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Occupational Wage Survey
LAWRENCE-HAVERHILL,
MASSACHUSETTS-NEW HAMPSHIRE
JUNE 1962

Bulletin No. 1303-76




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
LAWRENCE-HAVERHILL,
MASSACHUSETTS-NEW HAMPSHIRF




JUNE 1962

Bulletin No. 1303*76
August 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Claguo, Commistionor

For sate by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

-

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Labor Market Occupational Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics annually conducts
occupational wage surveys in 82 labor markets.
The
studies provide data on occupational earnings and related
supplementary benefits.
A prelim inary report furnishing
trend data and average earnings is released within a month
of the completion of each study.
This bulletin provides
additional data not included in the preliminary report.

Introduction ------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------- ......
Wage trends for selected occupational groups ________________ _

1
4

Tables:
1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey ...............
2. Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-time hourly earnings for selected

3

Two bulletins, bringing together the results of all
of the area surveys, are issued after completion of the
final area bulletin in the current round of surveys.
The
first of these bulletins will be available late in 1962 and
the other early in 1963. During the survey year, summary
relea ses presenting areawide occupational earnings data
for 25 to 30 labor m arkets, are issued as data become
available.

A: Occupational earnings:*
A -l. Office occupations—
men and women
A-2. Professional and technical occupations—
men
A-3. Office, professional, and technical
occupations—
men and women combined ________ ________
A -4. Maintenance and powerplant occupations ____________.....
A-5. Custodial and material movement occupations
__ —
....

6
7
8

This bulletin was prepared in the Bureau's r e ­
gional office in Boston, M a s s ., by Leo Epstein, under the
direction of Paul V. Mulkern, Assistant Regional Director
for Wages and Industrial Relations.

B: Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:*
B -l. Shift differentials _____________________ ...____________ ...
B-2. Minimum entrance salaries for women office worker* .—
B-3. Scheduled weekly hours ______________________ ___10

9
10




B-5.
B-6.

Paid vacations ________________
.............
Health, insurance, and pension plans ____________........

5

12
14

Appendixes:
A. Changes in occupational descriptions ________________ .......__—
B. Occupational descriptions _______________ ____ _____ ...............

* NOTE: Similar tabulations are available in previous
area reports for Lawrence—
Haverhill and for other major
areas.
A directory indicating the areas, dates of study,
and prices of these reports is available upon request.

iii

15
17




Occupational Wage Survey—Lawrence—Haverhill* Mass.—N.H.

Introduction
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-tim e salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U .S . De­
partment of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics has conducted su r­
veys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an area­
wide b a sis.
In this area, data were obtained by personal visits of
Bureau field economists to representative establishments within six
broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communica­
tion, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; and services.
Major industry groups
excluded from these studies are government operations and the con­
struction and extractive industries.
Establishments having fewer
than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because they
tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to
warrant inclusion.
Separate tabulations are provided for each of the
broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per­
form ed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv ­
ice or m erit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this
b a sis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average
pay when both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ev er, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estim ates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as r e ­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex ­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estim ates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not m aterially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational c la s ­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job.
(See appendix for listing of these descriptions.) Earnings data
are presented (in the A -s e r ie s tables) for the following types of occu­
pations: (a) Office clerica l; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and power plant; and (d) custodial and material movement.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -s e r ie s tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they relate to
office and plant w orkers.
The concept "office w o r k e r s ," as used
in this bulletin, includes working supervisors and nonsupervisory
workers performing clerical or related functions, and excludes admin­
istrative, executive, and professional personnel. "Plant w orkers" in­
clude working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Administrative,
executive, and professional em ployees, and force-account construction
employees who are utilized as a separate work force are excluded.
Cafeteria workers and routemen are excluded in manufacturing indus­
tries, but are included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w orkers, i . e . , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but c o s t-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is




1

2
Shift differential data (table B - l ) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in term s of (a) estab­
lishment p o lic y ,* presented in term s of total plant worker em ploy­
1
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented in term s of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used o r , if no amount applied to a m ajority, die c la s­
sification "o th er1 was used*
1
In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
Minimum entrance salaries (table B -2 ) relate only to the
establishments visited.
They are presented in term s of establish­
ments with form al minimum salary policies.
The scheduled hours (table B -3 ) of a majority of the fir s t shift workers in an establishment are tabulated as applying to all of
the plant or office workers of that establishment.
Paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans (tables B -4 through
P -6 ) are treated statistically on the basis that these are applicable
to ajl plant or office workers if a majority of such workers are e li­
gible or may eventually qualify for the practices listed.
Sums of
individual item s in tables B -3 through B -6 may not equal totals be­
cause of rounding.
The fir st part of the paid holidays table (table B -4 ) presents
the number of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second
part combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e.
The summ ary of vacation plans (table B -5 ) is limited to fo r ­
m al policies, excluding informal arrangements whereby time off with
pay is granted at the discretion of the em ployer. Separate estimates
are provided according to employer practice in computing vacation
payments, such as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or
fla t-su m amounts. However, in the tabulations of vacation pay, pay­
ments not on a time basis were so converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of
1 week's pay.

1 An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.




Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension plans
(table B -6) for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ­
ployer, excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compen­
sation, social* security, and railroad retirem ent. Such plans include
those underwritten by a com m ercial insurance company and those p ro­
vided through a union fund or paid directly by the employer out of
current operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for a ll such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions,1 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulation^
of paid sick-leave plans are lim ited to form al p lan s1 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the w orker's pay during absence from work
because of illn ess.
Separate tabulations are presented according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, som etim es referred to as extended
m edical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans m ay be underwritten by com m er­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they m ay be
self-in sured. Tabulations of retirem ent pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
w orker's life.
1 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
1 An establishment was considered as having a form al plan if
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
but informal sick-leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
were excluded.

3

Table 1. Establishment* and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Lawrence—
Haverhill, M a ss.-N .H .,1 by major industry division,2 June 1962
Workers in establishments

Number of establishments

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Within
scope of
study3

Studied

_

50

186

Manufacturing ------------------------------------------------- --------------------

50
50
50
50
50
50
50

Industry division

All divisions

—

Within scope of study
Total4

Office

Plant

Total4

74

46. 200

4. 700

36.000

32.910

130
56

44
30

41,200
5,000

3,600
1, 100

33, 000
3, 000

29. 780
3,130

8
7
27
9
5

6
3
14
4
3

1,000
400
2, 400
900
300

Transportation, communication, and other
Retail trade

Studied

(4)
n

0

h

V)
V)
<♦
>

860
170
1,420
500
180

1 The Lawrence—
Haverhill Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Lawrence and Haverhill cities; Andover, Groveland, Methuen, and North Andover towns in Essex County, Mass*;
Plaistow and Salem towns in Rockingham County, N.H. The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the siae and composition
of the labor force included in the survey. The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure employment trends or
levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded from
the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division. Major changes from the earlier edition (used in the
Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready-mixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to
manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum-size limitation. All outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as
trade,finance,autorepair
service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
s Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufaaturing" in the Series A and B tables. Separate presentation of data for this division is not made
for one or more of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too small to provide enough data to merit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially topermitseparate
presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




Table 2. Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-time hourly earnings for
selected occupational groups in Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.-N .H .,
June 1961 to June 1962, and June I960 to June 1961

Industry and occupational group

June 1961
to
June 1962

June I960
to
June 1961

All industries:
O ffic e c le r ic a l (m en and w om en)
In d u strial n u r se s (m en and w om en)

----- --

Skilled maintenance (men) .......~ ................................ —.
U n sk ille d plant (m en)

-

--------

3.9
4.2
6.7
4.6

4.6
2.4
3.7
4.3

3.6
4.2
6.7
5.5

4.4
2.4
3.8
6.3

Manufacturing:
Skilled maintenance (men)
Unskilled plant (men)

......................................

4
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of
office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average earnings
of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-tim e
salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they m easure changes
in straight-tim e hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over­
time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
The p er­
centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include
m ost of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The of­
fice clerical data are based on men and women in the following 19 jobs:
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting, class A
and B; clerks, file, class A* B, and C; clerks, order; clerks, pay­
roll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B;
office boys and g irls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators,
class B; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial nurses.
Men in the following
8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs were included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e ­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and
die m akers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers,
m aterial handling.

Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations.
The average sa l­




aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average employ­
ment in the job during the period surveyed in 1961.
These weighted
earnings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an ag ­
gregate for each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group
aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the other year was
computed and the difference between the result and 100 is the percent
of change from the one period to the other.

The percent of change m easu res, principally, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) m e rit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan­
sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers
employed by establishments with different pay lev els.
Changes in the
labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion
might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific
occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction
in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
occurred in other area establishments.

The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtim e,
since they are based on pay for straight-tim e hours.

The above text represents the method used in computing a new trend
series.
The expansion of the labor market wage survey program in 1961 made
data available in 82 areas for the computation of wage trends for selected job
groupings.
Sixty-one areas were surveyed in I960; prior to 1960, coverage was
limited to 20 areas.
Therefore, it was decided to compute a new trend series in
which 1961 will be the base year since this is the first year in which data were
collected in a ll 82 areas.
The percents of change shown in table 2 are not comparable with sim ilar
data shown for this area in last y e a r's Bulletin 1285-79.
The new series intro­
duces changes in the job groupings for which trends are shown and changes in
jobs included in the computations.

A:

5

O ccu p a tio n a l E a rn in g s

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings £or selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Lawrence-Haverhill, M a ss.-N . H ., June 1962)
Avanaoi
N m er
u b
of
w rk r*
o e

Sex, occupation, and industry division

NUM
BER O W
F ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGH
T-TIM WEEKLY EARN G O —
E
IN S F

W ly
eek
W ly 40.00 ^5. 00 *50. 00 *55. 00 ^ 0 .0 0 *65. 00 ^ 0 .0 0 *75. 00 1 0 .0 0 *85. 00 ^ 0 .0 0 *95. 00 foo. 00 ?05. 00 fio.oo
eek
h u 1 e rn g 4 and
o rs
a in s
and
(S n a ) (S n a ) under
ta d rd
ta d rd
45.00 50.00 55.00 60. 00 65. 00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 over

Men
Clerks, accounting, class A

__ __

—

2

--------

21

39.0

$87.00

Biller8, machine (billing machine) _______ __ __________
Nonmanufacturing____________________ _____________

, 20

■ 4 0.0
■
46 .6

61.00
59. 06

-

-

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B _____ ______
Manufacturing_________ __ ___ —________— _________
Nnnmanufactu rin g
__ __

79
23
56

39.5
36.6

59. 00
67. 06
55. 50

-

8
8

Clerks, accounting, class A -----------------«.-------------- -----Manufacturing___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing___
________________ ______

69
44
25

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

39.0

83.00
81. 50
85. 00

.
-

Clerks, accounting, class B -------------Manufacturing _ ______
__
— _________ ________
Nonmanufacturing___________________
____

94
37
57

39.5
39.5
39.5

70. 50
72. 00
69. 50

Clerk 89 order
Manufacturing

27
21

40.0
40". 6

_

1

5

5

3

3

_

1

j

Women

■ ■ ■ —»■ »■ ■ ■ ■ ■ i— ■ —■ ■, ,■ ■
■ ■ ■ ■ »■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ m ■■ ■
_ _

Clerks, payroll
Manufacturing___

__

__

196
r<n

___

Keypunch operators, class A 1
2
---Manufacturing----------------------------------------------------------Keypunch operators, class B 2

-

-

3
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

23
23

10
4
6

9
1
8

21
10
11

4
4
-

4
4
-

_
-

_
-

-

.
-

_
-

.
-

-

-

-

2
2

4
2
2

15
11
4

6
6
-

9
7
2

15
11
4

7
2
5

2
1
1

8
4
4

1
1

1
1

3
3

7
7

6
6

11
6
5

17
9
8

9
8
1

14
9
5

14
4
10

11
11

_
.
-

_
-

1
1
-

_
-

80. 00
84. 56

.
-

.
-

_
-

.
-

7
4

4
1

-

1
1

5
5

1
1

.
-

4
4

4
4

1
1

67.00
40.0
TUTQT "W .'M

-

5
5

30
25

31
31

18
re

21
2'1

42
42

15
14

.
-

.
-

_
-

3
-

33
33

39

36

15
15

4
4

5
5

10
16

.
-

.
-

_

9

1

5

7

_

_

_

_

_

_

29
26
3

3 9 .5

40.0
40. 6

69. 50
70. 00

22

_

_

6
3

103

40 .0

59. 50

19 7

10 9

_

3
3

7
7.

23
... 23 ""

5
4
------T “ — z—

_
-

1
----- 1
j— ----- j—
_
-

.
.

.

9
6
3

5

Secretaries
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------------

'173
24

39.5
39.5
40 .0

86. 50
87. 06
79. 50

-

-

-

3
3

8
7
1

10
3
7

13
12
1

}?
18
1

21
18
3

39
39
-

37
36
1

Stenographer s , general2 ____ ___________ _________- ___
Manufacturing

89
54

39.0
39.0

69. 50
76. 06

-

.
-

1
1

6
-

22
13

21
16

8
8

17
9

10
5

3
2

1
“

-

69. 00
'62'. $6

_
-

4
-----?----

_

3
----- T

5
3

5
-

9
3

4
-

6
3

1
-

-

_
.
“

Switchboard operators
Nonmanufacturing___

___

_

---„

Switchboard operator-receptionists----------------------------Manufacturing----------------------------------------------------------Typists, class A . . . . . . .
Manufacturing
Typists, class B _____________

__— ■ ..-m
■
__

_______________

37
39.5
— r e - " 3975T

-

33
25

39.5
39. 5

64. 00
66. 56

-

7
4

4
i

-

9
8

1
1

3
3

2
2

5
5

1
•

1
1

180
T ift

40 .0
40.6

65. 50
65. 50

.
-

.
-

.
-

11
11

76
76

64
64

21
21

4
4

4
4

-

-

-

"

"

~

146

40.0

59. 50

3

31

37

42

26

3

4

_

_

.

.

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Description for this job has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.




4
3
1

£
-

-

*
_

.

.

6
Table A-2.

Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H., June 1962)
Avsbaob
Number
of
workers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly
Weekly. 70.00
hours1
earnings1
and
(Stsndsrd) (Standard) under
75.00

9

75.00

80.00

85.00

*
90.00 *95.00 100.00 105.00 1 10.00 ?15.00 1*20.00 1*25.00 1*30.00 1*35.00 1*40.00 1*45.00 1*50.00

80.00

85.00

90.00

95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00

-

-

17
17

32
iz

17
n

33
66

38
38

12
12

10
lo

2
l

1

5
5

9
9

2
2

3
3

■

■

“

“

~

Men
Draftsmen, senior ________ _______________________ ____
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------

172
172

40.0
40.0

$108.50
166.36

-

-

27
27

40.0
40.0

87.50
87.50

2
2

5
5

1

2
2

-

4
4

"

4
4

"

"

"

Women
Nurses, industrial (registered) _ ___ __ ____ _____..
M anufacturing--------------------------------------------------------

1

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—
Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H., June 1962)

of
workers

Average
weekly j
earnings
(Standard)

21
$ 6 2 .0 0
Clerks, p a y r o l l __________________________________
B illers, machine (billing m ach in e)____________ _
_
Nonmanufacturing __ _ ________________ _____ ------ T F ~ " 6 6 :3 6 M anufacturing --------------------------------------------------------

198
192

$ 6 7 .0 0
6 6 :6 6 ”

Keypunch operators, class A 2 ___________________
5 9 .0 0
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B --------------79
Manufacturing __ _ _ _ _ _
Manufactu ring ____________________ ______________ ----- ZT“ '■ 6'7761)"
Nonmanufactur ing ______ ______________ _____ ______
56
5 5 .5 0
Keypunch operators, class B 2 _______________________
90
8 4 .0 0
Clerks, accounting, class A __________ _______________
Secretaries .
.... .................
„ _T,r .
_
M
Manufacturing
____________ __
8 3 .5 0
53
Manufacturing ---------------------------------- ----— ^_______
8 4 .0 0
37
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________
Nonmanufacturing___________________________ _
104
7 2 .0 0
Clerks, accounting, class B _ ___ __ __ . . __ _
------ 44
Manufacturing
_
_ ___
_
Stenographers, g e n e ra l________
_ _______________
_
7 4 .5 0
60
7 0 .0 0
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------- ------ ---- -----------

109
103

6 9 .5 0
7 6". 6 6'"

Typists, class A
Manufacturing
Typists, class B

Occupation and industry division

N um ber

of
workers

Average
weekly .
earnings
(Standard)

N um ber

34
27

7 9 .5 0
.

82.56 .

Switchboard operators _________________________________
Manufacturing

Average
weekly .
•earninn
(Standard)

Office occupations-—Continued
33
Switchboard operator-receptionists
__—
----M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------- ------ 23

$ 6 4 .0 0
6 6 .6 6

__
________

__

.

180

...

T53

6 5 .5 0
6 5 .5 0

146

5 9 .5 0

1 0 8 .5 0
1 0 8 .5 0

22

5 9 .5 0

197
173
24

8 6 .5 0
87."60”
7 9 .5 0

89
54

6 9 .5 0
7 0 .0 0

Draftsmen, senior ------- --- --------------------------— __________
Manufacturing
.
— ._ — . _____ .

174

37
21

6 9 .0 0
7 3 .6 6

Nurses, industrial (registered) __ _____ ____ _____ ____ —
.
Manufacturing

27
27

______

. . . .

..

_____ ___

P rofessional and technical occupations

Earnings are for a regular workweek for which employees receive their straight-time weekly salaries, exclusive of any premium pay.
Description for this job has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.




Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

Office occupationet—Continued

Office occupations

Clerks, order __________ ____________ __
__ _____
Manufacturing
_____ ____ __________________ __ __

Occupation and industry division

H4

8 7 .5 0

87.56

7
Table A-4.

Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations

(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Lawrence— averhill, M a s s.— .H . , June 1962)
H
N
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

C arpenters, maintenance Manufacturing
___—

$
1.60

50
56 ..

_
---------

_

Average
hourly , Under
naming* *

Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry d ivision

$2.49
£.49

E le ctricia n s, m a in te n a n ce -------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------------

77
77

E ngineers, s ta t io n a r y -------

22

2.43
.... 2. W

—

M achinists, maintenance —
Manufacturing

_

M echanics, m aintenance
—
Manufacturing ______________ ______ _
M illwrights _
_
M a n u fa ctu rin g _______
O ilers
Manufacturing

—
___—

____
_____ _ —

T o o l and die m akers
M a n u fa ctu rin g ______ ______ —

2.00

2. 10

2. 20

2 .30

2.40

2.50

—

2.90

3.00

3. 10

-

-

_

“

17
17

_

_

“

“

1

_

_

"

"

2.60

2 .70

2 .80

_

7
7

7
7

“

1
1

19
19

3
3

1
1

3
3

7
7

2
2

8
8

7
7

3
3

2
2

27
27

_

2

6

2

“

“

”

_

_

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

5

5

~

“

4
4

55
49

4
4

5
5

_

_
-

_

10
16

_

*3. 10 *3.20

*3.30

3.30

3.40

3. 20

“

1 .4 0
and
over

~
•

9

“

17
17

2

“

4
4

3

~

2
— T~

“

_

_

_

_

_

“

'

“

"

“

2.66
£ .66

.

2.48
2.33
2.75
2.74

_

_

-

"

2.62
O T

_

_

■

“

17
n>

2.09
£.66"

“

2.51
2. 51
2.64
2754"

.

_

_

_

_

■

“

■

“

3.02
— 37 S T

_

_

_

_

'

~
6
6

18
18

2
2

7
7

“

10
16

21
21

18
id

'
_

_

“

5
4

“

4
4

21
21

_
“

1
1

1
1

1
1

_

„
"

15
15

_

"

24
24

_

"

“

3
2

"

1
1

6
6

6
4

_

_

_

_

“

“

“

“

“

_

_

_

1
1

2
2

■

2
2

10
10

1
“

3
3

6
“

_

*

2
2

_

"

"

6
“

1
1

_

_
"

4
4

3
3

2
2

11
11

_

“

15
15

7
6

3
3

26
£6

j
-

1
1

1
1

1
1

_

_

6
------ 5“

7
7

11
n r

_

_

■

17
17

_

"

7
7

_

”

~

"

*

_

_

_

■

1
~

_

■

-

"

“

“

”

"

1

8
8

11
11

_

_

“

“

_
"

_
“

3
3

8
8

6
6

_

_
”

1
1

1
1

10
id

1

16
16

_

_

_

_

-

-

2
2

!
1

4
4

8
8

1
1

_

_

_

_

■

■

“

1
1

_
“

_

■

_

1
1

~

4
4

_

-

_

_

_

_

“

1

“

_

"

_
“

_

“

"

Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts,




$
3.00

3
3

2.65
£.66

I T "

$
2.90

4
4

~

123
—

*2.80

3
3

7
7

“

*2.70

3
3

4
4

50
50

______

$2. 50 *2.60

_

“

24
24

_

_

$
2.40

93
89

—

P a in ters, m a in te n a n ce ________________________

P ip e fitte rs, m a in te n a n ce ____
Manufacturing
____

$
2.30

35
22

--- -------

____

$
2.20

2
2

51
--------- ------- ----- 51---- “

—

_

$
2. 10

101
100

—

M echanics, automotive (maintenance)
Nonmanufacturing -------- ------

■

*2. 00

61
61

_
— ....

—
—

i t

~

$
1.90

2.04
£.62

86
H elp ers, maintenance t r a d e s --------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------------- — W ^
M ach in e-tool op era tors, toolroom
Manufacturing _
_

.

“

_

2.68

37
F irem en , stationary b o i l e r ---- — --- ---- ----------—
----- Ts
Manufacturing
— ___
— —

-

2.71
t

$
$1.60 *1.70 1.80
and
under
1.70 1 .8 0 - 1.90

“

_

_

.
"

2
£

•

12
12

17
17

“

4
4

13
13

27

_

"

H

_
*
“
6
6

_
“

3
3

_

_
”

*
•
“

“
20
£o

_

”

30
36

8
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Lawrence-Haverhill, Mass.-N.H., June 1962)
NUMBER OF WOBKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation1 and industry division

Numbor

o
f
v rk
o tra

1.10 1 1.20
hu ,
o rly
and
tunings13
2
under
1.30
1.20
Avantgo

8

8

1.30
1.40

8

1.40
1.50

8

1.50

8

1.60

8

1.70

8

1.80

8

1.90

8

2.00

8

2.10

8

2.20

8

2.30

8

2.40

8

2.50

2.60

1.70

1.80

1.90

2.00

7?
79
•

2.10

2.70
2-80

2.20

2.30

"

5
5

"

"

“

-

_

_

_

_

"

8

2.80
2.90

.

-

_
“

2.40

2.50

2.70

8

_

1.60

2.60

8

53

$1.64
1.67
1.50

30
19
11

17
11
6

22
18
4

14
11
3

33
15
18

23
21
2

43
42
1

12
6
3

26

1.65

3

.

.

.

.

10

13

.

2.01
1.98
2.20

8
2
6

6
6

3
3
■

2
2
"

15
15
■

12
12
“

97
94
3

47
39
8

133
132
1

43
43
“

186
”

11
11
"

17
17
“

57
18
39

18
18

2.11
— m ~

_
“

_
"

2
2

.
■

5
5

6
6

_

1
1

20
20

36
36

1
1

4
4

17
17

_

"

3
3

_

— W
201
201

1.44
1.44

.

11
11

37
37

140
140

8
8

_

1
1

_

_

_

_

■

"

“

"

“

_
"

_

■

4
4

_

‘

_
“

Receiving c le rk s_____________________________
Manufacturing--------------------------------------------

42
36

1.99
2.04

3
-

1
■

2
1

6
5

5
5

2
2

3
“

9
9

_

_

-

4
4

_

-

“

*

"

6
3

1
1

Shipping clerks .. ... ______ ________________
Manufacturing--------------------------------------------

31
25

2.01
2.08

.

.

3

*

-

3
3

1
1

2
------- 2
“

5
2

-

8
8

4
4

m

“

1
1

_

*

“

1
1

Shipping and receiving clerks
Manufacturing--------------------------------------------

46
45

2.13
2.14

-

“

-

*
-

4
4

5
5

14
14

4
4

_

"

"

2
2

4
4

5
5""

_
“

4
4

_
"

Truckdrlv.ri J ________________________________
Manufacturing t t -------------------------- ------------- t
Nonmanufacturing

231
111
120

2.34
2.23
2.43

9
9

.
■

1
1

2

2

7
4
3

6
4
2

6
3
3

8
8
"

6
6
■

3
3
■

5
5
"

7
7
"

7
7
“

60
60
"

100
100

4
4
“

_
"

Truckdrivers, light (under I1 tons) _____ i..
/*

21

1.83

_

1

2

5

1

.

4

4

_

3

_

Truckdrivers, medium (1V to and
2
including 4 tons) ___
_____ .. ________

89

2.19

9

.

.

_

2

1

6

.

2

2

.

4

1

Truckers, power (forklift)
Manufacturing--------------------------------------------

98
36

2.37
2.03

-

■

■

-

■

6
6

-

-

8
6

16

2
2

"

Watchmen____________________________________
Manufactur ing _____________________________

51

1.80
1.81

8
8

.

45

2
2

4
4

2
2

21
21

8
8

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (m en)________

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women) .. ... ..
Laborers, material handling --------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------Packers, shipping (men) . . . . . . . . . _______ _

Packers, shipping (women) ___________________

282

655
.... T O " '
81
95

3

3
3

_

1 Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
3 Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




3
------3—
1

“

_

4
4

166

16

.

3

■

_

_

“

"

‘

_

_

1

_

60

-

-

2

-

6
6

60
"

“

*

"

_

.




B:

E stablishm ent P ra ctice s a n d S u p p lem en ta ry W age P ro v is io n s

9

Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant workers by type and amount of differential,
Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H., June 1962)1
2
•Percent of manufacturing plant workers—
In establishments having formal
provisions 1 for-—

Shift differential

Actually wdrking on—
Third or other
shift

Second shift
work

12.7

2.6
2.3

58.9

57.7

12.0

14.5

14.6

3.0

.8

4 cents ................ ............... ............ ijii- ii,.-iii
5 cents
-—
6 cents -- ___________—
.
.. . _
6l/z cents
.—
....
...
7 cents _________________________________
8 cents
...

.3
.5
.5
.5
.8
.4
.
.
.
-

_
.

cents
—
. . . . . .
cents
cents . . . .
c e n t s -------------------------------------------------

1.1
5.3
1.7
1.7
2.7
1.4
.
1.0
.
.
“

Uniform percentage___—
_____ ____________

28.9

27.7

6.7

1.2

28.9

27.7

6.7

1.2

Other formal pay differential ____________

2 15.4

2 15.4

2.3

.3

No shift pay differential --------T
------------------------

3.7

2.2

.7

.2

10 percent

~

.....

_

59.9

Uniform cents (per hour) ________________ _

10
12
13
15

M

Second shift

62.6
With shift pay differential

Third or other
shift work

...

..

M

.
.
.
1.1
.
1.7
5. 3
4.7
1.0
1.0

.
.2
.1
.4
.2
-

1 Includes establishments currently operating late shifts, and establishments with formal provisions covering late shifts
even though they were not currently operating late shifts.
2 Includes cents-per-hour differentials which vary by labor grade, and a combination of percentage plus cents-per-hour
differential.

10

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishm ents studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary fo r selected ca tegories
of inexperienced women o ffice w ork ers, Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.—
N.H., June 1962)
Inexperienced typists
Manufacturing
Minimum w eekly s a la r y 1

Other inexperienced c le r ic a l w o r k e r s 2

Based on standard w eekly hou rs3 of—

A ll
industries

A ll
schedules

40

A ll
schedules

Nonmanufacturing

Manuf actur ing

Nonmanufacturing

1
■Based on standard w eekly hours 2 of—

A ll
industries

A ll
schedules

40

40

A ll
schedules

40

Establishments s t u d i e d ______________________________________ .. .

74

44

XXX

30

XXX

74

44

XXX

30

XXX

Establishments having a specified minimum ---------------------------

17

12

11

5

4

33

21

17

12

8

_

_

_

_

_

3

1
3

7
2
4

5
2
3

$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 .5 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $ 4 5 .0 0 __________ _______ ________________________
under $ 4 7 .5 0 ____
. _______
__ _ _.
under $ 5 0 .0 0 ________ __________________________ ____
under $ 5 2 .5 0 ___________________________________
under $ 5 5 .0 0 ___ ______________ __
_____ _ _
under $ 5 7 .5 0 ___________________________________________
o v e r ---------------------------------------------------------------------

Establishments having no specified minimum _____

. . .

Establishments which did not em ploy w orkers
in this category

_
5
1
5

4
2

2

1
1
3

2

2

2

.

.

9
5

4

3

1
3
1
5
1

.

.

.

1
10
3

_
3

_
5
_

2

2

2

_

-

2

2

2

.

2

2

2

-

-

3

2

2

1

-

7

6

XXX

1

XXX

21

13

XXX

8

XXX

50

26

XXX

24

XXX

20

10

XXX

10

XXX

_

1 Lowest salary rate form a lly established for hiring inexperienced w orkers for typing or other c le rica l jobs.
2 Rates applicable to m essen g ers, office g ir ls , or sim ilar su b clerica l jobs are not considered.
3 Hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receiv e their regular straight-tim e salaries. Data are presented for all workweeks com bined, and fo r the m ost com m on workweek reported.




Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(P ercent distribution of o ffice and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled w eekly hours
of firs t-s h ift w ork ers, Lawrence— averhill, M a ss.— .H . , June 1962)
H
N
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

W eekly hours
All industries

A ll w orkers
---Under 37Ve hours ------- ---------- - ------37l/2 hours ..... ...........
............................. — —
Over 37 Ve and under 40 hours _______________
40 hours ___________ __ ____ __ __ ------------Over 40 and under 45 hours __________________
45 bnnrs
.... .
46 hours ____ ___
________
_ . . __
48 hours __
___
_ __ __ __ _
49 hours ___
___
___
.
____

L ess than 0.5 percent.

100
1
6
2
90
1
(M
-

Manufacturing

All industries

100

100

.
6
1
93
(*)
-

1
1
1
90
1
1
(l)
3
1

Manufacturing

100
.
1
94
1
3
1




11
Tabic B-4.

Paid Holidays

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H., June 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
Item

A ll w ork ers _____ — -------------------------- -------------W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid h o l i d a y s ------------------------------------------------W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays . ------—

A industries
U

M
anufacturing

All industries

100

100

100

100

98

99

98

99

2

1

2

M
anufacturing

(M

N um ber o f d a y s

L ess than 3 h o l i d a y s _____ ______ _____________
3 holidays
. ____ ,___________________________
___ __. . . .
4 holidays
«__________ ..
5 holidays —
,-----------------------,____________________
6 holidays
— —__
___
____ ___ — _______
—
6 holidays plus 2 half days
7 holidays
—r ------------------------— „,-n
T
---------7 holidays plus 1 half day ____________________
7 holidays plus 2 half d a y s ___________________
8 holidays ________ ,___ ,________________________
8 holidays plus 1 half d a y _____
8 holidays plus 2 half days
_____ . .
_
9 holidays T r----------------------------------------------------10 holidays
_____ ___
___

(l )
1
3
(l )
42
1
1
6
20
(*)
4
20

20
25
45
52
52
94
98
98
98
98
98

.

3
51
1
1
8
26
(M
5
5

(!>
(l )
2
1
7
55
2
7
16
2
4

3
1
6
59
2
7
18
2
2

5
10
36
45
45
97
99
99
99
99
99

4
6
22
29
31
86
94
95
97
97
98

2
4
22
29
31
90
96
97
99
99
99

-

T o ta l h o l i d a y t i n t 1

10 day. _______________________________________
9 or m ore days
_ ______ _ ____ ___
8V or m ore d a y s ________ ____________________
2
8 or m ore days _
___
_
______ ____ __
7 V or m ore d a y s -------------------------------------------2
7 or m ore days _______________________________
6 or m ore d a y s __
—
5 or m ore days ____________________________ ___
4 or m ore d a y s __
__ ______
—
3 or m ore days ___________ ____ _______________
1 or m ore days
_
________ ___ _ ___ __

1 L ess than 0.5 percent.
2 A ll com binations of full and half days that add to the same amount are com bined; for exam ple, the proportion o f w orkers receiving a total
of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. P roportions
w ere then cumulated.

12




Table B-5.

Paid Vacations

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H., June 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKEBS

Vacation policy
All In u
d strie
*

M n fa rin
a u ctu g

All industries

M n fa rin
a u ctu g

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

Method of paymont
Workers in establishments providing
paid vacations . . . . ___________________________
Length-of-time payment----------------------------Percentage payment ----------------------------------Flat-sum payment_________________________
O th e r__________________ — ------------- — ---------Workers in establishments providing
no paid va ca tion s_______ — --------------------------

-

-

100
83
15

-

-

1

100
82
16
*
2

-

-

•

"

5
77
3
3

6
87
1
2

71
7
»
(2)

76
6
-

_
11
(2)
88

_
11
1
89

2
86
2
10

(2)

-

(2)

2
89
2
7
-

_
7
1
92
(2)

.
8
1
91

2
38
22
39

2
38
24
36

-

(2)

-

_
6
1
93
(2)

_
6
1
93

2
26
11
61
1

2
26
12
61

_
6
1
93
(2)

_
6
1
93

2
26
12
61

-

2
26
11
61
1

2
.
93
5

2
.
95
3

4
4
87
6

4
4
88
5

-

Amoupt of vacation p a y 1
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week . . .
___
—
— — —
1 w e e k ________________________________________
. .
Over 1 and under 2 weeks . --------------2 w e e k s......... .....................................................—---After 1 year of service
Under 1 week ___________
___ — — -----1 week
— _______ i ______ n
_
__r—
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
— — -------— -----2 w e e k s___________________ ____ ________ — ---3 weeks
____ —
...___ — — — -— — —
—
After 2 years of service
Under 1 week . . . ___________________ — ---1 week
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks __________ ___ _ . . ------------------3 weeks ------------------------------------------------------------After 3 years of service
Under 1 week
___
--------1 week ________________________________ t- h
__________
2 weeks
,... ___ _____________ r
3 w e e k s_____________
—
—
—

-

-

After 4 years of service
Under 1 week _______
__ ....
1 week
___________ _____________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks .
.
------2 weeks ________ .______________________________
3 w e e k s__
. . .
— ----------------

-

After 5 years of service
1 week
_ __ __
___
---------Over 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks __________ __ _______ __ ____
___
3 week. ------------------------------------------------------------See footnotes at end of table.




13
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations— Continued

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H., June 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Vacation policy
All industries

Manufacturing

All Industrie*

Manufacturing

Amount of vacation p a y 1— -Continued
After 10 years of service
1 w e e k _____ ____
__
__
__
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks . ___ ____
.
.
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ________________ ___3 weeks -------------------------------------------------------------

2
.
80
.
19

2
_
87
.
11

4
4
77
2
14

3
4
79
2
12

2
.
60
1
37

2
.
62
1
35

4
4
59
3
30

3
4
61
4
29

2
.
21
_
76
1

2
.
15
.
82
1

4
4
32
1
59
1

3
4
31
1
60
1

2
.
21
.
69
8

2
_
15
.
81
2

4
4
32
1
56
4

3
4
31
1
58
3

2
.
21
.
30
47

2
.
15
.
31
52

4
4
31
1
29
31

3
4
30
1
30
32

After 12 years of service
1 week __
________ «...
_______
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ------------------------------_______
__
__
3 weeks
After 15 years of service
1 week
2 weeks
___
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
4 weeks -------------------------------------------------------------

;

After 20 years of service
1 week
............
—
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks
. .
Over 2 and under 3 weeks — , -------------------3 weeks .
—
.
4 weeks
__
M
After 25 years of service
1 week
__
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks
3 w e e k s ___
4 weeks

__
—

--------------- „-------____ ___
___

1 Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions.
changes in proportions indicated at 10 years' service include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

For example, the

NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e," such as percentage of annual
earnings or flat-sum payments, were converted to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered
as 1 week's pay.

14




Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P ercent of office and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions em ployed in establishm ents providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.—
N.H., June 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Type of benefit
All industries

Manufacturing

All industries

Manufacturing

100

100

100

95

98

92

95

74

84

64

66

86

96

89

90

Sickness and accident i n s u r a n c e ______
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting p e r i o d ) ___________________ ____
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) ------------------------------------

45

49

63

65

39

38

5

2

34

43

24

26

Hospitalization insurance
________ .
______
_______
Surgical insurance
M edical insurance
___________
________
Catastrophe insurance _________________ ___
Retirem ent pension ____________ __________
No health, insurance, or pension plan

62
61
58
78
76

54
53
50
79
77

1

1

69
67
56
44
65
5

69
67
55
47
67
5

100

W orkers in establishm ents providing:
Life insurance
.
„______________ . .
Accidental death and dism em berm ent
insurance _
— -----Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or b oth 1 -------- -------- ------------------

1 Unduplicated total of w orkers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. S ick-leave plans are lim ited
to those which definitely establish at least the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each em ployee. Inform al s ick -le a v e allow ances
determ ined on an individual basis are excluded.

Appendix A: Changes in Occupational Descriptions

Since the Bureau’ s last survey in this area, occupational
descriptions for three office jobs were revised in order to obtain salary
information for more specific categories. Therefore, data presented
for these jobs in table A -l are not comparable to data presented in last
year’ s bulletin.

Revisions were made in the descriptions for file clerks, key­
punch operators, and stenographers. The revised description for file
clerk groups these workers into three levels (class A, B, and C) in­




stead of two (class A and B). The revised description for keypunch
operator groups these workers into two defined classes (A and B)
instead of a single category. Previously data were presented separately
for general stenographers and technical stenographers. The revision
combines general stenographers, with more responsible duties, and
technical stenographers to form a new senior stenographer category;
other general stenographers are maintained in that classification.
The revised occupational descriptions used this year are in­
cluded in appendix B.

IS




Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (billing machine)—
Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge o f basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)—
Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

17

18

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G —C o n tin u e d

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C—
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g.., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.




CLE RK , ORDER

Receives customers *orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating o f
customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

19

KEYPUNCH O P E R A T O R

Class A—
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B—
Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and




S E C R E T A R Y — C o n tin u e d

making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographer
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and o f the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters fromgeneral
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

20

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class C-Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a variety o f tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision o f the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.



TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing o f stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A—
Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B—
Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

21

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts o f drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes*
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units o f complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use o f drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength o f materials, beams and trusses; verifying

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina•
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees9 injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicant^
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting die health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made o f wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenters handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions o f work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




22

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply die establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera^
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establish•
ments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation o f one or more types o f machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.



Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts o f mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping o f metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge o f the working

M A C H IN IST , M A IN T E N A N C E —C on tin u ed

M IL L W R IG H T

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the -plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out o f the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers o f gravity; alining
and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.




OILER
Lubricatesf with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces o f mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefitdngs in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

24

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER. MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of die maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
tepairing building sanitation or beating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) o f an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types o f sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those o f starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering.




2S

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method o f shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge o f various items o f stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow•
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise tor shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Ship•
ping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file o f shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers9 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:

and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform dther related duties.

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk




26

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over*the»road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under Vfc tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type, o f
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 O - 657077


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102