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Occupational Wage Survey

BURLINGTON, VERMONT
MARCH 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-57




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
Arthur J. G oldberg, Secretary
B U R EA U O F LA B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Ew an C la g u e , Com m issioner




New England Region
18 Oliver Street
Boston 10, Mass.
liberty 2-2115

Occupational Wage Survey
BURLINGTON, VERMONT




M A R C H 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-57
May 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BU REA U O F LA BO R ST A T IST IC S
Ewan C la g u e , Com m issioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Preface

Contents
P age

The C om m u n ity W age S u rvey P r o g r a m
T h e B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s r e g u la r ly con d u cts
a re a w id e w age su r v e y s in a n u m b er o f im p o rta n t in d u s tr ia l
cen ters.
The stu d ies, m a de fr o m la te fa ll to e a r ly sp rin g ,
r e la te to o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d su p p lem en ta ry
b e n e fits .
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the study in e a c h a re a , u su a lly in the m on th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied. T h is b u lletin p r o v id e s a d d ition a l
data not in clu d e d in the e a r lie r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly tica l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lts o f a ll o f the
y e a r ’ s su r v e y s is is s u e d a fte r c o m p le t io n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lletin f o r the c u r r e n t round o f s u r v e y s .

In trod u ction




1

T a b le s :
1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f su r v e y

A:

O ccu p a tion a l e a r n in g s :*
A - 1.
O ffic e o c cu p a tio n s _________________________________________
A - 2.
P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c cu p a tio n s ________________
A - 3.
M ain ten an ce and p ow erp la n t o c cu p a tio n s _______________
A - 4.
C u stod ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t o c cu p a tio n s ________

B:
T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l
o f f ic e in B oston , M a s s ., by L e o E p stein , u n der the d i r e c ­
tion o f P au l V . M u lk ern , A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r fo r
W a ges and In d u s tria l R e la tio n s .

________________________________________________________________

__________

E sta b lish m en t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry w age
p r o v is io n s :
B -l.
Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls __________________________________________
B -2 . M in im u m en tra n ce s a la r ie s f o r w o m e n o ffic e
w o r k e r s ___________________________________________________
B -3 .
S ch edu led w eek ly h ou rs ___________________________________
B -4 .
Paid h o lid a y s ______________________________
B -5 .
P aid v a c a tio n s _____________________________________________
B - 6 . H ealth, in s u r a n ce , and p e n sio n plans __________________

A pp en dix:

O ccu p a tio n a l d e s c r ip tio n s

__________________________________

* N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tion s fo r th e se and o th e r ite m s a r e
a v a ila b le in the r e p o r t s fo r s u r v e y s in o th e r m a jo r a r e a s .
A d ir e c t o r y in d ica tin g date o f study and the p r ic e o f the
r e p o r t s is a v a ila b le upon re q u e s t.

2

4
5
5
6

7
8
8
9

10
12

13




Occupational W a g e Survey—Burlington, Vt.
Introduction

This a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u s tr ia l c e n te rs in
w h ich the U. S. D ep a rtm en t o f L a b o r 's B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistic s has
con d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d w age b e n e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s i s . In this a r e a , data w e r e obtain ed b y p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s
to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e sta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in six b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s :
M an u fa ctu rin g; tr a n s p o rta tio n , 1
c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e ta il
tra d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u s try g ro u p s e x clu d e d fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e ra tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s . E s ta b lis h m e n ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m b er o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e
they fu rn is h in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o c cu p a tio n s stud ied to w a r ­
rant in c lu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , se p a r a te ta bu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h e se s u r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in su r v e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts . To obtain
a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r t io n o f la rg e
than o f s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied . In co m b in in g the data, h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv en th eir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E s tim a te s
b a s e d on the e sta b lis h m e n ts studied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , as r e ­
la tin g to a il e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a ,
ex­
c e p t f o r th o se b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied.
O ccu p a tion s and E arn in gs
The o c cu p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c l a s ­
s ific a t io n is b a se d on a u n ifo r m se t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esig n ed to
take a cco u n t o f in te r e sta b lis h m e n t v a r ia tio n in duties w ith in the sa m e
jo b . (See a p pen dix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip t io n s . ) E a rn in gs data a re
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g ty p es o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffice c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c ) m a in te ­
n a n ce and p o w erp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t.
O ccu p a tion a l e m p lo y m e n t and ea rn in g s data a r e show n fo r
f u ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ire d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in the g iven o c cu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in gs data ex clu d e
p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and

1 R a ilr o a d s , fo r m e r l y ex clu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f th e se s tu d ie s,
w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s stud ied s in c e July 1959, e x c e p t B a lti­
m o r e (S e p te m b e r 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffa lo (O cto b e r 1959^,
C lev ela n d (S ep tem b er 1959), and Seattle (A u gu st 1959).




late s h ifts.
N on p rod u ction b o n u se s a r e ex clu d ed a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u se s and in cen tiv e ea rn in g s a r e in clu d ed .
W h ere w eek ly
h ou rs a r e r e p o r t e d , as fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o r k sc h e d u le s (roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) f o r w h ich
s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s a r e paid; a v e r a g e w e e k ly ea rn in g s fo r th ese
o c cu p a tio n s have b e e n roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
A v e r a g e ea rn in g s o f m en and w om en a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese occu p a tio n s a r e
la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is trib u tio n of the s e x e s am ong
in d u str ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts ; (2 ) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ifi c du ties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the o ccu p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sa m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length of s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it re v ie w w hen in div idu al s a la r ie s a r e ad ju sted on this b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h ig h er a v e r a g e pay
w hen both s e x e s a r e em p lo y e d w ith in the sa m e rate ra n ge.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese su r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al e sta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s a m on g esta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ific duties
p e r fo r m e d .
O ccu p a tion a l e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in a il
e sta b lis h m e n ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and not the n u m b er a c tu ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e ca u se of d iffe r e n c e s in o ccu p a tio n a l s tru c tu re am ong
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f occu p a tio n a l em p loy m en t obtained
fr o m the sa m p le o f esta b lis h m e n ts studied s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the
r e la t iv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s stu d ied.
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tion a l s tru c tu re do n ot m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
ings data.
E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and S u pplem en tary W age P r o v is io n s
In form a tion is p r e se n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c te d e sta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry b e n e fits as th ey r e ­
late to o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s .
The te rm " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " as u sed
in this b u lle tin , in clu d es w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c le r i c a l o r re la te d fu n ctio n s, and e x clu d e s a d m in ­
is t r a t iv e , e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. "P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
clu d e w ork in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in clu din g le a d m en and t r a in e e s ) en gaged in n o n o ffic e fu n ctio n s.
A d m in is tr a tiv e ,
e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and fo r c e -a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
e m p lo y e e s w ho a r e u tiliz e d as a se p a ra te w o rk f o r c e a re e x clu d e d .
C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s and ro u te m e n a r e ex clu d ed in m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s­
t r ie s , but a r e in clu d ed as plant w o r k e r s in n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s .

T able 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o rk e rs within s co p e o f su r v e y and num ber studied in B u rlington, Vt. , 1 by m a jo r in du stry d iv isio n , 2 M a rch 1961

Industry d iv is io n

A ll d iv isio n s

M inim um
em ploym en t
in e s ta b lis h ­
m ents in s co p e
o f study

N um ber o f e sta b lish m e n ts
W ithin
scope of
study3

W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts
W ithin s co p e o f study

Studied

Studied
T otal 4

O ffice

Plant

T o t a l4

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

50

38

36

5, 500

1 ,0 0 0

3, 200

5, 330

M anufacturing _______________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ___________________________________________
T ra n sp orta tion , co m m u n ica tio n , and
oth er pu b lic u tilitie s 5 __________________________________
W h olesale trade ----------------------------------------------------------------R etail trade _______________________________________________
F in a n ce, in s u ra n ce , and r e a l estate ___________________
S e r v i c e s 7 _________________________________________________

50
50

19
19

18
18

3, 700
1 ,8 0 0

500
500

2, 300
900

3, 630
1, 700

50
50
50
50
50

5
1
8
3
2

5
1
7
3
2

800
100
500
300
100

200
( 6)
( )
( 6)
( 6)

500
( 6)
( 6)
( 6)
( 6)

810
70
440
280
100

1 The B u rlin gton A r e a (B u rlin gton , E s s e x Jun ction, South B u rlington, and W in o o sk i).
The " w o r k e r s w ithin s co p e o f stu dy" e s tim a te s shown in this table p r ov id e a r ea son a b ly a ccu ra te
d e s c r ip tio n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s itio n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d ed in the s u rv e y .
The e s tim a te s a r e not intended, h o w e v e r, to s e r v e as a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n w ith oth er a rea em ploym ent
in d ex es to m e a s u r e em p lo ym e n t tren d s o r le v e ls sin ce (1) planning o f w age su rv e y s r e q u ir e s the use o f esta b lish m e n t data co m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in advance o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d studied, and
(2) sm a ll esta b lish m e n ts a r e ex clu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f the su rv e y .
2 The 1957 r e v is e d e d itio n o f the Standard Industrial C la s s ific a t io n M anual w as u se d in c la s s ify in g e sta b lish m e n ts by in d u stry d iv isio n .
M a jor chan ges fr o m the e a r lie r ed ition (u sed in
the B u rea u ’ s la b o r m a rk e t w age s u rv e y s co n d u cte d p r io r to July 1958) a r e the tr a n s fe r o f m ilk p a s te u r iz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te e sta b lish m en ts fr o m trade (w h olesa le o r retail)
to m an ufacturin g, and the tr a n s fe r o f ra d io and t e le v is io n b r o a d c a s tin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th er pu b lic u t ilitie s d iv isio n .
3 Inclu des a ll e sta b lish m e n ts w ith total e m p loym en t at o r above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n .
A ll ou tlets (w ithin the area) o f c om p a n ies in such in d u s tr ie s as tra d e, fin a n ce, auto r ep a ir
s e r v ic e , and m o t io n -p ic tu r e th e a te rs a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4 Inclu des e x e c u tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and o th e r w o r k e r s ex clu d e d fr o m the se p a ra te o ffic e and plant c a t e g o r ie s .
5 T a x ica b s and s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w ater tra n s p o rta tio n w e re e xclu d e d .
6 T h is in d u stry d iv is io n is re p r e s e n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " a ll in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g" in the s e r ie s A and B ta b le s .
S eparate p res en ta tion o f data fo r this d iv is io n is not
m ade fo r one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g re a s o n s :
(1) E m ploym en t in the d iv is io n is too sm a ll to p r o v id e enough data to m e r it sep a ra te study, (2) the sam ple w as not d esign ed in itia lly to
p e r m it sep a ra te p re se n ta tio n , (3) r e s p o n s e w as in s u ffic ie n t o r inadequate to p e r m it se p a ra te p re se n ta tio n , (4) th e re is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f individ ual esta b lish m en t data.
7 H otels; p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; au to m o b ile r e p a ir shops; m o tio n p ic tu re s ; non p rofit m e m b e r s h ip o rg a n iz a tio n s ; and en gin eerin g and a r c h ite c t u r a l s e r v ic e s .




3
Shift d iffe r e n tia l data (table B - l ) a r e lim ite d to m a n u factu rin g
in d u s tr ie s .
This in fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in te r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n te d in te r m s o f tota l plant w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m en t, and (b) e ffe c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a ctu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the su r v e y .
In esta b lis h m e n ts having v a r ie d d iffe r e n t ia ls , the am ount applying to
a m a jo r it y w as u se d o r , if no am ount a p p lied to a m a jo r ity , the c l a s ­
s ific a tio n " o t h e r " w as u sed .
In esta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich s o m e la t e sh ift h ou rs a r e p a id at n o rm a l r a te s , a d iffe r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d on ly
if it ap p lied to a m a jo r it y o f the sh ift h o u r s.

M in im u m en tra n ce ra tes (table B -2 ) re la te on ly to the e s t a b ­
lish m en ts v is it e d .
T h ey a re p r e s e n te d on an e sta b lis h m e n t, ra th er
than on an em p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a tio n s ; and
health, in s u r a n ce , and p e n sio n plans a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is that th ese a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s if a m a ­
jo r it y o f su ch w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y ev en tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis te d . S ch ed u led h ou rs a re tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is
that th e se a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s if a m a jo r ity
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f rounding, su m s o f in div idu al ite m s in th ese
ta bu la tion s m a y not equ al to ta ls .
The f ir s t p a rt o f the paid h olid a y s ta ble p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w hole and h a lf h olid a y s a ctu a lly p r o v id e d .
The s e c o n d p a rt
co m b in e s w h ole and h a lf h olid a y s to sh ow total h o lid a y t im e .

D ata a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h ealth, in s u r a n ce , and p e n sio n
plan s f o r w h ich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
ex ce p tin g on ly le g a l r e q u ire m e n ts su ch as w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n sa tio n ,
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t.
Such p la n s in clu d e th ose
u n d erw ritten by a c o m m e r c ia l in su r a n ce c om p a n y and th ose p r o v id e d
th rou gh a union fund o r p a id d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r r e n t
o p e ra tin g funds o r fr o m a fund se t a s id e f o r this p u r p o s e .
D eath
b e n e fits a r e in clu d ed as a fo r m o f life in s u r a n ce .
S ick n e ss and a c c id e n t in su r a n ce is lim ite d to that type o f in ­
su r a n ce u n der w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a sh p a ym en ts a r e m a d e d ir e c t ly
to the in su r e d on a w eek ly o r m on th ly b a s is d u rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ility .
In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll su ch plans to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r c o n trib u te s.
H o w e v e r, in N ew Y o rk and N ew J e r s e y , w h ich
have en a cted te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in su r a n ce la w s w hich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 plans a r e in clu d ed on ly i f the e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
trib u te s m o r e than is le g a lly r e q u ire d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b en e fits w h ich e x c e e d the r e q u ire m e n ts o f the law . T ab u lation s
o f p a id s i c k -le a v e plan s a r e lim ite d to fo r m a l p la n s 5 w h ich p r o v id e
fu ll pa y o r a p r o p o r t io n o f the w o r k e r 's pa y d u rin g a b s e n ce fr o m w ork
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S ep a ra te ta bu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) .plans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll pa y and no w aitin g p e r io d , and (2) plan s
p r o v id in g e ith e r p a r tia l pay o r a w aitin g p e r io d .
In ad d ition to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s who a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in su r a n ce o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an u n du plica ted tota l is
show n o f w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e e ith e r o r both ty p es o f b e n e fits .

The su m m a ry o f v a ca tion plans is lim ite d to fo r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m en ts, ex clu d in g in fo r m a l plans w h e r e b y tim e o ff w ith p a y is g ra n ted
at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S ep a ra te e stim a te s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in com pu tin g v a ca tio n p a y m en ts, su ch
as tim e p a y m e n ts, p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s, o r fla t -s u m a m ou n ts.
H ow ev er, in the tabu lation s o f v a ca tio n a llo w a n c e s , pa ym en ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e rte d ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a ym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual ea rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as the equ iv alen t o f 1 w e e k 's pay.

C a ta strop h e in s u r a n ce , s o m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to as ex ten ded
m e d ic a l in s u r a n ce , in clu d e s th o se pla n s w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju ry in v olv in g e x p e n s e s bey on d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o sp ita liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in su r a n ce r e fe r s to p la n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r tia l
p a ym en t o f d o c to r s* f e e s . Such plans m a y b e u n d erw ritten b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in su ra n ce co m p a n ie s o r n o n p ro fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e lf-in s u r e d . T ab u lation s o f r e tir e m e n t p e n sio n plan s a r e lim ite d to
th o se p la n s that p r o v id e m on th ly pa ym en ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

2 An esta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as h aving a p o li c y if it m et
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s: (1) O p era ted la te sh ifts at the tim e
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te sh ifts.
3 S ch edu led w eek ly h ou rs f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s (fir s t s e c tio n o f
ta b le B -3 ) in su r v e y s m ade p r io r to Ju ly 1957 w e r e p r e s e n te d in
te r m s o f the p r o p o r t io n o f w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o ffic e s
w ith the in d ica te d w eek ly h ou rs f o r w om en w o r k e r s .

4 The te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lifo r n ia and R h ode Islan d
do not r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n trib u tio n s.
5 A n e sta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as h aving a fo r m a l pla n if
it e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b er o f days o f s ic k le a v e that
cou ld be e x p e cte d by e a c h e m p lo y e e . Such a pla n n eed n ot be w ritten ,
but in fo r m a l s i c k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te rm in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is ,
w e r e e x clu d e d .




4

Table A -l. O ffice Occupations
(A v e ra g e s tr a ig h t-tim e w e e k ly h ou rs and earn in gs fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s studied on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u stry d iv is io n , B u rlin gto n , Vt. , M a rch 1961)
Average

S ex, o cc u p a tio n , and in du stry d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly.
hours
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Weekly ,
earnings
(Standard)

1

5
4 0 . 00
and
under
4 5 . 00

$

$

$

$

$

6 5. 00

$

7 0. 00

75. 00

8 0 . 00

8 5. 00

9 0. 00

6 5. 00

7 0. 00

7 5. 00 J 3 0 ,0 0 _ JL5_d£Q_ 9 0. 00 .9 5 ^ 0 0 . 1 0 0 .0 0

$
4 5 . 00

$
50. 00

$
5 5. 00

$
6 0. 00

“
50. 00

■
55. 00

"
6 0 . 00

$

$

9 5. 00 100. 00
and
over

M en
_

_

_

_

2

_

_

1

_

1

_

_

7 3 . 50

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

1
1

-

2
1

1
1

4
2

-

-

-

39. 0

58. 00

-

1

3

-

2

2

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

34
9
25

3 9. 0
3 9. 0
39. 0

59. 00
7 0. 50
5 5. 00

1

1

10

-

-

2
2

2
2

1
1

1
1

1

10

6
1
5

-

1

9
2
7

1

-

1

“

~

-

“

_
“

_
■

_
“

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c la s s A ____________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________

12
7

40. 5
40. 5

8 0. 50
7 9. 00

_

_

_

4
3

_

1
1

_

"

2
1

3

-

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g, c la s s B _ ________________________
M anufacturin g _________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________

56

38. 5
40. 0
38. 5

6 9. 50
7 4. 00
6 8. 50

2

2

11
45

-

-

2

8
2
6

.
-

2

16
2
14

“

.
■

.
“

20
8
12
7

39.
3 9.
39.
3 9.

0
0
5
0

70.
7 9.
6 4.
6 5.

00
00
50
00

1
1

1

-

6
5
1

.
-

.
-

.
-

-

-

-

45
24
21
8

3 9.
40.
38.
3 9.

5
0
5
5

83.
8 9.
76.
8 0.

00
00
50
00

1
1
-

8
7
1

7
6
1
1

20
16

39. 0
3 9. 5

8 0 . 00
8 6 . 00

2
2

2
2

-

7

42. 0

57. 50

Sw itch boa rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ___________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________

11
7

3 9. 0
39. 5

6 1. 50
56. 50

-

-

T y p is t s , c la s s B
________________________________________
M anufacturin g _________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________

21
14

3 9. 0
3 9. 5
3 8. 0

56. 50
54. 50
6 0. 50

-

-

____________________________

7

3 9. 5

$ 8 7 . 50

C le r k s , acco u n tin g , c la s s B ____________________________
N onm anufacturing

11
7

3 9. 5
40. 5

o
m
00
r-




A* Occupational Earnings

C le r k s , acco u n tin g , c la s s A

8

B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B ____________
M anufacturin g _________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________

O ffic e b oys

_______________________________________________

3

l

W om en

C le r k s , p a y r o ll __________________________________________
M anufacturin g _________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________
P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 2

S e c r e t a r ie s __ ___________________________________________
M anufacturin g
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________
P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 2

S te n o g r a p h e r s, g e n e ra l _________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g _________________________________________
Sw itch boa rd o p e r a to r s

___________________________________

7

1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w ork w e e k fo r w hich e m p lo y e e s
2 T r a n sp o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th er pu b lic u tilitie s .

r e c e iv e

_

_

-

2
2

_

~

6
1
5

3
1
2

9

6
1
5
3

2

6
2
4

2

1

1

-

!
-

2

-

1

_
-

1

1
1

1
1

1

-

-

-

-

3
2
1

2
1
1
1

1

1

1

“

2

1

3
3

1

"

4
3
1

5
4
1

1

1

th e ir

r e g u la r

1
8

1

-

-

1
1

-

1
1

4
1
3
1

8
3
5
1

6
1
5
1

3
1
2
1

3
1
2
2

1

-

1
1

1

-

1

9
9

.

3

.

1
1

1
1

3
2

-

-

-

3
3

2
1
1

5
3
2

-

_
-

-

2
2

1

“

_

_

s tr a ig h t-tim e

1

s a la r ie s

and the

1

1

-

1

1

-

1

ea rn in gs

corresp on d

to th ese

w eek ly h o u r s .

5

Table A-2. Professional and Technical O ccupatbns
(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e w eek ly h ours and e a rn in gs fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s studied on an a r e a b a s is
by in du stry d iv isio n , B urlington, V t . , M a rch 1961)
Average
Sex,

o c c u p a tio n ,

Number
of
workers

and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

1

Weeklv
hours
(Standard)

N U M BE R OF WORKERS R E CEIVING ST R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y EAR NING S OF—

Weekly ,
earnings
(Standard)

$
$
9 5 . 00
9 0 . 00
and
under
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 00

U nder
9 0 .0 0

$
$
1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0

$
$
n o . o o 1 1 5 .0 0

$
1 2 0 .0 0

$
1 2 5 .0 0

$
1 4 0 .0 0

$
1 4 5 . 00

■
1 0 5 . 0 0 n o . , o o. 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0

1 2 5 .0 0

1 3 0 . 00 1 3 5 . 00 1 4 0 . 00 1 4 5 .0 0

1 5 0 . 00

$
$
1 3 0 . 00 1 3 5 .0 0

-

M en

D r a fts m e n , s e n io r
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________

12
11

40. 0
40. 0

D r a fts m e n , ju n io r
_
_ _
_
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________

7
7

40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 2 6 .5 0
1 2 6 .5 0

-

91.00
1
9 1 . 0 0 ------- 1------

1
1

1
1

-

1
1

3
3

-

l
i

2
2

2
2

3
3

1
--------1------

1
1

1
--------j ------

1
1

.

1 Standard h ou rs r e fle c t the w ork w e e k fo r w hich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir re g u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s and the earn in gs c o r r e s p o n d to th ese w eek ly h ou rs.

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h ou rly earnings f o r m en in s e le c t e d occu p a tio n s studied on an a r e a b a sis
by in du stry d iv isio n , B u rlington, Vt. , M a rch 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKEES RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccu p ation and in d u stry d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly .
earnings

1 Under
$
1 ,5 0

$

1. 50
and
under
1. 60

$

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

$ 2. 18

10
10

2. 65
2. 65

F ir e m e n , s tation ary b o ile r ____________________
M anufacturin g ________________________________

13
13

1 .8 9
1 .8 9

3
3

_

M ech a n ics, autom otiv e (m aintenance)

________

17

2. 10

_

_

M ech a n ics, m ain ten an ce _______________________
M anufacturing _______________________________

10
10

2. 63
2. 63

.

-

8

1 .9 4

_

2

P a in ters, m aintenance

1. 90

$

2. 00

"
2. 00

1

_

-

"
2. 10

_

.

_

_
-

4
4

$

2. 10
“
2. 20

$

„ „

2. 20

2. 30

“
2. 30

“
2. 40

1

1
1

1

$

2. 40
~
2. 50

$

2. 50
"
2. 60

$

2. 60
“
2. 70

$

2. 70

_

2. 80

$

2. 80
"
2. 90

$

2. 90
3. 00

$

3. 00
and
over

4

.

2
2

_

.

_

_

-

-

-

5
5

_

_

_

-

"

1
1

1
1

4
4

_

_

-

"

.

.

2
2
_

_

_

-

-

2

2

1

-

-

4

3

2

3

-

-

-

-

-

_

.

_

1
1

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

-

1
1

_

-

1
1

-

2
2

1
1

3
3

1

_

_

4

-

_

-

-

-

-

1

_

E xclu d es p r e m iu m pay for o v e rtim e and fo r w ork on w eekend s, h olid ays, and late sh ifts.




$

"
1. 90

-

______________________

1. 80

“
1 .8 0

-

-

C a rp e n te rs , m aintenance

$

-

7

E le c t r ic ia n s , m aintenance _____________________
M anufacturin g ________________________________

"
1 .7 0

$

-

“
-

-

6
Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
(A v era g e s t r a ig h t-tim e h ou rly ea rn ings for s e le c te d occu pation s studied on an a r e a b a sis
by in du stry d iv isio n , B u rlin gton , V t. , M arch 1961)
N U M B E R OF W O RK EBS RECEIVING ST R A IG H T -T IM E HOURLY E AR NING S OF—

O ccupation 1 and in du stry d ivision

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly ,
earnings

L

J a n ito r s, p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ________________
N onm anufacturing
______________________________
P ublic u tilities 3 _____________________________

62
24
8

$ 1. 68
1. 55
1. 84

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l handling ____________________
M anufacturing ____________________________________
N onm anufacturing _______________ _____________

54
39
15

1. 68
1. 76
1 .4 8

$

$
1. 00
and
under
1. 10

1
1
"
4
4

$

$
1. 10
1. 20

1. 20
-

$
1. 30
-

1. 30

-

1 .4 0

4
4

2
1
1

4
2
2

2
2

2
2

1

_

-

26

1. 93

_

1

R e c eivin g c le r k s ___________________________________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
N onm anufacturing _______________________________

20
10
10

1. 89
2. 15
1. 63

-

1
1

1
1

Shipping c le r k s _____ ______________________________
M an ufactu ring ___________________________________

14
11

2. 05
2. 13

_

_

_

-

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s 4 _______________________________________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
N on m anufacturing -----------------------------------------------

27
10
17

2. 16
2. 12
2. 19

.

_

“

1
1

-

-

-

3

2
2

3

_________________________________

"

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m (lV z to and
including 4 t o n s ) ___ __________________________

8

2. 22

-

W atch m en ____________________________________________
M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------------

13
10

1. 22
1. 29

3




1
2
3
4

1. 50

6
6
1

"

$
1. 50
-

5
2
1

_

P a c k e r s , shipping

$
1. 40

3
-

$
1. 60
-

1. 60

-

1. 80

$
1. 90
-

1. 90

-

"

'

14
14
“

8
8
“

4
4

2

4

_

_

1
1

2
2

1
1

1
1

3
3

'
_

2
2

1
1

5
5

$
2. 00

.
-

-

"

$
2. 10

-

2. 00

28
3
2

$
2. 20
-

2. 10

'

_

2. 20

3

Data lim ite d to m e n w o r k e r s except w here o th erw ise in dicated .
E xclu d es p r e m iu m pay for o v e rtim e and for w ork on w ee k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and late sh ifts.
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilitie s .
Includes a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s of s iz e and type of tru ck op erated .

$
2. 30
-

2. 30

2. 40

3
3
3

-

10
10

1
1
"

2
2

.

"

1
1
“

_

16

_

_

_

2

2
2

4
2
2

-

-

2
2

2
2

"

“

"

"

_

2

_

_

_

"

_

"

"

-

3
3

15
15

.
-

_

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

3
3

2
2

4
4

_

-

'

'

“

"

"

"

"

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

-

2
2

over

-

-

-

2. 40
and

“

"

1
1

"

3

-

3
3

"
1
"

1. 80

4
2
1

“

5
-

-

1. 70

$

$
1. 70

-

-

“

1
1
"

5

-




7

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-1. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe r e n tia ls of m an ufacturin g plant w o rk ers by type and amount of d ifferen tia l,
B urlin gton, V t. , M a rc h 1961)
P erc en t of m an ufacturin g plant w o r k e r s—

Shift d ifferen tia l

In e sta b lish m e n ts having fo r m a l
p ro v isio n s 1 fo r —

A ctu a lly w orking on—

Second shift
w ork

Th ird or other
shift w ork

Second shift

Third or other
shift

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

8 1 .6

73. 5

14. 1

4. 6

W ith shift pay d iffer en tia l ________________________

69 . 3

71. 5

8. 6

4. 3

U n iform cen ts (p er hour) _____________________

26. 4

28. 7

2. 0

.9

5 cen ts ________________________________________
10 cen ts ---------------------------------------------------------20 cen ts ______________________________________
30 cen ts ______________________________________

9. 2
4. 2
13. 1
-

3. 4
12. 2

1. 1

. 5
.4

-

.9
-

-

13. 1

U n ifo rm p ercen tage ------------------------------------------

42. 9

42. 9

6. 6

3. 4

7 1/ 2 p ercen t _________________________________
10 p ercen t -------------------------------- -------- ------------15 percen t ------------------------------------------------------

3. 3
39 . 5
-

-

39 . 5
3. 3

. 5
6. 1

3. 4

12. 3

2. 0

T otal

No shift pay d ifferen tia l

---------------------------------------

1
Includes esta b lish m en ts c u r r e n tly op erating late sh ifts, and esta b lish m en ts
even though they w ere not c u rren tly operating late sh ifts.

-

-

-

5. 5

with

form al

.3

p ro v isio n s

c overin g

late sh ifts

8
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W omen O ffice W orkers
(D istrib u tion of esta b lish m en ts studied in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by m in im u m entrance sa la r y fo r se le c te d c a te g o r ie s
of in exp erien ced w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s , B urlin gton, V t. , M arc h 1961)
In exp e rie n ced ty p ists
M anufacturing
M in im u m w ee k ly sa la r y 1

A ll
in d u strie s

B a sed on standard w eekly hours 3 of—
A ll
sch ed u les

18

XXX

______________________

3

3

$ 4 2 . 50 ______________________________________________
$ 4 5 . 00 ______________________________________________
$ 4 7 . 50 ______________________________________________
$ 50. 00 ______________________________________________
____________________________________________ ___________

1

1

________________________________________________

E sta b lish m e n ts having a sp ec ified m in im u m
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
ove r

Nonm anufacturing

B a sed on standard w eekly hours 3 i f—
o
A ll
sch edu les

40

A ll
sch ed u les

40

18

36

18

XXX

18

XXX

3

_

9

5

4

4

1

_
_
-

2
1
1
2

1
_
1

1
1
1
1

1
_

-

3

-

-

2

2

1
2

3

1
_
_
1
2

-

-

6

3

XXX

3

19

9

XXX

10

XXX

27

E sta b lish m e n ts having no sp e c ifie d m in im u m ____________ _______
E sta b lish m e n ts w hich did not em p lo y w o rk ers
in this c a te g o r y -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
2
3

M anufacturing
A ll
in d u strie s

A ll
sch ed u les

40

36

E sta b lish m e n ts studied

$ 4 0 . 00
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00

Other in ex p erien c ed c le r ic a l w o rk ers 2
Nonm anufacturing

12

XXX

15

8

4

XXX

4

XXX

L o w e st sa la r y rate fo r m a lly e sta b lish e d fo r h irin g in exp erien ced w o r k e r s fo r typing or other c le r ic a l jo b s .
R a tes ap plicab le to m e s s e n g e r s , o ffic e g i r ls , or s im ila r s u b c le ric a l jo b s a re not c o n sid er e d .
H ou rs r e fle c t the w ork w eek fo r w hich em p lo y e e s r e c e iv e their r eg u la r s t r a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s . Data a re p resen ted fo r a ll w orkw eeks com b in ed ,

and

fo r

the

m ost

com m on

_

w orkw eek rep orted .

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by schedu led w eekly hours
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , B urlin gton, V t. , M a rc h 1961)
PLAN T W ORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

W e ek ly hours
All industries

A ll w o rk ers

1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

--------------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

h ou rs _______________________________ ____________
3 6 h ours ______________________________________________
3 7 V 2 h ours _____________
__________________________
4 0 h ours -------------------------------------------------------------O ver 4 0 and under 4 2 ^ 2 hours ---------------------------4 2 1/ z h ours __________________________________________
O ve r 4 2 1 / 2 and under 4 4 hours __________________
4 4 h ours ---------------------------------------------------------------4 5 h ours --------------------------------------------------------------------4 8 hours ______________________________________________

2

5

.

35

1
2
3
4

All industries 3

Manufacturing

100

100
7

100

-

53

5
-

_
_

_
_

94

47

82

91

74

-

1
-

-

-

1

1

1
2

_
_
_
_
_

5

2

18
9
67

(4 )
2

(4 )

1

-

~

3
2

Includes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e; r e ta il tra d e; fin a n ce, in su r a n ce , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown sep a r a te ly .
T r an sp ortation , c o m m u n ication , and other public u tilit ie s .
In cludes data for w h o le sa le tra d e , r e ta il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.




Public utilities 2

_
14

_
_
12

-

9

Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(P erc en t d istrib u tion of o ffic e and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by n um ber o f paid h olid ays
p rovided an n u ally, B u rlin gton , V t. , M arc h 1961)
P LANT W ORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Item
All industries

A ll w o r k e r s

________________________________________

W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts p rovidin g
paid h olid ays
___________________________________
W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts p rovidin g
no paid h olid ays ________________________________

1

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

96

95

100

4

5
'

Number off days

L e s s than 3 h olid ays _____________________________
3 h olid ays ___________________________________________
5 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day _______________________
6 h olid ays __ -------------- -------------- ------------------------6 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day _ ------------------------------7 h olid ays ___________________________________________
8 h olid ays ___________________________________________
8 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day _______________________
9 h olid ays ___________________________________________
11 h olid ays _________________________________________
12 h olid ays _____________________________________ __

(4 )
-

-

(4 )
5

(4 )
6

(4 )
44
13
1
(4 )
9
28

(4 )
75
17
1
1
-

5
14
53
28

1
4
2
9
3
49
15
3
6
4

2
8
5
58
19
2
-

14
8
12
42
24

'

Total holiday time5

12 days ______________________________________________
11 or m o r e days ------ __ __ ------------------------------9 or m o r e days -------- -----------------------------------------B l / z or m o r e days
________________________________
8 or m o r e days -------- __ ------------------------------------7 or m o r e days
_________ ________________________
6 V 2 or m o r e days ________________________________
6 or m o r e days -----------------------------------------------------5 V 2 or m o r e days ______ ________________________
3 or m o r e days ___________________________________
1 or m o r e days ___________________________________

1
2
3
4
5
no h alf

28
37
38
38
51
95
95
99
99
99
100

1
2
19
93
94
99
100
100
100

28
81
81
81
95
95
95
100
100
100
100

4
10
13
13
28
77

80
90
91
95
96

2
2
22
80
85
93
95
95
95

24
67
79
79
79
79
79
86
86
100
100

Includes data fo r w h o lesale tra d e ; r e t a il tra d e ; fin a n c e, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv ision s shown s e p a r a te ly .
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s.
Includes data for w h o lesale tr a d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown sep a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.
A ll com b ination s of fu ll and h alf days that add to the sa m e amount are com bined; for e x a m p le , the p rop ortion of w o rk ers r e c e iv in g a total of 7 days in clu des those with 7 fu ll days and
d a y s , 6 fu ll days and 2 h a lf d a y s, 5 fu ll days and 4 h a lf d a y s , and so on.
P rop ortion s w ere then cum ulated.




10
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
( P e r c e n t d istrib u tion o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by vacation pay
p r o v isio n s, B urlington, V t. , M a r c h 1961)
OFFICE W ORKERS

PLANT W ORKERS

V acation p olicy
All industries1

A ll w o r k e r s

_________________________________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries^

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
95
5
-

100
93
7

100
100
-

( 5)
29
5
9

20
-

10
17
7

12
20
-

(5)

53

(5)

42

12
88

11
89

6
94

66
4
30

73
5
22

26
74

6

61
6
34

69
5
25

26

28
34
37

25
46
29

26
74

Method of payment

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p roviding
paid v a catio n s ____________________________________
L e n g t h -o f-tim e paym ent _____________________
P erc en ta g e p aym ent ___________________________
F la t -s u m paym ent _____________________________
Other _____________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts providin g
no paid vacatio n s

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

Amount of vacation p a y 4

A fte r 6 m onths of se r v ic e

Under 1 w eek
_ _
1 w eek ________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks _______________________
2 w eeks ________________________ ___________________

A fte r 1 y e a r of s e r v ic e

1 w eek ______________ _______________________________
O ve r 1 and under 2 w eeks _______________________
2 w eeks

A fte r 2 y e a r s of se r v ic e

1 w eek ___________ __________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks ______________ _______
2 w eeks ______________________________________________

7

10

-

-

-

93

90

94

7
( 5)
93

9
( 5)
90

94

-

74

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

1 w eek
_
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks

_
__ ___________________

See footnotes at end of table,




6
-

11

Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by vacatio n pay
p r o v isio n s, Burlington, V t . , M a r c h 1961)
PLAN T W ORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

V acation p olicy
All industries1

Amount off vacation p a y 4—

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

Continued

A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e r v ic e

1 w eek __________________________ __ _____________ _
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eeks
2 w eeks ________________ ___________________________
3 w eeks

1

_

-

7
4
86
2

7
5
84
3

88
12

.
64
36

7
4
67
22

7
5
70
17

62
38

1
11
88

(5)
11
88

11
89

7
4
18
71

7
5
10
77

19
81

1
11
78
10

11
79
9

11
89
-

7
4
17
62
9

7
5
10
65
13

7
4
17
47
24

7
5
10
62
15

(5)

-

-

99
1

98
1

1
60
39

(5)

100

_
100
-

A fte r 10 y e a r s of s e r v ic e

1 w eek _______________________________________________
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eeks
2 w eeks
3 w eeks ______________________________________________

A fte r 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e

O ve r 1 and under 2 w eeks _______________________
2 w eeks
3 w eek s ________________________ _____________ ____

-

A fte r 20 y e a r s of se r v ic e

1 w eek
_ _
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eeks
2 w eeks ______________________________________________
3 w eeks
4 w eeks

(5)

_
19
81
-

A fte r 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek __________________________ ___________________
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eeks __ _____ ____________
2 w eeks _______________________________________ ____
3 w eeks ________________ ___________________________
4 w eeks _____________________________________________

1
2
3
4
se r v ic e
5

1

( 5)

-

11
58
30

_
-

11
78
11

11
-

89

_
-

19
-

81

In cludes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; finance, in su r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in du stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
T r an sp ortation , com m u nication, and other public u tilitie s .
In clud es data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e , re ta il tra d e , r e a l esta te, and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
P e r io d s of se r v ic e w ere a r b itr a r ily chosen and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t the individual p ro v isio n s fo r p r o g r e s s io n s .
F o r e x a m p le, the changes in p rop ortion s in dicated
include changes in p r o v isio n s o c cu rrin g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .
L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.

N O T E : In the tabulations of vacatio n a llo w a n ces by y e a r s of se r v ic e , p aym ents other than "le n g th of t i m e " such
to an equivalent tim e b a s is ; for ex am p le, a paym ent of 2 p ercen t of annual ea rn in g s w as co n sid ere d as 1 w e e k 's pay.




as p ercen tage o f annual earn ings or

f la t -s u m p aym en ts,

at 10 y e a r s '

w ere converted

12
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s em p loyed in e sta b lish m e n ts p roviding
h ealth, in su r a n ce , or p en sion b e n e fits, B urlin gton, V t. , M a r c h 1961)
P LAN T W O RK ERS

OFFICE W ORKERS

Type of b en efit
All industries

A ll w o r k e r s

_________________________________________

100

1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

100

100

100

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g:
96

95

100

89

92

100

73

74

86

55

58

74

92

97

100

88

92

100

S ick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce -----------Sick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aiting period) ____________________________
S ick le a v e (p artial pay or
w aiting period) -------------------------------------------

72

81

42

66

75

46

75

83

100

27

19

58

6

4

8

1

42

H osp ita liza tio n in su ran ce ------------------------------S u rgical in su ran ce _____________________________
M e d ic a l in su ran ce --------------------------------------------C ata strop h e in su ran ce ------------------------------------R e tire m e n t pen sion ____________________________
No h ealth, in su ra n ce , or p en sion plan ____

89
84
70
89
85

84
75
63
68
67

98
85
76
70
78

58
58
33
88
81

L ife in su ran ce ---------------------------------------------------A cc id e n ta l death and d ism e m b e r m e n t
in su ran ce ______________________________________
S ick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce or
sic k le a v e or b o th 4 ---------------------------------------

1

99
89
82
87
90
( 5)

47
47
13
94
89

4

1 Includes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce, in su r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
2 T ra n sp o rta tio n , c om m u n ic ation , and other public u tilit ie s .
3 Includes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e , r e ta il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
4 Unduplicated total of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g sic k le a v e or sic k n e ss and accid en t in su ra n ce shown se p a r a te ly b elo w .
S ic k -le a v e plans a re lim ite d to those w hich d efin ite ly e sta b lish at le a s t
the m in im u m num ber o f days* pay that can be ex p ected by each e m p lo y e e . In form al s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n c es d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is a r e ex clu d ed .
5 L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.




13

A ppendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller

,

machine (billing machine)— Uses a special billing ma­

chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandum, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrarid, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slip s.




Class A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B — Keeps a record o f one or more phases or section s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping*
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

14

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers tfith proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C lass B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple co st accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in o ffices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE
C lass A— In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ss ifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records o f various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerica l duties.
Class B— Performs routine filin g, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or loca tes
or a ssists in locating material in file s . May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the follow ing:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing older sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating o f customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled , keep file o f orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
v ice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work o f others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

15

SECRETARY

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep file s in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep file s in order,
keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing-machine work

.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls .
May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerica l work may take the major part o f this worker's time while at
switchboard.




Class A— Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo s e supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D oes not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B— Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter,.reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some f i r ­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually o f a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
C lass C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp e cific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified
as a stenographer, general.

16

TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of ste n cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
Class A — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
Class B — Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety o f a ll personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared-by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p encil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

17

M A IN T E N A N C E

□ PO W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded




.

HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

18

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations re la ting to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the follow ing: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers o f gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selectin g standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
.R epairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors o f an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the follow ing: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is ­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes ,in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with o il or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the follow ing: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types o f paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sisten cy. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size o f pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work o f the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating system s are excluded

.

19

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering

.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

20

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded .
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, Warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, arid keep
truck in good working order. D rivers ale smen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded .

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded .
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in voices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials o f all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U.S. GOVERNMENT P R IN TIN G OFFICE : 1961 0 — 595062

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25> D .C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, w ill be issued early in 1962.
Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—
Schenectady—Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285-51
Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—Bethlehem—
Easton,
P a .-N .J .— Bull. 1285-47
Atlanta, Ga.— Bull. 1285❖ Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285-34
Beaumont—
Port Arthur, T e x .—-Bull. 1285Birmingham, A la.— Bull. 1285*53
Boise, Idaho— Bull. 1285* * Boston, Mass.— Bull. 1285-15
♦ ♦Buffalo, N .Y .— Bull. 1285-31
Burlington, Vt.— Bull. 1285-57
* Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-29
Charleston, W. Va.— Bull. 1285Charlotte, N .C.— Bull. 1285♦ ♦ Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga.— Bull. 1285*14
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.— Bull. 1285* * Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-11
* * Columbus, Ohio— Bull. 1285*38
♦ ♦Dallas, T ex.— Bull. 1285-21
♦ ♦ Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.—
Bull. 1285-16
* Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-41
♦ Denver, C olo.— Bull. 1285-27
♦ Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285*43
♦ ♦Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285-37
♦ ♦Fort Worth, T ex.— Bull. 1285-23

♦ Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S.C .— Bull. 1285Houston, T ex.— Bull. 1285♦ Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285-28
♦Jackson, M iss.— Bull. 1285-42
♦ ♦Jacksonville, F ia .— Bull. 1285-30
♦ Kansas City, Mo.—
Kans.— Bull. 1285-18
Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H.— Bull. 1285* * Little Rock—
North Little Rock, A rk .— Buil. 1285-6

♦
♦
♦
♦♦

Los Angeles—
Long Beach, C alif.— Bull. 1285*52
Lou isville, K y.—
Ind.— Bull. 1285-49
Lubbock, T ex.— Bull. 1285Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1
Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285-35
Miami, F la .— Bull. 1285-33
Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285-39
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285-

♦ Newark and Jersey City, N .J.— Bull. 1285-40
New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285-46
New Orleans, L a .— Bull. 1285-48
New York, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Norfoik—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, V a.— Bull. 1285♦ ♦ Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3
* * Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa— Bull. 1285-13
Paterson—
Clifton— assaic, N .J.— Bull. 1285P
♦ ♦ Philadelphia, P a.— Bull. 1285-24
Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-55

Pittsburgh, P a.— Bull. 1285-44
♦ Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285-19
Portland, Oreg.—
Wash.— Bull. 1285Providence—
Pawtucket, R .I.—
Mass.— Bull. 1285* * Raleigh, N .C.— Bull. 1285-5
♦ Richmond, V a.— Bull. 1285-26
Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285* * S t . Louis, M o .-Ill.— Bull. 1285*10
♦ ♦Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285-32
San Antonio, T ex.— Bull. 1285♦San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario,
C a lif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—
Oakland, C a lif.— Bull. 1285-36
Savannah, Ga.— Bull. 1285**Scranton, P a.— Bull. 1285-8
**Seattle, Wash.— Bull. 1285-7
♦♦♦Sioux Falls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285-17
South Bend, Ind.-^-Bull. 1285-54
Spokane, Wash.-—Bull. 1285Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285-50
* * Trenton, N.J.— Bull. 1285-25
♦ ♦Washington, D .C .-M d .-V a .— Bull. 1285-22
Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285-56
♦ Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1285-20
* * Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285-9
♦♦ Wilmington, D el.—
N.J.— Bull. 1285-12
Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285York, P a.— Bull. 1285-45

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

*
Price, 20 cents.
♦♦ Price, 25 cents.
♦ ♦ ♦ P r ic e , 15 cents.








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102