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Occupational Wage S u r v e y

MANCHESTER, NEW HAMPSHIRE
AUGUST 1963

Bulletin No. 1385-1




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
MANCHESTER, NEW HAMPSHIRE




AUGUST 1963

Bulletin No. 1385-1
October 1963

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard W irtz, Secretary
BU REA U O F LA B O R ST A T IST IC S
Ew an C la g u e , Com m issioner

For sole by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 20 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Bureau of Labor Statistics program of annual
occupational wage surveys in metropolitan areas is de­
signed to provide data on occupational earnings, and e s ­
tablishment practices and supplementary wage provisions.
It yields detailed data by selected industry divisions for
metropolitan area labor markets, for economic regions,
and for the United States. A major consideration in the
program is the need for greater insight into (a) the move­
ment of wages by occupational category and skill level,
and (b) the structure and level of wages among labor
markets and,industry divisions.

Wage trends for selected occupational groups________________________ —
Tables:
1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey
2. Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percents of increase for selected periods—___________ ____
A:

Appendix: Occupational descriptions___________________________________

Eighty-two labor markets currently are included
in the program. Information on occupational earnings is
collected annually in each area. Information on estab­
lishment practices and supplementary wage provisions is
obtained biennially in most of the areas.
This bulletin presents results of the survey in
Manchester, N.H., in August 1963. It was prepared in the
Bureau* s regional office in Boston, M ass., by Leo Epstein,
under the direction of Paul V. Mulkern, Assistant Regional
Director for Wages and Industrial Relations.




areas.

* NOTE: Similar tabulations are available for other
(See inside back cover.)

Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels in
the Manchester area, are also available for seven selected
building trades.

Hi

in vo

Occupational earnings:*
A - 1. Office occupations—
men and women___-_________ A -2 . Professional and technical occupations—
men —
A -3 . Office, professional, and technical occupations—
men and women combined____ _______ — — —
A - 4. Maintenance and power plant occupations______ __
A - 5. Custodial and material movement occupations.__

2

in

A preliminary report and an individual area bul­
letin present survey results for each labor market studied.
After completion of all of the individual area bulletins for
a round of surveys, a two part summary bulletin is issued.
The first part brings data for each of the labor markets
studied into one bulletin. The second part presents infor­
mation which has been projected from individual labor m ar­
ket data to relate to economic regions and the United States.

3

9




Occupational Wage Survey—Manchester, N.H.
Introduction

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly schedule
in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude pre­
mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living bonuses
and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly hours are reported,
as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the work schedules
(rounded to the nearest half hour) for which straight-time salaries
are paid; average weekly earnings for these occupations have been
rounded to the nearest half dollar.

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the O S. De­
h
partment of Labor*s Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts aurve/s of
occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an areawide basis;.
This bulletin presents current occupational employment and
earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments
visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for
occupations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
since the previous survey.
In each area, data are obtained from representative estab­
lishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; trans­
portation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government opera­
tions and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments
having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted because
they tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied
to warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the
broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.

Differences in pay levels for selected occupations in which
both men and women are commonly employed may be due to such
factors as (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among in­
dustries and establishments; (2) differences in length of service or
merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis;
and (3) differences in specific duties performed, although the occu­
pations are appropriately classified within the same survey job de­
scription. Job descriptions used in classifying employees in these
surveys are usually more generalized than those used in individual
establishments. This allows for minor differences among establish­
ments in specific duties performed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of
the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To
obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. E s ­
timates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in
all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number
actually surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure
among establishments, the estimates of occupational employment
obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to
indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differ­
ences in occupational structure do not materially affect the accuracy
of the earnings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the
following types: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical;
(c) maintenance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material move­
ment. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job
descriptions designed to take account of inter establishment variation
in duties within the same job. The occupations selected for study
are listed and described in the appendix. Earnings data for some of
the occupations listed and described are not presented in the A -series
tables because either (1) employment in the occupation is too small
to provide enough data to merit presentation, or (2) there is possi­
bility of disclosure of individual establishment data.




Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supple­
mentary wage provisions (B -series tables) are not presented in this
bulletin. Information for these tabulations is collected biennially in
this area.
These tabulations on minimum entrance salaries for
inexperienced women office workers; shift differentials; scheduled
weekly hours; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance,
and pension plans are presented (in the B -series tables) in previous
bulletins for this area.

1




Table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Manchester, N .H .,1 by major industry division,2 August 1963
Number of establishments
Industry division

W orkers in establishm ents

Within scope
of study3

Studi id

Within scope
of study *

Studied

A ll divisions--------------------------------------------- —----------------- ---------------

107

62

20, 100

1 5 ,3 4 0

Manufacturing____________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing________ ____________________________ ____ ______
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 5--------------------------------------------------------W holesale tr a d e 6- ----— _ ---------- — — — - —
----Retail tr ade ^ „______________ ____,__ . __ ___ r
___________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate 6— ---------------------------Services 6* 7—_________________________________________________

59
48

33
29

14, 300
5 ,8 0 0

1 1 ,0 0 0
4, 340

9
9
16
i
5

9
5
8
4
3

000
000
400
000
400

2, 000
560
860
660
260

2,
1,
1,
1,

1 The M anchester Standard Metropolitan Statistical A rea con sists of the city of M anchester, and the town of Coffstown, in Hillsborough County.
The "w o rk e rs within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and com position of the
labor force included in the survey.
The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other em ployment indexes
for the area to m easure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishm ent data com piled considerably
in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial C lassification Manual was used in classifying establishm ents by industry division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total employment at or above the minim um limitation (50 em ployees). A ll outlets (within the area) of com ­
panies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair service, and motion picture theaters are considered as i establishm ent.
4 Includes all w orkers in all establishm ents with the total employment (within the area) at or above the m inimum lim itation (50 em ployees).
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation w ere excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for " a l l industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data
to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to
perm it separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosu re of individual establishment data.
7 H otels; personal se rv ic e s; business se rv ic e s; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering
and architectural service s.

Table 2.

Indexes of standard w eekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings
for selected occupational groups, and percents of increase
for selected periods
Percents of increase

Index
Occupational group
(August 1960=100)

Office clerical (men and women) . ______
Industrial nurses (men and women)__ ___
Skilled maintenance (men)— _____ — _
Unskilled plant (m en )__ ___________________

Data do not m eet publication criteria.

113.3
(*)
112.4
112.6

August 1962
to
August 1963

August 1961
to
August 1962

August I960
to
August 1961

4.2

4.5

4.1

(M

4.1
3.0

(*)

4 .4
5.9

(*)

3.5
3.3

3
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are indexes and percentages of change
in average salaries of office clerical workers and industrial nurses,
and in average earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
centages of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for
overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts, The
percentages are based on data for selected key occupations and in­
clude most of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The office clerical data are based on men and women in the following
19 jobs: Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting,
class A and B; clerks, file, class A, B, and C; clerks, order; clerks,
payroll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B;
office boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators,
class B; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial nurses. Men in the following
8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs are included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and
die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers,
material handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by employment in each of
the jobs during the period surveyed in 1961. These weighted earnings




for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for
each occupational group. Finally, the ratio (expressed as a percentage)
of the group aggregate for the one year to the aggregate for the other
year was computed and the difference between the result and 100 is
the percentage of change from the one period to the other. The
indexes were computed by multiplying the ratios for each group
aggregate for each period after the base year (1961).
The indexes and percentages of change measure, principally,
the effects of (1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other
increases in pay received by individual workers while in the same
job; and (3) changes in average wages due to changes in the labor force
resulting from labor turnover, force expansions, force reductions,
and changes in the proportions of workers employed by establishments
with different pay levels.
Changes in the labor force can cause
increases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual
wage changes.
For example, a force expansion might increase the
proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and lower
the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower paid
workers would have the opposite effect. Similarly, the movement of
a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
establishments in the area.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effect
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. The percentages of change reflect only changes in
average pay for straight-time hours. They are not influenced by
changes in standard work schedules, as such, or by premium pay
for overtime.

4

A:

Occupational Earnings

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Manchester, N.H., August 1963)
Avbbaob
Number
of
workers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Weekly
hours1
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$50

$55

$60

$65

$70

$75

$80

$85

$90

$95

$100

$105

$110

$55

$45
and
under
$50

$60

$65

$70

$75

$80

$85

$90

$95

$100

$105

$110

over

and
/ '

Men
Clerks, accounting, class A __ __

_

__

_

____

$ 88.00

_

_

_

, _

3

j

!

1

3

4

2

40.0

76.00

_

_

_

_

6

10

1

3

_

_

4

29
20

39.5
39.5

66.50
62.50

_

2

5
5

4
4

5
5

7
3

3
1

3

85
18
67

38.5
40.0
38.5

80.00
81.00
80.00

_

4
3
1

10
1
9

8
1
7

6
2
4

24
3
21

83
24
59
40

39.0
40.0
39.0
38.5

102
84
18

18

_

Tabulating-machine operators, class B___________ _____

24

39.5

2

1
.

Women
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,

c la s s B ^ _

....

Nonmanuf actur ing--------- -------- ---------- --------------------- , --- r
-

-

1
l

2

-

-

-

-

-

5
_
5

2
2
-

2
2
-

_
_

_
_

“

-

-

-

-

_
"

-

-

64.00
62.60
65.00
65.50

•
_
-

12
4
8
7

14
3
11
11

19
l6
9
2

18
4
14
6

5
1
4
1

11
11
11

4
2
2
2

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

40.0
40.0
40.0

62.00
58.50
78.50

10
io
-

18
18
-

22
26
2

21
21
-

8
7
1

8
4
4

2
2

8
1
7

1
_
1

2
----- 1
----1

2
_
2

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

28

40.0

61.00

l

1

13

8

1

_

4

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

45

39.0

56.50

6

12

19

4

.

1

2

_

1

________________ ___ _____
............ _

119
46
73

39.5
40.0
39.0

79.50
75.50
82.00

-

-

1
-

10
5
5

23
18
5

22
2
20

17
5
12

7
3
4

6
3
3

15
5
10

5
3
2

6
2
4

5
_
5

2
_
2

39.5
40.0
39.0

61.00
65.00
58.50

_

10
6
4

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

-

-

1

3
3
-

_
-

11

8
4
4

-

-

9
2
7

11

Nonmanuf actur i n g ----------------------------------------------------____________

42
15
27

-

_
-

Switchboard operators
__ _ __ .
.
Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------------

23
17

40.5
40.5

67.00
68.50

2
2

2
1

4
1

6
4

2
2

7
1

_

-

Switchboard operator-receptionists--------- ------------- --------Manufacturing—
_
_
_

26
19

40.0
39.5

59.00
60.66

2
1

3
1

11
9

5
4

3
2

_
“

2
2

59.50

_

5

_

.

3

_

__ __ __ _

Clerks, accounting, class A_______
Manufacturing
__
_ _

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Clerks, accounting, class B _
M a n u fa c tu r in g

__

__ _

_

Nonmanufacturing- __
Public utilities 2__

_ __

_

______

_
_ __ _
__ _
Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------------

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l . .....................
M a n u fa c t u r in g
... -

__ __

C o m p to m e te r o p e ra to rs
K eyp u n ch o p e r a to r s ,

---------

c la s s B

Secretaries
Manufacturing__________ —
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

Stenographers, general__________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g

Typists, class A _________________________________________

24

38.5

T y p is ts , c la s s B
M a n u fa c t u r in g

82
18
64
16

39.0
40.0
38.5
39.5

_
_

Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities 2 _




_

_

............ _

_
.......... _

_

.

-

_

4
56.50
“ 5O f f - — 3-----1
57. 00
63.50

_

5
39
9
30
1

1

-

7

7

12
23
-----2----- ---- ?----10
19
1
9

_

3
3

_

_

24
— 5—
20

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

“

“

*

"

-

.

.

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

5

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Manchester, N. H., August 1963)
A verage
N um ber
of
w orkers

Occupation

Draftsmen, senior---------------------------------------------

35

W e e k i/.
h o u rs 1
(Sta n da rd)

40. 0

W e e k ly ,
earn in gs
(S ta n da rd)

$115.00

n u m b e r

o f

w o r k e r s

r e c e iv in g

s t r a ig h t

-t

im e

w e e k l y

e a r n in g s

o f

—

$95
and
under
$ 100

$ 100

$105

$ 110

$115

$120

$ 125

$ 130

$135

$ 105

$ 110

$ 115

$120

$ 125

$130

$ 135

$140

5

4

6

3

3

5

3

3

3

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Manchester, N.H., August 1963)

Occupation and industry division

N m er
u b
of
w rk rs
o e

29
20

Clerks, accounting, class A_________________________
Manufacturing--------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------

103
23
80

Clerks, accounting, class B-------------------------------------Manufacturing--------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------------Public utilities 2 ------------------------------------------------

86
26
60
41

Clerks, payroll------------------------------------------------------------

106
84
22

Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------

Occupation and industry division

$66.50 1 Comptometer operators--------------- ---------------------------62.50
Keypunch operators, class B-------------- — — --------81.50 1
84. 50
80. 50 Secretaries — ------- — — --------------------------------------Manufacturing------------------------------------------------- ---Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------------64.00
62.50
_
_ _
65. 00 1,St#»nr»grapViftrs, general
65.00
Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------------62.50 1
Switchboard operators_________________ ____ ______
58.50
Nrm narmfqrtnring
T
.. . .
78. 50 1

Earnings relate to regular straight-time weekly salaries that are paid for standard workweeks.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




N m er
u b
of

A g
vera e
we ly
ek
ea in s1
rn g
(S n a )
ta d rd

Switchboard operator-receptionists--------------------------Manufacturing----------------------------------------------------------

26
19

$59. 00
60.00

Tabulating-machine operators, class B---------------------

Nm .
u ber
of

26

75. 50

79. 50 1 Typists, class A _______ _____ _______ ______ _______ _
75. 50
82. 00 Typists, class B ---- ----------------- ------- --------------------Manufacturing--------- — ------------ ------- ---------------Nonmanufacturing-___— — ______ __________ ___ __
61. 00
65. 00
Public utilities 2 ------------------------------------------------58. 50
Professional and technical occupations
67. 00
__— 68. 50 D r aft sm en, s eni o r

24

59. 50

82
18
64
16

56. 50
54.00
57. 00
63. 50

35

115.00

ea in s1 0
rn g
(S n a )
ta d rd

Occupation and industry division

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B --------------Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------

A era e I
v g
w e ly 1
ek
ea in s1 |
rn g
(S n a ) 1
ta d rd

28

$61. 00

45

56. 50

119
46
73
42
15
27
23
17

6

Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Manchester, N. H ., August 1963)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Nm
u ber
of
w rk
o ers

A
verage $1.30 $1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80
h rly ,
ou
earn gs1 and
in
under
$1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90

"

-

■

.

.

_

“

Manufac turing---------------------------------------------------

17
16

$ 2 .2 3
2. 20

-

Electricians, maintenance---------------------------------Manufacturing---------------------------------------------------

16
16

2.29
2.29

-

Firemen, stationary boiler--------------------------------Manufacturing---------------------------------------------------

36
31

1.65
1.64

1
1

10
10

4
1

Helpers, maintenance trades------------------------------Manufacturing—------------------------------------------------

50
41

1.92
1.90

1
1

!

_

Machinists, maintenance___________________ _____
Manufacturing--------------------------------------- --------- -

19
19

2. 35
2. 35

-

-

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance)---------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------Public utilities2------------------------------------------

62
52
49

2 .4 5
2.47
2.47

"

Mechanics, maintenance— —_______- _________ —
Manufacturing---------------------------------------------------

28
27

$3.00

$3.10 $3.20

$3.30

$2.00 $2.10 $2.20 $2.30 $2.40 $2.50

$2.60 $2.70

$3.00

$3.10

$3.20 $3.30

over

and

14
14

~

4
4

3
3

.

1

1
1

.
“

_

.
-

-

,

4 •
4

■

■

*
5

2
2

1
1

1
1

_

2

_

_

10
5

5
3

_

_

"

3
3

3
3

_

-

-

‘

'

5
5

10
10

4
4
18
18

_
~

.

“

4
4

_

2. 32
2. 30

-

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




$2.90

_

■

$2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.80

1
1

.

$1.90 $2.00 $2.10 1
$2.20 $2.30 $2.40

,

■

_
"

8
8
8

4
-

1
1

1
1

1

1
-

'
2
2

4
4

_
_
8
6

_

$2.80

4
3

■

“

_

_

"

“

3
3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

“

-

■
3
3

“

_

_

~

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

“

“

“

_

_

_

_

"

"

“

2
2
2

_

_

-

-

1

.

_

_

“

“

_

_

_

_

_

_

“

“

_

_

_

“

“

_

_

_

-

-

-

4
4

1
1

1
1

"

3
3

4
4

3
3
2

7
4
2

30
27
27

5
5
5

3
3
3

.

.

2
2

~

~

~

5
5

i
i

“

~

“

_

$2.90

7

Tabic A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
b y industry division, Manchester, N.H ., August 1963)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E B S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—
N u m b er

Occupation 1 and industry division
2

of
w
orkers

A v era g e
h o u rly
earnings

$1.00
and
under
$1.10

$ 1.10

$1.20

$1.30

$1.40

$1.50

$1.60

$1.70

$1.80

$1.90

$2.00

$2.1 0

$2.2 0

$2.30

$2.40

$2.50

$2.60

$2.70

$ 1.20

$1.30

$1.40

$1.50

$1.60

$1.70

$1.80

$1.90

$2.0 0

$2.1 0

$2.2 0

$2.30

$2.40

$2.50

$2.60

$2.70

$2.80

10
10
8

4
4

12
12
12

-

-

-

11
6
5

4
4
4

-

1
1
"

_
-

_
-

"

26
26
”

34
8
26

4
4

5
3

1

11
11

46
4b

8
8

1
--------1
----

3
1

6
2

3

3
1

1
1

2
2

Guards and watchmen___
Manufacturing
_
_
W atchm en---------------------------------------------------------

46
43
31

$ 1 .4 8
1.49
1.52

-

-

-

5
5
4

11

-

J anitors, p o r te r s, and clean ers_______________ ___
M anufacturing..
_ _
Nonmanuf actur ing--------------------------- ----- ---------------

127
69
58

1.49
1.54
1.43

3
3

9
7
2

23
12
11

31
7
24

18
18
“

12
5
7

203
ToS
97

1.73
1.58
1.91

.
-

5
4
1

19
6
13

7
6
1

19
13
6

31
29
2

O rd er f i l l e r s ____________ ___ _________________________
M anufacturing.------------------------------------------------------

72
34

1.64
1.38

12
10

5
5

6
6

P a c k e r s, shipping (m en)-------------- -------------------------Manufacturing--------------------------------------------------------

48
48

4
4

1
1

1

P a c k e r s, shipping (women)
Manufacturing ........

6
6

3
3

L a b o r e rs, m a ter ia l handling
M anufacturing.
......................- - Nonmanufacturing

R eceiving c le r k s
Nonmanufacturing

_

4
4

1.69
1.69

_

_

-

-

81
81

1.51
1.51

_

_

~

“

_ .
... .

29
16

1.81
1.86

-

-

_ ____________ ___
....... .

22
18

1.98
2.00

_

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

28
28

2.13
2.13

_

_

_

_

_

_

“

“

-

-

2.30

.

_

_

_
.... ......

.......................

Shipping and receivin g c le r k s..
Manufacturing
.......

3

"

_

Shipping c lerk s --------_ _.
Manufacturing ......... ... .......

’

c

.....

....

.

T r u c k d r iv e r s3
. _
----- _
Manufacturing
_ ---Nonmanufacturing---------------- __ ------------------------Public u tilit ie s 4______________________________

1

2
------ 2 —

189
59
130
66

4

4

1 .9 4

-

-

-

_

4

2.4 6
2.79

-

-

4

_

-

-

6
-

-

T ru ck d rivers. light (under 11/ 7 tons) ...

21

1.64

_

_

2

2

T ru ck d rivers, m edium ( 1V 2 to and
including 4 tons)
.......
Manuf a ctu ring----------------- — -------------

47

2.0 4
1.82

-

-

4

2

L
’ l

"

-

-

39
20

2.5 0
2.2 2

-

-

-

-

"

-

"

-

40

2.0 7

_

_

_

_

1

2

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra ile r type)
............... ...
Manufacturing .
.
_ .......................
T ru ck ers, power (forklift)

1
2
3
4

6




-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

5
4
1

9
9
-

3
_
3

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

2
2

-

-

22
14
8

6
6

12
12

-

_

_

- _

_

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

_

24
“

10
"

_

.

_

“

-

-

2
2

7
7

21
21

_

1
1

_

_

_

1

4
4

8
$

_

_

5

1

“

5
— 5------

-

-

3

—

-

2
-

2
2

2
2

-

2 *
3
------1 ------ ------- 3—

_

.

_

-

“

-

.

_

.

.

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

t

_

3
3

_

_

-

-

3
3

_

_

_

-

“

-

_

-

3

_

11
_
11

_

1
1

1
1

3
------ 1------

2
1
4
2 ------ ------- 1----- --------3

_
-

2

11
------I T -

31

4

_

6
-

12
-

_

1
1
_

-

3
2
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
------- 5
1
1

4

5

1

1

3

_

_

2

_

_

_

l

-

3
3

2
2

16
16

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

3

_

-

1
-------1-----

_

-

6
6

_

-

-

-

3

-

4

_

7

1
2

4

2

3

_

IB

16
------

2
2

11
_
11

8
3
5
-

-

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

-

1

-

6
3
------ 5----- --------3—
_
_

3
------3------

2
-------2-----

95
_
95
65
.

_

_

.

_

14

-

-

-

3

19

6
------- g —
_

3

_

5




Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area.
This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because
of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bu­
reau's job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.
OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A. Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (hilling machine). Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers'accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers'
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers' ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A. Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

9

10
CLERK, ACCOUNTING-Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting, and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B, Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A. In an established filing system containing a number
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B. Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids. As requested, locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C. Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.




CLERK, ORDER

Receives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

11

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B. Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and



SECRETARY— Continued
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype
or similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other rela­
tively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)
STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical
or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific
research from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.
OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

12

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class G Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's time while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production
of a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B. Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.




TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records., filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A. Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources err responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B. Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

13

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN-Continued

DRAFTSMAN
Leader. Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen
in preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or
preliminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Inter­
preting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; deter­
mining work procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and in­
specting their work; and performing more difficult problems. May
assist subordinates during emergencies or as a regular assignment,
or perform related duties of a supervisory or administrative nature.

Senior. Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections,
etc., to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering
computations such as those involved in strength of materials,
beams, and trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions,
materials to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; and
making adjustments or changes in drawings or specifications. May
ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of
complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently in a spe­
cialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

Junior (assistant). Draws to scale units or parts of drawings
prepared by draftsman or others for engineering, construction, or
manufacturing purposes. Uses various types of drafting tools as
required. May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or
perform other duties under direction of a draftsman.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general
medical direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who be­
come ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other estab­
lishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees' in­
juries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for
compensation or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and
health evaluations of applicants and employees; and planning and carry­
ing out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evalu­
ation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, wel­
fare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




14

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
outs, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electricians handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establish­
ments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines, in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling, and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working

15

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE-Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of. mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

16

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general,
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; g&ge maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s sn&ke.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and
other persons entering.




17

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one * more o f the follow­
or
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers9 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders,
and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders,
requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform other related duties.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Ship­
ping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation, and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

18

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light {under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy {over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy {over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power {forklift)
Trucker, power {other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

Occupational W a g e Surveys
A list of the latest available bulletins is presented below.
A directory indicating dates of earlier studies, and the prices of the bulletins
is available upon request. Bulletins may be purchased from tl\e Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402,
or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the insi \e front cover.
Area

Bulletin
number

Akron, Ohio_____________________________________
Albany-Schenectady—Troy, N.Y _________________
Albuquerque, N. M e x ------------------------------ --------Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton, Pa.— J________
N.
Atlanta, Ga--------------------------------------------------------Baltimore, Md1________________________________
Beaumont—
Port Arthur, T e x ___________________
Birmingham, A la —
-_____________________________
Boise, Idaho ____________________________________
Boston, M ass1
__________________________________

1345-81
1345-53
1345-63
1345-45
1345-71
1345-23
1345-67
1345-56
1345-74
1345-15

20 cents
20 cents1
20 cents
20 cents
25 cents
25 cents
20 cents
20 cents
20 cents
25 cents

Buffalo, N. Y 1
___________________________________
Burlington, V t1
_________________________________
Canton, Ohio____________________________________
Charleston, W. V a_____________________________
Charlotte, N. C _________________________________
Chattanooga, Tenn. — 1
Ga ________________________
Chicago, 1111____________________________________
Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky------------------------------------------Cleveland, Ohio1
________________________________
Columbus, Ohio1________________________________

1345-30
1345-50
1345-64
1345-61
1345-58
1345-8
1345-65
1345-54
1345-14
1345-28

25 cents
25 cents
20 cents
20 cents
20 cents
25 cents
30 cents
20 cents
25 cents
25 cents

Dallas, Tex1____________________________________
Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
1111______
Dayton, Ohio____________________________________
Denver, C o lo ___________________________________
Des Moines, Iowa______________________________
Detroit, Mich1
__________________________________
_______________________________
Fort Worth, T ex1
Green Bay, Wis 1
________________________________
Greenville, S. C ________________________________
Houston, T e x ___________________________________

1345-21
1345-18
1345-35
1345-32
1345-42
1345-47
1345-27
1345-3
1345-68
1345-82

25 cents
25 cents
20 cents
25 cents
20 cents
25 cents
25 cents
25 cents
20 cents
25 cents

Indianapolis, Ind-----------------------------------------------Jackson, M iss__________________________________
Jacksonville, F la 1
----------------- ---------------------------Kansas City, M o.—
Kans_________________________
Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.— H --------------------N.
Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark1
___________
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, C alif1
________________
Louisville, Ky.—
Ind1
____________________________
Lubbock, Tex___________________________________
Manchester, N. H ---------------------------------------------Memphis, Tenn________________________________

1345-26
1345-43
1345-39
1345-22
1345-77
1345-7
1345-62
1345-48
1345-72
1385-1
1345-36

25 cents
20 cents
25 cents
25 cents
20 cents
25 cents
30 cents
25 cents
20 cents
20 cents
25 cents

l

Pi .ice

Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




Area

Bulletin
number

Price

Miami, F la ________________________________________
Milwaukee, Wis 1
---------------------------------------------------Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn1
____________________
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, M ich_____________
Newark and Jersey City, N. J ____________________
New Haven, Conn_________________________________
New Orleans, L a 1________________________________
New York, N. Y 1__________________________________
Norfolk—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, V a 1
____________________________________
Oklahoma City, Okla 1____________________________

1345-33
1345-59
1345-38
1345-69
1345-46
1345-37
1345-44
1345-79

20
25
25
20
25
20
25
40

1345-75
1345-6

25 cents
25 cents

Omaha, N ebr.—
Iow a---------------------------------------------Pater son—
Clifton—
Passaic, N. J__________________
Philadelphia, P a .— J 1_____
N.
Phoenix, A r i z ____________________________________
Pittsburgh, P a 1___________________________________
Portland, Maine __________________________________
Portland, Oreg. — ash___________________________
W
Providence—
Pawtucket, R. I .— a s s 1____________
M
Raleigh, N. C______________________________________
Richmond, V a ____________________________________

1345-12
1345-76
1345-31
1345-57
1345-40
1345-24
1345-73
1345-70
1345-1
1345-19

20
20
30
20
25
20
25
25
20
20

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Rockford, 111______________________________________ 1345-55
St. Louis, M o .- I l l 1_______________________________ 1345-17
Salt Lake City, Utah1_____________________________ 1345-25
San Antonio, T e x 1________________________________ 1345-78
San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario, C alif---------- 1345-9
San Diego, C a lif1_________________________________ 1345-10
San Francisco—
Oakland, C a lif1__________________ 1345-34
Savannah, Ga _____________________________________ 1345-60
Scranton, P a ____________ ___________________________ 1345-5
Seattle, W ash1
_________ ___________________________ 1345-4

20
25
25
25
20
25
25
20
15
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Sioux Falls, S. Dak______________________________
South Bend, In d ___________________________________
Spokane, W ash1___________________________________
Toledo, Ohio1_____________________________________
Trenton, N. J 1____________________________________
Washington, D .C .— d.— a 1_____________________
M
V
Waterbury, C on n _________________________________
Waterloo, Iowa1___________________________________
Wichita, K an s1____________________________________
W orcester, M a ss _________________________________
York, P a __________________________________________

20
20
25
25
25
25
20
25
25
20
20

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1345-13
1345-52
1345-66
1345-51
1345-29
1345-16
1345-49
1345-20
1345-11
1345-80
1345-41

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102