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Occupational Wage Survey

MUSKEGON-MUSKEGON HEIGHTS, MICHIGAN
MAY 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-69




UNITED STA TES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
MUSKEGON-MUSKEGON HEIGHTS, MICHIGAN




M A Y 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-69
July 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Preface

Consents

Page
The Community Wage Survey Program
Wage trends for selected occupational groups ___________________________




1.
2.

A:

Establishments and workers within scope of s u r v e y _____________
Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries
and straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups _______________________________________________
Occupational earnings: *
A - 1. Office occupations ________________________________________
A - 2. P rofessional and technical occupations _______________
A - 3. Maintenance and powerplant occupations ______________
A -4 . Custodial and material movement occu pation s________

Appendix:

Occupational de scriptions _____________________________________

*N O T E : Similar tabulations are available in the Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights area report of May I960, which also
includes data on establishm entpractices and supplementary
wage provisions. A directory indicating date of study and
the price of this report, as well as reports for other major
a reas, is available upon request.

2

2

LT) v O

This report was prepared in the Bureau's regional
office in Chicago, 111. , by Woodrow C. Linn, under the di­
rection of George E. Votava, Regional Wage and Industrial
Relations Analyst.

Table s:

Tf

The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers.
The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits. A prelim inary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following
the payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional
data not included in the earlier report.
A consolidated
analytical bulletin summarizing the results of all of the
y e a r 's surveys is issued after completion of the final area
bulletin for the current round of surveys.

3

9




Occupational Wage Survey—Muskegon-Muskegon Heights, Mich.
Introduction

T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u stria l c e n te r s in
w hich the U. S. D ep artm en t o f L a b o r 's B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics
con d u cts s u r v e y s o f occu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and re la te d w age b e n e fits
on an a r e a b a s is .
The b u lle tin p r e s e n ts c u r re n t o ccu p a tio n a l em p loy m en t and
ea rn in g s in fo rm a tio n obtained la r g e ly b y m a il fr o m the esta b lish m en ts
v is ite d by B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s in the la st p r e v io u s s u r v e y fo r o c c u ­
pa tion s r e p o r te d in that e a r lie r study.
P e r s o n a l v is it s w e re m ade
to n on resp on d en ts and to th ose r esp on d en ts r e p o r tin g unusual changes
s in c e the p r e v io u s s u r v e y .

In ea ch a r e a , data a r e obtain ed fr o m r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts w ithin s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s : M an u fa ctu rin g; tr a n s p o r ­
tation , 1 c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e ­
ta il tra d e; fin a n ce , in s u r a n ce , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s .
M a jo r
in d u stry g rou p s ex clu d e d fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e rn m e n t op era tion s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s .
E sta b lish m en ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e
they fu rn ish in s u ffic ie n t em p lo y m e n t in the o ccu p a tio n s studied to w a r ­
rant in clu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , se p a ra te tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d
fo r ea ch of the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h ese s u rv e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e of the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v olv ed in su rv e y in g a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts . T o obtain
a p p ro p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r tio n o f la rg e
than o f s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts is stud ied. In com b in in g the data, h ow ­
e v e r , a ll esta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iven th eir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E stim a tes
b a se d on the esta b lis h m e n ts studied a re p r e s e n te d , th e r e fo r e , as r e ­
lating to a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a , e x ­
c ep t fo r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied.

take a ccou n t o f in te r e sta b lish m e n t v a r ia tio n in duties w ithin the sam e
jo b . (See appendix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip tio n s . ) E arn in gs data a re
p r e se n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g types o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffice c le r i c a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te ch n ica l; (c ) m a in te ­
n an ce and p ow erp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m ov em en t.

O ccu p ation a l em p loy m en t and ea rn in g s data a r e show n fo r
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ire d to w o rk a r e g u la r w eek ly s c h e d ­
u le in the given o ccu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in gs data exclu d e
p rem iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o r k on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and
late s h ifts.
N on produ ction b on u ses a r e e x clu d ed a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in cen tiv e earn in g s a r e in clu d ed .
W here w eek ly
h ou rs a re r e p o r te d , as fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l o c cu p a tio n s, r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o r k sch e d u le s (rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) fo r w h ich
s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a re paid; a v e r a g e w e e k ly earn in g s fo r th ese
o ccu p a tio n s have b e e n rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

A v e ra g e ea rn in g s o f m en and w om en a r e p r e se n te d se p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tion s in w h ich both s e x e s a re c o m m o n ly e m p loy ed .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese occu p a tion s a re
la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is trib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong
in d u stries and esta b lis h m e n ts; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific duties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the o ccu p a tion s a r e a p p ro p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sa m e su r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w when in dividu al s a la r ie s a r e ad ju sted on this b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e ra g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h igh er a v e ra g e pay
w hen both s e x e s a re em p lo y e d w ithin the sa m e rate ra n g e.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese su rv e y s a r e u su ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al esta b lish m en ts to
a llo w f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong esta b lish m en ts in s p e c ific duties
p e r fo r m e d .

O ccu p ation s and E a rn in gs
The occu p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c l a s ­
s ific a tio n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m se t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esig n ed to
1
R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x clu d ed fr o m the s c o p e o f th ese stu d ie s,
w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s studied s in c e July 1959, e x ce p t B a lti­
m o r e (S ep tem b er 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffa lo (O cto b e r 1959),
C levela n d (S ep tem b er 1959), and Seattle (A ugust 1959).




O ccu p ation a l em p loy m en t e stim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in a ll
e sta b lis h m e n ts w ithin the s c o p e of the study and not the n u m ber a ctu ­
a lly su r v e y e d . B e ca u se o f d iffe r e n c e s in o ccu p a tio n a l s tru c tu re am ong
e sta b lis h m e n ts, the e stim a te s o f occu p a tion a l em p loym en t obtained
fr o m the sa m p le o f e sta b lish m en ts studied s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the
r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s studied.
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
pa tion al s tru c tu re do not m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
ings data.

2




T ab le 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w ork ers within scope of su rv e y and num ber studied in M uskegon—M u skegon H eig h ts, M ic h . , 1
by m a jo r industry d iv isio n , 2 M ay 1961
N u m b er of esta b lish m en ts

Industry division

W ithin scope
of s tudy *

W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts

Studied

Within scope
of study

Studied

A ll d ivision s __________________________________

78

54

2 6 ,2 0 0

2 4 ,0 2 0

M anufacturing ________________________________
N onm an ufactu ring_______________________
T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m u n ication ,
and other public u tilities 4 -----------------W h o lesa le trade 5 _________________________
R e ta il trade 5------------------------------------------F in an c e, in su ran ce , and r ea l
estate 5 _____________________________
S e r v ic e s 5> 6________________________________

47
31

33
21

2 2 ,0 0 0
4 ,2 0 0

2 0 ,4 7 0
3 , 550

8
4
13

8
2
7

2 ,0 0 0
200
1 ,4 0 0

1, 990
170
960

4
2

2
2

400
200

240
190

1 The M uskegon— u skegon H eights Standard M etrop olitan S ta tistica l A r e a (M uskegon C ounty).
M
The "w o r k e r s within scope of stu d y " e stim a te s
shown in this table provide a r eason ab ly accu rate d esc rip tion o f the siz e and com p o sitio n of the lab or fo rc e included in the su rv e y .
The e stim a te s
are not intended, h o w ev er, to ser v e as a b a s is of c o m p a r iso n with other a rea em p loym en t in dexes to m e a su r e em p loym en t trends or le v e ls sin ce
(1) planning o f wage su rv e y s r eq u ires the use of e sta b lish m en t data c om p iled c o n sid era b ly in advance of the p ayroll p eriod studied, and (2) sm a ll
esta b lish m en ts are exclu ded fr o m the scope of the su rv e y .
2 The 1957 r e v ise d edition of the Standard In d ustrial C la s s ific a tio n Manual w as used in c la s s ify in g esta b lish m en ts by in du stry d iv isio n .
M a jo r
changes fr o m the e a r lie r edition (used in the B u re a u ’ s lab or m a rk et w age su rv e y s conducted p rior to July 1958) are the tra n sfe r of m ilk p a ste u r i­
zation plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c on crete esta b lish m en ts fr o m trade (w holesale or r e ta il) to m an ufacturin g, and the tra n sfe r of radio and te le v isio n
b road castin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp ortation , com m u n ication , and other public u tilities d iv isio n .
3 Includes all esta b lish m en ts with total em p loym en t at or above the m in im u m -s iz e lim itation (50 e m p lo y e e s).
A ll outlets (within the a rea)
of com p an ies in such in d u strie s as tra d e , fin a n c e, auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o tio n -p ictu r e th eaters are con sid ere d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4 T axic ab s and s e r v ic e s in ciden tal to w ater tra n sp ortation w ere ex clu d ed .
5 Th is in du stry d ivision is rep rese n ted in e stim a te s fo r "a l l in d u s tr ie s " and "n on m an u factu rin g" in the S e r ie s A t a b le s .
Sep arate presen tation
of data for this division is not m ade fo r one or m o r e of the follow in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p loym en t in the d ivision is too sm a ll to p rovide enough data
to m e r it sep arate study, (2) the sam p le w as not d esign ed in itia lly to p erm it sep arate p resen tation , (3) resp on se was in su fficie n t o r inadequate to
p erm it sep arate p resen tation , (4) there is p o s sib ility of d isc lo su r e of individual e sta b lish m en t data.
6 H o te ls; p erson al s e r v ic e s ; b u sin ess s e r v ic e s ; autom obile r ep a ir sh op s; m otion p ictu r e s; nonprofit m e m b e r sh ip o rg a n iza tio n s; and en gin eerin g
and a rc h itec tu ra l s e r v ic e s .

T ab le 2 . P e r c e n ts of in c r e a se in standard w eekly s a la r ie s and str a ig h t-tim e
hourly ea rn ings for s e le c te d occupational groups in M u sk egon — u skegon
M
H eig h ts, M i c h ., M ay I9 60 to M ay 1961
O ccupational group

A ll in du stries

M anufacturing

Offi rp rlp T iral (worn pn )
Tnrlnstrial rmrsps (wompn)
PVi 1 p H m aintpnsnrp (mpn)
1
U n sk illed plant (m en) ----------------------------------

4 .2
1 .8
2 .4
2. 9

4. 7
1 .8
2 .5
2 .2

3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P r e s e n te d in ta ble 2 a r e p e r c e n ts o f change in s a la r ie s o f
w om en o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , and in a v e ra g e
ea rn in g s o f s e le c t e d plant w o r k e r g ro u p s.
F o r o ffic e c le r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , the p e r ­
cen ts o f change re la te to a v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s f o r n o rm a l h ou rs
o f w ork , that is , the stan dard w ork sch ed u le f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t-tim e
s a la r ie s a r e pa id .
F o r plant w o r k e r g ro u p s, th ey m e a s u re changes
in s t r a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s, ex clu d in g p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r ­
tim e and f o r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te sh ifts. The p e r ­
cen ta g es a r e b a se d on data f o r s e le c t e d k ey o ccu p a tio n s and in clu de
m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p orta n t jo b s w ithin e a ch g rou p .
The o f ­
f ic e c l e r i c a l data a re b a se d on w om en in the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B ille r s ,
m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ); b o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A
and B; C om p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , file , c la s s A and B ; c le r k s ,
o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; keypun ch o p e r a t o r s ; o ffic e g ir l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ;
ste n o g r a p h e rs , g e n e r a l; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r s ; sw itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ; tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p ­
e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A and B.
The in d u stria l n u rse
data a r e b a se d on w om en in d u stria l n u r s e s .
M en in the fo llo w in g
10 s k ille d m a in ten an ce jo b s and 3 u n sk illed jo b s w e re in clu d ed in the
plant w o r k e r data: S killed — c a r p e n te r s ; e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a c h in is ts ; m e ­
c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , au tom otiv e; m illw r ig h ts ; p a in te rs ; p ip e fitte r s ;
s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and to o l and d ie m a k e r s ; u n sk illed — ja n ito r s ,
p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling; and w atch m en .
A v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly earn in g s w e re
com pu ted f o r ea ch o f the s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s.
The a v e ra g e s a l ­
a r ie s o r h o u r ly ea rn in g s w e re then m u ltip lie d by the a v e r a g e e m p lo y ­
m en t in the jo b during the m onths in d ica ted in the title o f table 2.




T h ese w eigh ted ea rn in g s f o r in dividu al o ccu p a tio n s w e re then tota led
to obtain an a g g reg a te f o r e a c h o c cu p a tio n a l g rou p. F in a lly , the ra tio
o f th ese grou p a g g re g a te s fo r the one y e a r to the a g g re g a te fo r the
o th e r y e a r w as com pu ted and the d iffe r e n c e b etw een the r e su lt and
1 0 0 is the p e r c e n t o f change fr o m the one p e r io d to the oth er.

The p e r c e n t o f change m e a s u r e s , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f
(1) g e n e r a l s a la r y and w age ch a n g es; (2) m e r it o r o th e r in c r e a s e s
in pa y r e c e iv e d by in div idu al w o r k e r s w hile in the sa m e jo b ; and
(3) changes in the la b o r fo r c e su ch as la b o r tu r n o v e r, f o r c e ex p a n ­
s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c tio n s , and ch a n ges in the p r o p o r tio n s o f w o rk e r s
e m p lo y e d by e sta b lish m en ts w ith d iffe r e n t pay le v e ls . Changes in the
la b o r fo r c e can ca u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o ccu p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s without actu al w age ch a n g es. F o r ex a m p le , a f o r c e exp an sion
m igh t in c r e a s e the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r paid w o rk e r s in a s p e c ific
o ccu p a tio n and r e su lt in a d rop in the a v e r a g e , w h erea s a red u ction
in the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r paid w o rk e r s w ould have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t .
The m o v e m e n t o f a h igh -p a yin g esta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a cou ld
ca u se the a v e ra g e ea rn in gs to d ro p , even though no change in rates
o c c u r r e d in oth er a r e a esta b lis h m e n ts.
The u se o f constan t em p loy m en t w eigh ts e lim in a te s the e ffe c ts
o f changes in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p re s e n te d in ea ch jo b in ­
clu d ed in the data.
N or a re the p e r c e n ts o f change in flu en ced by
changes in stan dard w ork sch e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e ,
s in c e they a re b a se d on pay f o r s t r a ig h t-tim e h o u rs.
In dexes fo r the p e r io d 1953 to I960 f o r w o rk e r s in 20 m a jo r
la b o r m a rk e ts w ill a p p ea r in BLS B u ll. 12 6 5 -6 2 , W ages and R elated
B e n e fits, 60 L a b o r M a rk ets, W inter 1 9 5 9 -6 0 .

4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, M ich. , May 1961)
A verage

S ex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

Number
of
workers

and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Weekly
hours ,
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W ORKERS R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF—
$
4 0 . 00

Weekly
earnings ,
and
(Standard) u n d e r
4 5 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 . 00

$
9 5 .0 0

$
1 0 0 .0 0

$
1 0 5 .0 0

$
110 .0 0

$
1 1 5 .0 0

$
1 2 0 .0 0

$
125 .0 0

50j 0 0

5 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 .0 0

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

1 0 0 .0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

11 0 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0

120 .0 0

1 2 5 .0 0

over

and

M en
_

C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A
--------------—
----M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________ __________________

47

40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 1 3 . 00
1 1 3 . 50

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,

15

40. 0

8 8 . 50

_

_

_

c la s s B

--------------------------

_

_

_

-

-

51

"

_

1

_

_

_

1

1

_

2

1

1
1

1
1

2
2

2
1

2
2

3
3

8

8

16
16

9
9

2 6
4

1

3

2

_

1

1

2

2

_

_

_

_

5

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

8
2

2

4

2

1

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

_

_

_

_

W om en
_

_

2

3

4

3

4

12

5

2

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,

c la s s A

----------

21

40. 0

7 5 . 00

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,

c l a s s B -----------------------

30

40. 0

6 0 . 50

C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A
---------- --------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g
---------------- ---------------- ------------------------------

47
24

40. 0

8 3 . 00

40. 0

8 1 . 00

-

-

C le r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s B
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------- ---------------------- ---------------------------

88

7 5 . 50
7 2 . 50

_
-

1

39
49

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

C le r k s ,

----------------------------------------------------------------

25

40. 0

6 2 . 50

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ---------------- ---------- ----------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------- ------------------------------------------------------------

64
51

40. 0

7 1 .5 0

40. 0

7 0 . 50

-

C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________________

51

7 7 . 00
7 7 . 00

_

51

40. 0
40. 0

K eyp u n ch o p e r a to r s
-----------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________ __________ _________

59
52

40. 0
40. 0

6 6 . 50

S e c r e ta r ie s
_____________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------- ----------------------------- -----------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
---------------------------------------------------------------

186
151
35

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ---------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------

1

4

1

3

.

3

2

11

11

5

1

-

"

1

7

9

2

"

-

10
5
5

14
7

8

9
3
6

11
2

-

11
6
5

8

7

7
4
3

4
4

1

4
3
1

9

9
5
4

_

3

8

7

2

2

2

-

1

_

_

4
4

5
5

10
8

7
4

10

12
11

12

3
3

1

8

-

"

_

5
5

3
3

4
4

8
8

6
6

1
1

1
1

_

_

-

23
23

"

_

1

9
9

2
1

_

_

_

9

9
9

_

1

13
13

2

-

6
4

10

6 7 . 50

7
4

-

-

-

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

8 5 . 00
8 6 . 50

_

_
-

1
1

1
1

9
3
6

19
15
4

23
20
3

18
14
4

24
17
7

17
15
2

21

-

23
23

19
18
1

154
133

40. 0
40. 0

7 2 . 00
7 3 . 50

_

2

-

7
7

28
21

32
27

21

-

12
8

19

9
9

11
11

4
4

26
26

2
1

______________________________________

16

40. 0

6 0 . 00

36

1

1

_

1

_

1

_

_

4

1

_

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s
_________ _
_ ____
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________ _________________________________

36

40. 0

6 5 . 50

4

2

29

40. 0

6 4 . 00

-

3
3

14
11

2
1

3
3

2
2

5
2

1
1

---------------------------------------------------------------

40. 0
40. 0

8 1 . 00
8 1 . 50

_

_

-

5
5

3
3

8
8

5
4

6
5

42
42

40. 0
40. 0

5 8 . 50

_

7
7

_

_

"

14
14

_

. 00

16
14

~

"

"

file ,

c la s s A

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s

T y p is t s , c la s s A
M a n u fa c tu r in g

--------------------------

---------------

73
70

T y p is ts , c la s s B
M a n u fa c tu r in g

-----------------------------------------------------------------------________________ _________ _______________

84
66

-----------------------

7 7 . 50

_

-

-

7 9 . 50

6 0

4

2

1

3

-

-

• 3

10
4

12

25

7

20

-

8

2

19
2

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

"

"

-

3
2
1

7
5
2

_

_

-

-

-

"

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

"

1

_

_

_

"

-

-

_

'

-

_

_
.

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

"

-

_

_

_

.

_

_

-

-

"

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

"

“

“

“

-

-

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 W orkers were distributed as follow s: 3 at $1 25 to $ 1 3 0 ; 1 at $ 1 30 to $ 1 3 5 ; 2 at $135 to $ 1 4 0 .
3 A ll w orkers were at $25 to $ 3 0 .




_
-

“

"

-

_
-

“

5

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e -w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d i e d o n a n a r e a b a s i s
b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , M u s k e g o n —M u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h . , M a y 1961
A verage

S e x , o c c u p a t io n ,

Number
of
workers

and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

N U M B E R OF1 W ORKERS R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E AR N IN G S OF

Weekly
Weeklyearnings
(Standard)1 (Standard)1

$
6 0 . 00

$

$

$

$

6 5 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

-

and
unde r
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

1
1

2
2

4
4

7 0 . 00

1 0 0 . 00

1 0 0 .0 0
10 5 . 00

1 0 5 . 00

n o . oo

1 1 0 . 00

1 1 5 . 00

1 1 5 . 00

1 2 0 . 00

1 2 0 . 00

13 0 . 00
$

?3 5 . 00

1 3 0 . 00

1 2 5 . 00

1 3 5 .0 0

1 4 0 . 00

11

1 2 5 . 00

-

M en
-

-

-

D r a f t s m e n , s e n i o r ------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

11 2
11 2

40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 1 5 . 50
1 1 5 . 50

-

D r a f t s m e n , j u n i o r -------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------------------------------

54

40. 0

9 3 . 50

2

1

3

8

1

6

54

40. 0

9 3 . 50

2

1

3

8

1

6

18
18

40. 0
40. 0

8 6 . 50
8 6 . 50

-

3
3

-

2
2

3
3

2
2

1
1

10
10

12
12

21
21

17
17

21
21

11

10
10

2

3

5

15

2

6

2

-

-

-

-

3

5

15

2

6

2

-

-

3
3

3
3

1
1

1
1

_

-

-

-

-

"

_

-

"

"

2

-

W om en
N u r s e s , i n d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) -------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

'

'
1

S ta n d a rd




h ou rs

r e fle c t

th e -w o r k w e e k f o r

w h ic h

e m p lo y e e s

r e c e iv e

t h e ir

re g u la r

s tr a ig h t-tim e

s a la r ie s

and

th e

e a r n in g s

corresp on d

to th e s e

w e e k ly

h ou rs.

-

6
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Muskegon—
Muskegon H eights, M ic h ., May 1961)
N UM BER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O cc u p a tio n and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly ,
earnings1

U n der
$
1. 70

$

$

$
1 . 80

1 . 90

1 . 90

2 . 00

-

_

$

2 . 00

_

1. 70
and
u n d er
1 . 80

2 . 10

$

2 . 10
2 . 20

2 .4 0
2. 50

$

2. 50
2 . 60

2 . 80
2. 90

$

2 . 90
3. 00

$

3. 00
3. 10

$

3. 10
3. 20

$

3 .2 0
3. 30

-

2
2

6
6

17
17

16
16

5
5

37
36

14
14

2
2

30
30

_

-

4
4

10
10

_

-

_

_

7
7

_

_

-

8
8

_

-

8
8
.

_

15
14

2
2

2
2

1
1

_

_

_

_

"

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

6
6

2
2

3
3

17
17

5
5

_

.

_

6
6

5
3

39
39

_

16

16
13
3
3

5
5

$

3. 30
3 .4 0

-

6
6

-

-

3
-

4
4

_

_

-

_

H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n ce _______________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________

20
19

2. 38
2 . 39

_

_

_

_

_

-

“

-

-

-

M a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m --------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________ __ ______ ______________

67
67

2 . 96
2 . 96

_

.

-

_

_

M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n ce _______________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________

98
94

2 .9 1
2 .9 1

_

_

M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n ce ) _____________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g
____________________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 _________________ ______ ___________

60
33
27
27

2.
2.
2.
2.

_

_

-

-

M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce ________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________

127
125

2. 70
2. 70

M illw r ig h t s _____________ __________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________

10 2
10 2

2 . 68
2 . 68

O il e r s __ ______________________________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________

37
37

2 .4 1
2 .4 1

P ip e f it t e r s , m a in te n a n ce _______________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________ ____________________________

59
59

2 .6 9
2 .6 9

T o o l and die m a k e r s ______________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g
__________________________________________

178
178

2 .9 9
2. 99

-

"

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

-

-

9
9

-

-

35
35

2

.

4
4

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

5
2
3
3

-

-

_

_

.

-

-

2
2

1
1

2
2

43
43

3
3

21
21

_

_

-

-

9
9

2
2

6
6

4
4

8
8

-

-

4
4

_

_

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

_

_

8
8

16
16

-

_

11
11

11
11

_

_

_

-

13
13

.

"

-

-

_

_

2
2

1
1

7
7

80
80

15
15

17
17

10
10

31
31

15
15

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

1
1

-

2
2
_

and late shifts.

_

30
30

-

"
_

_

_

_

-

_

11
11

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

_

12
12

"

-

_

19
19

14
14

-

_

1
1

65
65

_

-

-

_

-

_

5
3

"

_

_

_

_

"

"

_

-

_

-

26
26

-

_

_

-

"
_

17
17

-

_

-

-

5

_

16
16

-

holidays,

2 . 80

$

-

2. 32
TT41

Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends,
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.

2. 70

7
7

_

_

2. 70

$

1
1

_

_

2 . 60

9
9

2. 74
2. 74

-

$

-

129
128




2 .4 0

$

2
2

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n ce _____________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________

69
65
75
75

2. 30

"

$ 2 .6 9
2 .6 9

-

2. 30

$

3
3

26
26

-

2 . 20

4
4

C a r p e n t e r s , m a in te n a n ce
_______________ ________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ___________________________________________

F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o il e r _____________________________
50
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________ ------47—

$

_

_

-

-

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

7

Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
(A ve ra g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , M u s k eg on —M u s k e g o n H e ig h ts, M i c h . , M a y 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

G u a r d s _____ ___________________ _________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s (m e n ) ________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________ __________________ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------------P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 4 ........... ..........
_

Number
of
workers

90
90
223
187
36
16

Average
hourly 2
earnings

$ 2 . 30
2. 30
2.
2.
1.
2.

13
18
82
20

U n der
$
1. 30

$

1. 30
and
und er
1. 40

-

_
-

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ____________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------

285
269

2. 17
2. 17

_

_

_

-

O r d e r f i l l e r s _____ ___________________ __________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________ _____________________

40
31

2 . 37
2. 25

_

_

"

P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g _____________ __ ______________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------

196
191

2. 29
2. 27

_

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s ____ ____________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _ ________________________________

40
39

2 .2 8
2 .2 9

S hipping c l e r k s ------------------------------------ ---------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ________________________________ _

22
22

2 .5 1
2. 51

T r u c k d r iv e r s 6 ___ ______________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _ ____________ _________________

60
48

2 .4 6
2 .4 3

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m (I V 2 to and
in clu d in g 4 t o n s ) --------------------------------------------

15

2 .4 6

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k l if t ) _______________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _____________________________ ___

172
166

2 .2 8
2 .2 8

1
2
3
4
5
6

_________________

22

2. 04

1
1
-

,
1 .6 0
1 .7 0

“

13
3
10
1

$

1. 70

$

1. 80

$

1. 90

3
2
1
1

1. 80

3
3
-

1. 90

2. 00

$

2. 00

$

2. 10
2 .2 0

27
"
24
23
1
1

8

2. 10

$

2 .2 0
2 . 30

22
22

27

19
17
2
2

12
6
6
"

17
17

_

_

-

-

-

26
26
-

1
1
"

2
2
-

10
10
"

25
24
1

_

_

_

"

-

-

3
2

27
25

58
58

1
“

6
5

-

$

2. 30
2 .4 0

$

2. 40
2. 50

1
1

-

$

2 .5 0
2 .6 0

$

2. 60
2 .7 0

$

2 .7 0
2 . 80

$

2. 80

$

2 . 90

2 . 90

3. 00

"

32
32

-

-

17
17
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

"

"

"

_

_

_

"

-

9
-

_

_

-

"

2
2

5
-

_

_

_
-

-

-

75
72
3
3

8
8
8

3
3
"

2
1
1

_
-

143
132

11
11

27
27

9
9

_
"

7
7

1
1

5
5

8
8

.

97
97

2
2

_

2
2

8
8

5
5

3
3

-

10
2
8

"

2
2
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

"

-

-

"

-

2
2

16
16

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

3
3

79
79

_

“
_

_

.

.

_

"

-

18
18

-

2
2

-

1
1

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

"

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

4
4

2
2

1
1

1
1

4
4

6
6

2
2

2
2

_

_

.

_

_

.

_
“

10
9

6
5

13
13

3
3

6
3

1
1

9
9

6

-

4
4

4

"
_

_

-

_
-

1
-

-

_
-

"

-

_

-

-

-

_

1

-

-

-

3

1

2

1

3

-

-

-

6
6

-

53
47

7
7

22
22

1
1

74
74

5
5

-

-

4
4

"

25
25

24
24

_

_

_

_

_

-

3
3

_

.

“

"

-

-

-

_

_

3

.

5

_

.

.

_

_

_

_

-

_

"

_

1

"

~

_

-

-

1
1

1

“

-

-

-

4

.

D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e re o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s : 3 at $ 0 . 7 0 to $ 0 . 8 0 ; 1 at $ 0 . 9 0 to $ 1 .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
A ll w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 1. 10 to $ 1. 2 0.
I n c lu d e s a ll d r i v e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e and type o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .




$

"

_
-

____________

-

-

58
1
7

W a tch m en __ _____

1. 50

1. 50

1
1

1. 82
1. 95
1 .4 6

2 .2 7
2 .2 7

$

1. 60

4
34
-

63
46
17

67
67

1. 40

8
-

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ( w o m e n ) ______
M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o th e r than f o r k l i f t ) __________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____ _______________________ ___

$

s h ift s .

3

3

15
15

_

_

2

1




9

A p p e n d ix O c c u p a tio n a l Descriptions

The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller, machine (hilling machine)— Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of
the bill being prepared and is often done oh a fanfold machine.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves vthe simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slip s.




Class A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B— Keeps a record o f one or more phases or section s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

10

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.

Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple co st accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the n e ce s­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE

Class A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ss ifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or loca tes
or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER

R eceives custom ers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with io supervisory respon si­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

11
SECRETARY

Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, apd
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office ca lls .
May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Class A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B— Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May a lso include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp e cific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

12

TYPIST

TYPIST— -Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing processes. May do clerica l work involving little specia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.

Class A — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.

Class B— Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s,
etc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

involved in strength o f materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
TRACER

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

13

MAINTENANCE

D PO W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

14

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selectin g standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is ­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE

Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various size s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecification s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

15

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge ef sanitary cades regarding installation of
rents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a pleager or plumber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or cquivalent mining and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
she Ires, lockers, tanks, Tentilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves siost o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintea anee work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using s variety of haadtools in cutting,
heading, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal attic lea as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sbeet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool

m a k e r;

fixture maker; gauge maker)

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors, are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte*
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering .

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an o ffice , apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

16

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded .
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing, plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded .

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded .
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (iy2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆

U .S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 6 1

O — 601142


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102