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Occupational Wage Survey

SOUTH BEND, INDIANA
MARCH 1962

B u lle tin No. 1 3 0 3 - 5 2




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
SOUTH BEND, INDIANA




M ARCH 1962

B u lle tin N o. 1303*5 2
May 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
E w a n C la g u e , C o m m issio n e r

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The L abor M arket Occupational Wage Survey P rog ra m
Wage trends fo r selected occupational groups _________________________
The B ureau o f L abor Statistics annually conducts
occu pation al wage su rveys in 82 labor m arkets.
The
studies p rov id e data on occupational earnings and related
supplem entary b en efits. A p relim in a ry report furnishing
trend data and average earnings is re le a se d within a month
o f the com p letion of each study. This bulletin p rovid es
additional data not included in the p relim in a ry rep ort.

4

T ables:
1.
2.

E stablishm ents and w ork ers within scope o f su rvey ____________
P e rce n ts of in cre a se in standard w eekly sa la ries and
stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected

3

Two b u lletin s, bringing together the resu lts of all
of the a rea su rv e y s, are issued after com pletion o f the
final area bulletin in the current round o f su rveys. The
fir s t of these bulletins w ill be available late in 1962 and
the other e a r ly in 1963. During the survey year, sum m ary
r e le a s e s p resen tin g areaw ide occupational earnings data
fo r 25 to 30 la b or m a rk ets, are issued as data b ecom e
available.

A : O ccupational earn in gs:*
A - 1. O ffice occu pation s— en and wom en ______________________
m
A - 2. P r o fe ssio n a l and tech n ical occupations— en
m
and w om en ________________________________________________
A -3 . O ffice, p ro fe ssion a l, and tech n ical
occupations— en and w om en com bined __________________
m
A -4 . Maintenance and powerplant occupations _________________
A - 5. Custodial and m aterial m ovem ent occupations ___________

8
9
10

This bulletin was p repared in the B ureau's r e ­
gional o ffic e in C hicago, 111., by M ary Stokes, under the
d irection o f E lliott A. B row ar. The study was under the
gen eral d ire ctio n o f W oodrow C. Linn, A ssistant R egional
D ire cto r fo r W ages and Industrial Relations.

B: E stablishm ent p ra ctice s and supplem entary wage p rov ision s:*
B - l . Shift d ifferen tials __________________________________________
B -2 . M inimum entrance sa la ries fo r wom en o ffice w ork ers __
B -3 . Scheduled w eekly hours ____________________________________
B -4 . P aid holidays ______________________________________________
B -5 . P aid vacations _____________________________________________
B -6 . Health, in su ran ce, and pension plans ____________________

11
12
13
14
15
17




5
7

Appendixe s :
A. Changes in occupational d escrip tion s ____________________________
B. O ccupational d escrip tion s ________________________________________

* NOTE: S im ilar tabulations are available in previous
a rea rep orts fo r South Bend and fo r other m ajor areas.
A d ir e c to r y indicating the area s, dates o f study, and p rice s
o f these re p o rts is available upon request.
Union s ca le s , indicative of prevailin g pay lev els,
are a lso available for seven selected building trades in
the South Bend area.

iii

19
21




Occupational Wage Survey—South Bend, Ind.

Introduction

to the work schedules (rounded to the n earest half hour) fo r which
straight-tim e sa la ries are paid; average w eekly earnings fo r these
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d olla r.

This a rea is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U .S. D e­
partm ent o f L a b o r 's Bureau o f L abor Statistics has conducted su r­
veys o f occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an a re a ­
wide b a s is .
In this a rea , data were obtained by personal visits o f
B ureau fie ld e con om ists to representative establishm ents within six
broad industry d iv ision s: Manufacturing; transportation, com m un ica­
tion, and other public u tilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
in su ran ce, and rea l estate; and s e r v ic e s .
M ajor industry groups
exclu ded fr o m these studies are government operations and the co n ­
stru ction and extra ctive industries.
Establishm ents having few er
than a p r e s c r ib e d num ber o f w ork ers are om itted also because they
tend to furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to
w arrant in clu sion . Separate tabulations are provided fo r each o f the
broad industry division s which m eet publication c r it e r ia .

A verage earnings of men and wom en are presented separately
fo r se le cte d occupations in which both sexes are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v els o f m en and wom en in these occupations are
la rg e ly due to ( l ) d ifferen ces in the distribution o f the sexes among
industries and establishm ents; (2) d ifferen ces in sp e cific duties p e r­
fo rm ed , although the occupations are appropriately cla ss ifie d within
the sam e survey jo b d escrip tion ; and (3) d ifferen ces in length o f s e r v ­
ice o r m e rit review when individual sa la ries are adjusted on this
b a s is .
L onger average se r v ic e o f m en would resu lt in higher average
pay when both sexes are em ployed within the same rate range.
Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in these surveys are usu­
ally m ore gen era lized than those used in individual establishm ents to
allow fo r m inor d ifferen ces among establishm ents in sp ecific duties
pe rfo rm e d .

T hese su rv e ,
conducted on a sam ple b asis because o f the
u n n ecessa ry c o s t involved in surveying all establishm ents. To obtain
optim um a ccu ra cy at m inimum co s t, a greater proportion o f large
than o f sm a ll establishm ents is studied. In com bining the data, how­
e v e r, all establishm ents are given their appropriate weight. E stim ates
based on the establishm ents studied are presented, th e re fo re , as r e ­
lating to all establishm ents in the industry grouping and a rea , e x ­
cep t fo r those below the minimum size studied.

O ccupational em ploym ent estim ates rep resen t the total in ail
establishm ents within the scop e o f the study and not the number actu­
ally su rveyed. B ecause o f d ifferen ces in occupational structure among
establish m en ts, the estim ates o f occupational em ploym ent obtained
fr o m the sam ple o f establishm ents studied serve only to indicate the
relative im portance o f the job s studied.
These d ifferen ces in o c c u ­
pational structure do not m aterially affect the accu ra cy of the ea rn ­
ings data.

O ccupations and Earnings
The occupations selected fo r study are com m on to a variety
o f m anufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational c la s ­
sifica tion is b a sed on a uniform set of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account o f interestablishm ent variation in duties within the same
jo b .
(See appendix fo r listing o f these d e sc r ip tio n s.) Earnings data
are presen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tables) fo r the follow ing types o f o c c u ­
pations: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) profession al and technical; (c) m ainte­
nance and pow er plant; and (d) custodial and m aterial m ovem ent.

Establishm ent P r a c tice s and Supplementary Wage P rovision s
Inform ation is presented (in the B -s e r ie s tables) on selected
establishm ent p ra ctices and supplem entary benefits as they relate to
o ffic e and plant w o rk e rs.
The con cep t "o ffice w o r k e r s ," as used
in this bulletin, includes working su p erv isors and nonsupervisory
w ork ers p erform in g c le r ic a l o r related functions, and excludes admin­
istra tiv e , execu tive, and p rofession a l p erson nel. "Plant w ork ers" in ­
clude working forem en and all n on su p ervisory w ork ers (including lead m en and train ees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
A dm inistrative,
execu tive, and p rofession a l em p loy ees, and fo rce -a cco u n t construction
em p loyees who are u tilized as a separate work fo r c e are excluded.
C a feteria w ork ers and routem en are excluded in manufacturing indus­
tr ie s , but are included as plant w ork ers in nonmanufacturing industries.

O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w o rk e rs , i . e . , those hired to work a regu lar weekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational cla ss ifica tion . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, h olidays, and
late s h ifts . Nonproduction bonuses are excluded a lso , but c o s t - o f living bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are re p orted , as fo r o ffice c le r ic a l occu pation s, re fe re n ce is




1

2

Shift d ifferen tial data (table B - 1) are lim ited to manufacturing
in d u stries. This inform ation is presen ted both in term s of (a) estab­
lishm ent p o lic y ,1 p resen ted in term s o f total plant w ork er em p loy ­
ment, and (b) effectiv e p ra ctice , presented in term s o f w ork ers
actually em ployed on the s p e cifie d shift at the time o f the su rvey.
In establishm ents having v a ried d ifferen tia ls, the amount applying to
a m ajority was used o r , if no amount applied to a m a jority , the c la s ­
sification "o th e r" was used.
In establishm ents in which som e la te shift hours are paid at n orm al ra tes, a differen tial was re co rd e d only
if it applied to a m a jo rity o f the shift h ou rs.
Minimum entrance sa la rie s (table B -2 ) relate only to the
establishm ents v isite d .
They are presen ted in term s o f esta b lish ­
ments with form a l m inim um sa la ry p o lic ie s .
The scheduled hours (table B -3 ) o f a m a jority o f the fi r s t shift w ork ers in an establishm ent are tabulated as applying to all o f
the plant o r o ffice w ork ers o f that establishm ent. P aid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, in su ran ce, and pension plans (tables B -4 through
B -6 ) are treated sta tistica lly on the b a sis that these are applicable
to all plant o r o ffic e w ork ers if a m a jority o f such w ork ers are e li­
gible o r m ay eventually qualify fo r the p ra ctice s listed . Sums o f
individual item s in tables B -3 through B -6 m ay not equal totals b e ­
cause o f rounding.
The fir s t part o f the paid holidays table (table B -4 ) presents
the num ber o f whole and half holidays actually provided. The second
part com bin es whole and h alf holidays to show total holiday tim e .
The sum m ary o f vacation plans (table B -5 ) is lim ited to f o r ­
m al p o lic ie s , excluding in form a l arrangem ents w hereby time o ff with
pay is granted at the d iscre tio n o f the e m p lo y e r. Separate estim ates
are provided a ccord in g to em p loyer p ra ctice in computing vacation
paym ents, such as tim e paym ents, p ercen t o f annual earnings, o r
fla t-su m amounts. H ow ever, in the tabulations o f vacation pay, pay­
ments not on a tim e b a sis w ere so con verted; fo r exam ple, a payment
o f 2 p ercen t o f annual earnings was co n sid e re d as the equivalent o f
1 w eek 's pay.

Data are presented fo r all health, in su ran ce, and pension plans
(table B -6 ) fo r which at least a part o f the co st is born e by the e m ­
p lo y e r, excepting only legal requirem ents such as w ork m en's com p en ­
sation, s o c ia l security, and railroad retirem en t. Such plans include
those underwritten by a co m m ercia l insurance com pany and those p r o ­
vided through a union fund o r paid d ir e c tly by the em p loyer out o f
current operating funds o r from a fund set asid e fo r this pu rp ose.
Death benefits are included as a fo rm o f life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type o f in ­
surance under which predeterm ined cash payments are made d ire ctly
to the insured on a weekly o r monthly ba sis during illn ess o r acciden t
d isability.
Information is presented fo r a ll such plans to which the
em p loyer contributes.
However, in New Y ork and New J ersey , which
have enacted tem porary disability in su ran ce laws which requ ire e m ­
p lo y e r con tribu tion s,2 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) co n ­
tributes m o re than is leg a lly required, o r (2) p rovid es the em ployee
with benefits which exceed the requirem ents o f the law. Tabulation?
o f paid sick -le a v e plans are lim ited to fo rm a l plans 3 which p rovid e
full pay o r a proportion o f the w o rk e r's pay during absen ce fro m work
becau se o f illn ess.
Separate tabulations are p resen ted accord in g to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting p eriod , and (2) plans
which p rovid e either partial pay o r a waiting p eriod . In addition to the
presentation o f the proportions o f w ork ers who are p rovid ed sick n ess
and acciden t insurance o r paid sick lea ve, an unduplicated total is
shown o f w ork ers who rece iv e either o r both types o f ben efits.
Catastrophe insurance, som etim es r e fe r r e d to as extended
m ed ica l insurance, includes those plans which are designed to p rotect
em ployees in case o f sickness and in ju ry involving expenses beyond
the n orm al coverage o f hospitalization, m ed ica l, and su rg ica l plans.
M ed ical insurance r e fe rs to plans p rovidin g fo r com p lete o r p artial
payment o f d o c to r s ' fe e s. Such plans m ay be underw ritten by c o m m e r ­
cia l insurance companies o r nonprofit organizations o r they m ay be
s e lf-in su re d . Tabulations o f retirem en t pen sion plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide monthly paym ents fo r the rem ainder o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

2 The tem porary disability laws in C alifornia and Rhode Island
do not requ ire em ployer' contributions.
3 An establishm ent was con sid ered as having a form a l plan if
it established at least the minimum num ber of days o f sick leave that
1
An establishm ent was co n sid e re d as having a p olicy if it m et
could be expected by each em ployee. Such a plan need not be written,
either o f the follow in g conditions: (1) O perated late shifts at the time
but in form al sick -le a v e allow ances, determ ined on an individual b a sis,
o f the su rvey, o r (2) had fo rm a l provision s co v erin g late sh ifts.
w ere excluded.




3

T a b le 1. E sta b lish m en ts and w o rk e rs w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y and num ber stu died in South Bend, Ind.,

W ithin
scop e of
study 3

___________________________________________________

50

145

M an u factu rin g
N on m an u factu rin g ____________ ____ ________ __________________
T r a n s p o rta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and oth er
p u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5
______ __ _
__
-----W h o le s a le tra d e
_____
i
r
,
R e ta il tra d e
........ .
,
,,
M __
F in a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e _____________________
S e r v ic e s 7 ---------------------------- --------------------------------------------------

50
50
50
50
50
50
50

A ll d iv is io n s

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m en ts

N um ber o f esta b lis h m e n ts

M in im u m
em p lo ym e n t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m ents in s c o p e
o f study

In d u stry d iv is io n

b y m a jo r in d u stry d iv is io n , 2 M a r c h 1962

W ithin s c o p e o f study

Studied

Studied
T o ta l 4

O ffic e

Plant

82

41, 700

6 , 900

2 7 ,7 0 0

36,6 3 0

58
87

36
46

3 1 ,2 0 0
1 0 ,5 0 0

4, 100
2 , 800

22, 300
5, 400

29 , 160

22

16

15
27

6
11

8

5

15

8

2 ,8 0 0
1 , 100
3 ,2 0 0
2 , 300
1 , 100

400
(‘ )
(‘ )
0

(6 )

1, 400
(*)

0

(*)
(6)

T o ta l4

7, 470
2 ,4 3 0
450
1,960
2 , 000
630

1 T h e South B end S tandard M e tro p o lita n S ta tistica l A r e a c o n s is t s o f St. J o s e p h County.
The " w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f study" es tim a te s show n in this table p ro v id e a r e a son a b ly a ccu ra te
d e s c r ip tio n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e includ ed in the su r v e y .
The e s tim a te s a re not intended, h o w e v e r, to s e r v e as a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n w ith oth er a re a em ploym ent
in d ex es to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t tr e n d s o r le v e ls sin ce (1) planning o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u s e o f e sta b lish m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in advance o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d studied, and
(2) s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e e x c lu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f the su rvey.
2 T h e 1957 r e v i s e d e d itio n o f the Standard Industrial C la s s ific a t io n M anual w as u s e d in c la s s ify in g es ta b lis h m e n ts b y in du stry d iv isio n .
M a jo r changes f r o m the e a r lie r ed ition (used in
the B u re a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w age s u r v e y s con du cted p r io r to July 1958) a re the t r a n s fe r o f m ilk p a s te u r iz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te esta b lis h m e n ts fr o m tra d e (w h olesale o r reta il)
to m a n u fa ctu rin g , and the t r a n s fe r o f ra d io and t e le v is io n
b r o a d ca s tin g f r o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n s p o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th er p u b lic u tilitie s d iv isio n .
3 In clu d es a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith total em ploym en t at or above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n . A ll ou tlets (w ithin the a re a ) o f co m p a n ie s in su ch in d u s trie s as tra d e, fin a n ce, auto r ep a ir
s e r v ic e , and m o t io n -p ic t u r e th e a te r s are c o n s id e r e d as 1 esta b lish m en t.
4 In clu d e s e x e c u t iv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and o th er w o r k e r s exclu d ed f r o m the se p a ra te o ffic e and plant c a t e g o r ie s .
5 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w ater tra n sp o rta tio n w e r e ex clu d e d .
6 T h is in d u s tr y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " a l l in d u s tr ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g" in the S e r ie s A and B ta b le s .
S eparate p r e s e n ta tio n o f data fo r this d iv isio n is not m ade
f o r one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m ploym en t in the d iv is io n is to o s m a ll to p ro v id e enough data to m e r it se p a ra te study, (2) the sa m p le w as not d e s ig n e d in itia lly to p e r m it s e p a ­
r a te p r e s e n ta tio n , (3) r e s p o n s e w as in s u ffic ie n t o r inadequate to p e r m it se p a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n , and (4) th e re is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f in divid u al es ta b lis h m en t data.
7 H o te ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; au tom obile r e p a ir s h o p s ; m o tio n p ic tu r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a tio n s ; and e n g in eerin g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v ic e s .




T a b le 2.

P e r c e n ts o f in c r e a s e in stan dard w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly ea rn in g s fo r
s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l gro u p s in South B end, Ind., M a r c h 1961 to M a r c h 1962,
and A p r il I960 to M a r c h 1961

O ccu p a tio n a l grou p

M a r c h 1961
to
M a r c h 1962

A p r il 1960
to
M a r c h 1961

A ll in d u s tr ie s :
O ffic e c le r ic a l (m e n and w om en )
__ --------- ----------In du strial n u rse s (m en and w om en ) _________________
S k ille d m aintenance (m en) ___________________________
U n sk illed plant (m en) ____________ ___
— — - —

2.3
4.7
3.3
2.6

2.8
2.7
2.9
1.8

M anufacturin g:
O ffic e c le r ic a l (m en and w om en ) ____________________
In du strial n u rses (m en and w om en ) _______ ______
S k illed m aintenance (m en)
— ___
—
----- ----U n sk ille d plant (m en) _________________________________

4.1
4.2
3.1
2.2

3.3
3.2
2.9
2.9

4
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P resented in table 2 are p ercen ts of change in sa la ries o f
office c le r ic a l w ork ers and industrial nurses, and in average earnings
of selected plant w orker groups.
F or o ffice c le r ic a l w ork ers and industrial nurses, the p e r ­
cents of change relate to average weekly sa la ries fo r n orm al hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule fo r which straight-tim e
salaries are paid.
F or plant w orker groups, they m easu re changes
in straight-tim e hourly earnings, excluding prem ium pay fo r o v e r ­
time and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
The p e r ­
centages are based on data fo r selected key occupations and include
m ost of the n um erically im portant jo b s within each group.
The o f­
fice c le r ic a l data are based on men and women in the follow ing 19 jo b s:
Bookkeeping-m achine op erators, c la ss B; cle rk s, accounting, c la s s A
and B; clerk s, file , c la ss A, B, and C; cle rk s, ord e r; cle rk s, pay­
roll; Com ptom eter op erators; keypunch op erators, c la ss A and B;
office boys and g irls ; s e cre ta rie s ; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard op era tors; tabulating-m achine operators,
class B; and typists, cla ss A and B.
The industrial nurse data are
based on m en and women industrial nurses.
Men in the follow ing
8 skilled maintenance job s and 2 unskilled jo b s w ere included in the
plant w orker data: Skilled— carpen ters; electricia n s; m achinists; m e ­
chanics; m echanics, autom otive; painters; p ip efitters; and tool and
die m akers; unskilled— ja n itors, p o rte rs, and clea n ers; and la b o re rs,
m aterial handling.
A verage weekly sa la ries or average hourly earnings w ere
computed fo r each of the selected occupations.
The average sa l­




a r ie s or hourly earnings w ere then m ultiplied by the average em p loy­
ment in the jo b during the p eriod surveyed in 1961.
T hese weighted
earnings fo r individual occupations w ere then totaled to obtain an a g ­
gregate fo r each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio o f these group
aggregates fo r the one year to the aggregate fo r the other y ea r was
computed and the differen ce between the resu lt and 100 is the p ercen t
of change fro m the one period to the other.
The percent of change m easu res, p rin cip ally, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) m e r it or other in cre a se s
in pay re ce iv e d by individual w ork ers while in the sam e jo b ; and
(3) changes in the labor fo r c e such as labor turnover, fo r c e expan­
sions, fo r c e reductions, and changes in the p rop ortion s of w ork ers
em ployed by establishm ents with d ifferen t pay le v e ls.
Changes in the
labor fo r c e can cause in crea ses or d e cre a s e s in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. F or exam ple, a fo r c e expansion
m ight in crea se the proportion of low er paid w ork ers in a sp e cific
occupation and result in a drop in the average, w hereas a reduction
in the p rop ortion of low er paid w ork ers would have the opposite effect.
The m ovem ent of a high-paying establishm ent out o f an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
o ccu rre d in other area establishm ents.
The use of constant em ploym ent w eights elim inates the effe cts
o f changes in the proportion of w ork ers rep resen ted in each jo b in ­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the p ercen ts o f change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in prem ium pay fo r overtim e,
since they a re based on pay fo r straigh t-tim e h ours.

The above text rep resen ts the m ethod used in computing a new trend
s e rie s .
The expansion o f the labor m arket wage survey program in 1961 made
data available in 82 areas fo r the computation o f wage trends fo r selected job
groupings.
Sixty-one a reas w ere surveyed in I960; p r io r to I960, covera ge was
lim ited to 20 area s.
T h erefore, it was decided to compute a new trend se rie s in
which 1961 w ill be the base year since this is the fir s t year in which data w ere
colle cte d in a ll 82 areas.
The p ercen ts of change shown in table 2 a re not com parable’ with sim ilar
data shown fo r this area in la st y e a r 's Bulletin 1285-47.
The new se rie s in tro­
duces changes in the job groupings fo r which trends a re shown and changes in
jo b s included in the computations.

A: Occupational Earnings

5

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area b asl.
by industry division , South Bend, Ind. , M arch 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

Sex, occu p ation , and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly,
Weekly .
hours 1 earnings 1
(Standard) (Standard)

$
4 0 .0 0 4 5 .0 0 50.00 55.00
and
45. Q .SiLJQJl
Q

$
s
$
$
65 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 75.,00 8 0.00 85. 00 9 0 .0 0 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 *120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00
and
55.00 6 0 .0 0 65.0 0 70 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 80, 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 over
lo .o o

Men
C le r k s , accou n tin g, c la s s A __
M anufacturing ___:__________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _________

52
28
24

4 0 .0
4 6 .0
4 0 .0

$112.50
i l 6 . 06
108. 50

-

3
3
-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

15
5
10

7
2
5

5
4
1

6
1
5

8

4
3
1

2
2

2
2

2

“

-

6

--------------------------

34

4 0 .0

95. 50

_

-

_

_

_

_

3

3

7

3

_

3

2

6

3

_

1

2

_

1

O ffic e b oys —
- .............. M a n u fa c t u r in g ------------ --------

23
19

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

6 1.00
62. 50

1

6
6

2

1
1

3
3

2

3

_

*

3
1.

2
2

"

"

“

“

”

“

“

"

“

“

T abu latin g-m ach in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s A _______ _______________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ______________

31

4 0 .0
40. 0

111.00
113.06

_

_

_

_

2

3

"

~

“

~

}

5
3

7
4

2
1

2
1

2
1

3
3

4
4

_

“

1
1

_

ll

63
34

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

93.00
97. 50

1
1

4
3

9
2

23
15

7
3

4
1

_

4
4

2
2

3
3

_

_

_

*

"

_

_

_

_

_

.

-

C le r k s , o r d e r

T abulating -m a ch in e ope r ato r s ,
c la s s B _________^_____________
_
M anufacturing ---------------------

1

W om en

_

_

_

"

“

"

_

_

_

_

1

‘

'

1

5

2

3

5

,

1

2

!

2

-

6
6

17

"

-

-

2
1
1

7
5
2

5
5

4
4

2

5
1
4

2
2

17

16

40
4
36

18
3
15

9
5
4

5
%

2

4
1
3

3
3
-

9
8
-

8
8
3

11
9
1

4
4
3

17

11
5
6

12
9
3

1
-

40. 5

72.00

i

B ook keepin g-m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s A ___________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __________ ___

50
18
32

4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0

72. 50
88.00
64.00

-

B ook keepin g-m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s B ___________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _____________

156.

59. 50

5

l l . 56

134

4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0

57. 50

5

28
1
27

16

27
1
26

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s A -------N onm anufacturing — ------ —
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ____________

61
49
17

4 0 .0
3 9.5
4 0 .0

86.00
83. 50
90.00

-

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

“

2
2
-

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s B _____
M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------- --------N onm anufacturing ------------ -------

166
60
106

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

65.50
70.50
62. 50

_

6

6
1
5

44
8
36

43
15
28

20
10
10

C le r k s , file , c la s s A 3 ____________

18

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

60.00
71756

C le r k s , o r d e r ............................ - ...-

27

4 0 .0

C le r k s , p a y r o ll
-M anufacturing ______ .___________

101
88

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

C om ptom eter o p e ra to rs
----M anufacturing —- ----------------------

38
37

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

88.00
59756

-

6

84.50

87
22

See footn otes at end o f table.




■

4

26

C le r k s , f il e , c la s s B 3 ____________
M anufacturing - ■
_________

"

'

B ille r s , m achine (b illin g m achine)

l i

3

2

'

“

l

-

-

-

3

3
13
1

6

11

3

‘

'

_

.

-

1
1
“

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
8
“

9
9
9

2
1
1

4

I

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

3
3

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

5

1

5
4

5
5

4
4

!

2
2

1
1

1
1

_

_

-

_

6
6

10
10

>

_

_

_

_

-

_

_

1

_

_

-

_

3

6

19
1

8
7

4
3

2
2

5
5

2

-

31
1

63.00

-

3

1

16

3

-

2

2

77. 50
78. 50

„

6
4

15
14

10
9

19
18

5
4

6

-

4
1

6

17
14

_

-

1

1
1

1
1

1

4
4

8
8

6
6

l

1
_

_

"

6
Table A-l.

O ffice Occupations—Men and W om en— Continued

(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r s e le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision , South Bend, Ind., M arch 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of

workers

45.00

50.00

55.00 60.00 65.00

70.00

$

S

? 35.00
and
135.00 o v e r
75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00

40
Weekly
Weekly ! $ . 0,0 *45.00 *50.00 *55.00 *60.00 *65.00 *70.00 *75.00 *80.00 *85.00
and
earnings
hours
(Standard) (Standard) under

90.00

*

95.00 100.00 105.00

n o . oo

115.00 120.00 * 25.00 *130.00

W om en— Continue d
D uplicating-m achine o p e ra to rs
(M im eograph o r Ditto) -------------------------M anufacturing
_ - — ----- — —

27
15

40.0
40.0

Keypunch o p era tors, c la s s A 3 --------------

32

Keypunch o p era tors, cla s s B 3 -------------M anufacturing
------- __ _ ------- -

2
2

-

15

3

j

70.00
80.50

-

3

1

-

4
3

1
1

t

5
5

-

-

1
1

2

-

6
1

2

-

40.0

88.00

_

_

-

_

2

2

-

2

2

5

146
74

40.0
40.0

69.00
76.50

6
■

"

22
2

13
“

15
2

19
14

21
15

18
13

23
19

4
4

23

39.5

58.50

.

4

5

5

5

1

!

2

_

_

_

S ecreta ries
__ __ __
_ __
M anufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___ _ __ __ __ _
Pu blic utilities 13 . __ __ ____
2
_

427
262
165
27

40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

92.50
100.50
80.00
91.50

-

-

-

4
4

6
6

21

-

21

16
6
10

27
3
24

-

-

"

-

-

-

28
5
23
5

33
14
19
5

33
21
12
4

53
34
19
5

Stenographers, g e n e r a l3 ______________ —
M anufacturing
__ __ __ __ ------- __
_
N onm anufacturing __ ___ . . . .
Pu blic u tilit ie s 2 _ ____
_

250
164
86
16

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

73.50
78.00
65.50
80.00

_
-

7
4
3

15
1
14

33
17
16

19
11
8

"

-

-

20
5
15
3

-

-

47
34
13
1

22
18
4
1

23
22
1
1

33
22
11
9

Stenographers, s e n io r 3 _____
______
M anufacturing
_ _. _ __ _ ____

145

40.0
40.0

87.50
92.50

_

_

_

1

7

-

-

1

1

18
2

11
7

11
6

10
6

67.50
80.50
57.50

2
2

3
3

13
13

6
6

6
3
3

7
4
3

6
5

2
2

2
2

1

-

-

_
-

8
3
5

10
5
5

8
7
1

2
1
1

1
1

"

10
3
7

-

6
3
3

_

_

-

1

_

_

2

11
2

20
8

12
10

8
7

"

11
11

6
5

8
-

71
3

63
6

47
7

25
14

O ffice g ir ls

__

_ __

_ __ __ __ _

10 6

$

-

Sw itchboard o p e r a t o r s ___________________
M anufacturing ________________________
N onm anufacturing __ __ __ ____

60
34

41.5
40.0
42.5

Sw itchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ------M anufacturing
__
_
—
N onm anufacturing

48
25
23

40.0
40.0
40.0

65.00
68.50
61.50

_

T abulating-m achine o p e ra to rs,
c la s s B
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

15

40.0

94.50

_

T ran scrib in g-m a ch in e o p e ra to rs,
gen eral
----- — ----- ----- . ---------------M a n u fa c tu r in g ________________________

75
37

39.5
39.5

65.50
71.50

-

T yp ists, c la s s A ____________________ __
Nonm anufacturing __
__ ______

126
30

40.0
39.0

80.00
67.50

T yp ists, c la s s B _
_ _ _ _ _
M anufacturing
__ __ _ _ __ ______

249
48

40.0
40.0

59.50
69.00

26

-

_

1

10

"

"

_

_

_

17

------------J

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

■

“

~

1

-

-

-

-

3
3

1
1

“

_

■

■

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

40
31“
9
1

71
6i
8
2

33
30
3
2

24
£6
4

15
14
1

3
3

-

-

-

6
5
1
1

3
3

1

11
10
1
1

-

"

18
17
1
1

11
11

2

_
-

_

_

_

_

t

_
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

"

17
17

16
16

19
17

20
18

10
10

5
5

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

"

-

7
4
3

2
2

2
2

1
1

_
-

1
1

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

1

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1

_

_

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

1

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

“

2

1

4

1

-

-

-

_

4

-

_

_

4
3

5
3

2
2

1
1

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

“

“

17
4

24
6

13
4

16
-

18
-

13
-

_

_

_

_

_

"

"

-

-

"

13
7

5
3

2
2

2
2

4
4

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

i_______

1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r w hich em ployees re c e iv e their regular straigh t-tim e s a la rie s and the earnings corresp on d to these w eekly h ou rs.
2 T ran sportation, com m u nication, and other public u tilities.
3 D escrip tion fo r this jo b has been r e v ise d sin ce the last su rvey in this area. See appendix A.




-

-

-

_

-

-

-

■

-

_

-

"

_

_

.

-

-

"

_

_

_

7
Table A-2.

Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and W om en

(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r s e le cte d occupations studied on an a rea b a sis
by industry d ivision , South Bend, I n d ., M arch 1962)
Avbraob
Number

Sex, occupation, and industry d iv isio n

D raftsm en, lea d e r _______
M anufacturing ________
D raftsm en, se n io r ____
M anufacturing ______
D raftsm en, ju n ior ___
M anufacturing ___

N u rses, in du stria l (re g is te r e d )
M anufacturing _______________ 1
2

of

workers

27
27

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1
$176.50
176.50

223
216

4 0 .0
46. 0

135.00
136.00

85
— W ~

24
23

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

S
$
$
*
$
5
$
$
%
$
%
S
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
s
t
Weekly,
Weekly . Under 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00
95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 160.00 170.00 180.00 190.00
hours 1 earnings*
and
$
and
(Standard) (Standard)
under
70.00 75. 00 80.00 85.00 90.0 0 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 160.00 170.00 180.00 190.00 over

40 .0
4 6 .0

101.00
103.50

4 0 .0
4 0.0

99.50
69.50

■

■

_

_

"

8
2

2
1

1
1 •

-

-

"

■

"

1
-

1

1
1

2
2

8
6

9
9

.
-

3
3

_

5
S' '

"
12
6

4
4

10
8

2
2

15
15

12
12

9
9

1

2
2

3
2

6
6

9
9

13
13
4
4

"

“

“

1

"

2
2

5
$

8
8

5
“ 5—

26
6

24
16

15
15

14
14

12
12

48
48

18
18

30
36

13
13

3
3

-

-

2
2

_

5
$

_

3
3

j
1

“•

1

,

1 Standard h ours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r w hich em ployees r e c e iv e their regular straigh t-tim e s a la rie s and the earnings co r re s p o n d to these w eekly h ou rs.
2 W ork ers w e re distribu ted as fo llo w s : 3 at $ 190 to $20 0; 3 at $200 to $210.




8
Table A-3.

O ffice, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and W om en Combined

(A verage s traigh t-tim e w eekly earnings fo r s e le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
•by industry d ivision , South Bend, Ind. , M arch 1962)

weekly
earnings 1
(Standard)

O ccupation and industry d ivision

$72. 50

B ille r s , m achine (billin g m achine) _
B ookkeeping-m achine o p e r a to r s , c la s s A .
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing

C om ptom eter op e ra to rs
M a n u fa c tu r in g ----------

O ffice occu p ation s— Continued

38
—

v r~ -

$88.00
89.00

$ 6 5 .0 0
48
Switchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t i o n i s t s _________________
68. 50
25
Manufacturing
- - - - - - _ _
- - - — - - - - - - - - _ - - -_
_
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 - - - - 61. - 50- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

8 8 .0 0
6 4 .0 0

D uplicating-m ach ine operators
(M im eograph o r D i t t o ) ----------M a n u fa c tu r in g ______________

30
18

70.50 |Tabulating-m achine o p e r a to r s , c la s s A - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 38- - - - 108.50
Manufacturing
_ _
_ _
____ - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -26 - - - 110.56
- - 79. 50 1

23“
138

59. 50
73. 50
57.00

Keypunch o p e r a to r s , c la s s A 3

32

88.00

98 . 00

Keypunch o p erators, c la s s B 3
M anufacturing —

146
74

40
73
20

~ W

155

1 1 0 . bo
9 2 .0 0
92.00

69. 50
73. 00
68 .0 0

O ffice boys and girls
M anufacturing -----

46
31

S e c r e t a r i e s ___________
M anufacturing ______
N onm anufacturing _
P ublic utilities 2

428

S tenograp hers, g e n e r a l3
M anufacturing
Nonm anufacturing _
Pu blic u tilities 2

250
164
86
16

262
166
28

C lerk s, file , c la s s A 3 ______
C lerk s, file , c la s s B 3
M anufacturing _____
C lerk s, o rd e r
M a n u fa c tu r in g ----N onm anufacturing

22

61
"

20 “

41

60. 00
72. 50

81. 50
00 ' Stenographers, sei
M anufacturing
7 7 .0 0

•90 .

93. 50
78
Tabulating-m achine o p e r a to r s , c la s s B
- - - - - - - - _M anufacturing . . . . . ............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . 98. . 50
. . . . .
.
. . . .

69.00 |
76.50 T ran scrib in g-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l __ — - - - - - - M anufacturing
_
- - - - - - _ _
——
59.50.
62. 50 T y p ists, cla s s A
_ _ _ _
Nonmanufacturing
_
92. 50
100.50 I T y p is ts , clas s B
M anufacturing
80. 50
93.00

_

_
.

____ _ _ ____
__ _____

__ ____
____ ____

.

__ _
_ -

1
87.5 0 1
92. 56

M a n u f a c t u r in g

_

—

- - - - -

~ W

16

80’ "56
69. 50

Sw itchboard op e ra to rs
M a n u fa c tu r in g -------N onmanuf actur ing _.

60
26
34

67. 50
80. 50
57. 50

N u rses, industrial (re g is te r e d )

Earnings a re fo r a regular w orkw eek fo r w hich em ployees r e c e iv e their s tra igh t-tim e w eekly sa la r ie s , e xclu sive o f any prem ium pay.
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
D escrip tion fo r this job has been re v ise d sin ce the last su rvey in this area. See appendix A.




_

80. 00
67. 50
59. 50
"6975 6“

-------- T T ~

27

176.50
176.50

223
2T6

135.00
T 3 5T 55“

85
76

101.00
163750“

__ _______
_

65. 50
71. 50

249
48

.

75
37
126
30

__ _
.

P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ica l occupations
73. 50 1
78. 00
^
_
_____ ___________________
65. 50 I D r a f t s m e n , l e a d e r
----Manufacturing
__ _
80.00
D raftsm en, sen ior

145

_ _ __ _

M a n u fa c tu r in g _____ _____ —------—-----— ------ —— -----C lerk s, p a y ro ll _
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing

Average
weekly .
earning* 1
(Standard)

Number
of
worker*

O ccupation and industry d iv ision

18
32

C lerk s, accounting, cla s s A
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing _
Pu blic u tilit ie s 2
C lerk s, accounting, c la s s B
M anufacturing ___________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _______

Average
weekly
earnings 1
(Standard)

O ffice occupations— Continued

O ffice occupations

B ookkeeping-m achine o p e r a to r s , c la s s B
Manuf actur ing
N onm anufacturing

Number
of

O ccupation and industry d ivision

—

24
"" 28

'

99. 50
9 9 .5 0

9
Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage s tra igh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r m en in se le cte d occupations studied on an a rea ba sis
by industry d ivision , South Bend, I n d ., M arch 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKEB8 RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O ccupation and industry d iv isio n

Average $
hourly . 1.90
earnings
and
under
2. 00

C a rp en ters, m aintenance __ ____ __ . . _______
M a n u fa ctu rin g _______ ____ ______ —
____

41
40

$ 3 .0 9
3 .09

. __ _ . .
E le c tr ic ia n s , m aintenance _______
M a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------

170
170

3. 19
3. 19

E n gin eers, station ary ---------------------------------------M anufacturing ---------- ------------ — —

26
22

F irem en , station ary b o ile r ____________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------

$2. 00

$2. 10

$2. 20

$2. 30

$2 .4 0

$2 .5 0

*2 .6 0

*2 .7 0

$2. 80

$
2 .9 0

2. 10

2.2 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2. 50

2 .6 0

2 .70

2. 80

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

-

3
3

-

-

-

-

“

3
3

3
3

2.9 9
3.13

3
“

.

-

“

_

_

.

"

"

■

44
44

2.73
2.73

4
4

3
3

7
7

4

M a ch in e-tool o p e r a to r s , t o o l r o o m ------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------

67
67

3 .00
3 .0 0

-

.
"

16
16

16
16

M achinists, m aintenance ------------------ -------- ------M anufacturing
-------- — -----------

29
29

2 .98
2 .98

.
-

M ech an ics, autom otive (m aintenance) ________
M anufacturing
___ _____. . . __ ____ _____
N onm anufacturing -----------------------------------------P u blic u tilitie s 2 __________________________

133
55
78
75

2.99
3.03
2.96
2.97

M ech an ics, m aintenance - ________
. . ____
M a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------

139
139

-

*

-

.

-

.

.

-

“

1
1

_

$

3 .0 0
3. 10

7
7

1
1

1
1

-

.

21
21

8
8

$

3. 10
3. 20

$

3. 20
3 .3 0

$
3 .3 0
..3a,40_.

<

3.40
3.. ?0

$

3. 50

$
3 .60
and

-3 .. 60-.. .o v e r __

9
9

-

-

3
3

-

18
18

.

63
63

54
54

-

-

-

6
5

“

16
16

.

.

16
16

.
-

-

-

-

10
10

11
11

~

'

-

-

“

-

2
2

3
3

.
“

6
6

24
24

-

-

'

7
7

3
3

.
-

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
_

-

■

.

.

.

■

“

4
4

.

.

.

.

.

.

“

"

_

_

_

_

_

"

'

1

■

"

13
13

_

-

!
1

1

-

.
"

.
-

.
-

.
-

16
16
16

6
6
-

3
3
-

3
3
-

2
2
-

5
5
-

4
1
3
3

17
3
14
14

58
16
42
42

19
19
-

-

-

-

-

3. 17
3.17

_

.

_

_

_

.

15
15

61
61

.

-

32
32

_

_

4
4

_

-

12
12

_

-

2
2

-

13
13

-

167
167

3. 13
3. 13

_

.

_

.

!

!

.

-

-

-

-

1

1

4
4

.
-

"

37
37

-

9
9

'

113
113

-

-

2
2

-

50
50

2.72
2. 72

-

-

-

-

20
20

8
8

16
16

-

6
6

P a in ters, m aintenance
_ ______ __ . . . . ____
______ _____
M anufacturing _________

22
22

3. 10
3. 10

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

-

4
4

P ip e fitte rs , m aintenance _____________ _________
M anufacturing ____________________ ____ _______

132
132

19
19

.
■

Sh eet-m etal w o rk e rs , m aintenance ____________
M anufacturing ________________________________

1

.

M il l w r i g h t s _____________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ------------------------------------------------O ilers . _______ ____ __ ___ __ ___________
M anufacturing
. ______ . . . . . . . . .

T ool and die m a k e rs

.

____________ _____ __ _______

.
-

!
1
.

_

_

_

.

.

"

“

“

■

-

3.22
3.22

.

.

_

..

.

_

_

_

1

•

■

-

■

•

"

■

1

22
22

3. 16
3. 16

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

1
1

266
266

3.39
3.39

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

5
5

1
1

-

E xclu des prem iu m pay fo r ov e rtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts,
T ran sp ortation , com m u nication, and other public u tilities.




4

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

13
13

5
5

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

.

.

-

-

107
107

-

-

5
5

-

1
12
12

17
17

-

-

16
16

-

-

'

15
15

3
3

201
201

7
7

-

_

10
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material M ovem ent Occupations

(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s e le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , South Bend, Ind., M arch 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKER8 RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccu p a tion 1 and industry division

E levator o p era tors , passen ger
(women) _____ _________ ____ ____ Nonmanufacturing __________________

Number
of
workers

Average LJnder *1.00 *1.10 *1.20 *1.30 *1.40 *1.50 *1.60 *1.70 *1.80 *1.90 *2.00 *2.10 *2.20 *2.30 *2.40 *2.50 *2.60 *2.70 *2.80 *2.90 *3.00 *3.10 *3.20 *3.30
hourly
earnings *
and
1.00 under
1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 l.? 0 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40
2
2

4
4

2
2

2.50
2.51

34
4
_
-

_
-

_
-

472
*63
109

2.19
2.37
1.57

9
9

1
1

184
59

1.41
1.94

1
_
_
_
_
-

16
16

$ 1.13
1.13

Guards
-------- — .
— - —
M anufacturing ______________________

164
162

Jan itors, p o r te r s , and clea n ers
(men) -____ ___ _________________________
M anufacturing
__. . . --------Nonm anufacturing __________________
Jan itors, p o r te r s , and clea n ers
(women) _________________ _
M anufacturing ______________________
L a b orers , m aterial h a n d lin g _________ _
M anufacturing
__ __ _ --------- _
Nonmanufacturing __________________
P u blic u tilities 4 _________________

409
240
169
46

2.46
2.43
2.51
2.94

O rder fille r s ___________________________
M anufacturing ----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________

197
115
82

2.51
2.67
2.28

P a ck ers, shipping ______________________
M anufacturing ______________________

136
134

2.50
2.49

_________
__
R eceiving cle r k s __ _
M anufacturing ._ _________ ________

68
56

2.46
2.53

Shipping cle rk s __________
M anufacturing __ __

32
_ _____ __
--- ------ ----- ------- 22“

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

.
-

81
81

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

155
155

82
82

16

16

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

13
13

2
2

8
8

35
20
15

19
19
-

2
2
“
27
27

31
22
9

81
45
36

10
3
7

12
12

4
4

72
70

22
22
6
6

5
4
_

5
2

33
33

20
20
_
_
_

9
9
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

-

12
5

7
7
_

15
15
15
_
_
_

_
-

_
_
_

31
31
31
_
_
* _
-

-

68
32
36

5
5

-

33
33
-

127
88
39

_
-

1
1
_
-

3
3
_
-

-

1
1

-

2
-

4
4

-

-

10
10

10
10

56
56

9
9

11
11

11
1
10

1
1

14
5
9

20
8
12

11
8
3

27
13
14

32
15
17

10
2
8

36
34
2

15
15
-

12
9
3

4
_
-

112
_
-

12
11

4
4

_
-

6
6
-

1
2
2
-

1
12
12
-

40
16
24

_
-

3
3
-

8
8

-

5
_
-

13
13

4
4

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
*
_
_
-

_
-

_
2
-

1
1
2
2

_
-

_
"
_
-

30
30

_
4
4

_
12
12

_
7
4

_
-

1
1
_
-

5
-----2“

2.48
2.55

3
_
-

1
1

-

13
13

1
1
_

_
1
1
_

-

-

—

1
r

-

-

-

-

Shipping and r eceiv in g c l e r k s ____ _____

20

2.87

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

1

_

_

1

3

3

1

3

2

_

1

_

5

T ruckdr iver s 5 __________
_ __ _
M anufacturing .
____
____ __ _.
N onm anufacturing __________________
P u blic u tilities 4
— ______

312
77
235
127

2.73
2.57
2.78
2.98

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

-

.
-

.
-

3
3
-

.
-

3
3
-

15
15
-

1
-

28
8
20
-

55
15
40
7

37
37
-

44
5
39
-

2
2
-

9
2
7
7

113
113
113

1
1
-

-

-

T r u ck d riv ers , light (under
1 V2 tons) _________________________________

16

2.38

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

2

-

-

6

-

-

3

1

-

-

-

3

_

_

_

T r u ck d riv ers , m edium ( 1 V2 to and
including 4 tons) __________________
M anufacturing ___________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________;----P u blic u tilities 4 _____________

90
24
66
15

2.59
2.53
2.61
2.78

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
9
-

1
1
-

15
3
12
-

19
12
7
7

4
4
-

30
30
-

2
2
-

-

8
8
8

-

_
-

_
_
-

T r u ck d riv ers , heavy (over 4 tons,
tr a ile r type) ____________ ____ __
Nnnmafm f a rfn ng
PnKUr nfilitiAa ^

47
39
16

2.74
2.76
2-98

2

_

_

3

9

_

9
7
7

9

1

_

_

T ru ck ers, pow er (forklift) _____________
M anufacturing _______________________

248
243

2.57
2.57

!
1

_

24
24

20
20

18
15

145
145

_

-

-

23
23

3
1

-

-

-

W at chm e n ______________________________________
Marmfa rtnring

46
36

1.89
2.08

2

9

-

6
6

9

1
2
3
4
5

-

-

_

12

3

-

1

Data lim ited to m en w o rk e rs excep t w here otherw ise indicated.
E xcludes p rem iu m pay fo r ov e rtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holid ays, and late shifts.
A ll w ork ers w ere at $ 0.80 to $ 0.90.
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
Includes all d r iv e r s r e g a rd le s s o f s ize and type o f truck operated.




1

3
3

-

3

3

-

2

9

6
8
8 — 5“

9

14
14

9

-

9
9

-

_




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

11

Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls o f m a n u fa c tu r in g p lant w o r k e r s b y type and am ount o f d iffe r e n t ia l,
South B en d, Ind., M a r c h 1962)
P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa ctu rin g plant w o r k e r s —
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h avin g fo r m a l
p r o v i s io n s 1 f o r —

Shift d iffe r e n t ia l

S econ d, sh ift
w ork

T h ir d o r o th e r
sh ift w o r k

A c t u a lly w o rk in g on —

S e c o n d sh ift

T h ir d o r o t h e r
sh ift

9 5.5

W ith sh ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l ---- ------U n ifo r m c e n ts (p e r h o u r ) -------

_

_ __ _

-

5 c e n ts _lu l,,„,J,--nr--r
.
I
..ll__
6 ce n ts . ____ ________________________ r
______
8 c e n ts ,,,___________________________________
10 c e n t s ___________________________________
IOV 2 c e n t s __ —
. . . . . .
12 c e n ts
..
. . .
15 c e n ts ___________________________________
152/ b c e n t s -------------------------------------------------U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e __

— _

______

5 p ercen t . . . .
____ — __
__ __
8 p ercen t
_ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _
10 p e r c e n t __ . . _ ._ _ . ._ _ __ _
N o s h ift p a y d iffe r e n t ia l ________________________

17.0

3.6

9 5 .2

__ __

90 .2

9 0.2

16.9

3.6

59.2

55.6

13.6

3.3

_

.8
16.0
6.9
13.3
19.4
1.6
1.1

7.9
1.8
24.0
4 .7
1.1

3 6.0

34.6

3. 7
28.3
4 .0
.3

1
In clu d e s e s ta b lis h m e n ts c u r r e n t ly o p e r a tin g la te s h ifts ,
e v e n though th e y w e r e not c u r r e n t ly o p e r a tin g la te s h ifts .

16.0
-

_

34.6

.1
4 .8
1.5
2.5

_
1.6
-

4 .2
.1
.4

.4
.4
.4
.4
.2

3.2

.3

.6
2.4
.2

.3

-

.1

and e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith f o r m a l p r o v i s io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ifts

12
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(D is trib u tio n o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu died in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s b y m in im u m e n tran ce s a la r y f o r s e le c t e d c a t e g o r ie s
o f in e x p e r ie n c e d w o m e n o f fi c e w o r k e r s , South Bend, I n d ., M arch 1962)
In e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts
M an u factu rin g
M in im um w e e k ly s a l a r y 1

O ther in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 1
2

B a sed on stan dard w e e k ly h o u rs 3 o f—

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

A ll
sch e d u le s

40

A ll
s ch e d u le s

N onm an u factu rin g

M an u factu rin g

N onm anufacturing

B a s e d on sta n d a rd ^ eekly h o u r s 3 o f—
w

A ll
in d u strie s

A ll
sch e d u le s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

40

E sta b lish m en ts s t u d i e d -------------------------------------------------------------------

82

36

XXX

46

XXX

82

36

XXX

46

XXX

E sta b lish m en ts having a s p e c ifie d m in i m u m ------------------------------

26

13

11

13

11

34

14

12

20

14

_
1
5
2
6

.

-

-

3
1
1

3
1
1

_
1
2
1
5

3
1
6
5
5
1
3
4
1
1
2
1
1

3
2
1

-

-

-

-

2
4
2

1
4
2

-

3
2

1
-

-

-

-

-

2
1
1

1

1

-

-

1
1
1

-

3
1
3
3
4
1
1
1
1
1
1

--------------------------------------

8

4

XXX

4

XXX

13

10

XXX

3

XXX

E stab lish m en ts w h ich did not e m p lo y w o rk e rs
in this c a t e g o r y -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

48

19

XXX

29

XXX

35

12

XXX

23

XXX

$ 4 0 . 00
$ 42. 50
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00
$ 52. 50
$ 55. 00
$ 57. 50
$ 60. 00
$ 62. 50
$ 65. 00
$ 6 7 . 50
$ 70. 00

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

un d er
un d er
u nd er
u nd er
un d er
un d er
u nd er
un d er
un d er
u nd er
u nd er
u nd er
un d er

$42.
$ 45.
$47.
$ 50.
$ 52.
$ 55.
$ 57.
$60.
$ 62.
$ 65.
$67.
$ 70.
$ 72.

50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------—---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- — ----- —
—
--------------------------------------------------------- ------ ------------- ------- ~ - - -----—
------------- ----- —
— — ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- —
— —
-----— -----------------------------------------------------------------_____________________________________

E stab lish m en ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m

“

-

2
1
4
1
1
1

1

-

2
4
1
-

-

3
2
1
1
3
1
-

1

1

-

-

-

-

2
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1

1 L o w e s t s a la r y rate fo r m a lly e s ta b lis h e d f o r h ir in g in e x p e r ie n c e d w o rk e rs f o r typing o r o th e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
2 R a tes a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o f fi c e g i r ls , o r s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l jo b s a r e not c o n s id e r e d .
3 H ours r e fl e c t the w o rk w e e k f o r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s . D ata a r e p r e s e n te d fo r a ll w ork w eek s co m b in e d , and f o r the m o s t c o m m o n w ork w eek r e p o r t e d .




13
T abic B-3.

Scheduled W eekly H ours

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f o f fi c e and plant w o r k e r s in all in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s b y sch ed u led w e e k ly h ou rs
o f f ir s t - s h if t w o r k e r s , South Bend, Ind., M a rch 1962)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

W e e k ly h o u r s
All industries1

100

U nder 3 7 J/2 h o u r s _
— _
3 7 l /z h o u r s
— — - _
O v e r 3 7 V 2 and u n d er 40 h o u r s
—
— 40 h o u r s . . .
.
- 4 2 1/2 h o u r s _______ ___ ____________________ ______
- _
44 h o u r s —
45 h o u rs — - _
- 48 h o u r s __
_
54 h o u r s
—
—
— - —
D ata not a v a i l a b l e ___________________________ ___

3
3
92
-

1
(4 )

Manufacturing

100

Public utilities1
2

All industries3

100

100

1

-

4
95
-

-

Manufacturing

1
1
1

100
-

-

100

-

-

90
2

100

1

-

(4 )
3
(4 )

-

(4 )
'

1 In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le tra d e ; re ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce, in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o s e in d u stry d iv isio n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
2 T r a n s p o rta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s.
3 In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le tr a d e , re ta il tra d e , r e a l esta te, and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o s e in d u stry d iv isio n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
* L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.




Public utilities2

100

-

88
5
7
-

14
T abic B-4.

Paid H olidays

(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by n um ber o f paid h olid a y s
p r o v id e d annually, South Bend, Ind., M a r c h 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Item
All industries1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 1
2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
paid h olid a ys —
---------------- —
-------------W o r k e r s in es ta b lis h m en ts p ro v id in g
no paid h o l i d a y . --------------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

98

100

100

1

“

2

“

~

6
2
8

28
1

-

11
50

Number of days
1 h o lid a y
6 h o lid a y s

__

__

6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
9

h olid a ys plu s 1 h a lf day
...
h olid ays plus 2 h a lf days
__ __
. . .
h olid a ys plu s 3 h a lf days
__
_
h olid ays _______ ,____ „ __ . ________________________
h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day
_
_______
h olid ays plu s 2 h alf days
h o l i d a y s ________ __________________________________________
h olid ays plu s 2 h a lf d a y s ---------------------------------. . . .
__ __
__ _
h o l i d a y s __
10 h olid ays _
__ _ — _ --------- - _

32
1
4
(4)
45
1
1
12
1
1
2

4
1
7
68
1
1
17
1

33
1
7
41
-

17
-

“

1
14
2
7
1
54
1
(4 )

61
1
(4 )

_

_
_

16
1
(4)
1

20
2

1
2
19
20
81
83
97
98

2
2
22
23
92
94

11
11
21
71
72

100
100

100
100

’

11
.
■

Total holiday timo5
10 days
. . . . ______ ___
_ 9 o r m o r e days
__ _ __ __ _ _ —
8 o r m o r e days . . .
. . . . .
....
7 V2 o r m o r e d a y s ________________________________
7 o r m o r e days . . . __
_ . . . _ ______
6 V o r m o r e d a y s ________________________________2
6 o r m o r e days
_
___ .
.
.
.
_ ______ __ _____ . . .
1 o r m o r e d a y s __

1
2
3
4
5
no half

2
3
16
17
66
67
99
99

1
19
20
95
96
100
100

17
17
24
67
67
100
100

In clu des data fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il tra d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to those in du stry d iv isio n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
T ra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilit ie s .
In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le tr a d e , r e t a il tra d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th ose in du stry d iv is io n s shown se p a ra te ly .
L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.
A ll com b in a tion s o f fu ll and h a lf days that add to the sa m e am ount a r e c o m b in e d ; fo r e x a m p le , the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g a tota l o f 7 days in c lu d e s th o s e w ith 7 fu ll days and
d ays, 6 fu ll days and 2 h alf d a y s, 5 fu ll days and 4 h a lf d a y s, and so on. P r o p o r t io n s w e r e then cum ulated.




15
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s b y v a ca tio n pay
p r o v is io n s , South B en d, Ind. , M a r c h 1962)

|
|

OFFICE WORKERS

V a ca tio n p o l ic y
All industries

A l l w o r k e r s ______________________________________

1

Manufacturing

100

100

100
98
1

100
97
2

Public utilities*

|
!

100

PLANT WORKERS
All industries*

Manufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

100

99
31
68

100
20
80

100
99
1

Method of payment
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
pa id v a c a t i o n s ----------- ---------- --------------- ------------L e n g t h -o f-t im e p a y m e n t ____________________
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t -------------------------------------F la t - s u m p a y m e n t -----------------------------------------O th er
W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
no p aid v a c a t i o n s ______________________________

(4)

~
(4)

”

”

3
19
13
2

3
24
22

22
(4 )
78
-

11
(4 )
89
~

7
1
92
(4 )

2
1
96
(4 )

100
100

■
-

(4)

“
1

~

1

Amount of vacation pay 5
A ft e r 6 m on th s o f s e r v ic e
U nder 1 w e e k _______________ __________ — ----------1 w e e k ------- ---------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 w eek s
__
___
—
~

8
4

8
2

16
29

■
'

“

"

87
13
“

51
44
4
(4 )

41
55
3
1

89
11

4
1
95
(4 )

43
3
54
"

37
45
16
2

36
56
6
2

37
63

1
2
96
(4 )

100
“

9
51
38
1
(4 )

8
63
26
1
1

"
100

100
“

9

46
42
2
(4 )

8
57
31

“
100
“

“

20
21
1

■

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____ ___________________ ___ _________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 w eek s «__________________________________ _______
O v e r 2 and tinder 3 w e e k s
__
A ft e r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ______________________________________ ______
O v e r 1 and tinder 2 w e e k s
___
2 w e e k s _________________________________ ___ ______
O v e r 2 and tinder 3 w e e k s
_
A ft e r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k --------------- --------- ----------- --------- -------,------- -----O v e r 1 and tinder 2 w e e k s
2 w e e k s ___ __ ___ ________________________ ___ —— —
O v e r 2 and un d er 3 w e e k s
rw*»r ^ anH u n d er 4 w e e k s

-

A ft e r 4 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and tinder 2 w e e k s
2 w eek s ------ ------------------- -------------------------------------—
O v e r 2 and tinder 3 w e e k s

2
98
(4 )
"

1
99

(4 )
■

3

1

A ft e r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------------

(4 )
-

2 w eek s
O ver 2 and tinder 3 w e e k s
^ arxA iinHflr 4 w e e k s

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le .




86
2
12
“

(4 )
79
1
20

99

1

1
1
50
45
2
(4 )

1
1
39
56
2
1

100
■
“

2

16
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations— Continued

( P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in du stry d iv is io n s b y v a ca tion pay
p r o v is io n s , South Bend, Ind., M a r c h 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
V a ca tio n p o lic y
All industries1

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

A m o u n t o f v a c a t i o n p a y 5------- C o n t in u e d
A fte r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ___________________________________________
2 w eek s _ - __ — __ __ __ — — . . . . .
O ver 2 and u nd er 3 w e e k s --- -------------------------- —
3 w eek s . _
. . .
— — . . .
. . .
_____ __
O v er 2 and un d er 4 w eek s . . . .

(4 )
23
22
55
(4 )

10
34
56
(4 )

6i
39

(4 )
23
26
27
23

_
14
32
25
29

74
26
“

(4 )
18
20
61
(4 )

_
10
34
55
1
“

_
41
59
-

(4 )
20
24
30
24
1

_
13
29
26
30
2

_
45
55

(4 )
7
(4 )
85
1
8

3
(4 )
83
1
13

_
12
88
-

(4 )
13
17
39
28
2

7
21
35
35
2

_
100
“

(4 )
7
(4 )
81
1
12

3
(4 )
81
1
15

(4)
13
17
37
28
4

7
21
35
35
2

(4 )
7
(4 )
68
1
24

3
(4 )
68
1
28

(4 )
13
17
18
29
22

7
21
15
36
20

A ft e r 12 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek _. __ _ __ __ ._ ._ ._ __ — . — —
2 w eek s _______ __ __________________
___
O v er 2 and u nd er 3 w eek s _ _. __ _. _. —
3 w eek s .
— __ __ — _ __ __ . . . .
_ .
O ver 3 and un d er 4 w eek s _ __ _ — ------- —
4 w eek s -----------------------------------------------------------------

-

*

A fte r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ___ ____ __ _____ __ __ ._ . . — — —
2 w e e k s __________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ______________________
3 w eek s _ ._ __ — _ _. . . _. — — —
O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s _ ._ __ __ ___ _—
4 w eek s ------ ------- _. _. _. -------- ------- — —
A ft e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek __ ._ . —
2 w eek s _ ------------O ver 2 and un d er 3
" urpplre
K
O ver 3 and un d er 4
4 w eek s _ _ ___

__
__ ------- __ ------- —
_. — __ __ ------- — — —
w eek s _ _. — — - --------........
w e e k s ______________________
_ __ __ __ — — —
...

_

_
12
-

74
-

14

_

_
-

78
-

22

A lt e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek __ __
_____
__ . . . — ._ . .
2 w eek s . .
____ — — - —
O ver 2 and u n d er 3 w eek s ..__________________ —
3 w eek s _
_ _. ------ _ — ._ ~ __
O ver 3 and u nd er 4 w eek s _ _ _ _ _ _
4 w eek s _ _ _ _ _
_
—

1
2
3
4
5
s e r v ic e
to

_

_

12
-

19
-

69

_

_

In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to those in du stry d iv isio n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
T r a n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilitie s .
Inclu des data f o r w h o le s a le tr a d e , r e t a il tr a d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s show n se p a ra te ly .
L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.
P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e w e r e a r b it r a r ily c h o s e n and d o not n e c e s s a r il y r e fle c t the in divid u al p r o v is io n s f o r p r o g r e s s io n s . F o r e x a m p le, the ch a n g es in p r o p o r t io n s
in clu d e ch an ges in p r o v is io n s o c c u r r in g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .

_
_

22
_

78

in d ica te d

N O T E : In the tabu lation s of v a ca tio n a llo w a n ce s b y y e a r s o f s e r v ic e ,
paym en ts o th e r than "le n g th
o f t i m e , " such as p e r c e n ta g e o f annual e a rn in g s o r f la t - s u m p a y m e n ts , w e r e
an equ ivalen t tim e b a s is ; f o r e x a m p le , a p aym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as 1 w e e k 's pay.




at 10

years'

c o n v e r te d

17
Table B-6.

H ealth, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(P e r c e n t o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u s try d iv is io n s e m p lo y e d in e sta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
health, in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e fits , South B en d, Ind. , M a r c h 1962)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

T y p e o f b e n e fit
A ll in d u strie s

A ll w ork ers

1

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b lic u tilitie s 1
2

100

100

100

A ll in d u s tr ie s 3

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

100

100

100

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g :
L ife in s u r a n c e
A c c id e n t a l death and d is m e m b e rm e n t
in s u r a n c e
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s ic k le a v e o r b o th 4 ________________ __ ______
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e
S ic k le a v e (fu ll p a y and n o
w a itin g p e r io d )
S ic k le a v e (p a r tia l p a y o r
w a itin g p e r io d )

98

99

99

96

99

100

76

94

68

84

90

67

96

97

96

96

99

95

. ___

58

81

30

91

97

29

_

79

83

31

7

2

40

8

5

55

3

“

26

99
99
90

73
73
56
71
74
1

95
95
77
32
81
2

99
99
83
28
86
1

60
60
31
61
95

_

H o s p ita liz a tio n i n s u r a n c e ___ _______ __ _____
S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e _______
— —
M e d ica l in s u r a n c e
C a ta s trop h e i n s u r a n c e ______________________
R e tir e m e n t p e n s i o n __________________________
N o h ea lth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n ____

98
98
87
75
71

69
92

( 5)

1 In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il tra d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o se in d u s try d iv is io n s s h o w n s e p a r a te ly .
2 T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s .
3 In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e , r e t a il tr a d e , r e a l esta te, and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o s e in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
4 U n d u p lica ted to ta l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s ick n e s s and a ccid e n t in s u ra n ce show n s e p a r a te ly b e lo w . S ic k -le a v e plans a r e lim ite d to th ose w h ich d e fin ite ly e s ta b lis h at le a s t the
m in im u m n u m b er o f d a y s ' p a y that ca n be e x p e cte d b y ea ch e m p lo y e e . In fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n ce s d e te r m in e d on an in d ivid u al b a s is a r e e x clu d ed .
5 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .







Appendix A :

Changes in Occupational Descriptions

stead of two (class A and B). The revised description for keypunch
operator groups these workers into two defined classes (A and B)
instead of a single category. Previously data were presented separately
for general stenographers and technical stenographers. The revision
combines general stenographers, with more responsible duties, and
technical stenographers to form a new senior stenographer category;
other general stenographers are maintained in that classification.

Since the Bureau’ s last survey in this area, occupational
descriptions for three office jobs were revised in order to obtain salary
information for more sp ecific categories. Therefore, data presented
for these jobs in table A -l are not comparable to data presented in last
year’ s bulletin.

Revisions were made in the descriptions for file clerks, key­
punch operators, and stenographers. The revised description for file
clerk groups these workers into three levels (class A, B, and C) in­




The revised occupational descriptions used this year are in­
cluded in appendix B.

19




Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type o f machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (hilling machine)—
Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)—
Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry o f figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.



CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

21

22

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—
Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C—
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.



CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary ‘ data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

23

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B—
Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and



SECRETARY— Continued
—
making phone calls; handling personal and. important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographer
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

24

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part o f this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a variety o f tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as die tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in die basic operation of the machine.



TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A—
Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B—
Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

25

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts*
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep*
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicant^
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires! rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




26

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation o f one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge of the working

27

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties o f the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in die plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out o f the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment o f an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for die production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.



OILER
Lubricates *with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, die work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

28

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or beating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types o f sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those o f starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.




29

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Ship­
ping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers9 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:

and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform dther related duties.

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk




30

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers9 houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D rivers ale smen and over^the~road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1^ tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 0 — 642442


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102