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Occupational Wage Survey

MIAMI, FLORIDA
DECEMBER 1959

Bui




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Ja m e s P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissionar




Occupational Wage Survey




MIAMI, FLORIDA
DECEMBER 1959

B u lle t i n N o . 1 2 6 5 - 6
February 1960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Ja m e s P. Mitchell, Secretary
BU
REAU OF LABOR S A IST S
T T IC
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

Fo r sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U .S . Government Printing O ffic e , W ashington 2 5 , D.C .

Price 2 0 cents




Contents

Preface

Page

The

C o m m u n ity

W age

S u rve y

P ro g ra m

T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s r e g u la r ly c o n d u c ts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f im p o r t a n t in d u s t r ia l
c e n te rs .
T h e s t u d ie s , m a d e f r o m la t e f a ll to e a r ly s p r in g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s a n d r e la t e d s u p p le m e n t a r y
b e n e fit s .
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f th e s tu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in th e m o n th f o llo w in g
th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d . T h i s b u l l e t i n p r o v id e s a d d it io n a l
d a ta n o t in c lu d e d in th e e a r li e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a t e d
a n a ly t ic a l b u lle t in s u m m a r iz in g th e r e s u l t s o f a l l o f th e
y e a r 's s u r v e y s is is s u e d a f t e r c o m p le t io n o f th e f in a l a r e a
b u lle t in f o r th e c u r r e n t r o u n d o f s u r v e y s .

T h i s r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in th e B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l
o f f ic e in A t l a n t a , G a . , b y D o n a ld C r u s e , u n d e r th e d i r e c ­
t io n o f L o u is B . W o y t y c h , R e g io n a l W a g e a n d I n d u s t r ia l
R e la t io n s A n a ly s t .




1

In t r o d u c tio n

T a b le s :

1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w i t h i n s c o p e o f s u r v e y _____________

2

A :

O c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s :*
A - 1 . O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s ________________________________________________
A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s ____________________
A - 3 . M a i n t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s __________________
A-4.
C u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ___________

4
6
7
8

E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s a n d s u p p le m e n t a ry w a g e
p r o v is io n s :*
B -l.
S h i f t d i f f e r e n t i a l s _________________________________________________
B - 2 . M i n i m u m e n t r a n c e r a t e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s ______
B-3.
S c h e d u le d w e e k l y h o u r s
______________________________________
B - 4 . P a i d h o l i d a y s ______________________________________________________
B-5.
P a i d v a c a t i o n s ____________________________________________________
B-6.
H e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s i o n p l a n s _______________________

10
10
H
12
13
15

B:

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a t io n a l d e s c r ip t io n s

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* N O TE:
S im ila r t a b u la t io n s f o r th e s e a n d o th e r it e m s a r e
a v a ila b le in th e r e p o r t s f o r s u r v e y s in o th e r m a jo r a r e a s .
A d i r e c t o r y in d ic a t in g d a te o f s tu d y a n d th e p r ic e o f th e
r e p o r t s is a v a ila b le u p o n r e q u e s t .

U n io n s c a le s , in d ic a t iv e o f p r e v a ilin g p a y le v e l s ,
a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r s e v e n s e le c t e d b u ild in g t r a d e s i n th e
M ia m i a r e a .

m

17




Occupational Wage Survey—Miami, Fla.
Introduction
T h is a r e a i s o n e o f s e v e r a l im p o r t a n t i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s in
w h ic h th e U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ' s B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s h a s
c o n d u c te d s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s an d r e la t e d w a g e b e n e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s i s .
In t h is a r e a , d a t a w e r e o b t a in e d b y p e r s o n a l
v i s i t s o f B u r e a u f ie ld e c o n o m is t s to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s t a b lis h m e n t s
w ith in s i x b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s :
M a n u fa c tu r in g ; t r a n s p o r t a t io n ,1
c o m m u n ic a tio n ,
a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ;
w h o le sa le t r a d e ;
r e ta il
t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u s t r y g r o u p s e x c lu d e d fr o m th e se s t u d ie s a r e g o v e rn m e n t o p e r a tio n s
a n d th e c o n s t r u c t io n a n d e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s . E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g
fe w e r th a n a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d a l s o b e c a u s e
th e y f u r n is h i n s u f f ic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t io n s s t u d ie d to w a r ­
r a n t in c lu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib l e , s e p a r a t e ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f th e b r o a d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c t e d o n a s a m p l e b a s i s b e c a u s e o f th e
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
T o o b ta in
a p p r o p r ia t e a c c u r a c y a t m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e
th a n o f s m a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s i s s t u d ie d .
In c o m b in in g th e d a t a , h o w ­
e v e r , a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e g iv e n th e ir a p p r o p r ia t e w e ig h t. E s t i m a t e s
b a s e d o n th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d ie d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e , a s r e ­
la t in g to a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in th e in d u s t r y g r o u p in g a n d a r e a , e x ­
c e p t f o r t h o s e b e lo w th e m in im u m s i z e s t u d ie d .

O c c u p a tio n s

an d E a r n in g s

T h e o c c u p a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r i e t y
o f m a n u fa c tu r in g a n d n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r i e s . O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s ­
s i f i c a t i o n i s b a s e d o n a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s ig n e d to
ta k e a c c o u n t o f i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n in d u t ie s w ith in th e s a m e
jo b . (S e e a p p e n d ix f o r lis t in g o f th e se d e s c r ip t i o n s .) E a r n in g s d a ta a r e
p r e s e n t e d (in th e A - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) f o r th e f o l lo w in g t y p e s o f o c c u p a ­
t i o n s : ( a ) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (b ) p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l ; ( c ) m a i n t e ­
n a n c e a n d p o w e r p la n t ; a n d (d ) c u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t a n d e a r n in g s d a ta a r e
sh o w n fo r
f u ll- t im e w o r k e r s , i . e . , th o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u l a r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in th e g iv e n o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
E a r n in g s d a ta e x c lu d e
p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e an d fo r w o rk o n w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , an d

1 R a i l r o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s ,
h a v e b e e n a d d e d in n e a r l y a l l o f th e a r e a s to b e s t u d ie d d u r in g th e
w in t e r o f 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 ; r a i l r o a d s w ill b e a d d e d in th e r e m a in in g a r e a s n e x t
y e a r . F o r s c o p e o f s u r v e y in t h is a r e a , s e e fo o tn o te to " t r a n s p o r t a ­
tio n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s " in t a b le 1 .




la te s h if t s .
N o n p r o d u c tio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d a l s o , b u t c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u s e s a n d in c e n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d .
W h e re w e e k ly
h o u rs a r e r e p o r te d , a s fo r o ffic e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to th e w o r k s c h e d u l e s ( r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a l f h o u r ) f o r w h ic h
s t r a ig h t - t im e s a l a r i e s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s fo r th e se
o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .

A v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f m en an d w om en a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a te ly
f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in w h ic h b o th s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D i f f e r e n c e s in p a y l e v e l s o f m e n a n d w o m e n in t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s a r e
l a r g e l y d u e to ( l ) d i f f e r e n c e s in th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e s e x e s a m o n g
i n d u s t r i e s a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; (2 ) d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c d u t i e s p e r ­
f o r m e d , a lt h o u g h th e o c c u p a t i o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y c l a s s i f i e d w ith in
th e s a m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r i p t i o n ; a n d (3 ) d i f f e r e n c e s in le n g t h o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w h en in d iv id u a l s a l a r i e s a r e a d ju s t e d o n th is b a s i s .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v i c e o f m e n w o u ld r e s u l t in h ig h e r a v e r a g e p a y
w h e n b o th s e x e s a r e
e m p lo y e d w ith in th e s a m e r a t e r a n g e .
Jo b
d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e m p lo y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a l l y m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d th a n t h o s e u s e d in i n d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s to
a llo w f o r m in o r d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in s p e c i f i p d u t ie s
p e rfo rm e d .

O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t th e t o t a l in a l l
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in th e s c o p e o f th e s t u d y a n d n o t th e n u m b e r a c t u ­
a lly s u r v e y e d .
B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , th e e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b t a in e d
f r o m th e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d s e r v e o n ly to i n d i c a t e th e
r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f th e j o b s s t u d i e d .
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d o n o t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t th e a c c u r a c y o f th e e a r n ­
in g s d a ta .

E sta b lish m e n t P r a c t ic e s

an d S u p p le m e n ta r y W age P r o v is io n s

I n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d a l s o ( in t h e B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) o n s e ­
le c t e d e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s a n d s u p p le m e n ta r y b e n e fits a s th e y r e ­
la t e to o f f ic e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s . T h e t e r m " o f f ic e w o r k e r s , " a s u s e d
in t h is b u lle t in ,
in c lu d e s w o r k in g
s u p e r v is o r s and n o n su p e rv iso ry
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r r e la t e d fu n c tio n s, an d e x c lu d e s a d m in ­
is t r a t iv e , e x e c u tiv e , an d p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. "P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
c lu d e w o r k in g f o r e m e n a n d a l l n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s (in c lu d in g l e a d m e n a n d t r a i n e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o ffic e fu n c t io n s .
A d m in is tr a tiv e ,
e x e c u tiv e , an d p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , an d fo r c e - a c c o u n t c o n str u c tio n
e m p lo y e e s w ho a r e u tiliz e d a s a s e p a r a t e w o rk fo r c e a r e e x c lu d e d .
C a f e t e r i a w o r k e r s a n d r o u t e m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in m a n u f a c t u r in g in d u s ­
t r i e s , b u t a r e in c lu d e d a s p la n t w o r k e r s in n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r ie s .

2

T a b le 1.

E s t a b li s h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y an d n u m b e r s tu d ie d in M ia m i, F l a . ,* by m a jo r in d u str y d iv is io n , 2 D e c e m b e r 1959
M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n ts in s c o p e
of stu d y

I n d u str y d iv isio n

W o rk e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s

N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s
W ithin
sco p e of
stu d y 3

W ithin s c o p e o f stu d y

S tu d ie d

S tu d ie d
T o ta l 4

O ffice

P la n t

T o ta l4

__

51

631

159

1 1 1 , 500

1 9 ,2 0 0

7 6 ,0 0 0

6 2 ,6 7 0

M a n u fa c tu r in g __________________________________________ ____
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __________ ________ ____________________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r
p u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5---------------------------------------------- ------W h o le sa le tr a d e __________________________________________
R e t a il tr a d e -------- --------------------------------------------------F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e and r e a l e s t a t e ___________________ _
S e r v i c e s 7 ------------------------------------------------------------------

51
51

181
450

47
112

2 2 ,9 0 0
8 8 ,6 0 0

2 ,2 0 0
1 7 ,0 0 0

1 7 ,5 0 0
5 8 ,5 0 0

9, 520
5 3 ,1 5 0

51
51
51
51
51

51
57
150
64
128

21
12
36
13
30

2 8 , 700
4 , 000
3 1 ,3 0 0
8, 000
1 6 ,6 0 0

1 6 ,9 0 0

2 5 ,0 8 0
900
1 7 ,9 7 0
2 ,4 7 0
6, 730

A ll d iv is i o n s ________________________ ___________________

5, 800
( *)
3, 100
( *)
(6 )

S )

2 4 ,8 0 0
( 6)
(6 )

1 T h e M ia m i M e tr o p o lita n A r e a (D ade C o u n ty ). The " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s show n in th is ta b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r ip t i o n o f the
s i z e and c o m p o sit io n o f the la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in the s u r v e y . T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n ot in ten d e d , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r is o n w ith o th e r a r e a e m p lo y m e n t
in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s in c e ( l ) p lan n in g o f w ag e s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u s e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t d a t a c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in a d v a n c e o f the p a y r o ll
p e r io d s tu d ie d , an d (2) s m a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1957 r e v i s e d e d itio n o f the S ta n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u al w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b lis h m e n t s by in d u str y d iv is io n . M a jo r c h a n g e s f r o m the e a r l i e r
e d itio n (u s e d in the B u r e a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w ag e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r io r to the w in ter o f 1 9 5 8 -5 9 ) a r e the t r a n s f e r of m ilk p a s t e u r iz a t io n p la n ts an d r e a d y - m ix e d c o n c r e t e
e s t a b lis h m e n t s fr o m t r a d e (w h o le sa le o r r e t a i l ) to m a n u fa c tu r in g , and the t r a n s f e r o f r a d io an d t e le v i s io n b r o a d c a s t in g fr o m s e r v i c e s to the t r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n ,
an d o th e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s d iv is i o n .
3 In c lu d e s a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith to ta l e m p lo y m e n t a t o r a b o v e the m in im u m - s iz e lim it a tio n . A ll o u t le t s (w ithin the a r e a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in su c h in d u s t r ie s a s t r a d e ,
fin a n c e , au to r e p a i r s e r v i c e s , an d m o t io n - p ic t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t .
4 I n c lu d e s e x e c u t iv e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and o th e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d fr o m the s e p a r a t e o ffic e and p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
5 R a i l r o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x i c a b s an d s e r v i c e s in c id e n ta l to w a te r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
6 T h is in d u str y d iv is io n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s fo r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " and "n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g " in the S e r i e s A an d B t a b l e s , a lth o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s in s u ffic ie n t to
j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n o f d a t a .
7 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o tio n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s ; and e n g in e e r in g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .




3
S h ift d if f e r e n t ia l d a t a ( ta b le B - l ) a r e lim it e d to m a n u f a c t u r in g
i n d u s t r i e s . T h is in fo r m a t io n i s p r e s e n t e d b o th in t e r m s o f (a ) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o lic y , 2 p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f t o t a l p la n t w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m e n t , a n d (b ) e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e , p r e s e n t e d o n th e b a s i s o f w o r k e r s
a c t u a l l y e m p lo y e d o n th e s p e c i f i e d s h i f t a t th e t im e o f th e s u r v e y .
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g v a r i e d d i f f e r e n t i a l s , th e a m o u n t a p p ly in g to
a m a j o r i t y w a s u s e d o r , i f n o a m o u n t a p p lie d to a m a j o r i t y , th e c l a s ­
s ific a tio n "o th e r " w as u se d .
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in w h ic h s o m e l a t e s h i f t h o u r s a r e p a i d a t n o r m a l r a t e s , a d i f f e r e n t i a l w a s r e c o r d e d o n ly
i f i t a p p l i e d to a m a j o r i t y o f th e s h i f t h o u r s .

M in im u m e n t r a n c e r a t e s ( t a b le B - 2 ) r e l a t e o n ly to th e e s t a b ­
lish m e n ts v is ite d .
T h ey a r e p r e se n te d on an e sta b lish m e n t, ra th e r
th a n o n a n e m p lo y m e n t b a s i s .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a tio n s ; an d
h e a lt h , in s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s io n p la n s a r e t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y o n th e
b a s i s t h a t t h e s e a r e a p p l i c a b l e to a l l p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s i f a m a ­
j o r i t y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a r e e l i g i b l e o r m a y e v e n t u a l l y q u a l i f y f o r th e
p r a c t i c e s l i s t e d . S c h e d u le d h o u r s a r e t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y o n th e b a s i s
th a t t h e s e a r e a p p li c a b l e to a l l p la n t o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s i f a m a j o r i t y
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i t e m s in t h e s e
ta b u la tio n s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a l s .

T h e f i r s t p a r t o f th e p a i d h o l i d a y s t a b l e p r e s e n t s th e n u m ­
b e r o f w h o le a n d h a l f h o lid a y s a c t u a l l y p r o v id e d .
The seco n d p a rt
c o m b in e s w h o le a n d h a l f h o lid a y s to sh o w t o t a l h o lid a y t i m e .

D a ta a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , a n d p e n sio n
p l a n s f o r w h ic h a t l e a s t a p a r t o f th e c o s t i s b o r n e b y th e e m p l o y e r ,
e x c e p t i n g o n ly l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s s u c h a s w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a t io n
a n d s o c i a l s e c u r i t y . S u c h p la n s in c lu d e t h o s e u n d e r w r it t e n b y a c o m ­
m e r c i a l i n s u r a n c e c o m p a n y a n d t h o s e p r o v id e d th r o u g h a u n io n fu n d o r
p a id d i r e c t l y b y th e e m p lo y e r o u t o f c u r r e n t o p e r a t in g fu n d s o r f r o m
a fu n d s e t a s i d e f o r t h is p u r p o s e .
D e a th b e n e fits a r e in c lu d e d a s a
fo r m o f life in su r a n c e .
S i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e i s l i m i t e d to th a t ty p e o f in ­
s u r a n c e u n d e r w h ic h p r e d e t e r m i n e d c a s h p a y m e n t s a r e m a d e d i r e c t l y
to th e in s u r e d o n a w e e k ly o r m o n th ly b a s i s d u r in g i l l n e s s o r a c c i d e n t
d isa b ility .
I n f o r m a t io n i s p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l s u c h p la n s to w h ic h th e
e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u te s .
H o w e v e r , in N e w Y o r k a n d N e w J e r s e y , w h ic h
h a v e e n a c t e d t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y in s u r a n c e la w s w h ic h r e q u ir e e m ­
p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , 4 p l a n s a r e in c l u d e d o n ly i f th e e m p l o y e r (1 ) c o n ­
t r i b u t e s m o r e th a n i s l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d , o r (2 ) p r o v i d e s th e e m p l o y e e
w ith b e n e f i t s w h ic h e x c e e d th e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f th e la w . T a b u l a t i o n s
o f p a i d s i c k - l e a v e p la n s a r e l i m i t e d to f o r m a l p l a n s 5 w h ic h p r o v id e
fu ll p a y o r a p r o p o r t io n o f th e w o r k e r 's p a y d u r in g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k
b e c au se o f illn e ss.
S e p a r a t e t a b u l a t i o n s a r e p r o v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to
( l ) p l a n s w h ic h p r o v i d e f u l l p a y a n d n o w a it in g p e r i o d , a n d (2 ) p la n s
p r o v id in g e it h e r p a r t ia l p a y o r a w a itin g p e r io d .
In a d d i t i o n to th e
p r e s e n t a t io n o f th e p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s w h o a r e p r o v id e d s i c k n e s s
an d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r p a id s ic k le a v e , a n u n d u p lic a te d to ta l i s
sh o w n o f w o r k e r s w ho r e c e iv e e ith e r o r b o th ty p e s o f b e n e fits .

T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a t io n p la n s i s lim it e d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n t s , e x c l u d i n g i n f o r m a l p l a n s w h e r e b y t i m e o f f w ith p a y i s g r a n t e d
a t th e d i s c r e t i o n o f th e e m p l o y e r .
S e p a r a t e e s t im a t e s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t i c e in c o m p u tin g v a c a t io n p a y m e n t s , s u c h
a s tim e p a y m e n t s , p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n in g s , o r f l a t - s u m a m o u n ts .
H o w e v e r , in th e t a b u la t io n s o f v a c a t io n a llo w a n c e s , p a y m e n t s n o t o n
a tim e b a s i s w e r e c o n v e r te d ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s th e e q u iv a le n t o f 1 w e e k 1s p a y .

C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e , s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d to a s e x t e n d e d
m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e , i n c l u d e s t h o s e p l a n s w h ic h a r e d e s i g n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s i c k n e s s a n d in ju r y in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s b e y o n d
th e n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , m e d i c a l , a n d s u r g i c a l p l a n s .
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e r e f e r s to p la n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le t e o r p a r t i a l
p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s ' f e e s . S u c h p la n s m a y b e u n d e r w r itte n b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a t io n s o r th e y m a y b e
s e lf- in su r e d .
T a b u la t io n s o f r e t i r e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim it e d to
t h o s e p l a n s t h a t p r o v i d e m o n t h ly p a y m e n t s f o r th e r e m a i n d e r o f th e
w o r k e r 's lif e .

2 A n e s t a b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a p o lic y i f it m e t
e it h e r o f th e fo llo w in g c o n d it io n s : ( l ) O p e r a t e d la t e s h i f t s a t th e t im e
o f th e s u r v e y , o r (2 ) h a d f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r in g la t e s h i f t s .
3 S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s ( f i r s t s e c t io n o f
t a b le B - 3 ) in s u r v e y s m a d e p r i o r to l a t e 1 9 5 7 a n d e a r l y 1 9 5 8 w e r e
p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s e m ­
p lo y e d in o f f i c e s w ith th e i n d i c a t e d w e e k l y h o u r s f o r w o m e n w o r k e r s .

4 T h e t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y la w s in C a l i f o r n i a a n d R h o d e I s la n d
do n o t r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n s.
5 A n e s t a b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a f o r m a l p la n if
i t e s t a b l i s h e d a t l e a s t th e m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s o f s i c k l e a v e th a t
c o u ld b e e x p e c te d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . S u c h a p la n n e e d n o t b e w r itte n ,
b u t in fo r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e t e r m in e d o n a n in d iv id u a l b a s i s ,
w e r e e x c lu d e d .




A*

4

O c c u p a t io n a l E a r n in g s

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earn in gs fo r sele cted occupations studied on an a r e a b a s is
by in du stry division , M iam i, F l a . , D ecem ber 1959)

Sex, occupation, and in du stry division

Number
of

Average
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
W
eekly
W
eekly 35. 00 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 l o . 00 i s . 0 0 90 . 00 $
95. 00 1 0 0 . 00 105. 00 1 1 0 . 00 1
$15. 00 ? 2 0 . 0 0
*
hours 1 earnings 1
and
“
(Standard) (Standard) under
~
”
"
~
“
“
“
~
~
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55.0 0 60. 00_ _65.00 7P_1_00 _7.5._Q0 80. 0 0 _85. 00 9 0 . 0 0 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 00 105. 00 n o . 00 115. 00 1 2 0 . 0 0 over

Men
C le rk s, accounting, c l a s s A
---------- ---- ------ _
M an u factu rin g------------------------------------------------N on m an ufacturin g_________________________________
R etail t r a d e ____________________________________

297
57
240
43

38. 5
4 1 .0
3 8 .0
42. 5

$92.00
93. 50
95. 50

_
-

_
-

_
-

C le rk s, accounting, c l a s s B _________________________
M an u factu rin g____________________________________
N on m an ufacturin g_______________________ ________
Public u t ilit ie s 2 _____ ____________ _________

143
41

76. 50
6 8 . 50
79. 50
83. 50

_
-

_
-

65

4 0 .0
40. 0
40. 0
3 9.0

_
-

C le rk s, o r d e r __ ______________________________ ______
M an u factu rin g____________________________________

61
29

40. 5
4 0 .0 .

7 2 .00
8 0 .0 0

.
-

_
-

_
-

C le rk s, p a y r o ll_______________________
__ _________
N on m an ufactu rin g_________________________________

41
34

40. 0
40. 0

82. 0 0
80. 0 0

_
-

_
-

_
-

O ffice b o y s __________________________________________
M an u factu rin g____________________________________
N on m an ufactu rin g----- -----------------------------------Public u t ilit ie s 2 __ ___________________________

110

53. 00
51.50
54. 00
58. 50

_
-

6

33
77
39

40. 0
40. 0
3 9 .5
38. 5

3
3
"

36
15

Tabulating-m achine o p e ra to rs, c l a s s B ______________
N on m an ufactu rin g_______
_____________________

51
51

38. 0
38. 0

82. 00
82. 00

_

B il le r s , machine (billing machine)
_________________
N onm anufacturing_
_ ___________ ___ _________
P ublic u t ilit ie s 2 _______________________________
R etail t r a d e ------------- --------- --------------------

167
145
29

4 1 .5
41. 5
39. 0
42. 5

61.00

B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping machine) ______ ___
N on m an ufactu rin g_________________________________

99

88

4 3 .0
43. 5

Bookkeeping-m achine o p e ra to rs, c l a s s A ____________
M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing _______________________________

169
35
134

Bookkeeping-m achine o p e ra to rs, c l a s s B ___________
N on m an ufactu rin g___________ __ _ __________ __
R etail t r a d e __________ ~
— ____ — _____

102

86.00

2
2

_
-

5
5
-

7
4
3
_

13
9
4
_

16

-

-

2

-

1

8

----- 8
-

20

9

11

19
2

17

1

1

17

35
15

31
9

22
6

45
45

13
13
13

14
4

8

45
5
40
-

10
2
8

13
13
13

1

8

4

1
1

4
4 -

_
_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_

_

.

_

.

.

_

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_

_
-

4
_
-

_
-

3
3

1
1

2
2

_
_
~

_
_
*

_
_
*

_
_

_
"
_
-

_
_
-

_
"

_
_
-

_
_
*

.
-

.
-

_
-

_
_
-

3
13
5

11

14

10
1

7
-

4
4

5
5

14
7

17
8

4
----- 4

5
----- 5—

4
3

!
-

2
2

12
12

7
7

5
5

_
-

_
-

2
2

-

7
7
7

_
-

_
-

_
-

6
6

1
1

11
11

13
13

-

1

_
-

9
9
9

-

12
12

10
8

_
-

4
4

13
13

_
-

1
1

9
9

10
10
10

20

26
2
24

2

15

20

3
3
2

10
8
2
2

11

15

38
5
33
4

_

_
“

_
■

6
6

_
“

8
8

_
~

_
-

_
-

8
8

24
22
8

30
25
-

30
27
-

14

48
37
3
25

17
17
5

1

12

10

69.00
69.00

_
-

1

7
7

1
1

7
3

35
35

16

-

6
6

12

4 1 .0
4 0 .0
4 1 .0

6 6 . 50
67. 50
65. 00

_
-

-

4
4

16
16

19
19

33

23
7
16

14

23

41
14
27

386
352
56

40. 0
40. 0
42. 5

58. 00
57. 50
70. 00

_
"

64
64
“

29
29

63
62
7

53
45

61
59

30
25

6

2

60
55
3

16

8

C le rk s, accounting, c l a s s A ____ ____ _
_
______
336
M an u factu rin g------- -------------- --------------------- ---- 55
Nonm anufacturing __ ____
__ ___________________
270
Public u t ilit ie s 2 _____
__ ________ _________
120
72
R etail t r a d e _____
_________________________

4 0 .0
40. 0
40. 0
38. 0
42. 5

78. 50

_
-

2

6

12

26
8
18
1
8

22

43
7
36
16
9

1 00

78. 50
8 6 .5 0
6 8 .0 0

_
-

C le rk s, accounting, c l a s s B _________________________
M an u factu rin g____________________________________
N on m an ufactu rin g_________________________________
Public u t ilit ie s 2 ------- --- __ __ — __ _____
R etail t r a d e --------- --- — --- --------- ----

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
38. 0
40. 5

63. 50
6 3 .0 0
63. 50
68. 00
62. 00

87

44
3

31

41
13
16

26
7
9

-

11
11

10
6

14
_
14
5

9
9
_
-

7
4
3
-

-

21

44
----- 5
38
3

“

5
-

39

6

2

_

37

6

Women

See footnotes at end of table,




66

779
98
681
242
237

6 1 .5 0
66.00

59. 50

79.00

4

44

-

1
43
39

4
4

4
4

2
-

2
48
-

48
14

22

6
6

12
12

154
8
146
46
43

70
12
58
16
21

16

2

148
42
106
42
26

-----5
16
14
73
18

55

15
6

i>

81
56

11

2
12

3
~
15
85
36
11

8

8
12
3
3

5

22
"

16
2
14
14

5

_
_
-

_
.

1

-

_
-

1
1

_
-

36
15
21
12
1

21

3
2
1
1

6

12

1

3
3
3

12
12
"

1
1

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
3

4

21
17

2

57
1
56
16
40

-

"
_
-

5

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e weekly hou rs and earn in gs for sele cted occupations studied on an a r e a b a sis
by industry division , M iam i, F la . , D ecem ber 1959)

Sex, occupation, and in dustry division

Number
of
workers

Avebaqb
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
W
eekly,
W
eekly j 35. 00 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 5 5 .0 0 60. 00 65. 00 7 0 .0 0 7 5.00 80. 00 8 5.00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 no. o 115.00 120. 00
o
hours
earnings
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
"
■
“
“
“
“
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 _55.00^ 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 9 0 ,0 0 ^ 5 , 0 0 100.00 105.00 no. o 115.00 120.00 over
o

Women— Continued
C le rk s, file , c l a s s A _ --------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing -------------------------------------------

98
81

C le rk s, file , c la s s B _ _____________ _______________
Nonm anufacturing _ ------------------------------------Public u tilitie s 2 ------------------------------------R etail trad e -----------------------------------------------

297
286
32
42

40. 0
40. 0
37. 5
4 1 .5

50. 00
4 9 .5 0
5 3 .5 0
4 8 .5 0

C le rk s, o rd er ___________ __________ _______________
N on m an ufactu rin g________________________________
R etail t r a d e ------------------ ---------------------------

105
82
48

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

C le rk s, p a y r o ll____________ _________ ____________
M an u factu rin g------- ---------- ---------------------------Nonm anufacturing
-------------- -----------------------Public u tilities 2 --------------------------------------R etail trad e ____________ ___________________

234
76
158
69
33

C om ptom eter o p e ra to rs _____________________________
M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing -----------------------------------------R etail trad e - -------------------------------------------

234
36
198
148

D uplicating-m achine o p e rato rs
(M im eograph or Ditto) -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------

83
67

Keypunch o p e rato rs --------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing _ --------------------------------------Public u tilities 2 ----------------------------------------R etail trad e - -------------------------------------------

208
199
130
27

O ffice g ir ls _ ---------------------------------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g-------------------------------------------

64
46

12
11

20
20

17
10

23
14

11
11

10
10

-

66
66
4
12

75
75
13
10

83
81
5
10

48
39
_
10

9
9
5
-

13
13
5
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

64. 50
6 4 .5 0
6 3 .0 0

3
3
_
_
-

7
7
7

12
12
12

18
18
4

10
4
2

10
5
5

11
2
-

3
_
-

40. 5
40. 0
41. 0
39.5
41. 0

7 1 .0 0
68. 00
7 2 .5 0
7 7 .0 0
68. 00

_
-

_
-

3
3
2
1

15
3
12
6
5

20
7
13
6
1

25
16
9
1
2

47
21
26
2
12

40.
40.
40.
40.

0
0
0
0

59. 50
58.5 0
59. 50
56. 50

.
-

1
1
1

12
1
11
11

59
59
52

73
16
57
50

48
19
29
24

40. 0
39.5

5 5 .5 0
5 5 .5 0

-

12
12

13
11

14
14

11
3

38.
38.
37.
40.

0
0
0
5

67. 00
6 7 .5 0
73. 00
54. 50

_
_
-

2
2
_
1

14
12
1
2

15
13
3
10

39. 5
39.5

48. 50
48. 50

_
_
_

19
10

16
16

_
_

_
_
_
_

"

21
21
4

S e c re ta rie s _ _______________________________________
M anufacturing ----------------- --------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g----------------- --------------------------Public u tilities 2 ---------------------------------------R etail trad e ---------------------------------------------

1, 169
148
1,021
267
148

40.
40.
40.
38.
40.

0
0
0
0
0

76. 50
7 4 .5 0
76. 50
8 2 .5 0
75. 00

Sten ograp h ers, gen eral --------- ---------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g-------------------------------------------P ublic u tilities 2 ----------------------------------------R etail trad e -------- ------------------------------------

544
40
504
218
37

39.
40.
39.
38.
40.

0
0
0
0
5

6 6 .5 0
60. 50
6 7 .0 0
75. 00
63. 50

Sten ograp h ers, tech n ical -------------------------------------

31

40. 0

8 2 .5 0

Switchboard o p erato rs ----------------------------------------M anufacturing ---- ------- ------------------ -----------N on m an ufactu rin g------------------------------------------Public u t ilit ie s 2 ----------------------------------------R etail trad e ----------------------------------------------

574
30
544
69
70

4 3 .5
40. 0
44. 0
39. 0
41. 0

55.
56.
55.
72.
54.

See footnotes at end of table,




.

1
1

40. 0 $59. 50
60. 00
40. 0

00
50
00
00
50

-

-

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

2
2
-

17
17
10

13
13
6

_
-

2
2
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

28
13
15
8
2

32
5
27
1
4

26
4
22
18
-

33
5
28
23
5

1
1
1
-

1
_
1
_
1

1
1
_
-

_
_
_
-

1
_
1
1
-

1
1
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

9
9
2

8
8
-

5
5
-

7
7
-

4
4
-

8
8
8

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
_
-

15
9

9
9

9
9

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

23
22
_
9

36
34
19
3

24
22
18
2

13
13
13
-

4
4
4
-

1
1

_
-

_
“

_
_
_
-

.
_
-

16
8

36
36
35
_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_

_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

12
11

41
41
37
_

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_

2
1
1
_
1

21
3
18
_
6

58
12
46
1
10

127
12
115
21
10

175
12
163
31
31

167
29
138
25
36

169
30
139
36
9

165
20
145
56
12

73
15
58
32
7

80
6
74
17
4

64
3
61
19
1

20
20
3
11

10
2
8
8
"

30
1
29
17
8

3
3
_

5
2
3
1
2

23
4
19
1

56
8
48
10
7

95
8
87
9
4

120
2
118
40
14

56
12
44
9
-

65
6
59
44
4

39
39
35
-

40
40
28
8

18
18
10
-

21
21
21
-

11
11
11
-

_
-

_
-

2

2

2

3

3

4

_
_

_
_

_
_

13
13
13

2
2
2
"

~

-

"

~

'

■

_

_

2

6

2

_

5

no

247
8
239

61
15
46
5
9

54
4
50
5
16

30
30
7
10

8
1
7
6
"

28
1
27
23

l
109
8
17

-

14

“

-

_
-

6

Table A -l. Office Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Miami, F la. , December 1959)
N ber
um
of
w
orkers

S ex, occupation, and in du stry division

Avbbaos
NUMBER OF W
ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME W
EEKLY EARNINGS O
F—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
W
eekly, W
eekly , 35.00 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105. 00 110. 00 115. 00 120. 00
hours 1 earnings 1 and
(Standard) (Standard) under
and
40. 00 45. 00

50.00

55. 00

60. 00 65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

85. 00

90. 00

28
14
14
6

6
6
_

1
1
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

_

_

95. 00 100.00 105. 00 110. 00 115. 00 120. 00 over

Women— Continued
Sw itchboard o p e rato r-re ce p tio n ists
M an u factu rin g______ ___ __ __ .
Nonm anufacturing — _ __ _ __ ---- _
----R etail trad e __ _______
_ ___________

194
72
122
59

.

4 1 .0 $58. 00
40. 0
60. 00
41. 5
57. 00
4 3 .0
56. 50

_
-

5
5
5

16
9
7
1

30
6
24
11

49
18
31
12

55
17
38
24

48

39. 0

58. 00

_

_

_

9

21

5

13

4
1
3
_

T y p ists, c la s s A - _ _ ----__ —
__ _
M an u factu rin g ____________________________________
Nonm anufacturing
— — __
------ ----- __ __
Public u t ilit ie s 2 _______ __ __ _ _ _ __ __ _

403
56
347
216

3 9.5
40. 0
39.5
39. 0

64.
60.
65.
69.

00
00
00
00

.
"

_
-

32
4
28
4

49
9
40
4

50
13
37
14

89
15
74
53

51
5
46
35

61
10
51
47

63
63
51

T y p ists, c la s s B ----------- -- _ __
___
M an u factu rin g_________________________________ —
Nonm anufacturing __ __ _ _ _ _ _
_ -------- --- _
R etail t r a d e ___ ____ _ __ __ — ----

481
94
387
67

40. 0
40. 0
4 0 .0
4 1 .0

50
54. 50
52. 50
51. 50

_
-

13
13

149
21
128
25

141
20
121
19

93
32
61
15

58
14
44
8

15
2
13

12
5
7

_
-

52.

.
_
_
-

.
_
_
-

_

_

.

.

_

1
_
1
1

3
_
3
3

_
-

_
_
-

_
_

-

-

-

_

_

_

.

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

.

-

_
-

T ran scrib in g-m ach in e o p e ra to rs, gen eral ______

-

.
_
_
-

_
-

4
4
4

_

_
_

_
_

.
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_

_
_

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e sala rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b a sis,
by industry division, Miami, F la. , December 1959)
NUMBER O W
F ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME W
EEKLY EARNINGS O
F—

Avbkaqx
Sex, occupation, and in dustry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

$

$

$

$

$

$

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140. 00
and
90. 00 J95.00_ 100. 00 105. 00 .110, 00 115. 00 120. 00 125.00 130. 00 135.00 140. 00 over

$

t

eekly . 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 • 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 9 0 .0 0
W
eekly, W
hours 1 earnings 4 and
(Standard) (Standard) under
60. 00

Men

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00 85. 00

D raftsm en , sen ior ------------------ ------ -----------M an u factu rin g-------- ------ — __ ------------------N on m an ufactu rin g--- ---- — _ ----------------- —

134
73
61

4 0 .0
40. 0
39.5

$
111. 50
110. 00
113. 00

-

"

■

-

"

1

1

6
6
-

17
9
8

26
14
12

10
5
5

12
12
■

12
12

18
15
3

29
12
17

1
1

■

1

D raftsm en , jun ior ----------------------------------------------M an u factu rin g------------------------------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g--------------------------------------------

107
78
29

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

82. 50
79. 00
92. 50

1
1

5
5
"

9
9
"

1
1

30
30
“

12
12
"

24
12
12

8
8

10
10
■

_
-

_
_

3
3

4
4

_
“

_
■

_
"

_
-

_
-

32
30
28

38. 0
3 8.0
38. 0

78. 50
80. 00
81. 00

_
-

3
1

4
4
3

4
4
4

9
9
9

2
2
2

5
5
5

2
2
2

3
3
3

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

Women
N u r s e s , in d u strial (re g iste re d ) __ _ — _ --- — —
Nonm anufacturing
— __
— — - - --- —
Public u t ilit ie s 2 _ __ — — — —
- -----

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e sala rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




7
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, Miami, F l a . , December 1959)
NUMBER OF W
ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS O
F—
Occupation and in du stry division

Number
of
workers

*1.30

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

$ ,
1. 60

$
1.70

$
1 .80

$
1 .9 0

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

1 .40

1 .50

1.60

1 .70

1 .80

1 .90

2 .0 0

2. 10

2. 20

-

Average
hourly . V 10 $1 . 20
earnings1 and
under
1 .2 0 1. 30

20
20

8
8

6
6

11
1

-

7
3

3
3

1
1

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

1 , 70

1 .8 0

$
2 .9 0

3 .0 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

-

4
4

4
4

2
2

3
3

9
9

37
37

$
$
$
2. 20 2. 30 2 .4 0
2. 30 _2^40

$3. 10 $ 20
3.
and
3. 20 over

C arp en ters, m a in ten a n c e ---------N on m an ufacturin g________________________

124
ITS

$ 2 .4 0
1 .4 S "

E le c tric ia n s, m aintenance -----------------------M an u factu rin g------- ----- ------- --------N on m an ufacturin g________________________
Public u t ilit ie s 2 ------------------------------

235
86
149
108

2. 51
2. 28
2. 64
2 .7 9

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

6
6
-

6
2
4
-

19
18
1
-

11
11
-

3
2
1
-

3
3
-

9
9
-

_
-

28
12
16
“

8
8
-

53
3
50
50

15
8
7
2

2
2
2

9
2
7
7

23
23
23

25
1
24
24

4
4

11
10
1
-

E n gin eers, station ary ------------------- ---- _
M an u factu rin g-------------------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g---------------------------------

184
55
129

2. 03
2. 35
1.89

_
-

_
-

3
3

15
15

24
24

26
26

_
-

12
5
7

19
8
11

4
4

3
3

50
33
17

2
2

8
8

_
-

4
2
2

1
1
-

'5
5

1
1

_
-

6
6
-

H elp ers, tra d e s, m aintenance ------------------M anufacturing -------------------------------- _
N on m an ufactu rin g----------— --Public u t ilit ie s 2 -------- -------------------

259
77
182
147

1.95
1.73
2. 04
2. 17

10 .
4
6
-

11
9
2

6
6
-

19
7
12
-

9
3
6
-

7
6
1
-

3
3
-

15
8
7
2

19
19
19

47
18
29
29

24
16
8
8

89
89
89

1
1
_
-

.
-

_
-

-

-

_
-

-

-

~

-

M ach in ists, m aintenance _______ __ ________
M an u factu rin g---------------Nonm anufacturing ----- __ ----— --Public u t ilit ie s 2 ------------------------------

323
130
193
187

2. 70
2 .4 2
2. 89
2.91

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

4
4
-

4
4
-

3
3
"

6
6
-

82
82
-

21
21
-

47
4
43
43

3
3
3

_
-

7
7
7

39
39
39

95
95
95

4
4
-

8
8
-

M echanics, autom otive (m aintenance) --------M an u factu rin g-- ------------- ---------------N on m an ufacturin g________ _______ _____
Public u t ilit ie s 2 _______________________
----- ----- ------- R etail t r a d e -----

503
73
430
243
86

2. 35
2. 03
2 .4 0
2. 57
1.96

_
-

4
-

11
7

17
10
7

-

-

4

5

36
12
24
18
6

22
7
15
9

34
6
28
3
11

44
4
40
1
39

20
12
8
1

18
1
17
16
1

137 13
124
94
-

5
1

4

4

12
12
6

38
38
38
"

1
1
1
-

42
42
10
-

13
13
13
-

49
49
49
-

_
-

-

M echanics, m a in ten a n c e--------------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------Nonmanufacturing __ ____________________

175
111
64

2. 23
2. 10
2. 44

_
_
-

_
_
-

l
l

4
4

6
6

1
1

31
30
1

15
9
6

18
12
6

6
5
1

5
5

3
3

4
4

2
2

_
-

_

1

8
8

-

_
-

-

-

_

1

_
-

-

-

6
-

_

-

_
_
-

26
26

3 15
15

7
7
_

7
5
2

1. 51
1 .45

3
3
_
-

5
4
1

32
26

14
14
_
-

19
14
5

O ile rs -------------------------------------------- —
M anufacturing _ ------ --__ __ __

_
-_

-

_
"

_
-

-

P a in te rs, m aintenance _________________ —
Nonmanufacturing __ —
----- -----

118
109

2. 13
2. 13

_
-

_
-

8
8

_
-

8
8

4
4

27

9
9

1
1

18
18

.
-

13

-

"

1
1

1
1

-

-

9
9

4

5

-

2

26

13
13

87
87

2 .4 6
2 .4 6

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

4
4

_

14
14

16
16

19
19

11
11

10
10

8
8

3
3

2
2

_

_

-

Tool and die m a k e rs ----M an u factu rin g----------

------------------------------- ------

-

4

-

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts,
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes 4 workers at $ 1 to $ 1. 10.




-

-

_

4

_
-

2

4

-

9
9

8

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, M iam i, Fla. , D ecem ber 1959)

NUMBER OF W
ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS O
F—
Occupation 1 and in dustry division

Number
of
workers

Average
$
$
hourly 2 Under 0 .7 0 0 .8 0
earnings $
and
under
0. 70
.9 0
. 80

E lev ato r o p e ra to rs, p a sse n g e r (m e n )________
Nonmanufacturing _____________ ________

82
82

$0.87
.8 7

E lev ato r o p e ra to rs, p a sse n g e r (women) _____
Nonm anufacturing ________________________

150
148

.8 2
.81

-

G uards - ------------------------------ --------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------

207
171

1.55
1 .60

Ja n ito r s, p o r te r s, and c le an e rs (men) _______
M anufacturing -___________________________
Nonmanufacturing -____ _________________
Public u t ilit ie s 3 - ----------------------------R etail trad e ------ ----------------------------

1,544
297
1, 247
261
309

Ja n ito r s, p o rte rs, and c le a n e rs (w om en )_____
Nonm anufacturing ------------- --------------Public u tilitie s 3 _______________________
R etail trade ------------------------------------

$
0. 90

$
1.00

$
1. 10

$
1. 20

$
1. 30

$ .40
1

$
1.50

$ ,
1. 60

$
1. 70

1. 00

1. 10

1. 20

1. 30

1. 40

1 .50

1.60

1.70

_1. 80_ 1.90

1. 80

$
$
1. 90 2. 00 1. 10
2. 00

2. 10 2. 20

8
8

56
56

10
10

-

"

8
8

~

"

-

-

-

72
72

56
56

8
8

11
11

1
1

2
-

_
-

_

_
-

.
-

-

_
-

_
-

_

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

7
3

16
14

31
10

36
30

3
3

44
43

5
5

16
14

7
7

14
14

28
28

1. 26
1. 38
1.23
1.77
1. 11

16
16
-

23
23
10

67
67
20
32

34
34
1
15

523
25
498
1
105

148
19
129
3
55

167
22
145
13
33

169
119
50
4
25

89
39
50
31
9

74
20
54
13
25

32
30
2
-

31
11
20
20
-

18
4
14
10
-

38
8
30
30
-

65
65
65
-

50
50
50
-

154
140
39
59

1. 14
1 .1 3
1 .68
.91

11
11
4

11
11
8

23
23
3
12

12
12
12

33
28
17

18
16
1
6

16
16
12
-

1
-

6
-

_
"

_
"

2
2
2
"

8
8
8

L a b o r e r s, m a te ria l handling ---------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing ________________________
Public u tilities 3 ------------------------------R etail trad e ______________ ____________

1.910
677
1,233
599
398

1.58
1.45
1.66
1.97
1. 36

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

139
88
51
34

123
46
77
38

157
60
97
27

222
62
160
142

234
120
114
68

230
167
63
62

192
6
186
165
21

63
20
43
41
2

O rder fille r s -------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing --------------------------------R etail trad e ------------------------------------

230
208
96

1.59
1.59
1.56

-

-

-

-

-

6
6
6

27
27
13

24
16
2

17
17
2

19
17
15

50
44
30

P a c k e r s, shipping -----------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing _____ __________________

105
32
73

1 .5 3
1 .6 4
1.48

-

1
1

18
17
1

R eceiving c le rk s ____________________________
M anufacturing ____________________________
Nonm anufacturing --- ----------- ------------R etail t r a d e _________ ____ — -----------

164
38
126
53

1.75
1.76
1.75
1.58

Shipping c le rk s ----------------------------------------M anufacturing -------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing --------------------------------R etail trade --------------------------------------

163
85
78
46

2.01
2. 15
1.86
1.59

Shipping and receivin g c le rk s ---------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ___________________________ _
Nonm anufacturing ---------------------------------

97
54
43

2 .0 4
2. 14
1.90

T ru c k d riv e rs 5 _______________________________
M anufacturing -------------------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g--------------- ----- ------R etail trad e ------------------------------------

2, 266
279
1,987
901

1. 93
1 .58
1. 98
1 .73

See footnotes at end of table,




_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
-

"

2

46
5
41

1
1

6
_
6
6

8
2
6
6

10
10
6

23
4
19
2

2
2
2

_

12

_

_
_
-

_
_

_

_

-

_

_

-

_
_
_
-

_

13
13
13
-

_
_
-

_

_

_
-

_

126
126
126
-

2
2
-

16
8
8
1

10
10
1

7
4
3
1

12
5
7
"

5
5
“

1

-

12
12

-

1
1
“

12
10
2
2

25
10
15
15

_

_

_

"

_
“

_
~

_
"

_
"

4
2
2

6
6

11
4
7

7
5
2

17
14
3

_
“

8
6
2
2

28
12
16
14

93
30
63
40

79
7
72
48

199
65
134
69

188
66
122
88

118
27
91
42

93
6
87
80

-

-

_
_
_
-

29
11
18
14

1
1

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

7

-

-

-

_

7

10
10

-

-

_

_
-

12
12

10

-

-

7
7

-

-

_

.
-

-

2
2
“

-

.
-

_

-

_

7
7
"

"

2. 70

-

17
14
-

_

2. 60

_

31
28
12

-

2. 50

-

32
32
16

_

2. 40

-

.
_
_
_
-

-

2. 30

$
2. 70
and

_

172
16
156
156
-

-

1. 60

-

96
64
32
30
2

-

1. 50

_

Ill
28
83
36
2

-

1 .4 0

-

-

-

1 . 30

_

_

-

-

$
2. 20

-

_

_

“

-

454
12
442
387

117
9
108
62

"

_

_

_
_
_
-

.
-

45
_
45
45
_
-

8
8
"

_
-

_

_

-

-

13
4
9
7

3
_
3
2

4
_
4
1

4
_
4
-

13
_
13

4
1
3
1

23
19
4
-

2
2
“

13
10
3
"

8
7
1

10
10

3
3

71

16
14
2
1

67
22
45
23

-

71
29

‘

-

-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
-

.

.

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_

.

.

_
_
-

_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

.
-

_
-

_

8
5
3
3

6
_
6
1

-

9
9
-

20
16
4
4

11
5
6
1

3
3
*

8
8

3
2
1

_
-

1
1

19
* 17
2

385
3
382
1

121

10

_

-

-

10
1

-

'
219

-

-

121
4

219
10

_

_

9
Table A-4. Custodial and Material, Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Miami, F la. , December 1959)
NUMBER OF W
ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS O
F—
Occupation 1 and in dustry division

T ru c k d riv e rs 5— Continued
T ru c k d riv e rs, light (under IV 2 tons) __ ----M an u factu rin g------------------- __ ------ __
N on m an ufactu rin g-------- ------ ------ __
R etail t r a d e ---------------- ---------------

Number
of
workers

264
4”
217
99

Average Under $0. 70 $0. 80 S0 .
* i . 0 0 9'0 1 . 1 0 *1 . 20 $ 1.30 $1.40 *1 .5 0 $1.60 *1 .7 0 $ 1. 80 $ 1. 90 $2. 00 *2 .1 0 $2. 20 *2. 30 $ 2. 40 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2. 60 $2. 70
hourly
and
earnings2 $
and
under
0 .7 0
1.20
. 80
.9 0 1. 00 1 . 1 0
1. 30 1 .40 1. 50 1. 60 1. 70 1. 80 1. 90 2 .0 0 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2 .4 0
2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 over

$1. 66
1. 58
1. 68
1- 56

T ru c k d riv e rs, m edium ( 1 V2 to
and including 4 to n s)-------- -------------M an u factu rin g-------------- ----- _ —
Nonm anufacturing --- _ — __ ----Public u tilities 3 _____________________
R etail t r a d e ____ ____ ____ ____

870
138
7 32
244
342

1.
1.
1.
2.
1.

T ru c k d riv e rs, heavy (over 4
ton s, t r a ile r ty p e )— — __ __ __ — ----M an u factu rin g___________________________
N on m an ufactu rin g------------------------------Public u t ilit ie s 3 ----— _ _ __
R etail t r a d e ----- __ __ ------ --------

518
66
452
203
154

2. 10
1. 78
2. 15
2. 41
1. 74

T ru c k e rs, power (fo rk lift)---------------------------M an u factu rin g ---------- --------------------- — -----N on m an ufactu rin g __________________ _____ _ —
R etail t r a d e _______________________________________

185

W atchm en _________ _ _______
_____ ____ 1
N on m an ufactu rin g__________________________

171
154

66

119
82

84
39
93
37
68

1 ., 54
1 .,42
1., 61
1 ., 53
1 ., 24

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

_

_

14
14
14

10
2
8
7

10
2
8
2

53
6
47
36

37
22
15

40
4
36
1

4
4
-

43
5
38
10

14
14
14

13
13
13

-

24
2
22
-

-

*

-

-

-

6
6
-

10
8
2
-

65
28
37
26

47
5
42
34

123
59
64
27

110
21
89
79

42
6
36
36

33
33
33

60
60
40

67
5
62
20

23
23
10
13

2
2
1
1

19
19
19

123
123
122
1

115
115
111
4

24
24
8

1
1
1

_
-

4
4

22

16

30
21
9

19
14
5

48
1
47

42
5
37

1
1

24
20
4

157

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

11

5

5

19
19

6

5—

3

-

-

3

37

10

10

4

6
6

10
8

4
4

-

-

11

22

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

7

12

6

7

5

47

9
6

_

22

22

22

34
12

17
9

43
9
34
30

5
5

22
22

8
8

13
13

23
20

5
75
5 -~ U ~

1

E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
W orkers w ere distributed as follows: 6 at $ 2 . 70 to $ 2 . 80; 3 at $ 2 . 80 to $ 2 . 90; 3 at $ 3 to $ 3. 10;
Includes a ll d rivers regard less of s iz e and type of truck operated.

5

D a ta li m it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d .

2
3
4
5




25
25
1
24

-

-

3
3

-

1 .2 3

2
2

2

5

at $ 3. 30 to $ 3. 40.

4

4

4

—

9

4

4

-

-

-

3

-

4

157
157
-

12
1
11

11
' 1
10

3

_

-

-

101
-

9

-

-

-

6
6
-

101
39
2

9
-

-

_

_

_

_

:

:

-

-

-

3
-

B :

10

E sta b lish m e n t

P r a c tic e s a n d

S u p p le m e n ta r y

W age

P r o v isio n s

Table B-1. Shift Differentials
(P ercen t of m anufacturing plant w orkers in establish m ents having fo rm al p rovision s for shift work, and in establishm ents
actu ally operating late shifts by type and amount of differen tial, M iami, F l a . , Decem ber 1959)
In establishm ents having form al
p rovision s 1 for—
Second shift
Third or other
work
shift work

Shift differen tial

In establishm ents actually
operating—
Third or other
Second shift
shift

Total ____________________________________________

63.6

32. 0

12. 6

3. 1

With shift pay differen tial

45. 3

23. 8

7. 2

1. 6

Uniform cents (per hour)
_______________ ______
4 r»n ts
5 cents --------------------------------------------6 cents ________ _ _______ __ _______ _____
_
7 cents
— ____________ ___ ________________
8 c e n t s _____ ______ _____ ___ _____ ___________ __
_
10 cents
------------- ----------- --- ------------12 cents _________ _____ __ __________ _______ _
_ _
15 cents -----------------------------------------------------

44. 5
1. 2
11. 0
2. 2
9 .6
9 .5
7. 1
3.9

23. 8
_
1. 7
1. 2
7. 5
9 .5
3.9

7. 2
.3
3. 7
.2
1. 6
.4
1. 0

1.6
_
_
.
.3
.2
.4
.7

Uniform p ercentage - ----- _ ------ ---- --- -4 percent ----------------------------------------------------

.8
.8

-

-

-

8. 2

5. 4

'

1. 5

No shift pay d ifferen tial

________________________

— ----------- ----------------------

-

18. 3

1
Includes establishm ents currently operating late sh ifts, and establishm ents with fo rm al p rovision s covering late shifts
even though they w ere not currently operating late sh ifts.

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W o m e n O ffice W o rk e rs
(D istribution of e sta b lish m e n tsk
studied in a ll in du stries and in industry d ivision s by m inimum entrance sa la r y fo r selected ca te g o rie s
of inexperienced women office w ork ers, M iami, F l a . , D ecem ber 1959)

Other inesq>erienced clerical workers *

Inexperienced typists
Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing
Minimum weekly salary 1

Establishments studied

----

All
industries

—

_ _

Establishments having a specified minimum
$40. 00 and under $42. 50
_ _ _
$42. 50 and under $45. 00
__
$45. 00 and under $47. 50
$47. 50 and under $50. 00
$50. 00 and under $52. 50
. . . . .
. . ..
$52. 50 and under $ 5 5 .0 0 _ _ .
------$55. 00 and under $57. 50
__ __ ____ ______
$57. 50 and under $60. 00 —
— --------$60. 00 and under $62. 50 ..
____
____ _
$62. 50 and over __ — --- _ — _. --- ---Establishments having no specified minimum ____
Establishments which did not employ workers
in this category . __________________________

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of—
All
schedules

Manufacturing
All
industries

40

All
schedules

40

Nonmanufa ctur ing

Based on standard weekly hours 3 <f—
o
-------1
------All
40
schedules

All
schedules

40

159
35
8
4
11
3
6
1
.
2
_
31

47

XX
X

112

XX
X

159

47

XX
X

112

XX
X

8
2
2
3
1

27
6
4
9
3
3
_
_
2
24

18
6
1
5
1
3
_
.
2

8

7
2
_
2
_
3
_
.
_

X
XX

39
14
2
10
2
6
_
2
1
1
1
37

8
2
_
2
_
3
1

7

7
2
_
2
_
3
_
_
_
XX
X

XX
X

31
12
2
8
2
3
1
1
1
1
29

22
11
1
3
_
3
.
1
1
1
1
XX
X

93

32

XX
X

61

XX
X

83

31

XX
X

52

XX
X

-

-

-

-

Low est sa la r y rate form ally establish ed fo r hiring inexperienced w ork ers for typing or other c le r ic a l jo b s.
R ates applicable to m e sse n g e rs, office g ir ls, or sim ila r su b cle rical jo b s a re not considered.
Hours re fle c t the workweek for which em ployees receive their reg u lar straigh t-tim e s a la r ie s .
Data a re presented for a ll workweeks combined, and for the m ost common workweek reported.




11

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by sch ed u led w eek ly h ou rs
6 f f ir s t - s h if t w o r k e r s , M iam i, F l a ., D ecem b er 1 9 5 9 )

PLANT W
ORKERS

OFFICE W
ORKERS
Weekly hours

All w orkers ___ ___________________________
35 h o u rs ____________ _____________________
Over 35 and under 37 V2 h o u r s _____________
37 V2 hours ________________________________
Over 37 V2 and under 40 h o u r s _____________
40 h o u rs ___________________________________
Over 40 and under 44 hours ________________
44 h o u r s ___ ______________________________
45 h o u rs ___________________________________
Over 45 and under 48 hours ________________
48 h o u r s _____________________ ____________
50 hours _ __ ______________________________
54 h o u rs ___ ______________________________
Over 54 hours _____________________________

1
2
3
4

A
U ,
industries 1

100
11
1
5
5
68
2
3
(4 )
6
-

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities 2

Retail trade

100

100
36
2
8
53
-

(M
3
(4)
73
4
15
4
-

1
1
|

M
anufacturing

100

100

3
1
91
3
1
-

A
U
industriesJ

Financet

100

1
1
(*)
58
1
3
8
1

3
84
2
2
-

23

(4 )
2

1

In clu d es data fo r w h o le sa le trade; fin an ce, in su ra n ce, and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s shown se p a r a te ly .
T ran sp ortation , com m u n ication , and oth er public u tilit ie s .
Inclu d es data fo r w h o le s a le trad e, r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s shown se p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0 . 5 p erc en t.




7

1
-

Public ,
utilities

Retail trade

100

100

93
7
-

2
40
6
19
3
22

6
2

12

Table B~4. Paid Holidays
(P ercen t distribution of office and plant w ork ers in a ll in dustries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, M iam i, F la . , D ecem ber 1959)
OFFICE W
ORKERS
Item

All ,
industries*

A ll w o r k e r s ------------------------------------------W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid h o lid a y s --------------------------------------W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid h o lid a y s -------- ——
---------------------

PLANT W
ORKERS

M
anufacturing

Publie *
utilities *

A
U
industries 3

Retail trade

M
anufacturing

Public a
utilities

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98

99

100

2

1

98

84

93

100

2

16

7

_
1
1
15
1
55
14
2
8
-

6
5
1
(4 )
11
1
30
4
22
(4 )
2

Finance!

78
22

N u m b ar o f d a y s
1 h o lid a y ---------------------------------------------2 h o li d a y s -------------------------------------------3 h o li d a y s ------------------ ------ -- ---------------4 h o lid a y s -------------------------------------------4 holidays plus 1 half d a y ------------------------5 h o li d a y s ---------- ------------ —
------- —
----- --5 holidays plus 1 half d a y ------------------------6 holidays --------- ------- --------— — ------- —
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y ------------------------6 holidays plus 2 half d a y s --------------------------- --------------7 h o li d a y s ---------- ------ --- —
7 holidays plus 1 or ? half d a y s ----------------8 h o li d a y s ----------- --- ----- --------- ---- -------

8 days ------------------------------------------------71 or m ore d a y s --- ----- ------- --- -------------/*
7 or m ore d a y s -------------------------------------61 or m ore d a y s ----------------------------------/*
6 or m ore d a y s -------------------------------------51 or m o re d a y s ----------------------------------/*
5 or m ore d a y s ---------------------------- —
------4*/a or m ore days ----- —
----- --- —— ------ -—
—
4 or m ore d a y s -------------------------------------3 or m ore days — -------------------------------- —
—
2 or m ore days — ---- --- —..................— .... ....
1 or m ore d a y s --------------------------------------

1
*
*
4
*
no half

2
1
1
1
(4 )
18
(4 )

36
3

1
31
1
3

3

4
35
39
74
75
93
93
95
95
96
98

_
25
45
3
3

16
2
5

5
8
26
29
75
75

99
99
99
99
99
99

_
(4 )
8
(4 )
92
-

92
92
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

10
24
79
80
95
95
96
96
98
98

2
2
25
28
59
59
71
71
72
77
77
84

.
2
2
31
33

4
14
-

7

7

7
21
25
58
58
89
89
91
93
93
93

18
2
80
-

7
2
3
_
5
2
48
8
4
-

80
82
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

4
12
60
61
66
66
69
71
71
78

Includes data fo r w holesale trad e; finance, in su ran ce, and r e a l e state; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry divisions shown sep arately .
T ransportation , com munication, and other public u tilities.
Includes data fo r w holesale trad e, r e a l e sta te , and se r v ic e s in addition to those industry divisions shown sep arate ly .
L e s s than 0 .5 percent.
,
.
^ , , „ ,
, ,
_ , ,, .
,
A ll com binations of full and half days that add to the sam e amount a re combined; fo r exam ple, the proportion of w ork ers receivm g a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
d ay s, 6 full days and 2 half d ay s, 5 fu ll days and 4 half day s, and so on. P roportions w ere then cum ulated.




13
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(Percen t distribution of office and plant w orkers in a ll in du stries and in industry divisions
by vacation pay p rovision s, M iam i, F la. , Decem ber 1959)
PLANT W
ORKERS

OFFICE W
ORKERS
V acation p olicy

_______

A ll w o r k e r s

__ ____________ ____

A
ll
.
industries 1

M
anufacturing

Public 2
utilities

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99

100
100

100
99
( 5)

96
90
3
3

94
88
6

100
100

_

_

49 5
83
4
8

4

6

■

5

43
6

15
8
3

Financef

A
H industries J

M
anufacturing

Public _
utilities c

Retail trade

Method of payment
W ork ers in e s ta b lis h m e n ts providing
paid v a ca tio n s
___
_ __
__
L en gth -of-tim e paym ent _______ ___ ______
P e r c e n ta g e paym ent ___ _______ _______
F la t- su m paym ent
_ _
O t h e r ___ ___ ____ __ __ ______ ________
W ork ers in e s ta b lis h m e n ts providing
no paid v a ca tio n s _________ __________ ______

99
99
( 5)

_

_
_

_

_

1

( 5)

-

"

3
50
6
1

7
32
12
-

_

11
28
2
-

6
17
3
-

7
8
4
-

27
( 5)
67
3
1

42

13

45

87

60
2
39

64
2
27

63
6
21

66

77
2
13

12

-

1

4

-

-

9
1
82
7
1

23
1
63

2
2
95

12

■

6
( 5)
85
7
2

10
1
76

98

_

_

_

Amount of vacation p a y 6
A fter 6 m on ths of s e r v ic e
L e s s than 1 w eek
1 w eek
_ __
_
O ver 1 and under
2 w eek s _______

_ „ ____ _____ ____ _ _
_ __ __ _ ____ _ _______
_ _
_
2 w eek s ___________________
______
_____________

i

45
15
-

A fter 1 y ea r of s e r v ic e
1 w eek ___
_____
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s __________ _ _____
_
2 w eek s
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s
3 w eek s _

_

-

-

_

_
-

_

_

34

_

A fter 2 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek ________________ _ _______ __ __ __
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s _
_ ___ _ ____ _
2 w eek s
_ ____ _____________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ___________________
3 w eek s ------------------------------------------------

-

-

!
_
99

-

( 5)

30
3
60
( 5)
3

40
12
38

18
1
73
l 5)
3

20
6
64

-

4

13

13

86
1

77

_
-

_

_

5

A fter 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 Week _____________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s ___________________
2 w eek s
_ _____ _ ____ _______
_
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s ____________________

See footnotes at end of table




-

13

2

-

( 5)
99

-

I 5)

-

4

9

3

90
1

87

_

_

_

5

14
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(Percent distribution of office and plant w orkers in a ll in du stries and industry divisions
by vacation pay provision s, M iam i, F la . , Decem ber 1959)
PLANT W
ORKERS

OFFICE W
ORKERS
Vacation policy

All .
industries 1

M
anufacturing

Public 2
utilities

Retail trade

Financet

A
ll
industries

M
anufacturing

Public 2
utilities

Retail trade

Am ount o f v a c a t io n p a y 4— C on tin u ed
After 5 y e a rs of serv ic e
1 week
2 weeks
... ..
. Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s __________________
3 weeks
_ _....
4 weeks

4
66
10
19
( 5)

7
75
18
1

_
97
3
-

_
66
19
14
( 5)

14
69
5
7
1

16
64
5
9

97
1
2

4
48
3
29
1
14

7
54
26
13

_
75
22
3

_
49
43
8

14
54
1
25
( 5)
2

16
51
5
22
_
-

.
67
_
31
1
2

1
66
12
13
4

After 10 y e a rs of serv ic e
1 week
_
. 2 weeks
_ _
_
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s ___ ________ _____
3 weeks
Over 3 and under 4 w eeks
4 weeks _

|

1
56

_
_

34

4

After 15 y e a rs of serv ic e
1 week
2 weeks r
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
3 weeks
4 weeks .. ... _ ...

.. . - . r. ..
_

_ .

_

4
22
3
52
18

7
40
40
13

_
2
95
3

_
48
41
11

14
37
1
41
3

16
43
3
28
4

3
_
94
3

1
53
_
36
5

4
22
3
46
24

7
38
39
16

_
2
94
4

_
45
39
16

14
37
1
38
7

16
43
3
24
8

3
90
7

1
53
_
33
8

4
22
3
37
33

7
38
33
21

_
2
77
21

_
45
20
35

14
37
1
31
14

16
43
3
21
11

3
_
77
20

After 20 y e a rs of serv ic e
1 w e e k ___________________ ____ _____ ______
2 weeks ____________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 w eeks _ .
3 weeks
4 w eeks
.........
After 25 y e a rs of serv ic e
1 week
2 weeks
_ __
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
3 weeks
__ __ _ _
4 weeks _

1
*
3
4
5
4
serv ic e

_

Includes data for w holesale trad e , finance, in su ran ce, and r e a l e sta te ,
T ran sp ortation , com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Includes data for w holesale trad e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition
Includes proportions of w ork ers in establish m en ts which do not provide
L e s s than 0 .5 percent.
P erio d s of serv ic e w ere a rb itra r ily chosen and do not n e c e ssa rily
include changes in provision s occurring between 5 and 10 y e a rs.

_

1
53
_
22
19

and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d ivisions shown sep arate ly .
to those industry divisions shown sep arately .
paid vacation s until a fter 2 y e a rs of se rv ic e .
re fle c t the individual provision s for p ro g re ssio n s.

F or exam ple, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 y e a r s '

NOTE: In the tabulations of -vacation allow ances by y e a rs of se r v ic e , paym ents other than "length of t im e ," such a s percentage of annual earn ings or flat-su m paym ents, w ere converted
to an equivalent tim e b a sis; for exam ple, a payment of 2 percent of annual earn in gs w as considered a s 1 w eek's pay.




15
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percen t of office and plant w orkers in all in dustries and in industry divisions employed in establishm ents providing
health, in suran ce, or pension benefits, M iam i, F la. , D ecem ber 1959)
PLANT W
ORKERS

OFFICE W
ORKERS
Type of benefit

A
ll
industries1

M
anufacturing

Public .
utilities4

Retail trade

A ll w o r k e r s ------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

75

94

59

61

77

52

A
ll
industries

M
anufacturing

Public,
utilities

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

78

78

92

69

77

45

55

72

52

42
69

Finance!

W orkers in establishm ents providing:
Life in s u r a n c e -----------------------------------A ccidental death and dism em berm ent
insurance ---------------------------------------Sickn ess and accident insurance or
sic k leave or both4 ---------------------------

78

63

94

89

62

55

90

Sickn ess and accident insurance -------Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting p e r i o d ) ----------------------------Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting p e r i o d ) -----------------------------

30

49

32

34

38

45

38

46

53

26

73

70

29

22

49

31

16

2

17

2

7

1

25

3

H ospitalization in s u r a n c e --------------------S u rg ical in s u r a n c e ------------------------ — —
M edical in s u r a n c e -----------------------------Catastrophe in s u r a n c e ------------------------Retirem ent p e n s io n ----------------------------No health, insurance, or pension p l a n ----

82
82
47
36
55
3

91
91
33
46
38
4

55
55
33
10
87
(5)

96
96
66
28
53
1

82
82
46
20
38
7

94
92
30
30
23
4

58
58
40
9
84
1

92
92
63
20
39
3

1

j

1 Includes data for w holesale trade; finance, in su ran ce, and re a l estate; and se rv ic e s in addition to those industry divisions shown sep arately .
4 T ransportation, com munication, and other public u tilities.
3 Includes data fo r w holesale trad e, re a l e sta te, and se r v ic e s in addition to those industry divisions shown sep arately .
4 Unduplicated total of w orkers receiving sic k leave or sick n ess and accident insurance shown sep arate ly below. Sick-leave plans a re lim ited to those which definitely estab lish at le ast
the minimum number of d ay s' pay that can be expected by each em ployee. Inform al sick -le av e allow ances determ ined on an individual b a sis a re excluded.
5 L e s s than 0 .5 percent.







17

Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the B u re a u s wage surveys is to a s s i s t its
field sta ff in c lassify in g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
e sse n tia l in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
B ecause of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significan tly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job description s, the B ureau's field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working su perv isors, apprentices, learners, beginners, train ees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O FFIC E
B IL L E R , MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statem ents, b ills, and in voices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typewriter. May a lso keep records a s
to billin gs or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, machine, are
c la ssifie d by type of machine, a s follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National C ash R egister, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of b u sin ess tran sactio n s.

Biller , machine (billing machine)— U se s a sp e c ia l billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, E llio tt F ish er, Burroughs, e tc ., which are
combination typing and adding m achines) to prepare b ills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, e tc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of n ecessary
exten sion s, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and to tals which are autom atically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon co pies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Biller , machine (bookkeeping machine) — U se s a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare cu stom ers’
b ills a s part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers ’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine autom atically accum ulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints autom atically
the debit or credit b alan ces. D oes not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of s a le s and
credit s lip s .




Class A— K eeps a se t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in b a sic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated repo rts, balance
sh e e ts, and other records by hand.
Class B — K eeps a record of one or more p h ases or sectio n s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b a sic book­
keeping* P h a se s or sectio n s include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billin g described
under biller, machine), co st distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a s s i s t in preparation of trial
balan ces and prepare control sh eets for the accounting department.
C L E R K , ACCOUNTING

C lass A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has respon sibility for keeping one or more sectio n s of a com­
plete se t of books or records relating to one ph ase of an e sta b lish ­
m ent's b u sin ess tran saction s. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

18

C L E R K , ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assig n atio n s and a llo catio n s. May a s s i s t in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct c l a s s B accounting
clerk s.

Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such a s posting sim ple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher re g iste rs;
reconciling bank accoun ts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general led gers, or posting sim ple co st accounting d ata. T h is
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine accountingwork is subdivided on a functional b a s is among sev eral workers.

C L E R K , PA YRO LL
Computes w ages of company employees and enters the n e c e s­
sary data on the payroll sh e e ts. D uties involve: C alculatin g workers’
earnings based on time or production records; posting calcu lated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such a s worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s i s t paym aster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculatin g machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tica l computations. This job is not to be confused with that of s t a t is ­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent u se of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

C L E R K , F IL E

Class A— In an e stab lish e d filing system containing a num­
ber of varied su b ject matter file s , c la s s if ie s and in dexes co rre s­
pondence or other m aterial; may a lso file this m aterial. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with file s or may super­
v ise others in filing and locating m aterial in the f ile s . May per­
form incidental clerical du ties.
Class B — Performs routine filin g, usually of m aterial that h as
already been c la s s ifie d or which is e a sily iden tifiable, or lo ca te s
or a s s i s t s in locating m aterial in file s . May perform incidental
clerical d u ties.

C LER K , ORDER
R eceiv es custom ers1 orders for material or merchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sheet listin g the items
to make up the order; checking p rices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; distributing order sh eets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of custom er,
acknowledge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to se e
that they have been filled , keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, reproduces multiple co p ies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes n ecessary adjustm ent such
a s for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed . Is not required to
prepare ste n cil or Ditto m aster. May keep file of used ste n c ils or Ditto
m asters. May sort, co llate, and staple completed m aterial.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory re sp o n si­
b ilitie s, records accounting and sta tis tic a l data on tabulating cards by
punching a se rie s of holes in the cards in a sp ecifie d sequen ce, using
an alph abetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep file s of punch c a rd s. May verify
own work or work of others.
O FF IC E BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such a s running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such a s se a le rs or m ailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

19
SECRETA RY
Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and making
phone c a lls ; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own in itiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare sp e c ia l reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more person s,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May a lso type from written copy. May a lso s e t up and keep file s in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (se e transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECH N ICA L
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such a s in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
a lso type from written copy. May a lso se t up and keep file s in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls .
May record toll c a lls and take m e ssa g e s. May give information to per­
son s who c a ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who a lso act a s reception ists se e switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD O PERA TO R-RECEPTIO N IST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a sin gle p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, a c ts a s receptionist and may a ls o type
or perform routine clerical work a s part of regular du ties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Class A— Operates a variety of tabulating or e le ctrical a c ­
counting machines, typically including such machines a s the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring a s required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of ste p s to be taken. A s a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequen ces of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations one?day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B — Operates more difficult tabulating or ele ctrical a c ­
counting machines such a s the tabulator and calculator, ip addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp ecific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically in volves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting e x e rcise , a complete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well estab lish ed . May a ls o include the training
of new employees in the b asic operation of the machine.
Class C— Operates simple tabulating or e le ctrica l account­
ing machines such a s the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include sim ple wiring from diagram s
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collatin g runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GEN ER A L
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a ls o type from written
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or sp ecialize d vocabulary such a s leg al briefs
or reports on scie n tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is c la ssifie d
a s a stenographer, general.

20

T Y P IST

T Y P IST —-Continued

U se s a typewriter to make co p ies of various m aterial or to make
out b ills after calcu lation s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n c ils , m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for u se in duplicat­
ing p ro c e sse s. May do clerica l work involving little sp e c ia l training,
such a s keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming m ail.

Class A— Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or respon sibility for correct spellin g, sy llab icatio n , punc-

tuation, e tc ., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to maintain uniformity and balance in sp acin g. May type routine
form letters varying d e tails to su it circum stances.

Class B — Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear d rafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o lic ie s,
e tc .; settin g up sim ple standard tabulation s, or copying more com­
plex tab les already se t up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(A ssista n t draftsman)

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

Draws to sc a le units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U se s various types of drafting tools a s required. May prepare drawings
from sim ple plans or sk e tch e s, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tr u ss e s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and quan tities;
writing sp ecific atio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lin es and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialize d field such a s architectural, e le ctrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEA D ER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (R EG ISTERED )

P lan s and d irects activ itie s of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketch es for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pu rpo ses. D uties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sk e tch e s,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; a ssig n in g
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a s s i s t subordinates during em ergencies or a s a
regular assignm ent, or ’perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plan s and d etail drawings from n otes, rough
or detailed sketch es for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p o se s. Duties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plan s, detail drawings, m aps, cro ss-se ctio n s, e tc ., to sc a le by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering computations such a s those




A registered nurse who g iv es nursing serv ice to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an acciden t7on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combina•
tion of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent d ressin g of em ployees' in ju ries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting ph ysical exam inations and health evaluations of applican ts
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
a ctiv itie s affecting the health, welfare, and safety of a ll personnel.
TR A C ER
C opies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pen cil. U se s
T-square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

21

MAINTENANCE

D POWERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded.




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

22

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILI .WRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE

Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

23
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and
other persons entering.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

24
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.
ORDER FILLER

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers *
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

PACKER, SHIPPING

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and files.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (ll to and including 4 tons)
/
2
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power ( o k i t
frlf)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I960 0 -540322

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. These bulletins, when available,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor markets, combined with additional analysis will be issued early in 1961.
Bulletins for the areas listed below are now available.




Cleveland, Ohio, September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*1, price 20 cents
Seattle, Wash., August 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*2, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102