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SPOKANE, WASHINGTON
MAY 1962

Bulletin No. 1303-73




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arfhur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clogue, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey

SPOKANE, WASHINGTON




MAY 1962

Bulletin No. 1303-73
August 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewon Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The L a b o r M a r k e t O ccu pa tiona l Wage Su rvey P r o g r a m
The B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics annually conducts
occupational w age su r v ey s in 82 labor markets.
The
studies provide data on occupational earnings and re la ted
sup plem en tary benefits.
A p r e l im i n a r y report furnishing
trend data and a v e r a g e earnin gs is r e le a s e d within a month
of the completion of each study.
This bulletin provides
additional data not included in the p re lim i n a ry report.
T w o bulletins, b ringing together the results of all
of the a r e a s urv ey s, ar e is s u e d after completion of the
final a r e a bulletin in the cu rrent round of surveys.
The
f i r s t of these bulletins w i l l be available late in 1962 and
the other e a r l y in 1963. D u rin g the survey year, s u m m ary
r e l e a s e s pre sentin g a r e a w id e occupational earnings data
fo r 25 to 30 l a b o r m a r k e t s, are is s ue d as data beco me
av aila b le .
This bulletin w a s p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u ' s r e ­
gion al office in San F r a n c i s c o , C alif. , by Ro bert L. O r r ,
under the d irecti on of W i l l i a m P. O' Connor.
The study
w a s under the g e n e r a l d ir ection of John L. Dana, A s s i s t ­
ant R egio nal D i r e c t o r fo r W a g e s and Industrial Relations.




Introduction _______________________________________________________________________
W age trends for selecte d occupational groups _____________________________

1
3

T a b le s :
1.
2.

A:

Esta blis hm ents and w o r k e r s within scope of su r v e y _______________
P e rc e n ts of in c r e a s e in standard w eek ly s a l a r i e s and
straigh t-tim e ho urly earnin gs fo r selecte d
occupational groups ___________________________________________________
Occupational e a r n in g s :*
A - 1. O ffice occupations— en and w o m en __________________________
m
A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l and technical occupations— en
m
and w o m e n _______________________________________________________
A - 3 . Office, p ro fe s s io n a l, and technical
occupations— en and w o m e n combined _____________________
m
A - 4 . Maintenance and pow erp lant occupations ____________________
A - 5. Custo dial and m a t e r i a l m ovement occupations _____________

2

3

4
5
6
7
8

Appendixes:
A.
B.

Changes in occupational des cri ptio ns ________________________________
Occupational descri ptio ns ______________________________________________

* N O T E : S i m il a r tabulations fo r these it em s and also
tabulations on es ta bli sh m ent p ra c t ic e s and supplem en tary
w age p ro v is io ns ar e av aila ble in prev iou s a r e a re po rts
fo r Spokane and fo r other m a j o r a r e a s .
A d ir e c t o r y in­
dicating the a r e a s , dates of study, and p r ic e s of these
re po rts is av aila b le upon request.
Union sc a le s , indicative of p re v a ilin g pay lev els,
ar e also av aila b le fo r the follo w in g trad es, or indu stries
in the Spokane a r e a : Building construction, printing, l o c a l tr ansit operating em plo yees, and m o to rtru ck d r i v e r s and
h elp ers.

iii

9
11




Occupational Wage Survey—Spokane, Wash.
Introduction

are presented (in the A -series tables) for the following types of occu­
pations: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U.S. De­
partment of L a bo r!s Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys
of occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an area basis.
The bulletin presents current occupational employment and
earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments
visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for
occupations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
since the previous survey.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i . e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

In each area, data are obtained from representative establish­
ments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transpor­
tation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services.
Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations
and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having
fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because
they tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied
to warrant inclusion.
Separate tabulations are provided for each of
the broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (l ) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv­
ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this
basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average
pay when both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
pe rformed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments.
To obtain
optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re ­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, except
for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job.
(See appendix for listing of these descriptions.) Earnings data




1

2




Table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Spokane, Wash.,
Number of establishments
Within
scope of
study 1
3
2

Industry division

Studied

by major industry division, 2 May 1962
Workers in establishments
Within
scope of
study

Studied

__________

134

67

23, 400

16,420

Manufacturing _______________________________________ _______________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________________________________________
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities4 ___ _________ ____ __________________ _________ __
Whole sale trade 5 ________________ __ __________________ _______
Retail trade 3 .. ,
__
Finance, insurance, and real estate5 ____________________ ____
Services 5 6 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------->

43
91

23
44

8, 200
15,200

6, 110
10,310

19
15
37
8
12

1
1
8
12
6
7

A ll divisions ____________________________________________

5,
1,
5,
1,
1,

700
300
600
100
500

4, 910
850
2, 410
990
1, 140

1 The Spokane Standard Metropolitan Statistical A rea consists of Spokane County.
The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown
in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estimates are not
interded, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning
of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments
are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division. Major
changes from the earlier edition (used in the Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of milk pasteurization
plants and ready-mixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting
from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum-size limitation (50 employees). All outlets (within the area) of
companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
5 This industry division is represented in estimates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or more of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too small to provide enough data
to merit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to
permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
6 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering
and architectural services.

3
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of
office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average earnings
of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over­
time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The per­
centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include
most of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The of­
fice clerical data are based on men and women in the following 19 jobs:
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting, class A
and B; clerks, file, class A, B, and C; clerks, order; clerks, pay­
roll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B;
office boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators,
class B; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial nurses. Men in the following
8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs were included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; me­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and
die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers,
material handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average sa l­




T a b l e 2.

The percent of change measures, principally, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan­
sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers
employed by establishments with different pay levels.
Changes in the
labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion
might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific
occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction
in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
occurred in other area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime,
since they are based on pay for straight-time hours.

P e r c e n t s of in c re a se in standard w e e k ly s a l a r i e s and s tr a ig h t-t im e h o u rly earnin gs fo r
sel ecte d occupational gr ou ps in Spokane, W a s h ., M a y 1961 to M a y 1962

Occupational group

O ffi ce c l e r i c a l (men and w o m en) __________________________
I n d u s tr ia l n u rs e s (m en and w omen) ______________________
S k il le d maintenance (men) _________________________________
U n s k i l l e d plant (men) ________________________________________

l

aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average employ­
ment in the job during the period surveyed in 1961.
These weighted
earnings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an ag­
gregate for each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group
aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the other year was
computed and the difference between the result and 100 is the percent
of change from the one period to the other.

Insufficient data to meet publication c r it e r ia .

A l l in du stries

2.6
( l )

3.9
5.5

M anufactu ri ng

n
(‘ )
4.1
3.9

4

A:

Occupational Earnings

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
( A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t- tim e w e e k ly h ou rs and ea rn in gs f o r s e le c te d occu pation s studied on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u stry d iv is io n , Spokane, W ash., M a y 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

Average
Sex, occu p ation , and in d u stry d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weeklyt
Weekly, 10.00
hours
earnings
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
45.00
—

^5.00

10.00 15.00

% 0 .0 0

1)5.00

70.00

75.00

80.00 *85.00

$
90.00 *95.00 100.00 *105.00 *110.00 115.00 *120.00 *125.00 *130.00 *3 5 .0 0 *140.00

50.00

55.00

65.00

70.00

75.00

80.00

85.00

95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00

60.00

90.00

M en

C le r k s , accou n tin g, c la s s A -------- „ _
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ __ ------ --------------N on m an u factu rin g _____________________
P u b lic u t ilitie s 2 __ _______________

61
19
42
29

40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

$110.00
109.50
110.50
109.50

-

-

C le r k s , a ccou n tin g, c la s s B

____

23

38.5

87.00

_

_

_
C le r k s , o r d e r _____ „ __ __ _____
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________

35
27

40.0
40.0

98.00
.."96" 50"

-

B ille r s , m ach in e (b illin g m ach in e) _____
N on m an u factu rin g _____________________

21
20

40.0
40.0

71.50
69.60

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s A __ _____ ____________________________
N on m an u factu rin g _ __ ____________ _

23
17

40.0
4 0

80.50
T O tf

39.0
39.0

61.00
2
6 0 o ---- —

______

6
1
5
3

11
2
9
6

12
2
10
8

8
7
1
1

11
11
10

3
3

1
1
-

1
1
-

1

-

-

1

2

1

4

4

2

_

1

_

_

_

-

“

5
4

8
6

8
6

12
11

-

-

-

2
"

-

2
2

2
2

1
1

3
3

-

-

"

-

-

-

3

3
3

4
4

-

-

-

_

3

3

1

"

-

-

-

"

6
6

4
4

2
2

-

3
2
1
1

2
------~
-

-

-

-

-

-

2
1
1

1
1
-

_

_

■

"

.

.

.

-

-

W om en

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s B ____ _____ _____
____ __
_
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _ _____ _________ _

151
— RT~

-

-

-

-

"

"

*

"

2
2

4
4

30
30

43
43

34
34

27
25

3
3

3
3

9
9

9
6

17
4
13
2

13
13
7

_

_

------ 2
T

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

8
8

15
2
13

~

-

-

13
13
-

-

10
10

19
19

1
1

4

2

3
3

4
4

2
2
-

3
3

13
13

22
22

1

1

60
48

40.0
40.0

85.00
84.50

C le r k s , accou n tin g, c la s s B __ _____ _
M a n u fa ctu rin g __________________________
N on m an u factu rin g _____________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2 __ _________
_

107
25
82
16

39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0

72.50
85.50
68.50
78.50

_
_

33
30

39.5
39.5

60.00
T O O

__ _

29

40.0

70.00

C le r k s , p a y r o ll ___ __ __ _____ __
_
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ -----___________
N on m an u factu rin
____________________

48
21
27

40.0
40.0
40.0

80.00
85.00
76.00

C o m p to m e te r o p e r a to r s _ ____________ _
N on m an u factu rin g _____________________

73
58

40.0
40.0

68.00
64.00

"

K eypunch o p e r a to r s , c la s s A 3 _________

28

40.0

88.00

.

C le r k s , f ile , c la s s B 3 ______ __ _____
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ___________ __

C le r k s , o r d e r

_____

__ _____

_____

_
-

-

-

-

_

4
------T ~
.

_

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

'

■

“

_

_

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
3

3
2

1
1

3
3

_

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

~

-

_
-

_
-

2
2
2

_
"

_
-

4
4
-

_
-

_• _
-

_
-

-

_
"

_

_

_

_

3

_

_

_

_

■

-

■

■

“

“

~

■

“

■

6

1

.

4

.

.

.

.

.

.

2
2

1
1

13
3
10

2
2
"

6
3
3

~

-

1
1
"

1
1
-

"

1
1
"

-

10
2

6
5

7
1

2
2

1
1

_

2

_

2

_

_

1
1

6

“

2

-

-

4
2

10
6

10
10

12
12
3

12
n
1
-

11
4
7
2

.

_

*
3

9

____________
__ __ ____

C le r k s , accou n tin g, c la s s A
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _ __

5
4
1

$

5
-----—

-

7
4
3

4
1
------i ~ ----- j —

4

7

-

6
— r~

-

________i
See fo o tn o te s at end of ta b le.




1

_
-

-

~

_

_

_

_

_

_

”

~

“

"

■

_

9

2

_

_

_

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

_
-

_

_

_

5
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women----Continued
(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e w e e k ly hours and ea rn in g s fo r s e le c te d occu pation s stu died on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u stry d iv is io n , Spokane, W ash. , M ay 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

A verage

Sex, occu p ation , and in d u s try d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

$

$

Weekly,
Weekly , 4 0.00 *45. 00 *50. 00 *55. 00 *60.00 *65. 00 *70. 00 75. 00 80.00 *85. 00 *90. 00
hours1
earnings1 and
(Standard) (Standard) u nder

$

$
$
$
95.00 *100.00 *105.00 110.00 115.00 *120.00 *125.00 *130.00 *135.00 140.00

45 .0 0 50. 00 -55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75. 00 80. 00 85.00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00

W om en — C ontinued

O ffic e g ir ls ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------

23
23

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$63. 00
63.00

S e c r e t a r ie s ------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------

121
45
76

39. 5
4 0 .0
39.5

89.00
104. 50
80.00

S te n o g ra p h e rs , g e n e r a l3 ---------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------

59
48

39 .5
39. 5

65.00
65.00

-

14
14

_

-

10
10

5

25
21

8
8

~

"

“

1
1

"

-

5
5

4

-

-

-

2
2

-

6

5

“

"

12
12

15
2
13

7
2

6
6

4
4

.

“

■

12
7
5

15
5
10

1
1

2
-

12
4

12
4

8

8

2
2

.

_

_

_

*

“

"

~

-

~

2

"

14
14
13

3
3
3

3

4

-

-

-

5
5

-

“

'

"

“

"

~

5
4
1

11

-

S w itch b o a rd o p e r a to r s ------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------P u b lic u tilit ie s 2 --------------------------------

53
48
18

39.5
39.5
4 0.0

75. 00
72.00
87. 50

-

5
5

10
10

6
6

1
1

8
7

2

-

-

S w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t io n is t s ----M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------

67
21
46

40. 5
4 0 .0
40. 5

66. 50
74. 50
63.00

11

-----------------

19

39.0

73. 50

-----------------------------

70
43

4 0 .0
39. 5

71. 50
57. 00

6
1

_

.

.

“

"

-

.

.

-

-

"

“

■

_

.

.

.

-

-

-

“

-

4
-

-

-

-

-

“

"

■

■

"

■

.

_

.

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

-

18

11

-

2

2
2

5
5

.

2

-

-

-

9

11

6
5
1

.

2

16

1

"

~

4

"

.

_

4

4

1

1

4

3

_

_

_

8
8

9
9

5
5

15
13

11

3

_

.

-

-

1

-

“

~

"

_

1

19

1

11

-

-

■

.

_

2

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women

“

"

1 S tan d ard h ou rs r e f l e c t the w o rk w e e k fo r w h ich em p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th eir r e g u la r s tr a ig h t- tim e s a la r ie s and the ea rn in gs c o r r e s p o n d to th ese w e e k ly h ou rs.
2 T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s .
3 D e s c r ip t io n fo r th is jo b has b een r e v is e d sin c e the la s t s u rv e y in this a re a . See appendix A .




■

1
1

-

2
-

S a la rie s o f p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d
fro m th is re p o r t.
D ata do not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r it e r ia .

"

1
1

3

2

6

11
11

2

-

.

-

2
2

2
2

2

.

-

1
1
1

"

2
-

11
10
1

-

6
6
6

■

■

2

-

.

■

"

"

.

'

2

87. 50
85. 50
90. 00

T y p is ts , c la s s B
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g

.

7
7
5

40 .0
40. 0
40 .0

A

.
■

20
20
19

73
60
38

c la s s

3
3

9
9
3

S te n o g ra p h e rs , s e n io r 3 -------- — — —
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2 -------------------------

T y p is ts ,

"

_

-

■
_

-

"
_

-

~
_

-

-

.

6
Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(A v e r a g e s tra ig h t-tim e w e e k ly earnings fo r s e le c te d occupations studied on an a re a basis
by in du stry d ivisio n , Spokane, W ash. , May 1962)

Occupation and in du stry d iv is io n

Number
of

Average
weekly ,
earning! 1
(Standard)

23
...... 22"

$74.50
72. 50

B ookkeepin g-m ach in e o p e ra to rs , class A ______ -__ _
N onm anufacturing --------------------------------------------

23
17

80. 50
75. 00

B ookkeepin g-m ach in e o p e ra to rs , cla ss B __________
^n^jr^a^iifarti^ring
..

151
144

61. 00
60. 00

_________________________

121
31
90
43

97. 50
100.00
96. 50
104.50

C le r k s , accounting, cla ss A
Nonm anufacturing ------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 -----

---„ „

„ ------ ------ —
------------------------

Number
of

O ccupation and in d u stry d iv is io n

earnings *
(Standard)

130
36
94
19

75. 00
86. 50
71.00
81. 50

C le rk s , file , cla ss B 3 ___________ ___________________
N onm anufacturing __________________________________

33
30

60. 00
55. 50

$85. 00
83. 00

S ten ograp h ers, s e n io r 1 ________________________________
3
2
Nonm anufacturine 5 ___________________________________
6
Pu b lic u tilitie s
_________________________________

75
62
40

$88.00
85. 50
90. 50

C le rk s , p a y r o ll --------------------------------------------------M anufacturing
____________________________________
N onm anufacturing __________________________________

50
22
28

81. 00
86. 50
77. 00

Sw itchboard o p e ra to rs _________________________________
N onm anufacturing ___________________________________
Pu b lic u tilitie s 2 _________________________________

53
48
18

75. 00
72. 00
87. 50

C o m p tom eter o p era to rs ______________________________
N onm anufacturing __________________________________

76
58

69. 50
64.00

Sw itchboard o p e r a to r -r e c e p tio n is ts __________________
M anufacturing ________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________ _____________

67
21
46

66. 50
74. 50
63. 00

Keypunch o p e ra to rs , cla ss A 3 _____

_______________

28

88. 00

T y p is ts , c la ss A _______________________________________
N onm anufacturing ---------------------------------------------

21
19

76. 00
72. ()0

_ _
__ __
__________________________________

35
32

64. 50
62. 50

T v o is ts , c la ss B _________________________________________
Nonm anufacturing --------------------------------------------..

70
43

71. 50
57. 00

S e c r e ta r ie s _____________________________________________
M anufacturing ______________________________________
N onm anufacturing __________________________________

122
45
77

89. 00
104.50
80. 50

S ten ograp h ers, g e n e r a l3 _____________________________
N onm anufacturing __________________________________

59
48

65. 00
65. 00

_

-

.

_

.....

1 E arn in gs a re fo r a re g u la r w o rk w eek fo r w hich em p lo y ees r e c e iv e th eir s tra ig h t-tim e w eek ly s a la r ie s , e x c lu s iv e of any prem iu m pay.
2 T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m unication, and oth er public u tilitie s .
3 D e s c rip tio n fo r this job has been r e v is e d sin ce the la s t s u rv e y in this a rea . See appendix A .




earning! *
(Standard)

64
55

Nnnm anufartiiring

n ffic p hoys and g ir ls
N onm anufacturing

C le rk s , accounting, cla ss B _________________________
M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------N r'nm anufaf't'vi'r i T g
1
.
.
_
_ _
P u b lic u tilitie s 2 -----------------------------------------

Number
of
workers

O ffic e occu p ation s— Continued

O ffic e occupations— Continued

O ffic e occupations

8

Occupation and indu stry d iv is io n

P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ica l occupations

S a la rie s o f p ro fe s s io n a l and te c h n i­
cal w o rk e rs a r e o m itted fr o m th is re p o r t.
Data do not m eet pu blication c r it e r ia .

7
Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s f o r m en in s e le c te d occu p ation s studied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u stry d iv is io n , Spokane, W ash., M a y 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O ccu p ation and in d u s try d iv is io n

C a r p e n te r s , m a in ten a n ce ____ _______
M a n u fa ctu rin g ___ __ __ __ _____

_________
_________

of
workers

38
30

hourly ,
earnings1

$

2.00
and
under
2.10

2.10
2.20

$

2.20
2.30

$

2.30
2.40

$

2.40
2.50

$

2.50
2.60

$

2.60
2.70

$

2.70
2.80

$

2.80

$

2.90

2.90

1
~

$

3.00

2
2

■

1
1

4

-

■

“

4
4

_

$3.01
2.96

3.35
' 1T3T ""

$

.

l
1

2
2

8
7

.

.

2

-

■

■

■

7
4
3
3

3.10

-

.

3.00

5

E le c t r ic ia n s , m a in ten a n ce
________________ __
M a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------

115
96

E n g in e e r s , s ta tio n a ry __ _____ __ _____ _____
M a n u f a c t u r in g ___ _________________ __ ___
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _______________________ ______
P u b lic u tilitie s 2 ____________________________

71
47
24
16

2.92
"3.(58 2.60
2.57

.

.

.

-

-

-

.
-

"

F ir e m e n ,

s ta tio n a ry b o ile r ______________________

22

2.53

.

6

M a c h in is ts , m a in ten a n ce _________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ___ __ __ __ __ ------ -------

87
83

3.16
3.16

■

■

■

3.20

3.30

$

3.30
3.40

$

3.40
3.50

$

3.50
3.60

$

3.60
3.70

2

2
1

12
12

3
~

-

■

6
6

-

-

75
74

-

“

1
1

.

15

_
-

■

■

■

“

■

“

“

.

3

.

.

.

.

.

.

■

34
31

4
4

4
4

-

33
33

1

■

22
22

98
26
72

1
1

-

-

-

-

■

■

"

■

"

"

2
2
1

.

.

5

.

8

.

_

-

-

4
4

"

2
2

5
5

■

.

.

.

.

-

"

3.20

-

3
3

-

6
------g----

$

3.10

10

15
15
12

4
------ 3----

6
6

$

-

—

20
—
-

Id

— nr-

4
5
------ 3— ----- §-----

-

-

M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e ) _________
M a n u fa ctu rin g --------- ----------- __ __________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ___ _________ __ _____ __

142
57
85

3.01
3.03
2.99

.

8

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

■

"

_
-

~

_

8

1

■

~

■

“

M e c h a n ic s , m a in ten a n ce _________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------

184
167

3.26
3.23

_

_

4
4

.

.

_

17

.

-

“

-

■

-

126
126

.

"

30
30

.

-

6
6

_

■

1
1

.

'

"

-

-

45
45

2.61

1

_

_

16
16

2
2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

■

5
5

.

■

21
21

.

■

-

.

1

*

-

-

-

“

-

21

3.14

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

9

2

4

.

.

.

O ile r s __________ _________
M a n u fa ctu rin g _______

_____ _____ — _ —
__ __ __ __ __ __ __

P a in t e r s , m a in ten a n ce ____________________________

1
2

2.61

E x clu d es p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s, and la te sh ifts.
T r a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r pu blic u tilitie s .




.

~

2

4

'

12
9
3

8

Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s f o r s e le c te d occupations studied on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u stry d iv is io n , Spokane, W ash., M a y 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Number
of
workers

O c c u p a tio n 1 and in d u s try d iv is io n

Average
hourly
earnings i

$
1.00
and
1.10

J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
(m en ) _______________________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------N on m an u factu rin g ---------------------------

%

1.10

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ ,
1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30
and

1.20

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

1.70

1.80

1.90

12

_

6

3

3

9

76

12

12

-

6

3

3

9

76

12
2

1.53
1.53

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

14
14

4
4

-

-

-

2.47
2.52
2.42

_

_

_

_

3

_

_

2
2

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

“

_______________________________

135
128

2.10

2.20

2.30

2.40

11
11
11

37
14
23
23

-

18
18

2.53
2.52

274
109
165
36

$1.99
2.44
1.69
2.10

24
24

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l handling
------ _
M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________
N on m an u factu rin g _ ___________________
O rd er fille r s

J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
(w o m e n ) _____________________________ ____
N on m an u factu rin g _____________________

8
1
7

3
3

2.80

2.90

3.00

70
70

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3.10

3.20

3.30

21
8
13

13
13

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Shipping c le r k s ________ _____ _____ ____
M a n u fa ctu rin g
_ __
______ ____ _
N on m an u factu rin g _____________________

32
15
17

2.70
2.60
2.78

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s ___________

16

2.71

_

_

_

_

.

1

336
82
254
141

2.71
2.83
2.67
2.66

N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ________ — — _
P u b lic u t il i t i e s 3 ________________

236
35
201
132

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 tons,
t r a i l e r ty p e) ___________________________
N on m an u factu rin g _ _________ ____

48
44

2.88
2.86

-

-

-

-

-

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 tons,
o th e r than t r a i l e r ty p e ) -----------------

27

3.02

-

-

-

-

-

-

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k l i f t ) _______________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ____ _______________

258
53

37
19
17

1.81

_

1

3
3

_

2.29
2.22

W atchm en _______

_

2.72
2.65

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o th e r than
f o r k lif t ) ______________________________ ____
M a n u fa ctu rin g __________________________

_

2
2

2.64
2.70
2.63
2.66

_______________________

_

24
24
-

60
36
24

29
6
23

81
51
30

61
61

32
27
5

12
12

96
92

9
6

_
_

-

_
_

_
-

“

"

_
_

"

_
_

.
“
_
_

_
_

_

_

_

-

2

-

-

1
"

_

_
_

3
3

_
_

16
16

2
2

3

_

17

11

_

_

.

10
8

3
3

1
i

1

.

-

4
4

3

-

3
3

_
_

_

_

2
2

3
t

4
4

1

2.62
2.48

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m ed iu m ( 1V 2 to and
in clu din g 4 t o n s ) ____________________ -

-

8

~

3
_
3

14
1
13

"

"

'

"

.

-

-

2

3

-

2

3

4

.

-

“

.
20
4
16

.
.

7
_
7
5

15
2
13
10

16

157
16
141
117

16
_
16
6

34
5
29

32
12
20

16
8
8

14
14
_

9
9

.
_
_

7

15
2
13
10

17
5
12

-

5
5

-

-

“

“

11
3
8
~

-

10

~

150
16
134
117

10

7
5

-

"

~

1
1

6
6

17
17

2.49

30
21

T r u c k d r iv e r s 4 _ _____ _____ ___________
_
... ... -..........
M a n u fa ctu rin g
Non-m anufacturing ..........
P iih lir u tilitie s 3

6
— 5“

over

20

59




2.70

30
30

-

19
1
18

shipping _________________________

1
2
3
4

2.60

-

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s __ ___ __________________ .
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________

P a ck ers,

2.50

6
6

375
185
190

2.00

_

_

_

_

_

_

20
4
16

-

-

i t
4

3

1
1

_
_

12
I t

-

-

-

-

8

14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

2

.

3

6

8

15
11

19
5

_

1

70
-

_

"

49
-

.

“

81
37

-

8
-

7
-

2
2

_

3

_

_

1

3

D ata lim ite d to m en w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o th e rw is e in d ica ted .
E xclu d es p re m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s, and la te sh ifts.
'T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m u n ica tion , and o th er pu blic u tilitie s .
Inclu des a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s of s iz e and ty p e of tru ck o p era ted .

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

_

.

4

6

11
8

"

-

8
8

"

9
9

-

■

6

-

-

-

.

.
"

-

-

Appendix A: Changes in Occupational Descriptions

stead of two (class A and B). The revised description for keypunch
operator groups these workers into two defined classes (A and B)

Since the Bureau’ s last survey in this area, occupational
descriptions for three o ffice jobs were revised in order to obtain salary
information for more specific categories. Therefore, data presented
for these jobs in table A -l are not comparable to data presented in last
year’ s bulletin.

instead of a single category. Previously data were presented separately
for general stenographers and technical stenographers. The revision
combines general stenographers, with more responsible duties, and
technical stenographers to form a new senior stenographer category;
other general stenographers are maintained in that classification.

Revisions were made in the descriptions for file clerks, key­
punch operators, and stenographers. The revised description for file
clerk groups these workers into three levels (class A, B, and C) in­




The revised occupational descriptions used this year are in­
cluded in appendix B.

9




Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
B ILLE R , MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type o f machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A —
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (billing machine)—
Vises a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, E lliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge o f basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine ( bookkeeping machine)—
Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A —
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts
11

12

CLERK, ACCOUNTING-Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge o f accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, F ILE
Class A — an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter file s, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower le v e l file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C—
Performs routine filing o f material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical).
As requested, locates readily available material in file s
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.



CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, P A Y R O L L
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE O PE RATO R (MIMEOGRAPH OR D IT T O )
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file o f used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

13

KEYPUNCH O PE RATO R
Class A-Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards* Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B—Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR G IRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and



SECRETARY— Continued
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree o f stenographer
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge o f general busi­
ness and office procedures and o f the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc.
Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

14

SWITCHBOARD O PERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE O PERATOR-Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD O PERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATO R
Class A —
Operates a variety o f tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision o f the work and production
of a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.



TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE O PE RATO R , GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.

T Y P IS T
Uses a typewriter to make copies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A —
Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources err responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing o f complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.

Class B —
Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

15

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts*
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEAD ER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use o f drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicant^
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
C A R PE N TE R , MAINTENANCE

C AR PE NTER , MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




16

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

H E LPE R , MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the ele c­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind o f work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establish•
ments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation o f one or more types o f machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.



Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs o f
metal parts o f mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety o f ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping o f metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions o f
work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge o f the working

17

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties o f the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out o f the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers o f gravity; alining
and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors o f an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work o f the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, M AINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.



O ILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces o f mechanical equipment o f an establishment.

PA IN TE R , MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge o f surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

P IP E F IT T E R , MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

18

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation o f
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as w ell as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATO R OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and
other persons entering.




19

JANITOR, PO R TE R, OR C LEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment.

Duties involve a combination of the following:

Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge o f various items o f stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, M A TE RIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­

A worker emoloyed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the follow­
ing:

Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

sible for incoming shipments o f merchandise or other materials.
ping work involves:
routes,

Ship­

A knowledge o f shipping procedures, practices,

available means of transportation and rates; and preparing

records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file o f shipping records.
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
work involves:

May

Receiving

Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­

ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
ORDER F IL L E R
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers’ orders, or other instructions.
and indicating items filled or omitted,

May, in addition to fillin g orders
keep records of outgoing orders

requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform other related duties.



For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

20

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types o f estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver ( combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type o f
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power ( other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illega l entry.

* U .s . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 0 — 653771


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102