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Occupational Wage Survey MUSKEGON-MUSKEGON HEIGHTS, MICHIGAN MAY 1961 Bulletin No. 1285-69 UNITED STA TES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner Occupational Wage Survey MUSKEGON-MUSKEGON HEIGHTS, MICHIGAN M A Y 1961 Bulletin No. 1285-69 July 1961 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C. Price 20 cents Preface Consents Page The Community Wage Survey Program Wage trends for selected occupational groups ___________________________ 1. 2. A: Establishments and workers within scope of s u r v e y _____________ Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupational groups _______________________________________________ Occupational earnings: * A - 1. Office occupations ________________________________________ A - 2. P rofessional and technical occupations _______________ A - 3. Maintenance and powerplant occupations ______________ A -4 . Custodial and material movement occu pation s________ Appendix: Occupational de scriptions _____________________________________ *N O T E : Similar tabulations are available in the Muskegon— Muskegon Heights area report of May I960, which also includes data on establishm entpractices and supplementary wage provisions. A directory indicating date of study and the price of this report, as well as reports for other major a reas, is available upon request. 2 2 LT) v O This report was prepared in the Bureau's regional office in Chicago, 111. , by Woodrow C. Linn, under the di rection of George E. Votava, Regional Wage and Industrial Relations Analyst. Table s: Tf The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial centers. The studies, made from late fall to early spring, relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary benefits. A prelim inary report is available on completion of the study in each area, usually in the month following the payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data not included in the earlier report. A consolidated analytical bulletin summarizing the results of all of the y e a r 's surveys is issued after completion of the final area bulletin for the current round of surveys. 3 9 Occupational Wage Survey—Muskegon-Muskegon Heights, Mich. Introduction T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u stria l c e n te r s in w hich the U. S. D ep artm en t o f L a b o r 's B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics con d u cts s u r v e y s o f occu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and re la te d w age b e n e fits on an a r e a b a s is . The b u lle tin p r e s e n ts c u r re n t o ccu p a tio n a l em p loy m en t and ea rn in g s in fo rm a tio n obtained la r g e ly b y m a il fr o m the esta b lish m en ts v is ite d by B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s in the la st p r e v io u s s u r v e y fo r o c c u pa tion s r e p o r te d in that e a r lie r study. P e r s o n a l v is it s w e re m ade to n on resp on d en ts and to th ose r esp on d en ts r e p o r tin g unusual changes s in c e the p r e v io u s s u r v e y . In ea ch a r e a , data a r e obtain ed fr o m r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s t a b lis h m en ts w ithin s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s : M an u fa ctu rin g; tr a n s p o r tation , 1 c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e ta il tra d e; fin a n ce , in s u r a n ce , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s . M a jo r in d u stry g rou p s ex clu d e d fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e rn m e n t op era tion s and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s . E sta b lish m en ts having fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e they fu rn ish in s u ffic ie n t em p lo y m e n t in the o ccu p a tio n s studied to w a r rant in clu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , se p a ra te tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d fo r ea ch of the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s . T h ese s u rv e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e of the u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v olv ed in su rv e y in g a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts . T o obtain a p p ro p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r tio n o f la rg e than o f s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts is stud ied. In com b in in g the data, h ow e v e r , a ll esta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iven th eir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E stim a tes b a se d on the esta b lis h m e n ts studied a re p r e s e n te d , th e r e fo r e , as r e lating to a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a , e x c ep t fo r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied. take a ccou n t o f in te r e sta b lish m e n t v a r ia tio n in duties w ithin the sam e jo b . (See appendix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip tio n s . ) E arn in gs data a re p r e se n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g types o f o c c u p a tio n s : (a) O ffice c le r i c a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te ch n ica l; (c ) m a in te n an ce and p ow erp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m ov em en t. O ccu p ation a l em p loy m en t and ea rn in g s data a r e show n fo r fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ire d to w o rk a r e g u la r w eek ly s c h e d u le in the given o ccu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n . E a rn in gs data exclu d e p rem iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o r k on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts. N on produ ction b on u ses a r e e x clu d ed a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in cen tiv e earn in g s a r e in clu d ed . W here w eek ly h ou rs a re r e p o r te d , as fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l o c cu p a tio n s, r e fe r e n c e is to the w o r k sch e d u le s (rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) fo r w h ich s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a re paid; a v e r a g e w e e k ly earn in g s fo r th ese o ccu p a tio n s have b e e n rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r . A v e ra g e ea rn in g s o f m en and w om en a r e p r e se n te d se p a r a te ly fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tion s in w h ich both s e x e s a re c o m m o n ly e m p loy ed . D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese occu p a tion s a re la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is trib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong in d u stries and esta b lis h m e n ts; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific duties p e r fo r m e d , although the o ccu p a tion s a r e a p p ro p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin the sa m e su r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length o f s e r v ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w when in dividu al s a la r ie s a r e ad ju sted on this b a s is . L o n g e r a v e ra g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h igh er a v e ra g e pay w hen both s e x e s a re em p lo y e d w ithin the sa m e rate ra n g e. Job d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese su rv e y s a r e u su a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al esta b lish m en ts to a llo w f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong esta b lish m en ts in s p e c ific duties p e r fo r m e d . O ccu p ation s and E a rn in gs The occu p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c l a s s ific a tio n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m se t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esig n ed to 1 R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x clu d ed fr o m the s c o p e o f th ese stu d ie s, w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s studied s in c e July 1959, e x ce p t B a lti m o r e (S ep tem b er 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffa lo (O cto b e r 1959), C levela n d (S ep tem b er 1959), and Seattle (A ugust 1959). O ccu p ation a l em p loy m en t e stim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts w ithin the s c o p e of the study and not the n u m ber a ctu a lly su r v e y e d . B e ca u se o f d iffe r e n c e s in o ccu p a tio n a l s tru c tu re am ong e sta b lis h m e n ts, the e stim a te s o f occu p a tion a l em p loym en t obtained fr o m the sa m p le o f e sta b lish m en ts studied s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s studied. T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u pa tion al s tru c tu re do not m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ings data. 2 T ab le 1. E sta b lish m e n ts and w ork ers within scope of su rv e y and num ber studied in M uskegon—M u skegon H eig h ts, M ic h . , 1 by m a jo r industry d iv isio n , 2 M ay 1961 N u m b er of esta b lish m en ts Industry division W ithin scope of s tudy * W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts Studied Within scope of study Studied A ll d ivision s __________________________________ 78 54 2 6 ,2 0 0 2 4 ,0 2 0 M anufacturing ________________________________ N onm an ufactu ring_______________________ T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m u n ication , and other public u tilities 4 -----------------W h o lesa le trade 5 _________________________ R e ta il trade 5------------------------------------------F in an c e, in su ran ce , and r ea l estate 5 _____________________________ S e r v ic e s 5> 6________________________________ 47 31 33 21 2 2 ,0 0 0 4 ,2 0 0 2 0 ,4 7 0 3 , 550 8 4 13 8 2 7 2 ,0 0 0 200 1 ,4 0 0 1, 990 170 960 4 2 2 2 400 200 240 190 1 The M uskegon— u skegon H eights Standard M etrop olitan S ta tistica l A r e a (M uskegon C ounty). M The "w o r k e r s within scope of stu d y " e stim a te s shown in this table provide a r eason ab ly accu rate d esc rip tion o f the siz e and com p o sitio n of the lab or fo rc e included in the su rv e y . The e stim a te s are not intended, h o w ev er, to ser v e as a b a s is of c o m p a r iso n with other a rea em p loym en t in dexes to m e a su r e em p loym en t trends or le v e ls sin ce (1) planning o f wage su rv e y s r eq u ires the use of e sta b lish m en t data c om p iled c o n sid era b ly in advance of the p ayroll p eriod studied, and (2) sm a ll esta b lish m en ts are exclu ded fr o m the scope of the su rv e y . 2 The 1957 r e v ise d edition of the Standard In d ustrial C la s s ific a tio n Manual w as used in c la s s ify in g esta b lish m en ts by in du stry d iv isio n . M a jo r changes fr o m the e a r lie r edition (used in the B u re a u ’ s lab or m a rk et w age su rv e y s conducted p rior to July 1958) are the tra n sfe r of m ilk p a ste u r i zation plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c on crete esta b lish m en ts fr o m trade (w holesale or r e ta il) to m an ufacturin g, and the tra n sfe r of radio and te le v isio n b road castin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp ortation , com m u n ication , and other public u tilities d iv isio n . 3 Includes all esta b lish m en ts with total em p loym en t at or above the m in im u m -s iz e lim itation (50 e m p lo y e e s). A ll outlets (within the a rea) of com p an ies in such in d u strie s as tra d e , fin a n c e, auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o tio n -p ictu r e th eaters are con sid ere d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t. 4 T axic ab s and s e r v ic e s in ciden tal to w ater tra n sp ortation w ere ex clu d ed . 5 Th is in du stry d ivision is rep rese n ted in e stim a te s fo r "a l l in d u s tr ie s " and "n on m an u factu rin g" in the S e r ie s A t a b le s . Sep arate presen tation of data for this division is not m ade fo r one or m o r e of the follow in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p loym en t in the d ivision is too sm a ll to p rovide enough data to m e r it sep arate study, (2) the sam p le w as not d esign ed in itia lly to p erm it sep arate p resen tation , (3) resp on se was in su fficie n t o r inadequate to p erm it sep arate p resen tation , (4) there is p o s sib ility of d isc lo su r e of individual e sta b lish m en t data. 6 H o te ls; p erson al s e r v ic e s ; b u sin ess s e r v ic e s ; autom obile r ep a ir sh op s; m otion p ictu r e s; nonprofit m e m b e r sh ip o rg a n iza tio n s; and en gin eerin g and a rc h itec tu ra l s e r v ic e s . T ab le 2 . P e r c e n ts of in c r e a se in standard w eekly s a la r ie s and str a ig h t-tim e hourly ea rn ings for s e le c te d occupational groups in M u sk egon — u skegon M H eig h ts, M i c h ., M ay I9 60 to M ay 1961 O ccupational group A ll in du stries M anufacturing Offi rp rlp T iral (worn pn ) Tnrlnstrial rmrsps (wompn) PVi 1 p H m aintpnsnrp (mpn) 1 U n sk illed plant (m en) ---------------------------------- 4 .2 1 .8 2 .4 2. 9 4. 7 1 .8 2 .5 2 .2 3 Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups P r e s e n te d in ta ble 2 a r e p e r c e n ts o f change in s a la r ie s o f w om en o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , and in a v e ra g e ea rn in g s o f s e le c t e d plant w o r k e r g ro u p s. F o r o ffic e c le r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , the p e r cen ts o f change re la te to a v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s f o r n o rm a l h ou rs o f w ork , that is , the stan dard w ork sch ed u le f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a r e pa id . F o r plant w o r k e r g ro u p s, th ey m e a s u re changes in s t r a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s, ex clu d in g p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r tim e and f o r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te sh ifts. The p e r cen ta g es a r e b a se d on data f o r s e le c t e d k ey o ccu p a tio n s and in clu de m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p orta n t jo b s w ithin e a ch g rou p . The o f f ic e c l e r i c a l data a re b a se d on w om en in the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B ille r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ); b o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A and B; C om p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , file , c la s s A and B ; c le r k s , o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; keypun ch o p e r a t o r s ; o ffic e g ir l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ; ste n o g r a p h e rs , g e n e r a l; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r s ; sw itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ; tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A and B. The in d u stria l n u rse data a r e b a se d on w om en in d u stria l n u r s e s . M en in the fo llo w in g 10 s k ille d m a in ten an ce jo b s and 3 u n sk illed jo b s w e re in clu d ed in the plant w o r k e r data: S killed — c a r p e n te r s ; e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a c h in is ts ; m e c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , au tom otiv e; m illw r ig h ts ; p a in te rs ; p ip e fitte r s ; s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and to o l and d ie m a k e r s ; u n sk illed — ja n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling; and w atch m en . A v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly earn in g s w e re com pu ted f o r ea ch o f the s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s. The a v e ra g e s a l a r ie s o r h o u r ly ea rn in g s w e re then m u ltip lie d by the a v e r a g e e m p lo y m en t in the jo b during the m onths in d ica ted in the title o f table 2. T h ese w eigh ted ea rn in g s f o r in dividu al o ccu p a tio n s w e re then tota led to obtain an a g g reg a te f o r e a c h o c cu p a tio n a l g rou p. F in a lly , the ra tio o f th ese grou p a g g re g a te s fo r the one y e a r to the a g g re g a te fo r the o th e r y e a r w as com pu ted and the d iffe r e n c e b etw een the r e su lt and 1 0 0 is the p e r c e n t o f change fr o m the one p e r io d to the oth er. The p e r c e n t o f change m e a s u r e s , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f (1) g e n e r a l s a la r y and w age ch a n g es; (2) m e r it o r o th e r in c r e a s e s in pa y r e c e iv e d by in div idu al w o r k e r s w hile in the sa m e jo b ; and (3) changes in the la b o r fo r c e su ch as la b o r tu r n o v e r, f o r c e ex p a n s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c tio n s , and ch a n ges in the p r o p o r tio n s o f w o rk e r s e m p lo y e d by e sta b lish m en ts w ith d iffe r e n t pay le v e ls . Changes in the la b o r fo r c e can ca u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o ccu p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s without actu al w age ch a n g es. F o r ex a m p le , a f o r c e exp an sion m igh t in c r e a s e the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r paid w o rk e r s in a s p e c ific o ccu p a tio n and r e su lt in a d rop in the a v e r a g e , w h erea s a red u ction in the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r paid w o rk e r s w ould have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t . The m o v e m e n t o f a h igh -p a yin g esta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a cou ld ca u se the a v e ra g e ea rn in gs to d ro p , even though no change in rates o c c u r r e d in oth er a r e a esta b lis h m e n ts. The u se o f constan t em p loy m en t w eigh ts e lim in a te s the e ffe c ts o f changes in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p re s e n te d in ea ch jo b in clu d ed in the data. N or a re the p e r c e n ts o f change in flu en ced by changes in stan dard w ork sch e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e , s in c e they a re b a se d on pay f o r s t r a ig h t-tim e h o u rs. In dexes fo r the p e r io d 1953 to I960 f o r w o rk e r s in 20 m a jo r la b o r m a rk e ts w ill a p p ea r in BLS B u ll. 12 6 5 -6 2 , W ages and R elated B e n e fits, 60 L a b o r M a rk ets, W inter 1 9 5 9 -6 0 . 4 A* Occupational Earnings Table A -l. O ffice Occupations (A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Muskegon— Muskegon Heights, M ich. , May 1961) A verage S ex, o c c u p a t io n , Number of workers and in d u s t r y d iv is io n Weekly hours , (Standard) N U M B E R OF W ORKERS R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF— $ 4 0 . 00 Weekly earnings , and (Standard) u n d e r 4 5 . 00 $ 4 5 . 00 $ 5 0 . 00 $ 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 $ 7 0 . 00 $ 7 5 . 00 $ 8 0 . 00 $ 8 5 . 00 $ 9 0 . 00 $ 9 5 .0 0 $ 1 0 0 .0 0 $ 1 0 5 .0 0 $ 110 .0 0 $ 1 1 5 .0 0 $ 1 2 0 .0 0 $ 125 .0 0 50j 0 0 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 .0 0 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 11 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 120 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 over and M en _ C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A --------------— ----M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________ __________________ 47 40. 0 40. 0 $ 1 1 3 . 00 1 1 3 . 50 T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , 15 40. 0 8 8 . 50 _ _ _ c la s s B -------------------------- _ _ _ - - 51 " _ 1 _ _ _ 1 1 _ 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 8 8 16 16 9 9 2 6 4 1 3 2 _ 1 1 2 2 _ _ _ _ 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 2 2 4 2 1 - - _ - _ - - _ - - _ _ _ _ W om en _ _ 2 3 4 3 4 12 5 2 B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A ---------- 21 40. 0 7 5 . 00 B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ----------------------- 30 40. 0 6 0 . 50 C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A ---------- --------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g ---------------- ---------------- ------------------------------ 47 24 40. 0 8 3 . 00 40. 0 8 1 . 00 - - C le r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s B -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------- ---------------------- --------------------------- 88 7 5 . 50 7 2 . 50 _ - 1 39 49 40. 0 40. 0 40. 0 C le r k s , ---------------------------------------------------------------- 25 40. 0 6 2 . 50 C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ---------------- ---------- ----------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------- ------------------------------------------------------------ 64 51 40. 0 7 1 .5 0 40. 0 7 0 . 50 - C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________________ 51 7 7 . 00 7 7 . 00 _ 51 40. 0 40. 0 K eyp u n ch o p e r a to r s -----------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________ __________ _________ 59 52 40. 0 40. 0 6 6 . 50 S e c r e ta r ie s _____________________________________________________ M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------- ----------------------------- -----------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g --------------------------------------------------------------- 186 151 35 S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ---------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------- 1 4 1 3 . 3 2 11 11 5 1 - " 1 7 9 2 " - 10 5 5 14 7 8 9 3 6 11 2 - 11 6 5 8 7 7 4 3 4 4 1 4 3 1 9 9 5 4 _ 3 8 7 2 2 2 - 1 _ _ 4 4 5 5 10 8 7 4 10 12 11 12 3 3 1 8 - " _ 5 5 3 3 4 4 8 8 6 6 1 1 1 1 _ _ - 23 23 " _ 1 9 9 2 1 _ _ _ 9 9 9 _ 1 13 13 2 - 6 4 10 6 7 . 50 7 4 - - - 40. 0 40. 0 40. 0 8 5 . 00 8 6 . 50 _ _ - 1 1 1 1 9 3 6 19 15 4 23 20 3 18 14 4 24 17 7 17 15 2 21 - 23 23 19 18 1 154 133 40. 0 40. 0 7 2 . 00 7 3 . 50 _ 2 - 7 7 28 21 32 27 21 - 12 8 19 9 9 11 11 4 4 26 26 2 1 ______________________________________ 16 40. 0 6 0 . 00 36 1 1 _ 1 _ 1 _ _ 4 1 _ S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s _________ _ _ ____ M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________ _________________________________ 36 40. 0 6 5 . 50 4 2 29 40. 0 6 4 . 00 - 3 3 14 11 2 1 3 3 2 2 5 2 1 1 --------------------------------------------------------------- 40. 0 40. 0 8 1 . 00 8 1 . 50 _ _ - 5 5 3 3 8 8 5 4 6 5 42 42 40. 0 40. 0 5 8 . 50 _ 7 7 _ _ " 14 14 _ . 00 16 14 ~ " " file , c la s s A S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s T y p is t s , c la s s A M a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------- --------------- 73 70 T y p is ts , c la s s B M a n u fa c tu r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------________________ _________ _______________ 84 66 ----------------------- 7 7 . 50 _ - - 7 9 . 50 6 0 4 2 1 3 - - • 3 10 4 12 25 7 20 - 8 2 19 2 _ _ _ - - - _ _ _ - - - _ _ _ " " - 3 2 1 7 5 2 _ _ - - - " 1 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - " 1 _ _ _ " - - _ ' - _ _ . - - _ _ - - - " - _ _ _ . _ _ - - " _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - " " “ “ “ - - 1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. 2 W orkers were distributed as follow s: 3 at $1 25 to $ 1 3 0 ; 1 at $ 1 30 to $ 1 3 5 ; 2 at $135 to $ 1 4 0 . 3 A ll w orkers were at $25 to $ 3 0 . _ - “ " - _ - “ 5 Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations ( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e -w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d i e d o n a n a r e a b a s i s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , M u s k e g o n —M u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h . , M a y 1961 A verage S e x , o c c u p a t io n , Number of workers and in d u s tr y d iv is io n N U M B E R OF1 W ORKERS R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E AR N IN G S OF Weekly Weeklyearnings (Standard)1 (Standard)1 $ 6 0 . 00 $ $ $ $ 6 5 . 00 $ 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 - - - - - - - 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 - and unde r 6 5 . 00 $ 7 0 . 00 1 1 2 2 4 4 7 0 . 00 1 0 0 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 10 5 . 00 1 0 5 . 00 n o . oo 1 1 0 . 00 1 1 5 . 00 1 1 5 . 00 1 2 0 . 00 1 2 0 . 00 13 0 . 00 $ ?3 5 . 00 1 3 0 . 00 1 2 5 . 00 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 . 00 11 1 2 5 . 00 - M en - - - D r a f t s m e n , s e n i o r ------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 11 2 11 2 40. 0 40. 0 $ 1 1 5 . 50 1 1 5 . 50 - D r a f t s m e n , j u n i o r -------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54 40. 0 9 3 . 50 2 1 3 8 1 6 54 40. 0 9 3 . 50 2 1 3 8 1 6 18 18 40. 0 40. 0 8 6 . 50 8 6 . 50 - 3 3 - 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 10 10 12 12 21 21 17 17 21 21 11 10 10 2 3 5 15 2 6 2 - - - - 3 5 15 2 6 2 - - 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 _ - - - - " _ - " " 2 - W om en N u r s e s , i n d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) -------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ' ' 1 S ta n d a rd h ou rs r e fle c t th e -w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir re g u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s and th e e a r n in g s corresp on d to th e s e w e e k ly h ou rs. - 6 Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations (Average stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Muskegon— Muskegon H eights, M ic h ., May 1961) N UM BER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— O cc u p a tio n and in d u s tr y d iv is io n Number of workers Average hourly , earnings1 U n der $ 1. 70 $ $ $ 1 . 80 1 . 90 1 . 90 2 . 00 - _ $ 2 . 00 _ 1. 70 and u n d er 1 . 80 2 . 10 $ 2 . 10 2 . 20 2 .4 0 2. 50 $ 2. 50 2 . 60 2 . 80 2. 90 $ 2 . 90 3. 00 $ 3. 00 3. 10 $ 3. 10 3. 20 $ 3 .2 0 3. 30 - 2 2 6 6 17 17 16 16 5 5 37 36 14 14 2 2 30 30 _ - 4 4 10 10 _ - _ _ 7 7 _ _ - 8 8 _ - 8 8 . _ 15 14 2 2 2 2 1 1 _ _ _ _ " - " - - - - - - - - 2 2 6 6 2 2 3 3 17 17 5 5 _ . _ 6 6 5 3 39 39 _ 16 16 13 3 3 5 5 $ 3. 30 3 .4 0 - 6 6 - - 3 - 4 4 _ _ - _ H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n ce _______________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________ 20 19 2. 38 2 . 39 _ _ _ _ _ - “ - - - M a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m --------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________ __ ______ ______________ 67 67 2 . 96 2 . 96 _ . - _ _ M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n ce _______________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________ 98 94 2 .9 1 2 .9 1 _ _ M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n ce ) _____________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________ N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ____________________________________ P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 _________________ ______ ___________ 60 33 27 27 2. 2. 2. 2. _ _ - - M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce ________________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________ 127 125 2. 70 2. 70 M illw r ig h t s _____________ __________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________ 10 2 10 2 2 . 68 2 . 68 O il e r s __ ______________________________________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________ 37 37 2 .4 1 2 .4 1 P ip e f it t e r s , m a in te n a n ce _______________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________ ____________________________ 59 59 2 .6 9 2 .6 9 T o o l and die m a k e r s ______________________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________________ 178 178 2 .9 9 2. 99 - " _ _ _ _ " - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - - 5 5 - - 9 9 - - 35 35 2 . 4 4 . _ _ - - - - 5 2 3 3 - - _ _ . - - 2 2 1 1 2 2 43 43 3 3 21 21 _ _ - - 9 9 2 2 6 6 4 4 8 8 - - 4 4 _ _ _ - 1 1 - - - _ _ 8 8 16 16 - _ 11 11 11 11 _ _ _ - 13 13 . " - - _ _ 2 2 1 1 7 7 80 80 15 15 17 17 10 10 31 31 15 15 _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - _ _ _ - - 1 1 - 2 2 _ and late shifts. _ 30 30 - " _ _ _ _ - _ 11 11 - - _ _ - - - _ 12 12 " - _ 19 19 14 14 - _ 1 1 65 65 _ - - _ - _ 5 3 " _ _ _ _ " " _ - _ - 26 26 - _ _ - " _ 17 17 - _ - - 5 _ 16 16 - holidays, 2 . 80 $ - 2. 32 TT41 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities. 2. 70 7 7 _ _ 2. 70 $ 1 1 _ _ 2 . 60 9 9 2. 74 2. 74 - $ - 129 128 2 .4 0 $ 2 2 E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n ce _____________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________ 69 65 75 75 2. 30 " $ 2 .6 9 2 .6 9 - 2. 30 $ 3 3 26 26 - 2 . 20 4 4 C a r p e n t e r s , m a in te n a n ce _______________ ________ M a n u fa ctu rin g ___________________________________________ F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o il e r _____________________________ 50 M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________ ------47— $ _ _ - - _ _ - - _ _ _ 7 Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations (A ve ra g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , M u s k eg on —M u s k e g o n H e ig h ts, M i c h . , M a y 1961) NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s t r y d iv is io n G u a r d s _____ ___________________ _________________ M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s (m e n ) ________ M a n u fa ctu r in g __________ __________________ _ N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------------P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 4 ........... .......... _ Number of workers 90 90 223 187 36 16 Average hourly 2 earnings $ 2 . 30 2. 30 2. 2. 1. 2. 13 18 82 20 U n der $ 1. 30 $ 1. 30 and und er 1. 40 - _ - L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ____________________ M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------- 285 269 2. 17 2. 17 _ _ _ - O r d e r f i l l e r s _____ ___________________ __________ M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________ _____________________ 40 31 2 . 37 2. 25 _ _ " P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g _____________ __ ______________ M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------- 196 191 2. 29 2. 27 _ R e c e iv in g c l e r k s ____ ____________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g _ ________________________________ 40 39 2 .2 8 2 .2 9 S hipping c l e r k s ------------------------------------ ---------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ________________________________ _ 22 22 2 .5 1 2. 51 T r u c k d r iv e r s 6 ___ ______________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g _ ____________ _________________ 60 48 2 .4 6 2 .4 3 T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m (I V 2 to and in clu d in g 4 t o n s ) -------------------------------------------- 15 2 .4 6 T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k l if t ) _______________________ M a n u fa c t u r in g _____________________________ ___ 172 166 2 .2 8 2 .2 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 _________________ 22 2. 04 1 1 - , 1 .6 0 1 .7 0 “ 13 3 10 1 $ 1. 70 $ 1. 80 $ 1. 90 3 2 1 1 1. 80 3 3 - 1. 90 2. 00 $ 2. 00 $ 2. 10 2 .2 0 27 " 24 23 1 1 8 2. 10 $ 2 .2 0 2 . 30 22 22 27 19 17 2 2 12 6 6 " 17 17 _ _ - - - 26 26 - 1 1 " 2 2 - 10 10 " 25 24 1 _ _ _ " - - 3 2 27 25 58 58 1 “ 6 5 - $ 2. 30 2 .4 0 $ 2. 40 2. 50 1 1 - $ 2 .5 0 2 .6 0 $ 2. 60 2 .7 0 $ 2 .7 0 2 . 80 $ 2. 80 $ 2 . 90 2 . 90 3. 00 " 32 32 - - 17 17 - . - _ - _ - _ - - - - - - - - - " - _ - _ - _ - " " " _ _ _ " - 9 - _ _ - " 2 2 5 - _ _ _ - - - 75 72 3 3 8 8 8 3 3 " 2 1 1 _ - 143 132 11 11 27 27 9 9 _ " 7 7 1 1 5 5 8 8 . 97 97 2 2 _ 2 2 8 8 5 5 3 3 - 10 2 8 " 2 2 - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ " " - - " - 2 2 16 16 _ _ _ _ _ _ - 3 3 79 79 _ “ _ _ . . _ " - 18 18 - 2 2 - 1 1 _ _ _ . _ _ _ " - - - " - - - 4 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 4 4 6 6 2 2 2 2 _ _ . _ _ . _ “ 10 9 6 5 13 13 3 3 6 3 1 1 9 9 6 - 4 4 4 " _ _ - _ - 1 - - _ - " - _ - - - _ 1 - - - 3 1 2 1 3 - - - 6 6 - 53 47 7 7 22 22 1 1 74 74 5 5 - - 4 4 " 25 25 24 24 _ _ _ _ _ - 3 3 _ . “ " - - - _ _ 3 . 5 _ . . _ _ _ _ - _ " _ 1 " ~ _ - - 1 1 1 “ - - - 4 . D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e re o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d . E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s : 3 at $ 0 . 7 0 to $ 0 . 8 0 ; 1 at $ 0 . 9 0 to $ 1 . T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s . A ll w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 1. 10 to $ 1. 2 0. I n c lu d e s a ll d r i v e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e and type o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d . $ " _ - ____________ - - 58 1 7 W a tch m en __ _____ 1. 50 1. 50 1 1 1. 82 1. 95 1 .4 6 2 .2 7 2 .2 7 $ 1. 60 4 34 - 63 46 17 67 67 1. 40 8 - J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ( w o m e n ) ______ M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________ T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o th e r than f o r k l i f t ) __________ M a n u fa c t u r in g ____ _______________________ ___ $ s h ift s . 3 3 15 15 _ _ 2 1 9 A p p e n d ix O c c u p a tio n a l Descriptions The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers. O F F IC E BILLER, MACHINE BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s: Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions. Biller, machine (hilling machine)— Uses a special billing ma chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of the bill being prepared and is often done oh a fanfold machine. Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’ bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in volves vthe simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book keeping. Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and credit slip s. Class A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand. Class B— Keeps a record o f one or more phases or section s of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation o f trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department. CLERK, ACCOUNTING Class A— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts 10 CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting clerks. Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by general ledgers, or posting simple co st accounting data. This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers. CLERK, PAYROLL Computes wages of company employees and enters the n e ce s sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers' earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine. COMPTOMETER OPERATOR Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance of other duties. CLERK, FILE Class A — In an established filing system containing a num ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ss ifie s and indexes corres pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep records of various types in conjunction with files or may super vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per form incidental clerical duties. Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that has already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or loca tes or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental clerica l duties. CLERK, ORDER R eceives custom ers'orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled . May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship ping invoices with original orders. DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO) Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi bilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material. KEYPUNCH OPERATOR Under general supervision and with io supervisory respon si b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify own work or work of others. OFFICE BOY OR GIRL Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work. 11 SECRETARY Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, apd writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or memorandums for information of superior. STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons, either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or der, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work (see transcribing-machine operator). STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work. SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard. Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office ca lls . May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist. SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's time while at switchboard. TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR Class A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports. Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of a group of tabulating-machine operators. Class B— Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report. Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where the procedures are well established. May a lso include the training of new employees in the basic operation of the machine. Class C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc., with sp e cific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re petitive operations. TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general. 12 TYPIST TYPIST— -Continued Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat ing processes. May do clerica l work involving little specia l training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming mail. Class A — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma terial in final form when it involves combining material from several sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc- tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters varying details to suit circum stances. Class B— Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s, etc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com plex tables already set up and spaced properly. PR O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR (Assistant draftsman) Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction of a draftsman. DRAFTSMAN, LEADER Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad ministrative nature. DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued involved in strength o f materials, beams and trusses; verifying com pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities; writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting. NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel. DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR TRACER Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to sca le by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. Uses T-square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare simple draw ings and do simple lettering. 13 MAINTENANCE D PO W E R PL A N T CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment. ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. ENGINEER, STATIONARY Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera tion, or air conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded . HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis. MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification . MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma ch in ist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and 14 MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued MILLWRIGHT— Continued operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selectin g standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE) Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines. MILLWRIGHT Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout OILER Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment. PAINTER, MAINTENANCE Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other written specification s; cutting various size s of pipe to correct lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures, flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet sp ecification s. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating systems are excluded . 15 TOOL AND DIE MAKER PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order. Work involves: Knowledge ef sanitary cades regarding installation of rents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures; opening clogged drains with a pleager or plumber's snake. In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or cquivalent mining and experience. SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, she Ires, lockers, tanks, Tentilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves siost o f the following: Planning and lay ing out all types of sheet-metal maintea anee work from blueprints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using s variety of haadtools in cutting, heading, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal attic lea as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sbeet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. (Die maker; jig maker; tool m a k e r; fixture maker; gauge maker) Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s; using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion . C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued Transports passengers between floors of an office building, apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment. Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as those of starters and janitors, are excluded. or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte* nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded. GUARD Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f em ployees and other persons entering . JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER (Sweeper; charwoman; janitress) Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or premises of an o ffice , apartment house, or commercial LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING (Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper) A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or 16 LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded . ORDER FILLER (Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman) F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers* orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties. SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s: Receiving clerk Shipping clerk Shipping and receiving clerk TRUCKDRIVER Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab lishments such as: Manufacturing, plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are excluded . PACKER, SHIPPING Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded . SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de partments; maintaining necessary records and file s. For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the basis o f trailer capacity.) Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately) Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons) Truckdriver, medium (iy2 to and including 4 tons) Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type) Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type) TRUCKER, POWER Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment. For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of truck, as follow s: Trucker, power (forklift) Trucker, power (other than forklift) WATCHMAN Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft, and illegal entry. ☆ U .S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 6 1 O — 601142