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M 15 *83

Occupational Wage Survey
Public Library

SOUTH BEND, INDIANA
MARCH 1963

K u l let in

N o. 1 3 4 5 -5 2




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Ewan C lague, Com m issioner




Occupational Wage Survey
SOUTH BEND, INDIANA




MARCH 1963

Bulletin No. 1345-52
M a y 1963

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . Willard W irtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTIC S
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25 , D.C.

Price 20 cents




P reface

Contents
Page

The L a b o r M arket O ccupational W age S urvey P r o g r a m
E ig h ty -t w o la b o r m a r k e t s c u r r e n t ly a r e in clu d ed
in the B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s p r o g r a m o f a nn ua l o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s in m a j o r l a b o r m a r k e t s .
These
s t u d i e s p r o v i d e d a t a o n o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s and r e l a t e d
su p plem en ta ry b e n e fits.
In fo r m a tio n on r e la te d s u p p le ­
m e n t a r y b e n e f i t s is o b t a i n e d b i e n n i a l l y in m o s t o f the l a b o r
m arkets.

I n t r o d u c t i o n _____________________________________________________________________
W a g e t r e n d s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s ___________________________
T ables:
1.
2.

A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t w hich p re se n ts
earnings
t r e n d s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s and a v e r a g e e a r n ­
in g s in s e l e c t e d j o b s i s r e l e a s e d w it h in a m o n t h a f t e r
th e c o m p l e t i o n o f th e s t u d y in e a c h a r e a .
T h is bulletin
p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l d a t a not i n c l u d e d in th e p r e l i m i n a r y
rep ort.
A t w o - p a r t s u m m a r y b u l l e t i n is i s s u e d a f t e r the
c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l o f the a r e a b u l l e t i n s f o r a r o u n d o f s u r ­
v e y s ( f o r th e c u r r e n t r o u n d o f s u r v e y s , the f i r s t p a r t o f
th is b u l l e t i n w i l l b e a v a i l a b l e l a t e in 1963 and th e s e c o n d
p a r t e a r l y in 1 9 64).
T h e f ir s t p a rt p r e s e n ts individual
l a b o r m a r k e t data.
T h e s e c o n d p a r t p r e s e n t s da ta r e ­
la t i n g t o a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s in the U n ite d S t a t e s .

A:

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w it h i n s c o p e o f s u r v e y ___________
P e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e in s t a n d a r d w e e k l y s a l a r i e s and
s tr a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly earn ings fo r s e le c t e d
o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s _____________________
O ccupational ea rn in g s:*
A - 1. O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s — e n and w o m e n ________________________
m
A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s ^ m e n
and w o m e n ____________________________________________________
A - 3 . O f f i c e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s —
___________________________
m e n and w o m e n c o m b i n e d
A - 4 . M a i n t e n a n c e a nd p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s ___________________
A - 5. C u s t o d i a l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ----------------

A pp end ix:

O ccu pational d e scrip tio n s

______________________________________

T h i s b u l l e t i n w a s p r e p a r e d in th e B u r e a u ' s r e ­
g i o n a l o f f i c e in C h i c a g o , 111. , b y M a r v i n G l i c k , u n d e r the
d ir e c t io n o f W o o d r o w C. Lin n , A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l D i r e c t o r
f o r W a g e s and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s .




1
3

* N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tion s a re a v a ila b le f o r other
m a j o r a r e a s . (See in side b a c k c o v e r . )
U n io n s c a l e s , i n d i c a t i v e o f p r e v a i l i n g p a y l e v e l s in
the So u th B e n d a r e a , a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r s e v e n s e l e c t e d
buildin g tr a d e s .

iii

2

2

4
6
7
8
9
11




O ccupational W age Survey—South Bend, Ind.
Introduction
T h i s a r e a i s 1 o f 82 l a b o r m a r k e t s in w h i c h the U.S. D e ­
p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ' s B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s c o n d u c t s s u r v e y s of
o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s and r e l a t e d w a g e b e n e f i t s o n an a r e a w i d e b a s i s .

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t and e a r n i n g s data a r e s h o w n f o r
f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . , th ose h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly sched ule
in the g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
E a r n i n g s data e x c l u d e p r e ­
m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
late s h ifts.
N onproduction
bonuses
a re exclu ded,
but c o s t - o f l i v i n g b o n u s e s and i n c e n t i v e e a r n i n g s a r e in c l u d e d .
W here w eek ly
h o u r s a r e r e p o r t e d , a s f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e is
t o the w o r k s c h e d u l e s ( r o u n d e d t o the n e a r e s t h a lf h our) f o r w h i c h
s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s a re paid; a v e r a g e w e e k ly earn in gs fo r these
o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d t o the n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .

T h i s b u l l e t i n p r e s e n t s c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t and
e a r n i n g s i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d l a r g e l y b y m a i l f r o m the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
v i s i t e d b y B u r e a u f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s in the l a s t p r e v i o u s s u r v e y f o r
o c c u p a t i o n s r e p o r t e d in that e a r l i e r stu dy.
P e r so n a l visits w e re made
to n o n r e s p o n d e n t s and t o t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t i n g u n u s u a l c h a n g e s
s i n c e the p r e v i o u s s u r v e y .
In e a c h a r e a , da ta a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts w ithin s ix b r o a d in d u st r y d iv is io n s : M a n u factu rin g ; t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ;
r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a nd r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s . M a j o r
in d u stry g ro u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th ese stu dies a re g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a ­
t i o n s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s .
E sta b lish m en ts
h a v i n g f e w e r th an a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m i t t e d
b e c a u s e t h e y te n d t o f u r n i s h i n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a ­
tions stu died to w a r r a n t in clu s io n .
S ep arate tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f the b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w h i c h m e e t p u b l i c a t i o n
criteria .

D i f f e r e n c e s in p a y l e v e l s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in w h i c h
b o t h m e n and w o m e n a r e c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d a r e l a r g e l y due to
(1) d i f f e r e n c e s in the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the s e x e s a m o n g i n d u s t r i e s and
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; (2) d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c d u t ie s p e r f o r m e d , a lth o u g h
the o c c u p a t i o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y c l a s s i f i e d w it h in the s a m e s u r v e y
j o b d e s c r i p t i o n ; and (3) d i f f e r e n c e s in le n g t h of s e r v i c e o r m e r i t
r e v i e w w h e n i n d i v i d u a l s a l a r i e s a r e a d j u s t e d on th is b a s i s .
Longer
a v e r a g e s e r v i c e o f m e n w o u l d r e s u l t in h i g h e r a v e r a g e p a y w h e n
b o t h s e x e s a r e e m p l o y e d w it h in the s a m e r a t e r a n g e .
Job d e s c r i p ­
t i o n s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u a l l y
m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d th an t h o s e u s e d in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s to
a l l o w f o r m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in s p e c i f i c d u tie s
perform ed .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a re co n d u c te d on a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e of
the u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t i n v o l v e d in s u r v e y i n g a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
To
o b t a i n o p t i m u m a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f
l a r g e th an o f s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s s tu d ie d . In c o m b i n i n g the data,
h o w e v e r , a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e g i v e n t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e w e i g h t .
E sti­
m a t e s b a s e d o n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e ,
as r e l a t i n g t o a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g and a r e a ,
e x c e p t f o r t h o s e b e l o w the m i n i m u m s i z e s tu d ie d .
O ccupations

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t the to t a l in a l l
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h i n the s c o p e o f the s t u d y and not the n u m b e r a c t u ­
a l l y s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , the e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t o b t a i n e d
f r o m the s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d s e r v e o n l y t o i n d ic a t e the
r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f the j o b s s tu d ie d .
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d o n ot m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the a c c u r a c y of the e a r n ­
in g s data.

and E a r n i n g s

T h e o c c u p a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r i e t y
o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g and n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , and a r e o f the
f o l l o w i n g t y p e s : (a) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l ;
(c) m a i n t e n a n c e a nd p o w e r p l a n t ; and (d) c u s t o d i a l and m a t e r i a l m o v e ­
m ent.
O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is b a s e d on a u n if o r m set of jo b
d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o ta ke a c c o u n t o f i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n
in d u t ie s w it h in the s a m e j o b .
The o c c u p a t io n s s e l e c t e d f o r study a re
l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d in the a p p e n d i x .
E a r n i n g s da ta f o r s o m e o f the
o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d in the A - s e r i e s
t a b l e s b e c a u s e e i t h e r (1) e m p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a t i o n i s t o o s m a l l
t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h da ta t o m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r (2) t h e r e i s p o s s i ­
b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t data.




E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s

and S u p p l e m e n t a r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s

T a b u l a t i o n s o n s e l e c t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e ­
m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s ( B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) a r e not p r e s e n t e d in th is
bulletin .
I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s e t a b u l a t i o n s i s c o l l e c t e d b i e n n i a l l y in
t h is a r e a .
T h e s e tabu lation s on m in im u m e n tra n ce s a la r ie s fo r in ­
ex p e rie n ce d w om en o ffice w o r k e r s ;
s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l s ; s c h e d u l e d
w e e k l y h o u r s ; p a i d h o l i d a y s ; p a i d v a c a t i o n s ; and h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e ,
and p e n s i o n p la n s a r e p r e s e n t e d (in the B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) in p r e v i o u s
b u l l e t i n s f o r th is a r e a .

1

2




T a b le 1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e of s u r v e y and n u m b e r stu d ied in South B en d, Ind., 1 b y m a jo r in d u s tr y d iv is io n , 2 M a r c h 1963
N u m b er o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
In d u stry d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

W ithin s c o p e
o f study 3

____ _______ __ __ ________

_____

_____ __

M a n u fa ctu rin g _____ — ___ ____ __ — ___
_____ _____
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ____ _______ — _____ ________ __ __ __
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
o th e r p u b lic u tilit ie s 5 ___________________________________
W h o le s a le tr a d e 6 __________________________________________
. . ____ „ . . „ . . . . . . . . __
R e t a il t r a d e 6 __
F i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e 6 __________________
S e r v i c e s 6* 7 ____ ___ ___ ___ _______ _____ — _____ _____

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
W ithin s c o p e
o f s tu d y 4

Studied

Studied

146

83

43, 900

38, 590

58
88

36
47

32, 800
11, 100

30, 640
7, 950

22
16
27
8
15

16
7
11

2,
1,
3,
2,
1,

5

8

700
500
300
500
100

2, 390
820
1, 980
2, 150
610

1 T he South B en d Standard M e tro p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a c o n s i s t s o f St. J o s e p h C ounty. Th e " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e of stu d y " e s t im a t e s show n
in th is ta b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r ip t io n of the s iz e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in the s u r v e y .
T h e e s t im a t e s a r e
n ot in ten ded, h o w e v e r , to s e r v e as a b a s is of c o m p a r is o n , w ith o th e r e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s f o r the a r e a to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t t r e n d s o r le v e ls
s in c e (1) plan n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u se o f e s ta b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in ad v a n ce o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied , and (2) sm a ll
e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e of the s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1957 r e v is e d e d itio n o f the Standard In d u stria l C la s s ific a t io n M anual w a s u s e d in c la s s if y in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n .
3 In clu d e s a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith total e m p lo y m e n t at o r a b o v e the m in im u m lim ita tio n (50 e m p lo y e e s ). A ll o u tle ts (w ith in the a r e a ) o f
c o m p a n ie s in su ch in d u s tr ie s a s t r a d e , fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o tio n p ic tu r e th e a te r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s ta b lis h m e n t.
4 In clu d e s a ll w o r k e r s in a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l e m p lo y m e n t (w ith in the a r e a ) at o r a b o v e the m in im u m lim it a t io n (50 e m p lo y e e s ).
5 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in c id e n ta l to w a te r tr a n s p o r ta tio n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
6 T h is in d u s tr y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g " in the S e r ie s A t a b le s . S e p a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n
o f data f o r th is d iv is io n is not m a d e f o r on e o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p lo y m e n t in the d iv is io n is t o o s m a ll to p r o v id e enough data
to m e r it s e p a r a te study, (2) the s a m p le w as n ot d e s ig n e d in it ia lly to p e r m it s e p a r a te p r e s e n t a t io n , (3) r e s p o n s e w a s in s u ffic ie n t o r in ad equ ate to
p e r m it s e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n , and (4) t h e r e is p o s s i b il i t y o f d i s c lo s u r e o f in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n t data.
7 H o te ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir s h o p s ; m o tio n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s ; and e n g in e e r in g
and a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v ic e s .

T a b le 2.

P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s
f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s in South B e n d , Ind., f o r s e le c t e d p e r io d s

In d u stry and o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p

A ll in d u s t r ie s :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l (m e n and w om en ) ___________
In d u s tria l n u r s e s (m e n and w om en )
_____
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce (m en ) __________________
U n sk ille d plant ( m e n ) __ ___ ___ ___ _______ __
M a n u fa c tu r in g :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l (m e n and w om en ) ___________
In d u stria l n u r s e s (m e n and w om en ) _______
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce (m en )
____________ __
U n sk ille d plant ( m e n ) __ _____ _____ — __

M a r c h 1962
to
M a r c h 1963

M a r c h 1961
to
M a r c h 1962

2.5
2.5
2.5
3.8

2.3
4.7
3.3

2.1
2.5
2.3
3.7

2.6

4.1
4 .2
3.1

2.2

A p r il I960
to
M a r c h 1961

2.8
2.7
2.9

1.8

3.3
3.2
2.9
2.9

3

Wage T rends for S elected O ccnpational Groups
P r e s e n t e d in t a b le 2 a r e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e in a v e r a g e
s a l a r i e s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s , and in a v ­
e r a g e e a r n i n g s o f s e l e c t e d p la n t w o r k e r g r o u p s .
F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s , the p e r ­
c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e r e l a t e to a v e r a g e w e e k l y s a l a r i e s f o r n o r m a l h o u r s
o f w o r k , that i s , the s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e f o r w h i c h s t r a i g h t - t i m e
s a l a r i e s a r e p a id .
F o r p la n t w o r k e r g r o u p s , t h e y m e a s u r e c h a n g e s
in a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s , e x c l u d i n g p r e m i u m p a y f o r
o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and la te s h i f t s . T h e
p e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d on da t a f o r s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u p a t i o n s and i n ­
c l u d e m o s t o f the n u m e r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t j o b s w ith in e a c h g r o u p . T h e
o f f i c e c l e r i c a l da t a a r e b a s e d on m e n and w o m e n in the f o l l o w i n g 19 j o b s :
B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B; c l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A
and B; c l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A , B, and C; c l e r k s , o r d e r ; c l e r k s , p a y r o l l ;
C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ; k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A and B; o f f i c e
b o y s and g i r l s ; s e c r e t a r i e s ; s t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ; s t e n o g r a p h e r s ,
s e n i o r ; s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s ; t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B;
and t y p i s t s , c l a s s A and B. T h e i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e d a t a a r e b a s e d on
m e n and w o m e n i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s .
M e n in the f o l l o w i n g 8 s k i l l e d
m a i n t e n a n c e j o b s and 2 u n s k i l l e d j o b s a r e i n c l u d e d
in the p la n t
w o r k e r data: S k ille d — c a r p e n t e r s ; e l e c t r i c i a n s ; m a c h in is t s ; m e c h a n i c s ;
m e c h a n i c s , a u t o m o t i v e ; p a i n t e r s ; p i p e f i t t e r s ; and t o o l and die m a k e r s ;
u n s k i l l e d — j a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ; and l a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l
h a n d lin g .
A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s or a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s w e r e
c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h o f the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s .
The a v e r a g e s a la r ie s
o r h o u r l y e a r n i n g s w e r e th en m u l t i p l i e d b y e m p l o y m e n t in e a c h o f




the j o b s d u r i n g th e p e r i o d s u r v e y e d in 19 6 1. T h e s e w e i g h t e d e a r n i n g s
f o r i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e th en t o t a l e d to o b t a in an a g g r e g a t e
f o r e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p . F i n a l l y , the r a t i o ( e x p r e s s e d as a p e r ­
c e n t a g e ) o f the g r o u p a g g r e g a t e f o r the o n e y e a r to the a g g r e g a t e f o r
the o t h e r y e a r w a s c o m p u t e d and the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the r e s u l t and
100 is the p e r c e n t a g e o f c h a n g e f r o m the o n e p e r i o d to the o t h e r .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e m e a s u r e , p r i n c i p a l l y , the e f f e c t s
o f (1) g e n e r a l s a l a r y and w a g e c h a n g e s ; (2) m e r i t o r o th e r i n c r e a s e s
in p a y r e c e i v e d b y i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r s w h i l e in the s a m e j o b ; and
(3) c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e w a g e s due t o c h a n g e s in the l a b o r f o r c e r e ­
s u lt in g f r o m l a b o r t u r n o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s i o n s , f o r c e r e d u c t i o n s , and
c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d b y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
w it h d i f f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s .
C h a n g e s in the l a b o r f o r c e c a n c a u s e i n ­
c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s w it h o u t a c t u a l w a g e
changes.
F o r e x a m p l e , a f o r c e e x p a n s i o n m i g h t i n c r e a s e the p r o ­
p o r t i o n o f l o w e r p a i d w o r k e r s in a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n and l o w e r the
a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s a r e d u c t i o n in the p r o p o r t i o n o f l o w e r p a id w o r k e r s
w o u l d h a v e the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t .
S im ilarly,
the m o v e m e n t o f a
h i g h - p a y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t out o f an a r e a c o u l d c a u s e the a v e r a g e
e a r n i n g s t o d r o p , e v e n th o u gh n o c h a n g e in r a t e s o c c u r r e d in o t h e r
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the a r e a .
T h e u s e o f c o n s t a n t e m p l o y m e n t w e i g h t s e l i m i n a t e s the e f ­
f e c t o f c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h
j o b i n c l u d e d in the da ta.
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e a r e not i n f l u e n c e d
b y c h a n g e s in s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s o r in p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r ­
t i m e , s i n c e t h e y a r e b a s e d on p a y f o r s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r s .

W a g e i n d e x e s f o r s e l e c t e d g r o u p s o f w o r k e r s b a s e d on da ta f r o m the
l a b o r m a r k e t s u r v e y s w e r e c o m p u t e d f o r 20 a r e a s b e t w e e n 1953 a nd I 9 6 0 .
In
1 9 6 1, the l a b o r m a r k e t o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e p r o g r a m w a s e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e
80 S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s w h i c h w i l l b e s u r v e y e d a n n u a lly . T h i s
e x p a n s i o n m a d e data a v a i l a b l e f o r the c o m p u t a t i o n o f w a g e i n d e x e s f o r s e l e c t e d
j o b g r o u p i n g s in e a c h o f the 80 a r e a s .
T h e a b o v e t e x t r e p r e s e n t s the m e t h o d
u s e d in c o m p u t i n g t h e s e n e w w a g e c h a n g e i n d e x e s .
The new s e r i e s w a s in itiated
l a s t y e a r and the da ta a r e n o t c o m p a r a b l e w it h t r e n d s p u b l i s h e d p r i o r t o that t i m e .
T h e n e w s e r i e s c o v e r s the s a m e j o b g r o u p i n g s as the e a r l i e r s e r i e s
w i t h the f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s : T h e c l e r i c a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e g r o u p s , f o r m e r l y
r e s t r i c t e d t o w o m e n , n o w i n c l u d e b o t h m e n and w o m e n .
Changes w e r e a ls o m ade
in the j o b s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n j o b g r o u p i n g s in o r d e r that an i d e n t i c a l l i s t c o u l d be
e m p l o y e d in a ll a r e a s .

4

A:

Occupational Earnings

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(A verage straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision , South Bend, Ind. , M arch 1963)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

N ber
um
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

$
$
$
$
$
1
$
s
i
t
$
$
$
$
$
s
*
W
eeklyj W
eekly 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 *110.00 115.00 120.00 *125.00 130.00 *135.00 *140.00
earnings 1 and
(Standard) (Standard) under
and
45. 00 50.00 -55^00. 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00

Men
C lerk s, accounting, c la s s A ----------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------Nonm anufacturing ----- __ — ------- _

51
30
21

40. 0 $116. 00
40. 0
118. 00
40. 0
113. 00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
-

2
i
i

3
3
-

4
1
3

8
3
5

5
2
3

7
3
4

3
3
-

6
i
5

6
6
-

3
3
-

2
2
-

36

40. 0

96. 50

_

_

_

_

_

_

6

_

9

_

4

_

1

_

9

4

_

2

_

_

1

29
20

40. 0
40. 0

62. 00
63. 00

-

5
5

5
1

3
2

5
3

1
1

7
5

2
2

-

1
1

-

-

'

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

__ ------

32
21

40. 0
40. 0

111. 50
110. 00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

5
3

5
5

4
1

6
4

2
1

1
-

2
2

2
1

2
2

1
-

Tabulating-m achine o p era tors,
cla s s B ________________________________
M anufacturing ------- — — ------- __ _

62
31

40. 0
40. 0

99. 00
102. 00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
5

7
4

11
5

17
5

3
-

2
2

4
4

5
5

_

-

1
-

_

-

2
1

_

-

3
*

_

-

-

-

-

-

B ille r s , m achine (billin g m achine) -------

22

40. 5

74. 50

1

_

1

1

5

2

3

1

1

2

_

2

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

..

Bookkeeping-m ach ine op e ra to rs,
c la s s A ---------------- — — __ — ----------M anufacturing — — __ ------- — — _
Nonm anufacturing ------ — — -----------

51
19
32

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

74. 00
88. 50
65. 50

-

-

-

-

23
23

-

4
4

6
3
3

6
4
2

4
4

1
1

5
5

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

B ook keeping-m ach ine o p erators,
cla s s B --------------------------------------- ------M anufacturing ____ — — __ __ __ _
Nonmanufacturing ----------— ------

158
23
135

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

61. 50
73. 50
59. 50

-

19
19

25
2
23

25
25

34
2
32

26
5
21

14
4
10

7
5
2

4
1
3

2
2
*

1
1
-

-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C lerk s, accounting, cla s s A ----------------Nonm anufacturing ------ — __ __ -----Pu blic u tilities 2 ---------------------------

58
47
15

39. 5
39. 5
40. 0

88. 00
85. 00
92. 50

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

2
2
-

6
6
-

9
8
2

5
5
1

8
8
2

7
6
-

12
9
9

3
3
1

4
-

2
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

C lerk s, accounting, cla s s B ----------------M anufacturing ------- __ __ __ __ __ _
Nonmanufacturing ------ — — — — _

176
61
115

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

66. 50
72. 00
63. 50

_
-

14
2
12

41
7
34

35
7
28

22
9
13

27
16
11

18
7
11

13
8
5

1
1

_
-

5
5
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

.
_

_

_

-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

*

-

C le r k s , file, cla ss A -----------------------------

16

40. 0

84. 00

_

_

_

_

3

1

_

_

1

5

2

3

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

C lerk s, f i l e , c la s s B ___ __ __ __ __ _
M anufacturing _______________________

104
23

40. 0
40. 0

60.00
67. 50

1
-

.

-

32
4

35
5

16
3

5
2

6
1

2
2

6
5

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

27

40. 0

66. 00

_

_

_

8

9

_

6

1

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

C lerk s, p a yroll _________________________
M anufacturing ------__ __ __
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------

106
91
15

40. 0
40. 0
40. 5

82. 50
84. 00
75. 00

-

-

2
2

18
14
4

8
7
1

11
9
2

10
10
'

6
5
1

10
9
1

23
20
3

Z

-

1
1

4
4
-

7
7
-

2
2
-

2
2
-

-

1
1
-

-

-

-

C om ptom eter op era to rs ___ — — — .
M anufacturing ---- ------------- ------- -----

34
33

40. 0
40. 0

91. 00
92. 00

_

_

1

.

1
1

2
2

4
4

3
3

5
5

3
3

1
1

13
13

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

C lerk s, o rd e r

__________________________

O ffice boys ______________________________
M anufacturing -----------------------------------Tabulating-m achine o p era tors,
M anufacturing — __

__

Women

C lerk s, o rd er

__________________________

_

-

—
See footnotes at end of table.




-

-

-

5
Tabic A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women---- Continued
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e w eekly hours and e a rn in g s fo r selec te d occupations studied on an a re a b a sis
by in d u stry division, South Bend, Ind. , M arch 1963)
Sex, occupation, and in d u stry divisio n

Number
of
workers

Average
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF
t
$
j$
$
t
$
Weekly earnings 1 40.00 4 5 . 0 0 *50.00 *55.00 *60.00 *65.00 *70.00 *7 5 . 0 0 *80.00 *85.00 $90.00 95.00 100.00 $105.00 $110.00 $
Weekly . and
115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 s135.00 140.00
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 over

W omen— C ontinued
D uplicating-m achine o p e ra to rs
(M im eograph o r Ditto) ----- —

40. 0 $73. 50

-

1

4

4

3

-

1

1

1

3

4

-

41
40
150
70

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

89. 00
89. 00
70. 50
77.00

.

4
1

“
15
1

15
1

*
18
3

21
11

1
1
22
14

2
2
19
10

12
12
17
13

6
5
14
11

5
5
1
1

12
12
1
1

Office g irls _____________________________

26

40. 0

58. 50

4

7

6

4

2

2
2

1

S e c re ta rie s _____ ____ ___ ____ ___
M anufacturing __ ____ ___
N onm anufacturing ___________________
Public u tilitie s 2 ______ — ______
___ — — _
S ten o g rap h ers, g e n e ra l
M anufacturing _______________________
N onm anufacturing ___________________
P ublic u tilitie s 2 _________________
S ten o g rap h ers, sen io r _________________
M anufacturing _______________________
N onm anufacturing ___________________

447
264
183
26
282
187
95
17
144
102
42

_
_
'

3
3
_
"

2 21
2 21
8
18 46
1 ------ 5~ 27
12
7
19
3
_
6
1
1
4
1
*

31
31
3
28
7
21
15
4
11

22
3
19
1
41
34
7
1
15
4
11

31 25
10
6
21
19
1
41 25
31 ~ z r ~
10
2
2
9 19
5 17
2
4

33
18
15
4
25
20
5
2
16
15
1

39
18
21
8
22
14
8
8
13
10
3

S w itchboard o p e ra to rs __ ___ ____ ___
M anufacturing _______________________
N onm anufacturing ___________________
S w itchboard o p e ra to r -r e c e p tio n is ts ___
M anufacturing __ ____ __ ____
N onm anufacturing __ _______________

59
24
35
47
24
23

41.5
40. 0
42. 5
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

68. 00
81.00
59. 00
67. 00
69.00
64. 50

1
-

2
-

7
6

4

3

4

3
1
2

2

2

1
1

3

1

7
3
4

2

2

"

-

1
1

-

3
1
2

1
1

T ra n sc rib in g -m a c h in e o p e ra to rs,
g e n e ra l _ __ __ ___ ____
M anufacturing ___ ______ ____ ___
T y p ists, c la ss A _______________________
M anufacturing ___
N onm anufacturing ___ __
__ _
T y p ists, c la ss B _______________________
M anufacturing _______________________
N onm anufacturing __ __ __ __ __ __

65
35
158
126
32
288
ii
235

39. 5
39. 5
40. 0
40. 0
39. 0
40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

66. 00
70. 50
81. 50
84. 50
70. 50
60. 00
69. 00
58. 50

-

1

5

1

1

.
-

79
3
76

------

25

Keypunch o p e ra to rs, c la ss A __________
M anufacturing __
_____
Keypunch o p e ra to rs, c la ss B __________
M anufacturing ____ _______ __ __ _

40. 0 95. 50
40. 0 105. 00
39. 5 81.50
40. 0 93. 00
40. 0 75. 50
40. 0 79. 00
40. 0 68. 50
40. 0 83. 50
40. 0 87. 50
40. 0 91.50
40. 0 76. 50

_
-

15
15
6
i
3

5

5
10
1
9
17
4
11
11
84
5
79

5
1
4
8
6
2

10
4
3
1
2

65
16
50

1
11

8
3

11
7
17
14
3
23
9
14

1

“
4

1

1
3

9

6

3
2

4
4

12
10
2

21

~

21
10
11

-

16
5

6
4
2

26
21
5
5
2
3

2
2
31
27
4
-

-

1
1

-

1

2
2

i

2
2

15
15
2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

"

“

*

_

-

_

33
28
30 —
3
3
1
_
_
_
5
5
-

17
16
1
1
_
-

11
10
1
1
_
-

-

-

*

_

_

-

-

1
1

3
3

-

45 36
63
38 ~ z r - -----55^
7 11
8
2
2
2
15
1
9
14
1
9
1
1
14 16
15
14 14
12
2
3
-

-

1
15
15
3

3

2
2
_
-

1
1
*
-

7
7
_
-

_
-

-

Standard hours re fle c t the w orkw eek fo r w hich em ployees re c e iv e th e ir re g u la r s tra ig h t-tim e s a la rie s and the e a rn in g s c o rresp o n d to th ese w eekly hours.
T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m unication, and o th e r public u tilitie s .




.

_

_

5
2
5 — 2—
_
_
-

3

.
_

1
1

*
-

-

*
_
-

-

_
-

_
_
-

_

_
-

-

*

-

-

_

_

-

_
*

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

_
-

6

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e w eekly h o u rs and e a rn in g s for selec te d occupations studied on an a re a b a sis
by in d u stry divisio n, South Bend, Ind., M arch 1963)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF s
1*7000
19000 20000 21Q00
Under 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 *9500 *0000 10500 haoo 11500 *2000 *2500 *3000 *3500 *4000 1*4500 15000 *5500 *6000
under
80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 ioaoo 105.00 lia o o 11500 12000 12500 13000 13500 14000 14500 15000 15500 16000 16500 17000 L8000 19Q00
21Q00 22000

O
P
O
O

o
o

Weekly Weekly
(Standard) (Standard)

o
oS
C
00

of

o '*

Average
Sex, occupation, and in d u stry divisio n

M en
D raftsm en , le a d e r ____________ ____ —
M anufacturing _________________ ____

33
31

40.0 $177.00
40.0 180.50

“

D raftsm en , ju n io r

__ _ __ _
---- _

245
238

40.0
40.0

142.50
143.50

.

102
99

40.0
40.0

103.50
104.00

6
6

24
23

D raftsm en , sen io r __

40.0
40.0

102.00
102.00

i

.

-

“

■

2
~

“

“

"

2
2

_
4
4

.

"

_

_

.

.

7
5

6
6

7
7

18
14

15
14

15
15

24
24

11
11

46
46

18
18

7
6

4
4

11
9

8
8

17
17

6
6

16
16

5
5

1
1

4
4

4
4

4
4

2
2

3
3

1

i

1

3

1

15
15

1

W omen

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k fo r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .




'
14
14

5
5

3
3

8
8

3
3

-

14
14

14
14

7
7

12
12

7
7

10
10

7
7

3
3

7
Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s i s
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , S ou th B e n d , I n d ., M a r c h 1963)

O ccupation and in d u stry division

Number
of

Average 1
weekly
(Standard)

O ccupation and in d u stry division

23
B ookkeeping-m achine o p e ra to rs, c la ss A ----------M anufacturing ______________________ — — —

51
19
32

B ookkeeping-m achine o p e ra to rs, c la ss B _________
N onm anufacturing __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ____ __

159
24
135

$75.00

101.00
113.50
94.00
94.50

253
69
184

71.50
74.00
70.50

C le rk s, file, c la ss A __________________ ___________

18

85.50

C le rk s, file, c la ss B __ __ ____ __ ____ _________

104
23
63
18
45
115
98
17

1
2

E a r n in g s r e la t e
T ra n s p o r ta tio n ,




M anufacturing

__ ____ ______________________ __

74.00
88.50 D uplicating-m achine o p e ra to rs
65.50
M anufacturing ---------------- ------------------------------61.50
73.50
M anufacturing _ — _ — ------- — — — — —
59.50

109
41
68
19

_________ __ ______________

Average
earnings
(Standard)1

47
24
23

$67.00
69.00
64.50

27
15

74.00 T ab u lating-m achine o p e ra to rs , c la ss A ____________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
87.50
T abu lating-m achine o p e ra to rs , c la ss B ------------------89.00
89.00
T ra n sc rib in g -m a c h in e o p e ra to rs, g e n e ra l __________
70.50
77.00

39
26
70
37
65
35

109.50
108.00
98.50
101.50
66.00
70.50

158
126
32
288
53
235

81.50
84.50
70.50
60.00
69 00
58.50

33
31
246
239
104
101

177.00
180.50
142.50
143.50
103.50
104.00

24
23

102.00
102.00

41
40
150
70

60.50
62.50
58.50

M anufacturing _ __________ ________________
Nonm anuf a c tu r ing ___ _________ _______________
P u blic u tilitie s 2 _ -----------------------------------------

448
264
184
27

95.50
105.00
81.50
95.00

60.00 S ten o g rap h ers, g e n e ra l _________________________
67.50
N onm anufacturing __ ____ ______________________
83.50
92.50
80.00
N onm anufacturing ______________— ______ ____
84.50
85.50
79.50

282
187
95
17
144
102
42
59
24
35

sta n d a rd w o r k w e e k s .

Average
weekly
earnings
(Standard)

$91.00 Sw itchboard o p e ra to r-re c e p tio n ists _________________
M anufacturing ------- ----------------- -----------------------92.00
Nonm anuf a c tu r ing __ ____ ____ __ ____________

55
29
26

p a id fo r

Number
of
workers

34
33

M anufacturing __ __ __ __ ____ __ ____ ____
N onm anufacturing _____ _________________________

t o r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y s a l a r i e s th a t a r e
c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

O ccupation and in d u stry d ivisio n

O ffice occupations— C ontinued

O ffice occupations----Continued

Office occupations

M anufacturing

Number
of
workers

N onm anufacturing _______________ __ ___________
T ypists, c la ss B _ ___________________________________
P ro fe ssio n a l and tech n ical occupations

75.50 D raftsm en , le a d e r ___________________________________
79.00
68.50
83.50
87.50
91.50
M anufacturing ____ ________ _______ _________
76.50
68.00
81.00
59.00

8

Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r m en in se le cte d occupations studied on an are a basis
by industry division , South Bend, Ind., M arch 1963)

O ccupation and in d u stry division

Number
of
workers

Average $
$
hourly
2.10
earnings j 2.00
and
under
2.20
2.10

$

2.20

$

2.30

$

2.40
2.50

-

-

-

3
3

1
1

2
2

7
7

15
15

11
11

8
8

12
12

-

131
131

-

'

-

-

.

.

.

.
"

.
~

4
3

1
1

.
“

-

18
18

-

"

.

4
4

3
3

.
-

11
11

.
‘

5
5

-

28
28

-

-

-

-

.

.
-

“

6
6

27
27

1
1

2
2

3
3

-

27
27

1
1

-

i
i

18
18

2
2

9
9

-

-

4
4

-

-

-

“

-

E n g in e e rs, sta tio n a ry _________________________
M anufacturing _ ___ ___ _______ __ ____

27
23

3.10
3.24

3
"

.
“

1
1

.

F ire m e n , s ta tio n a ry b o iler ____________________
M anufacturing ______________________________

52
52

2.94
2.94

1
i

.

.

M achine-tool o p e ra to rs, toolroom ____________
M anufacturing _ _____
__ _ __

66
66

3.05
3.05

.
■

.
"

.

M ach in ists, m aintenance ______________________
M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------

35
35

3.01
3.01

M echanics, autom otive (m aintenance) ______ _
M anufacturing ______________________________
N onm anufacturing __________________________
P u blic u tilitie s 1 __ __ __ . . __
2

139
50
89
86

3.10
3.13
3.09
3.10

M e c h a n i c s , m a i n t e n a n c e ____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________

152
1 52

3 .2 4
3 .2 4

0 i le r s ____________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g

__________________________

__________

P a i n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e _______________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
________________ ______
_____
_

-

.

"
.

.

-

-

16
16

6
6

3
3

-

-

-

6
3
3

20
2
18

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

64
15
49

18
18

-

3
3

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

3

18

49

-

-

-

-

-

_

2
2

_

_

12
12

_

12
12

26
26

7
7

_

“

4
4

-

15
15

61
61

3
3

5
5

5
5

1
1

_

4
4

1
1

40
40

9
9

9
9

2
2

1 36
1 36

-

-

-

-

n —

-

6
6

-

-

-

-

~

4
4

-

17
17

5

'

-

-

-

3
3

19
19

2
2

-

119
119

-

-

5

.

.

4

_

_

.

.

■

"

“

■

-

3 .2 0
3 .2 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

■

"

~

_

_

_

■

_

“

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ___________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------

1 48
1 48

3 .3 1
3 .3 1

S h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s , m a in t e n a n c e
___ __
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------

31
31

3 .2 8
3 .2 8

245
245

M a n u fa c tu r in g

_

1 E xcludes prem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.




6
6

.
"

•

2
2

23
23

3 .4 7
3 .4 7

T ool a n d d i e m a k e r s _________________________________

"

"

2 .8 0
2 .8 0

-

"

.

~

48
48

.

-

-

-

■

3 .2 1
3 .2 1

26
26

-

_

204
204

3.70
and

28
27

“

M i l l w r i g h t s ____________________________ ________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _ ____
_
__
___

3 20

S

-

3.25
3.25

-

3.60

1
1

187
187

.

3.00

$

1
1

E le c tric ia n s , m aintenance ____________________
M anufacturing _______ _____ ____ ________

-

2.90

3.50

2
2

-

.

2.80

$

7
7

$3.20
3.19

"

2.70

3.40

-

45
44

■

2.60

S

3
3

C a rp e n te rs, m aintenance ___________ ________
M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------

.

NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
3.20
3.00
3.10
3.30

“

_

_

“

5
5

13
—

.

2
2

"

5

1

21

5

1

21

4

"

5

5

25

25

9
9

19
19

134
134

51

51

9

Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e arn in gs fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s studied on an a r e a b a sis
by in d u stry d iv is io n , South Bend, Ind. , M a rch 1963)
N U M B E R OF W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S OF—

Number
of
workers

O c c u p a tio n 1 and in d u stry d iv isio n
5
*
3
2

Average Under $1. 00 $1. 10 $1. 20 $1 .3 0 $1 .4 0 *1. 50 *1. 60 *1. 70 $1. 80 $1 .9 0 $2. 00 $2. 10 $2. 20 $2. 30 $2. 40 $2. 50 $2. 60 $2. 70 $2. 80 $2. 90 $3. 00 $3. 10 $3. 20
hourly 2
earnings $
and
and
1 . 0 0 under
1. 10 1 . 2 0 1. 30 1 .4 0 1. 50 1.6 0 1 .7 0 1. 80 1. 90 2. 00 2 . 1 0 2 . 2 0 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3 . 0 0 3 . 1 0 3 . 2 0

E le v a to r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r
(wom pn)
N onm anufacturing ____________________

15
15

$ 1.10

34
4

2
2

6
6

_

_

1.10

-

-

3
3

G uards and w atch m en ________ _________
M anufacturin g ________________________

202
190

2. 50
2. 57

.
-

.
-

-

9
-

3
3

-

1
-

3
3

W atchm en __________ ______

31

2. 14

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

3

457
356
101

2. 27
2. 45
1 .6 0

8
-

2

-

9
-

8
-

6
1

8
-

3
1

21
10
11

J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
(w om en) _________________________________
M anufacturin g ________________________

235
81

1.49
2. 11

1
-

5

138
'

16
14

4
2

-

-

-

4
-

L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling ___________
M anufacturin g ___ _____ ____________
N onm anufacturing ____________________

428
ZS5
163

2. 56
2. 53
2. 60

-

-

-

4
4

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_____

J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
(m en) ____________________________________
M anufacturin g _____________
___ __

O rd er f il l e r s __ __ _______________________
M anufacturin g ________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________ __

198
116
82

2. 55
2. 74
2. 29

_
-

P a c k e r s , shipping _______________________
M anufacturin g ___ __ _____
_______

144
142

2. 58
2. 58

-

R e c e iv in g c le r k s _________________________

70

2. 54

_

Shipping c le r k s ___ _____ __ _____ __ __

38

2
2

2
-

.
-

8
8

2
2

14
14

2

-

-

8

2

4

10
1

18
11

36
17
19

14
7

20
19

23
19

16
15

22
22

12
12

2
-

-

-

-

-

-

15

-

*

-

\ ~T 5~

33
33

-

-

1
1
-

5
5
-

5
5
-

46
25
21

3
3

-

63
33
30

46
46
-

1
1

_
-

36
36

_

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

1
1

2. 55

.
-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

2

-

14
14

_
-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

15
15

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

4

3

2

2

_

4

2

3

T r u c k d r iv e r s 6 _____

_ ___ _____ __ __

334

2. 81

N onm anufacturing

____________________

253
134

2. 87
3. 10

-

_

-

-

-

-

1

_

_

_

_

T r u c k d r iv e r s , ligh t (under
11/2 tons) ____________________________

22

2. 50

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m ediu m ( I V 2 to and
in clu d in g 4 tons) _____ __ __ _____
M anufacturin g
___
_____
__

96
27

2 . 57

1

2. 66

19

1

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

40
25
15

37
25
12

101
74
27

5
5

_
-

25
25

-

12
12

21

-

.
_

-

_

21

9

53
53
-

44
14
30

29
22
7

_
-

30
30

10
10

43
41

39
39

5
5

-

-

-

-

7
---- 6—

12

8

29

_

1

_

_

_

13

1

1

53

44

38

4

8

1 20

12

33

8
8

119
119

_

2

-

-

-

5

-

15

21

2
2

-

8
-

-

8

10

-

15
6

14

26
7

43

-

3

-

14

15
15

9

8

12
12

34
28

20
20

2.68




_

-

-

— Z75~

1 Data lim ite d to m en w o r k e r s e x ce p t w h ere o th e r w is e in d ica ted .
2 E x clu d es p rem iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and f o r w o rk on w eek en ds, h o lid a y s, and late s h ifts .
3 A ll w o rk e rs w ere at $ 0. 80 to $ 0. 90.
* T ra n sp orta tion , co m m u n ica tio n , and oth er pu b lic u tilitie s .
5 A ll w o r k e r s w ere at $ 3. 40 to $ 3. 50.
6 In clu d es a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e and type o f tr u c k o p e ra te d .

-

-

1

-

5
5

-

2. 67

.

-

1
1

244

-

-

10
1

T r u c k e r s , p ow er (fo r k lift) ______________

-

-

-

3

_
-

-

1
1

2. 82

_
-

.
-

9

2. 88

_
-

-

12

-

-

15
15

-

52

106

92
92

126
HZ

2

__

106

-

8
8

16

18

15
T r u c k d r iv e r s , heavy (o v e r 4 ton s,
t r a ile r type) __ __ __ __ ___ ___

20
20
9

1

3

23
23

2
12

2

.

3

-

12

21

6

3

12
12

2

5

144
144

2

23
23

8
1

2

5 20
20

_




Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
C l a s s A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

B i ll e r , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e )—Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

C l a s s B —Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

B i ll e r , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p i n g m a c h in e )—Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C l a s s A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

11

12

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G -C o n tin u e d
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
C l a s s B —Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
C l a s s A—
In an established filing system containing a number
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.

C la ss

B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­

ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve a n y c o m b in a tio n o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing theitems
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow uporders
to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical).
As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.
C la ss




C—
Performs

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

13

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
C la ss

A—
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­

tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

C la ss B —
Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to

punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera'
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and




SECRETARY — Continued
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc.
Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

14

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
C l a s s C —Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
C la s s A—
Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
D o e s not in c lu d e working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations a n d day-to-day supervision of the work and production
of a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C l a s s B —Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.




TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
trailing, such as keeping simple records., filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

C l a s s A—Performs o n e o r m o re o f th e f o l l o w i n g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.

C l a s s B —Performs o n e or m o re o f th e f o l l o w i n g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

15

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a c o m b in a tio n o f the f o llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a c o m b in a tio n o f th e f o llo w in g : Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a c o m b in a ­
tion o f the f o llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in goodrepair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




16

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves m o s t o f the f o l l o w i n g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
a l s o supervise these operations. H e a d or c h i e f e n g i n e e r s in e s t a b l i s h ­

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

m e n ts e m p lo y i n g m o re than o n e e n g i n e e r are e x c l u d e d .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working

17
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE-Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves m o st o f the f o llo w in g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in die trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves m o st o f the f o llo w in g : Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and- experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves m o st o f the f o l l o w in g : Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose p rim a ry d u t ie s involve setting up or adjusting machines.




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of.mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work i n v o l v e s the f o llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f th e f o llo w in g :
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

18
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers p r im a r ily e n g a g e d in in s t a l l in g a n d

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

r e p a ir in g b u ild in g s a n it a t io n or h e a tin g s y s t e m s a re e x c lu d e d .

TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves m o st o f the f o l l o w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m o st o f the f o l l o w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. I n c l u d e s g a t e -




m en w h o are s t a t i o n e d at g a t e a n d c h e c k on id e n t it y o f e m p l o y e e s a n d
o th e r p e r s o n s e n te r in g .

19
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment.

Duties involve a co m b in a tio n o f the f o llo w in g :

Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and m ay in v o lv e o n e or m ore o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container.
P a c k e r s w h o a ls o m ake
w o o d e n b o x e s or c r a t e s a re e x c lu d e d .

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve o n e 'o r more o f the f o l l o w ­
in g :

Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials.
p in g

w o rk i n v o l v e s :

S h ip ­

A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;

routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight

and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. L o n g s h o r e m e n , w ho lo a d a n d u n lo a d s h ip s are e x c lu d e d .

direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.

and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
w ork

in v o lv e s :

May

R e c e iv in g

Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­

ness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers’ orders, or other instructions.

May, in addition to filling orders

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:

and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform other related duties.




R e c e i v i n g c le r k
S h ip p in g c le r k
S h ip p in g a n d r e c e iv in g c le r k

20

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D r i v e r -s a l e s m e n and o v e r -t h e -r o a d d r iv e r s

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

are e x c l u d e d .

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)

For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:

T r u c k e r , p o w e r (fo r k lift)
T r u c k e r , p o w e r (o th e r than fo r k lift)

T r u c k d r iv e r (c o m b in a tio n o f s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y )
T r u c k d r iv e r , lig h t (u n d er 1% to n s )

WATCHMAN

T r u c k d r iv e r , m ed iu m ( l l2 to a n d in c lu d in g 4 t o n s )
/
T r u c k d r iv e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o n s , tra iler t y p e )
T r u c k d r iv e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o n s , o th e r than tr a ile r t y p e )




Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

Occupational W age S u rveys
A l i s t o f the l a t e s t a v a ila b le b u ll e tin s is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w .
A d i r e c t o r y in d ica t in g d a t e s o f e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , and the p r i c e s o f the b u lle tin s
is a v a ila b le u po n r e q u e s t . B u lle tin s m a y be p u r c h a s e d f r o m the S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U. S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n 25, D. C. ,
o r f r o m any o f the B L S r e g i o n a l s a l e s o f f i c e s s ho w n on the in s i d e f r o n t c o v e r .

B u lle tin
num ber

P rice

1345-33
1303-57
1345-38
1303-68
1345-46
1 3 4 5 -3 7
1345-44
1 3 0 3 -5 8

20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
30 ce n ts

1 3 0 3 -7 5
1 3 4 5 -6

20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts

O m a h a , N e b r . —Iow a _______________________________
P a t e r s o n — lif t o n — a s s a i c , N. J. ________________
C
P
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . - N . J .......................................................
P h o e n i x , A r i z . _____________________________________
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . ____________________________________
P o r t l a n d , M a in e ___________________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . — a s h . __________________________
W
P r o v i d e n c e — a w t u c k e t , R. I . — a s s . ____________
P
M
R a l e i g h , N. C ...........................................................................
R i c h m o n d , V a . _____________________________________

1345-12
1 3 0 3-7 1
1 3 4 5 -3 1
1303-54
1345-40
1345-24
1303-72
1303-66
13 4 5-1
1345-19

20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
30 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
20 ce n ts
20 ce n ts

R o c k f o r d , 111. _______________________________________
St. L o u i s , M o . —
111. ________________________________
Salt L a k e C it y , Utah _______________________________
San A n t o n io , T e x . __________________________________
San B e r n a r d i n o —R i v e r s i d e — n t a r i o , C a lif . _____
O
San D i e g o , C a l i f . ___________________________________
San F r a n c i s c o — a kla nd , C a lif . __________________
O
S avan nah , G a. ______________________________________
S c r a n t o n , P a . ______________________________________
S e a t t le , W a s h . ______________________________________

1 3 0 3 -6 9
1 3 4 5 -1 7
1345-25
1303-63
1 3 4 5 -9
1 3 4 5 -1 0
1345-34
1 3 0 3 -8 0
1345-5
1345-4

30 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
15 ce n ts
25 c e n ts

S io u x F a l l s , S. Dak. ______________________________
South B e n d , Ind. ___________________________________
S p o k a n e , W a s h . ____________________________________
T o l e d o , O hio _______________________________________
T r e n t o n , N. J. ______________________________________
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . — d . — a . ______________________
M
V
W a t e r b u r y , Con n. __________________________________
W a t e r l o o , Iow a _____________________________________
W i c h i t a , K a n s . _____________________________________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . _________________________________
Y o r k , P a . ____________________________________________

1345-13
1345-52
1 3 0 3 -7 3
1 3 0 3 -4 7
1 3 4 5 -2 9
1345- 16
1 3 4 5 -4 9
1345-20
1 3 4 5 -1 1
1303-82
1 3 4 5 -4 1

20 ce n ts
20 c e n t s
20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 c e n t s
20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
20 ce n ts

Area

B u lle tin
number

P rice

Area

A k r o n , O hio _________________________________________
A lb a n y — c h e n e c t a d y —T r o y ,
S
N. Y. _______________
A l b u q u e r q u e , N. M e x . ____________________________
A lle n to w n — e t h l e h e m — a s t o n , P a . — J. ________
B
E
N.
A tla n ta, G a. _________________________________________
B a l t i m o r e , Md. ____________________________________
B e a u m o n t— o r t A r t h u r , T e x . ____________________
P
B i r m i n g h a m , A la . _________________________________
B o i s e , Idaho ________________________________________
B o s t o n , M a s s . __________________________ ___________

13 0 3-8 1
1 3 0 3 -5 6
1 3 0 3 -6 7
1 3 4 5 -4 5
1 3 0 3 -6 5
1345-23
130 3 -7 8
1 3 0 3 -5 9
1 3 0 3-7 7
1 3 4 5 -1 5

25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
20 c e n ts
30 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
30 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts

M i a m i , F l a . _________________________________________
M i l w a u k e e , W i s . ___________________________________
M in neap olis—
St. P a u l , M in n. ____________________
M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e ig h t s , M i c h . ___________
M
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y , N. J. ___________________
New H av e n , Con n. __________________________________
New O r l e a n s , L a . __________________________________
New Y o r k , N. Y. __ _________________________________
N o r f o l k — o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s —
P
H a m p t o n , V a . _____________________________________
O k la h o m a C it y , O kla. _____________________________

B u f f a lo , N. Y. _______________________________________
B u r lin g t o n , Vt. ____________________________________
C a nton, O hio _______________________________________
C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . _______________________________
C h a r l o t t e , N. C. ____________________________________
C h a t ta n o o g a , T e n n . —
Ga. __________________________
C h i c a g o , 111. ________________________________________
C in c in n a t i, Ohio—
Ky. ______________________________
C l e v e l a n d , Ohio ____________________________________
C o l u m b u s , O hio ____________________________________

1 3 4 5 -3 0
1 3 4 5-5 0
1 3 0 3 -6 2
130 3-6 1
1 3 0 3 -6 0
1 3 4 5 -8
1 3 0 3 -6 4
130 3 -5 5
1 3 4 5 -1 4
1 3 4 5 -2 8

25 ce n ts
25 c e n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
30 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts

D a l l a s , T e x . ________________________________________
D a v e n p o r t — o c k Island— o l i n e , Iow a—
R
M
111. ______
D a y to n , Ohio ________________________________________
D e n v e r , C o l o . ______________________________________
D e s M o i n e s , Iowa _________________________________
D e t r o i t , M ic h . _____________________________________
F o r t W o r t h , T e x . _________________________________
G r e e n B a y , W i s . ___________________________________
G r e e n v i l l e , S. C. __________________________________
H o u s to n , T e x . ______________________________________

13 4 5-2 1
1 3 4 5 -1 8
1345-35
1345-32
1345-42
1 3 4 5-4 7
1 3 4 5 -2 7
1 3 4 5 -3
1 3 0 3 -7 0
1 3 0 3 -7 9

25 ce n ts
2 5 ce n ts
20 ce n ts
25 c e n ts
20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts

I n d ia n a p o lis , Ind. _________________________________
J a c k s o n , M i s s . _____________________________________
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F la . _________________________________
K a n s a s C it y , M o . — a ns . _________________________
K
L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i l l , M a s s . — H. ______________
H
N.
L ittle R o c k — o r t h L ittle R o c k , A r k . ___________
N
L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h , C a lif . ________________
L ou isville, K y .—
Ind. _______________________________
L u b b o c k , T e x . ______________________________________
M a n c h e s t e r , N. H. _________________________________
M e m p h i s , T e n n. ___________________________________

1345-26
1345-43
1 3 4 5 -3 9
1345-22
1 3 0 3 -7 6
1 3 4 5-7
1 3 0 3 -5 3
1 3 4 5 -4 8
1303-74
1 3 4 5 -2
1345-36

25 c e n ts
20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
30 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts
25 ce n ts








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102