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Occupational Wage Survey

SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
A U G U S T 1956

Bulletin No. 1202-1

UNITED STATES D EPARTM EN T OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissionar

Occupational Wage Survey
S E A TT L E , W ASHINGTON




AUGUST 1956

B u lle tin N o . 1202-1
UN ITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT OF LABO R
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clogut, Commassoner
November 1956

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 2 5 cents




Preface

Contents

Page
The Community Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers. The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits.
A preliminary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following the
payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data
not included in the earlier report. A consolidated analytical
bulletin summarizing the results of all of the year*s surveys
is issued after completion of the final area bulletin for the
current round of surveys.

1
3

Tables:
1.
2.

Establishments and workers within scope of su rv e y ------Percent changes in standard weekly salaries for
office clerical and average straight-time hourly
earnings for selected plant occupational groups -----------

A:

Occupational earnings * A - 1: Office occupations--------------------------------------------------A-2: Professional and technical occupations-------------------A - 3: Maintenance and powerplant occupations-----------------A - 4: Custodial and material movement occupations---------

B:

Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions * B - l: Shift differential provision s-----------------------------------B-2: Minimum entrance rates for women office
workers —
-------------------------------------------------------------B-3: Scheduled weekly hours ------------------------------------------B-4: Paid h olidays------------------B-5: Paid vacations -------------------------------------------------------B-6: Health, insurance, and pension plans ----------------------

Appendix: Job descriptions ---------------------------------------------------------

* NOTE: Similar tabulations for most of these items are
available in the Seattle area report for September 1951.
The 1951 report also provides tabulations of Christmas,
year-end, profit-sharing, and other types of nonproduction
bonuses. A directory indicating data of study and th£ price
of the report, as well as reports for other major areas, is
available upon request.
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels, are
available for the following trades or industries: Building
construction, printing, local-transit operating employees,
and motortruck drivers.

2
3

in Is* 00 O n




Introduction------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------Wage trends for selected occupational groups ------------------------------

11
12
13
13
14
15
17




Occupational Wage Survey - Seattle, W a sh *
Introduction

The Seattle area is one of several important industrial centers
in which the Department of L a b o rs Bureau of Labor Statistics has
conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areawide basis. In each area, data are obtained by personal
visits of Bureau field agents to representative establishments within
six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (excluding
railroads), communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services.
Major
industry groups excluded from these studies, besides railroads, are
government operations and the construction and extractive industries.
Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are
omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the occu­
pations studied to warrant inclusion.1 Wherever possible, separate
tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions.

to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earnings
data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments.
To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied.
In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re ­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, except
for those below the minimum size studied.

Information is presented also (in the B -se rie s tables) on se­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they
relate to office and plant workers.
The term "Office w orkers," as
used in this bulletin, includes all office clerical employees and ex­
cludes administrative,executive, professional, and technical personnel.
"Plant workers" include working foremen and all nonsupervisory work­
ers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice
functions.
Administrative, executive, professional, and technical employees, and
force-account construction employees who are utilized as a separate
work force are excluded. Cafeteria workers and routemen are ex­
cluded in manufacturing industries, but are included as plant workers
in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries.
Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of inter establishment variation in duties within the same
job (see appendix for listing of these descriptions). Earnings data are
presented (in the A -series tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.

Shift differential data (table B - l) are limited to manufacturing
industries.
This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy,2 presented in terms of total plant worker employ­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey. In
establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to a
majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the clas­
sification "other" was used.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is

Minimum entrance rates (table B-2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis.
Scheduled hours; paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statis­
tically on the basis that these are applicable to all plant or office

* This report was prepared in the Bureaus regional office in
San Francisco, Calif. , by William P. OlConnor, under the direction
of John L. Dana, Regional Wage and Industrial Relations Analyst.
1 See table 1 for minimum-size establishment covered.




2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (l) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.
( 1)

2

workers if a majority of such workers are eligible or may eventually
qualify for the practices listed.3 Because of rounding, sums of indi­
vidual items in these tabulations do not necessarily equal totals.
The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrange­
ments, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the employer. Separate estimates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on a
time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 weekls pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compensation and
social security.
Such plans include those underwritten by a commer­
cial insurance company and those provided through a union fund or paid
directly by the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund
set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident

disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em­
ployer contributions, 4 plans are included only if the employer (l) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans which provide full
pay or a proportion of the w ork ers pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond the
normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans. Medi­
cal insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial pay­
ment of doctors’ fees.
Such plans may be underwritten by commer­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured.
Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker’ s life.

3
Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section of
table B-3) are presented in terms of the proportion of women office
workers employed in offices with the indicated weekly hours for women
4
The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
workers.
do not require employer contributions.
T A B L E 1:

Establishm ents and w o rk ers within scope of survey and number studied in Seattle, W ash. ,

Industry division

Minimum
employment
in establish ­
ments in scope
of study

1

by m a jo r industry division, August 1956

N um ber of establishm ents

W o rk ers in establishm ents

Within
scope of
study 2

Studied

133

141,800
75,200

Within scope of study
Total

A ll d iv is io n s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

51

515

M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------N on m an ufacturin g--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), communication,
and other public u tilitie s 4 -----------------------------------------------------------W holesale t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------------------------------R etail t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and re a l e s t a t e --------------------------------------------Services 4 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

51
51

168

347

46
87

51
51
51
51
51

45
79
113
58
52

13
26
13
13

22

3

6 6 ,6 0 0

15,500
9,100
24,600
10,300
7,100

Studied

Office

Plant

29,000

87,500

95,110

12,300
,700

50,200
37,300

59,400
35, 710

2 ,6 0 0

7,400
(5)
18,700
(5)
(5)

12,080
2,370
14,030
4,730
2,500

16

(5)
3,100
(5)
(5)

T o ta l 3

1 The Seattle M etropolitan A re a (King County). The "w o rk e rs within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force
included in the survey. The estim ates a re not intended, how ever, to serve as a b a sis of com parison with other a re a employment indexes to m easu re employment trends or levels since ( l ) planning of wage surveys
requ ires the use of establishm ent data com piled considerably in advance of the pay period studied, and ( 2 ) sm all establishm ents a re excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 Includes a ll establishm ents with total employment at
or above the m in im u m -size limitation. A ll outlets (within the a re a )
of companies in such industries as
trade, finance, autorep a ir se rv ic e , andm otionpicture theaters a re considered as 1 establishm ent.
3 Includes executive, technical, profession al, and other w ork ers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
4 A ls o excludes taxicabs, and se rv ices incidental to
w ater transportation.
5 This industry division is represented in estim ates
fo r " a ll ind u stries" and "nonm anufacturing" in the Series A and B tables, although coverage was insufficient
tojustify separate presentation
of data.
Hotels; p erson al serv ic e s; business se rv ic e s; automobile rep a ir shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and arch itectural se rv ic e s.




3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
The table below presents percents of change in salaries of
women office clerical workers, and in average earnings of selected
plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers, the percents of change relate to
average weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is, the stand­
ard work schedule for which straight-time salaries are paid.
For
plant worker groups, they measure changes in straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
The percentages are based on data
for selected key occupations and include most of the numerically im­
portant jobs within each group. The office clerical data are based on
women in the following 18 jobs: B illers, machine (billing machine);
bookkeeping-machine operators, class A and B; Comptometer operators;
clerks, file, class A and B; clerks, order; clerks, payroll; key-punch
operators; office girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; switch­
board operators; switchboard operator-receptionists; tabulating-machine
operators; transcribing-machine^operators, general; and typists, class
A and B. Men in the following 10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 un­
skilled jobs were included in the plant worker data: Skilled— carpen­
ters; electricians; machinists; mechanics; mechanics, automotive;
millwrights; painters; pipefitters; sheet-metal workers; and tool and
die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; laborers,
material handling; and watchmen.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations.
The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average of September
1951 and August 1956 employment in the job.
These weighted earn­
ings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate




for each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group aggre­
gates for the first year to the aggregate for the other year was com­
puted and the difference between the result and 100 is the percent of
change from one period to the other.
The percent of change measures, principally, the effects of
(l) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan­
sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportion of workers
employed by establishments with different pay levels.
Changes in the
labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational aver­
ages without actual wage changes.
For example, a force expansion
might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific oc­
cupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in
the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in ratio
occurred in other area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the ef­
fects of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job
included in the data.
Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime,
since they are based on pay for straight-time hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to 1956 for workers in 15 other
major labor markets appeared in BLS Bull. 1188, Wages and Related
Benefits, 17 Labor Markets, 1955-56.

Table 2: Percent changes in standard weekly salaries for office
clerical and average straight-time hourly earnings for
selected plant occupational groups in Seattle, Wash. ,
September 1951 to August 1956

Industry and occupational group

Percent increases
from—
September 1951
to
August 1956

A ll industries:
Office clerical (w om en)_____________________
Skilled maintenance (men) _________________
Unskilled plant (m e n )______ _______________

23. 6
21. 1
23.0

Manufacturing:
Office clerical (wom en)_______________
Skilled maintenance (m en )_________________
Unskilled plant (m e n )_______________________

22.3
20. 8
15.2




5

A : Occupational Earnings
Ta b le A -l: O ffic e O ccupations
(A verage straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an a re a b a sis
in Seattle, W ash. , by industry division, August 1956)
Avkbaob
Num
ber
of
w
orkers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
W
eekly.
Weekly , 35. 00
M
nilngn 1 and
houn1
(Standard) (Standard)
U8?85

$
40. 00

<
45. 00

%

50. 00

$
55. 00

$
60.00

$
65.00

$
$
70. 00 75.00

S
80.00

$
$
$
85. 00 90. 00 95.00

$
10 0 .0 0

*
$
105.00 1 1 0

45. 00

50. 00

55. 00

60

.

65. 00

70.00

75. Q0

85. 00

90.00

105.00

110 .0 0

29
-------r -

78
23
55
14

00

80.00

95. 00

10 0 .0 0

$
S
115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0
and
115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0
over
.0 0

Men
C le rk s, accounting, c la ss A
_
Manufacturing ________ _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______________ __________________
Public utilities *
_ _

180
52
128
27

39. 5
46.6
39.5
40. 0

88.50
66.56
88.50
87.00

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

-

C le rk s, accounting, c la ss B _____________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________

40
30

40. 0
40. 0

77. 50
75.56

-

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

217
199

40.0
40.0

84.00
62.50

.

_ _
___

43
28

40. 0
40. 0

80. 0 0
78.00

_

Office boys
Manufacturing __________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
....... _ _

131
32
99

39. 5
40.0
39.0

49.50
56.50
47.50

4
4

Tabulating-m achine o p erators __________________________
Nonmanufacturing

66

40. 0
40. 0

80.50
63.00

_

40.
40.
40.
40.

59. 50
69. 6 6
64.50
55.50

_
-

1
1

-------1

1

9

-

-

-

56
52
5

-

1

1

6

21

5

40. 0
65.50
' W o ' 65. 06

_

6
1

11
8

15
12

.

_

12
12

40
39

24

124

47

C le rk s, o rd er ______________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______________________________________
C le rk s, pay ro ll
Manufacturing

_

_
_

_ ............ ...

28

.
-

1

4

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

_

4
4

5
5

4

17

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

25
25

23

10

46
------ g—
38
_

.

1
22

_

-

1

1

8
1

5
-

20
10

8
8

13

2
2

16

6
6

77
77

_

.

11

12

2

-

-

11

3
7

18
18
-

.

_

~

12

38
34

4
-

28

------- 9
19
-

1

2

-

24
1

1
1

1

1

-

-

-

2

—

2

1
1

-

-

r~

.

1
1

-

-

_

-

-

-

4
-

_
.

20

23

1

16

1

19

20

'

16

-

9
9

2
2

1

_

-

1

-

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

*

_

3
"

5

3

4

2

_
-

_
-

_
-

'

*

-

_
-

10
6

4
4

3

-

-

-

-

.

2

■

"

“

■

"

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

_

_

_

-

_

_

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

------- j—

7

-

2

_
-

_
-

3

-

-

8
2

4

22

2

4

12

6
6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

_

2

_

-

-

5

26

15
------ 5

5
-

-

Women
B ille r s , machine (billing m a c h in e )______________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________
P ublic utilities *
_
R etail trade _________________________________________
B ille r s , machine (bookkeeping m achine)
Nonmanufacturing
____________________________________

123
f'67
30
34
68

------¥5

0
0
0
0

Bookkeeping-m achine o p erators, class A
Nonmanufacturing
_ _
. . .

119
m

40. 0
46. 0

Bookkeeping-m achine o p erators, c la ss B ____________
M anufacturing___________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________________
Retail trade
______________________________________

487
31
456
50

40.
40.
40.
40.

C le rk s, accounting, c la ss A _______________ ___________
M an u factu rin g___________ _______________ ___________
Nonmanufacturing _________ ___________________ ____
Public utilities * ___________________________________
Retail trade __ _________________________________

358
62
296

C le rk s, accounting, c la ss B __________________________
M an u factu rin g____ _______________________ ___________
N onm anufacturing______________________________________
Public utilities *
___________________ ___________
Retail trade
_ ___ _____ __

692
------T r -

C le rk s, file, class A -----------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing
__
_
_

8

_
-

_

. 50
TSTW ™

-

-

-

-

0
0
0
0

57. 00
65.50
56. 50
61.50

-

11

93
93
-

92
92
-

103
103

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40.0
40. 0

71.00
82.50
69. 0 0
73.00
63.50

_
-

_
-

16
16
16

55
55
44

621
74
195

39.5
40. 0
39.5
40. 0
40. 0

59.50
65.50
59.00
64.00
57.00

-

157
104

39.5
39. 0

6 2 .0 0

_

57.50

~

10 2
10 2

68

11

_
-

_

-

16
16
5

_

70
70
8
20
12
10

16

38
32
12

20

‘

“

19
15

1
------ 2

18
17

26

5
3

6
2

4
'

41

39

48

44

1

1

1

11

-

38
15

47
17

43

8

8

5

98

43
14
29
13
4

12
12

12

12
86

15
30
22
------ 6

7
------ —

2

6

104
23

116
138
16 2
— v r ~ ------ T ~ ------ 5“
145
109
132
2
22
9
33
68
35
32
38
2 9 ” " r& -..

7
7
-

32
------ y—

96
18
78
57
11

33
10

10
6
------ g— ------ r _

-

_
-

3
3
-

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

23
18
5
"

25

9

3

20

2

-

~

_
-

“

-

3

7
7

1
2

■

13
5

3
3
-

-

■

■

•

■

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

23
3
-

8
2

8
1

1
1

“

5
1

~

-

1

See footnote at end of table.
Occupational W age Survey, Seattle, W a sh ., August 1956
* Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), communication, and other public utilities.
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R




B ureau of L a b o r Statistics

6

Ta b le A~1: O ffic e O ccupations - C ontinued
(A v e ra g e straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an a re a b a sis
in Seattle, W a s h ., by industry division, August 1956)
Atsbaox
Num
ber
of
w
orkers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Women - Continued
C le rk s, file, c la ss B _________ _________________ ____
Manufacturing ________________ __ ________________ _
Nonmanufacturing
__ _
_
Pu blic utilities *
_ __ _
Retail trade
_
_ _ _
_
. ____
C le rk s, o rd e r _ __ ________
M anufacturing
_
_
Nonmanufacturing
R etail trade
.
C le rk s, p a y r o l l __
_
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
Public u tilitie s*
R etail trade

______________________
. ___

225
35
190
92

40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0

______

...
. ...
_
_

237

40. 0
39.5
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

_

$1

__

146
30
62

Com ptom eter operators
.... ....
Manufacturing .......
_ ,. _ ... _ ......
N onm anufacturing_______________ ______________________
R etail trade
________ __ _
Duplicating-m achine operators
or ditto) _ _
Nonmanufacturing
_
Key-punch operators _ _ _
Manufacturing _ _
_
Nonmanufacturing
P ublic utilities *

39. 0
40. d
39. 0
40.0
40.0

................ .

. .....

_

__

613
116
498
35
78

576
' U )i
469
241

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly,
Weekly , 35.00
hours 1
earnings * and
(Standard) (Standard) under
40. 00
$
51.50
64.50
48.50
56. 00
50. 50

48
48
-

$
40. 00

$
45. 00

$
50.00

$
$
55. 00 60.

45. 00

50.00

55. 00

60.

150

134

1

81

28
4
24
13

117
4
113
38

24
13
-

-

84
29
55
9
23

38
9
29
3

42
13
29

12

104
$
95
50

137

136

26
111

16
12 0

¥8

1

29

14
-

23
23

11
11

22

15
15
-

70.00
66.50
68.50

_
_

6 6 .0 0

-

18
8
10

16
------ 9 —

7
3
3

-

-

_
3

_
-

6

67

-

2

6
2

65
48

5
5

24

18
18
-

28
18
-

27
14
13
4

-

43
40

26

27

24

22

-

_
-

-

34
34

-

-

19
19

130
O
117

1

11
1

64.50
6 8 . 56
63.50
6 1,0 0

-

39.0
39.5

53.50
53.50

9
9

-

_
-

-

65

..

.

_

.

_
_ _

_

_____

____

72
------S T -

231
39.5
6 2 .0 0
------3 T - T O " T 4 ; i 5
136
39.5
6 0 . 00
48
40.0
6 8 .0 0
128

101

Secretaries
_ _
M anufacturing _ __________________ ____ _______________
Nonmanufacturing
.
.
...
....._. .....
P ublic utilities * ___________________________________
R etail trade
_ _ _ _ _

900
412
488
92

Stenographers, general __________________________________
Manufacturing _ _
_
Nonmanufacturing _______ ______________________________
P ublic utilities *
R etail trade _________________________________________

40. 0
40.0

50. 00
48. 00

1

-

10

20

3
19
4

4
4
-

11

6
2

.
-

_
-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

9
-------5

17
-------9 —

19

15

2

8

3
-

1

3
_
-

1

_

_
_
_

_
_
_
-

110 .0 0

_
_
_
_
_
_

2
2

75

105.00

_
_
_
-

77
—

10 0 .0 0

_
_
-

4

10

95.00

$
$
$
$
95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 .

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_

00

115.00

$
$
115.00 1 2 0 .
12 0 .0 0

00

and
over

_

_

_

_
_
-

-

_
_
_
_
_
_

1
1

2
2

_

_
_
-

-

_

_

_
_
_

_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

20

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_

_
_

-

14
5
9
-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

20

-

_

-

-

_
-

20
12

26

-

54
7
-

1

12

13

11

10

1

49

47
30
17
7

30

17
9

1
1

-

-

62.0 0

_

1

19

2

111
12

194
56

40.0
39. 5
40.0
40. 0

17
5

99
30

37
5

Switchboard operator-recep tion ists ___________________
M anufacturing _
_
...
........
.
Nonmanufacturing
_____ __ __________________________
Public utilities *
R etail trade ________________ ______________________

296
72
224
52
51

39. 5
40.0
39.5
40. 0
40. 0

26

60

8

81
24
57
15

3

9

See footnote at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), communication, and other public utilities.

_
-

41
170
24
3

280

'

_
-

16

Switchboard operators ___________________________________
M an u factu rin g__________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
_____ __ _____ __________________
Retail trade
... . ..

'

_

-

36
18
18
-

.

62.50

3
3
-

-

174

_

61.00

11
11

_

17
30
28

249
207
42

_

3
23

47

423
283
140
40

-

62.50
60. 50

60

40

211

_

19
5
14
4

_
-

166

-

-

-

14

69.50

_
-

-

27

39.0

9
9
-

-

5

49

61.00

-

154

___________________________

1

-

186
108
78
23
9

_
-

-

-

108
33
75

-

-

-

103
13
90

66.50
70.00
63.00
65.00
61. 50

6 ?. 50
60.00
60.50

-

118
15
103
4
18

39.5
40. 0
39.5
40. 0
40. 0

86

-

-

7

1,424
700
724
115
51

5
5
-

_
-

-

21

77.00
82.50
73.00
80.50
70.50

86

-

3
-

7
7

39.5
"TO . O
'
39.5
40. 0
40. 0




3
-

90. 00

00

(m im eograph

Office g irls _____________________ __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________ _____________

Stenographers, technical ___

5
_
5
4

40
— s
32
32

6

$
$
85. 00 90.

_
_
-

-

11

1

00

_
_
_
-

6

_
-

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

15
------- 9 —

85. 00

00

3

_
-

6 8 .0 0

38
— 3T"

80.

2

-

-

75. 00

31

5
5
5

65. 00
60. 50
58.00

70. 00

$
80.

106
64
42

-

6 1.0 0

65.00

$
75.00

8

73

1

41

$
$
65. 00 70.00

40
4
5

8

2

132
9
38

149
-

00

00

2

150
16

12

15
45
4
27

8

21

73
16
57
13

12

16

16

20
10
9
19
4
15

8
'

120

8

1
1
-

-

1

1
102

—

79
6?
14

54
— ¥5

23

17

10

16

11
6

10
2

_

9

8
4
-

9
7
-

_

_

-

_
-

2

3
3
-

-

2
2

6
3
3
-

6

1

7
-

3

2

1

-

14
14
-

2
2
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

_
'

_
-

~

52
19
7

-

-

-

_

_

1

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

1
1

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

_

_
-

_

7

Ta b le A-1: O ffic e O ccupations - C ontinued
(A verage straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an a re a b a sis
in Seattle, W a s h ., by industry division, August 1956)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly.
hours
(Standard)

Weekly,
earnings
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF WORKERS R E CE IVIN G STRAIGH T-TIM E W E E K L Y E AR NING S OF—

$
35. 00
and
under
40.00

$
40. 00
45. 00

$
45. 00
50.00

$
50.00
55.00

$
55. 00

$
60.00

60.

■
65. 00

00

$

$

$

$

$

65. 00
~
70. 00

70. 00
■
75.00

75. 00
80. 0 0

80.00
85. 00

85. 00
90. 00

$
90. 00
95.00

$

$

95. 00
10 0 .0 0

$

ioa oo 105. 00
-

-

105. 00

110 .0 0

$
110 .0 0

115.00

$

$

115. 00
12 0 .0 0

. 00
and
over

120

Women - Continued

Tabulating-m achine o p e r a t o r s ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________

65
41

39.5
39.5

$
67.50
61.50

Tran scribin g-m ach in e op erators, g e n e r a l _____________
Nonmanufacturing _______________________________________

152
150

38. 5
38. 5

58.00
96. 0 0

Typists, class A __________________________ ______________
M anufacturing __________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________________
Public utilities * ____________________________________

498
259
239
33

39. 5
46.0
39. 0
40. 0

66.50
57.50
59.00

Typists, class B ______________________________________________________
M an u factu rin g _______________ _________________________
N o n m a m if a r .t n r in g

Retail tradfe

...................

...

----------------------------------------------------------

813
138
675
146

39. 0
40. 0
39. 0
40.0

6 2 .0 0

51.50
98.50
50. 00
57.00

_

_

9

_

_

16

~

"

9

■

■

16

14
9

22
21

30
29

129

47

_

‘

_
-

10
10

_
■

16
-

137

16

137

2

23
23

22
22

84

2

2
1

260

—

—

O

71
12

139

22

16

238

123
33

11

9
4

6

41

_

4i

“

4
4

rs

12

173
162

113
7

35

11

8

118

6
1

51“

1

9

86

9

38
27

13
13

22

.
-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

.

“

“

“

■

“

"

~

■

.

.

-

-

_
-

.
-

-

-

-

~

1
1

-

1
1

-

-

“

-

"

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

_

3

_

-

-

-

4
4

112

1

“

_

2

6
2

103
56

1

~

~

5

2
2

6

“

55
—

3

3

Standard hours reflect the workweek fo r which em ployees receive their regu lar straight-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), communication, and other public utilities.

1

*

Ta b le A -2: Professional and Technical Occupations
(A verage straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an a re a b a sis
in Seattle, W a sh ., by industry division, August 1956)
Average
Sex, occupation; and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM E W EEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Weekly
Weekly
hours1 earnings1
(Standard) (Standard)

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
60.00 65. 00 70.00 75. 00 80.00 85. 00 90.00 95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 f 05.00 n o . oo 1
$15. 00 1*2 0 . 0 0 1*25. 00 1*30. 00 ?35. 00 ?40. 00 ?45. 00
and
under
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 0 0 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125.00 130.00 135.00 140. 00 145. 00 150. 00

Men
48

40. 0

109.50

Draftsm en, s e n io r ____________________ ___________________
M an u factu rin g--------------------------------------------------------------

532
T 81

40.0

'4676

94. 00
92750

-

"

Draft smen, junior _________________________________________
M an ufacturin g---------------- ------------ ---------------------------

687
W

40. 0
40.0

7 3. 00
' 76: 6 6

62
62

291
291

63
55

40.0
40. 0

83.00
84. 50

_

4

Draftsm en, le a d e r _________________________________________

3
_

.

.

75

-

54
54

123
115

87
83

3

3

26

12

2

15
15

11

19
7

15

3

9
5

*

-

-

-

_

-

.

_

_

_

-

_

_

4

27
7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

.

_

.

-

-

_

_

1 1

90
90

93
66

41

4

48

4

8

4

8

46
46

7
7

2
2

72
.....7 5 " — 54“
79

1

11

1

.

Women
N u rse s, industrial (re g is te re d ) _ ------------ __ __ ------Manufacturing _ ________ ________ _______ _________

1

1

Standard hours reflect the workweek fo r which em ployees receive their re g u la r straight-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.




Occupational W age Survey, Seattle, Wash. , August 1956
U . S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
Bureau of L a b o r Statistics

8

Ta ble A -3 :

M aintenance and Powerplant O ccupations

(A v e ra g e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an are a b asis
in Seattle, W a s h ., by industry division, August 1956)

Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

C arp en ters, maintenance __ _______
Manufacturing . . . .
N onm anufacturing ___________________________________
Public utilities * _ ___ _
_
_ _ _
E lectrician s, maintenance
Manufacturing __ __
Nonm anufacturing___ __

__

_

__

Average
hourly .
earnings

$

$
1..50
and
under
1.60

■

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

8

8

23

15

-

5
3

16

6

7

9

149
532

r m a i n t e n a n c e _ __ .
Manufacturing
__
__
_ __
Nonmanufac turing --------- -- ...__________________

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ------M an u factu rin g __ — _
Tool and die make rs
Manufacturing

1
*

_

- - - - - -

12 0

49
71

96
84
190
no

2.60

2

.

20

2.30

2.40

2. 50

2

. 60

6

5

19

4

1
1

15
14

3

18
15
3

2
1

6

129

-

116

'6
1

13
7

45
42
3

17
5
9

83
do
3

19
2

17
7

1
24
23

17
12

5

1

18
13
5
2

58
28
30
30

2
2

-

■
_

-

2. 48
£49'

_

_

-

_

_

-

1

17

"

-

-

-

*

“

' 10

7

-

47
47

5

2. 43
2. 37
2. 44
2. 43
2.45

_
-

-

“

_
-

1

5
5
5
“

2

1

24

14

94
84

367

1
1

10
10

10
10

362
280
73

2.

39
•*T 5 T
2.42

"

1
1

~

■

_

_

_

_

31

-

*

22

1

_

_

_

-

-

5
5

_

-

-

-

7
7

_
“

_

_

_

-

_
-

*

-

1

-

”

_
“

_
-

16
16

52

21
21

9
9

1

28
26

_
-

-

■

1

13
4
9

2

2. 37
. 38

_

.

.

-

-

*

-

-

-

8
2

2

2

2.72

_

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

2.72

.

37
35

33
29
4

2

-

56

5

"

9

3
7
2

4

-

4
-

3.00

3.10

3.20

2
2

-

-

-

14

15
15
-

_
-

.
~

_
"
_

-

-

-

-

“

5
— 3------

_
-

_
-

2

”

"

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

2

-

-

.
■

_
“

_
-

_

_

_

"

2

_
“

t
3.10

10

2

6

$
3.00

7
7
■

16

6

$
2.90

2

■

117
115

-

-

$

"

-

-

_

_

-

-

_
-

_
_

3
7

"

9
9
_
■

66
6 6 ------

_

_

-

2

l9

-

10

2. 70

. 80

J L 9Q

2. 70

21

E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t im e , and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h ifts .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




2. 50

2

.

P a in te r s

-

2. 40

4

2.09
2 . 09

59

12
11
1

2.30

47
47

_

93
—

_
-

20

.

47
32

2. 39
2. 39

_ -----

-

2

4
4

141
141
_

1

10

-

_
-

........ _
_

1

-

.

5
5

16

2.47
. 46
2. 51

..

_

-

2

16

2

...

-

8

277
241
36

114

-

-

M echanics, m ain ten an ce________
Manufacturing . . .
Nonmanufacturing ___

_

10

■

418
313
73

_

.

-

M echanics, automotive (m aintenance)
Manufacturing .
__
Nonmanufac t u r in g ______________________________
■Public
*
_ _ _ _ _
R etail t r a d e ________________ __ ______________

---Manufacturing

2

_
-

16 2

O ile rs

. 00

"

1.98
1.97

. -------_____ __

2

.
“

146
125

__

. QO

~

H elp ers, trades, maintenance
Manufacturing
_

_
Manufacturing

1

_
-

-

M illw rig h ts

1.80

-

2.07
2. 69
2. 02

__

1.70

2 .0 0

.
-

118
79
39

_______ ______

1.90

-

F irem en , stationary b o i l e r __________________ ___
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing _
____ _ _

_

. 80

_
-

36
32
48
43

_ _

1

2. 51
2. 49
2.64

2.
2.
2.
2.

_
_

1.60

217
....1 8 2 “
35

-

253
183
70
42

M achinists, maintenance
Manufacturing

NUM BER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM E HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

$

$

$
2.38
'"£"57""
2.41
2. 35

Engineers, s t a t io n a r y ____________________________
Manufacturing
__ _
Nonmanufacturing _
__ _
Retail trade __

. . .

$
1.70

144
96
48
25

_
-

_
—

$

-

52

52

20

11

9

-

6
----- 6 ------

15

23
23
“

l
l
-

_
-

_
-

_

~

-

18
18

-

.
-

_
-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

9
6
6

“

21

_

146

146

9

-

-

28
28

_

_

_

_

26

-

-

"

-

_

_

-

26

9

.

.
-

"

-

-

7

60

10

_

6
1

12

1
1

48

”

10

“

5

-

_

.

“

2

79
------

-

79

2

1
1

-

>

_

_

61

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

"

•

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

1

61

-

10
119
------ — ro—

TT9

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , S e a tt le , W a s h . , A u g u s t 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

9

Ta ble A -4 :

Custodial and M aterial M ovem ent O ccupations

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o cc u p a tio n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s
in S e a tt le , W a s h . , b y in d u s t ry d iv is io n , A u g u s t 1956)

NUM BER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Num
ber
of
w
orkers

O ccupation 1 and industry division

Average $
hourly 2
1.0 0
earnings
under
1.10

$

$

$

1.10

1.2 0

1.30

"

"
1.30

"
1.40

1.2 0

$
1.40

$
1. 50

“
1.50

~
1.60

$
E levator o p erato rs, passen ger (women) __
Nonm anufacturing________ „ __
__ ___
R etail trade __ __ _____
_______ — ___
Guards
— — — —
M an u factu rin g __
Nonmanufacturing

1

_

255
255
71

__ __ __
___ __ __ __ __
__ _
_
_ ....

237
194
43
408
501
90.7

Janitors, p o rte rs, and cleaners ( m e n ) _________
M an u factu rin g ______ ___ __________ „
Nonmanufacturing
__
__ __ ________
Public utilities *
__ ___ ___
__ ____
R etail trade
__
— ___ ___ __

_

-

-

‘

58
58
58

1
1
1

88

_
-

_
-

2

2

-

-

“

1
1
1
1
1

57

8

69

-

50

8

68

47

437
318
56

1
1
1

48
42
40

1
1
1
2
1

88

Janitors, porters, and clean ers (w o m e n )_______
N onm anufacturing_____ __ ________ _________
R etail trade __ __ __ __ __ __ „ __ __
L a b o re rs , m aterial h a n d lin g __
__________
M anufacturing _ _
_
Nonmanufacturing __ _____ _____
__ __
Public utilities *
Retail t r a d e _____
__ __ _____ __ __

-

269

1

38
.38
.37

1 ,8 1 6
1

754
, 062
225
392

1
1

6
6

44
44

!

145
145

32
30

-

4

10

2

355

254
3
251

94
34
60
56

70

330
283
47
18
5

15
13
5

96
4
-

27

10
10

34
5
29

2

2

67
9
58

99

_

_
_
_
_

-

-

56

_
-

_
_
-

.94
.
.93
.
,
.95
.
.06
,
.94

_
_
_
_

.
_
_
_

8

8

91
_
6

347
3
106

6
6'
1

58
58
41

235
235
9

3
_
3
_
3

16

54
48
6
6

8

_
_

9
7

.
_

_
_

7
5

6

23

2

P a c k e r s , shipping (men) _
M an u factu rin g __ __ _ _____ __ __ __ __
Nonmanufacturing __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

314

. 90
.
.
.90
..89

_
_

_
_

.
-

_
_

5
5

154

1
1
1

-

-

9
9
-

P a c k e rs, shipping (women) ____
Nonm anufacturing_____ __ __

_____
_______ ______

207
132

1
1

.,59
..52

_

2
2

Receiving clerk s ___________________________________
M an u factu rin g __ __ __ __
_ __
_____
Nonmanufacturing __ ___
__
__ __
R etail trade __ __ _____ ____ _ __ _

380
248
132
82

1
1
1
1

.,87
., 85
. 93
. 89

.
_

Shipping clerk s _ _
M an u factu rin g __
Nonmanufacturing
R etail trade __

145
38
107
53

2
2
2
1

110

Shipping and receiving clerks
Manufacturing _ __________ __
__ __ __
N onm anufacturing_______________________________

T ru ck d riv ers, light (under lVz tons)__
Nonmanufacturing ____________ ___ _ _ __

10

11
11

2
1
1

_

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

.,05
,, 1 0
,,03
. 97

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_

.
_
-

-

-

-

-

_
_
-

11
11

2
2
1

.,03
. 08
. 95

_
_

_
_

_
_

1

2

1

_

_

_

-

-

1

2

1

,,271
441
,,830
,,062
307

2
2
2
2
2

. 25
. 35
. 23
., 16
. 32

_
_
_
_

.
_
_

.
_
_
_

.
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

2. , 13
2. , 1 0

.

_

.

_

85
72

_
_
_
_

S e e fo o tn o tes at end o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




22

11

_
_

70
40

__ __ __ __
__
___
__ __ __ __
__ —
__
__ _
__ _
___
— __ __

T ruck d rivers 3 __ __ __
_ _ _ _ _
M an u factu rin g __ ___
___
_ ____ _____
Nonmanufacturing
_____ ___
Public utilities *
___ __ __ __
R etail t r a d e _____
__
__ _

-

10 1
10 1

1

-

11

_

_
10
10

_
_
-

$
2.40

$
2.50

$
2.60

2.40

“
2. 50

“
2.60

*
2. 70

2 .2 0

2. 30

$
2. 70
2

. 80

39
20

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
9
-

8
8

4
_
4

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

“

-

-

-

-

2
1

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

.
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

12 1
12 1

19
120
88

65
64

11
1
10

32
_
14

_

2

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

58

679
164
515

258
207
51

420
276
144

1

10

48
_
24

11

1
1

2

_
10

22

44
-

-

$
2.30

-

53

-

2 .2 0

■

-

104

-

$

2 .10

-

40
39

2

$

-

-

9
9
-

-

_
_

2

12 2

-

-

2 .0 0

-

!■.99

_
_
-

1.90

“
. 10

-

_

.
_

-

2 .0 0

34

2

_

$

“

407

_
-

“

1.90

49

.
_

7
7

$

134
_
134

2 .0 0
,
2 .6 6
.

_

1.80

179

-

925
194
731

-

$

175
53

-

O rd e r f i l l e r s ---------------------------------------------------------M an u factu rin g__ __ ___
__ __
Nonmanufacturing

160

“
1.80

14
4

_
_

_

1.70

6
2

_

16

1.70

$

-

-

2

1.60

1
1
1

1

12

91
75

$

1

4
_
4
2

_
-

-

-

4
_
4

_
-

“

-

-

.
_

_
_

19

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_

8

4
4

_
-

_
-

_
-

96

56

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

232

66

1
1
-

_
-

_

18
48
25

6
6

2

221
11
10

45
45

-

-

20
11
10

14
5
9
-

12

13

9

_

_

_
_

_

81
80

-

-

_
_

_
_

62
6

1

22

57
10

47
22

38
18

3

20

6

_

2

_
_
_

2
2

406

-

1
1

6

35

4
4
_
_

42
4
38
14
24
_
_

.
_

2
2

41

19

1

_
_

-

195
18
177
153

27

10

_

_
-

22

9
3

_

5
3

181
135
46

-

2

-

_

-

64
13
51
3
18

_

48

6
6

4
8

-

2
2

2
2

-

-

_
-

3
3
3

5
4

21
21
6

3
3
-

3
3

5

1
1

“

-

_
_

5
3

1

-

_
-

-

1
1

-

2

1

-

-

1

9
9
-

32
29
3
861

13
848
848
“

9
2

589
124
465
179
43

22

zt

539
223
316
4
229

_

98
37
61
2

6
1

10 1

31
70
16

2
2

_

1
1

2

6

-

9

6

_

_

_

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , S e a t t le , W a s h . , A u g u s t 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a ts itic s

10

Ta ble A -4 :

Custodial and M aterial M ovem ent O ccupations - Continued

(A verage hourly earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an are a b asis
in Seattle, W a s h ., by industry division, August 1956)

NUM BER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s t ry d iv is io n

T r u c k d r i v e r s 3 - C on tin u ed
T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m ( V to and
in c lu d in g 4 to n s)
__ _________
_______
M a n u fa c tu rin g _
_ _____ __ _________ ___ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __
.- _
_
P u b li c u t ilit ie s *
__ „ __ „ __ _

12

Avenge
hourly 2
earnings

768
84
684
549

$
2. 18
2 .2 8
2 . 17
2 . 15

_
_

505
63
442
171

2 .3 3
2 .3 8
2 .3 3
2 .2 3

_

388
365

2 .2 9
2 .2 9

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) __________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g _
_ __ ___
_____ __ __
__ *
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_
... .
R e t a il tr a d e _
_
_
.
.

565
394
171
45

2 .0 4
2 .0 2
2 .0 8
2. 10

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o t h e r than f o r k l i f t ) ____________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______ __ _____________ __ „ ___

113
113

2 .0 4
2 .0 4

W a tc h m e n _______________ _____ _____ „ _______ _
M a n u fa c tu rin g __
__
_
... ....... ....
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____ __ __ _____________

99

1.7 3
1. 70
1.80

T ru c k d riv e rs , heavy
tr a ile r t y p e ) _
_ „
M a n u fa c tu rin g _
_
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
P u b li c u t ilit ie s

( o v e r 4 to n s ,
__ _____ __ __ __
__________ __ „ _____
___
* ___ __
„ __

T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s ,
o th e r than t r a i l e r ty p e) _
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __ ___
_____

1
3

*

_______

72
27

$ 1 .0 0
and
un der
1 .1 0

$ 1. 10

* 1 .2 0

$ 1 .3 0

$ 1 .4 0

$ 1 .5 0

* 1 .6 0

$ 1 .7 0

* 1 .8 0

* 1 .9 0

* 2 .0 0

* 2 .1 0

* 2 .2 0

* 2 .3 0

* 2 .4 0

* 2 .5 0

* 2 . 60

* 2 . 70

1.20

1.30

1.40

1- 50

1.6 0

1 .7 0

1.8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2. 10

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2. 60

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

430
430
430

291
51
240
111

4
4
4

2
2
2

26
20
6

_
_
_

.
_
_

-

-

-

86
.
86
86

87
19
68
68

221
22
199
-

26
11
15

1
_

9

-

75
11
64
16

1
1

9
-

76
70

146
135

118
112

44
44

.

_

-

-

-

36
23
13
9

_
„
_

5
5
-

4
4
_

-

-

7

8

_
_
-

_
_
_

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

15
13
2
2

_
-

_
_
_

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
.

_
-

.
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

-

_
.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

4
4

-

212
200
12
6

251
105
146
30

57
57
-

16
16

7

8

1
1

8

.

_

_

_

.

8

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_

.
_
-

_
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

62

-

-

-

-

62

19
19

10

15
15

2
_

37
28

1
1

2

6
6

9

_
_
-

-

-

_

.

_
-

-

-

_

2

-

_

_

_

_

15
15

-

2

~

3

-

3

Data lim ited to men w o rk e rs, except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e, and fo r work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Includes all d riv e rs re g a rd le ss of size and type of truck operated.
Transportation (excluding r a ilro a d s ), communication, and other public utilities.




7
3

-

-

-

_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

_

.

-

*

.

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

“

-

11
B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

Table B-1: Shift Differential Provisions’

Shift differential

P ercent of manufacturing plant w orkers—
(a)
(b)
In establishm ents having
A ctually working on—
form al provisions for—
Second shift
work

Third or other
shift work

Second shift

Third or other
shift

Total -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

95.2

91-. 6

25 .0

5. 7

With shift pay d iffe re n tia l--------------------------------------------------Uniform cents (per h o u r )-----------------------------------------------4 cents -----------------------------------------------------------------------5 cents -----------------------------------------------------------------------6 cents —■--------------------------------------------------------------------7 cents -----------------------------------------------------------------------7l/a cents --------------------------------------------------------------------8 cents -----------------------------------------------------------------------9 cents -----------------------------------------------------------------------10 cents ---------------------------------------------------------------------12 cents ---------------------------------------------------------------------14lU cents -----------------------------------------------------------------15 cents ---------------------------------------------------------------------Uniform percentage --------------------------------------------------------

95.2
72.4
.5
5. 5
5. 5
2 .5
6. 8
49. 8
1.8
1.2
.6
.6
3. 3
“
18.4
-

9 1 .6
16.4
_
.8
2 .3
1. 5
1. 5
1.2
3. 7
4. 8
.6
1.2

25.0
20. 8
.1
.9
1. 1
.3
.8
17. 1
.5
.2
.2
"
.9

5. 7
1. 5
.1
.1
1.0
.3
t
.1

10 percent ------------------------------------------------------------------15 percent ------------------------------------------------------------------Full day's pay for reduced hours ----------------------------------Full day's pay for reduced hours
plus cents differential -------------------------------------------------F ull day's pay for reduced hours
plus percent d iffe re n tia l----------------------------------------------Other -------------------------------------------------------------------------------No shift pay d iffe re n tia l-------------------------------------------------------

-

.6
.6
3. 3
4 9 .4
18.4
2 .9

3. 1
”

-

.1
*
-1
3 .4
.4
.2

1
Shift differential data are presented in term s of (a) establishm ent policy, and (b) w orkers actually em ployed on late
shifts at the tim e of the survey. An establishm ent was considered as having a policy if it m et either of the follow ing condi­
tions: (l) Operated late shifts at the tim e of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late sh ifts.
■f L ess than 0 .0 5 percent.
Occupational Wage Survey, Seattle, W ash., August 1956
U .S . DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics




12

Table B-2:

Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Office Workers1

Number of establishments with specified minimum hiring rate in—
Manufacturing
Minimum rate
(weekly sa la ry)

A ll
industries

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours a of—

Manufa ctur ing
A ll
industries

A ll
schedules

A ll
schedules

Establishments studied

Number of establishments with specified minimum hiring rate in—

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

u n der
u n der
u n der
u n der
u n der
u n der
un d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n der
un der

$40. 00
$42. 50
$45. 00
$47. 50
$ 50. 00
$ 52.50
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 57. 50
$60. 00
$62. 50
$65. 00
$67. 50
$70. 00

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

64

18

16

2

4
14
5
9
12
2
2
3
5
5

F O R OTHER IN E X P E R IE N C E D C L E R IC A L WORKERS 3

46

17

7

3
7
15
5
10
11

2
2
4

6
4
3
4

2

4
3
2

3
2

5

3

1

1
1

1
1
1

3

3

1

1

1

1

3
8
7

1
1

2
2
4

4
10
2
8

1
1

1

3
2

1

4

1
1

2
2

1

1

1

1

Establishments having no specified minimum

24

9

XXX

15

XXX

22

9

Establishments which did not employ w orkers
in this c a te g o ry ---------------------------------------------

44

19

XXX

25

40

20

Data not a v a ila b le --------------------------------------------

1

A ll
schedules

46

FO R IN E X P E R IE N C E D TYPISTS

$37. 50
$40. 00
$42. 50
$45. 00
$47. 50
$ 50.00
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 55. 00
$57. 50
$60. 00
$62. 50
$65. 00
$67, 50

Based on standard weekly hours 2 of—
A ll
schedules

46

Establishments having a specified minimum

Nonmanufacturing

XXX

1

XXX

1

-

2
1
2

3
7
12
3
9
7

11
2
9
7

4
3

4
3

3

3
2
1
3

3

1

6

1

1

1

XXX

13

XXX

XXX

20

XX X

-

XX X

1

XX X

1 Lowest salary rate form ally established fo r hiring inexperienced w orkers for typing or other c lerical jobs.
2 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e sa la rie s. Data are presented for a ll workweeks combined, and for the most common workweek reported.
3 Rates applicable to m essen gers, office g irls , or sim ilar subclerical jobs a re not considered.




Occupational Wage Survey, Seattle, W a s h ., August 1956
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T OF LA B O R
Bureau of Labor Statistics

13

Ta b le B-3:

Sched uled W e e k ly H o u rs

P E R C E N T OF O FF ICE W O R K E R S 1E M P L O Y E D I N —

W e e k ly h ours

A ll w o r k e r s

_
_

All
2
industries

_
_

_____

__

10 0

35 hours
__ __ _ __ _
_ ____
__ ________ __
36 V4 h o u r s ___ _ _
__ _
__ _ _
_
_____
3 7 y 2 h o u r s _____
_____
__________ ___ ___ ____ ____ ___
3 8 7 4 h ours _
________ — ___
__ _ _ _ _ _ _
________ _ ___
_ ________ __
_ _ __
40 h ours
_
42 h ours _ ___________________ _ _ __ _ _ -----__ _
44 h ours
_ __ _________ _____ ____ __ ______
48 hours
________
__ ____
____ ____ —

Manufacturing

Retail trade

!

10 0

100

10 0

!

_

_

-

-

_

1
2
3
t
*

_

_

__

_

__

-

13

-

3

t

-

84

97

t

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Publio
utilities*

-

-

Public .
utilities *

Retail trade

100

100

10 0

t

4

.

.

t

t

-

-

t

t

95

93

t

-

_

10 0
-

-

Manufacturing

100

Finance

-

10 0

All
,
industries

-

-

-

10 0
-

96
-

-

-

4

t

Data relate to women w orkers only.
Includes data for wholesale trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data for wholesale trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately,
Le ss than 2. 5 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroa d s), communication, and other public utilities.

Ta b le B-4:

Pa id H o lid a y s 1

P E R C E N T OF O FF IC E W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Item

A ll workers

____ ____

AU
a
industries

____

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Retail trade

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Finance

AU
3
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

__

100

100

100

100

93

89

97

98

Le ss than 6 h o lid a y s __ _ _ _
6 holidays
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y _________________
7 holidays _______________________ __ __ ____________ ________
7 holidays plus 1 half day
_
_
-____
8 holidays
_ _ _ _ __ __
_ _ ___ _ ____
8 holidays plus 2 half d a y s -----------------------9 holidays
__ _ --------------- -----------------

_

-

-

-

6

t
t

3

t

-

3
6

t

t
t
54
t

6
4

t

-

3
t

-

20

84

100

50

26

87

92

-

-

-

-

-

13

-

t
32

-

77

55

-

-

"

-

-

■

“

5
■

*

7

11

3

t

_

_

_

_

W orkers in establishments providing
paid holidays _ __ ________ _
_ _

___

10 holiday * -----------------------------------------------------------------W orkers in establishments providing
no paid holidays __ __
_
__

1
2
3
t
*

__

_

37

3
t
3

-

t
-

-

-

Estimates relate to holidays provided annually.
Includes data for wholesale trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data for wholesale trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately,
L e ss than 2. 5 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroa d s), communication, and other public utilities.




Occupational Wage Survey, Seattle, Wash. , August 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F LA B O R
Bureau of Labor Statistics

14

Table B-5:

Paid Vacations

P E R C E N T OF O FFIC E W ORKERS EM PLO Y ED IN —
Vacation policy

A ll w orkers

All
.
industries

--------- __ __ ________ __ ___

M anufacturing

Public
utilities *

R etail trade

P E R C E N T OF PLANT W ORKERS EM PLOYED IN —
Finance

All 2
industries

M anufacturing

Public .
utilities *

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

99
95
5

100
92
8

100
97
3

98
98

M ETHO D OF P A Y M E N T
W orkers in establishments providing
paid vacations ____________ ___________ ____
Length-of-tim e p a y m e n t____ __ ________
Percentage paym ent ---- ----------------------- ---------O t h e r .............................................................................................. ........

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

W orkers in establishments providing
no paid vacations _ ______ __ ___________ ______

-

■

"

"

-

-

t

”

“

t

AM O UNT O F V A C A T IO N P A Y
AN D SERVICE PER IO D
1 week or m o r e ______________________________________________
6 m on ths___________ __ __ ______ __ ____
1 year _ __ — __ -----~ — __—

100
40
100

100
15
100

100
65
100

100
17
100

99
38
99

99
50
99

100
55
100

98
14
98

2 weeks or m o r e __
____ ____
1 year _
_____ ___ __ ______
2 years
___________ __ _______ _____
____
3 y e a r s ____
____
____
__
_ __ __
5 years
__ ______ __ __ __
__ __

100
83
96
99
100

100
92
97
99
100

100
85
89
95
100

100
26
100
100
100

97
43
68
80
97

97
53
60
97

100
65
68
96
100

98
18
94
98
98

72

83

67

69

t
t
t
t

t
t
t

3 weeks or more _

__ __ __ __ __

1 year ____________
__ __
____ ____
2 years
3 years
------ __
__
_____ __ __ __
5 years
______
__ __
10 years __
__
__
__
__
____
15 years ________ _________ ___________________ _
20 years __ __ __ __ __
__ __

4 weeks _

______

15 years __
20 years
__
25 years __ __

_

50

17

76

82

t
t
t
t

t
t

-

-

9
42
50

5
5
7
17
17

22

-

t

5
22

___ __ __
___
__
__ _
_ __

t
t

-

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroa d s), communication, and other public utilities.




NO T E :

3
3
14
72
76

_
-

-

t

11
82
82

39
71
72

45

9
t
t
9

-

t
45

66

3
57
82
83

t

-

t
t

-

t
t

16
67
67

-

-

3
14
69
69

29

_

3
29

Occupational Wage Survey, Seattle, Wash. , August 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F LA BO R
Bureau of Labor Statistics

In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e ,"
such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, w ere converted to an equivalent time
basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 w e e k 's pay.

15

Table B-5:

Paid Vacations - Continued

PE R C E N T OF O FFIC E W ORKERS EM PLO Y ED IN —
Vacation policy

All
industries

M anufacturing

Public
utilities *

Retail trade

PE R C E N T OF PLANT W ORKERS EM PLOYED IN —
Finance

All 2
industries

100

100

100

1

XXX

XXX

XXX

74

54

2

83
96
97
95

85
89
92
97
84

XXX

XXX

99
89

38
49
65
58

58

91
96
94
95
93
83

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

72

82

42

50

83

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

76

82

41

50

83

XX X

XXX

XXX

XXX

XX X

76

45

M anufacturing

34

A ll w o r k e r s __

100

100

Public
utilities *

Retail trade

100

100

XXX
49

XXX

80

64

XXX

100

PR E D O M IN A N T P R A C T IC E S A F T E R
S E L E C T E D YEAR S O F SER VICE
After 1 year:
After
After
After
After
After

2 years:
3 years:
5 years:
10 years:
15 years:

After 20 years:
After 25 years:

week
weeks
weeks
2 weeks
2 weeks
2 weeks _____
2 weeks
3 weeks
2 weeks
3 weeks
2 weeks
3 weeks __
2

________________

88

100
100

5

3

3

49

91
94
91
84

68

3

49

3

49

4

49
XXX
49

XXX

4

67

66

XXX
4 49

XXX

XXX

67

63

XX X
49

XX X

XX X

67

37

4

96
99
76

XXX

1 Includes

data for wholesale trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data for wholesale trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
M ore than 2 but less than 3 weeks.
4 M ore than 3 but less than 4 weeks.
5 4 weeks.
t L ess than 2.5 percent.
* Transportation (excluding railroa d s), communication, and other public utilities.
3

Table B-6:

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

PE R C E N T OF O FFICE W ORKERS EM PLO Y ED IN —
Type of plan

A ll w o r k e r s ------------------------------------------------------

All
industries1
100

M anufacturing
100

Public *
utilities
100

Retail trade
100

PE R C E N T OF PLANT W ORKERS EM PLOYED IN —
Finance

All a
industries*

M anufactur ing

Public .
utilities *

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

93

90

95

100

W orkers in establishments providing:
Life in s u ra n c e --------------------------------------------Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance ----------------------------------------------------------------------Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or both 3 -----------------------------Sickness and accident in s u ra n c e ---------------Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting p e rio d ). ---------------------------------------------------Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting p e r io d ) ---------------------------------------------------Hospitalization in s u ra n c e -------------------------------------Surgical in s u ra n c e -----------------------------------------------------Medical in s u ra n c e -----------------------------------------------------Catastrophe in s u ra n c e --------------------------------------------Retirement p e n sio n ------------------------------------No health, insurance, or pension p l a n -------

98

96

98

97

73

88

35

66

52

31

93
40

95
16

93
33

97
65

91
83

89
89

60

85

21

7

6

9
55
55
48
15
72

t

t

26
26

24
4
83

t

53
42
42
39

t
79

t

31
96
96
63
35
64

7
90
90
85
6

63
3

36

91

44

94
85

-

30

8

93
93
90

48
54
54
42

9
98
98
89

t
69
5

100

6

94
"

21

53
~

Includes data for wholesale trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data for wholesale trade, re a l estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Unduplicated total of w orkers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
' L ess than 2. 5 percent.
* Transportation (excluding railroa d s), communication, and other public utilities.
Occupational Wage Survey, Seattle, Wash. , August 1956
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1

2

3







17

Appendix: Job Descriptions

The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations w orkers who are employed under
a va riety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and
interarea com parability of occupational content, the Bureau’s job descriptions may d iffer sign ifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes.
In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field representatives are instructed to exclude w ork­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learn ers, beginners, trainees, handicapped w orkers, part-tim e,
tem porary, and probationary w orkers.

Office

B IL L E R , MACHINE
Prep a res statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other c le rica l work in­
cidental to billing operations.
F or wage study purposes, b ille rs ,
machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:
B ille r , machine (billing machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, E lliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc. , which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from cu stom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application
of predeterm ined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the b ill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
B ille r , machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E lliott F ish er, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare cu stom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation.
Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertica l columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit balances. Does not. involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E lliott
F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash R egister, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
Class A - Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and fa m ilia rity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used.
D eter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B - Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers * accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under b ille r , machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of tria l
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
C LE RK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or m ore sections of a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
m ent’s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or ac­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B - Under supervision, perform s one or m ore routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the m ore routine, accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several w orkers.

18

CLE RK, F IL E
Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system. C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other m aterial;
may also file this m aterial. May keep records o f various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
m aterial in the file s .
May perform incidental c lerica l duties.
Class B - P erfo rm s routine filin g, usually of m aterial that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating m a­
teria l in the file s . May perform incidental clerica l duties.
CLE RK, ORDER
R eceives custom ers1 orders for m aterial or merchandise by
m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled .
May check with credit department to d eter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.
CLE RK, P A Y R O L L

K E Y -PU N C H O PERATO R
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a num erical key-punch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine.
Keeps files o f punch cards.
May v e r ify own work or work o f others.
O FFIC E BOY OR GIRL
P e rfo rm s various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor o ffice machines such as sealers or m ailers, opening
and distributing m ail, and other minor cleric a l work.
SECRETARY
P e rfo rm s secretarial and c le ric a l duties for a superior in an
adm inistrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receivin g people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential m ail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, G ENERAL

Computes wages of company em ployees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on tim e or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker *s name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and d is­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

P r im a ry duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
w rite r. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in ord er, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include tran­
scribing-m achine work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

COM PTOM ETER O PERATO R

STENOGRAPHER, TEC H NICAL

P rim a ry duty is to operate a Comptometer to p erform mathe­
m atical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type o f clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use o f this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

P r im a ry duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal b riefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typew riter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-m achine work.

D U PLIC ATIN G -M AC H IN E O PERATO R (MIMEOGRAPH OR D ITTO )
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
m atter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto m aster. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto m asters.
May sort, collate, and staple com ­
pleted m aterial.




Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls.
May record toll calls and take m essages.
May give in for­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For w orkers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

19
TRANSCRIBING-M ACHINE O PERATO R, GENERAL - Continued

SWITCHBOARD O PE R ATO R -R E C E PTIO N IS T
tion
type
This
time

In addition to perform ing duties of operator, on a single posi­
or m onitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
or p erform routine c le rica l work as part of regular duties.
typing or c le ric a l work may take the m ajor part of this w ork erf s
while at switchboard.

TA B U LA TING -M ACH INE O PERATO R
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on form s or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple w iring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.
T Y P IS T
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various m aterial or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do c le ric a l work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing sim ple records, filing records and reports or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming m ail.
*

Class A - P erfo rm s one or m ore of the following: Typing
m aterial in final form from v ery rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining m aterial from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
fo rm ity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form .
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-M ACHINE O PERATO R, GENERAL
P rim a ry duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records.
May also
type from w ritten copy and do simple clerica l work. W orkers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
la ry such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May p re­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEAD ER
Plans and directs activities o f one or m ore draftsmen in
preparation .o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or p re ­
lim inary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
perform ing more difficult problem s. May assist subordinates during




Class B - P erfo rm s one or m ore of the following: Typing
from rela tively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of form s,
insurance policies, e t c .; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying m ore complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

and

Technical

DRAFTSM AN, LEADER - Continued
em ergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or adm inistrative nature.
DRAFTSM AN, SENIOR
P rep a res working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the following:
Preparin g working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, etc.,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of m aterials, beams and
trusses; verifyin g completed work, checking dimensions, m aterials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrica l, mechanical, or structural drafting.

20

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, IND USTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the prem ises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a
combination of the following: Giving firs t aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out program s
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, w elfare,
safety of ail personnel.

Maintenance

and

TRACER
Copies
tracing cloth or
Uses T-squ are,
simple drawings

nd

plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
compass, and other drafting tools.
May prepare
and do simple letterin g.

Powerplant

C A R PE N TE R , M AIN TEN AN CE

ENGINEER, STA TIO N AR Y

P erfo rm s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, flo ors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a va riety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting m aterials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent tra in ­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or e lec trica l) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, r e fr ig e r a ­
tion, or air conditioning.
Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, m o­
tors, turbines, ventilating and re frigera tin g equipment, steam boilers
and b o ile r-fe d water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record o f operation of machinery, tem perature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing m ore than one engineer are excluded.

E LE C TR IC IA N , M AIN TEN AN CE
P erfo rm s a va riety of electrica l trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair o f equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization o f elec tric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of
a va riety of elec trica l equipment such as generators, tran sform ers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, m otors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transm ission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the elec trica l system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrica l
equipment; using a va riety of electrician*s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments.
In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually a c­
quired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIREM AN , STATIO N AR Y BOILER
F ire s stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam.
Feeds fuels to fir e by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing b o ilerroom equipment.
H E L PE R , TRADES, M AIN TEN AN CE
A ssists one or m ore w orkers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by perform ing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning w ork­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding m a­
teria ls or tools; perform ing other unskilled tasks as directed by jo u r­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is perm itted to p erfo rm varies
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, liftin g, and holding m aterials and tools and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is perm itted to p erform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also perform ed by w orkers
on a fu ll-tim e basis.

21

M AC H IN E-TO O L O PER ATO R, TOOLROOM

M ECHANIC, M AINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine
tools, such as jig b o rers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or m illing machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jig s , fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the follow ing:
Planning and perform ing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a va riety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
For
cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom ,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment.
Work involves most of the follow ing: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs; preparing written
specifications for m ajor repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassem bling machines; and making a ll necessary
adjustments for operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are w orkers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

M ACHINIST, M AIN TEN AN CE
M ILLW R IG H T
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of m etal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the follow ing: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a va ­
riety of m achinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations re la t­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common m etals; selecting
standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment.
In general, the
m achinist's work norm ally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant la y­
out are required. Work involves most of the follow ing: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a va riety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com ­
putations relating to stresses, strength of m aterials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed r e ­
ducers. In general, the m illw righ t's work norm ally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AU TO M O TIVE (M A IN TE N A N C E )
Repairs automobiles, Duses, m otortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment.
Work involves most of the follow ing: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling
equipment and perform ing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, d rills , or specialized equipment in dis­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the
various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
P A IN T E R , M AINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment.
Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or fille r in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush. May m ix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency.
In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

22

P IP E F IT T E R , M AINTENANCE

S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER, M AIN TEN AN CE - Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the fo l­
lowing: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to co rrect lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe r e ­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications.
In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. W orkers
p rim a rily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
heating systems are excluded.

and laying out a il types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating a ll
available types of sheet-m etal-w orking machines; using a va riety of
handtools in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assem ­
bling; installing sheet-m etal a rticles as required.
In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-m etal w orker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLU M B ER, M AIN TEN AN CE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plum ber's snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
S H E E T-M E TA L WORKER, M AIN TEN AN CE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, m etal roofing)
of an establishment. W ork involves most of the follow in g: Planning

Custodial

and

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge m aker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jig s , fix ­
tures or dies fo r forgings, punching and other m etal-form ing work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp e cifi­
cations; using a va riety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of m etal parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assem bling of parts to prescribed tolerances and a llow ­
ances; selecting appropriate m aterials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die m aker's work requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
F o r cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Material

E LE V A TO R O PERATO R, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or sim ilar establishment.
W orkers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD
P erfo rm s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or fo rce where necessary. Includes gatemen who a re stationed at gate and check on identity of
employees and other persons entering.




TOOL AND DIE M AKER

Movement

JANITOR, PO RTER, OR C LE AN ER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an o rd erly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartment house,
or com m ercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the follow ing: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing flo ors;
rem oving chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing m etal fixtures or trim m ings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

23

LABORER, M A T E R IA L HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A w orker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or m ore of
the follow ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and merchan­
dise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting m aterials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLE RK - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
F or wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER F IL L E R
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
cu stom ers1 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
m aterials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, w a re­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and custom ers’ houses or places of business.
May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and
over-th e-road d rivers are excluded.
F or wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (T ra c to r-tra ile r should be rated
on the basis of tra iler capacity. )

PACK ER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
m ore of the follow ing: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to v e rify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLE RK
P repares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is r e ­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other m aterials.
Shipping work in volves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p rac­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and p re ­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work in volves: V erifying or directing others in verifyin g
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or




Truckdriver
Tyuckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under IV 2 tons)
medium ( 1V2 to and~including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons, tra ile r typel
heavy (over 4 tons, other than tra ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, w orkers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (fo rk lift)
Trucker, power (other than fo rk lift)
W ATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
against fir e , theft, and illeg al entry.

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1956 O - 409503




F o r the con ven ien ce of
fo llo w in g s a le s o ffic e s :




u s e rs o f B L S data,

U . S . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r
B u reau of L a b o r S tatistics
18 O l i v e r S tr e e t
B o sto n 10, M a s s .

U . S . D ep a rtm en t o f L a b o r
B u rea u o f L a b o r Statistics
341 Ninth A venu e
N e w Y o r k 1, N . Y .

c o p ie s o f bulletins m ay also be p u rch ased f r o m the

U . S . D ep a rtm en t o f L a b o r
Bureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics
50 Seventh S tr e e t, N. E .
A tla n ta 23, Ga.

U . S . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r
B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics
105 W e s t A d a m s S tr e e t
C h icago 3, 111.

U . S . D ep a rtm en t o f L a b o r
B u reau o f L a b o r S tatistics
630 Sansom e S t r e e t
San F r a n c i s c o 11, C a lif.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102