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PAGE ONE Economics


Money or Financial Investment?
Scott A. Wolla, Ph.D., Senior Economic Education Specialist

Exchange: A market (real or virtual) in which
buyers and sellers of financial instruments
meet to conduct trades.

“Economists like to argue that money belongs in the same class as the
wheel and inclined plane among ancient inventions of great social
utility. Price stability allows that invention to work with minimal friction.”
—Ben S. Bernanke

Bitcoin has become a cultural and financial phenomenon. While many
people have heard of Bitcoin, far fewer understand it. In short, Bitcoin is a
digital currency, or “cryptocurrency,” that allows person-to-person transactions independent of the banking system. Bitcoin is not a physical coin
that you keep in your purse or wallet. Rather, it is a virtual currency—a
digital computer code you store in a virtual wallet in cyberspace and access
with a computer or smartphone app. Some see Bitcoin as revolutionary
because it allows people to transfer money to each other very easily (like
sending an email), even across international borders. Lately, however, many
people are buying this virtual currency purely as a financial investment,
hoping it will appreciate, rather than using it for transactions. So which is
it—currency or financial asset? Or perhaps the line dividing one from the
other is not very clear.

Is Bitcoin Money?
Traditionally, currency is produced by a nation’s government. In the United
States, the U.S. Treasury, through the United States Mint and the Bureau
of Engraving and Printing, produces the coins and bills we spend. The
Federal Reserve System (the central bank of the United States) distributes
money through the banking system. This money is fiat money; that is, its
value is not backed by gold or some other commodity. Instead, its value
comes from its general acceptance as money. In other words, U.S. dollar
bills and coins are useful as money because of the way people use them
in the economy.
Money serves three functions in an economy: medium of exchange, store
of value, and unit of account. To be an effective medium of exchange,
money must be acceptable in exchange for goods and services. Bitcoin can
be used as a medium of exchange for a limited number of goods. Bitcoin’s
credibility as a medium of exchange was enhanced when Richard Branson
March 2018

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PAGE ONE Economics®
accepted Bitcoin from the Winklevoss twins for a ride
on his spacecraft.1 While the number of companies that
accept payment in Bitcoin has been growing, these transactions still represent a tiny part of the economy. In addition, while Bitcoin was created as a peer-to-peer payment
system, many of the Bitcoin transactions that occur
between consumers and companies involve “middlemen”
who facilitate the transactions by exchanging Bitcoin
into conventional currencies.2 A transaction itself can be
costly in both time and money—on average, it takes 78
minutes to confirm a transaction (although it can take
much longer) and costs $28 to complete a transaction.3
In addition, people generally prefer a medium of exchange
that maintains stable value over time (as compared with
services or a basket of goods). For example, the Federal
Reserve’s inflation goal is 2 percent annually. If this target
is achieved, the U.S. dollar will lose purchasing power at
2 percent per year. The Federal Reserve considers this
inflation level to be “price stability”; that is, a rate of inflation that is low and stable enough to be nearly irrelevant
to people’s economic decisions. Bitcoin’s value, however,
has not been stable over its history.
Because money also serves as a store of value, the stability
of that value is even more important. Bitcoin’s value has
grown quite dramatically in recent years. Now, volatile
prices might not seem to be a threat to the store-of-value
function of money when prices are rising; but when
prices are falling, people are reminded that stable value
is an important aspect of store of value. For example,
Bitcoin has had several periods when prices fell dramatically, including a 20 percent decline in value on the morning of November 29, 2017.4 In fact, Bitcoin experienced
five different episodes of at least 20 percent losses (what
market watchers describe as a “bear market”) during
2017.5 Economist Robert Shiller says this volatility damages Bitcoin’s store-of-value credibility and is a major
hurdle to its acceptance as a currency.6
The store-of-value function has also been diminished
because of hacking attacks, thefts, and other security
problems.7 For example, hackers brought down Mt. Gox,
which in 2014 was the largest Bitcoin exchange, and
850,000 Bitcoins went missing at the same time (valued at
$14 billion at a price of $17,000 each).8 On December 7,
2017, hackers stole $70 million worth of Bitcoin.9 Bitcoin
owners lack the ability to hold Bitcoin as a deposit in a
bank; instead, owners must hold them in a digital wallet,

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and deposits are not government insured the way the
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the National
Credit Union Administration insure deposits at banks
and credit unions.
Money also serves as a unit of account, a common measure to value goods and services. Because Bitcoin prices
fluctuate dramatically while the market is open and from
day to day, retailers must recalculate their Bitcoin price
frequently, which is likely to confuse both buyers and
sellers. In addition, the price of Bitcoin fluctuates on
exchanges, and Bitcoin often trades at different prices
on different exchanges, which further complicates pricing decisions by sellers.10 Finally, the high cost of one
Bitcoin relative to the price of ordinary goods requires
merchants to quote Bitcoin prices for most goods to four
or five decimal places. For example, if a Bitcoin trades
for $11,000, a $2 candy bar (in Bitcoin, or BTC) would be
priced at 0.00018 BTC, or 1.8 x 10–4 BTC. Most modern
accounting systems accommodate two decimal points
in the price of a good (not five). In short, while Bitcoin is
a virtual currency, it lacks some key characteristics that
could render it more useful.

Is Bitcoin a Financial Investment?
The line between money and financial assets is not
always clear. In fact, money is a type of financial asset—
one that is highly liquid (used to make payments) but
that typically pays little or no interest.11 Other types of
financial assets are less liquid but offer the potential to
pay returns. For example, people buy stocks and bonds
with the expectation that they will earn interest, receive
dividend payments, or sell the asset at a higher price in
the future. While Bitcoin was originally developed to
function as currency, there has been a noticeable increase
in demand from those who buy Bitcoin as a speculative
This speculation by investors has driven Bitcoin prices to
rise so fast that some financial experts call it a “financial
bubble.” One definition of a bubble is when the price of
an asset diverges from its underlying fundamental value.
Think of a bubble you blow with bubble gum—as you
blow more air into the bubble it gets bigger and bigger,
but at some point the pressure exceeds the capacity of
what the gum can hold, and it pops. Similarly, a financial bubble occurs when increasing demand for an asset
causes its price to rise higher and higher, far above its

PAGE ONE Economics®

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Dutch Tulip Bubble
One of the classic examples of a financial bubble dates back to the 1600s in the Netherlands. Tulips were relatively new to Western Europe
in the 1600s, recently imported from Turkey, but they quickly became a status symbol as they were very popular and considered a luxury.
Some tulip bulbs were valued more than others; that is, the bulbs that produced flowers with streaked flame-like patterns were valued
above bulbs that produced single-colored flowers. A market for tulip bulbs developed, and tulip growers started bidding up their prices.
Before long, it wasn’t just tulip growers who were interested in buying the bulbs. Once prices started rising, financial innovations such as
“futures” and “options” markets started to develop, which allowed investors to bet on rising prices without actually taking possession of
the bulbs.21 Buyers bid for the rare bulbs—racing to buy before prices increased further. By 1636, the tulip bulb became the fourth-largest
export of the Netherlands. The rarest of these bulbs were worth quite a bit. In January 1637, a single Semper Augustus bulb was worth
the equivalent of one of the nicest homes in Amsterdam complete with coach house and garden. But you would have been sorry if you
bought one of those bulbs in January 1637 because by February, speculators decided they were unwilling to support the high prices and
pulled out of the market. As prices fell, investors clamored to sell before prices fell any further, and the market (and prices) collapsed.22 In
hindsight, tulip bulbs were drastically overpriced. Investing in overpriced assets often relies on the “greater fool theory” of investing, which
says that the intrinsic value of a financial asset is not what is important, but it is what people are willing to pay for it that is. As long as there
is a “greater fool” who is willing to pay a higher price, people are going to buy. As long as the price rises, this works well. But prices don’t
rise forever, and bubbles often pop—the loser is the one left holding the asset when prices drop.23 The story of Dutch tulip bulbs is used
as a warning to avoid the speculative behavior that often results in financial bubbles.

underlying value. As prices rise, current investors enjoy
rising asset prices and might be tempted to buy more.
Others, afraid they are missing an opportunity, may see
the upward momentum and choose to invest, assuming
that the trend will continue. But bubbles often pop—
that is, there is a big price drop—generating large losses
for those holding the asset.
How quickly did Bitcoin prices rise? While prices fluctuated wildly during the year, Bitcoin finished 2017 with
a gain that was just shy of 1,400 percent.13 Financial
experts see investors’ excitement about Bitcoin as similar
to investors’ response to technology stocks in the 1990s
and houses in the 2000s—in both cases, investors continued to buy even after prices had climbed, expecting
that others would buy the asset from them at even higher
prices in the future. Others, afraid they were missing out
on a potential opportunity for profits, were drawn in—
pushing prices even higher.
Both Jamie Dimon, CEO of JPMorgan Chase, and Warren
Buffett, regarded as one of the world’s most successful
investors, have called Bitcoin a bubble.14 Dimon has said
that it is worse than the infamous tulip bulb bubble of
the 1630s15 (see boxed feature). Buffett says Bitcoin is
difficult to value because it’s not a value-producing
asset.16 Stocks represent ownership of real capital and
often provide a stream of dividend income; Bitcoin provides neither real capital nor income. Robert Shiller, the
Nobel laureate economist who predicted the two biggest
speculative markets in recent history (the tech-stock

bubble of the 1990s and home prices in the 2000s), has
also called Bitcoin a bubble.17 Shiller even speculates on
the possibility of competing cryptocurrencies replacing
Bitcoin and driving its value to zero.18
Of course, bubbles are hard to spot while they are happening. Investors inevitably disagree about the “proper”
value for an asset, and it’s even harder to predict when
bubbles will pop. Former Federal Reserve Chair Alan
Greenspan suggested on December 5, 1996, that people
were engaging in “irrational exuberance” by investing in
overvalued technology stocks. His question seems applicable today: “But how do we know when irrational exuberance has unduly escalated asset values, which then
become subject to unexpected and prolonged contractions?” After Greenspan posed this question, stock values
continued to rise, at an even faster rate, for several more
years. January 10, 2000, is generally seen as the price
peak, before the tech-stock bubble burst and many
investors lost considerable amounts of wealth. Only
time will tell if the exuberance of Bitcoin buyers has
been irrational.

Bitcoin has characteristics that allow it to function as
money and make it a useful payment method. That is, it
is relatively easy to transfer Bitcoin to other people or
businesses, even for international transactions. However,
other aspects of Bitcoin make it less desirable for everyday transactions, including security problems and volatile

PAGE ONE Economics®
price fluctuations. The value of currency is determined
by supply and demand. While the demand for Bitcoin
has grown as people speculate on its future value, the
supply of Bitcoin is set to grow at an inflexible, predetermined rate. As a result, as demand for Bitcoin has fluctuated, so has its price. This price volatility has undermined
Bitcoin’s ability to serve as a store of value. In contrast,
governments often delegate the value of their official
currencies to their central banks. For example, the Federal
Reserve was founded to provide an “elastic currency” to
ensure that it could adjust the money supply to provide
price stability in the face of changing demand.19
Bitcoin’s characteristics as a financial asset have drawn
the interest of many and created the potential for financial loss. While the line between money and financial
asset is not clear, people’s actions often reveal the role
the asset is playing in the economy. Lately, the excitement surrounding Bitcoin has been around buying it as
a financial investment, not using it as money to buy goods
and services. Weighing in on the issue, former Federal
Reserve Chair Janet Yellen said that Bitcoin is “not a stable
source of store of value, and it doesn’t constitute legal
tender”; in her judgement, Bitcoin “is a highly speculative asset.”20 n

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Yermack (2013, see footnote 2).


Lee, Timothy. “A Brief History of Bitcoin Hacks and Frauds.” Ars Technica,
December 5, 2017;
9 Iyengar, Rishi. “More Than $70 Million Stolen in Bitcoin Hack.” CNN Tech,
December 8, 2017;

Yermack (2013, see footnote 2).

11 Money may be in the form of currency, which pays no interest, or bank deposits,

which typically pay fairly low interest on transaction accounts.
12 Cochrane, John H. “Bitcoins and Bubbles.” The Grumpy Economist, November 30,

Shell (2017, see footnote 5).

14 Nicklaus, David. “To Investment Pros, Bitcoin Looks Like a Classic Bubble,”
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, December 5, 2017;
15 Oyedele, Akin. “Jamie Dimon: Bitcoin Is a Fraud That’s ‘Worse Than Tulip
Bulbs.’” Business Insider, September 12, 2017;
16 Johannesson, Makail. “Inside Warren Buffett’s Master Class on Bitcoin, SelfDriving Vehicles—and Life.” Marketwatch, October 29, 2017;
17 Oyedele, Akin. “Robert Shiller: Bitcoin Is the ‘Best Example Right Now’ of a
Bubble.” Business Insider, September 5, 2017;

Shiller (2017, see footnote 6).


Berentsen, Aleksander and Schär, Fabian. “A Short Introduction to the World of
Cryptocurrencies.” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, 2018, 100(1), pp. 1-16;

1 Randewich, Noel. “Winklevoss Twins Use Bitcoin to Book Space Trip.” Reuters,
March 5, 2014;

20 Transcript of Chair Yellen’s Press Conference, December 13, 2017;

2 Yermack, David. “Is Bitcoin a Real Currency? An Economic Appraisal.” No. w19747.

21 C.W. and A.J.K.D. “Was Tulipmania Irrational?” Economist, October 4, 2913;

National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013;
3 Browne, Ryan. “Big Transaction Fees Are a Problem for Bitcoin—But There Could

Be a Solution.” CNBC, December 19, 2017;
4 Franck, Thomas and Imbert, Fred. “Bitcoin Plunges 20% From Its High.” CNBC,
November 30, 2017;

22 Sooke, Alastair. “Tulip Mania: The Flowers That Cost More Than Houses.” BBC,
May 3, 2016;
23 Buttonwood. “The Bitcoin Bubble.” Economist, November 1, 2017;

5 Shell, Adam. “Bitcoin Price: Digital Currency Had Big Swings in 2017.” USA Today,

December 30, 2017;
Shiller, Robert J. “What is Bitcoin Worth? Don’t Even Ask.” New York Times,
December 15, 2017;


Please visit our website and archives for more information and resources.
© 2018, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Views expressed do not necessarily reflect official positions of the Federal Reserve System.

PAGE ONE Economics®

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Name___________________________________ Period_______
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Page One Economics ®:
“Bitcoin: Money or Financial Investment?”

After reading the article, complete the following:
1. Most people hold Bitcoin in
A. an account at their local bank.
B. the coin pouch in a wallet.
C. a jar on their dresser.
D. a virtual wallet.
2. Because Bitcoin can be used to buy goods and services, it serves as a
A. medium of exchange.
B. transfer payment.
C. unit of account.
D. store of value.
3. The value (in dollars) of Bitcoin fluctuated dramatically in 2017. For savers, this has diminished its function as a
A. medium of exchange.
B. transfer payment.
C. unit of account.
D. store of value.
4. The value (in dollars) of Bitcoin fluctuated dramatically in 2017. For people trying to quote the prices of goods and
services, this has diminished its function as a
A. medium of exchange.
B. transfer payment.
C. unit of account.
D. store of value.
5. Bitcoin transactions often involve “middlemen” and transaction fees for people buying goods and services. This has
diminished its function as a
A. medium of exchange.
B. transfer payment.
C. unit of account.
D. store of value.

PAGE ONE Economics®

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6. Why is it hard to spot a financial bubble?
A. It is difficult to determine the proper value of an asset.
B. It is difficult to buy some assets.
C. It is difficult to sell some assets.
D. Bubbles often deflate quickly.
7. Given the way people have used Bitcoin to earn a profit, many people (including Janet Yellen) believe Bitcoin is being
used primarily as
A. a collectible, like antique coins to a coin collector.
B. a financial investment.
C. computer code.
D. money.
8. What is the most important aspect of the “greater fool theory” of investing?
A. You can diversify investment options to ensure all your eggs are not in a single basket.
B. The “intrinsic” value of an asset is the most important aspect of investing.
C. A fool and his money are soon parted—so keep it in a savings account.
D. You have a “greater fool” willing to buy the asset at a higher price.