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Occupational Wage Survey

CLEVELAND, OHIO
O C TO B E R 1956

Bulletin No. 1202-3

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREA U

O F LA B O R STA TISTIC S

Ew an Clagua, Commi*$ionor




Occupational Wage Survey




CLEVELAND, OHIO
OCTOBER 1956

Bu lle tin N o . 1202-3
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
B U R E A U O F LA B O R S TA TISTIC S
Ew an Clague, Commissioner
January 1957

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Community Wage Survey Program

T able s:
1.
2.

Establishments and workers within scope of su rv ey____________
Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, and
percent of increase for selected p e rio d s ______________________

2
3

A;

Occupational earnings *
A - 1: Office occupations ______________________________
A-2: Professional and technical occupations_________
A - 3: Maintenance and powerplant occupations_____ .—
A - 4: Custodial and material movement occupations_

B:

Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions * B -1: Shift differential provision s_______________________________
B-2: Minimum entrance rates for women office
workers __________________________________________________
B -3: Scheduled weekly hours ___________________________________
B-4: Paid holidays _____________________________________________
B-5: Paid vacations ____________________________________________
B-6:Health, insurance, and pension plans ______________________

12
13
13
14
15

Appendix: Job descriptions _____________________________________________

17

Current reports on occupational earnings and sup­
plementary wage practices in the Cleveland area are also
available for machinery industries (February 1956), power
laundries and dry cleaners (June 1955), industrial chem­
icals (August 1955), women1s and m isses1 dresses (August
1955), and hotels (July 1955). Union scales, indicative of
prevailing pay levels, are available for the following trades
or industries: Building construction, printing, local-transit
operating employees, and motortruck drivers.

o

* NOTE: Similar tabulations for most of these items are
available in the Cleveland area reports for October 1951,
October 1952, and October 1954. The 1954 report also
included data on frequency of wage payments, and pay pro­
visions for holidays falling on nonworkdays. A directory
indicating date of study and the price of the reports, as
well as reports for other major areas, is available upon
request.

00




1
3

m r~

The Bureau of Eabor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers.
The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits. A prelim inary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following the
payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data
not included in the ea rlier report. A consolidated analytical
bulletin summarizing the results of all of the y e a rr s surveys
is issued after completion of the final area bulletin for the
current round of surveys.

Introduction______________________________________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups __________________________

11




Occupational Wage Survey - Cleveland, Ohio*
Introduction
The Cleveland area is one of severa l important industrial
centers in which the Department of L a b o rfs Bureau of Labor Statistics
has conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related wage bene­
fits on an areawide basis. In each area, data are obtained by personal
visits of Bureau field agents to representative establishments within
six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (excluding
ra ilroa d s), communication, and other public u tilities; wholesale trade;
reta il trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services . M ajor
industry groups excluded from these studies, besides railroads, are
government operations and the construction and extractive industries.
Establishments having few er than a prescribed number of w orkers are
omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the occu­
pations studied to warrant inclusion. 1 W herever possible, separate
tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions.

to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) fo r which
straight-tim e salaries are paid; average w eekly earnings fo r these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
Occupational employment estim ates represent the total in a ll
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
a lly surveyed.
Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not m a teria lly affect the accuracy of the earnings
data.
Establishment P ractices and Supplementary Wage Provision s

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying a ll establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estim ates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as r e ­
lating to a ll establishments in the industry grouping and area, except
for those below the minimum size studied.

Information is presented also (in the B -s eries tables) on s e ­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they
relate to office and plant w orkers.
The term "o ffice w o r k e r s ," as
used in this bulletin, includes a ll office c le rica l employees and ex ­
cludes adm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical personnel.
"Plan t w o rk ers" include working forem en and a il nonsupervisory w ork­
ers (including ieadmen and train ees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Adm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical em ployees, and
force-account construction employees who a re utilized as a separate
work force are excluded.
C afeteria w orkers and routemen are e x ­
cluded in manufacturing industries, but are included as plant w orkers
in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a va riety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational c la s­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of inter establishment variation in duties within the same
job (see appendix fo r listing of these descriptions). Earnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tables) fo r the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerica l; (b) professional and technical; (c) m ainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m aterial movement.

Shift differen tial data (table B - l) are lim ited to manufacturing
industries.
This information is presented both in term s of (a) estab­
lishment policy, 2 presented in term s of total plant w orker em ploy­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of w orkers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differen tials, the amount applying to
a m a jority was used or, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the c la s­
sifications "oth er" was used.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w orkers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as fo r office cle ric a l occupations, referen ce is

Minimum entrance rates (table B-2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis.
Scheduled hours; paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated sta tis­
tica lly on the basis that these are applicable to all plant or office

* This report was prepared in the Bureauls regional office in
Chicago, III. , by Woodrow C. Linn, under the direction of George E.
Votova, Regional Wage and Industrial Relations Analyst.
1 See table 1 fo r m inim um -size establishment covered.




2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the follow ing conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.
(i)

2

w orkers if a m a jo rity of such w orkers are eligible or may eventually
qualify fo r the practices listed. 3 Because of rounding, sums of indi­
vidual items in these tabulations do not n ecessarily equal totals.
The summary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
ments, excluding inform al plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the em ployer.
Separate estimates are provided
according to em ployer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis w ere converted; fo r example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 w eek's pay.
Data a re presented fo r a ll health, insurance, and pension
plans fo r which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workm en's compensation and
social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a com m er­
cial insurance company and those provided through a union fund or paid
d irectly by the em ployer out of current operating funds or from a fund
set aside fo r this purpose. Death benefits are included as a form of
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type of in­
surance under which predeterm ined cash payments are made d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for a ll such plans to which the
em ployer contributes. H owever, in New York and New Jersey, which

have enacted tem porary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions, 4 plans are included only if the em ployer ( l ) con­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly required, or (2) provides the em ployee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations
of paid sick -leave plans are lim ited to form al plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the w ork er's pay during absence from work
because of illn ess.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
( l ) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of w orkers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of w orkers who re ceive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometim es re ferred to as extended
m edical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
em ployees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the norm al coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans.
M edical insurance re fers to plans providing fo r complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com m er­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insu red. Tabulations of retirem ent pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the rem ainder of the
w ork er's life .

4 The tem porary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a form al plan if
3
Scheduled w eekly hours fo r office w orkers (firs t section it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
of
table B -3) are presented in term s of the proportion of women office
could be expected by each em ployee. Such a plan need not be written,
w orkers employed in offices with the indicated w eekly hours fo r women
but inform al sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
w orkers.
w ere excluded.

T A B L E 1:

E stablishm ents and w o rk e rs within scope of survey and num ber studied in Cleveland, Ohio, 1 by m ajor industry division, O ctober 1956
M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b li s h ­
m e n ts in s c o p e
o f stu dy

In d u s tr y d iv is io n

A l l d iv is i o n s _______________________________________________________

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s

Stu d ied

W ith in s c o p e o f study

Stu d ied

T o ta l 3

O ffic e

P la n t

T o tal 3

965

235

3 6 1 ,9 0 0

5 4 ,0 0 0

2 3 9 ,7 0 0

2 1 5 ,4 6 0

“

456
509

109
126

258, 500
1 0 3,40 0

3 2 ,9 0 0
21, 100

187, 700
5 2 ,0 0 0

163, 900
51, 560

101
51
101
51
51

65
157
81
90
116

22
34
20
26
24

30, 800
18, 600
2 5 ,2 0 0
1 4 ,9 0 0
13 ,9 0 0

4, 700
4 ,9 0 0

_____________

M a n u f a c t u r in g (e x c lu d in g n e w s p a p e r s ) _____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _______________________________ _______
_________________
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n ,
a n d o th e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s 4 _______________________________________________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e ______________ _____________________________________
__
R e t a il t r a d e (e x c lu d in g d e p a rtm e n t s t o r e s ) ___________________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ___________________________________
S e r v ic e s 7 ______________________ ______________________________________________

N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s
W ith in
s c o p e of
study 2

101

( 5)
8, 000
( 5)

1 2 ,1 0 0
8, 500
6
6

(5 )
2 ,4 0 0
( 5)

20,
8,
11,
7,
4,

190
110
170
390
700

1 The C leveland M etropolitan A re a (Cuyahoga and Lake C ounties). The "w o rk e rs within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reason ably accurate description of the size and composition of
the labo r force included in the survey. The estim ates a re not intended, how ever, to se rv e a s a b a sis of com parison with other a re a employment indexes to m easure employment trends or le v e ls since ( l ) planning
of wage surveys re q u ire s the use of establishm ent data com piled considerably in advance of the pay period studied, and (2) sm all establishm ents a re excluded fro m the scope of the survey.
2 Includes a ll establishm ents with total employment at or above the m in im u m -size lim itation. A ll outlets (within the a r e a ) of com panies in such in dustries as trade, finance, auto re p a ir serv ice, and motionpicture theaters a re considered as 1 establishm ent.
3 Includes executive, technical, pro fessio n al, and other w o rk ers excluded fro m the separate office and plant categories.
4 A ls o excludes taxicabs, and se rv ic e s incidental to w ater transportation. C le v e la n d 's transit system is m unicipally operated and, th erefore, excluded by definition fro m the scope of the studies.
5 This industry division is represen ted in estim ates fo r " a ll ind u stries" and "nonm anufacturing" in the S e rie s A and B tables, although coverage w as insufficient to justify separate presentation of data.
6 Estim ate relates to re a l estate establishm ents only.
,
.
7 Hotels; p erson al serv ic e s; busin ess se rv ic e s; autom obile re p a ir shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and architectu ral service .




3
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
The table below presents indexes of salaries of o ffice c le ric a l
w orkers and industrial nurses, and of average earnings of selected
plant w orker groups.
F o r office c le ric a l w orkers and industrial nurses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries fo r normal hours of work, that is,
the standard work schedule fo r which straight-tim e salaries are paid.
F o r plant w orker groups, they measure changes in straight-tim e hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay fo r overtim e and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
The indexes are based on data for
selected key occupations and include most of the num erically important
jobs within each group. The o ffice c le r ic a l data are based on women in
the following 18 jobs: B ille r s , machine (billing machine); bookkeepingmachine operators, class A and B; Comptometer operator s; c le r k s , file ,
class A and B; clerk s, order; clerk s, payroll; key-punch operators;
o ffice girls ; secreta ries; stenographers, general; switchboard opera­
tors; switchboard operator-receptionists; tabulating-machine operators;
transcribing-m achine operators, general; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse data are based on women industrial nurses. Men
in the following 10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs w ere
included in the plant w orker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians;
machinists; mechanics; mechanics, automotive; m illw rights; painters;
pipefitters; sheet-m etal w orkers; and tool and die m akers; unskilled—
janitors, p o rters, and cleaners; la b orers, m aterial handling; and
watchmen.
A verage weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed fo r each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then m ultiplied by the average of October
1952 and October 1954 employment in the job. These weighted earn­

ings fo r individual occupations w ere then totaled to obtain an a gg re­
gate fo r each occupational group. F in a lly, the ratio of these group
aggregates fo r a given year to the aggregate fo r the base period (survey
month, winter 1952-53) was computed and the result multiplied by the
base year index (100) to get the index fo r the given year.
The indexes m easure, princip ally, the effects of ( l ) general
salary and wage changes; (2) m erit or other increases in pay received
by individual w orkers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor fo rce such as labor turnover, fo rce expansions, force reduc­
tions, and changes in the proportion of w orkers employed by estab­
lishments with different pay le v e ls .
Changes in the labor fo rce can
cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without
actual wage changes. F o r example, a fo rce expansion might increase
the proportion of low er paid workers in. a specific occupation and r e ­
sult in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion
of low er paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement
of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights elim inates the effects
of changes in the proportion of w orkers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard work schedules or in premium pay fo r overtim e, since they
are based on pay fo r straight-tim e hours.
Indexes fo r the period 1953 to 1956 fo r workers in 15 other
m ajor labor markets appeared in BBS Bull. 1188, Wages and Related
B enefits, 17 Labor M arkets, 1955-56.

Table 2: Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in
Cleveland, Ohio, October 1956 and October 19 54 and percents of increase for selected periods
Indexes
Percent in creases fropm—
(October 1952 = 100)
October 1951
October 1952
October 1954
Industry and occupational group
October
October
to
to
to
1954
1956
October 1952
October 1954
October 1956
All industries:
7.6
10.3
10.6
110.3
_____
122.0
O ffic e c le ric a l (w o m e n )
_
8.1
12.0
11.4
124.8
112.0
In d u strial n u r s e s (w o m e n )
6.2
10.1
10.7
110. 1
S k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e ( m e n ) ....
121.9
4 .2
11.6
11.7
111.6
U n s k ille d p lan t (m e n )
...........
. ...
124.7
Manufacturing:
O ffice

clerical

In dustrial

(w om en )

nurses

S k ille d m a in te n a n c e
U n sk illed

____ ..
.

(m en )

p lan t (m e n )




_

(w om en )
..

.

.................

123. 6
124. 1
122.0
121.2

111.3
112.0
110. 1
108.9

11.1
10.7
10.7
11.3

11.3
12.0
10.2
8 .9

7 .4
9.0
6.1
5.3

October 1951
to
October 1956
31.3
35.0
29.4
29.9
32.7
35.2
29.4
27.7




5

A : Occupational Earnings
T a b le A - l:

O ffic e O c c u p a tio n s

(A v e ra g e straight-tim e weekly hoars and earnings for selected occupations studied on an are a b asis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1956)

Average
Number
of
workers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
55. 00

$
60. 00

$
65. 00

$
70. 00

$
75. 00

$
80. 00

$
85. 00

$
$
$
$
$
90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 105.00 n o .

00

55. 00

60, 00

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

85. 00

90. 00

95. 00 100.00

00

10

$
$
40. 00 45. 00
and
under
45. 00 50. 00

$
50. 00

19

Weekly
W
eekly x Under
earnings $
(Standard) (Standard) 40. 00

12
1
11

23
12
11

33
23
10

63
4b
17

74
bY
17

105
84
21

5
4

37
34

43
37 —

50

26
22

4
2

105. 00 n o .

00

115.

$
$
115.00 120. 00
and
120.00 over

Men
676
503
173

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

$
95. 00
9b. 50
90. 00

C le rk s , accounting, class B ____________________________
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________

252
198

40. 0
40. 0

79. 00
81. 50

-

-

C le rk s , ord er _ _________________________________________
M a n ufa cturin g __________ ____________________________
N o nm anufacturing___________________ _______________
Wholesale trade ___________________________________

887
347
540
502

40.
40.
40.
40.

0
0
0
0

87. 50
94.00
83. 50
84. 00

_
-

C le rk s , p a y r o ll________ _______________________________
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________

244
205

40. 5
40. 5

82. 50
84. 00

.

Office boys _ __ __ ______________________________________
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________ —
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
Finance * * _________________________________________

265
39. 0
n r r ~ “ "5975
134
38. 5
38. 5
69

56. 00
55750
57. 00
60. 50

.
-

Tabulating-m achine operators __________________________
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________

289

40. 0
40. 0

91. 00
91. 50

_

C le rk s , accounting, class A ____________________________
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________

226

1

-

-

122
84
38

77
54
23

37 --------- r 7
37

60
49
11

51
48
3

1
1

3
3

2

24
11

5
5

8
-

_
-

-

_
-

20
20
20

13
1
12
5

68
32
162
------- 59 — T T ]
7 --------- V
64
52
88
25
50
18
50
88

_

_

10
10

4
2

18
10

10
2

35
30

32
29

20
20

44
40

17
14

22
20

17
14

4
3

10

71
39
32
16

40
16
24
21

21
9
12
11

14
9
5
4

7
7
2

1
1
-

_
-

.
"

"

_
-

“

3
1

5
1

17
8

34
10
8 -------27

21
15

39
36

28
26

56
48

37
31

16
16
-

5

1
1

_
-

_
-

_
-

~

39
26

13
_

20
52
5 ------- T T
25
15
10
5

w ~

151
159
42 ------- 57“
117
84
116
84

70
38
72
75“ ------- 5 7 - --------35 —
47
3
15
47
15
3

14
R“

23
TT

1

-

14
15 ---------r r
4
9
4
2

14
~ T T

-

1
1

.
-

.
-

-

_
-

24
17

9

6
"

_

_
-

_
-

_

_
-

10

_

_

-

-

"

22
6
16

40
-------12
28
10

6

5

15

15

3

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

56
39
17

39
23
16

36
33
3

62
57
5

33
19
14

24
17 '
7

9
4
5

10
5
5

3
3

_
"

_
-

1
1

_

-

150
18
132
8
104

256
101
155
40
105

136
35
101
46
36

75
42
33
8
25

43
24
19
11
4

3
3
-

4
3
1
1

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

165
115
-------4 5 - -------35
120
79

100
56
44

68
43
25

30

23
13
10

19
9
10

8
8
"

~

1
1
'

■

18

2
2
-

8
8
-

-

-

-

8

Women
B ille r s , machine (b illin g machine) ________________ ___
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________ —
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________

270

.

96

40. 0
61. 50
4trr 0 .. 753.00
58. 50
39. 5

-

rrr~

2
2
“

67

41. 5

67. 00

.

_

2

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A _____________
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______________________________ ___

279
197
82

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5

74. 50
74. 00
75. 50

.
-

„

.

-

"

2
2

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B _____________
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
Wholesale trade __________________________________
Finance ** _________________________________________

979
265
714
143
505

39.
39.
39.
39.
38.

59.
64.
58.
62.
56.

50
00
00
50
50

_
-

7
7
5

118
12
106
20
84

187
27
160
10
141

76. 00
79. 00
74. 00

_
-

—

B ille r s , machine (bookkeeping machine) ______________

C le rk s , accounting, class A ________________________ ____
760
Manufacturing ________________________________________ ------ JT2
N onm anufacturing____________________________________
448

0
5
0
5
5

39. 5
.... ~W. 5
39. 5

C le rk s , accounting, class B
M an ufa cturin g ___ ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________ __ ________
Public utilities *

1,295
658
637
72

40. 0
40.0
39. 5
40. 0

65.
70.
59.
57.

C le rk s , file, class A ___________________________________
M a n ufa cturin g ___ __________________________ ______
N o nm anufacturing___ _______________________________

257
157
100

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5

66. 00
67.00
65. 00

00
50
00
50

_
-

_
-

.

_

"

-

31
31
1
_
-

6
7
--------- 3—
6
4

155
59
5 ------ 45
54
109
21
5
2
2

74
s i- —
ii

21
4
17

75
25
50

143
—

W ~

88

114
80
78
55
175
54
------ 9 3 - -------S T - -------99 ------ 65
1
28
21
13
82
3
1
7
27
10
56
36
48
47
22 — n r~ --------- 5 W ~ -------2S~ -------7 T ~ -------2 4 4
7
20
32
12
5

254
96
158
17
—

46
33
31
r e - -------2 5 - ------- 25
8
5
27

241
101
140
24

See footnote at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), communication, and other public utilities,
* * Finance, insurance, and re a l estate.




NOTE:

Data fo r nonmanufacturing do not include inform ation for department stores;
the rem ainder of retail trade is appropriately represented in data fo r all
industries combined and fo r nonmanufacturing.

18

12
25
25
-

18

3
2
1

-

-

-

Occupational Wage Survey, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of L a b o r Statistics

6
T a b le A -l:

O ffic e O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d

(A v erage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an are a b asis
in C levelan d, Ohio, by industry division, October 1956)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
o
f
workers

$
40. 00
and
under
45. 00

$
45. 00

$
50. 00

$
55. 00

$
60. 00

$
65. 00

$
70. 00

$
75. 00

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

65.00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

35
35
11

136
37
99
29
45

249
61
188
59
71

220
------ §6
134
52
44

125
67
58
21
27

97
------ 47~ —
50
29
16

21
6
4
2

42
42
-

-

W
eekly,
W
eekly
hours 1 earnings1 Under
(Standard) (Standard)
lo . 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
85. 00 90. 00
95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115. 00 120. 00
and
85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 ■10-5.00 110.00 ..llfLQ.Q 120.00 over.

$
80. 00

Women - Continued
C le rk s , file, class B _ ______________ _________________
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
_ _
_ .
Wholesale trade ___________________________________
Finance **

930
— 3 ^ r~
570
194
216

39.
40.
39.
40.
38.

5
0
5
0
5

$
52.
55.
49.
51.
49.

00
50
50
50
00

ir ~

4
--------- T ~
-

_
-

1
1
-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

4
4
-

17
4
13

5
5
-

3
3
-

1
1
-

.
-

-

_
-

40

47
41
6
1

29
29
-

14
13
1
-

4
4
-

1
1
-

_
_

_
_

-

19
19
-

1
1
"

1
1
1

1
1
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

22
r§~“
4
4
_
-

32
22
10
6
3
1

42
31
11
6
1
4

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

C le rk s order
_
_
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
_ ............. _

448
303
145

40. 0
39. 5
40. 0

63. 00
64. Oo
61.00

-

-

18
18
-

34
12
22

73
40
33

84
65
19

61
43
18

63
37
26

38
24
14

24
24
-

23
23
-

....... .
C le rk s , p ayro ll ...
. ....
Manufacturing
......
. _. .. ,
_
N o nm an ufa ctu rin g________________________________ '___
Public utilities *
_

931
652
279
105

40.
40.
40.
40.

0
0
0
0

70.
72.
65.
62.

00
00
00
00

2
?
-

19
5
14
-

11
3
8
2

77
47
30
20

111
90
21
18

153
82
71
34

131
87
44
16

98
71
27
9

116
89
27
-

78
54
24
3

Com ptom eter operators
Manufactur ing
_
Nonm anufacturing
Wholesale trade

795
473
322
111

39. 5
40.0
39. 5
39. 5

66.
68.
61.
62.

00
50
50
50

-

4
4

30
4
26
-

105
55
50
22

98
5(1
48
20

127
57
70
26

140
92
48
19

108
61
47
19

114
86
28
4

47
47
-

Duplicating-m achine operators (m im eograph or
ditto) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing _
_
... ... . _ .....
_ .

120
94

39. 5
39. 5

59. 50
60. 50

-

11
11

13
5

18
17

26
rr~

16
13

5
4

18
18 '

10
10

3
3

K ey-punch operators
..
_
. .
.. ___
_.
.
M a n ufa cturin g _____ _________________________________
N o nm anufacturing______________ _ _____ __________

760
592
168

39. 5
40. 0
39. 0

66. 00
67. 00
61. 50

11
11

_
-

42
34
8

62
46
16

75
57
18

145
98
47

154
119
35

108
84
24

122
115
7

33
31
2

8
8
-

-

Office g irls ______________________________________________
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________
Nonm an ufa ctu rin g____________________________________

254
141
113

49. 5
40. 0
39. 5

52. 50
54. 50
50. 00

-

48
11
37

65
41
24

50
28
22

56
31
25

12
8
4

11
10
1

12
12
-

_
-

_
"

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

Secretaries _ __
_ . ............
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _
__
...................... .
Public utilities *
. _
Wholesale trade
_ _
Finance ** _________________________________________

2, 649
1T6()6 "
1, 043
198
239
390

39. 5
39. 5
39. 0
40. 0
39. 5
38. 5

83.
85.
79.
89.
78.
76.

00
50
50
50
50
00

_
-

_
-

_
-

28
28
19

22
4
18
14

194
250
T0 '6 ”■ ll"4
88
116
4
17
22
38
52
41

469
261
208
14
53
78

430
238
192
40
39
73

308
210
98
32
6
31

383
281
102
26
35
19

167
126
41
23
6
10

107
84
23
19
1
3

38
30
8
2
1
5

Stenographers. general
_
_
..... .
Manufacturing _ _
N o nm anufacturing_________________________ ___________
P ublic utilities *
. ...
. . _.
Wholesale trade ___________________________________
Finance ** _________________________________________

2, 664
T7T73
1,091
152
395
342

39.
40.
39.
40.
39.
38.

5
0
0
0
5
0

68. 00
71.00
64. 00
65. 00
67. 00
60. 50

_
-

14
1
13
10

383
351
l ~ “ 213
102
98
13
17
58
59
20
12

229
'T 8 T
46
11
13
14

104
86
18
_
18
-

23
22
1
_
1
"

9
9

5
5
_
_
_

1
_
1
_
1

-

22
22
22

1
_
1
_
1
-

-

-

Stenographers, te c h n ic a l________________________________
•
Switchboard operators ---------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing _
._ ._ .
.
. _
No nm an ufa ctu rin g____________________________________

209

39. 0

77. 50

_

_

_

_

1

_

.

-

410
176
234

40. 5
40. 0
40. 5

64. 00
70. 50
59. 50

-

18
18

46
1
45

Switchboard opera tor-re ce ption ists _
M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________________________
Nonm anufacturing ____________________________________
Wholesale trade

643
36T5
275
94

39.
40.
39.
39.

63. 50
65. 50
61.00
63. 50

26
-------3----17
“

11
11
"

_
_ _

.
_
...... .

5
0
0
5

-

-

.

_
■

See footnote at end of table.
* T ransportation (excluding r a ilro a d s ), communication, and other public utilities.
* * Finance, insurance, and re a l estate.




151
362
— 51— T 5 5
98
207
22
33
16
63
50
78

—

157
51—
96
5
34
40

—

W ~
4
2

—

545
"“ 257
288
27
109
79

464
268
196
29
56
57

-

-

6

5

12

30

84

37

26

8

_

.

34
10
24

26

76
27
49

89
38
51

36
29

44

7

.

.

.

.

-

“

-

-

16

6
1

2
2
“

_

7

32
30
2

-

.
-

64
24
40
14

88
4i
47

180
121
1"13" — m
41
67
26
17

74
----- 37
37
8

44
----- IT
7
4

22
5
— rs~~ --------5
4
■
■

_

_

_

_

_

1
4
4

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

5

21

21

~

28

28

'

5

-

_
_

3
3

"

“

-

“

7
T a b le A-1: O ffic e O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d
(Average s tra ig h t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1956)
Average

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Number

Sex, occupation, and industry division

o
f

workers

Weekly ,
Weekly .
hours 1 earnings 1
(Standard) (Standard)

Under
$
40. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00
and
45. 00 30LOO 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 over

Women - Continued
Tabulating-m achine operators
_ _
............
Manufacturing
_
_ . ...
.... .
No nm an ufa ctu rin g___________________________________

161
86
75

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

$
74. 50
79. 00
69. 00

-

-

..
-

1
1

15
10
5

23
10
13

30
2
28

22
8
14

12
7
5

19
15
4

21
19
2

10
7
3

5
5

3
3

-

Tra n sc rib in g -m a ch in e operators , general ____________
Manufacturing
. _
.
____ _
Nonmanufacturing . . . .
_ .............. .

553
367
186

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

65. 00
66. 00
63. 00

-

-

10
4
6

59
41
18

115
69
46

107
63
44

116
6?
49

44
35
9

67
55
12

33
... 31
-

_
-

_
_
-

2
2

_
_
-

_
_
-

Typ is ts , class A ________________________________________
Manufacturing _______________________________________
N o nm anufacturing___________________________________
Public utilities * ____ ___________________________
Finance** _
__

1,128
767
361
67
89

39.
40.
39.
40.
39.

5
0
5
0
5

68. 50
70. 50
64. 00
62.00
66. 00

-

-

6
4
2
2

46
13
33
24
9

96
41
55
9
13

270
125
145
9
19

207
156
51
10
24

265
230
35
9
9

118
99
19
4
3

94
88
6
2
2

5
4
1
_
-

15
7
8
_
8

6
_
6
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

Typ is ts , class B
_______ _ ...
M a n ufa cturin g ___________________________ __________
Nonmanufacturing
_
_
Public utilities * __ _ _
.
.
Wholesale trade __
__
..... .... _
F in a n c e * * --------------------------------------------------------------------------

2,301
1,137
1, 164
79
319
528

39.
40.
38.
40.
39.
37.

5
0
5
0
5
5

57. 00
59. 50
54.00
59. 50
55. 50
52. 50

33
33
_
_
33

48
4
44

314
90
224
13
41
148

616
238
378
17
106
137

504
292
212
11
71
91

449
282
167
25
53
63

203
121
82
7
20
34

53
40
13
_
5
2

50
45
5
_
5

25
23
2
2
_
-

2
_
2
2
_

2
2
_
_
.

_
_
_
_
_

2
_
2
2
_

-

-

-

-

-

18
20

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

_

_

_
-

_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
.
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

"

_

.
_

-

1 Standard hours reflect tiie workweek for which employees receive their regular s tra ig h t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.

Ta b le A-2* Professional a nd Technical O ccupations
(Average stra ig h t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, O ctober 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
Weekly^
Weekly .
earnings1
(Standard) (Standard)

sex, occ upation, and industry division

T

X

Under 60. 00 {65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 ; 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00:115.00 120.001 25.001130.00135.00|140.00 145.00 150.00 155. 00 160.00
and I _
| _
_
$
and
6 0 . 00
Poll 40.00'145.0
70. 00 I7 5 . 00 180. 00 85 ,00 90. 00 95. 00 |100. 00 105.00 1 10.00|115.00|120.00 125.00jl30.00j 135.00ll40.00|l45, Oil 50.00 155.0Qll60. 00 over

Men
Draftsm en, le a d e r _____________
M a n ufa cturin g ______________

150
950

8

~307cT 1 3 6."00
40. 0

109.50
TffTo- 1 0 9 .50

D raftsm en, s e n io r _____________
M a n ufa cturin g______________

in

D raftsm en, junior _____________
M an ufa cturin g ______________

754
T3 T

40. 0
407 0

80.00
"80'. 1 0

28 T

~40r

82. 50

TT

1

37

41

17

I

19

18

is r

130 "

94

103

,!

119

1

~wr

1

I

51

~T5"

__ 24

15

Women
Nurses, industrial (registered)
M a nufacturing______________

~

~W

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their reg ular s tra ig h t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.




Occupational Wage Survey, Cleveland, Ohio, October 19^6
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of La bo r Statistics
N O TE:

Data for nonmanufacturing do not include inform ation for department stores;
the rem ainder of reta il trade is appropriately represented in data for all
industries combined and for nonmanufacturing.

8
Table A -3 :

M aintenance and Powerplant O ccupations

(Average h ou rly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, O hio, by industry d ivision, October 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
w
orkers

$
$
$
$
$
Average
$
hourly ,
1.90 2.00 2. 10 2.20
1.70
1.80
earnings Under and
$
under
1.70
1.80
1.90 2.00 2. 10 2.20 2.30

$
2. 30

$
2.40

$
2.50

$
2. 60

$
2.70

$
2.80

$
2.

90

$
3.00

$
3. 10

$
3.20

$
3.30

$
3.40

$
3. 50

$
3. 60

2.40

2. 50

2. 60

2.70

2.80

2.90

3.00

3.10

3. 20

3.30

3.40

3.50

3.60

3.70

1
1
-

1
1
-

1
1
-

20
3
17

1
1
-

5
3
2

1
1

_
_

_

_

1
_
1

2
_
2

.
_

5
5
-

C a rp e nte rs, m a in ten an ce ___ __________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ______________________ ______ _
N o nm an ufa ctu rin g______________
___ __ __

560
471
89

$
2.47
2.45
2. 56

E le c tric ia n s , maintenance ________ ____________
M a n u fa ctu rin g _____ ________ __ _________ _
N o nm an ufa ctu rin g____________________________

1,905
1,763
142

2. 58
2.59
2. 52

_
-

6
6

E n g in e e rs, stationary __________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g _____ ________ _______________
Nonm anufacturing __ __ ____ _______________

504
341
163

2.52
2 .56
2.43

2
2

2
_
2

F ire m e n , stationary b o ile r
..
.... _
M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________________
No nm an ufa ctu rin g____________________________

661
604
57

2. 14
2. 15
2.02

8
8

88
88
-

33
32
1

63
39
24

65
59
6

132
129
3

87
80
7

76
75
1

49
42
7

38
38
-

12
12
“

10
10
-

-

-

H e lp e rs, trades, maintenance
M a n u fa ctu rin g ____________ __ ____ ________
N onm an ufa ctu rin g ____________________________

1,406
1,299
107

2. 12
2 .16
1.71

63
8
2 55

127
114
13

132
101
31

78
75
3

214
210
4

198
198
-

137
136
1

249
249

196
196

3
3

3
3

1
1

2
2

1
1

M achine-tool opera tors, t o o lro o m _____________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ________ ____ ____ __ _____

1,480
1,480

2. 52
2.52

_
-

4
4

33
33

26
26

7
7

38
38

58
58

213
213

375
375

198
198

153
153

240
240

81
81

M a chinists, maintenance _______________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ ________________________

1,320
1,307

2.59
2.59

_

.

_

-

-

-

22
22

23
23

48
48

79
78

76
75

247
242

150
144

143
143

445
445

23
23

627

10

18
12
6

55
18
37
37

17
13
4
4

134
69
65
49

115
1
114
106

193
77
116
32

78
62
16

3
1
2

3
3

-

-

15
11
4

28
25
3

37
31
6

45
41
4

124
115
9

62
52
10

98
82
16

68
64
4

27
26
1

6
5
1

5
5
“

1
1
-

3
3
-

_
-

12
12
"

8
2
6

82
79
3

121
119
2

205
194
11

226
211
15

313
289
24

334
265
69

259
258
1

194
193
1

73
72
1

6
6
-

62
62
-

-

-

28
22
6

6
6

36
5
31

23
23
-

63
49
14

62
58
4

87
36
51

62
59
3

88
46
42

4
2
2

3
8
-

20
20
-

3
3
-

5
5
-

.
-

.

.

-

-

.
-

_
.
_

.
-

_

1
1

_

_

-

-

5
5

21
21

18
18

4
4

3
3

4
4

1
1

1
1

7
7

191
188

218
211

233
230

199
168

205
204

114
114

134
132

79
79

164
164

_

_

_

“

-

26
26

53
53

58
58

116
116

245
245

136
136

314
314

159
159

229
229

17
17

4
4

4
-

12
12

31
31

97
97

81
81

179
179

125
125

36
36

18
18

2
2

7
7

-

*

-

-

-

20

_

-

-

20

57
32
25

98
88
10

83
41
42

32
32
-

51
51

-

64
41
23

3
1
2

3
3
-

12
9
3

_

-

34
10
24

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

121
120

127
116

90
90

180
180

155
155

35
35

2 .49
2 .49

_

_

_

2
2

2. 71
2. 71

.

2.50
2.50

O ile rs ____ __ -------- __ ___________ __ __ __ __
M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________________

592
588

2. 12
2. 12

P a in te rs , maintenance __________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ __ ______________ __ _____
Nonm an ufa ctu rin g____________________________

460
311
149

2.35
2.42
2.21

P ip e fitte rs, maintenance ______ ___________
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ __ ____ ____ ____ __ __

880
868

2. 54
2. 54

Sheet-m etal w o rk e rs, maintenance
M a n u fa ctu rin g _____ ____ __ ____

___ ____

145
145

T o o l and die makers ____________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g _______________ _______________

1,882
1,882

-

.

_

.

4
4

_
2
2

—

60
64
54“ ~ S o ~

N O TE:

_

_

_

1

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

2
2

6
6

14
14

1
1

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

2
2

_

-

"

-

1
1
-

37
37

6
6

1
1

.

_

-

_

_

-

54
54

5
5

2
2

23
23

24
24

27
27

31
31

3
3

-

-

-

19
19

7
7

40
40

102
102

304
304

246
246

443
443

601
Tol

91
91

7
7

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

.

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

2
2

_

_

.

_

-

12
12

_

-

_

.

28
28

Data for nonmanufacturing do not include inform ation for department stores;
the rem ainder of re ta il trade is appropriately represented in data for all
industries combined and for nonmanufacturing.

_

1
1

_

.

1 Excludes p re m iu m pay for overtim e and for w drk on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 W orkers were distributed as follows: 12 at $1.40 to $ 1 .5 0 ; 6 at $ 1.50 to $ 1 .6 0; 37 at $1.60 to $ 1 .7 0 .
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.




6
6

17
11

1,412
1,412

-

-

-

20
20

M illw rig h ts ______________________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________________

_

1
1

_

6
6

17
17

2 .48
2 .49

.
-

4
4

17
17

1,631
1,578

_
-

7
7

-

M echanics, m a intenance_________________
____
M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________________

-

_
_

30
30

-

-

_
-

-

_

-

_

_
-

-

-

10
10

-

.
_

_

2.43
2.45
2.42
2.37

-

.

_

371
238

_

.

-

M echanics, automotive (m a in te n a n c e )__ __ __
M a n u fa ctu rin g _______________ _______________
Nonm an ufa ctu rin g____________________________
"PnT^I t r ntilitipQ %

25&

12
12

$
3. 70
and
over

-

-

_

_

_

Occupational Wage S urvey, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Bureau of La b o r Statistics

9

Ta b le A -4 :

Custodial and M aterial M ovem ent O ccupations

(Average h ourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

E le vator operators, passenger (women) _____
N o nm an ufa ctu rin g------------------------------------------------Finance ** _______________________________

269
267
90

$
1. 24
1. 24
1. 25

4
4
4

“

7
7
”

1. 22

»*
.
o
i-n
o

68

r r

13
55

41
41
-

18
18
18

L a b o re rs , m aterial handling _________________
M a n ufa cturin g ______________________________

7, 271
4 :3 4 9 ""
2, 922
1,038
881

1. 98
1 . 94
2. 03
2. 22
1. 83

32
32
-

10

fille rs __ _
_
_
M a n ufa cturin g ______________________________
N o nm anufacturing__________________________
Wholesale trade _________________ __

1,680
599
871
638

1. 96
. 00
1. 93
1. 92

P ackers, shipping (men) ______________________
M a n ufa cturin g ______________________________
N o nm anufacturing__________________________
Wholesale trade _ _____ ______________

1,340
1 , 181
159
142

2 . 01
2. 04
1. 75
1 . 81

P ackers, shipping (women)
M a n ufa cturin g________ ____________________

527
463

1. 52
1 . 58

R eceiving c l e r k s __ _________________ _______
M an ufa cturin g ______________________________
Nonm anufacturing__________________________

590

2. 04
~2nr5—
1. 99

-

137
137
-

-

—

76
-

—

2

115
25
90

339
167
172

r r

135
-

753
25
728
633

440
370

39

43

24

-

-

39
-

43
-

"

16

"

“

-

_

_

_

-

-

460
20

8

.

4
4

—

ir
20

-

23
10

13

7
7
-

-

-

1

14

16

6

1

49

94

9

252
23
229
44

227
94
133

95
83

27
3
24
-

318
144
174
158

8

10

11

28
28
4

35
20

15
4

12
11

_

_

-•
"

20
12

19
13

8

6

4

4

25
n>
9
9

41
41

34
34

2

-

102

10

6

76

2

2

66

_

5
5
~

2

3
3

-

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

2.
2

2.

73
69
4
"

85
48
37
35

2

“

2

70
24
46
43

62

6

4
4

470
423
47
24

52

“ 26 i 4

4

_
~

2

487
439
48
42

266

66

-

N O TE:

1.

80

"
2

“
101

83
18
325
259
66

9
7
25
25
"
488
'373“
115

$

$

$

$

$

.

80

1 .9 0

2

. 00

2

1.90

2 .0 0

2

.

2 .2 0

1.

10

10

2 . 20

2. 50

$
2.

60

2. 70

I$
2. 70
2

. 80

$

$

2.

80

2. 90

2 . 90
and
over

■

■

"

“

-

-

“

"

-

-

-

*

.
“

_
-

.
■

_
"

_
“

_
"

_
-

_
"

_
*

_
"

_
“

_
“

116
98
18

237

234

216

211

198
146
52

159
159
-

“

*

"

"

-

.
-

.
~

58
53
5
-

17
17
“

2

?
'

■

-

_
■

-

_
-

-

-

_

640
593
47
19

21

801
752"
IV
8

6

83
83
-

2?8
6

-

1

102

23
234

10 "?

677
452
225

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

"

-

-

■

-

1072 1114
320
476
794
596
593
410
16
122

414
24
390
76

-

8

5
3
3

27
27

1

-

6
6

24
24

-

-

9

9

16

177

8

134
49
85
84

203
77
126

207
124
83
80

307
322
184 — r r
138
245
135
99

29

56
56

205
205
-

224
224
"

115
115
-

93
98

6

8

6

8

9
9

153
132

105

129

211

178

0

108

18

21

181
30
30

122

21

108
108

17
17

11

51

23
T7

37
37

2

6

11

81
24
57

31
75
99
“T T ... — r r ------ 8 0 “
8
19

_

_

1061 1133
559“ 988
202
145

20

6
6

1

1

91

101

161
161

-

1

19
------- 7_

$
$
2. 30 2. 40

2. 3£L 2.40

104

12

See footnotes at end of table.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.




1

90
15
44

-

10

1

5
5

6

136
-------- r

1

103

10

-

-

2

13
. 13
13

? 18
161
57

93

30
63
19
18

522
425
96

48
29
19

51
51
-

1.
1.
1.
1.

Shipping c le r k s __ _________________________ __
M an ufa cturin g __ ______________ __________
N o nm anufacturing_________________________

15

-

, 266
526
1,740
1,087

r

_
-

2

2

123

3
3

-

Ja n ito rs, p o rters, and cleaners (women) ____
M an ufa cturin g ______________________________
N onm anufacturing_____________ ___________
Finance ** _______________________________

— w

15
15
"

-

1. 67
1 . 80
1. 30
1. 56
1 . 39

3
-------- 3-

56
56
52

-

3, 671
T, 1 53
918
108
218

1.70

8

20

-

Ja n ito rs, p o rters, and cleaners (men) _______
M an ufa cturin g ______________________________
N o nm anufacturing__________________________
Wholesale trade _________________________
Finance ** ______________________________

1.60

1

20

13
13

2. 03
2. 65
1 . 89

$
$
$
1. 50 1 . 60 1.70

37
J7
37

20

-

9
9
9

1,283
, 110
173

O rder

18
r r

125
125
_

21

1

Public utilities* _________________________
Wholesale t r a d e _________________________

1.40

1

1 . 12

Guards _ „
__________________________________
M a n ufa cturin g ___ __ _______ _____________
N o nm anufacturing___________ _____________

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

1. 30

12

39
39

-

1. 12

—

1. 20

$
1. 30

w cJ ' rj

83
"'8 3 " "
76

$

o
(M

Ele vato r operators, passenger (men) ________
N o nm anufacturing__________________________
Finance * * _______________ ______________

$
$
Average,
hourly *
1 .0 0
.9 0
earnings Under 0and
$
0.90 under 1 . 1 0
1 .0 0

F
-l

Number
o
f
w
orkers

o

Occupation 1 and industry division

21

72
59
12

—

r r

13
53
------ 35"
18

"

190

40

22

166

15
25
23

22

87
87
-

33
33
-

24
20

57
57
“
49
46
3

-

"
31
22

9
30
------37T

~

_
“

3

4

3

2

4

2

1

-

"

1

-

2

6

2

6

■

"

32
32
“

3
3

3
3

_

_

_

_

-

-

"

-

24
T9
5

5
4
1

“

9
9
"

“

~

24

17

12
12

11

20

22

8

-

20

2

9

11

Occupational Wage S urvey, Cleveland, Ohio, O cto be r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Bureau of L a b o r Statistics

Data for nonmanufacturing do not include inform ation for department stores;
the rem ainder of re ta il trade is appropriately represented in data for all
industries combined and for nonmanufacturing.

-

1
-

_
■

"

~

_

.

-

-

. _

4
4

_
-

18
16
2

10
Ta b le A -4 :

Custodial and M aterial M ovem ent O ccupations - Continued

(Average hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O ccupation 1 and ind ustry division

Number
o
f
w
orkers

T ru c k d riv e r s 3 _ _____
__ __
__ __ . 3,766
Manufacturing _ _ ______ __ __ „ . ____ ... 570 "
2,896
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities * _________________________
1,329
605
Wholesale t ra d e __________________________
R etail trade
802
T r u c k d r iv e r s , light (under 1Va t o n s ) ______
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing

256

$

1 .1 0

1 .2 0

$
1.30

1 .2 0

1.30

1.40

_
"

9
9
9
-

_
-

-

9
9

$
2.28
2.30
2.32
2.24
2.38

_
-

-

1.97

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

"

-

_

_

2 .2 0

68

2 .0 6

188

1.93

T ru c k d r iv e r s , m edium ( 1 V2 to and
including 4 tons)
Manufacturing
Nonm anufacturing________________________

1,493
« '3 "
1,008

2 . 18
2.29

T r u c k d r iv e r s , heavy (over 4 tons,
tra ile r type)
M a n u fa ctu rin g _______________ ____________
Nonm anufacturing________________________
Public utilities *

1,455
in —
1,231
596

2.31
2.31
2.31
2.33

1.903
1,806—

2.09

T r u c k e r s , power (other than fo rk lift)_________
Manufacturing _
-

602
379

2.37
2.3?

Watchmen
M a n u fa ctu rin g _______________________________
Nonm anufacturing___________________________

736
478
258

1.60
1.75
1.32

T ru c k e rs , power (fo rklift) _
Manufacturing
__

$

$
$
Average,
hourly
1 .0 0
Under 0.90
earnings
and
$
0.90 under 1 . 1 0
1 .0 0

2 .2 6

—

6

_

-

-

6

-

$
1.50

$
1.60

$
1.70

$
1.80

1.50

1.60

1.70

1.80

1.90

4
4
4
-

9
9
-

131
34
97
80

9
9
"

-

-

_

_

-

-

9
9

-

"

-

-

-

_

_

_

4

"

-

-

_

_
-

51
7
44

15
-

15

66
4
62

* Data limited to men workers, except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime, and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and tvpe of truck operated.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




$
1.40

1
2

2

-

2 .0 0

2

153
86

67
6

-

8

88

-

-

'

4
4

-

-

45
45
_
-

24 , 119

68

12

111

8

7

21

1

67

5
5
-

43
27

54
54

-

80
80
-

95
95

136
130

2

58
38

6

99
76
23

59
57
2

_
2

16

6

77
76
1

2

2 .0 0

16

_

$

$

1 .9 0

4
4
*

85
17

12

$

322
“ 5T7 ■
'

.

.

2 .2 0

10

229
191
52 ~T55
5
177
17
21
55
5
104
7
97

$
2.40

$
2.50

$
2.60

$
2.70

$
2.80

2.30

2.40

2.50

2 .6 0

2.70

2.80

2.90

481

2007
165
1842
1251
389

215
44
171
9
-

3
' 3
_

4
_
4
_

2

202

162

-2 7 7

204
52
96
55
9

8

8

-

13
13

1

-

4
4
_
_
-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

4
4

-

-

4
4

3
3
-

4
4
-

_
-

-

_
-

315

$
2.90
and
over

8

307
307

2

_
.

130
125
5

27
74
17
ii
.

179
136
43

9
9
-

214
109
14

921
195
56 — 31
162
865
582
-

17
8
9
-

-

-

_
-

573

182
139

150
rzo-

7
7

15
15

19
19

2

9
9

111

39
23

2

1

2

1

3
3

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

314
314

TU2

91
91

37
36

144
138

94
81
13

1

19

-

16

1

$
2.30

8

101

6

2 .2 0

$
10

3

106

111

18
18

955
93
862

11
11

_

2

_

-

7
7

2
2

30
30
102
102




11
B : Esta b lishm e nt Practices and Sup plem entary Wage P ro v is io n s

T a b le

B -l: Shift D if f e re n t ia l P r o v i s i o n s 1
P ercent of manufacturing plant w o rk e rs—
(a)
In establishm ents having
form al provisions for—

Shift differential

S e c o n d s h if t
w o rk

T o t a l ____________________

______

______________

W it h s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l ______________
U n ifo r m

_______________________

ce n ts (p e r h o u r )

_

5 cen ts
_
_
6 cen ts
__ _
_____ __________
7 c e n t s _____________________________________________________
_____
7 l /z c e n t s __ ____________________________
________________
__ _
8 c e n t s ___________________________________ ________________ _______
9 c e n t s _______________________________________________________________
10 c e n t s
_
_
__________________
12 c e n t s ___________________________________________________________ _
13 c e n t s ______________________________________________________________
14 c e n t s _______________________________________________ ___ _______
15 c e n t s __________________________________________
_________________
O v e r 15 c e n t s ___________________________________ _________________

8 4 .8

2 0 .8

6 .4

9 3 .5

84. 3

2 0 .6

6 .4

5 1 .3

1 3 .4

5. 1

1 0 .2

1 .4

1 .2

-

2 .9
2 .0
.7
.8
2 .1
3 .2

1 .0
. 1

9 .9
8 .2
3 .6
3. 1
6 .9
1 4 .9
.4
-

2 .5
3 0 .4

5 p e r c e n t ______________
_____
____ ______ _________________
6 . 6 p e r c e n t ___________ ___________________ ______________________
7 p e r c e n t ___________________ __ ______ __________________________
772 p e r c e n t ___________
__ ___________________ __ _____________
10 p e r c e n t _____ ______ __ _________________________________ ___
15 p e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 8 .8
.2
1 .6
-

N o s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l ___

.............

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h if t

9 5 .6

_______

U n i f o r m p e r c e n t a g e _____ _________________________________

O th e r 2

S e c o n d s h if t

5 9 .7

_________________________

__

T h ird o r o th e r
s h if t w o r k

(b)
Actually working on—

t
-

.5

t
2. 3
1 .8
.2
t
.4
. 1

*

t

6 .4

1 .2

-

3 .9

-

.2

. 3
2 .2

.9
.2

2 8 .2

___

-

9 .0
1 8 .6
.5

3 .3

......

_____________________________________

.3
1 .5
.6
1 2 .5
2 1 .8
3 .4
1 .0
2 .8
5 .7
.4

4 .8

.8

. 1

2 .1

.5

.2

t

9 .9

t

1
Shift differential data a re presented in term s of (a ) establishm ent policy, and (b) w orkers actually employed on late shifts
at the time of the survey. An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following conditions: ( l ) Op­
erated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2 ) had form al provisions covering late shifts.
2 M ostly a combination of uniform cents differential and pay for m ore hours than worked.
| Le ss than 0.05 percent.

Occupational W age Survey, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
Bureau of L a b o r Statistics

12

Table B-2: Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Office Workers1
N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith s p e c if ie d m in im u m

M a n u fa c t u rin g
M in im u m

rate

(w e e k ly s a la r y )

A ll
in d u s t rie s

s t u d i e d ________________

235

in —

N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith s p e c if ie d m in im u m

N o n m a n u fa c t u rin g

M a n u f a c t u r in g
A ll
in d u s t rie s

B a s e d o n s t a n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 2 o f—

A ll
s c h e d u le s

E s t a b lis h m e n t s

h irin g ra te

10 9

37V2

XXX

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

XXX

3 7 Vz

XXX

126

B ased

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

XXX

235

10 9

For Inexperienced Typists

E s t a b lis h m e n t s

XXX

$ 35. 00

_________________________

o n s t a n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 2 o f—

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

XXX

12 6

37Vz

40

XXX

XXX

12

45

Fo r Other Inexperienced Clerical Workers8

62

5

56

63

12

43

141

73

5

.

_

_

_

-

_

_

1

_

_

1
-

-

-

-

2
-

_

_

-

-

_

-

1
-

-

-

-

-

2
3

1
-

6
5
6
5

19
18
14
17

_

13

33

2
5

9
16

9
21
7
10

1

6

4

-

1
2
3

1
2
3

$ 3 7 . 5 0 ________

$ 3 7 . 50 a n d u n d e r
$ 4 0 . 00 a n d u n d e r

$ 4 0 . 0 0 ________
$ 4 2 . 5 0 ________

10

$ 4 2 . 50 a n d u n d e r
$ 4 5 . 00 a n d u n d e r
$ 4 7 . 50 a n d u n d e r

$ 4 5 . 0 0 ________
$ 4 7 . 5 0 ________
$ 5 0 . 0 0 ________

11
18
17

$ 5 0 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 2 . 5 0 ________
$ 5 2 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 5 . 0 0 ________
$ 5 5 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 7 . 5 0 ________

33

$ 5 7 . 50 a n d u n d e r

10

$ 6 0 . 00 an d u n d e r
$ 6 2 . 50 a n d u n d e r

$ 6 0 . 0 0 ________
$ 6 2 . 5 0 ________
$ 6 5 . 0 0 ________

9
8

8
6
19
6
1
9
3

2
2
-

1
3
8
4
16
6
1

-

8
8

1

10

2
5

11
14
3
7

9
3

1

1
4

-

1
1
2
-

-

_
-

4
5
7

3
2

_
-

_
-

67

_
4
5
7
6
18
7
10
4

_

_

2
_

_
-

1
_

1

11

7
8

1
1
5

9
4

12
2
6

2
1
1

10
1
5

2

_
_

15
13

2

-

17

XXX

XXX

XXX

40

XXX

XXX

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

___________________

40

23

XXX

XXX

17

XXX

XXX

36

19

XXX

XXX

68

23

XXX

XXX

45

XXX

XXX

56

16

XXX

2

1

XXX

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

2

1

XXX

1
2
3

_
-

2

-

Establishments which did
not employ workers in
this c a te g o ry _____________________

$ 6 5 . 0 0 a n d o v e r ______________________

-

1

_
-

1
4

i

68

-

3
1
4

-

h a v in g n o

s p e c ifie d m in im u m

Data not a v a ila b le ________________

1 L o w e s t s a l a r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i r i n g in e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r ty p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
* S t a n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s .
D a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l w o r k w e e k s c o m b in e d ,
re p o rte d .
3
R a t e s a p p l i c a b l e to m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d .




in —

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

125

$ 3 5 .0 0 an d u n d e r

E s t a b lis h m e n t s

rate

h a v in g a

s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m ___________________
Under

37Vz

h irin g

a n d f o r the m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k s

O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y , C l e v e l a n d , O h io , O c t o b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t ic s

13

Table B-3:

Scheduled W e e kly Hours

P E R C E N T OF OFFICE W O R K E R S ^ M P L O Y E D IN —
W e e k ly h o u r s

A ll w o rk e rs

--------------------------------------------------

U n d e r 3 5 h o u r s ___________________________________________
3 5 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------------- __

10 0

-

_

O ver

----------------

AH
industries

35 a n d u n d e r 3 7 l/ z

t
t
13

h o u r s ----------------------------------

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W OR KER S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

100

100

100

100

-

-

4

11

All
3
industries

t
25
21

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

100

100

100

10 0

t

-

Finance ♦ *

t
t
-

-

-

t
-

6
-

-

_

77

100

94

t

"

10

t

8

4 0 h o u r s ____________________
___________
______________
O v e r 4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s ___________________
__

_
_

78

t
87
t

t
86
-

43

f

t
96
-

44 h o u rs

-

f
t

t

t

-

-

3

-

-

t

4

4

5

4

-

■

4

5

“

3 1 1/ z

O ver

h o u rs

------------------

------------------------------------

3 7V2 a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s

______

____________________

—

--------

5

----------------------------------

—

-----------------------

O v e r 4 4 and under 4 8 h o u r s ____________________
4 8 hours _______________________________________ _
O v e r 4 8 h o u r s ___________________________________

“

-

“

~

"

-

5
t
75
3

t

5

_
-

Data relate to women workers only.
Includes data for retail trade (except department stores) and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data for retail trade (except department stores), real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately,
f Less than 2.5 percent.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
♦ ♦Finance, insurance, and real estate.
1

3

Table B-4:

Paid Holidays1

P E R C E N T OF OFFICE W OR KER S1E M P L O Y E D I N —
Ite m
41
1
2
industries

Manufacturing

utilities ♦

Wholesale
trade

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W OR KER S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Finance * *

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities ♦

Wholesale
trade

_

10 0

100

10 0

10 0

10 0

100

100

100

100

p a i d h o l i d a y s __________________ ____ ________________ _
L e s s t h a n 5 h o l i d a y s ______________________________ _
5 h o l i d a y s ___________________________
______
______
_
6 h o lid a y s
---------------------------- ---------------------------6 h o l i d a y s p l u s 1 h a l f d a y _________ __ --------------

99
-

99
-

100
-

10 0
-

100
-

97
4

98

t
52

t
45

-

-

21

78

t
46

4

t
34

-

9
-

67
10

43

98
-

96

-

-

79
-

14

66

30

-

-

t
27
16

3
34

10

t

t

t
t

-

-

t
t

3

A l l w o r k e r s _____

______________________________

______

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g

6 h o lid a y s
7 ho li d a v s
7 h o lid a y s

p lu s

2 h a lf d a y s

___________

____________________________
p lu s 2 h a l f d a y s „

______
_
---------------

__ —
___

—
__

__

_

-----------------------

__

_

______
—-------------1 h a l f d a y ____

8 h o lid a y s p lu s

3 h a lf d a y s

__________________

10 h o l i d a y s ___

_________

____________________

____

__________

____

__________

12 h o l i d a y s _______
__ ---------------- ---------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g no
p a id h o lid a y s

___________

________________

_________

—

_
—

Estimates relate to full-day holidays
Includes data for retail trade (except
Includes data for retail trade (except
t Less than 2.5 percent.
* Transportation (excluding railroads),
♦ ♦Finance, insurance, and real estate.
1
2

3




18

16

t
t
t
t
t
t
t

t
t

t

______
------

8 h o l i d a y s ____
8 h o lid a y s p lu s

9 h o lid a y s

21

__________

t

-

3

33

-

57
6
-

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

t

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

-

-

t

-

-

-

-

3

t

T

4

-

“

provided annually.
department stores) and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
department stores), real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately,
communication, and other public utilities.
Occupational Wage Survey, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T OF LA BO R
Bureau of Labor Statistics

14

. Table B-5:

Paid Vacations

P E R C E N T OF OFFICE W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Vacation policy

A ll workers

„

---------

---------

—

All
l
industries

---------------------

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W OR KER S E M P L O Y E D IN —

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

Wholesale
trade

Finance ♦ *

All
2
industries

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities *

100

100

Wholesale
trade

100

100

METHOD O F P A Y M E N T
W orkers in establishments providing
paid vacation s _____ — „ __________________ _
Length-of-tim e payment ____________________
Percentage paym ent____________ ________ _
Other __ __ ______
__ __ __ __ __ __ _____
W orkers in establishments providing
no paid vacation s -------------- ---------------- --------- --------

100

100

100

99

100

100

92

99

100

100

100

91

90

t

t

-

-

-

6

100
-

92
-

t

t

-

-

-

4

-

-

"

-

8

5
3
t

“

-

■

"

•

AM OUNT O F VA C A T IO N P A Y
AND SERVICE PER IO D 3

1

2

3

week or more - __ ______ ______ — — __ __ _
6 m onths_____ __ _____ _____ __ __ — __ _
1 year _ __ __
— ------- — — __
---- _
weeks or more ___ ~ __ __
6 months _______
________
1 year _
— __ „ __
2 y e a r s ___ __ _____ __ __
3 years
_____
5 years „ __ __ __ ____
10 years __ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ ________
— _____ _______
— _ __ _ ----__ __ _______
_____ _____ __ _
__ __ . _____ _
________ __ __ _

weeks or more ____ —
_______ — — __ _
6 m onths_____ „
— __________________ __ _
1 , 2 , 3 years
___ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
5 years
__
---- __ ---------- ------- _
10 years __ __
__
__ __ __ __ „
1 5 years __ __ __ __ __ __ __
__ _______
2 0 years ..._________ _____________ _________ __
2 5 years ____
__ __ __ __
__ __ _____ _

4 w e e k s __ ___________ ___
____ __ ______
1 5 years
__ __ __
__ ___ __ __
2 0 years __ __
__ __
________
__
25 years
_____
__ __ — __
__

_
_
_
_

100

100

10 0

100

92

80

14

61

8

14

25

100

100

59
100

99
10

100

67
100

100

99

100

100

100

100

100

10 0

100

99

99

100

-

6
92

100

100

.

t
84




77

_

_

_

7

37

!

47

69
98

!

j

62
70

99
99

99
99

100
100

!
1

89
89

89

94

100

65

-

_

t

t

_
_
_

_
_

91
96
97

93
95

100

95
100

99
100

100
100

100
100

100
10 0

100
100

90

94

90

80

98

t
t
t

_

t
t

t
t

_
_

-

t
25

3
26

t
15

74

98

87

21

19
92

84

t

3
90

89
90
90

92
94

90

80

90

80

98
98

14

10

36

14

18

-

t

3
14

-

.

-

89

11
27

11
22

94
97

39

t

t

11
92

100

87

92

100

89

94

100

65

11

8

56

25

_
3
8

.

_

29
56

25

-

.

t

t

-

6

4

4

10

36

14

18

11

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
♦♦Fin ance, insurance, and rea l estate.

NOTE:

t
54

92
1
j

4

Occupational Wage Survey, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1956
U .S . D E PAR TM EN T OF LA BO R
Bureau of Labor Statistics

In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e ,"
such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-sum payments, were converted to an equivalent time
basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 w eek 's pay.

15
63
65

_

15

Table B-5:

Paid Vacations - Continued

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
V a c a t io n p o l ic y

All
j
industries

Manufacturing

Public A
utilities ^

Wholesale
trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance **

All
2
industries

Manufacturing

Public *
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

P R E D O M IN A N T P R A C T IC E S A F T E R
S E L E C T E D Y E A R S O F S E R V IC E
A fte r I y e a r :
A fte r 2 y e a rs:

2 w e e k s ____________________________
2 w e e k s ____________________________

83
93

90
96

53
92

75
82

92
95

5 84
5 55

5 88
5 62

5 60
69

5 46
57

A fte r 3 y e a r s:
A fte r 5 y e a rs:

2 w e e k s ____________________________
2 w e e k s ____________________________

94
94

94
95

94
99

99
97

100
96

37
92

5 37
93

98
100

65
82

A f t e r 10 y e a r s :
A f t e r 15 y e a r s :

2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------3 w e e k s ____________________________

70
89

67
92

97
90

73
74

73
98

59
85

56
89

100
100

66
63

A f t e r 20 y e a r s :
A f t e r 25 y e a r s :

3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------3 w e e k s ____________________________

87
76

90
83

88
54

80
66

92
80

81
76

86
83

71
6 56

65
40

1 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e t a i l t r a d e (e x c e p t d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s ) an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r r e t a i l t r a d e (e x c e p t d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s ) , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to fcnose in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
3 P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a n d do not r e f l e c t th e in d i v id u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n s .
F o r e x a m p l e , th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s in d i c a t e d a t 10 y e a r s * s e r v i c e in c lu d e c h a n g e s
in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 an d 10 y e a r s .
E s t i m a t e s a r e c u m u la t i v e .
T h u s , th e p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g 3 w e e k s * p a y o r m o r e a f t e r 5 y e a r s in c lu d e s t h o s e w h o r e c e i v e 3 w e e k s * o r m o r e p a y a f t e r
fe w e r y e a r s of s e r v ic e .
*
M o r e th a n 4 w e e k s * p a y a p p l ie u to a b o u t 1 p e r c e n t o f th e w o r k e r s .
5 1 w eek.
6 4 w eeks.
t L e s s th a n 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c l u d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .

Table B-6:

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
T y p e o f p la n
All
industries 1
A ll w o rk e rs

_____________________________________________

W o r k e r s in e s t a b li s h m e n t s p r o v id in g :
L i f e i n s u r a n c e _____________________________________
A c c i d e n t a l d e a th an d d i s m e m b e r ­
m e n t i n s u r a n c e _______________________ _________
S i c k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e
o r s ic k l e a v e o r b o th 3 ________________________
S ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t i n s u r a n c e _________
S ic k l e a v e ( f u l l p a y a n d no
w a i t in g p e r i o d ) _______________________________
S ic k l e a v e ( p a r t i a l p a y o r
w a i t in g p e r i o d ) ________________________________
H o s p it a l iz a t io n in s u r a n c e ____________________
S u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e ________________________________
M e d i c a l in s u r a n c e _________________________________
C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e __ _____________ _______
R e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n _______________________________
N o h e a lt h , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n ______

100

Manufacturing

100

Public
utilities *
100

Wholesale
trade
100

Finance * *

100

All
industries

Manufacturing

__________100_________ _________100__________




________100______

98

100

Wholesale

trade

__________ 100
86

93

96

95

84

94

95

45

49

13

38

59

52

55

37

30

72
49

85
66

94
16

56
42

22
6

85
79

89
88

100
37

73
42

44

55

44

30

20

5

t

37

39

6
74
71
33
14

3
84
86
45
14'
78

45
36
36
3
23
91

3
57
57
27
15
58
13

80
48
15
10
83

t
76
79
40
5
67

t
83
87
45

34
37
37
29
8
100

4

t

6
66
66
25
27
57
9

74
4

t

4

t

4

72

1 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r r e t a i l t r a d e (e x c e p t d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s ) an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to th 6 s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h e w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e t a i l t r a d e (e x c e p t d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s ) , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d iv is i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
3 U n d u p lic a t e d to t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s ic k l e a v e o r s ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e lo w .
S ic k l e a v e p la n s a r e l i m it e d to t h o s e
m u m n u m b e r o f d a y s p a y th at c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e .
I n f o r m a l s ic k l e a v e a l l o w a n c e s d e t e r m in e d on a n in d i v id u a l b a s i s a r e e x c lu d e d .
| L e s s th an 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
*
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c l u d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .

Public
utilities *

c o m m u n ic a t io n ,

w h i c h d e fin it e ly

e s t a b l i s h a t l e a s t the m in i

a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .

O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y , C le v e la n d , O h io , O c t o b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t ic s




17

Appendix: Job Descriptions

The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations w orkers who are employed under
a va riety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and
interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s job descriptions may differ sign ifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes.
In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field representatives are instructed to exclude w ork­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learn ers, beginners, trainees, handicapped w orkers, part-tim e,
tem porary, and probationary w orkers.

O ff
B IL L E R , MACHINE
Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work in­
cidental to billing operations.
For wage study purposes, b ille rs ,
machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:
B ille r , machine (billing machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, E lliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc ., which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from cu stom ers1 purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application
of predeterm ined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
B ille r , machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare cu stom ers1
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation.
G enerally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers 1 ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertica l columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit balances. Does not. involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash R egister, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
Class A - Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used.
D eter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B - Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers 1accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under b ille r , machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of tria l
balances and prepare control sheets fo r the accounting department.
C LE RK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or m ore sections of a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
m ent’s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or ac­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B - Under supervision, perform s one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the m ore routine, accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several w orkers.

18
CLE RK, F IL E
Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system^ C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other m aterial;
may also file this m aterial. May keep records o f various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filin g and locating
m aterial in the file s .
May perform incidental c lerica l duties.
Class B - P erfo rm s routine filing, usually of m aterial that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating m a­
teria l in the file s . May perform incidental clerica l duties.
CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers* orders for m aterial or merchandise by
m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled .
May check with credit department to d eter­
mine credit rating, of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.
CLERK, P A Y R O L L

K E Y -PU N C H O PERATO R
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records.
Mc.y duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine.
Keeps files of punch cards.
May v e rify own work or work of others.
O FFIC E BOY OR G IRL
P e rfo rm s various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or m ailers, opening
and distributing m ail, and other minor c lerica l work.
SECRETARY
P e rfo rm s secretarial and c le rica l duties for a superior in an
adm inistrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receivin g people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential m ail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, G ENERAL

Computes wages of company em ployees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on tim e or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker*s name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and d is­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

P r im a ry duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
w rite r. May also type from w ritten copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include tran­
scribing-machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

COM PTO M ETER O PERATO R

STENOGRAPHER, TEC H NICAL

P rim a ry duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
m atical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

P r im a ry duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal b riefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typew riter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-m achine work.

D U PLIC ATING -M AC H IN E O PERATO R (MIMEOGRAPH OR D ITTO )
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
m atter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto m aster. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto m asters.
May sort, collate, and staple com ­
pleted m aterial.




Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls.
May record toll calls and take m essages.
May give in for­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For w orkers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

19
TRANSCRIBING-M ACHINE O PERATO R, G ENERAL - Continued

SWITCHBOARD O PER A TO R-R ECEPTIO N IST
tion
type
This
time

In addition to perform ing duties of operator, on a single posi­
or m onitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
or perform routine c lerica l work as part of regular duties.
typing or cle ric a l work may take the m ajor part of this w orker1s
while at switchboard.

TA B U LA TING -M ACH INE OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints tran s­
lated data on form s or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple w iring o f plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or sim ilar machine is cla ssified as a stenographer, general.
T Y P IS T
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various m aterial or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do c le ric a l work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing sim ple records, filing records and reports or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming m ail.
♦

Class A - P erfo rm s one or m ore of the following: Typing
m aterial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining m aterial from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
form ity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form .
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATO R, GENERAL
P rim a ry duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records.
May also
type from written copy and do simple clerica l work. W orkers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
la ry such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May p re­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction o f a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or m ore draftsmen in
preparation .of working plans and detail drawings from rough or p re ­
lim inary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the follow ing; Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
perform ing m ore difficult problem s. May assist subordinates during




Class B - P erfo rm s one or m ore of the following; Typing
from rela tively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of form s,
insurance policies, e t c .; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying m ore complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

and

Technical

D RAFTSM AN, LEADER - Continued
em ergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSM AN, SENIOR
P rep a res working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the following:
Preparin g working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc.,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of m aterials, beams and
trusses; verifyin g completed work, checking dimensions, m aterials
to be used, and quantities; w riting specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrica l, mechanical, or structural drafting.

20

NURSE, IND USTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, IND USTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the prem ises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a
combination o f the following: Giving firs t aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, w elfare,
safety of all personnel.

Maintenance

and

TRACER
Copies
tracing cloth or
Uses T-squ are,
simple drawings

nd

plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
compass, and other drafting tools.
May prepare
and do simple letterin g.

Powerplant

C A RPEN TE R, M AIN TEN AN CE

ENGINEER, STATIO N AR Y

P erfo rm s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, flo ors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a va riety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting m aterials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent train ­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or elec trica l) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, r e fr ig e r a ­
tion, or air conditioning.
Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, m o­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigera tin g equipment, steam boilers
and b o ile r-fe d water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record o f operation of machinery, tem perature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing m ore than one engineer are excluded.

E LE C TR IC IA N , M AIN TEN AN CE
P erfo rm s a va riety of elec trica l trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of
a va riety of elec trica l equipment such as generators, transform ers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, m otors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the elec trica l system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrica l
equipment; using a va riety of electrician*s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually a c­
quired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIREM AN , STATIO N AR Y BOILER
F ire s stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam.
Feeds fuels to fire by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing b o ilerroom equipment.
H E LPE R , TRADES, M AINTENANCE
A ssists one or m ore w orkers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by perform ing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning w ork­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding m a­
teria ls or tools; perform ing other unskilled tasks as directed by jo u r­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is perm itted to perform varies
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, liftin g, and holding m aterials and tools and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also perform ed by w orkers
on a fu ll-tim e basis.

21

M ACH INE-TO O L O PERATO R, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, M AINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine
tools, such as jig b o rers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or m illing machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jig s , fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the follow ing:
Planning and perform ing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a va riety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
For
cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom ,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment.
Work involves most of the follow ing: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs; preparing written
specifications for m ajor repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MACHINIST, M AIN TEN AN CE
M ILLW R IG H T
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the follow ing: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a va ­
riety of m ach in ists handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations re la t­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment.
In general, the
m achinist^ work norm ally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant la y­
out are required. Work involves most of the follow ing: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com ­
putations relating to stresses, strength of m aterials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed r e ­
ducers. In general, the m illw rig h t^ work norm ally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AU TO M O TIVE (M A IN TE N A N C E )
Repairs automobiles, Duses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment.
Work involves most of the follow ing: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling
equipment and perform ing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, d rills , or specialized equipment in dis­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the
various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakee and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
P A IN T E R , M AINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment.
Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or fille r in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush. May pnix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency.
In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

22

P IP E F IT T E R , M AINTENANCE

S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER, M AIN TEN AN CE - Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the fo l­
lowing: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to co rrect lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe r e ­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications.
In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. W orkers
p rim a rily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
heating systems are excluded.

and laying out ail types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating a ll
available types of sheet-m etal-w orking machines; using a va riety of
handtools in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and a ssem ­
bling; installing sheet-m etal articles as required.
In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-m etal w orker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLU M B ER, M AIN TEN AN CE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
S H E E T-M E TA L WORKER, M AIN TEN AN CE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the follow ing: Planning

Custodial

and

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix ­
tures or dies fo r forgings, punching and other m etal-form ing work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written s p e cifi­
cations; using a va riety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ­
ances; selecting appropriate m aterials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die m aker's w ork requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
F o r cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Material

E LE V ATO R OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or sim ilar establishment.
W orkers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD
P erform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of
employees and other persons entering.




TOOL AND DIE M AKER

Movement

JANITOR,

PO RTER, OR CLE AN ER

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an o rd erly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartment house,
or com m ercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the follow ing: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trim m ings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

23

LABORER, M A T E R IA L HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or m ore of
the follow ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and merchan­
dise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting m aterials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
F or wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER F IL L E R
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
cu stom ers1 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
m aterials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, w a re­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and custom ers1 houses or places of business. May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and
over-th e-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (T ra c to r-tra ile r should be rated
on the basis of tra iler capacity. )

PACK ER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
m ore of the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to v e rify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C LE RK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is r e ­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other m aterials.
Shipping work in volves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, prac­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and p re ­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work in volves: V erifying or directing others in verifying
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or




Truckdriver
Tyuckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under l'Va tons)
medium ( 1V2 to and "including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons, tra iler type)
heavy (over 4 tons, other than tra ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (fork lift)
Trucker, power (other than fo rk lift)
W ATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
against fir e , theft, and illegal entry.

* U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING O F F IC E : 1957 O - 414517




Bulletins in This Series
O ccu p atio n a l wage surveys are being conducted in 19 major labor markets during late 1956 an d early 1957. A bulletin for the
following a rea i s now a v a ila b le and may be pu rchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government P rin tin g O ffic e , Washington 25, D. C .,
or from any of the regio nal s a l e s o f f ic e s lis te d below. As additional b u lle tin s become a v a ila b le , they will be l is te d in subseq uent i s s u e s .




L a b o r Market
S e a ttle , Wash.

B L S B u lle tin
Number

August 1956

P rice

1202 -1

Survey P eriod

25 c e n ts

Regional Sales Offices

U. S. Department of L ab o r
Bureau of L ab o r Statistics
18 O liver Street
Boston 10, M ass.

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
50 Seventh Street, N. E.
Atlanta 23, Ga.

U. S. Department of L abo r
Bureau of Labor Statistics
341 Ninth Avenue
N ew York 1, N. Y .

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of L abor Statistics
105 West Adams Street
Chicago 3, 111.

U. S. Department of L abor
Bureau of L a b o r Statistics
630 Sansome Street
San F ran cisco 11, C alif.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102