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GIRLS U . S. D E P A R T M E N T W. Willard WOMEN'S Wirtz, OF LABOR Secretary BUREAU Mary D u b l i n K e y s e r l i n g , Director bJEUPOSITOftY Pamphlet Seven FUTURE JOBS FOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WOMEN'S BUREAU • W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary • Mary Dublin Keyserling, Director PAMPHLET SEVEN - Revised 1966 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This pamphlet is a revision of a jreport on occupations for girls with high school education, first published by the Women's Bureau in 1959. The present pamphlet is more comprehensive than the earlier report, and includes up-to-date information on job opportunities, training programs, loans, and scholarships. The occupational information in this pamphlet is drawn chiefly from basic source materials of the Department of Labor, including "Occupational Outlook Handbook 1963-64," Bureau of Labor Statistics; and "Job Guide for Young Workers 1963-64," Bureau of Employment Security. The Women's Bureau is indebted as well to the Department of Labor's Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, the Bureau of Programs and Standards of the Civil Service Commission, and the Department of State, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the Department of Defense for review of sections of the manuscript. The cover art is adapted from a photograph by Scott Paper Company. This pamphlet was revised by Janice N. Hedges under the direction of Kose Terlin, Chief of the Division of Economic Status and Opportunities. li For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price 30 cents A FOREWORD—to high school girls— "The times they are a-changing." So the folk singers express what we all know. Perhaps no other generation before yours has encountered changes on so grand a scale or at so rapid a pace. This changing world is an exciting world, a creative world, a demanding world. The likelihood is great that you will hold a job at various times in your life. You will need to prepare yourself thoroughly and imaginatively for the two careers—homemaker and paid worker—you probably will combine during your lifetime. Now is the time to take measure of your abilities and interests, and to set your goals. In making your plans for tomorrow, forget yesterday's phrases regarding "women's place" and "women's jobs." Women are represented today in every occupation, and there is growing recognition that they have an important place to fill in the world outside the home as well as in the home. If you do well in school, you should consider college. After you read this pamphlet on jobs for girls with a high school education, read "Job Horizons for College Women in the 1960's"—also published by the Women's Bureau. An able girl need not limit her horizons. If she has an interest in the medical field, for example, she should investigate a number of careers in that field. iii Some girls who would make good nurses, medical secretaries, or medical technologists also would make good doctors. If you want to continue your education, but feel you cannot afford to, read carefully the section on scholarships and loans, and the list of references in the appendix on financing an education. Whatever your plans for your life, remember that education should be a lifelong process if you are to achieve the happiness that comes only with the fullest development of your abilities. Mary Dublin Keyserling Director, Women's Bureau iv CONTENTS Page A CLASS REUNION YOUR JOB FUTURE Marriage and a Career Jobs Reflect Education If You Need More Education How To Get Training How To Get Job Experience Becoming a Worker Safeguards for Young Workers CHOOSING THE RIGHT JOB Health Services Nurses' aide_ Licensed practical nurse (LPN) Registered nurse (RN) Dental assistant Physician's assistant Medical laboratory worker 1 4 4 6 7 11 15 16 19 20 20 21 21 22 23 24 24 CHOOSING THE RIGHT JOB—Continued Health Services—Continued Medical X-ray technician Dental laboratory technician Clerical Occupations Typist, stenographer, secretary Clerk Shipping and receiving clerk File clerk Bank clerk, teller Bookkeeper Cashier, grocery checker Office machine operator Telephone operator, PBX operator Computer operating personnel Receptionist Assistant in a library p ** e 25 27 27 28 29 30 31 31 32 33 35 37 39 40 41 v Page CHOOSING THE RIGHT JOB—Continued Retailing. Stockgirl Saleswoman Buyer Food Services Cook Waitress Counter girl Factory Work Assembler Power machine operator Inspector, examiner Technical Work in Engineering and Science Draftsman trainee vi 41 42 42 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 51 CHOOSING THE RIGHT JOB—Continued Technical Work in Engineering and Science—Con. Engineering or science technician Programer Miscellaneous Services Beauty operator Airline stewardess If You Want a Government Career Under Civil Service „ In the Armed Forces In the Foreign Service APPENDIX Women Workers in Selected Occupations, 1960 For Further Information Suggested Form of Application for Employment Page 52 53 55 55 57 59 59 60 61 62 62 64 66 A CLASS REUNION Let's take a look at the stories of five girls who graduated from high school 10 years ago. One of them had been the "big wheel" type; another, the "still waters run deep" type. The others could not be said to fit neatly into any type—they were just themselves. These five girls—now 27 and 28—met recently at an alumni dinner in their hometown. After reminiscing about their schooldays, they begin to recount something of their lives in the last 10 years. Mary is the first to tell her story: "Hank and I were married a month after graduation. He still had a year of college to finish. So I got a job as a clerktypist to help out." 1 "Children?" suggests someone, and Mary smiles. "We were married 2 years before our first baby came. By that time I'd had two promotions and was a private secretary. The firm told me to let them know if I ever wanted to come back. The summer Judy was 2, my mother took care of her so I could fill in at the office for the girls on vacation—to keep my skills from getting too rusty. Our little boy was born that winter. Last fall when he started kindergarten, there really wasn't enough to do around the house to use up my time and energy. "So one day I put on my hat and coat, and asked my former boss if he had a part-time job for me. I go to work after the children are in school and get home before they do. We're starting an educational fund to see them through college when the time comes." Ruth tells her story next—quite a different one: "You remember that in the spring of our senior year my father died, and I went to work?" "Oh yes," Mary whispers. " W e were all so terribly sorry." Ruth nods her thanks and goes on. "Well, I had no special training, and the new electronics plant down on Main Street was offering a training course in light assembly work. I applied there, and they took me on. Most of the others were men, but I learned just as quickly 2 and as well as any of them. Soon I was putting together complicated parts and earning more than I would have believed possible. "But I wanted that high school diploma! As soon as things eased up a bit at home, I went to night school and graduated. But that's not all. I went on studying mathematics and drafting, and now I'm an electronics technician. I'm not married yet, but give me time!" Ann begins her story: "You know Jack and I were married soon after graduation. He earned a good salary, and didn't want me to work. He was brought up in the European tradition. It was all right with me; we both wanted a big family. We had four children. Then last year Jack was disabled in an accident at the plant. There was workmen's compensation and some insurance. But I had to face it—our income wasn't enough for a family of six, and the baby was only 2 years old. "Luckily, there's a good day care center near our house. When I found they would take care of the baby during the day, I made the rounds of the stores downtown until I got a job—selling children's wear. I know plenty about that! I don't make so much for a family our size, but at least we're all together—that's the most important thing." Next it is Frances' turn: " I went to college, you know, majored in math, and took enough education courses to get a teaching certificate. I taught for several years when Bob and I were first married. Last year when our Kathy started in nursery school, I did substitute teaching. This year, though, I'm taking a graduate course in math at the college here. Some day I'm sure I'll go back to teaching—maybe even full time. Working with youngsters gives me a feeling that I'm achieving something lasting." Last of all, the group listens to Jean's story: "Remember the summer I worked as a Red Cross aide in the hospital? I made up my mind then and there that I wanted to be a nurse, but I was afraid that training would cost too much." "What did you do, Jean?" Frances asks. " I told the school counselor my problem," Jean explains. "Well, she was full of ideas ! She told me about scholarships and loans for nurses, and encouraged me to fill out some application blanks. And sure enough, by fall I was training in one of the best hospital schools in the State! Wasn't I lucky? " I finished training, and then a few years ago, I miarried Jim. He's wonderful and we have a little boy 2 years old. I'm still on call at the hospital for emergencies when they need a special night nurse. Jim can take care of young Bill easily enough at night, and the extra income helps to pay for our new home." And now we leave Mary, the secretary; Ruth, the technician; Ann, the saleswoman; Frances, the teacher; and Jean, the nurse, and come to you, the high school girl of today. 3 YOUR JOB FUTURE What will your story be? Are you the girl who will marry the college student or some "wonderful Jim"? Will you be working at some time in your life to buy or furnish a home, provide necessities for your children, build a college fund for them, or for some other reason ? Let's look at the chances. The tables of statisticians are better than the gypsy's crystal ball. Great industries have been built on them. But they also have several messages for you. Marriage and a Career The statisticians' forecasts show, for example, that your chances of marrying are almost 10 out of 10. That 4 prediction comes as no great surprise, does it? They predict further that your chances of having children— perhaps one, perhaps a houseful—are at least 9 out of 10. I'm sure these two predictions, based on statistical averages, please you, and that you look forward to an apartment or a house and a family of your own. Now let's look once again into your future. The statisticians also estimate that chances are at least 8 or 9 out of 10 that you will be engaged in paid employment sometime in your life. The majority of you will work for a while before marriage and return to work after your last child enters school—for a total of possibly 30 years. Are you surprised? Do you think they're talking about someone else? Let's look at the facts! You no doubt know a number of women who work in paid jobs. About 27 million do right now. Of every three workers, one is a woman; and three out of five women workers are married. When you consider the women who work for a period of years sometime in their lives, the figures are much, much higher. Furthermore, the number of women who work is growing faster than the population is growing. The Department of Labor estimates that by 1970 there will be 30 million women workers. Who are these women who work ? And why do they work? Some are young girls just out of high school, or even high school girls on part-time jobs. They may be working to support themselves or to save money for more education or for marriage. Some working women are newly-marrieds helping their husbands to finish their education, or helping to buy or furnish their first homes. Some are mothers whose husbands do not earn enough for the many needs of a growing family. Some are the sole support of their children or their parents. Other working women are making sure that their children will be able to have technical training or a college education. Do you still think the statisticians must be talking about someone else, not you? You're probably wrong, but even if you're right, chances are that you'll want to do volunteer work—not just casually a few hours a month, but regularly each week. How many can say that woman's work is never done? Household appliances still on the drawing board and new food products will bring increased leisure to the homemaker of tomorrow and a desire on the part of many of you to find useful work—paid or volunteer—beyond the confines of your own home. So let's look at the forecasts for the high school girls of today—that at least 8 or 9 girls out of 10—and probably you—will be working for pay at some time, and that many of the others will be regular volunteers. You ask: "What does this mean for me?" 5 Doesn't it mean that you should be thinking seriously about what you do best, what you enjoy doing most, and how you can get the education and training you will need for a rewarding, well-paying job rather than just any job? This pamphlet is intended to help you as you take stock and make plans for your future. You can find information here on a variety of occupations, from the secretarial group to certain technical specialties where women are just beginning to make their mark. Many of the jobs described in this pamphlet can be entered by high school graduates without further training. Although only the lowest rung of the ladder may be within reach of a girl just out of high school, an ambitious girl can obtain the training necessary for advancement through part-time study or some other arrangement while gaining work experience. Not every employer requires a high school diploma for every job mentioned in this pamphlet, but high school graduates generally have better prospects than nongraduates of being hired and winning promotions. 6 A few jobs requiring considerable training beyond a high school diploma are included in this pamphlet because they offer a high school graduate the possibility of obtaining the required training at low cost. The job of registered nurse is in this category. Many important and worthwhile occupations are not included here, but it is hoped that the variety of occupations described will suggest others. Jobs Reflect Education Education brings many rewards. It makes possible a deeper understanding of the issues and problems of today, a greater appreciation of the arts, and the acquisition of knowledge and training that makes for the fullest development of abilities. The educated woman is a better wife and mother. She also is a better citizen and a more competent and skilled worker. She lives a richer life. The kind of work that a woman does depends to a great extent on her education. Half of the employed women who have completed less than 8 years of schooling are service workers in private homes, restaurants, hotels, or other establishments. About half of the women who have completed only high school are in clerical occupations, which include secretaries, typists, bookkeepers, cashiers, and telephone operators. Of the women college graduates who are working, almost three-fourths are in professional or technical occupations, while most of the others are in the clerical or managerial groups. As you would expect, more education usually means more income. The median income in 1964 of women with a high school diploma (no college) was 45 percent more than that of women with 1 to 3 years of high school. Women with 4 years or more of college received 84 percent more income than those with a high school diploma and 166 percent more than those with 1 to 3 years of high school. Today a high school diploma is considered essential whether you plan to marry, to work, or to combine work and marriage. If you need income before completing high school, a part-time or summer job is the best solution. In many communities a Neighborhood Youth Corps (NYC) specializes in placing students in parttime or vacation jobs. Students between the ages of 16 and 21 are eligible for the NYC program. Your local State employment service office can advise you where to apply for this program or for other work. If You Need More Education For teaching and many other kinds of work, you will need more than a high school education. If you want to continue beyond high school, but can't clearly see your way, ask your school counselor to help you with your plans. She can discuss with you the steps which you might take to obtain more education. You might talk over with her, for example, the possibilities for keeping the cost of a college education at a minimum, obtaining a scholarship or a loan, and locating a part-time job. 7 Low-cost arrangements Perhaps there is a college in your hometown or within commuting distance. If so, you can keep expenses down by living at home while you continue your schooling. Or you may wish to consider a college which alternates academic terms with paid employment. Scholarships Most colleges, and some State governments, labor unions, firms, and professional, religious, fraternal, social, civic or veterans' organizations as well as the Federal Government offer scholarships to eligible students. Some grants are limited to students in a specific field or those who meet certain personal or residence requirements. Your counselor or principal can advise you concerning your eligibility for a scholarship. Information on scholarships offered by colleges is detailed in their catalogs. Many colleges also participate in the scholarship service sponsored by the College Entrance Examination Board. Application forms are 8 available from the College Scholarship Service (Box 176, Princeton, N.J., 08540, or Box 1025, Berkeley, Calif., 94701) or at your high school. The Federal Government recently established educational opportunity grants for college students with special financial needs. The colleges select the students who are eligible and determine the amount of individual grants. You should apply directly to the college. Specialized scholarships are provided in some fields in which an acute shortage of workers exists. The Health Professions Educational Assistance Amendments of 1965 provide scholarships for eligible students from low-income families otherwise unable to pursue a course of study in medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, optometry, pharmacy, or podiatry. For further information contact the school of your choice. Information on scholarships for nurses is available from the National League for Nursing, Committee on Careers, 10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y., 10019; for dietitians, from the American Dietetic Association, 620 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111., 60611; and for physical therapists, from the National Foundation, 800 Second Avenue, New York, N.Y., 10017. Part-time jobs If you want to earn part of your college expenses, you might assist in the laboratory, the library, the college business office, or work for a newspaper. Students also earn money serving tables, operating switchboards, and selling merchandise. The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 establishes a work-study program for students in institutions of higher learning. Funds are available for the part-time employment of students otherwise unable to continue their education. Interested students should apply directly to their colleges. Loan funds Low-interest, long-term student loans are available through federally subsidized programs. The National Defense Education Act provides loans to students from low-income families who are enrolled at least half time in institutions participating in the program. Interest and repayment begin after the student leaves school. The entire debt is canceled at the rate of 15 percent a year for students who become teachers in low-income areas. Other full-time teachers are forgiven up to 50 percent of the loan at the rate of 10 percent a year. Application should be made directly to the college. Qualified college students, regardless of family income, may receive loans under the Higher Education Act of 1965. Under this act the Federal Government assumes partial payment of interest for students whose adjusted family income is less than $15,000. Applications should be made to the college or the local bank. Loans to vocational, technical, and business students are provided by the National Vocational Student Loan Insurance Act of 1965. Conditions and procedures are similar to those of the Higher Education Act of 1965. Full-time nursing students may apply to their school for a loan if the school participates in the loan program under the Nurse Training Act of 1964. Interest and repayment begin 1 year after leaving school. Up to 50 9 percent of the loan may be canceled at the rate of 10 percent a year when the borrower is employed as a professional nurse in a private or nonprofit institution. The Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1963, as amended, provides loans to full-time students of participating schools who are pursuing a course of study leading to the degree of doctor of medicine, optometry, dentistry, osteopathy, podiatry, surgical chiropody, or pharmacy, or of bachelor of science in pharmacy. Applications should be made to the college. Interest and repayment begin 3 years after the student leaves school. Up to 50 percent of the loan may be canceled at the rate of 10 percent a year if the borrower practices medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, or optometry in a shortage area. For further information on these and other loans, including State programs, consult your school counselor or principal. Before accepting a loan, compare interest rates, other charges, and repayment schedules. How To Gel Training The need for job training continues to grow as the general skill level of jobs rises. Well-trained workers are at a decided advantage in applying for the more skilled, interesting, and better paying jobs. Training may take place before entering employment or on the job. Training in high school If you expect to go to work after graduation from high school, you should obtain good preparation by selecting your high school courses carefully and doing your very best to master them. Your school adviser or teacher can help you choose the courses best suited to your purpose. Business courses given in high schools almost everywhere include typing, shorthand, business arithmetic, bookkeeping, spelling, and English composition. Vocational education courses are provided in the public school system in every State and Territory and in the District of Columbia. fields of : The basic programs are in the Agriculture Business education Distribution and marketing Health occupations Home economics Technicians Trades and industries In these broad fields, inst tion may be offered in: Advertising and commercial art Baking Beauty culture (cosmetology) Cafeteria and restaurant management Commercial foods Dental assistant training Drafting Dress design Dressmaking Executive and institutional housekeeping Household and domestic service Laboratory technician training Laundry, dryeleaning, and pressing Medical assistant training Needle trades Nursed aide training Nursery assistant training Photography Power machine operation Practical nursing Tailoring Tearoom and waitress training 11 Courses for high school students are offered in the daytime; for employed persons 16 years of age or over, usually in the evening. For the most part, public vocational courses are free. There may be a charge, however, for materials and textbooks. Nonresidents and persons over 21 years of age may have to pay a small tuition charge. If you cannot find the course you want among those given in your community, perhaps you can attend classes in a nearby city. If enough persons request a specific course, the high school principal or vocational education director may be able to make arrangements to add it to the curriculum. Certain private schools also offer vocational courses of varying standards, for which the student pays tuition. More complete information on public vocational courses can be obtained from the Division of Vocational and Technical Education, Office of Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Wash- 12 ington, D.C., 20201, or from the Director of Vocational Education in your State Department of Education. Training through other public programs Training for a variety of jobs is available through programs under the Manpower Development and Training Act in a number of localities across the country. Check with the nearest State employment office to see if there are programs in your city in which you might be interested. The employment service usually is listed in telephone directories under the name of the State, as "Employment Commission." The Neighborhood Youth Corps (NYC) offers young people job experience while they perform services which are needed in the home community and are not otherwise available. Since the programs offered depend on local needs, they vary from community to community. The NYC is open to young people who are 16 through 21 years old. Jobs may be part time or vacation time for those still in school, and full time for those out of school. Girls enrolled in the Neighborhood Youth Corps live at home and work in their home communities. The State employment service, as well as your school counselor, can give you information on NYC programs. On-the-job training Perhaps you have chosen to take a general or academic course in high school, and you decide to go to work after graduation. It is especially important in that case to find a job that provides training. To mention one example, you would do better to start as a stockgirl in a store that offers training in saleswork than as a soda fountain clerk in a place where there is little chance of promotion, even if the soda fountain job offers somewhat more pay at the start. Training on the job is offered by many industrial and business establishments to provide employees with a ladder of promotion to positions of increasing skill. Telephone companies not only train their own operators but provide training for P B X (private branch exchange) operators. Banks usually provide training for their employees. Large insurance companies may provide inservice training for both clerical workers and agents. High school graduation usually is required for telephone, bank, and insurance company trainees. Some industrial and business firms hire nongraduates for training in the operation of office machines. Most skilled production workers in factories have developed their skill and speed through on-the-job training and experience. Many service workers in restaurants, hotels, and other establishments also get their training on the job. Apprenticeship Training for skilled trades or crafts that require a highly specialized range of skills and knowledge is obtained in a formal on-the-job program known as apprenticeship. An apprenticeship lasts from 2 to 5 years or even longer, depending on the complexity of the trade. As an apprentice you would receive progressive instruction and experience, both on and off the job. You would 14 learn the practical and theoretical aspects of a skilled trade. And while learning you w^ould be paid at rates that increase as you progress. Apprenticeship programs have been set up by management and labor in about 400 occupations, with promotional and organizational assistance from Federal and State apprenticeship agencies. If you would like to become a skilled dental worker, fur finisher, fabric cutter, printer, bookbinder, or cosmetician, for example, you could learn the trade by being hired as an apprentice by a firm conducting an apprenticeship program in the occupation you wish to learn. In recent years, apprenticeship programs have been developed for some of the newer specialties in rapidly expanding occupations of special interest to women, as in the fields of electronics or optics. If you wish to become an apprentice, you may apply to an employer, the local labor union in the trade you wish to learn, a joint apprenticeship committee, or the nearest office of your State employment service. How To Get Job Experience During school vacation Students who work become accustomed to working regular hours, to following directions, and to taking responsibility for their share of the work. They learn to reckon the value of a dollar in terms of the time it takes to earn it. Of course, a job that provides training for the work you want to do later is especially desirable. A summer vacation job is more desirable for most girls—and probably for you—than working part time while school is in session. A vacation job is less likely to put a strain on your health or to pull down your grades. Also, working 8 hours a day for several consecutive weeks is useful experience. Offices sometimes hire girls 16 years of age or over who can type with fair speed and accuracy to substitute for regular typists on vacation. This may lead to a permanent position after graduation. As summer is a busy season for farming, many students find vacation work on farms. Often their work consists of picking small fruits and vegetables. In many places, students are recruited for work on a "dayhaul" basis; that is, they are picked up by car or bus at a central point close to their homes, transported to the farm, and returned home at the end of the workday. Sometimes day-hauls last a few weekends into the fall school term. Clara spent a few hours every Saturday during her senior year helping an insurance agent in the neighborhood with his billing, addressing, and other paperwork. She became so competent that after graduation the company offered her a well-paid secretarial job. Betty worked 2 hours every noon in the school cafeteria while taking the course in commercial food service. She received her lunches without charge plus a small amount of cash, as well as school credit for her work. As soon as she graduated, she obtained a job assisting the food service manager in a nearby restaurant and the promise of an early promotion. 15 Any State and Federal requirements on minimum age, minimum wage, and working and living conditions must be met in all cases. During the school term About 950,000 schoolgirls 14 through 17 years of age, or 1 out of 7, held a job outside of school hours in October 1964. If you have the health and self-discipline necessary to do part-time work during the school term without damage to your academic standing, there are several possibilities. Your own school may have a part-time job for you— in the office, the library, the bank, cafeteria, or science laboratory. Such work provides excellent experience. Babysitting is another possibility, and the one that a high school girl is likely to think of first. Because this is almost always a part-time job, it is not described elsewhere in this pamphlet. As a sitter you are responsible for the welfare—and the life—of the children in your charge. You will need 16 to know where you can reach the parents and the family doctor in case of emergency. You also will need to know the family rules, such as bedtime and infant feeding. On the other hand, this work usually is not covered by regulations that protect young people in regular employment. Your employers should, therefore, safeguard your welfare while you are on their premises and provide for your safe escort home. Your parents are entitled to know where you are working and may wish to have you accept jobs only with families known to them. Becoming a Worker—An Important Life Step How does a person make the transition from a schoolgirl—Judy Parker, let us say—to a businesswoman, Miss Judith Parker of the Claims Department. There are five steps that sum up the process. You can take the first step at any point in your high school course. The other steps come when you are ready for a job. 1. Selecting an occupation After considering your abilities and your interests, you will want to do some reading on fields of work and specific occupations that seem suitable for you. The statements that follow tell something about the nature of the work, the qualifications and training needed, and the opportunities for advancement in a number of specific occupations. Probable earnings are not given because they vary widely according to the section of the country, the size of the city, and employment conditions. Your school adviser or the nearest office of the State employment service can give you an idea of local pay rates. It is important to discuss your plans with your parents and your school adviser as early as possible in your high school course. They can help you select subjects that will take you in the direction you want to go and that will not narrow your choice of occupation too soon. Someone now in the occupation that interests you can often give insight and valuable guidance. 2. Canvassing the possibilities When you are ready for employment, register with one or more employment agencies, such as the local office of the State employment service, your high school placement office, or a commercial employment agency. The State employment service offices provide aptitude tests and individual counseling, if needed, as well as referral to job openings. Their services are available without charge. Other ways of locating a job include filing for civil service examinations (municipal, State, and Federal); scanning the "help wanted" advertisements; contacting former employers, applying in person to firms where you would like to work; and asking friends, relatives, and teachers for leads. Find out as much as you can about any job openings which interest you. Check the requirements against your qualifications carefully and objectively. 3. Preparing a personal folder Before applying for a job, you should prepare a personal folder that contains the following: a summary 17 of your training and experience;1 character and work references; a list of your high school courses; your official academic record if it is available from your school; news clippings which tell of honors you have received; and, if appropriate, published articles or stories or examples of your work. You should have several copies of all the papers in your folder, so that you can leave a set with each application. Needless to say, the summary and any other papers you prepare must be neat if you wish to leave the right impression. 4. Submitting an application Now you are ready to approach an employer, either by letter or telephone. Telephoning is suggested if you wish to ask for routine information, an appointment, or if the employer or placement agency has asked applicants to telephone. 1 See appendix for a suggested form of application. 18 If you write, your letter should be addressed, if possible, to an individual by name, rather than to the firm. In larger firms, however, it may be addressed: "Personnel Director." The letter should express your interest in the job, state your qualifications, and request an interview. It should be brief and, like the papers in your personal folder, neatly written. 5. The interview The interview is your chance to show that you are the person for the job. Prepare for it by learning something about the firm. Arrive neatly dressed and on time. Listen attentively to the person who interviews you, and establish clearly what the job offers in terms of promotion opportunities, salary, working hours, security, and such fringe benefits as vacations and pension plans. If you decide that you want the job, say that you do. Be prompt in leaving when the interview is over, just as you were prompt in arriving. If you are offered the job, be sure you have a clear understanding with the employer as to what will be expected of you, and when and where you are to report for work. If you are not successful on your first interview, or even after several attempts, do not count the effort lost. Profit from your experience by analyzing and improving your approach. You may decide to alter your immediate objective, or to take additional training. Safeguards for Young Workers All States have a minimum age for employment. About half of the States require proof of age for those under 18 years. The minimum age for general employment set by the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act is 16 years. There is an 18-year minimum for employment in occupations found hazardous by the Secretary of Labor. Children 14 and 15 years of age may work in some jobs outside school hours, for a limited number of hours, under regulated conditions. If you are less than 18 years old, therefore, be sure to check with your school adviser or with the office that issues employment certificates, before applying for a job. Most States limit maximum hours of work and prohibit nightwork for employees under 16 years of age. A few States prohibit night employment for all women. In many States there are minimum wage laws, some of which establish a learner's rate for beginners in the occupation. You can write to your State department of labor to find out if there is a learner's rate for the job for which you are hired. Organizations.—In practically every occupation there are trade associations, professional organizations, or labor unions that individual workers may join. Many of these hold meetings and conventions, issue periodicals, help members find jobs, and in other ways encourage their advancement. Many high schools have clubs for those who are interested in a particular occupation. Student clubs include Future Business Leaders of America, Future Teachers of America, Future Secretaries Association, Distributive Education Clubs of America, and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America. 19 CHOOSING THE RIGHT JOB Health Services Many women are employed in the health field. Most of them are nurses or auxiliary nursing workers, but women also are working as medical, dental, or X-ray technicians and in many other health service occupations. Training for jobs in the health services described in the following pages often is available free or at low cost. In some cases training is offered in public vocational or technical schools, or in community colleges. Training in subprofessional health occupations is provided in programs under the Economic Opportunity Act and the Manpower Development and Training Act. Professional societies often offer training in night sessions for the girl who is already employed. It is best to plan ahead to achieve licensing or certification if it is available in the occupation you choose. Be sure to check schools with your adviser before enrolling, to make certain that your training will qualify you for the certification examination. Nurses' aide A nurses' aide bathes and feeds patients, and attends to their personal needs and comfort. She may make beds and clean rooms and equipment. The desire to serve, a sense of responsibility, patience, physical stamina, and a pleasant manner are all important qualities for a nurses' aide. Training is available in some public high schools, or under Manpower Development and Training Act programs, or on the job. Although most nursing aides work in hospitals, some are employed in convalescent homes, sanitoriums, and homes for the aged. Those who work in mental hospitals are called psychiatric aides. Nurses' aides, like other nursing personnel, are needed around the clock, and so may be assigned the night shift and weekend and holiday duty. Licensed practical nurse (LPN) The majority of practical nurses work in hospitals, clinics, or homes for the aged, the ill, and the convalescing. Others work in private homes, doctors' offices, schools, and public health agencies. A practical nurse usually takes and records temperature, pulse, and blood pressure readings; gives prescribed treatments and medications; and assists the patient if necessary with personal hygiene. She may provide general nursing care for newborn babies and their mothers, the ill, or the handicapped. If she works in a doctor's office, she may assist in the examination of patients, give simple treatments and medications as directed, change dressings, perform routine laboratory tests, and carry out some clerical duties. Not all practical nurses are licensed, but the trend in this occupation is toward licensing. Requirements 21 for licensing include training in a State-approved school of practical nursing, generally for a year, and successful completion of an examination. The practical nurse may use the designation LPN only if she has met the requirements. Many public high schools offer courses in practical nursing, either as part of their vocational school or adult education program or as part of their regular curriculum. There also are special schools for practical nurses, most of which charge tuition. In some areas free training programs are available under the Manpower Development and Training Act. The qualities needed by a practical nurse include the desire to help the sick or weak, patience, dependability, good judgment, emotional stability, good health, and finger and manual dexterity. Registered nurse (RN) The registered nurse (RN) is a professional worker, whose preparation includes classroom instruction in basic sciences and nursing theory, and supervised nurs- 22 ing practice. A nursing candidate most often secures her education in a "diploma" program of a hospital school of nursing. The diploma program usually requires 3 years beyond high school. Other nursing students pursue a 2-year program in a junior or community college; this program leads to an associate degree. An increasing number of students follow a 4-year college program. The license to practice professional nursing requires passing a State examination as well as completing an approved program. Scholarships, loans, or part-time work often are available to student nurses. Loans under the Nurse Training Act of 1964 are cancellable at the rate of 10 percent for each year of employment, up to a maximum of 50 percent of the total loan. For further information on financial aid, write the National League for Nursing, 10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y., 10019. Most hospital nurses are general duty nurses who perform skilled bedside nursing, which includes assisting with blood transfusions and intravenous feedings and caring for postoperative patients. They often supervise practical nurses and nursing aides. Private duty nurses give their constant attention to an individual patient and are hired directly by the patient or his family. They may work in a hospital or in the home of the patient. Other nurses work in the offices of physicians and dentists, in public health clinics, in schools, and in business and industry. Dental assistant If you work as an assistant in a dentist's office, you prepare patients for treatment; you hand instruments to the dentist and sterilize them after use; you probably mix fillings and impression compounds and assist with laboratory work; perhaps you help in taking, developing, and mounting X-rays. You check dental supplies and place orders as needed, and keep a record of each patient's dental condition, treatment, and appointments. In addition, you may serve as receptionist, take telephone calls, schedule appointments, keep the books, and make out the bills. Some dentists employ girls who have followed a general business program in high school, and train them in the duties of a dental assistant. The American Dental Assistants Association offers training through a program that provides a total of 105 hours in 2-hour periods 1 night a week. The number of 1- and 2-year educational programs in community and junior colleges, vocational and technical schools, and other educational institutions has been increasing rapidly. It's best to check the credentials of training schools with the Council on Dental Education, 222 East Superior Street, Chicago, 111., 60611. An attractive appearance and a pleasing voice are important assets in this work. It takes tact and friendliness to reassure patients—especially children—and put them at ease. A dental assistant also needs finger dexterity, good vision and hearing, and the ability to follow instructions exactly as they are given. As many dentists maintain offices in residential neighborhoods, it is often possible for a married woman to obtain a part-time job near home as a dental assistant. 23 However, the hours may be irregular and may include some work during the evening or weekends in order to suit the convenience of patients who are employed or are attending school. There is a high rate of turnover in this occupation, as many girls marry and leave work within a few years. Those who stay long enough to acquire some experience are in great demand with dentists who do not want to train a beginner. A dental assistant may work for a dentist who has his own office, for two or more dentists who work as partners or who share office space, or for a dental clinic. Physician's assistant The assistant in a physician's office often has a wide variety of duties. She may be receptionist, secretary, bookkeeper, and nurse. Her clerical duties include receiving patients, making out personal data cards for new patients, providing the physician with the medical history record of regular patients, and ushering the patients in turn into the consultation or examination office. Other clerical duties may include ordering supplies, pre- 24 paring and mailing statements, and completing insurance forms. In the examining room she may assist the physician by handing him instruments and performing other duties. She sterilizes instruments and keeps adequate supplies in the examining rooms. Under the physician's direction, she also may take a patient's temperature and pulse, apply or remove surgical dressings, and make simple laboratory tests. Applicants for medical assistant positions should have at least a high school education, preferably including courses in biology, chemistry, health education, typing, shorthand, and bookkeeping. Experience as a medical secretary or training as a practical nurse also is helpful preparation. Formal training in a 1- to 2-year program is given in a number of vocational schools and colleges. Medical laboratory worker If you are good at chemistry and biology and enjoy spending extra hours in the "lab," you might like a career in a medical laboratory. As a high school graduate without additional training, the jobs for which you would be most likely to qualify in the laboratory would be laboratory aide or assistant. You would check supplies, label materials, sterilize laboratory utensils, make simple solutions, perhaps take care of the laboratory animals, and help with some of the testing. You might also record test results. After a tryout period, if you showed aptitude for the work, you might do some routine medical tests under supervision. Advancement to technician status generally requires 2 years or more of science courses at the college level, plus either 12 months' training in an approved school for medical technicians or experience in an approved laboratory. Hospital laboratories sometimes accept and train high school graduates as tissue technicians if they have successfully completed courses in chemistry, biology, or physics. Depending on her specialty, the laboratory technician may prepare culture media, produce bacteria under controlled conditions, isolate and identify bacteria, type blood, or analyze body fluids. Her work is more routine and requires less knowledge than that of the medical technologist, who generally must have completed 3 years of college plus 12 months in a school of medical technology approved by the American Medical Association. Medical X-ray technician The main duties of an X-ray technician are to put the patient into the position required for the picture or treatment indicated by the physician and to operate the controls of the X-ray equipment. Other duties might include preparing "opaque" for the patient to swallow, processing the film, keeping records, and cleaning the equipment. Technicians sometimes make a specialty of X-raying teeth or other parts of the body. Some technicians also operate electrocardiograph and basal metabolism equipment. X-ray technicians work in hospitals, medical laboratories, physicians' and dentists' offices or clinics, and government agencies. Most X-ray technicians are women. 25 If you want to be a medical X-ray technician, start by taking science (biology, chemistry, physics) and mathematics in high school, then follow up with an approved program for medical X-ray technicians. Programs offered in a number of hospital schools last 24 months. Some hospital schools charge little or no tuition. Training also may be obtained in some public vocational or technical schools, community colleges, private schools, the armed services, or on the job, under the supervision of a radiologist. In addition to the actual techniques of operating various types of X-ray equipment and developing the films, training courses include anatomy, chemistry, physics, and instruction in the proper safeguards against possible hazards of exposure to X-rays. Since the effect of exposure to X-rays is cumulative and may be harmful over a long period of time, the National Bureau of Standards has set up minimum standards of protection for technicians. Employers are required to provide leaded walls or control panels, and the technician must be careful to wear leaded gloves and apron when it is necessary for her to be in the radiographic or fluoroscopic room during an X-ray exposure. Technicians who have had at least 2 years' experience under the direction of a radiologist, which may include training time, and who pass the examination of the Registry of Radiologic Technologists, may use the title "Registered Technologist" (R.T.). Dental laboratory technician Dental technicians make artificial dentures—crowns, bridges, and teeth—and orthodontal appliances. They do not deal directly with patients, but receive orders from dentists. Most of the women in this occupation work in large commercial laboratories. The beginning technician mixes and pours plaster into casts and molds. As she progresses she is assigned to more difficult work. Some technicians do all types of dental laboratory work; others specialize. Most dental laboratory technicians learn their craft as trainees in a commercial laboratory or a hospital that offers dental service. Such training generally requires 3 to 4 years. Courses also are offered in some public vocational or technical high schools, a few private schools, and some junior colleges. Certification by the National Association of Dental Laboratories and the American Dental Association requires 1 year of formal classroom instruction; 1 year of supervised practical experience in an accredited school or dental laboratory; and an additional 3 years of experience in a dental office or laboratory, plus successful completion of the certification examination. Dental laboratory technicians must have finger dexterity, good color perception, and a liking for detailed work. Clerical Occupations 2 Clerical jobs exist everywhere: in the offices of manufacturing plants, wholesale houses, and retail stores; in professional, finance, and insurance firms; and in gova See "Clerical Occupations Women's Bureau, 1964. for Women—Today and Tomorrow," 27 ernment. There are clerical jobs in large cities, suburban areas, and the smallest towns. Only a few clerical jobs are included in this pamphlet. If you are a high school graduate, you can qualify for many more. Typist, stenographer, secretary More women (over 2y2 million in 1964) are employed as secretaries, stenographers, and typists than as any other kind of worker. Yet a shortage of well-qualified workers in these occupations has existed for years. Most women employed as typists, stenographers, and secretaries—about 9 out of 10—are at least high school graduates; of these over a fifth have attended college. The beginning typist should be able to type 40 to 50 words a minute; the beginning stenographer should be able to take dictation or notehand at 80 to 100 words a minute. Courses offered in most high schools combined with additional practice should make it possible for you to reach these speeds. A vacation job or a part- time job in your senior year will help you to improve your speed and accuracy. A sound educational background is important to the girl who wants to advance from typing and stenographic work to secretarial or administrative work. For this reason you may prefer to follow a general course in high school. School hours spent in acquiring office skills of course cut down the number of hours that can be devoted to English, math, science, social studies, or languages. If your school adviser approves, you may decide to follow the college preparatory course in high school and postpone acquiring office skills. Then if you find you want to go to college, you will have the academic credits required for admission. A high school or college graduate usually can learn typing and shorthand in a year or less at a secretarial or business college. Some stenographers and secretaries specialize in medical, legal, engineering, and other fields. They may have learned their specialty on the job, but a growing number have taken special post-high-school training. Typists sometimes specialize also. In the main office of one national broadcasting network, for example, rapid typists may become continuity typists. A typist may advance to a supervisory position or to such jobs as personnel records clerk or mail analyst. A competent stenographer with a few years of experience and a good educational background is likely to advance to a secretarial job. The secretary may advance by becoming the secretary of successively higher officials. Occasionally she herself may move into an executive or a professional position. Clerk A girl without previous business experience and with limited office skills may be assigned a number of general office duties, such as answering the telephone, taking orders, making out vouchers, requisitioning and sorting supplies, filing, and doing errands. She may be known as a general clerh. Some special skill is desirable for promotion. This may be typing, office machine operation, or ability to 29 handle a switchboard. Promotion usually is to a more specialized clerical jdb or to a job supervising other clerks. Specialized clerks in large establishments are given various titles depending on the kind of work they do. A hilling clerk makes out bills and invoices to be sent to customers, and records individual transactions. A cost clerk computes the cost of articles made or sold, using payrolls, timesheets, and materials records. A payroll clerk figures the earnings of individual employees from their timecards and production records. She may prepare paychecks. A production clerk keeps records of the quantity of work completed. A time clerk keeps records of the daily working hours of each employee. The jobs of a shipping and receiving clerk and file clerk are described in separate sections. Some clerical jobs are characteristic of a particular industry. For example, a major broadcasting company with both radio and television programs lists three clerical jobs for high school graduates for which previous experience is not necessary. 30 The mail analyst who reads and sorts mail in the information division, routes it for proper handling, and answers general telephone inquiries. The photofile clerk who indexes and files publicity photographs. The publicity file clerk who files publicity materials (except photographs) and keeps reference files of firms, papers, and clients interested in receiving publicity. For this job, typing is required and some experience is desirable. Shipping and receiving clerk These clerks receive and unpack goods, wrap and address goods for shipping, and maintain records of the goods which are received and shipped. One clerk may handle both receiving and shipping. In large firms, however, shipping and receiving may be handled in separate departments, each of which employs a number of workers. On an outgoing shipment, the clerk's duties may include checking the order to make sure it has been correctly filled and properly addressed; preparing bills of lading; determining transportation rates; affixing post- age; and recording such items as the weight and cost of a shipment. On an incoming shipment, clerks verify the contents and the condition of the shipment with the original order, and maintain records of goods received. Beginning clerks may be limited to checking contents and addresses, attaching labels, and other routine tasks. Experienced clerks may trace lost shipments and process claims. File clerk Training and experience usually are not specified for filing jobs, but typing skills are a help. Good spelling is essential, as are a liking for detail, a sense of order, and a recognition that information learned on the job should be kept confidential. Most files hold business correspondence, orders, and invoices, but there are many kinds of files. In an engineering firm the files may hold blueprints; in a travel agency they are likely to hold tour programs of exciting places to go and things to do. There are several "sys798-001 O - 66 - 7 tems" for filing, such as by alphabet, date, or geography. Working with files gives a girl a good chance to learn something about the business. If she has typing or other office skills, she's there "on the spot" when a better paid job opens up in the office. Bank clerk, teller A high school graduate without experience may be hired by a bank as a file clerk, a bookkeeping clerk, or a transit clerk to sort and list checks and drafts on other banks and prepare them for return to those banks. Some beginners are trained by the bank to operate proof machines, which sort checks and deposit and withdrawal slips, and add and record the amounts involved. A few employees are hired as inside messengers or pages to run errands within the bank and do miscellaneous simple clerical tasks. The introduction of advanced electronic data processing methods has created some new clerical occupations which are unique in banks. These include electronic reader-sorter operator and check inscriber or encoder. 31 A bank clerk with several years' experience may be promoted to a supervisory job or to teller. The number of women bank tellers has been increasing rapidly. Many of them are paying and receiving tellers who serve customers who wish to make deposits or withdrawals. In each such transaction, the teller must verify the sum of money involved and the authenticity of the signature, and then credit or debit the customer's account. The paying and receiving teller may cash checks and write up or sign withdrawal or deposit slips. After public banking hours, she may enter deposits received by mail, calculate service charges, and balance her accounts. Every bank needs at least one paying and receiving teller. Larger banks usually employ specialized tellers to handle promissory notes, collect charges and payments on securities, or specialize in other limited areas. A bank teller's job requires accuracy and'speed in arithmetic; legible handwriting; a good memory for names, faces, and signatures; plus tact and courtesy. Tellers must be able to meet the standards of bonding 32 companies. High school graduation is a general requirement, and preference often is given to students with skills in bookkeeping, typing, or operating office machines. A woman who does outstanding work as a teller may become a bank officer in time. The courses offered by the American Institute of Banking present a welltraveled avenue for promotion. Bookkeeper There were some 764,000 women bookkeepers in 1960, an increase of more than 200,000 over the number in 1950. The woman bookkeeper has held a secure niche in the business world for many years. More than fourfifths of all bookkeepers are women. As the name implies, a bookkeeper "keeps the books" that record a firm's business transactions. The duties include posting ledgers, balancing accounts, and compiling reports. In larger offices, the records usually are divided into sections with one or more people working on each section. Bookkeepers are employed by wholesale and retail trade establishments, manufacturing firms, banks, insurance and real estate companies, and many other types of business. The increasing adoption of office machines for bookkeeping operations is expected to reduce the long-term demand for hand bookkeepers. However, smaller offices will continue to hire bookkeepers who can assume responsibility for a complete set of books. There is a continuing need for new employees because of normal turnovers. In an occupation employing such a large number of workers, the new openings are correspondingly great. If you want to become a bookkeeper, the best training is a business course that includes not only business arithmetic and bookkeeping procedures but typing, office machine operation, and general office procedures. Accuracy and neat, legible handwriting also are required. Some large companies offer on-the-job training or cooperate with high schools to provide part-time job experience for which the students receive school credit as well as wages. Most employers expect to fill beginning bookkeeper or assistant bookkeeper jobs with girls who have had courses in bookkeeping and business arithmetic, and are graduates of a high school or a vocational or business school. Some employers, however, require graduation from a junior college. Advancement may be to a more responsible position in the bookkeeping department or to head bookkeeper. With additional training, a bookkeeper may become an accountant. A college degree with a major in accounting is recommended, however, for the girl who aims to become a professional accountant. Cashier, grocery checker If you are good at figures and enjoy being where people are constantly coming and going, you might like to be a cashier, perhaps a grocery checker. There usually are openings for cashiers even in small towns and during dull seasons. Both full-time and part-time workers are employed. About four out of five cashiers are women. 33 ^> f As defined here,3 a cashier is a worker who deals directly with the customers, receiving their money, making change, and often giving a receipt. Many cashiers prepare the daily bank deposits. Cashiers may use a variety of machines to enable them to work more quickly and accurately. The most common is the cash register. The duties of a cashier differ according to the employer's business. In a restaurant the cashier may handle reservations for meals, type menus, and stock a candy and cigarette counter. In a motion picture theater, she usually operates a ticket-dispensing machine. In many stores, she may be expected to wrap the customers' packages. Most grocery stores—especially chain stores and selfservice stores—employ several cashiers who are called checkers. Grocery checkers use a computing cash register or adding machine to record the price of each item on a cash-register tape, tabulating the prices from memory, from markings on packages, or from a typed list. "Certain officials in banks and insurance companies also are called cashiers, but their qualifications and duties are substantially different. They receive the customer's money, make change, and may pack the groceries in a bag or carton. They may operate a traveling belt counter section. In some food stores, the checkers may mark prices on merchandise, wrap items in cellophane, arrange displays of special items, or perform other work. Checkers work at high speed during rush hours and may work long hours or on a split shift. They stand while working, and do some stooping and lifting. An expert checker is quick, accurate, deft, and has a good memory for customers' faces as well as for food prices. Extra checkers are employed on a part-time basis to help out during rush hours and on Saturdays. Because of this, checkers on the regular shift can usually count on steady employment. Training in operating a cash register and performing the other duties of a cashier is offered in some public vocational school programs and in courses provided by business organizations. For some cashier jobs, employers prefer applicants who have typing or bookkeeping skills, or selling experience. A cashier may work at a counter, in a booth, or in any other space where a cash register can be set up. Sometimes this is a drafty corner near the entrance. She must be able to make change rapidly and accurately, and, because she deals with the public, she needs a pleasant and courteous manner. The work is not strenuous, but it may be confining and often includes evening or holiday duty. In stores where on-the-job training is provided, a woman without job experience may be hired as a checker. An experienced checker can often obtain a better job by changing to a larger store or a better neighborhood. In chain stores, an experienced checker may be promoted to the position of head checker or even assistant manager, or may be transferred from a small branch store to a larger store. Office machine operator Jobs for office machine operators have multiplied rapidly in number and variety as new machines have been developed to perform operations formerly done by hand. 35 Office machine operators are employed in manufacturing companies, banks, insurance companies, government agencies, and business offices of all kinds. If you have a flair for numbers, take pride in your accuracy, and enjoy operating a machine, you probably could find steady work as an office machine operator in almost any city or town. High school graduates generally are given preference for the better jobs and for advancement to a supervisory position. Advancement possibilities are more limited for office machine operators, however, than for stenographers and typists. Many commercial high schools give courses in office machine operation. Because of variations in equipment, however, a student may need additional instruction on the machines used by the firm that hires her. Many firms that use office machines are willing to train new employees and pay them at a trainee's rate while learning. For a beginning job as tabulating machine operator, the training and practice period, may take a month or longer. Advancement to more respon- 36 sible and complex duties requires accuracy, speed, and experience on the job. Typical jobs open to high school graduates together with specific qualifications that may be required for some machine operators are listed here: Operators Bookkeeping machine Calculating machine Keypunch Tabulating equipment Qualifications Some knowledge of bookkeeping, typing skill, accuracy, numerical aptitude, finger dexterity. Courses in office machine operation, neat handwriting, numerical aptitude, ability to concentrate, finger dexterity, normal vision. Typing skill, finger dexterity, good eye-hand coordination, memory for details, normal vision. Memory for details, good eyehand coordination, n o r m a l vision. Some manufacturers of office machine equipment offer training courses for operators; often they find jobs for their trainees. However, an operator trained by the manufacturer sometimes hesitates to try another make of machine, and this may limit her choice of jobs. Office machine operators often work in large rooms where there are many machines. Soundproof ceilings and walls are desirable to keep the noise to a minimum. Telephone operator, PBX operator Technological advances are making it possible to handle more telephone calls with fewer operators, but high turnover among the very large number of operators creates many openings. Tens of thousands of operators are hired each year. Girls who have just graduated from high school usually get top priority for training. Qualifications that are required include good judgment, tact, an even disposition, manual dexterity, and a pleasing voice with good diction and without an extreme regional accent. Applicants usually are given tests in spelling, arithmetic, and learning ability. An applicant also must be able to meet the employer's standards for hearing, sight, and weight. High school and junior college students are sometimes hired as operators on a part-time basis to work a few evenings during the week and on Saturdays. Those who plan no further schooling may become full-time employees upon graduation. Training classes generally consist of two trainees and a service assistant. The trainees gradually progress from handling practice calls to putting through actual calls, with the instructor available for assistance. Training of a long-distance operator may take 3 weeks; of an information operator, perhaps only 1 week. Automatic dialing equipment now handles nearly all local calls and most station-to-station long-distance calls. Chances are that as a full-fledged operator you would work either as an information operator or as a long-distance operator, helping with calls that cannot be handled automatically, such as person-to-person, reverse-charge, or credit card calls, or calls placed from coin telephones. 38 You probably would work sitting in a comfortable, adjustable chair in a well-lighted, perhaps air-conditioned room. Since the telephone lines must not be left untended even for a moment, you might find the work rather confining. However, there are sure to be regularly scheduled rest periods, and often an attractive, comfortable lounge is available. You might be a " P B X " (private branch exchange) operator. P B X operators are employed in many industries, such as insurance, oil, and utility companies; hotels; and government agencies. If you were a P B X operator, you might work alone or as a member of a team. You would probably have to work under pressure during rush hours. Your switchboard might be crowded into a corner, or it might be located where the sound of typewriters and voices interfered with your work. The usual promotion steps you might follow if you worked in a sizable central office lead from trainee to regular operator, then to service assistant (supervisor), to assistant chief operator, and to chief operator. Occa- sionally a chief operator is promoted to a staff position, such as supervisor of training or supervisor of operating methods. Since telephone service is furnished around the clock, some operators are on duty at all times. Operators must agree to accept weekend, evening, night, and holiday duty. Some operators may work several hours during the morning and the remainder of their tour in the evening. Generally, operators with the longest service are allowed first choice of work shifts, and new operators are scheduled to work the less desirable "split trick" tours of duty. Some operators prefer night tours because they mesh more conveniently with home and family responsibilities. The predominant labor union in the telephone industry is the Communications Workers of America ( A F L CIO). A number of operators belong to the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers ( A F L - C I O ) or to smaller independent telephone unions which represent workers in certain geographic locations or in specific departments within a company. Computer operating personnel "Tomorrow is here" as a journalist proclaimed recently. One sign is that the computer, which attracted only the pioneer type a decade ago, now is providing employment for tens of thousands of high school graduates. As fast as computer personnel has been expanding in government, it has grown even faster in private industry. Computer jobs are found chiefly in large cities—in insurance companies, banks, transportation and other public utility companies, and manufacturing firms, and in government at all levels. Computer service centers, which process data on a fee basis, also employ many workers. Processing data by computers requires operators of several kinds of equipment. Peripheral equipment operators run the computers which transfer data from cards or paper tapes to magnetic tapes, printers which translate the computer's output into words and numbers, 39 and other auxiliary equipment in the computer system. Console operators are responsible for controlling the operation of the console during the "run" according to the instructions of the programer. For information on the programer job see page 53. A growing number of city high schools offer courses in computer mathematics and in computer operation. Employers look for good students with a background in math or bookkeeping. Once on the job, the employee receives training from the employer or from the computer company. Instruction for peripheral equipment operators may require a few weeks; for console operators, 2 to 6 months or longer. Educational requirements in this field are still flexible. Some employers prefer more than a high school education for console operators; on the other hand, some are experimenting in opening up more computer jobs to those with only high school diplomas. Many console and peripheral equipment operators work on a swing shift or night shift. 40 Receptionist Many firms employ a receptionist to receive visitors, clients, or customers. Often a young attractive woman who is a high school graduate is preferred for this job. Alertness, resourcefulness, and tact are important requirements. The receptionist is seated where she will be the first to greet visitors, clients, or customers. Her desk is in the front office or in a pleasant office of her own. She requests the caller's name and business, and directs him to the proper office. She may notify the person whom he wishes to see of his arrival and keep a record of persons received. Her duties may include making appointments, answering the telephone, operating a switchboard, typing, and other clerical work. The competition for receptionist jobs is keen. Openings are frequent, however, because of vacancies that occur when receptionists are promoted to other jobs, change jobs, or leave because of marriage or family responsibilities. Assistant in a library This is a job for the girl who likes to keep records. There's an extra dividend in it for the girl who likes to read. In a small library the assistant is a general helper to the librarian. Part of her work is behind the scenes sorting returned books and magazines, replacing them on the shelves, and sending out overdue notices. She also works at the record desk, stamping the due date on outgoing books, checking off incoming books, and accepting payment of fines. In a large library she may be assigned only one or two of these duties. Retailing As a high school graduate, there's a variety of careers for you in department stores, specialty shops, variety stores, and drugstores. Many opportunities exist for stockgirls, salespersons, or buyers; there also are openings for credit interviewers, data processing personnel, window trimmers, and many others. Opportunities for the high school graduate to advance to section head, floor manager, buyer, or an executive position in personnel or advertising are good. The best opportunities are in department stores and other large stores specializing in women's clothing and accessories. Ketailing is one of the few remaining fields where employees without a college degree can advance to executive positions. And a large share of these executives are women! Basic and advanced training in merchandising, marketing, and management—distributive education—is offered under the public vocational program in many areas. Courses for high school students formerly were limited to those who worked at least 15 hours a week in a store, and always included on-the-job training. Under the Vocational Education Act of 1963, enrollment is no longer limited to employed persons, although some type of occupational experience probably will be continued. Many department stores and other retail establishments cooperate with schools in these programs, and frequently offer full-time employment to 41 students upon their graduation. Technical instruction and advanced training are available under the adult education program. More than 26,000 high school girls and over 126,000 employed women were enrolled in distributive education programs in 1968-64. Employees in many retail stores are allowed a discount on purchases, often 10 to 20 percent of the regular price. Employees in some jobs receive commissions and bonuses in addition to salary. Stockgirl Many high school girls enter merchandising as stockclerks. They keep stock in order in the stockroom and on the selling floor, inventory supplies on hand, check incoming orders against invoices, and replenish merchandise on sales counters and tables. They may make minor adjustments or repairs on articles in stock such as resewing buttons on garments. Advancement may be to salesperson or head of stock. The head of stock is responsible for maintaining assortments and displays on counters, supervising stock- 42 room workers, selecting merchandise for window displays, and reporting merchandise needed. Saleswoman Well over a million and a half women are sales workers, and thousands of new employees are hired each year, chiefly to replace those who leave for marriage, family, or other reasons. Saleswomen are needed in small towns, cities, and suburbs, and in stores of all types and sizes, except perhaps the smallest familyoperated stores. If you worked in a limited price store or a self-service department store, your duties probably would be relatively simple. In most cases, you would be expected to write out a sales slip, ring up the sale, make change, and put the purchased article in a bag. You would keep the merchandise arranged in an orderly and attractive way, and perhaps make up displays from time to time. As you gained experience, you might be given some supervisory duties or be asked to train new employees. Courteous and efficient service and the ability to stay on your feet most of the day are requirements. High school graduation is preferred, though not generally required. Some sales positions are more demanding than others. In some departments, such as women's fashions, furs, household furnishings, kitchen ware, and appliances, the salesperson needs to be well informed about the merchandise. She may show various styles, colors, or models; demonstrate an article; discuss materials or styling; and help the customer in making a selection. These jobs usually are reserved for salespersons of demonstrated interest and resourcefulness who have at least a high school education, can express themselves well, and have not only a liking for people but a desire to serve. Most stores conduct brief training sessions for all new saleswomen. Training in some cases may consist of a short talk and instructions on making out sales slips and using the cash register. In some departments, however, training may extend over several days and include instruction in store policy on credit and other matters. Saleswomen in certain departments—for example, cosmetics or foundation garments—may participate from time to time in industry-sponsored training programs. Some saleswomen work a 5-day 40-hour week, but the standard workweek in many stores is different. Employees usually work Saturday, a peak day for sales, and have another weekday off. Some sales workers regularly work one or more evenings a week. Many part-time or temporary jobs are available in retailing. Part-time sales workers generally are employed for daytime rush hours, nights, and weekends. Temporary employees usually work during the Christmas, Easter, or back-to-school seasons, or other periods of heavy purchasing. Stores in resort areas often employ extra help during the peak months. A temporary or parttime job would give you a taste of selling, and would help you decide if this is the job for you. Advancement for a saleswoman may be to a position selling "big ticket" merchandise, where more judgment and resourcefulness are required and a commission or 44 bonus is given on sales. Or it may be to a supervisory position as section head or floor manager. Outstanding saleswomen often have a chance to become assistant buyers, then buyers, and finally department heads, although these positions are increasingly open only to those who have had some college work in merchandising and business administration. Buyer Many, varied, and demanding are the activities you undertake if you choose to be a buyer. Given a budget for the season, the buyer determines what, when, and where to buy; selects merchandise and sets the sales price; and supervises sales staff, stockrooms, recordkeeping, display, and advertising. She divides her time between the selling floor, the stockroom, her desk, and semiannual or more frequent buying trips to "the market." In some stores certain of these duties are handled by a sales manager, but the buyer retains major responsibility for the profits of the department. The buyer must combine sensitivity to customer reac- tion with a highly developed critical faculty, and possess good judgment and a keen business sense as well. Her success is measured in dollars and cents. She is competing constantly with other departments and stores. Successful buyers may be transferred to a larger department, where the salary and potential commissions or bonuses are higher, or to a store with a greater volume of sales. Some, with a high sense of color, design, and fashion, may be advanced to fashion coordinator or home furnishings coordinator. Outstanding buyers may be promoted to merchandise managers, in charge of several departments. Food Services Over 1 million women work in various food service jobs, such as waitress, cook, kitchen worker, counter or fountain worker, and busgirl. Their place of employment may be a roadside diner which serves barbecues and short orders, a cafeteria which serves schoolchildren or workers, a department store lunchroom which caters to women shoppers, a hospital, or any other of a great variety of eating places. Many restaurants and hotels operate under union contracts which establish wage scales and working conditions. The Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union (AFL-CIO) has about 445,000 members, almost half of whom are women. A number of State laws apply to food workers. Health certificates, for example, are required by many States for all food workers in restaurants, hotels, drugstores, and other establishments where food and beverages are sold for consumption on the premises. In some States, women are prohibited from serving or selling alcoholic beverages. Food workers also are subject to State laws which limit the number of hours that women are allowed to work or prohibit their employment at night, or set minimum wages for restaurant workers. Hours of work vary greatly, depending on the patronage of the eating place. There are many opportunities for part-time work. On the other hand, restaurant 45 workers may be required, where State laws permit, to work until late evening and on holidays and weekends; or they may have a split shift (two periods of work with a few hours of rest between). Many restaurant workers, especially in southern cities, work a 48-hour week. A high school graduate who has taken courses in business management and has gained some experience as a waitress or kitchen worker has a good chance of getting a job as assistant food manager or food supervisor. Cook More than half the cooks in eating places across the country are women. Their jobs vary with their skill and experience, the size of the establishment, and the clientele it serves. Most cooks start out as cook helpers. Many large restaurants hire pantry girls (sometimes called salad girls) who prepare and mix ingredients for salads, fruit cocktails, waffles, beverages, and sandwiches. In an inexpensive eating place, a cook may prepare only a few standardized dishes. In many small 46 restaurants, one cook prepares all the food. Requirements for cooks include cleanliness, physical stamina, ability to wTork under pressure, a good sense of taste, and the ability to organize work and meet deadlines. The trade usually is learned on the job, generally informally, but sometimes through an apprenticeship program. Courses in cooking are offered by some public vocational schools, as well as by some local restaurant associations. Experienced cooks may advance to greater responsibilities in the same kitchen, or may transfer to better paying jobs in other restaurants. Waitress A waitress should have a neat, attractive appearance, good coordination, ability to add accurately, a pleasant manner, and normal hearing. If walking and standing make your feet hurt, you would do well to choose some other kind of work. Duties include preparing the table, presenting menus, taking orders, and serving food and beverages. Many waitresses are expected to carry loaded trays. They also add up the customer's bill, and in some cases accept payment and make change. You may be able to get training as a waitress in your high school's vocational program. In some cities, the restaurant association offers waitress training. Some restaurants give inexperienced workers on-the-job training. Many temporary jobs are available each summer in resort areas or tourist centers. A summer's work will enable you to try out this occupation. An experienced waitress can find employment almost anywhere. Earnings usually consist of a combination of wages and tips. A skilled waitress often can move to an establishment where the tips are especially liberal. Occasionally, in a large restaurant, a waitress may be promoted to cashier, or to a supervisory job as hostess or head waitress. Countergirl A countergirl has duties much like those of a waitress, but she works behind a counter, often serving 8 to 20 customers. Usually countergirls are employed in small 47 lunchrooms, coffeeshops, or drugstores. Sometimes they prepare sandwiches, grilled orders, or fountain drinks, and slice pies and cakes. The work requires much reaching, bending, and lifting, as well as constant standing. Rush hour service requires high speed. Counter workers are less likely than waitresses to receive tips. Factory Work Workers who operate the machines used in manufacturing, drycleaning, and other industries sometimes are called operatives. A high school education is not required for most of these jobs, but is helpful for advancement to highly skilled or supervisory work. More than half of all women operatives have had 1 or more years of high school; about one-fourth are high school graduates. You must be at least 16 years of age to work in a factory and 18 years of age before you are allowed to operate machines found to be hazardous. Federal and 48 State laws set these requirements for your protection, and there are penalties for employers who disregard them. In many States, a person under 18 must obtain a work permit or age certificate in order to work in a factory, even during school vacation. In cities where there is a variety of industrial production, you can exercise some choice as to the type of manufacturing you wish to enter. It is usually easier to get a job in an industry that is growing and taking on new workers. Some of the newer industries, such as aircraft manufacturing and electronics, employ large numbers of women. In many long-established industries, for example, those manufacturing clothing and textiles, a large percentage of the operatives are women. During recent years, the adoption of mechanical lifting and moving devices has encouraged the employment of women in the heavier industries. In many industries the working conditions, pay rates, and fringe benefits are negotiated by employers and unions. Many women operatives belong to labor unions. In 1964 more than 1.4 million women held membership in 13 large unions associated with the AFL-CIO. 4 Assembler Factory workers who assemble parts are called assemblers or subassemblers, depending on the nature of the work. Many women are employed in these jobs, especially in light or bench assembly work where the parts being put together are small and where deft fingers are needed. Inexperienced workers are started on simple routine processes which can be learned quickly, and they advance to work requiring greater skill. Finger dexterity, eye-hand coordination, and perhaps certain physical characteristics such as right-handed* International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union; r Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America; United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America; International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; International Union of Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers; International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers; Textile Workers Union of America ; United Garment Workers of America; United Shoe Workers of America; Tobacco Workers International Union; United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of America; Boot and Shoe Workers' Union ; United Textile Workers of America. ness or good vision are more important than schooling for routine assembly work. On the other hand, some assemblers, such as those who work in plants making airplane frames, do highly skilled work requiring the ability to read blueprints and engineering specifications. In the growing electronics industry, a high school graduate usually starts as a subassembler. Applicants may be tested for ability to manipulate small parts. Advancement may be to a job as winder, tester, or simple process inspector, or to more difficult assembly work. To become an electronic unit assembler, it is usually necessary to have 6 months to 2 years of experience in subassembly work, be able to read blueprints, and have some knowledge of electronics and mathematics. Power machine operator A power machine operative may work with fabrics, metals, or wood. The machine may be a power-sewing machine, a lathe, a drill, or a molding, pressing, shaping, cutting, or polishing machine. Applicants may be given an aptitude test, but high school graduation is not 49 ordinarily required. Training often is given on the job. In some areas, programs established under the Manpower Development and Training Act provide training for those who are able to meet the requirements of the act. Power-sewing machines are used widely in the garment industry and also in making draperies and stitching together the upholstery sections for furniture and automobiles. In the garment industry, power-sewing-machine operators usually start as single-needle-machine operators. An operator on men's shirts, for example, may do loop running, facing, hemming, or a more difficult operation, such as collar or pocket setting. In the women's dress industry, she may stitch together all the parts of a dress. Many trade and vocational schools offer courses in power-sewing-machine operation. Some specialties require a high degree of skill and versatility, for example, the operation of a powerdriven embroidery machine. In some of these machines the needle is housed in a revolving shaft and can be 50 made to sew in any direction by manipulating a hand control. Artistic ability is important for this work, and an expert can create intricate designs. Usually an experienced power-sewing-machine operator must take special training in a technical school to learn the operation of such a machine. Power-sewing-machine jobs are concentrated in certain areas. There are many localities in the country where power machine operation does not offer promise of employment for young people, due to lack of industries that employ power-sewing-machine operators. Some States limit employment in this occupation to workers who are 18 years of age or older. Inspector, examiner With some plant experience, or on-the-job training, women may become inspectors or testers. This work consists of examining parts or finished products for flaws, and separating perfect from imperfect products. It may require a high degree of skill and considerable experience operating a machine. Technical Work in Engineering and Science Draftsman trainee The working plans for the construction of a school, a space capsule, or the finest machine parts are made by draftsmen, of whom a growing number are draftswomen. The draftswoman uses the sketches and specifications of designers, engineers, or architects to make up detailed plans describing the materials and processes to be used. Compasses, protractors, squares, triangles, and dividers are her common tools, and engineering handbooks are her references. Well-qualified women are finding acceptance in drafting. By 1962 there were 15,600 draftswomen. Most of them were working in firms engaged in the manufacture of durable goods, and their drafting boards held drawings for electrical and other machinery, and aircraft. Many were in engineering and architectural firms, government agencies, telephone communication or construction companies, and gas and oil refining firms. If you rate well in numerical and spatial aptitudes and drawing ability, if you like precision and detail, if your eyesight is good and your hands are steady, then drafting may be the field for you. If you decide to become a draftswoman, you should prepare well in high school mathematics and the physical sciences. A number of vocational and technical high schools offer courses in mechanical drawing and drafting that would enable you to start your career upon graduation, probably as a tracer or trainee. Training in drafting also is available through correspondence courses, university extension courses, night schools, and apprenticeship programs. If you are able to attend full time the 2-year program of a technical institute or a junior or community college, you may be able to begin as a junior draftsman, drawing details or parts of the senior draftsman's "layout" or examining drawings for errors. Engineering or science technician In these days of technological progress, many young 52 people are discovering that they have a real interest in technical work and an aptitude for it. Most technicians are men, but there is no reason why women cannot succeed in this field. Job opportunities for women technicians have been good in recent years, especially in computation work and in chemical laboratories. There is a wide range in the skill requirements for technician jobs. Some relatively unskilled jobs can be filled by high school graduates, especially by those who have had courses in mathematics that include solid geometry and trigonometry, and physical sciences such as chemistry and physics that emphasize laboratory work. Technician jobs at this level often are filled by upgrading assembly or clerical workers. Special training, however, is becoming increasingly important for entry to all but the most routine technician jobs, and if you decide to become a technician, it is to your advantage to get all the training you can. Courses for scientific and engineering technicians are available in some technical and vocational high schools, in technical institutes, in junior and community col- leges, and in colleges offering a 2-year technical program. Because of the need for well-qualified technicians, a number of scholarships are available in this field. In some cases a firm may help a trainee by paying tuition, arranging for a part-time job, or even by placing the employee on educational leave and part-pay status. Some women have been trained for technician jobs in science and engineering under the Manpower Development and Training Act. Others have received technical training in the Armed Forces. Chemical laboratory aide.—Firms in the chemical industry employ laboratory aides to work with chemists and chemical engineers. The aides may assemble equipment, make computations, tabulate and analyze the results of experiments, and test products against specifications. Mathematics aide.—Girls competent in mathematics may assist engineers, scientists, and mathematicians in solving problems in the electronics, aeronautics, missile, or other industries. The work of mathematics aides involves the use of algebra, logarithms, trigonometric functions, and higher mathematics. They may record data, make calculations, plot graphs, estimate costs, analyze test results, and check products for conformance with specifications. Those in the electronics computer industry may operate test equipment used in the development of computers. Programer Electronic computers require detailed instructions (called a program) to direct them in processing the data fed to them. It is the programer's job to state the problem that the computer is to solve, determine which data must be used, establish the order of the various steps in the processing of data, and then prepare flow charts, diagrams, and step-by-step instructions for the computer. A wide range exists in the educational requirements for programer jobs. Programing for the processing of engineering and research data generally requires a minimum of 4 years of college. However, programing 53 for the processing of routine business records—payroll work or accounting, for example—is sometimes done by employees without a college degree. Programer training is available in some technical and vocational high schools, in private technical schools, and in junior and community colleges. Instruction in this field also 54 is offered by correspondence and extension courses. Important requirements for programing include a capacity for reasoning and logical thinking, coupled with patience, accuracy, and the ability to follow instructions. Ingenuity is a valuable asset. Previous experience in machine tabulations or accounting is useful. Miscellaneous Services Beauty operator In your hometown there is probably at least one beauty shop; in a big city you will find hundreds. A licensed operator usually can find a job near her home or in a nearby city. Small beauty shops have from one to three licensed operators; few shops employ as many as 15 persons. The beauty operator may be called a hairdresser, cosmetologist, cosmetician, or beautician. Beauty operators shampoo, cut, style, set, straighten, or tint their customers' hair, and give permanent waves. Some arrange wigs or provide manicures and facial treatments. They may make appointments, sterilize implements, and clean the shop and equipment. Operators in large shops may specialize in one phase of the work, such as manicuring or permanent waving. A State license to practice cosmetology is required of beauty operators. To obtain a license, an applicant must be at least 16 years of age, fulfill the State's educa- 55 tional requirements for cosmetologists (which usually include high school graduation), complete an approved course or apprentice training, pass an examination on the theory and practice of cosmetology, and present a health certificate. Many States issue a separate manicurist's license which requires less training than the general operator's license. Operators licensed in one State often can work in another State without requalifying for a license. The Board of Cosmetology in your State will advise you on the requirements to become a licensed beauty operator and send you a list of the approved schools of cosmetology in your State. For certification you must follow an approved course or apprentice training. Many public vocational high schools offer courses in cosmetology which meet State licensing requirements. These programs usually include academic subjects leading to a high school diploma, and last from 2 to 3 years. Some vocational courses prepare a student to take the State examination before her senior year, so that she can hold a part-time job while completing the other 56 requirements for high school graduation. A large number of private schools also offer cosmetology courses that prepare students for the State examination. These courses usually can be completed in 6 to 9 months. Training in both public and private schools includes lectures, demonstrations, classroom study, and practical work. Students usually begin by working on each other or on manikins. After preliminary training they may practice on customers in school "clinics." In about half the States it is possible to meet the requirements for a license through apprentice training under a licensed operator. This takes 2 to 3 years. Beauty operators often receive a commission and tips in addition to a basic wage, but some operators are paid a straight salary or a straight commission. Operators may be required, especially in a small shop, to furnish brushes, combs, and other equipment. They almost always provide their own uniforms. To become a successful beauty operator, you must have nimble fingers and a sense of style, and be able to work while standing. It is important to be pleasant and friendly and to learn to be sensitive to a customer's preferences in style. There are a number of trade associations for owneroperators and an active labor union to which beauty operators may belong. Airline stewardess Almost all commercial passenger planes carry at least one stewardess; some carry two, or even three. The stewardess attends to the comfort of the passengers from the time they board the plane until they leave it. She checks tickets, makes sure that seat belts are fastened as required, and answers questions about the flight and the weather. She serves light refreshments or ready-cooked meals and a variety of beverages. She distributes reading matter and pillows, and if there are babies or young children on board, she helps to take care of them. After the flight, she prepares the flight record. Applicants must be attractive, resourceful, poised, and friendly. As a rule, they must be 20 to 27 years 57 old, 5 feet 2 inches to 5 feet 8 inches tall, well proportioned, and in excellent health. Married women are not employed in this work. Applicants for stewardess jobs must have at least a high school education. Those with 2 years of college, nurses' training, or business experience are preferred. Most large airlines train new stewardesses for about 5 weeks in their own schools. Free transportation to the school and training allowances often are provided. Courses cover flight regulations and duties, company operations and schedules, first aid, and personal grooming. Instruction in passport and customs regulations is given trainees for international flights. Trainees practice their duties under actual flight conditions. Experienced stewardesses supervise them on their first flights as hostesses. Private schools and a few universities offer courses to train stewardesses for airlines which do not operate their own schools. Students pay their own expenses at these schools. Grirls should check their own qualifica- 58 tions and those of the school with an airline before entering training in a private school. Working hours are determined by flight schedules— and commercial airlines operate day and night. Night, weekend, and holiday duty must be expected. In most companies a stewardess spends about 85 hours a month in the air, and up to 35 hours in ground duties. Limitations on flying time and irregular hours may result in 15 or more days of leave each month. Stewardesses with the longest service get preference in bidding for home base assignments and flights. Flying appeals strongly to many girls who are not interested in a desk job, who enjoy meeting new people constantly, who want to see something of the world, and who expect to work only for a few years. Most stewardesses remain only 2 or 3 years. About 40 percent of the stewardesses leave their jobs each year. Many resign to marry. Some are promoted to supervisory positions, become instructors, or go into jobs in the sales, public relations, or other departments of the airlines. New girls always are needed to replace those who leave, and to fill new jobs as passenger traffic increases. Most stewardesses belong to either the Air Line Stewards and Stewardesses Association of the Transport Workers Union of America (AFL-CIO) or the Stewards and Stewardesses Division of the Air Line Pilots Association (AFL-CIO). If You Want a Government Career Under civil service Over 1,000,000 women are employed by government agencies—local, State, and Federal. Federal employment has held steady in recent years, but opportunities have been growing rapidly at the State and local levels. Almost every type of occupation found in private industry is found in government. Clerical workers in government offices, for example, include secretaries, typists, clerks, and office machine operators. Government workers also are employed in service occupations, and in technical and professional work. To be eligible for most positions in the Federal Government—and also in many State governments—you must pass a civil service examination. These examinations are given in many cities throughout the country. You can find out about the examinations for Federal positions in any specific occupation, such as stenographer or typist, by inquiring at your post office or by waiting to the U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington, D.C., 20415. Federal civil service appointments are made on the basis of examination scores without regard to race, sex, religion, or politics. For certain types of positions, applicants are rated on the basis of their training and work experience rather than on a written examination. Applicants for Federal positions must meet the minimum age limits established for the job. The minimum age for most jobs for which high school graduates would qualify is 18 years. High school graduates, however, may be appointed to certain jobs when they reach their 16th birthdays, provided local child labor laws permit and they live at home. 59 Students in some metropolitan areas, including Washington, D.C., may be appointed at age 16 on a part-time basis as stenographer, typist, or telephone operator. Girls who are appointed to these jobs must meet all the usual requirements except experience, and they must continue their studies while employed. Examinations are open to citizens and to residents who owe permanent allegiance to the United States. A physical handicap will not disqualify an applicant as long as she is capable of doing the work. The Foreign Service and some government agencies, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, have their own merit systems outside the civil service merit system. Most jobs in the legislative and judicial branches also are outside the civil service merit system. You do not have to live in the Washington, D.C., area in order to work for the Federal Government. Less than one-fifth of all women Federal workers are employed in the Washington area. The rest are located across the United States, in U.S. territories, and in foreign countries. 60 In the Armed Forces If you are a high school graduate, 18 years of age or over, unmarried and without dependents, and in good health, you are eligible to enlist in the Armed Forces of the United States. The minimum enlistment period for women varies with the service. It is 2 years in the Army; 4 years in the Air Force; and 3 years in the Navy and the Marine Corps. For the first few weeks after enlistment, women are given basic training in their own separate areas within larger military establishments. After basic training, men and women work side by side, train in coeducational schools, and qualify for promotion in identical ways, except that women cannot be assigned to combat duty. Women receive the same pay as men in the same grade. In the Armed Forces, recruits are assigned where they are needed most. More girls start out in clerical work than in any other field, but some are given training in printing, drafting, photography, data processing, or medical or other specialties. Training provided in the Armed Forces is not necessarily the same as civilian training. It is not safe to assume, therefore, that you can count on a civilian appointment—as physical therapist, shall we say—solely on the basis of training and experience in the services. In the Foreign Service High school graduates who have office experience and are unmarried and 21 years of age or over may apply for stenographic and secretarial positions in the Foreign Service of the U.S. Department of State. Those under 21 years may be accepted for employment in the Department, in Washington, D.C., and apply for transfer to the Foreign Service when they reach age 21. Applicants for the Foreign Service must pass a written and physical examination, receive security clearance, and be willing to serve in any country to which they may be assigned. The Foreign Service has over 300 posts located in over 100 countries. 61 APPENDIX WOMEN WORKERS IN Three-fourths or more of all workers in these jobs are women: Airline stewards and stewardesses Attendants, physicians' and dentists' offices Attendants and assistants, library Beauty operators Bookkeepers Cashiers File clerks Nurses: Professional and student professional Practical Receptionists Secretaries and stenographers Sewers and stitchers Telephone operators Typists Waiters and waitresses 62 Number 9, 500 68, 944 24, 922 267, 050 764, 054 367, 954 112,323 1 624, 424 197,115 131,142 1, 681, 906 534, 258 341, 797 496, 735 714, 827 OCCUPATIONS, 1960 One-half to three-fourths of all workers in these jobs are women: Attendants, hospitals and other institutions a Bank tellers. Laundry and dry cleaning operatives Office machine operators Packers and wrappers Payroll and timekeeping clerks Salesmen and saleswomen, retail trade Technicians, medical and dental1 Number 288, 268 89, 465 277, 396 227, 849 262, 935 63, 681 1, 397, 364 86, 271 One-fourth to one-half of all workers in these jobs are women: Assemblers Checkers and inspectors Decorators and window dressers See footnotes page 63 270, 769 215, 066 23, 566 Less than one-fourth of all workers in these jobs are women: Buyers and department heads Dental laboratory technicians Draftsmen 4 Shipping and receiving clerks. Stock clerks Technicians, engineering, physical sciences, electrical, and electronic 5 » Bureau of Labor Statistics estimate for 1962. Number 53, 804 1 2, 500 11, 729 23, 348 48, 718 2 Includes nursing aides, psychiatric aides, operating room attendants, baby formula mixers, and other similar occupations. 3 Includes X-ray technicians and medical and dental laboratory workers, as well as occupations such as medical technologist which require 3 to 4 years of college. 4 Includes senior and design draftsmen, as well as tracers and junior draftsmen. 5 Includes engineering aides as well as some occupations which require 2 to 4 years of college. 27, 655 NOTE—Data from 1960 decennial census unless otherwise indicated. 63 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Readers who are interested in the occupations described in this pamphlet or in other occupations will want to consult a number of references. A great deal of information is contained in the Government publications listed below. Some of these are available in many public libraries. All publications, except those marked with an asterisk, can be ordered from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402. Publications listed with an asterisk must be ordered directly from the agency which published them. 64 U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., 20210 Bureau of Employment Security Choosing Your Occupation. 1962. 16 pp. 15 cents. How To Get and Hold the Right Job. 1960. 18 pp. 10 cents. Job Guide for Young Workers. 1963-64 ed. 1964. 78 pp. 45 cents. Summer Jobs for Students. 1962. Leaflet 7 (Revised). 5 cents. (In cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Standards) •Your Opportunity for Job Training Under the Manpower Development and Training Act. Free. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook: Career Information for Use in Guidance. Bull. No. 1450, 1966-67 ed. 862 pp. $5.00. U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., 20210—Continued Bureau of Labor Statistics—Continued Reprints on individual occupations. 5-20 cents. Occupational Outlook Quarterly: A supplement to the Occupational Outlook Handbook. Subscription price $1.25. for 2 years (8 issues), 35 cents per copy. Women's Bureau Clerical Occupations for Women—Today and Tomorrow. Bull. 289. 1964. 69 pp. 35 cents. Careers for Women in Retailing. Bull. 271. 1959. 52 pp. 25 cents. Careers for Women as Technicians. Bull. 282. 1961. 28 pp. 20 cents. Job Horizons for College Women in the 1960's. Bull. 288. 11964. 78 pp. 30 cents. Nurses and Other Hospital Personnel, Their Earnings and Employment Conditions. Pamphlet 6. Reprinted with Supplement. 1961. 41 pp. 25 cents. Negro Women Workers in 1960. Bull. 287. 1964. 55 pp. 30 cents. Part-Time Employment for Women. Bull. 273. 1960. 53 pp. 30 cents. Job Suggestions for Women and Girls. Leaflet 40. 1965. 12 pp. 10 cents. U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., 20210—Continued Women's Bureau—Continued Training Opportunities for Women and Girls. Bull. 274. I960. 64 pp. 30 cents. Who Are the Working Mothers? Leaflet 37. Revised 1965. 10 cents. Women in the Federal Service, 1939-1959. Pamphlet 4. Revised 1962. 21 pp. 15 cents. Women Telephone Workers and Changing Technology. Bull. 286. 1963. 46 pp. 25 cents. 1965 Handbook on Women Workers. Bull. 290. 1965. In press. U.S. Civil Service Commission Working for the U.S.A. Pamphlet 4. May 1964. 24 pp. 15 cents. •Thinking About Your First Job? Pamphlet 5. April 1964. Free. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Office of Education Financing an Undergraduate Education, 1964. 21 pp. 1964. 15 cents. The National Defense Student Loan Program. 1962. 10 cents. 65 SUGGESTED FORM OF APPLICATION Name (first, middle, last): Miss Mrs. Social Security No.: Education Current address (number, street, city, State, Zip Code): Phone at current address: Permanent address (number, street, city, State, Zip Code): Phone at permanent address: Birth date (month, day,.year): Height: ft. 66 in. Date available to start work: Weight: Name and location of last high school attended: Dates attended: from: to: Curriculum followed (Academic, Business, other): Extracurricular activities: Date of graduation: Offices held: Part time: Full time: Honors won: Special skills, interests, and hobbies (driving a car, typing, foreign languages): Starting date: Closing date: Name of previous firm: Name of supervisor: Community activities: Address: Work Experience Name of present firm, if any: Kind of business: Name of supervisor: Wages: Starting: Final: Address: Position (clerk, typist, etc.): Kind of business: Parttime: Full time: Wages: Starting: Final: per per per per Starting date: Closing date: List of accompanying papers: Position (clerk, typist, etc.): 67 U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 6 6 O—798-001