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SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA OCTOBER 1962 Bulletin No. 1345-13 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner Occupational Wage Survey SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA OCTOBER 1962 Bulletin No. 1345-13 December 1962 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 2 5 , D.C. - Price 20 cents P reface Contents Page Introduction _________________________________________________________________ Eighty-two labor markets currently are included in the Bureau of Labor Statistics program of annual occu pational wage surveys in major labor markets. These studies provide data on occupational earnings and related supplementary benefits. Information on related supple mentary benefits is obtained biennially in most of the labor m arkets. Tables: 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey ___________ A: Occupational earnings:* A - 1. Office occupations— men and women _______________________ A - 2. Professional and technical occupations— men _____________ A - 3. Office, professional, and technical occupations— men and women combined _______________________ A -4 . Maintenance and powerplant occupations ________ A - 5. Custodial and m aterial movement occupations __ A prelim inary report which presents earnings trends for selected occupational groups and average earn ings in selected jobs is released within a month after the completion of the study in each area. This bulletin provides additional data not included in the preliminary report. Appendix: Occupational descriptions _____________________________________ A two-part summary bulletin, is issued after the completion of all of the area bulletins for a round of su r veys (for the current round of surveys, the first part of this bulletin will be available late in 1963 and the second part early in 1964). The first part presents individual labor market data. The second part presents data r e lating to all metropolitan areas in the United States. This bulletin was prepared in the Bureau’s r e gional office in Chicago, 111. , by Kenneth Thorsten, under the direction of Elliott A . Browar. The study was under the general direction of Woodrow C s Linn, Assistant R e gional D irector for Wages and Industrial Relations. * NOTE: Similar tabulations are available for other major areas. See inside back cover. Union sca les, indicative of prevailing pay levels, are also available for seven selected building trades in the Sioux Falls area. iii 1 2 3 3 in 4^ 4^ The Labor Market Occupational Wage Survey Program 7 Occupational Wage Survey— Sioux Falls, S. Dak. Introduction This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U.S. De partment of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an areawide basis. Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for fu ll-tim e workers, i.e ., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude p re mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which straight-tim e salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar. This bulletin presents current occupational employment and earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for occupations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes since the previous survey. In each area, data are obtained from representative estab lishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; trans portation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups excluded from these studies are government opera tions and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted because they tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupa tions studied to warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria. Differences in pay levels for selected occupations in which both men and women are commonly employed are largely due to (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties performed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of service or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis. Longer average service of men would result in higher average pay when both sexes are employed within the same rate range. Job descrip tions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usually more generalized than those used in individual establishments to allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties performed. These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data, however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. E sti mates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, except for those below the minimum size studied. Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu pational structure do not m aterially affect the accuracy of the earn ings data. Occupations and Earnings The occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the following types: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) maintenance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m aterial m ove ment. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job. The occupations selected for study are listed and described in the appendix. Earnings data for some of the occupations listed and described are not presented in the A -s e r ie s tables because either (1) employment in the occupation is too small to provide enough data to m erit presentation, or (2) there is p o ssi bility of disclosure of individual establishment data. Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supple mentary wage provisions (B -se r ie s tables) are not presented in this bulletin. Information for these tabulations is collected biennially in this area. These tabulations on minimum entrance salaries for in experienced women office workers; shift differentials; scheduled weekly hours; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are presented (in the B -s e r ie s tables) in previous bulletins for this area. 1 2 T a b le 1. E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ithin scop e of su rv e y and num ber studied in Sioux F a l ls , S. D a k .,1 by m a jo r in du stry d iv is io n , 2 O c to b e r 1962 N u m b er of e sta b lish m e n ts In d ustry d iv isio n W ithin scope of study 1 3 2 4 Studied W o r k e r s in e sta b lis h m e n ts W ithin scope of study * Studied ________________________________________________________ 53 51 9 , 200 8, 900 M an ufactu ring ______________________________________________________ N on m an ufactu ring _________________________________________________ T r a n sp o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilitie s 5 ___________________________________ ____ ______ W h o le sa le tra d e 6 ______________________________________________ R e ta il tra d e 6 ____________________________________________________ F in a n c e, in su r a n ce , and r e a l e s t a t e 6 ____________________ S e r v ic e s 6’ 7 ______________________________________________________ 17 36 16 35 4 , 700 4 , 500 4 , 500 4 , 400 11 7 14 3 1 11 7 13 3 1 2, 000 500 1, 500 300 200 2, 000 500 1, 400 300 200 A ll d iv isio n s 1 The Sioux F a lls Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s of M innehaha County. The "w o r k e r s within scope of stu d y " e s t im a t e s shown in this table p rovid e a r e a so n a b ly a c c u r a te d e sc r ip tio n of the s iz e and c o m p o sitio n of the labor fo r c e included in the su rv e y . The e s t im a t e s a r e not intended, h o w ev er, to s e r v e as a b a s is of c o m p a r iso n with other em p loym en t in dexes fo r the a r e a to m e a su r e em p loym en t tre n d s o r le v e ls sin ce (1) planning of w age su r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u se of e sta b lish m e n t data co m p iled c o n sid e r a b ly in advance of the p a y r o ll p eriod stu d ied , and (2) s m a ll e sta b lish m e n ts a r e exclu d ed fr o m the scop e of the su rv e y . 2 The 1957 r e v is e d edition of the Standard In d u stria l C la s s ific a tio n M an ual w as u sed in c la ssify in g e sta b lish m e n ts by in d u str y d iv isio n . 3 Includes a ll e s ta b lish m e n ts with to ta l em p lo y m en t at or above the m in im u m lim ita tio n (50 e m p lo y e e s). A ll ou tlets (w ithin the a r e a ) of c o m p a n ie s in such in d u str ie s as tra d e , fin a n c e, auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o tio n -p ic tu r e th e a te rs a r e c on sid ere d as 1 esta b lish m en t. 4 In clud es a ll w o r k e r s in a ll e s ta b lish m e n ts with to ta l em p loym en t (w ithin the a rea ) at or above the m in im u m lim ita tio n (50 e m p lo y e e s ). 5 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in cid en tal to w ater tra n sp o r ta tio n w e r e exclu d ed . 6 T h is in d u stry d iv isio n is r e p r e se n te d in e s t im a t e s fo r " a l l in d u s tr ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g " in the S e r ie s A t a b le s . S ep a ra te p r e se n ta tio n of data fo r this d iv isio n is not m ad e fo r one or m o r e of the follow in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p loym en t in the d iv isio n is too s m a ll to p ro v id e enough data to m e r it sep a ra te study, (2) the sa m p le w as not d esign ed in itia lly to p e r m it sep arate p resen tation , (3) re sp o n se w as in su ffic ie n t or inadequate to p e r m it sep a ra te p r e se n ta tio n , and (4) th e re is p o s s ib ility of d is c lo s u r e of in dividu al esta b lish m en t data. 7 H o te ls ; p e r so n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; a u tom ob ile re p a ir sh o p s; m otion p ic tu r e s; nonprofit m e m b e r sh ip o r g a n iz a tio n s ; and en gin eerin g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v ic e s . A: Occupational Earnings 3 Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women (A verage stra igh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b a sis by industry d ivision, Sioux F a lls , S. D ak ., October 1962) Average Sex, occupation, and in du stry d ivision N U M B ER OF W O RK ER S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF— Number of workers Weeklyj (Standard) Weekly earnings 1 (Standard) 1 0 .00 1 5 .0 0 and under 45.00 50.00 1 0 .0 0 $ $ 1 55.00 *60.00 *65.00 $70.00 75.00 *80.00 $85.00 *90.00 * 9 5 .0 0 *100.00 *105.00 $ 10.00 *115.00 *120.00 *125.00 *130.00 ^35.0 0 and 55.00 65.00 60.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 9 5 .00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 over 90 .00 i Men ------------------- 20 40.0 $ 101.50 _ B ook keep ing-m achin e o p e r a to r s, c la s s B ____________________________________ Nonm anufacturing ______________________ 28 22 40.0 40 .0 55.50 53.50 - C le r k s, accounting, c la s s A ____________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________ 18 15 40 .5 40 .5 74.00 73.00 _ _ - 63 C le r k s, accounting, c la s s B ____________ Nonm anufacturing ______________________ ----- 4S 16 Public u t ilit ie s 2 _____________________ 40.0 40.0 40 .0 61 .50 57.50 61.00 3 3 20 40 .5 76.50 C le r k s, accounting, c la s s A _ _ _ 1 1 _ _ 3 6 8 8 6 5 6 2 - 1 1 1 - - - 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 1 10 8 2 7 5 - 15 13 3 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 _ _ 2 _ 4 3 _ 3 1 - 2 2 - 3 1 - 2 - - - ~ - 1 W om en S e c r e ta r ie s __________________________________ — r ~ 10 9 3 14 13 4 88 59 25 40.0 40.0 40 .0 67.50 61.50 67.50 - ____________________ 17 40.0 82.00 _ _ T y p ists, c la s s B ___________________________ N onm anufacturing _____________________ 40 34 40.0 40.0 57.50 54.50 1 1 13 13 S tenograp h ers, g e n era l ----------------------------Nonm anufacturing --------------------------------Public u t ilit ie s 2 _____________________ S tenograp h ers, sen ior - 16 15 5 4 3 2 - - - - - " - - - - 2 1 _ 1 1 2 2 - - - . - - - - 2 2 1 4 3 1 1 - 3 - 4 1 - - “ “ “ 4 2 1 2 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 2 “ - ■ ~ - - 9 4 3 " 5 4 2 7 “ 4 ' 8 4 4 - - - - - " “ " ■ ” - _ _ - 1 _ . . . _ _ “ ■ - - ~ ' 1 1 _ 3 2 2 2 2 _ 1 1 - 1 _ - - - 8 1 6 ------ 6“ 9 5 2 - - 4 4 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 . . _ _ . . _ . . ------- 5 “ 1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkweek for which em ployees rec eiv e their regu lar stra ig h t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings corresp ond to these w eekly h ours. 2 Tran sportation , com m unication, and other public u tilities. Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men (A verage stra igh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis by industry division, Sioux F a lls , S. D ak ., October 1962) Average O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n of workers NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF— $ Number Weekly. hours (Standard) Weekly x 8 5 .0 0 and earnings (Standard) u n d e r 90 .00 D r a fts m e n , s e n io r M a n u fa c tu r in g 18 15 4 0 .5 40 .5 $120 .5 0 121.00 2 2 $ 90.00 95.00 2 2 $ 9 5 .0 0 foo.oo ~ .100.00 $ 105.00 $ n o .o o 115.00 105,00 .1 1 0 .0 0 .11 5.00 120.00 2 1 2 2 $ 120.00 $ 125.00 $ 130.00 $ $ $ 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 $ $ 155.00 160.00 125.00 .130,00 J 35.00 ~ 150.00 155.00 160.00. 165.00 2 1 3 2 140.00 1 1 145.00 1 1 ~ 2 2 1 1 ' Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. “ 4 Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined (A verage stra ig h t-tim e w eekly earnings for selec te d occupations studied on an area basis by industry d ivision , Sioux F a lls , S. D a k ., October 1962) Average weekly j earnings (Standard) Number of workers earnings * (Standard) Bookkeeping-m achine o p era to rs, c la ss B _________ Nnnmanufacturing 29 23 $ 5 5 . 00 53. 00 S ec r e ta r ie s ______________________________________________ 20 $ 7 6 .5 0 C lerk s, accounting, c la ss A ____ Nonmanufacturing -------------------- ___________________ __ ----------------------- 38 28 88. 50 87. 50 S tenograp h ers, general _______________________________ Nonmanufacturing __________________________________ Public u tilities 2 _________________________________ 88 59 25 67. 50 61. 50 67. 50 C lerk s, accounting, c la ss B _________________________ Nonmanufacturing __________________________________ Public u tilities 2 _________________________________ 76 58 20 66 . 00 64. 00 63. 50 S tenograp h ers, sen ior 17 82. 00 Occupation and industry division Number of workers Occupation and industry d ivision O ffice occupations— Continued O ffice occupations Number of Occupation and in du stry d ivision AV k T w£ earnings (Standard) 40 34 $ 5 7 .5 0 54. 50 18 15 1 2 0 .5 0 1 2 1 .0 0 O ffice occupations— Continued ________________________________ T y p ists, c la ss B __________________________________________ Nonmanufacturing P r o fe ssio n a l and techn ical occupations D raftsm en , sen ior Manufacturing _______________________________________ 1 Earnings relate to regu lar stra ig h t-tim e w eekly sa la r ie s that are paid for standard w orkw eeks. 2 T ran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilitie s. Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations (A verage s tra ig h t-tim e h ourly earnings for m en in selec te d occupations studied on an area b asis by industry d ivision , Sioux F a lls , S. D a k ., October 1962) NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— Occupation and industry division Number of workers Average $ , hourly , 1 .6 0 earnings 1 and $ $ $ M ech an ics, autom otive (m aintenance) _________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________ Public u tilities 2 ---------- ------------------------------ 34 25 25 $ 2 . 52 2 .4 4 2 .4 4 1. 70 1 .8 0 under 1 .7 0 1. 80 " 1. 90 1 - 1 - - $ 1. 90 2. 00 1 1 1 E xcludes p rem iu m pay for ove rtim e and for w ork on w eekends, h olid ays, and late sh ifts. T ran sportation, com m u nication, and other public u tilitie s. $ $ $ 2 .0 0 2. 10 " 2. 10 " 2. 20 2. 30 - 1 1 1 - 2. 20 2. 30 - $ $ 2 .4 0 $ $ $ $ 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 ■ 2 .7 0 ” 2 .8 0 2. 90 - - - - 2 .4 0 2. 50 2 .6 0 9 9 9 12 12 12 1 - 2. 80 - $ $ 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 " 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 - 4 - 4 2 2 Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations (A verage stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b a sis by industry d ivision , Sioux F a lls , S. D a k ., October 1962) NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OFNum ber of w orkers $ 1. 30 $ 1. 10 $ 1. 20 under 1. 20 “ 1. 30 1 .4 0 72 99 54 77 8 1 7 " 4 1 3 " 6 1 5 “ 185 98 2. 17 2. 13 _ _ _ O rder f ille r s ________________________________________ M anufacturing __________________________________ N onm anufacturing ______________________________ 74 33 41 1. 90 2. 04 1. 78 " 3 3 T r u ck d r iv er s 4 ______________________________________ M anufacturing __________________________________ N onm anufacturing ______________________________ 87 27 60 2. 18 2. 25 2. 16 _ _ _ - - - ~ “ _ T r u c k d r iv e r s , m ediu m ( I V 2 to and including 4 tons) Nonm anufacturing __________________________ 57 39 2. 35 2. 34 - - - Occupation 1 and in du stry division 2 J an itors, p o r te r s , and c lea n ers M anufacturing __________________________________ Nonm anufacturing ______________________________ P ublic u t ilit ie s 3 L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling M anufacturing _ ___ 64 26 38 17 h rly , ou earnin gs $1. 1. 1. 1. _ - $ 1. 50 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1. 70 $ 1 .8 0 1. 50 1 .6 0 “ 1 .7 0 ” 1. 80 " 1. 90 3 2 1 1 8 2 6 2 8 2 6 6 3 1 2 1 2 2 - 7 5 4 4 8 7 3 2 23 16 10 . _ 1 1 2 2 5 1 4 6 2 4 29 12 17 11 11 - 6 2 4 4 1 3 4 4 ~ 4 1 3 10 10 5 5 4 2 3 2 - • - 2 2 - $ 1 .4 0 - 1 Data lim ite d to m en w o r k e r s. 2 E xclud es p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and late sh ifts. 3 T ran sp ortation , com m u nication, and other public u tilities. 4 Includes a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le ss of siz e and type of truck operated. " $ 1. 90 $ 2. 00 2. 00 2. 10 5 5 5 _ 1 1 - $ 2. 10 $ 2. 20 $ 2. 30 $ 2 .4 0 " 2 .4 0 ~ 2. 20 " 2. 30 $ 2. 50 2. 50 2. 60 $ 2. 60 $ 2. 70 $ 2. 80 $ 2. 90 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 " 3. 00 - - 3 1 2 2 - 1 1 - 12 12 - " - " 23 14 3 1 56 1 48 48 9 9 " - - - “ " ' 1 1 11 6 5 . - 20 20 - - 8 4 " - 20 20 . ■ - - 1 1 1 1 _ _ _ - - - ■ “ - “ 6 — " - 8 8 ' - - _ . _ - - “ 1 1 - 12 5 7 2 1 1 6 - 12 7 1 1 & ----- Appendix: Occupational Descriptions The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers. OFFICE BILLER, MACHINE BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are cla ssified by type o f machine, as follows: Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions. Class A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal ance sheets, and other records by hand. Biller, machine (billing machine)— Uses a special billing ma chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in v oices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine. Class B— Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department. Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— ses a bookkeeping U machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’ bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in volves the simultaneous entry o f figures on customers’ ledger rec ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips. CLERK, ACCOUNTING Class A— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts 7 8 CLERK, ACCOUNTING-Continued payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in making proper assignations and allocations. May a ssist in preparing, adjusting and closin g journal entries; and may direct cla ss B a c counting clerks. Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple co st accounting data. This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers. CLERK, FILE Class A — an established filing system containing a number In of varied subject matter file s, cla ssifies and indexes file material such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May also file this material. May keep records o f various types in con junction with the file s. May lead a small group o f lower level file clerks. Class B— Sorts, cod es, and files unclassified material by sim ple (subject matter) headings or partly cla ssified material by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids. As requested locates clearly identified material in files and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files. CLERK, ORDER R eceives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original orders. CLERK, PAYROLL Computes wages of company employees and enters the n e ce s sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’ earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and d is tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine. COMPTOMETER OPERATOR Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance o f other duties. DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO) Class C— Performs routine filing of material that has already been cla ssified or which is easily cla ssified in a simple serial classification system (e .g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numer ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service files. Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto, masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material. 9 KEYPUNCH OPERATOR Class /l — Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example, locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts information from several documents; and searches for and interprets information on the document to determine information to be punched. May train inexperienced operators. Class B— Under clo s e supervision or following sp e cific proce dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents, follow s sp ecified sequences which have been coded or prescribed in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes, missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor. OFFICE BOY OR GIRL Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis tributing mail, and other minor clerical work. SECRETARY Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice; answering and SECRETARY— Continued making phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or memorandums for information of superior. STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written copy. May maintain file s, keep simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool. Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine operator.) STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons, either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scien tific research and transcribe dictation. May also type from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc. OR Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge o f general busi ness and office procedures and o f the sp ecific business operations, organization, p o licie s, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as, maintaining followup file s; assembling material for reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work. 10 SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard. Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice calls. May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to persons who call in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist. TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR— Continued Class C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc., with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re petitive operations. SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties. This typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at switchboard. TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR Class A— Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring from diagrams and operating sequences of long and com plex reports, Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine operations and day-to-day supervision o f the work and production of a group of tabulating-machine operators. Class B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report. Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where the procedures are well established. May also include the training of new employees in the basic operation of the machine. TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or sp ecia lized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified as a stenographer, general. TYPIST Uses a typewriter to make cop ies o f various material or to make out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May do clerica l work involving little specia l training, such as keeping simple records., filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming mail. Class A— Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Typing ma terial in final form when it involves combining material from several sources err responsibility for correct spellin g, syllabication, punc tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma-| terial; and planning layout and typing o f com plicated statistical' tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters varying details to suit circum stances. Class B— Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Copy typing from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol icie s , etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly. 11 PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR (Assistant draftsman) Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction o f a draftsman. completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan tities; writing specification s; and making adjustments or changes in drawings or specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, e le c trical, mechanical, or structural drafting. DRAFTSMAN, LEADER NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer gen cies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or administrative nature. DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by use o f drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel. TRACER Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw ings and do simple lettering. MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. 12 ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety o f electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools; and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis. ENGINEER, STATIONARY Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded. MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or milling machines in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety of pre cision measuring instruments; selectin g feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion . MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water and safety valve. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment. Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts o f mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety o f ma chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo s e toler ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions o f work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge of the working 13 MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE-Continued MILLWRIGHT properties o f the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out o f the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers o f gravity; alining and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE) Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors o f an e s tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gages, drills, or sp ecia lized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually a c quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment o f an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production o f a re placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen eral, the work o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva lent training and experience. Excluded from this cla ssifica tion are workers whose primary duties invQlve setting up or adjusting machines. OILER Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur faces o f mechanical equipment o f an establishment. PAINTER, MAINTENANCE Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an e s tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge o f surface pecu liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or con sisten cy. In general, the work o f the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw ings or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings 14 PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE— Continued SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating system s are excluded. types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety o f handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; and installing sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. TOOL AND DIE MAKER (Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker) PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order. Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation o f vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) o f an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other specification s; setting up and operating all available Constructs and repairs machine-shop to o ls, gages, jig s , fix tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out o f work from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written s p e cifica tio n s; using a variety o f tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common metals and alloys; setting up and operating o f machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating o f metal parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assem bling o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; and se le ctin g appro priate materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tio n . CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER GUARD Transports passengers between floors of an o ffice building apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment. Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as those of starters and janitors are excluded. Performs routine p olice duties, either at fixed p ost or on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and ch eck on identity o f em ployees and other persons entering. 15 PACKER, SHIPPING JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER (Sweeper; charwomen; janitress) Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work ers who specia lize in window washing are excluded. Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping containers, the sp e cific operations performed being dependent upon the type, siz e , and number of units to be packed, the type o f container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f the following: Knowledge o f various items o f stock in order to verify content; selection o f appropriate type and size o f container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded. LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING (Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper) SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded. sible for incoming shipments o f merchandise or other materials. ping work involves: routes, Ship A knowledge o f shipping procedures, practices, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the goods shipped, making up b ills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. direct or a ssist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. work involves: May R eceiving Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan ORDER FILLER (Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman) dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary records and files. F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus tomers’ orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform Other related duties. For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s: R eceiving clerk Shipping clerk Shipping'and receiving clerk 16 TRUCKDRIVER TRUCKER, POWER Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types o f estab lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are excluded. Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered truck or tractor to transport goods and materials o f all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment. For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the basis of trailer capacity.) Truckdriver (combination o f s iz e s listed separately) Truckdriver, light (under l / tons) l2 Truckdriver, medium ( l / to and including 4 tons) l2 Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type) Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type) For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d by type o f truck, as follows: Trucker, power (forklift) Trucker, power (other than forklift) WATCHMAN Makes rounds o f premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft, and illegal entry. ☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1963 O - 670475