View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Occupational Wage Survey

R IC H M O N D , V IR G IN IA

DECEMBER 1960

I
B u lle tin




N o .

1 2 8 5 - 2 6

UNITED ST A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
Arthur J. G old b erg , Secretary
B U R EA U O F LA B O R STATISTICS
S w an Claguw, Com m iuioM r




O ccupational Wage S u rv e y




RICHMOND, VIRGINIA
DECEM BER

1960

B u ll e t in N o . 1 2 8 5 - 2 6
February 1961

UNITED ST A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Arthur J. G old b erg , Secretary
B U R EA U O F LA BO R STATISTICS
E w a n C la g u e , Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

W age S u rvey

P rogram
W age tre n d s fo r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s

T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s r e g u la r ly c o n d u c ts
a r e a w i d e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r i a l
c e n t e r s . T h e s t u d i e s , m a d e f r o m l a t e f a l l t o e a r l y s p r in g ,
r e l a t e to o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s a n d r e l a t e d s u p p l e m e n t a r y
b e n e fits . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f th e s t u d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a l l y in th e m o n t h f o l l o w i n g
th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d i e d . T h i s b u l l e t i n p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l
d a ta n o t i n c l u d e d in th e e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a l y t i c a l b u l l e t i n s u m m a r i z i n g th e r e s u l t s o f a l l o f th e
y e a r * s s u r v e y s i s i s s u e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f th e f i n a l a r e a
b u l l e t i n f o r th e c u r r e n t r o u n d o f s u r v e y s .

T h i s r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in th e B u r e a u 1s r e g i o n a l
o f f i c e i n A t l a n t a , G a . , b y D o n a l d C r u s e , u n d e r th e d i r e c t i o n
o f L o u is B .
W o y ty ch , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r fo r
W a g e s an d In d u s tr ia l R e la t io n s .




_________________________________

3

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y _________________
P e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e in s t a n d a r d w e e k l y s a l a r i e s a n d s t r a i g h t t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s ___________

2

T a b le s:
1.
2.

A:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :*
A - 1. O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s ____________________________________________________
A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s _________________________
A - 3 . M a in t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s _______________________
A -4 .
C u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ________________

A p p e n d ix ;

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s

_____________________________________________

* N O T E : S im ila r t a b u la tio n s f o r th e s e an d o t h e r it e m s , in ­
c lu d in g d a t a o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s a n d s u p p l e m e n t a r y
w a g e p r o v i s i o n s , a r e a v a i l a b l e in th e R i c h m o n d a r e a r e ­
p o rts fo r
O c t o b e r 1951 a n d F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 .
A d ir e c ­
t o r y in d i c a t in g d a t e o f s t u d y a n d th e p r i c e o f th e r e p o r t s ,
a s w e ll a s r e p o r t s fo r o th e r m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le
upon r e q u e s t.
U n io n s c a l e s , i n d i c a t iv e o f p r e v a i l i n g p a y l e v e l s ,
a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r th e f o l l o w i n g t r a d e s o r i n d u s t r i e s :
B u ild in g
c o n s tr u c tio n ,
p r in t in g , l o c a l - t r a n s i t
o p e ra tin g
e m p lo y e e s , and m o to r tr u c k d r iv e r s and h e lp e r s .

in

2

00 — O''
J

T h e C o m m u n ity

11




Occupational Wage Survey—Richmond, Va.
Introduction
T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u stria l c e n t e r s in
w h ich the U. S. D ep artm en t o f L a b o r 's B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistics
con d u cts s u r v e y s o f o ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d w age b e n e fits
on an a r e a b a s is .
The b u lletin p r e s e n ts c u r r e n t o c cu p a tio n a l e m p loy m en t and
e a rn in g s in fo rm a tio n obtain ed la r g e ly b y m a il fr o m the e sta b lis h m e n ts
v is it e d b y B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s in the la s t p r e v io u s s u rv e y fo r o c c u ­
pa tion s r e p o r t e d in that e a r lie r study.
P e r s o n a l v is it s w e r e m ade
to n on resp on d en ts and to th ose r e sp o n d e n ts r e p o rtin g unusual ch a n g es
sin c e the p r e v io u s su rv e y .

In e a ch a r e a , data a r e obtain ed fr o m r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts w ithin s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s : M an ufacturin g; t r a n s p o r ­
tation, 1 com m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e ­
ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce , in su r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te; and s e r v ic e s .
M a jo r
in d u stry g ro u p s ex clu d ed fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e rn m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s .
E s ta b lis h m e n ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e
they fu rn ish in s u ffic ie n t em p loy m en t in the o c cu p a tio n s studied to w a r ­
ran t in clu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , se p a ra te tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d
fo r ea ch o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h ese su r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in su rv ey in g a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts. T o obtain
a p p ro p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t, a g r e a te r p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll esta b lis h m e n ts is studied. In com b in in g the data, h o w ­
e v e r , a ll esta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iven th e ir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E s tim a te s
b a s e d on the esta b lis h m e n ts stud ied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , a s r e ­
latin g to a ll esta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a , e x ­
ce p t f o r th o se b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e studied.
O ccu p a tion s and E a rn in gs
The o c cu p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u factu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c l a s ­
s ific a tio n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d e s ig n e d to

1 R a ilr o a d s , fo r m e r l y e x clu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f th e se stu d ies,
w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s stu d ied s in c e J u ly 1959, e x c e p t
B a ltim o r e , B u ffalo, C levela n d , and S ea ttle.
R a ilr o a d s a r e now in ­
c lu d ed in the s c o p e o f a l l la b o r -m a r k e t w ag e s u r v e y s .




take a c c o u n t o f in ter esta b lis h m e n t v a r ia tio n in d u ties w ith in the sa m e
jo b . (S ee a p pen dix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r i p t i o n s .) E a rn in g s data a r e
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) f o r the fo llo w in g ty p e s o f o c c u p a ­
tion s: (a) O ffice c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c ) m a in te ­
n an ce and p o w erp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m ov em en t.

O ccu p a tion a l em p lo y m e n t and e a rn in g s data a r e show n fo r
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e . , th o se h ir e d to w o rk a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in the g iv en o c cu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in gs data ex clu d e
p r e m iu m pa y fo r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and
la te sh ifts.
N on p rod u ction b o n u se s a r e e x clu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u s e s and in ce n tiv e e a rn in g s a r e in clu d ed .
W h ere w e e k ly
h o u rs a r e r e p o r te d , a s fo r o ffic e c l e r i c a l o c cu p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o r k sc h e d u le s (rou n d ed to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) fo r w h ich
s t r a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s fo r th ese
o ccu p a tio n s h ave b e e n rou n ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

A v e r a g e e a rn in g s o f m e n and w o m e n a r e p r e s e n te d se p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D iffe r e n c e s in pa y le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th e se o c cu p a tio n s a r e
la r g e ly due to (1) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong
in d u s tr ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts ; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific d u ties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the o c cu p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia te ly c la s s if i e d w ithin
the s a m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip t io n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in len gth o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w hen in d iv id u a l s a la r ie s a r e a d ju sted on th is b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ou ld r e s u lt in h ig h e r a v e r a g e pay
when both s e x e s a r e e m p lo y e d w ith in the sa m e r a te ra n g e .
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th e se s u r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th o se u se d in in d iv id u a l e sta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am on g e sta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ifi c d u ties
p e r fo r m e d .

O ccu p a tion a l e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll
e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f the study and n ot the n u m b er a c tu ­
a lly su r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d iffe r e n c e s in o c cu p a tio n a l str u c tu r e am on g
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f o c cu p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t obtain ed
fr o m the sa m p le o f e sta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied s e r v e on ly to in d ic a te the
r e la t iv e im p o r ta n c e o f the jo b s stud ied.
T h e s e d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tion a l s tru c tu re d o n ot m a t e r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
ing's data.




2

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Richmond* Va. » 1
by major industry division, 2 December I960
Number of establishments

Industry division

A ll divisions

_____

_____

Workers in establishments
Within scope
of study

Within scope
of study *
____ __ ___ ___

Manufacturing _______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing —
__
----- — __ —
Transportation, communication, and other
public u tilities4
__
_ _ _ _ _
Wholesale trade 5
__ _
__
__ _
Retail trade 5
_____
__
__ ---------Finance, insurance, and real estate 5 ___ __
__ _
_ _____ — ___
Services 5 ,6 ____

Studied

342

118

72,7 0 0

4 9 , 140

123
219

43
75

33 ,8 0 0
38,900

22 ,5 7 0
2 6,570

33
51
66
42
27

16
15
19
16
9

11,600
5,0 0 0
12,500
6 ,8 0 0
3 ,0 0 0

10,180
2 , 230
7 ,9 1 0
4 ,6 7 0
1,580

Studied

1 The Richmond Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Richmond City, Chesterfield and Henrico Counties).
The "w orkers within
scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force
included in the survey.
The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes
to m easure employment trends or levels since ( 1 ) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably
in advance of the payroll period studied, and ( 2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
Major changes from the earlier edition (used in the Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer
of m ilk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to manufacturing, and the transfer
of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation (50 em ployees).
A ll outlets (within
the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1
establishment.
4 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
Richmond's gas utility is municipally operated and is
excluded by definition from the scope of the study.
5 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the series A tables.
Separate
presentation of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons:
(1) Employment in the division is too sm all
to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response
was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
6 H otels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and
engineering and architectural services.

Table 2.

Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly
earnings for selected occupational groups in Richmond, Va. ,
February I960 to Decem ber i960
Occupational groups

Office clerical (women) _____________ _____ ___
Industrial nurses (women) --------- __ _____ _
Skilled maintenance (men) --------------- _ --------Unskilled plant (m e n )-----------------------------------------

A ll industries

3.
3.
3.
5.

0
7
3
1

Manufacturing

2.
3.
3.
2.

5
6
2
4

3

W
age Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
P r e s e n te d in ta b le 2 a r e in d e x e s o f s a la r ie s o f o ffic e c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , and o f a v e r a g e e a rn in g s o f s e le c t e d
plant w o r k e r g ro u p s .
In a r e a s w h ich w e r e not s u r v e y e d d u rin g the
f i s c a l 1953 b a s e y e a r (J u ly 1952 to June 1953) th is ta ble is lim ite d
to p e r c e n ts o f change b etw een s e le c t e d p e r io d s .
F o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u str ia l n u r s e s , the in d ex es
r e la te to a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r n o r m a l h o u r s o f w ork , that is ,
the stan dard w o rk sch ed u le f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s a r e paid.
F o r plant w o r k e r g ro u p s, th ey m e a s u r e ch a n g es in s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u rly
e a rn in g s, ex clu d in g p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k ­
en ds, h o lid a y s , and la te sh ifts.
The in d ex es a r e b a s e d on data fo r
s e le c t e d k ey o c cu p a tio n s and in clu d e m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p orta n t
jo b s w ith in e a c h g rou p . The o ffic e c l e r i c a l data a r e b a s e d on w om en in
the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B i lle r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ); b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A and B ; C om p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , file ,
c la s s A and B ; c le r k s , o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; k eyp un ch o p e r a t o r s ;
o ffic e g ir l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ; ste n o g r a p h e rs , g e n e r a l; sw itch b o a rd o p e r a ­
t o r s ; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a ­
t o r s ; t r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A
and B .
The in d u s tr ia l n u r s e data a r e b a s e d on w om en in d u stria l
n u r s e s . M en in the fo llo w in g 10 s k ille d m a in ten a n ce jo b s and 3 u n sk illed
jo b s w e r e in clu d ed in the pla n t w o r k e r data: S k ille d — c a r p e n t e r s ;
e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a c h in is ts ; m e c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e ; m i l l ­
w rig h ts ; p a in te r s ; p ip e fit t e r s ; s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and t o o l and d ie
m a k e r s ; u n sk illed — ja n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a ­
t e r ia l h andling; and w atch m en .
A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s w e r e
com p u ted f o r ea ch o f the s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s .
The a v e r a g e s a la r ie s
o r h o u r ly ea rn in g s w e r e then m u ltip lie d b y the a v e r a g e o f 1953 and
1954 em p lo y m e n t in the jo b . T h e se w eig h ted ea rn in g s fo r in d iv id u al
o c cu p a tio n s w e r e then to ta le d to obtain an a g g re g a te f o r ea ch o c c u p a ­
tio n a l g rou p . F in a lly , the r a tio o f th e se jgroup a g g r e g a te s f o r a g iv *n
y e a r to the a g g re g a te f o r the b a s e p e r io d (s u r v e y m on th , w in ter 1952—53)
w as com p u ted «and the r e s u lt m u ltip lie d b y the b a s e y e a r in d ex (100) to
g e t the in d ex f o r the g iv en y e a r .




S im ila r p r o c e d u r e s w e r e fo llo w e d in c o m p ilin g " p e r c e n t s o f
ch a n g e" in a r £ a s n ot su r v e y e d du ring 1953.
A d ju stm en ts h ave b e e n m a d e w h ere n e c e s s a r y to m a in tain
c o m p a r a b ility s o that the y e a r - t o - y e a r c o m p a r is o n s a r e b a s e d on the
sa m e in d u stry and o ccu p a tio n a l c o v e r a g e .
F o r ex a m p le, r a ilr o a d s
have b e e n in clu d ed in the c o v e r a g e o f the s u r v e y s on ly s in c e Ju ly 1959.
In com pu tin g the in d e x e s fo r the f i r s t y e a r in w h ich r a ilr o a d s w e r e
in clu d ed , data r e la tin g to r a ilr o a d s w e r e e x clu d ed . In d exes fo r s u b s e ­
quent y e a r s in clu d e data fo r r a ilr o a d s .

The in d e x e s m e a s u r e , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f (1) g e n e r a l
s a la r y and w ag e ch a n g es; (2) m e r it o r oth er in c r e a s e s in pa y r e c e iv e d
by in div idu al w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b ; and (3) ch a n g es in the
la b o r f o r c e su ch a s la b o r tu r n o v e r, f o r c e ex p a n sion s, f o r c e r e d u c ­
tion s, and ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y e s ta b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t pay le v e ls .
C hanges in the la b o r f o r c e can
ca u s e in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c cu p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s w ithout
a ctu a l w a g e ch a n g es. F o r e x a m p le, a f o r c e ex p a n sion m ig h t in c r e a s e
the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r pa id w o r k e r s in a s p e c ific o ccu p a tio n and r e ­
su lt in a d r o p in the a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s a r e d u ctio n in the p r o p o r t io n
o f lo w e r pa id w o r k e r s w ou ld have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t . The m o v e m e n t
o f a h ig h -p a y in g e sta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a cou ld ca u se the a v e r a g e
ea rn in g s to d r o p , even though n o change in r a te s o c c u r r e d in oth er
a r e a esta b lis h m e n ts.
The u se o f con sta n t em p loy m en t w eig h ts elim in a te s the e ffe c t s
o f ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in ea ch jo b in ­
clu d ed in the data.
N or a r e the in d e x e s in flu en ced b y ch a n g es in
stan dard w o rk sch e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e , s in c e they
a r e b a s e d on pa y f o r s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r s.
In dexes fo r the p e r io d 1953 to I960 f o r w o r k e r s in 20 m a jo r
la b o r m a rk e ts w ill ap p ea r in B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -6 2 , W ages and R ela ted
B e n e fits, 60 L a b o r M a rk ets, W inter 1959—
60.

A* Occupational Earnings

4

Tab le A - l. O ff ic e O ccup atio n s
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va. , December I960)
Avebaqk
N ber
um
of
w rk
o ers

NUMBER O WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
F

S
$
$
45. 00
$
55. 00 *60. 00 *65. 00 *70. 00 *75.00 *80. 00 *85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 *15.00 120.00 125.00 130.0Q
40. 00 $
W
eekly
W
eekly *35. 00 $
in
hours1 earn gs1
and
(S d
tan ard) (S d ) under
tan ard
“
”
“
“
“
“
“
“
■
■
”
~
■
“
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 over
o
o
o
W"

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Men
_
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

3
3
-

8
2
6
1

12
6
6
1

16
1
15
-

16
8
8
7

33
16

2

-

17
5

2
1

20
r~
17
6

83.50
92750
78.00
86.00

_
"

-

-

2
2
1

11
11
5

5
1
4
4

21
6
15
1

10
2
8
1

14
13
1
1

6
i
5
2

9
1
8
3

9
3
6
6

4
2
2
2

12
2
10
10

2
2
2

4 1 .0
4 1 .0

82.00
77.00

_

_

_

_

_

“

-

-

-

"

9
9

8
8

5
5

6
6

17
17

7
7

1
1

5
*

3
1

1
-

39. 0

85.00

_

_

_

-

1

-

2

7

7

_

5

5

1

5

_

_

2
-

_
"

_

.

-

-

C lerks, accounting, class A -----------------Manufacturing ________________ ______
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------Public utilities 3 __________________

188
75
113
53

39. 0 $ 102.00
3 9 .0
107.50
98.50
39. 5
4 0 .0
108.50

C lerks, accounting, class B ____________
Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------ --Public utilities 3 __________________

120
44
76
40

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
40. 0

C lerks, order __ ___________ ___________
Nonmanufacturing ______ __ _____ _

65
34

C lerks, payroll ________________

36

________

_

4
—

16
3
13
10

10
17
6 — r~
4
13
3
10
—

8
8
-

4
4
1
2
2“ ------1 ~ ------- T ------2
2
2
-

_

15
210
5
5
4
-------

_

-

1
"

1
-

1
-

-

_

2

1

_

_

_

.
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Office boys ___________
________ _____
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------- _
Public utilities 3 __________________

108
89
27

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

55.00
54.00
68.50

"

22
22
-

27
27
-

20
14
10

15
7
3

3
2

4
3
-

-

-

15
14
14

Tabulating-machine operators,
class A ---------- ---------------------------------- __
Nonmanufacturing ____________________

36

38. 5
38. 0

104.00
100.50

-

-

-

~

-

-

1

-

26

-

6
6

2
2

-

4
3

3
7
1 ------5

8
7

Tabulating-machine operators,
class B ______________ __________________
Nonmanufacturing ___ __________ _ _

91

6
6

39. 0
39. 0

84.00
79.00

-

-

1
1

2 2
2 2

________

30

38. 5

68.50

-

-

1

2

B illers, machine (billing machine) ____
Nonmanufacturing ____________________

42
36

40. 0
40. 0

58.00
55.00

_
"

6
6

2
2

B illers, machine (bookkeeping
machine) ___________
_ _______ ___ _
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------

108
86

39. 0
3 9 .0

58.00
54767T

-

-

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class A — ---------------------------------------------Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____ ___ _________

93
38
55

38. 5
39. 5
38. 0

68.50
72.50
65.50

-

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B ------------------------------------------ ------Nonmanufacturing ____________________

229
205

38. 5
38. 5

58.00
57.00

C lerks, accounting, class A ------ --------Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------Public utilities 3 ----------------------------

243
26
217
113

38. 5
3 9 .5
38. 5
38. 5

79.00
84.50
78.00
79.50

Tabulating-machine operators,
class C ________________ _______

10
6
4
4

11
11

5
5

-

24
15

8
7

8
8

7
3

3
t

4
7
4 —

3
1

6

7

-

5

1

4

1

3

-

-

10
10

11
11

5
3

5
3

_

_

_

_

_

1
1

2

30
28

12
12

27
26

19
12

2
1

1
1

12
6

■

1
-

1
-

1
-

2

-

1
l

1
1

16
16

26
7
19

15
11
4

7
6
1

14
7
7

4
3

5
2
3

2
1
—
1 ----- J
1
-

-

-

1
1

36
36

50
50

43
34

55
51

28
26

1
1

13
6

2
~

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

2
-

3
3

15
15

24

47

18
10

42
20

71
71
53

23
23
1

17
1
16
13

-

2

-

2
2
2

3
-

-

1
-

-

1
-

-

-

-

_

_

Women

1
See footnotes at end of table




2

5

6

5

1

6
2

-

11

5

8

3
5

12
5
7

1

_

_

_

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

_
-

_
_

_
_

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 2 6
2
2 2 6

-

-

-

1 :
i
i

_
-

_

_

-

-

5

i
_______

5
T a b le A - l. O ffic e O ccu p a tb n s-C o n tin u e d
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division. Richmond, Va. , December I960)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Weekly j
earnings
(Standard)

i
$
$
$
$
$
00 $
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 9 0 . 00 95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125.00 130.00
35. 00 40. 00 4 5 .0 0 50. 00 55. 00
and
and
under
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 6 0 . 00 65 .0 0 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 .0 0 125.00 130.00 over

%
0
.

W omen— Continued

C lerks, accounting, class B ___________
Manufacturing __ __ __ __ _________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________
Public utilities 3 _____ ____________
C lerks, file , class A
Nonmanufacturing

763
68
695
237

__ __ __ _____ __
________ __
__

99
89

C lerks, file , class B __ __ _______________
M anufacturing_________________________
Nonmanufacturing __ _ ______ _____
Public u tilities3 _ _____ _____ __

307
61
246
69

C lerk s, order _____________________________

43

38.
39.
38.
39.

5
0
5
0

$ 63.
76.
62.
66.

50
50
50
50

_

77
13
64
13

43
15
28
2

7
7

19
19

22
22

17
17

15
10

5
3

3
2

10
1
9
5

10
2
8
8

8
3
5
1

19
19
19

5
2
3
3

3
r~

1
1

_

_
-

4
4

1
1

18
11
7
2

-

1
1
-

_
-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

2
2

38.
39.
38.
38.

52.
62.
50.
55.

50
00
50
00

4
4
-

36
36
2

72
72
3

103
15
88
46

43
6
37
12

23
18
5
2

16
16
-

6
6
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

2
2
2

_
-

2
2
2

_

_

-

-

6 9 . 00

_

1

4

4

1

5

1

16

_

4

_

6

_

1

_

_

_

_

-

2
2
-

_

_

-

-

-

“

5
5
5
5

4 0 .0

.

Comptometer operators _________________
Manufacturing ___ __
___ _________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________

147
43
104

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5

61. 50
63. 00
61. 00

Keypunch operators _____________________
Manufacturing
____
__ _____
Nonmanufacturing __ __ __ ___

316
55
261
83

38.
39.
38.
39-

69.
78.
67.
81.

-

Office girls ______
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
Nonmanufacturing
_
_ _

91
7
84
27

62. 50
61. 50

72. 50
74. 50
7 1 .0 0

_____

148
13
135
79

38. 0
38. 0

3 9 .0
39. 5
39. 0

_

|173
173
46

-

160
65
95

____ ___

96
27

15
15

C lerk s, payroll __________________________
Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____„_ __ __ __ __

P ub lic u t ilit ie s 3

96

-

49
49
5

-

-

5
5
5
0

50
00
50
50

19

18
13
5

11
5
6

9
5
4

15
8
7

1
1

2
2

6
4
2

4
2
2

7
1
6

29
10
19

13
2
11

18
2
16

2
2
-

2
1
1

3
2
1

5
3
2

2
1
1

1
1

-

_
"

-

57
9
48
11

42
2
40
4

17
2
15
2

17
14
3

15
12
3

4
4

4
4

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

24
24

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

32
2
30
27

24

-

4
1
3
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

14
4
10

24
13
11

21
2
19

25

-

_
-

_
-

2
1
1

13
5
8

25
3
22

32
11
21

-

-

33

53
5
48

-

14
14

-

-

-

33
7

13
13

21
18

1
1

37. 5
37. 5

52. 00
51. 50

_

-

7

-

_

1
1

-

—

-

-

-

-

18
18

-

-

5
5

-

-

"

-

-

-

~

-

Secretaries _
_____ _____
M an u factu rin g________________________
N onm anufacturing------------------------------Public u tilities3 ____ _ _
__

902
341
561
126

39.
39.
38.
40.

0
5
5
0

83.
87.
80.
97.

50
50
50
00

_
-

_
-

_
-

17
17
-

25
3
22
5

78
22
56
3

78
14
64
8

89
11
78
7

113
37
76
13

117
55
62
7

131
79
52
9

73
50
23
4

36
16
20
6

48
29
19
10

24
“ 6—
18
3

22
4
18
17

20
2
18
17

12
1
11
10

4
1
3
3

15
11
4
4

Stenographers, general
Manufacturing

706
283
423
151

39. 0
39. 5
39. 0
4 0 .0

74.
77.
72.
89.

50
50
00
50

6
6

1
1

3
3

108
22
86
4

83
49
34
4

92
85
7
1

41
37
4
4

27
19
8
6

22
9
13
13

41
1
40
40

47
9
38
38

16
7
9
9

5
3
2
2

5
3
2
2

-

-

"

92
20
72
13

1
1

-

71
16
55
11

-

"

45
2
43
4

-

-

-

158
31
127
27

39.
39.
39.
40.

64.
75.
61.
82.

00
50
00
00

5

_

32

10

4
3
1
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

2

-

10
1

6
4
2
1

_

32
-

13
10
3
2

2

9
8

3
3

1
-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
1
10
6

3

5
-

10
5
5
1

3

-

22
5
17
2

9

-

28
1
27
1

-

"

-

"

-

103
46
57

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5

6 4 .0 0
67. 50
60. 50

_

_

14
7
7

22
14
8

18
6
12

12
5

6
3

6
6

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

“

-

-

-

- .
-

-

-

_
-

7

3
2
1

_

-

10
3
7

_

-

12
12

77

38. 5
38. 0

69. 50
69. 00

-

-

-

6

9

18
18

11
11

-

-

3

-

-

-

1

-

-

9

19
12

-

6

10
10

-

"

“

-

'

‘

'

_
.
__ _ __

N on m am ifacturin g

Public utilities 3

Switchboard operators _ __
_
Manufacturing
__ __ ______
N on m am ifacturin g

Public utilities 3

__ _

___

__________________

Switchboard o p e ra to r-re c e p tio n is ts____
Manufacturing ___ _ _ __
__
Nonmanufacturing _ _ _ _ _
Tabulating-machine operators,
class B __ _
_ _ _ _ _
_
Nonmanufacturing
_

_
_

_
_

61
-----

69

5
5
5
0

-

-

“

'

See footnotes at end of table,




-

-

-

-

-

5

'

'

'

i

6

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., Decem ber I960)
Average
S ex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

a n d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
3 5 . 00 4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 5 0 . 00 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

Weekly ,
earnings1
(Standard) u n d e r
4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

5 0 . 00

5 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

S
85 . 00

8 5 . 00

90 . 00

S
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
9 0 . 00 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0

and
over

i

W o m e n — C o n tin u e d
T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s C _________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------

56
49

37. 0
36. 5

$ 6 0 . 00
5 9 . 00

-

T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s ,
g e n e r a l --------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------

100
78

39. 0
39. 0

6 3 . 50
6 2 . 00

38. 0

64.
72.
62.
68.

T y p is t s , c la s s A
--------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 ----------------------------------

195
36

T y p is t s , c la s s B
--------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 ----------------------------------

556
368
41

159
32

39. 0
38. 0
38. 5
38. 5
38. 0
39. 5

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

1
1

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
8
4
1

4
4
-

2
2
-

_

.

_

_

_

_

-

3
3
3

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

1
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

3
3

8
5

17
17

8
8

11
10

2
1

3
3

-

-

-

-

10
10

10
10

21
18

23
16

14
11

6
3

8
4

1
1
-

19
19
1

58
1
57
11

48
12
36
5

20
20
4

25
6
19
6

130
97
16

124
93
5

91

33
11
1

8
1

-

_

_

-

50
50
50
50

-

-

-

-

_

5 6 . 00
5 5 . 50
7 1. 00

62
26

81
75

-

44
2

-

4

-

-

3
2
1
1

3
3
3

7

6
6
6

1
1
1

7
7

-

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 W orkers were distributed as follows: 4 at $ 1 30 to $ 140; 3 at $ 145 to $ 155; 3 at $ 155 and over.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va. , Decem ber I960)
AvbiS G
AE
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
S
Weekly
70. 00 75. 00
hours 1
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
75. 00 80. 00

80. 00

$
85. 00 9 0 . 00

8 5 .0 0

90. 00

4
2
2
2

-

7
5

$
$
S
$
95. 00 foo. 00 105. 00 n o . oo ?1 5 .0 0 1 0 . 00 ? 2 5 .00 1*30. 00 1*35. 00 *40. 00 145. 00 150. 00
*2

95. 00 1 0 0 . 00 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125. 00 130. 00 135. 00 140. 00 145. 00 150. 00

and

Men
Draftsmen, senior ______________________________________
Manufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------Public utilities 2 ----------------------------------------------------

160
105
55
48

40.
40.
40.
40.

_

1

0
0
0
0

$ 1 26 .50
125. 00
129. 0 0
131.00

-

-

1
1

39. 5
39. 5

98. 50
10 1.0 0

2
1

7
5

-

_

-

2
1
1
1

1

4
4

1
1

14
13
1
1

9
6

1
1

-

-

10
5
5
1

13
9
4
1

10
9
1
1

1

_

3
3

10
10

-

6
6
6

46
41
5
5

20
5
15
15

21
14
7
7

3
2
1
1

5
5

5

_

_

Women
Nurses, industrial (registered) -----------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------

58
46

1

14
12

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




1

2
2

_

_

7
T a b le A -3 . M ain te n a n ce and Pow erplant O ccu p atio n s
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va. , December I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number

Average
hourly i
earnings

of

Occupation and industry division

workers

Carpenters, maintenance ---------------------Manufacturing
— —
------ - —
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------

101
71
30

$ 2 . 61
2758“
2 .4 4

Electricians, maintenance --------Manufacturing ------------------------------------

207
186
70

Firem en, stationary boiler _______
Manufacturing _________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------

109

H elpers, trades, maintenance ________
Manufacturing ------------------------------------

6
6

1
1
"

~

E~
0
1
4

-

_

-

-

-

21
21

6
6
-

12
9

1
-

_

_

2 .3 9
2 . 40

-

1 .7 3
1 .8 4
1 .4 8

180
129

1 .9 9
1.91

228
----- 224

2. 85
----- 27517“

Me c hanic s , automotive
(maintenance) -------------- --------------- —
Manufacturing
—
— ---------------Nonmanufacturing
__
_ ---------- —
Public utilities 2
— ---------

27 8
36
242
2 02

2.
2.
2.
2.

Mechanics, maintenance ----------- ----Manufacturing --------- ------- -------------- _

404
374

-

■

-

37
37

11
10

10
10

2
1

83
83

12
-

25

3
-

_

_

-

-

-

2
2

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

“

T
~
2

-----

_

1
1

_

-

5
4

12
10

2
-

11
10

2
1

-

-

15
12
3

15
13
2

3
3
-

5
5
"

6
6
-

12
12
-

6
6
-

_

_

-

7
7

_

"

6
6
"

_

-

5
5
-

_

-

-

-

-

6
6

23
22

6
5

6
3

7
5

-

10
9

3
3

2
1

14
3

4
4

61
57

3
1

1
1

21
-

_

-

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

3
3

_

8
8

3
3

10
10

6
6

3
2

3
3

24
24

22
22

24
2?

2
2

8

9

66
3
63

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
7

-

-

-

-

-

4
3
1

-

2 .71
2.71

_

_

-

-

2

-

-

-

"

-

"

-

-

-

-

78
77

1.91
1.91

13
13

_

_
-

4
4

1
1

6

"

2
2

10 0
72

2 .4 4
2. 72

_

_

_

_

18

_

-

-

-

-

"

-

Pipefitters, maintenance ---------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

100
99

2. 97
2. 97

-

_

-

-

_

“

-

-

"

Sheet-metal workers,
maintenance ___________________________
Manufacturing
------ -------------------------

44
44

2 .9 9
2 .9 9

-

-

-

-

-

2
"

5

—

-

6
5

8

-

T T
~ ~
5

—

6
3
3

1
-

-

-

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




7
4

42
33
9

3
3

3
3

.

11
10

6
----- 5 ~
1

4
-

-

Painters, maintenance -----------------------------------Manufacturing
-----------------------------------------------

“

11
10
1

1
-

-

---------------------

_

3
3

1
1

-

------------

6
6

6
3
3

"

1
-

-

----------------

3
2
1

-

-

----- ------

5
4
1

-

-

Oilers ___ _
_
Manufacturing

2
2

-

3
3

-

26
11
28
31

“
1

35

Machinists, maintenance ------------- —
------------------------------Manufacturing

-

6
4
2

1

3
3
-

2 . 88
2755"

Engineers, stationary --------------------------Manufacturing — --------- ------- ---------

$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
$
1 . 0 0 1 . 10 1 . 2 0 1. 30 1 .4 0 1. 50 1 . 6 0 1 .7 0 1.8 0 1. 90 2 . 00 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2 . 6 0 *2. 70 2 .8 0 2 . 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3 .3 0
and
and
Tinder
1 . 10 1 . 20 1. 30 1 .4 0 1. 50 1.6 0 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1 . 9 0 2 . 00 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2 .4 0 2. 50 2 . 60 2 .7 0 2 . 80 2 . 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 over

8

i

holidays,

-

—

1
1

_

r ~

-

42
6
36
31

49
7
42
42

28
1
27
27

12

23
10
13
10

-

12
5

7
2
5
4

-

11
5

8
8

9
8

8
8

8
8

15
13

13
13

46
43

7
7

7
3

2
2

15
14

108

3
3

5

18
18

14
14

_

_

_

5“

2
2

-

-

-

10
10

5
5

3

-

-

"

5
2

4
4

7
7

"

2
2 2

1
1

-

-

1
1

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
-

—

1
1

_

-

-

-

-

"

-

3
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

and late shifts.

_
-

-

"

1

1
1

55

'

45
45

_
-

-

1
1
-

-

-

-

1

_

_

-

154
138

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

“

18
18

_

45
44

4
4

_

_

_

-

-

-

76
75

_

_

_

-

-

29
29

7
7

_

-

_

-

"

74
71

3
2

16
16

5
5

_

4
4

2
2

-

-

_

8
T a b le A -4 . Custodial an d M ate ria l M ovem ent O ccu p atio n s
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va. , Decem ber i960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation1 and industry division

Elevator operators, passenger
(women) --------------------------------------------------

N ber
um
of
w ers
ork

S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
5
A
verage s
h rly , 0. 50 0 . 60 0. 70 0 . 80 0 . 90 1 . 00 1 . 10 1 . 20 1. 30 1. 40 1 .50 1 .6 0 1. 70 1 . 80 1. 90 2 . 00
ou
earn gs
in
and
under
. 80
. 90 1 . 00 1 . 10 1 . 2 0 1. 30 1. 40 1. 50 1 .60 1. 70 1.8 0 1. 90 2 . 00 2 . 10
. 70
. 60

c

2 . 10

$
$
s
$
$
8
$
2 . 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2 . 60 2. 70 2 . 80

2 . 20

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

2 . 60

2. 70

2 . 80 2 . 90

56
54

$ 0. 78
. 77

5

27
27

-

1
1

7
7

10
8

5
5

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-----------------------------------------------------

101

2. 24

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

3

1

6

_

7

9

4

14

8

6

_

8

_

_

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(men) ----------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------Public utilities 3 ---------------------------

941
408
533
108

1. 38
1 .58
1 .2 3
1.6 6

-

17
17
-

7
7
-

25
25
-

73
2
71

109
8
101
-

90
24
66
-

180
89
91
20

64
35
29
10

75
18
57
32

76
68
8
3

24
9
15
10

9
7
2
1

75
73
2
1

50
49
1
-

6
1
5
4

28
28
19

25
25
-

6
_
6
6

1
_
1
1

1
_
1
1

_
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(women) ------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------

276
78
19 8

1 .09
1 .29
1.0 1

_
"

58
58

6
6

9

18
18

78
37
41

8
8

35
16
19

26
2
24

9
2
7

3
2
1

2
2
~

10
10
-

_
-

6
6
-

3
3

_
_
-

1
1
-

4
.
4

_
_
"

_
_

_
-

_
_

_
_

9

-

-

Laborers, m aterial handling --------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------D 1C UXlllLlc 5
X

1, 415
761
654
Q0
7^

1 .46
1.51
1. 39
Q1
1.7 1

_
-

_
-

_
-

4
4

2
2

290
109
181

158
64
94

112
50
62

96
71
25

252
157
95

63
61
2

56
6
50
16

68
30
38
28

94
76
18
18

39
32
7
7

57
56
1
1

57
57
g

52
49
3

_
-

_
-

15
15
15

_
-

_
-

_
-

Order fillers ____________________________
Manufacturing -----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------

384
77
307

1.71
1.9 2
1.6 6

-

-

-

-

-

12
3
9

17
17

37
1
36

19
19

30
5
25

42
2
40

84
12
72

16
6
10

1
1
-

20
20
"

22
10
12

-

59
59

8
8

17
17
-

-

-

Packers, shipping

1.4 2
1.51
1. 35

_

_

_

_

_

12

12

-

-

-

"

12

12

19
9
10

9

15
14
1

44
26
18

4

"

15
3
12

9

Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------

130
52
78

Receiving clerks -----------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------

121
52
69

2 . 01
2 . 22
1 .8 4

_

_

_

_

_

1

_

7

14

8
3
5

1
1

4
4

11
11
-

8
8

1
1
“

3
1
2

4
3
1

17
11
6

8
1
7

7
1
6

8
4
4

19
16
3

Shipping clerks --------------------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------------

81
57

2. 03
2. 14

11
4

7
7

2
2

7
6

6
6

15
15

12
6

1
1

3
3

_
-

Shipping and receiving clerks -------------Manufacturing _______________________

66
47

2. 03
1 .9 8

_
-

4
-

Truckdrivers 4 ---------------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------

1, 173
231
942
557

1. 72
1 .6 2
1.75
2. 03

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

102 '
33
69

46
6
40

39
11
28

23
2
21

Truckdrivers, light (under
1 V 2 tons) -----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ________________

101
78

1. 38
1. 33

-

-

-

-

-

-

13
8

14
14

15
15

Truckdrivers, medium ( 1 V 2 to and
including 4 tons) -----------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------->
-------------Public utilities 3 ----------------------

534
148
386
170

1 .65
1 .60
1 .67
1.9 8

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

29
18
11

22
6
16

24
11
13

Guards

jv
C
l

----------------------------------

See footnotes at end of table.




-

_

_

-

-

1

-

7

14

_

_

_

4

_

_

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

9
3

1
1

12
12

10
6

3
3

4
4

2
-

2
2

8
7

12
12

206
22
184
25

95
43
52
10

81
33
48
25

31
21
10
10

270
6
264
261

23
6
17
17

29
11
18
18

41
13
28
28

89
21
68
68

_
-

1
1
1

3
3
-

2
2

23
23

17
8

11
6

1
-

-

-

-

3
"

2
2

-

-

-

16
2
14

159
22
137
25

64
26
38
5

34
7
27
10

25
20
5
5

14
6
8
8

16
4
12
12

19
11
8
8

32
4
28
28

74
8
66
66

_

1

-

-

3

_

33

-

-

-

-

_
_

_
-

-

-

3
3

1
1

5
-

_

_

-

-

94
94
94

_
-

_
-

4

-

-

_

-

_

1
1

-

_

_

-

-

-

3
3

2

_

_

-

-

_

-

2
2

-

-

T a b le A -4. Custodial a n d M ate ria l M ovem ent O ccu p atio n s-C o n tin u ed
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va. , December I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

of

workers

Average
hourly 2
earnings

$
$
$
0. 50 0 .6 0 0. 70
and
under
.7 0
. 80
. 60

o
00

Occupation1 and industry division

Number

s
$
$
$
0 . 90 1 . 00 1 . 10 1 . 2 0

.9 0

1 . 00

1 . 10

1.2 0

1 .30

%

1. 30
1 .4 0

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
1 .40 1. 50 $ . 60 1 .7 0 1.8 0 1. 90 2 . 00 $2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2 .4 0 2. 50 2 . 60 2. 70 2 . 80
1
1. 50

1 . 60

1 .7 0

1 . 80

1.9 0

2 . 00

2 . 10

2 . 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2 . 60

2. 70

2 . 80

2 . 90

-

-

28
28
28

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

Truckdrivers:4— Continued
Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) —
— —
Nonmanufacturing ------------- __
Public utilities 3 ---------------------

190
170
137

$ 1. 87
1 .8 9
2 . 00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

24
24

14
6
5

23
15
15

5
5
5

72
72
69

7
5
5

10
10
10

1
-

1
-

-

Truckers, power (forklift) ____________
Manufacturing — ----- __ ------- _
Nonmanufacturing __________________

316
213
103

1 .7 2
1 .7 5
1. 67

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

11
10
1

3
3
-

14
9
5

7
3
4

50
25
25

34
34
"

72
40
32

31
13
18

2
2

11
11
-

26
26
-

20
20
-

10
10

6
6

-

Watchmen _____
X^armfa rtnri ng
Nonmanufacturing

167
109
58

1 .4 6
1.6 6
1. 09

3

9

6

1

_ ‘

5
3

4
4

35
35

_

_

1

2

12
12

6

13
7
6

_

9

24
19
5

19
19

3

26
6
20

__ — __ __ ------__________________

1 Data lim ited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




2
2 2

and late shifts.

5

3

_

3
3

_
-

19
19
-

_

-

-




11

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestsblishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes in applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and in voices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work inciden­
tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine,
are cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

B iller , machine (hilling machine)— U ses a specia l billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application o f prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry o f necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carDon cop ies
of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B iller , machine (bookkeeping machine
U s e s a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger
record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a num­
ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types o f
sales and credit slips.




C la ss A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to
be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated re­
ports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
C la ss B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or section s
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic
bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, pay­
roll, custom ers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing
described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense d is­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a ss is t in prep­
aration o f trial balances and prepare control sheets for the a c­
counting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C la ss A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or a c­
countant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a
complete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an e s ­
tablishment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and

12

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv­
able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch­
ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex­
perience in making proper assignations and allocations. May
assist in preparing, adjusting, and closin g journal entries; may
direct cla ss B accounting clerks.
C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher regiscers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in o ffice s in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distrib­
uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
CLERK, FILE
C la s s A —

R esponsible for maintaining an established filing
system. C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the file s. May perform incidental clerica l duties.
C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been cla ssified , or locates or a ssists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve an y com bin ation o f th e
fo llo w in g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that thv'y have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sib ilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjust­
ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is
not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used
stencils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed
material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. May keep files of punch
cards. May verify own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

13

SECRETARY

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and
making phone ca lls ; handling personal and important or confidentai
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or therecorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May pre­
pare special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's
while at switchboard.

posi­
also
This
time

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition ,
operate auxiliary machines.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing -

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type
from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing
dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such
as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A
worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar
machine is cla ssified as a stenographer, general.

machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
ca lls. May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to
persons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.




TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping
simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing
incoming mail.

14

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST— Continued

C lass A — Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Typing ma­
terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying
from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied
use of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy;
combining material from several sources, or planning layout of
complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance

in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final form. May type
routine form letters, varying details to suit circum stances.
C lass B — Performs one or more o f the follow in g: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance
p o licie s, e tc., setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to sca le units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types o f drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the follow ing: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the follow ing: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cr o s s-s e ctio n s , e tc., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications* May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion o f the follow ing: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

15

M A IN T E N A N C E

D

POWERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the follow ing:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selectin g materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves m ost o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or c h ie f engineers in establishm ents
employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp ecific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts ot a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves m ost o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to se le ct proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m ost o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

16

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop*
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the follow ing: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves m ost o f the follow in g: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
fa ces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work in volves the follow in g: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types o f paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications- In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating sy ste m s are exclu ded .

17

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

C U ST O D IA L AND M A T E R IA L MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD

JAN ITO R, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering .

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office , apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

18

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen , who load and unload ships are excluded .

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers'
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d as follow s:
R eceivin g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various tvpes of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and over-the-road drivers
are excluded .

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may in volve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded .

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work in vo lves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R eceivin g work in v o lv e s: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s i z e s liste d separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% ton s)
Truckdriver, medium (IV2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 ton s, trailer typ e)
Truckdriver, h eavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer typ e)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds o f premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U.S. G VE N EN P IN G O FIC : 1961 0—583950
O R M T R TIN F E







Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 2$, D .C ., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962.

Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—Schenectady—Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285
Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—Bethlehem—Easton,
P a .-N .J .— Bull. 1285Atlanta, G a.-— Bull. 1285Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285Beaumont—Port Arthur, T ex .— u ll. 1285-B
Birmingham, A la .-—Bull. 1285'
Boise, Idaho— Bull. 1285* * Boston, M ass.— Bull. 1285-15
Buffalo, N .Y .— Bull. 1285-31
Burlington, V t.— Bull. 1285Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-29
Charleston, W. V a.— Bull. 1285Charlotte, N .C .— Bull. 1285* ^Chattanooga, Tenn.— a .-—Bull. 1285-14
G
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285Cincinnati, Ohio—K y.-—Bull. 1285Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-11
Columbus, Ohio— Bull. 1285Dallas, T ex .— Bull. 1285- 21
* * Davenport—Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.—
Bull. 1285-16
Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Denver, Colo.— Bull. 1285-27
Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285Fort Worth, T ex.— Bull. 1285-23

* Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S .C .— Bull. 1285Houston, Tex.— Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285-28
Jackson, M iss.— Bull. 1285Jacksonville, F ia.— Bull. 1285-30
* Kansas City, Mo.—Kans.— Bull. 1285-18
Lawrence—Haverhill, M ass.—N .H .— Bull. 1285* * Little Rock—North Little Rock, Ark.— Bull. 1285-6
Los Angeles—Long Beach, C alif.— Bull. 1285Louisville, Ky.—Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285* Manchester, N .H .— Bull. 1285-1
Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285Miami, F la .— Bull. 1285Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285Muskegon—Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285Newark and Jersey City, N .J.— Bull. 1285New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285New Orleans, L a .— Bull. 1285New York, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Norfolk—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, V a .-—Bull. 1285* * Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3__
* * Omaha, Nebr.—Iowa— Bull. 1285-13
Paterson—Clifton—Passaic, N .J.— Bull. 1285Philadelphia, P a.— Bull. 1285-24
Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-

Pittsburgh, P a .— Bull. 1285*P ortland, Maine— Bull. 1285- 19
Portland, O reg.—W ash.— B ull. 1285Providence—Pawtucket, R .I .—M a ss.— B ull. 1285* * R a le ig h , N .C .— Bull. 1285*5^
Richmond, V a .— Bull. 1285-26
Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285* * S t . L ou is, M o .- I l l .— Bull. 1285-10
Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285-32

San Antonio, T e x .— Bull. 1285*San Bernardino—R iversid e—Ontario,
C a lif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—Oakland, C a lif.— Bull. 1285Savannah, G a .— Bull. 1285^ S c r a n t o n , P a .— Bull. 1285-8
* * S e a t t le , Wash.— Bull. 1285-7
* * * S i o u x F a lls, S. D ak.— Bull. 1285-17
South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285Trenton, N .J . — Bull. 1285-25
Washington, D .C .—Md.—V a .-— Bull. 1285-22
Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285* Waterloo, Iowa— B ull. 1285-20_
* * Wichita, K an s.— Bull. 1285-9
**W ilm ington, D e l. - N .J . — Bull. 1285-12
Worcester, M a ss.— Bull. 1285York, P a .— Bull. 1285-

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

*
Price, 20 cents.
* * Price, 25 cent^.
* * * Price, 15 cents.








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102