business. In a restaurant the cashier may handle reservations for meals, type menus, and stock a
candy and cigarette counter. In a motion picture theater, she usually operates a ticket-dispensing machine.
In many stores, she may be expected to wrap the customers' packages.
Most grocery stores—especially chain stores and selfservice stores—employ several cashiers who are called
checkers. Grocery checkers use a computing cash register or adding machine to record the price of each item
on a cash-register tape, tabulating the prices from memory, from markings on packages, or from a typed list.
"Certain officials in banks and insurance companies also are called
cashiers, but their qualifications and duties are substantially different.

They receive the customer's money, make change, and
may pack the groceries in a bag or carton. They may
operate a traveling belt counter section. In some food
stores, the checkers may mark prices on merchandise,
wrap items in cellophane, arrange displays of special
items, or perform other work.
Checkers work at high speed during rush hours and
may work long hours or on a split shift. They stand
while working, and do some stooping and lifting. An
expert checker is quick, accurate, deft, and has a good
memory for customers' faces as well as for food prices.
Extra checkers are employed on a part-time basis to
help out during rush hours and on Saturdays. Because
of this, checkers on the regular shift can usually count
on steady employment.
Training in operating a cash register and performing the other duties of a cashier is offered in some public
vocational school programs and in courses provided by
business organizations. For some cashier jobs, employers prefer applicants who have typing or bookkeeping
skills, or selling experience.




A cashier may work at a counter, in a booth, or in
any other space where a cash register can be set up.
Sometimes this is a drafty corner near the entrance.
She must be able to make change rapidly and accurately,
and, because she deals with the public, she needs a
pleasant and courteous manner. The work is not strenuous, but it may be confining and often includes evening
or holiday duty.
In stores where on-the-job training is provided, a
woman without job experience may be hired as a
checker. An experienced checker can often obtain a
better job by changing to a larger store or a better
neighborhood. In chain stores, an experienced checker
may be promoted to the position of head checker or even
assistant manager, or may be transferred from a small
branch store to a larger store.
Office machine operator
Jobs for office machine operators have multiplied rapidly in number and variety as new machines have been
developed to perform operations formerly done by hand.

35

Office machine operators are employed in manufacturing companies, banks, insurance companies, government agencies, and business offices of all kinds. If you
have a flair for numbers, take pride in your accuracy,
and enjoy operating a machine, you probably could find
steady work as an office machine operator in almost any
city or town. High school graduates generally are
given preference for the better jobs and for advancement to a supervisory position. Advancement possibilities are more limited for office machine operators,
however, than for stenographers and typists.
Many commercial high schools give courses in office
machine operation. Because of variations in equipment, however, a student may need additional instruction on the machines used by the firm that hires her.
Many firms that use office machines are willing to
train new employees and pay them at a trainee's rate
while learning. For a beginning job as tabulating machine operator, the training and practice period, may
take a month or longer. Advancement to more respon-

36




sible and complex duties requires accuracy, speed, and
experience on the job.
Typical jobs open to high school graduates together
with specific qualifications that may be required for
some machine operators are listed here:
Operators
Bookkeeping machine

Calculating machine

Keypunch

Tabulating equipment

Qualifications
Some knowledge of bookkeeping,
typing skill, accuracy, numerical aptitude, finger dexterity.
Courses in office machine operation, neat handwriting, numerical aptitude, ability to concentrate, finger dexterity, normal
vision.
Typing skill, finger dexterity,
good eye-hand coordination,
memory for details, normal
vision.
Memory for details, good eyehand coordination, n o r m a l
vision.

Some manufacturers of office machine equipment
offer training courses for operators; often they find jobs

for their trainees. However, an operator trained by
the manufacturer sometimes hesitates to try another
make of machine, and this may limit her choice of jobs.
Office machine operators often work in large rooms
where there are many machines. Soundproof ceilings
and walls are desirable to keep the noise to a minimum.
Telephone operator, PBX operator
Technological advances are making it possible to
handle more telephone calls with fewer operators, but
high turnover among the very large number of operators creates many openings. Tens of thousands of
operators are hired each year.
Girls who have just graduated from high school
usually get top priority for training. Qualifications
that are required include good judgment, tact, an even
disposition, manual dexterity, and a pleasing voice with
good diction and without an extreme regional accent.
Applicants usually are given tests in spelling, arithmetic, and learning ability. An applicant also must




be able to meet the employer's standards for hearing,
sight, and weight.
High school and junior college students are sometimes hired as operators on a part-time basis to work a
few evenings during the week and on Saturdays. Those
who plan no further schooling may become full-time
employees upon graduation.
Training classes generally consist of two trainees and
a service assistant. The trainees gradually progress
from handling practice calls to putting through actual
calls, with the instructor available for assistance.
Training of a long-distance operator may take 3 weeks;
of an information operator, perhaps only 1 week.
Automatic dialing equipment now handles nearly all
local calls and most station-to-station long-distance
calls. Chances are that as a full-fledged operator you
would work either as an information operator or as a
long-distance operator, helping with calls that cannot
be handled automatically, such as person-to-person, reverse-charge, or credit card calls, or calls placed from
coin telephones.

38




You probably would work sitting in a comfortable,
adjustable chair in a well-lighted, perhaps air-conditioned room. Since the telephone lines must not be
left untended even for a moment, you might find the
work rather confining. However, there are sure to be
regularly scheduled rest periods, and often an attractive, comfortable lounge is available.
You might be a " P B X " (private branch exchange)
operator. P B X operators are employed in many industries, such as insurance, oil, and utility companies;
hotels; and government agencies. If you were a P B X
operator, you might work alone or as a member of a
team. You would probably have to work under pressure
during rush hours. Your switchboard might be
crowded into a corner, or it might be located where the
sound of typewriters and voices interfered with your
work.
The usual promotion steps you might follow if you
worked in a sizable central office lead from trainee to
regular operator, then to service assistant (supervisor),
to assistant chief operator, and to chief operator. Occa-

sionally a chief operator is promoted to a staff position,
such as supervisor of training or supervisor of operating
methods.
Since telephone service is furnished around the clock,
some operators are on duty at all times. Operators must
agree to accept weekend, evening, night, and holiday
duty. Some operators may work several hours during
the morning and the remainder of their tour in the
evening. Generally, operators with the longest service
are allowed first choice of work shifts, and new operators are scheduled to work the less desirable "split
trick" tours of duty. Some operators prefer night
tours because they mesh more conveniently with home
and family responsibilities.
The predominant labor union in the telephone industry is the Communications Workers of America ( A F L CIO). A number of operators belong to the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers ( A F L - C I O )
or to smaller independent telephone unions which
represent workers in certain geographic locations or in
specific departments within a company.




Computer operating personnel
"Tomorrow is here" as a journalist proclaimed
recently. One sign is that the computer, which attracted only the pioneer type a decade ago, now is providing employment for tens of thousands of high school
graduates. As fast as computer personnel has been
expanding in government, it has grown even faster in
private industry.
Computer jobs are found chiefly in large cities—in
insurance companies, banks, transportation and other
public utility companies, and manufacturing firms, and
in government at all levels. Computer service centers,
which process data on a fee basis, also employ many
workers.
Processing data by computers requires operators of
several kinds of equipment. Peripheral equipment operators run the computers which transfer data from
cards or paper tapes to magnetic tapes, printers which
translate the computer's output into words and numbers,

39

and other auxiliary equipment in the computer system.
Console operators are responsible for controlling the
operation of the console during the "run" according to
the instructions of the programer. For information on
the programer job see page 53.
A growing number of city high schools offer courses
in computer mathematics and in computer operation.
Employers look for good students with a background
in math or bookkeeping. Once on the job, the employee
receives training from the employer or from the computer company. Instruction for peripheral equipment
operators may require a few weeks; for console operators, 2 to 6 months or longer.
Educational requirements in this field are still flexible.
Some employers prefer more than a high school education for console operators; on the other hand, some are
experimenting in opening up more computer jobs to
those with only high school diplomas.
Many console and peripheral equipment operators
work on a swing shift or night shift.

40




Receptionist
Many firms employ a receptionist to receive visitors,
clients, or customers. Often a young attractive woman
who is a high school graduate is preferred for this job.
Alertness, resourcefulness, and tact are important
requirements.
The receptionist is seated where she will be the first to
greet visitors, clients, or customers. Her desk is in
the front office or in a pleasant office of her own. She
requests the caller's name and business, and directs him
to the proper office. She may notify the person whom
he wishes to see of his arrival and keep a record of persons received. Her duties may include making appointments, answering the telephone, operating a switchboard, typing, and other clerical work.
The competition for receptionist jobs is keen. Openings are frequent, however, because of vacancies that
occur when receptionists are promoted to other jobs,
change jobs, or leave because of marriage or family
responsibilities.

Assistant in a library
This is a job for the girl who likes to keep records.
There's an extra dividend in it for the girl who likes to
read. In a small library the assistant is a general helper to the librarian. Part of her work is behind the
scenes sorting returned books and magazines, replacing them on the shelves, and sending out overdue
notices. She also works at the record desk, stamping the due date on outgoing books, checking off
incoming books, and accepting payment of fines.
In a large library she may be assigned only one
or two of these duties.
Retailing
As a high school graduate, there's a variety of careers
for you in department stores, specialty shops, variety
stores, and drugstores. Many opportunities exist for
stockgirls, salespersons, or buyers; there also are openings for credit interviewers, data processing personnel,
window trimmers, and many others.




Opportunities for the high school graduate to advance to section head, floor manager, buyer, or an executive position in personnel or advertising are good. The
best opportunities are in department stores and other
large stores specializing in women's clothing and accessories. Ketailing is one of the few remaining fields
where employees without a college degree can advance
to executive positions. And a large share of these executives are women!
Basic and advanced training in merchandising, marketing, and management—distributive education—is
offered under the public vocational program in many
areas. Courses for high school students formerly were
limited to those who worked at least 15 hours a week
in a store, and always included on-the-job training.
Under the Vocational Education Act of 1963, enrollment is no longer limited to employed persons, although
some type of occupational experience probably will be
continued. Many department stores and other retail
establishments cooperate with schools in these programs, and frequently offer full-time employment to

41

students upon their graduation. Technical instruction and advanced training are available under the
adult education program. More than 26,000 high
school girls and over 126,000 employed women were enrolled in distributive education programs in 1968-64.
Employees in many retail stores are allowed a discount on purchases, often 10 to 20 percent of the regular
price. Employees in some jobs receive commissions
and bonuses in addition to salary.
Stockgirl
Many high school girls enter merchandising as stockclerks. They keep stock in order in the stockroom
and on the selling floor, inventory supplies on hand,
check incoming orders against invoices, and replenish
merchandise on sales counters and tables. They may
make minor adjustments or repairs on articles in stock
such as resewing buttons on garments.
Advancement may be to salesperson or head of stock.
The head of stock is responsible for maintaining assortments and displays on counters, supervising stock-

42



room workers, selecting merchandise for window displays, and reporting merchandise needed.
Saleswoman
Well over a million and a half women are sales
workers, and thousands of new employees are hired
each year, chiefly to replace those who leave for marriage, family, or other reasons. Saleswomen are needed
in small towns, cities, and suburbs, and in stores of all
types and sizes, except perhaps the smallest familyoperated stores.
If you worked in a limited price store or a self-service department store, your duties probably would be
relatively simple. In most cases, you would be expected
to write out a sales slip, ring up the sale, make change,
and put the purchased article in a bag. You would
keep the merchandise arranged in an orderly and attractive way, and perhaps make up displays from time
to time. As you gained experience, you might be given
some supervisory duties or be asked to train new employees. Courteous and efficient service and the ability

to stay on your feet most of the day are requirements.
High school graduation is preferred, though not generally required.
Some sales positions are more demanding than others.
In some departments, such as women's fashions, furs,
household furnishings, kitchen ware, and appliances, the
salesperson needs to be well informed about the merchandise. She may show various styles, colors, or
models; demonstrate an article; discuss materials or
styling; and help the customer in making a selection.
These jobs usually are reserved for salespersons of
demonstrated interest and resourcefulness who have at
least a high school education, can express themselves
well, and have not only a liking for people but a desire
to serve.
Most stores conduct brief training sessions for all new
saleswomen. Training in some cases may consist of
a short talk and instructions on making out sales slips
and using the cash register. In some departments,
however, training may extend over several days and
include instruction in store policy on credit and other




matters. Saleswomen in certain departments—for example, cosmetics or foundation garments—may participate from time to time in industry-sponsored training programs.
Some saleswomen work a 5-day 40-hour week, but the
standard workweek in many stores is different. Employees usually work Saturday, a peak day for sales,
and have another weekday off. Some sales workers
regularly work one or more evenings a week. Many
part-time or temporary jobs are available in retailing.
Part-time sales workers generally are employed for daytime rush hours, nights, and weekends. Temporary
employees usually work during the Christmas, Easter,
or back-to-school seasons, or other periods of heavy
purchasing. Stores in resort areas often employ extra
help during the peak months. A temporary or parttime job would give you a taste of selling, and would
help you decide if this is the job for you.
Advancement for a saleswoman may be to a position
selling "big ticket" merchandise, where more judgment
and resourcefulness are required and a commission or

44




bonus is given on sales. Or it may be to a supervisory
position as section head or floor manager. Outstanding
saleswomen often have a chance to become assistant
buyers, then buyers, and finally department heads, although these positions are increasingly open only to
those who have had some college work in merchandising and business administration.
Buyer
Many, varied, and demanding are the activities you
undertake if you choose to be a buyer. Given a budget
for the season, the buyer determines what, when, and
where to buy; selects merchandise and sets the sales
price; and supervises sales staff, stockrooms, recordkeeping, display, and advertising. She divides her time
between the selling floor, the stockroom, her desk, and
semiannual or more frequent buying trips to "the market." In some stores certain of these duties are handled
by a sales manager, but the buyer retains major responsibility for the profits of the department.
The buyer must combine sensitivity to customer reac-

tion with a highly developed critical faculty, and possess good judgment and a keen business sense as well.
Her success is measured in dollars and cents. She is
competing constantly with other departments and stores.
Successful buyers may be transferred to a larger department, where the salary and potential commissions or
bonuses are higher, or to a store with a greater volume
of sales. Some, with a high sense of color, design, and
fashion, may be advanced to fashion coordinator or
home furnishings coordinator. Outstanding buyers
may be promoted to merchandise managers, in charge
of several departments.
Food Services
Over 1 million women work in various food service
jobs, such as waitress, cook, kitchen worker, counter or
fountain worker, and busgirl. Their place of employment may be a roadside diner which serves barbecues
and short orders, a cafeteria which serves schoolchildren
or workers, a department store lunchroom which caters




to women shoppers, a hospital, or any other of a great
variety of eating places.
Many restaurants and hotels operate under union contracts which establish wage scales and working conditions. The Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union (AFL-CIO) has about
445,000 members, almost half of whom are women.
A number of State laws apply to food workers.
Health certificates, for example, are required by many
States for all food workers in restaurants, hotels, drugstores, and other establishments where food and beverages are sold for consumption on the premises. In
some States, women are prohibited from serving or selling alcoholic beverages. Food workers also are subject
to State laws which limit the number of hours that
women are allowed to work or prohibit their employment at night, or set minimum wages for restaurant
workers.
Hours of work vary greatly, depending on the patronage of the eating place. There are many opportunities
for part-time work. On the other hand, restaurant

45

workers may be required, where State laws permit, to
work until late evening and on holidays and weekends;
or they may have a split shift (two periods of work
with a few hours of rest between). Many restaurant
workers, especially in southern cities, work a 48-hour
week.
A high school graduate who has taken courses in business management and has gained some experience as a
waitress or kitchen worker has a good chance of getting
a job as assistant food manager or food supervisor.
Cook
More than half the cooks in eating places across the
country are women. Their jobs vary with their skill
and experience, the size of the establishment, and the
clientele it serves. Most cooks start out as cook helpers.
Many large restaurants hire pantry girls (sometimes
called salad girls) who prepare and mix ingredients for
salads, fruit cocktails, waffles, beverages, and sandwiches. In an inexpensive eating place, a cook may
prepare only a few standardized dishes. In many small

46



restaurants, one cook prepares all the food.
Requirements for cooks include cleanliness, physical
stamina, ability to wTork under pressure, a good sense
of taste, and the ability to organize work and meet
deadlines. The trade usually is learned on the job,
generally informally, but sometimes through an apprenticeship program. Courses in cooking are offered
by some public vocational schools, as well as by some
local restaurant associations.
Experienced cooks may advance to greater responsibilities in the same kitchen, or may transfer to better
paying jobs in other restaurants.
Waitress
A waitress should have a neat, attractive appearance,
good coordination, ability to add accurately, a pleasant
manner, and normal hearing. If walking and standing
make your feet hurt, you would do well to choose some
other kind of work. Duties include preparing the table,
presenting menus, taking orders, and serving food and
beverages. Many waitresses are expected to carry




loaded trays. They also add up the customer's bill, and
in some cases accept payment and make change.
You may be able to get training as a waitress in your
high school's vocational program. In some cities, the
restaurant association offers waitress training. Some
restaurants give inexperienced workers on-the-job training. Many temporary jobs are available each summer
in resort areas or tourist centers. A summer's work
will enable you to try out this occupation.
An experienced waitress can find employment almost
anywhere. Earnings usually consist of a combination
of wages and tips. A skilled waitress often can move
to an establishment where the tips are especially liberal.
Occasionally, in a large restaurant, a waitress may be
promoted to cashier, or to a supervisory job as hostess
or head waitress.
Countergirl
A countergirl has duties much like those of a waitress,
but she works behind a counter, often serving 8 to 20
customers. Usually countergirls are employed in small

47

lunchrooms, coffeeshops, or drugstores. Sometimes they
prepare sandwiches, grilled orders, or fountain drinks,
and slice pies and cakes. The work requires much
reaching, bending, and lifting, as well as constant
standing. Rush hour service requires high speed.
Counter workers are less likely than waitresses to receive tips.
Factory Work
Workers who operate the machines used in manufacturing, drycleaning, and other industries sometimes are
called operatives. A high school education is not required for most of these jobs, but is helpful for advancement to highly skilled or supervisory work. More
than half of all women operatives have had 1 or more
years of high school; about one-fourth are high school
graduates.
You must be at least 16 years of age to work in a
factory and 18 years of age before you are allowed to
operate machines found to be hazardous. Federal and

48




State laws set these requirements for your protection,
and there are penalties for employers who disregard
them. In many States, a person under 18 must obtain
a work permit or age certificate in order to work in a
factory, even during school vacation.
In cities where there is a variety of industrial production, you can exercise some choice as to the type of
manufacturing you wish to enter. It is usually easier
to get a job in an industry that is growing and taking
on new workers. Some of the newer industries, such as
aircraft manufacturing and electronics, employ large
numbers of women. In many long-established industries, for example, those manufacturing clothing and
textiles, a large percentage of the operatives are women.
During recent years, the adoption of mechanical lifting
and moving devices has encouraged the employment of
women in the heavier industries.
In many industries the working conditions, pay
rates, and fringe benefits are negotiated by employers and unions. Many women operatives belong
to labor unions. In 1964 more than 1.4 million

women held membership in 13 large unions associated
with the AFL-CIO. 4
Assembler
Factory workers who assemble parts are called assemblers or subassemblers, depending on the nature of
the work. Many women are employed in these jobs,
especially in light or bench assembly work where the
parts being put together are small and where deft
fingers are needed. Inexperienced workers are started
on simple routine processes which can be learned quickly, and they advance to work requiring greater skill.
Finger dexterity, eye-hand coordination, and perhaps
certain physical characteristics such as right-handed* International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union; r Amalgamated
Clothing Workers of America; United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America; International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers; International Union of Electrical, Radio, and
Machine Workers; International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers; Textile Workers Union of America ; United Garment
Workers of America; United Shoe Workers of America; Tobacco
Workers International Union; United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and
Plastic Workers of America; Boot and Shoe Workers' Union ; United
Textile Workers of America.




ness or good vision are more important than schooling
for routine assembly work. On the other hand, some
assemblers, such as those who work in plants making
airplane frames, do highly skilled work requiring the
ability to read blueprints and engineering specifications.
In the growing electronics industry, a high school
graduate usually starts as a subassembler. Applicants
may be tested for ability to manipulate small parts.
Advancement may be to a job as winder, tester, or simple process inspector, or to more difficult assembly work.
To become an electronic unit assembler, it is usually
necessary to have 6 months to 2 years of experience in
subassembly work, be able to read blueprints, and have
some knowledge of electronics and mathematics.
Power machine operator
A power machine operative may work with fabrics,
metals, or wood. The machine may be a power-sewing
machine, a lathe, a drill, or a molding, pressing, shaping, cutting, or polishing machine. Applicants may be
given an aptitude test, but high school graduation is not

49

ordinarily required. Training often is given on the job.
In some areas, programs established under the Manpower Development and Training Act provide training
for those who are able to meet the requirements of the
act.
Power-sewing machines are used widely in the garment industry and also in making draperies and stitching together the upholstery sections for furniture and
automobiles.
In the garment industry, power-sewing-machine operators usually start as single-needle-machine operators.
An operator on men's shirts, for example, may do loop
running, facing, hemming, or a more difficult operation,
such as collar or pocket setting. In the women's dress
industry, she may stitch together all the parts of a dress.
Many trade and vocational schools offer courses in
power-sewing-machine operation.
Some specialties require a high degree of skill and
versatility, for example, the operation of a powerdriven embroidery machine. In some of these machines
the needle is housed in a revolving shaft and can be

50




made to sew in any direction by manipulating a hand
control. Artistic ability is important for this work,
and an expert can create intricate designs. Usually
an experienced power-sewing-machine operator must
take special training in a technical school to learn the
operation of such a machine.
Power-sewing-machine jobs are concentrated in certain areas. There are many localities in the country
where power machine operation does not offer promise
of employment for young people, due to lack of industries that employ power-sewing-machine operators.
Some States limit employment in this occupation to
workers who are 18 years of age or older.
Inspector, examiner
With some plant experience, or on-the-job training,
women may become inspectors or testers. This work
consists of examining parts or finished products for
flaws, and separating perfect from imperfect products.
It may require a high degree of skill and considerable
experience operating a machine.

Technical Work in Engineering and Science
Draftsman trainee
The working plans for the construction of a school,
a space capsule, or the finest machine parts are made
by draftsmen, of whom a growing number are draftswomen. The draftswoman uses the sketches and specifications of designers, engineers, or architects to make
up detailed plans describing the materials and processes
to be used. Compasses, protractors, squares, triangles,
and dividers are her common tools, and engineering
handbooks are her references.
Well-qualified women are finding acceptance in drafting. By 1962 there were 15,600 draftswomen. Most
of them were working in firms engaged in the manufacture of durable goods, and their drafting boards held
drawings for electrical and other machinery, and aircraft. Many were in engineering and architectural
firms, government agencies, telephone communication
or construction companies, and gas and oil refining
firms.




If you rate well in numerical and spatial aptitudes
and drawing ability, if you like precision and detail, if
your eyesight is good and your hands are steady, then
drafting may be the field for you.
If you decide to become a draftswoman, you should
prepare well in high school mathematics and the physical sciences. A number of vocational and technical
high schools offer courses in mechanical drawing and
drafting that would enable you to start your career
upon graduation, probably as a tracer or trainee.
Training in drafting also is available through correspondence courses, university extension courses, night
schools, and apprenticeship programs. If you are able
to attend full time the 2-year program of a technical
institute or a junior or community college, you may be
able to begin as a junior draftsman, drawing details
or parts of the senior draftsman's "layout" or examining drawings for errors.
Engineering or science technician
In these days of technological progress, many young

52




people are discovering that they have a real interest in
technical work and an aptitude for it. Most technicians
are men, but there is no reason why women cannot succeed in this field. Job opportunities for women technicians have been good in recent years, especially in computation work and in chemical laboratories.
There is a wide range in the skill requirements for
technician jobs. Some relatively unskilled jobs can
be filled by high school graduates, especially by those
who have had courses in mathematics that include solid
geometry and trigonometry, and physical sciences such
as chemistry and physics that emphasize laboratory
work. Technician jobs at this level often are filled by
upgrading assembly or clerical workers.
Special training, however, is becoming increasingly
important for entry to all but the most routine technician jobs, and if you decide to become a technician, it is
to your advantage to get all the training you can.
Courses for scientific and engineering technicians are
available in some technical and vocational high schools,
in technical institutes, in junior and community col-

leges, and in colleges offering a 2-year technical
program.
Because of the need for well-qualified technicians,
a number of scholarships are available in this field.
In some cases a firm may help a trainee by paying tuition, arranging for a part-time job, or even by placing
the employee on educational leave and part-pay status.
Some women have been trained for technician jobs
in science and engineering under the Manpower Development and Training Act. Others have received technical training in the Armed Forces.
Chemical laboratory aide.—Firms in the chemical
industry employ laboratory aides to work with chemists
and chemical engineers. The aides may assemble equipment, make computations, tabulate and analyze the
results of experiments, and test products against
specifications.
Mathematics aide.—Girls competent in mathematics
may assist engineers, scientists, and mathematicians in
solving problems in the electronics, aeronautics, missile,
or other industries. The work of mathematics aides




involves the use of algebra, logarithms, trigonometric
functions, and higher mathematics. They may record
data, make calculations, plot graphs, estimate costs,
analyze test results, and check products for conformance
with specifications. Those in the electronics computer
industry may operate test equipment used in the development of computers.
Programer
Electronic computers require detailed instructions
(called a program) to direct them in processing the
data fed to them. It is the programer's job to state the
problem that the computer is to solve, determine which
data must be used, establish the order of the various
steps in the processing of data, and then prepare flow
charts, diagrams, and step-by-step instructions for the
computer.
A wide range exists in the educational requirements
for programer jobs. Programing for the processing of
engineering and research data generally requires a
minimum of 4 years of college. However, programing

53

for the processing of routine business records—payroll work or accounting, for example—is sometimes done
by employees without a college degree. Programer
training is available in some technical and vocational
high schools, in private technical schools, and in junior
and community colleges. Instruction in this field also

54




is offered by correspondence and extension courses.
Important requirements for programing include a
capacity for reasoning and logical thinking, coupled
with patience, accuracy, and the ability to follow instructions. Ingenuity is a valuable asset. Previous experience in machine tabulations or accounting is useful.




Miscellaneous Services
Beauty operator
In your hometown there is probably at least one
beauty shop; in a big city you will find hundreds. A
licensed operator usually can find a job near her home
or in a nearby city. Small beauty shops have from
one to three licensed operators; few shops employ as
many as 15 persons. The beauty operator may be
called a hairdresser, cosmetologist, cosmetician, or
beautician.
Beauty operators shampoo, cut, style, set, straighten,
or tint their customers' hair, and give permanent
waves. Some arrange wigs or provide manicures and
facial treatments. They may make appointments,
sterilize implements, and clean the shop and equipment.
Operators in large shops may specialize in one phase
of the work, such as manicuring or permanent waving.
A State license to practice cosmetology is required of
beauty operators. To obtain a license, an applicant
must be at least 16 years of age, fulfill the State's educa-

55

tional requirements for cosmetologists (which usually
include high school graduation), complete an approved
course or apprentice training, pass an examination on
the theory and practice of cosmetology, and present a
health certificate. Many States issue a separate manicurist's license which requires less training than the
general operator's license.
Operators licensed in one State often can work in
another State without requalifying for a license. The
Board of Cosmetology in your State will advise you
on the requirements to become a licensed beauty operator and send you a list of the approved schools of cosmetology in your State. For certification you must
follow an approved course or apprentice training.
Many public vocational high schools offer courses in
cosmetology which meet State licensing requirements.
These programs usually include academic subjects leading to a high school diploma, and last from 2 to 3 years.
Some vocational courses prepare a student to take the
State examination before her senior year, so that she
can hold a part-time job while completing the other

56




requirements for high school graduation. A large number of private schools also offer cosmetology courses that
prepare students for the State examination. These
courses usually can be completed in 6 to 9 months.
Training in both public and private schools includes
lectures, demonstrations, classroom study, and practical
work. Students usually begin by working on each
other or on manikins. After preliminary training they
may practice on customers in school "clinics."
In about half the States it is possible to meet the requirements for a license through apprentice training
under a licensed operator. This takes 2 to 3 years.
Beauty operators often receive a commission and
tips in addition to a basic wage, but some operators are
paid a straight salary or a straight commission. Operators may be required, especially in a small shop, to furnish brushes, combs, and other equipment. They almost
always provide their own uniforms.
To become a successful beauty operator, you must
have nimble fingers and a sense of style, and be able to
work while standing. It is important to be pleasant




and friendly and to learn to be sensitive to a customer's
preferences in style.
There are a number of trade associations for owneroperators and an active labor union to which beauty
operators may belong.
Airline stewardess
Almost all commercial passenger planes carry at least
one stewardess; some carry two, or even three. The
stewardess attends to the comfort of the passengers
from the time they board the plane until they leave it.
She checks tickets, makes sure that seat belts are fastened as required, and answers questions about the flight
and the weather. She serves light refreshments or
ready-cooked meals and a variety of beverages. She
distributes reading matter and pillows, and if there are
babies or young children on board, she helps to take
care of them. After the flight, she prepares the flight
record.
Applicants must be attractive, resourceful, poised,
and friendly. As a rule, they must be 20 to 27 years

57

old, 5 feet 2 inches to 5 feet 8 inches tall, well proportioned, and in excellent health. Married women are not
employed in this work. Applicants for stewardess jobs
must have at least a high school education. Those with
2 years of college, nurses' training, or business experience are preferred.
Most large airlines train new stewardesses for about
5 weeks in their own schools. Free transportation to
the school and training allowances often are provided.
Courses cover flight regulations and duties, company
operations and schedules, first aid, and personal grooming. Instruction in passport and customs regulations
is given trainees for international flights. Trainees
practice their duties under actual flight conditions.
Experienced stewardesses supervise them on their first
flights as hostesses.
Private schools and a few universities offer courses
to train stewardesses for airlines which do not operate
their own schools. Students pay their own expenses at
these schools. Grirls should check their own qualifica-

58




tions and those of the school with an airline before
entering training in a private school.
Working hours are determined by flight schedules—
and commercial airlines operate day and night. Night,
weekend, and holiday duty must be expected. In most
companies a stewardess spends about 85 hours a month
in the air, and up to 35 hours in ground duties. Limitations on flying time and irregular hours may result in
15 or more days of leave each month. Stewardesses
with the longest service get preference in bidding for
home base assignments and flights.
Flying appeals strongly to many girls who are not
interested in a desk job, who enjoy meeting new people
constantly, who want to see something of the world, and
who expect to work only for a few years. Most stewardesses remain only 2 or 3 years. About 40 percent of
the stewardesses leave their jobs each year. Many
resign to marry. Some are promoted to supervisory
positions, become instructors, or go into jobs in the
sales, public relations, or other departments of the airlines. New girls always are needed to replace those

who leave, and to fill new jobs as passenger traffic
increases.
Most stewardesses belong to either the Air Line
Stewards and Stewardesses Association of the Transport Workers Union of America (AFL-CIO) or the
Stewards and Stewardesses Division of the Air Line
Pilots Association (AFL-CIO).
If You Want a Government Career
Under civil service
Over 1,000,000 women are employed by government
agencies—local, State, and Federal. Federal employment has held steady in recent years, but opportunities
have been growing rapidly at the State and local levels.
Almost every type of occupation found in private industry is found in government. Clerical workers in
government offices, for example, include secretaries,
typists, clerks, and office machine operators. Government workers also are employed in service occupations,
and in technical and professional work.




To be eligible for most positions in the Federal Government—and also in many State governments—you
must pass a civil service examination. These examinations are given in many cities throughout the country.
You can find out about the examinations for Federal
positions in any specific occupation, such as stenographer or typist, by inquiring at your post office or by
waiting to the U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington, D.C., 20415.
Federal civil service appointments are made on the
basis of examination scores without regard to race, sex,
religion, or politics. For certain types of positions,
applicants are rated on the basis of their training and
work experience rather than on a written examination.
Applicants for Federal positions must meet the minimum age limits established for the job. The minimum
age for most jobs for which high school graduates would
qualify is 18 years. High school graduates, however,
may be appointed to certain jobs when they reach their
16th birthdays, provided local child labor laws permit
and they live at home.

59

Students in some metropolitan areas, including Washington, D.C., may be appointed at age 16 on a part-time
basis as stenographer, typist, or telephone operator.
Girls who are appointed to these jobs must meet all the
usual requirements except experience, and they must
continue their studies while employed.
Examinations are open to citizens and to residents
who owe permanent allegiance to the United States. A
physical handicap will not disqualify an applicant as
long as she is capable of doing the work.
The Foreign Service and some government agencies,
such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, have their own
merit systems outside the civil service merit system.
Most jobs in the legislative and judicial branches also
are outside the civil service merit system.
You do not have to live in the Washington, D.C., area
in order to work for the Federal Government. Less
than one-fifth of all women Federal workers are employed in the Washington area. The rest are located
across the United States, in U.S. territories, and in
foreign countries.

60




In the Armed Forces
If you are a high school graduate, 18 years of age or
over, unmarried and without dependents, and in good
health, you are eligible to enlist in the Armed Forces
of the United States.

The minimum enlistment period for women varies
with the service. It is 2 years in the Army; 4 years
in the Air Force; and 3 years in the Navy and the
Marine Corps.
For the first few weeks after enlistment, women are
given basic training in their own separate areas within
larger military establishments. After basic training,
men and women work side by side, train in coeducational
schools, and qualify for promotion in identical ways,
except that women cannot be assigned to combat duty.
Women receive the same pay as men in the same grade.
In the Armed Forces, recruits are assigned where they
are needed most. More girls start out in clerical work
than in any other field, but some are given training in
printing, drafting, photography, data processing, or
medical or other specialties.
Training provided in the Armed Forces is not necessarily the same as civilian training. It is not safe to




assume, therefore, that you can count on a civilian appointment—as physical therapist, shall we say—solely
on the basis of training and experience in the services.
In the Foreign Service
High school graduates who have office experience
and are unmarried and 21 years of age or over may
apply for stenographic and secretarial positions in the
Foreign Service of the U.S. Department of State.
Those under 21 years may be accepted for employment
in the Department, in Washington, D.C., and apply
for transfer to the Foreign Service when they reach age
21.
Applicants for the Foreign Service must pass a written and physical examination, receive security clearance, and be willing to serve in any country to which
they may be assigned. The Foreign Service has over
300 posts located in over 100 countries.

61

APPENDIX
WOMEN WORKERS IN
Three-fourths or more of all workers in these jobs
are women:
Airline stewards and stewardesses
Attendants, physicians' and dentists' offices
Attendants and assistants, library
Beauty operators
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
File clerks
Nurses:
Professional and student professional
Practical
Receptionists
Secretaries and stenographers
Sewers and stitchers
Telephone operators
Typists
Waiters and waitresses

62




Number
9, 500
68, 944
24, 922
267, 050
764, 054
367, 954
112,323
1

624, 424
197,115
131,142
1, 681, 906
534, 258
341, 797
496, 735
714, 827

OCCUPATIONS, 1960
One-half to three-fourths of all workers in these jobs
are women:
Attendants, hospitals and other institutions a
Bank tellers.
Laundry and dry cleaning operatives
Office machine operators
Packers and wrappers
Payroll and timekeeping clerks
Salesmen and saleswomen, retail trade
Technicians, medical and dental1

Number

288, 268
89, 465
277, 396
227, 849
262, 935
63, 681
1, 397, 364
86, 271

One-fourth to one-half of all workers in these jobs are
women:
Assemblers
Checkers and inspectors
Decorators and window dressers
See footnotes page 63

270, 769
215, 066
23, 566

Less than one-fourth of all workers in these jobs are
women:
Buyers and department heads
Dental laboratory technicians
Draftsmen 4
Shipping and receiving clerks.
Stock clerks
Technicians, engineering, physical sciences, electrical, and electronic 5




» Bureau of Labor Statistics estimate for 1962.

Number
53, 804
1 2, 500
11, 729
23, 348
48, 718

2

Includes nursing aides, psychiatric aides, operating room attendants, baby

formula mixers, and other similar occupations.
3

Includes X-ray technicians and medical and dental laboratory workers, as well as

occupations such as medical technologist which require 3 to 4 years of college.
4

Includes senior and design draftsmen, as well as tracers and junior draftsmen.

5

Includes engineering aides as well as some occupations which require 2 to 4 years of

college.

27, 655

NOTE—Data from 1960 decennial census unless otherwise indicated.

63

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
Readers who are interested in the occupations described in this pamphlet or in other occupations will
want to consult a number of references. A great deal
of information is contained in the Government publications listed below. Some of these are available in many
public libraries. All publications, except those marked
with an asterisk, can be ordered from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C., 20402. Publications listed with an
asterisk must be ordered directly from the agency
which published them.
64




U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., 20210
Bureau of Employment Security
Choosing Your Occupation. 1962. 16 pp. 15 cents.
How To Get and Hold the Right Job. 1960. 18 pp. 10
cents.
Job Guide for Young Workers. 1963-64 ed. 1964. 78
pp. 45 cents.
Summer Jobs for Students. 1962. Leaflet 7 (Revised). 5
cents. (In cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Standards)
•Your Opportunity for Job Training Under the Manpower
Development and Training Act. Free.
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Occupational Outlook Handbook: Career Information for
Use in Guidance. Bull. No. 1450, 1966-67 ed. 862 pp.
$5.00.

U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., 20210—Continued
Bureau of Labor Statistics—Continued
Reprints on individual occupations. 5-20 cents.
Occupational Outlook Quarterly: A supplement to the Occupational Outlook Handbook. Subscription price $1.25.
for 2 years (8 issues), 35 cents per copy.
Women's Bureau
Clerical Occupations for Women—Today and Tomorrow.
Bull. 289. 1964. 69 pp. 35 cents.
Careers for Women in Retailing. Bull. 271. 1959. 52 pp.
25 cents.
Careers for Women as Technicians. Bull. 282. 1961. 28 pp.
20 cents.
Job Horizons for College Women in the 1960's. Bull. 288.
11964. 78 pp. 30 cents.
Nurses and Other Hospital Personnel, Their Earnings and
Employment Conditions. Pamphlet 6. Reprinted with
Supplement. 1961. 41 pp. 25 cents.
Negro Women Workers in 1960. Bull. 287. 1964. 55 pp.
30 cents.
Part-Time Employment for Women. Bull. 273. 1960. 53
pp. 30 cents.
Job Suggestions for Women and Girls. Leaflet 40. 1965.
12 pp. 10 cents.




U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., 20210—Continued
Women's Bureau—Continued
Training Opportunities for Women and Girls. Bull. 274.
I960. 64 pp. 30 cents.
Who Are the Working Mothers? Leaflet 37. Revised 1965.
10 cents.
Women in the Federal Service, 1939-1959. Pamphlet 4.
Revised 1962. 21 pp. 15 cents.
Women Telephone Workers and Changing Technology.
Bull. 286. 1963. 46 pp. 25 cents.
1965 Handbook on Women Workers. Bull. 290. 1965. In
press.
U.S. Civil Service Commission
Working for the U.S.A. Pamphlet 4. May 1964. 24 pp.
15 cents.
•Thinking About Your First Job? Pamphlet 5. April 1964.
Free.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Office of Education
Financing an Undergraduate Education, 1964. 21 pp. 1964.
15 cents.
The National Defense Student Loan Program. 1962. 10
cents.

65

SUGGESTED FORM OF APPLICATION

Name (first, middle, last):
Miss
Mrs.

Social Security No.:

Education

Current address (number, street, city, State, Zip Code):
Phone at current address:
Permanent address (number, street, city, State, Zip Code):
Phone at permanent address:
Birth date (month, day,.year):
Height: ft.

66




in.

Date available to start work:

Weight:

Name and location of last
high school attended:
Dates attended: from:
to:
Curriculum followed
(Academic, Business, other):
Extracurricular
activities:

Date of
graduation:




Offices held:

Part time:
Full time:

Honors won:
Special skills, interests, and hobbies (driving a car, typing, foreign
languages):

Starting date:
Closing date:

Name of previous firm:
Name of supervisor:

Community activities:

Address:

Work Experience
Name of present firm, if any:

Kind of business:

Name of supervisor:

Wages: Starting:
Final:

Address:

Position (clerk, typist, etc.):

Kind of business:

Parttime:
Full time:

Wages: Starting:
Final:

per
per

per
per

Starting date:
Closing date:

List of accompanying papers:

Position (clerk, typist, etc.):

67
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 6 6

O—798-001





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102