View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

O c c u p a t io n a l W age S u r v e y

B A L T IM O R E , M A R Y L A N D
AU G U ST

1958

B u lle t in N o . 1 2 4 0 -2

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU O LABOR ST T IC
F
A IST S
Ewan Clagu*, Com isw
m ooer




O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y
BALTIM ORE, M A R YLAN D




AUGU ST 1958

Bulletin No. 1240-2
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BU
REAU OF LABOR S A IST S
T T IC
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
December 1958

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 25 cents

The Library of Congress has cataloged the series
in which this publication appears as follows:

U . S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Occupational wage survey. 1949Washington, U. S. Govt. Print. Off.

U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Bulletin, no. 1Nov. 1895Washington.

no. in v. illus. 16-28 cm.
Bimonthly, Nov. 1895-May 1912; irregular, July 1912No. 1-111 issued by the Bureau of Labor.

331.06173

Library of Congress

[r58t2]




v. 23-26 cm.
Nov. 1949- issued as its Bulletin (HD8051.A62)

1. Wages—U. S. 2. Non-wage payments—U. S. [2. Employee bene­
fits] i. Title. (Series: U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bul­
letin)

1. Labor and laboring classes—U. S.—Period.
HD8051.A62

The Library of Congress has cataloged this
publication as follows:

15-23307 rev**

HD4973. A462

331.2973

U. S. Dept, of Labor.
for Library of Congress

Library
[57r52nljf

L 49— 125

Contents

Preface

Page
The Community Wage Survey Program

Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wage trends for selected occupational groups ----------------------------------

The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers.
The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits.
A preliminary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following the
payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data
not included in the earlier report.
A consolidated analytical
bulletin summarizing the results of all of the year's surveys
is issued after completion of the final area bulletin for the
current round of surveys.

Tables:
1.
2.

A:

B:

Establishments and workers within scope of su rv e y -----------Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percent of increase for selected periods---------------------Occupational earnings: *
A - 1: Office occupations --------------------------------------------A -2 : Professional and technical occupations----------A - 3: Maintenance and powerplant occupations--------A -4 : Custodial and material movementoccupations------------Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions: *
B - l : Shift differentials ---------------------------------------B -2 : Minimum entrance rates for women office
workers ---------------------------------------------------------------------B -3: Scheduled weekly hours -----------------------------------------------B -4 : Paid holidays ----------------------------------------------------------------B -5 : Paid vacations --------------------------------------------------------------B -6 : Health, insurance, and pension p la n s -------------------------

Appendix:

Occupational descriptions ------------------------------------------------

* NOTE: Similar tabulations for most of these items are
available in the Baltimore area reports for June 1951, Octo­
ber 1952, April 1955, and August 1957.
The 1951 report
also provides tabulations of Christmas, year-end, profitsharing, and other types of nonproduction bonuses; the 1955
report, frequency of wage payments, and pay provisions for
holidays falling on nonworkdays; the 1957 report, wage struc­
ture characteristics, labor-management agreements, and
overtime pay provisions. A directory indicating date of study
and the price of the report, as well as reports for other
major areas, is available upon request.
Current reports on occupational earnings and supple­
mentary wage practices in the Baltimore area are also availa­
ble for auto dealer repair shops (August 1958), and men's
and boys' suits and coats (March 1958). A machinery indus­
tries report will be available in early 1959. Union scales,
indicative of prevailing pay levels, are available for the fol­
lowing trades or industries: Building construction, printing,
local-transit operating employees, and motortruck drivers
and helpers.
iii

2
3
in oo o

This report was prepared in the Bureau's regional
office in New York, N. Y. , by Frederick W. Mueller under
the direction of Paul E. Warwick, Regional Wage and Indus­
trial Relations Analyst.




1
4

10

12
13
13
14
15
17
18




Occupational W age Survey— Baltimore, M d.

Introduction

T h is area is one of se vera l im portant in d u stria l centers in
w hich the U . S. D epartm ent of L a b o r's Bureau of La b o r Statistics
has conducted surveys of-occupational earnings and related wage benefit/3 on an areawide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by p e r­
sonal visits of B urea u field agents 1 to representative establishm ents
w ithin six broad in d u stry d ivisio n s: M anufacturing; transportation
(excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s; w hole­
sale trade; re ta il tra d e ; finance, insurance, and re a l estate; and s e rv ­
ice s.
M a jo r in d ustry groups excluded fro m these studies, besides
ra ilro a d s , are governm ent operations and the construction and ex­
tra ctive in d u strie s.
Establishm ents having fewer than a p re scrib e d
num ber of w o rk e rs a re om itted also because they furn ish insufficient
em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a rra n t in c lu s io n .2 W h er­
ever possible, separate tabulations are provided for each of the broad
in d ustry d ivisio n s.

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e co n d u cte d on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in su r v e y in g a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s . T o o b ta in
a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y a t m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts i s stu d ie d . In co m b in in g the da ta, h o w ­
e v e r , a l l e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv en th e ir a p p r o p r ia te w e ig h t. E s tim a t e s
b a s e d on the e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e f o r e , a s r e ­
la tin g to a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a , e x ­
c e p t f o r th o s e b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied .

O cc u p a tio n s and E a rn in g s
T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s . O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s ­
s ific a t io n i s b a s e d on a u n ifo r m se t o f jo b d e s c r ip t io n s d e s ig n e d to
take a c c o u n t o f in te r e sta b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u tie s w ith in the sa m e
jo b .
(See a p p en d ix f o r lis tin g o f th e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s .) E a r n in g s data
a r e p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s t a b le s ) f o r th e fo llo w in g ty p e s o f o c ­
c u p a tion s: (a ) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (b ) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; ( c ) m a in ­
ten an ce and p o w e r plant; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t.

1 Data w e r e ob ta in ed by m a il fr o m s o m e o f the s m a lle r e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts f o r w h ich v is it s b y B u r e a u fie ld a g e n ts in the la s t p r e v io u s
s u r v e y in d ic a te d e m p lo y m e n t in r e la t iv e ly few o f the o c c u p a tio n s stu d ­
ie d .
U nusual c h a n g e s r e p o r t e d b y m a il w e r e v e r ifi e d w ith e m p lo y e r s .
2 See ta b le o n p a g e 2 f o r m i n im u m -s iz e e s ta b lis h m e n t c o v e r e d .




O cc u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s data a r e show n f o r
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e . , th o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in the g iv e n o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ifi c a t io n .
E a rn in g s data e x clu d e
p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and
la te s h ift s .
N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d a l s o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u s e s and in ce n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e in clu d e d .
W h ere w e e k ly
h o u rs a r e r e p o r t e d , a s f o r o f f ic e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o r k s c h e d u le s (rou n d ed to the n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r ) f o r w h ich
s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s fo r th ese
o c c u p a t io n s h ave b e e n rou n d ed t o the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

O cc u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a te s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll
e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f the study and not the num bed a c tu ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e a m on g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s , the e s t im a te s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t obtain ed
fr o m the sa m p le o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the
r e la t iv e im p o r t a n c e o f the jo b s stu d ied . T h e s e d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tion a l s tr u c tu r e d o not m a t e r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
in g s data.

E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and S u p p lem en ta ry W age P r o v is io n s
In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s t a b le s ) on s e ­
le c t e d e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fits a s th ey r e ­
la te to o f f ic e and plant w o r k e r s .
T he t e r m " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " as
u sed in th is b u lle tin , in c lu d e s w o rk in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r r e la t e d fu n c tio n s, and e x ­
c lu d e s a d m in is t r a tiv e , e x e c u t iv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. "P la n t
w o r k e r s " in clu d e w o rk in g fo r e m e n an d a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s
(in clu d in g le a d m e n and t r a in e e s ) en g a g e d in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s . A d ­
m in is tr a t iv e , e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and fo r c e - a c c o u n t
c o n s tr u c tio n e m p lo y e e s w h o a r e u tiliz e d a s a se p a ra te w o r k f o r c e a r e
e x c lu d e d . C a fe t e r ia w o r k e r s and r o u te m e n a r e e x clu d e d in m a n u fa c ­
tu rin g in d u s tr ie s , but a r e in clu d e d a s plant w o r k e r s in n on m an u fa c­
tu rin g in d u s tr ie s .

Shift d iffe r e n t ia l data (table B - l ) a r e lim it e d to m a n u fa ctu rin g
in d u s tr ie s . T h is in fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in t e r m s o f (a ) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o l i c y , 1 p r e s e n te d in t e r m s o f to ta l plant w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m en t, and (b) e ffe c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on th e b a s is o f w o r k e r s

3
A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h avin g a p o lic y i f it m e t
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s ; ( l ) O p e ra te d la te sh ifts at the tim e
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2) had f o r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ifts .

2
a c tu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the s u r v e y .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h aving v a r ie d d iffe r e n t ia ls , the a m ou n t a p p ly in g to
a m a jo r ity w a s u s e d o r , i f no am ou n t a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y , the c l a s ­
s ific a t io n "oth er*' w a s u s e d .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich so m e la t e sh ift h o u r s a r e p a id a t n o r m a l r a t e s , a d iffe r e n t ia l w a s r e c o r d e d on ly
i f it a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y o f the sh ift h o u r s .
M in im u m e n tr a n ce r a t e s (table B - 2 ) r e la t e on ly to the e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts v is it e d .
T h e y a r e p r e s e n te d on an e s ta b lis h m e n t, ra th e r
than on an e m p lo y m e n t b a s i s .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a tio n s ; and
h ea lth , in s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s io n p la n s a r e tr e a t e d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s i s that th e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s if a
m a jo r it y o f su ch w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y e v e n tu a lly q u a lify f o r
the p r a c t ic e s lis t e d .
S ch ed u led h o u r s a r e tr e a t e d s t a t is t ic a lly on
the b a s is that th e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a l l plant o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s i f
a m a jo r ity a r e c o v e r e d . 4
B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g, su m s o f in d iv id ­
u al it e m s in th e se ta b u la tion s do not n e c e s s a r il y eq u a l t o t a ls .

T h e f i r s t p a rt o f the pa id h o lid a y s ta b le p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s a ctu a lly p r o v id e d .
T h e se c o n d p a rt
c o m b in e s w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s to show to ta l h o lid a y t i m e .

T h e su m m a r y o f v a c a tio n p la n s i s lim ite d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n ts , e x clu d in g in fo r m a l pla n s w h e r e b y tim e o ff w ith pay is g ra n ted
at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S ep a ra te e s t im a te s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in com p u tin g v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts , su ch
a s tim e p a y m e n ts , p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s , o r f la t -s u m a m o u n ts .
H o w e v e r , in the ta b u la tio n s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a ym en ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r t e d ; f o r e x a m p le , a pa ym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d a s the eq u iv a len t o f 1 w e e k 's p a y.

D ata a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a l l h ea lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n
pla n s fo r w h ich at le a s t a p a rt o f the c o s t is b o r n e by the e m p lo y e r ,
e x ce p tin g on ly le g a l r e q u ir e m e n t s su ch a s w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n
and s o c ia l s e c u r it y . Such pla n s in clu d e th o s e u n d e rw ritte n b y a c o m ­
4
S ch ed u led w e e k ly h o u r s f o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s (fir s t s e c tio n om e r c ia l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n y an d th o se p r o v id e d th rou g h a union fund o r
f
p a id d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r r e n t o p e r a tin g funds o r fr o m
ta b le B - 3 ) in s u r v e y s m ade p r io r to la te 1957 an d e a r ly 1958 w e r e
a fund se t a s id e f o r th is p u r p o s e . D eath b e n e fits a r e in clu d e d a s a
p r e s e n te d in t e r m s o f the p r o p o r t io n o f w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s e m ­
f o r m o f life in s u r a n c e .
p lo y e d in o f f i c e s w ith the in d ic a te d w e e k ly h o u r s f o r w o m e n w o r k e r s .

Table 1 Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Baltimore, Md. ,1 by major industry division, 2 August 1958
.
M inim um
em ploym ent
in e sta b lish ­
ments in scope
o f study

Industry division

A ll d ivision s

___

______

___

_

........... . .. .
.....
..
.. _
. ..
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing ...........
.
............
Tran sportation (excluding ra ilr o a d s ), com m u nication, 1
and other public, u tilitie s 5
... .
W holesale trade
.
. _ ... .... . .
R etail trade
. __
F inance, insurance, and real estate
S e r v ic e s 7
. ... ._ .
.....

Num ber o f establishm ents
Within
scop e of
study3

W ork ers in establishm ents
Within scop e of study

Studied

Studied
T o ta l4

O ffice

Plant

T o ta l4

_

627

181

258, 300

40,700

171,100

174,230

101

270
357

71
110

163,000
95, 300

16, 900
23,800

119,400
51,700

112, 710
61,520

101
51
101
51
51

25
94
74
84
80

13
29
24
25
19

21,800
10, 200
33, 900
17,800
11,600

4, 400
2, 200
4, 100
11,600
(*)

12, 300
4, 70t)
26, 000
6
500
( 8)

19,050
4, 540
23, 300
10, 200
4, 430

1 The Baltimore Metropolitan Area (Baltimore City, Baltimore and Anne Arundel Counties). The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of
the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure employment trends
or levels, since ( ) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the pay period studied, and ( ) small establishments are excludedfrom the scope of the survey.
l
2
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual (as prepared by the Bureau of the Budget) was used in classifying establishments by industry division. Major changes from the
earlier edition used in previous surveys are the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready mixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and tele­
vision broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum-size limitation. All outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair service, and motionpicture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, p r o fe s sio n a l, and other w ork ers excluded fro m the separate o ffic e and plant c a te g o r ie s .

5
6
7
8

Also excludes taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation.
Estimate relates to real estate establishments only.
Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.
This industry division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables, although coverage was insufficient to justify separate presentation of data.




3
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e i s lim it e d to that ty p e o f in ­
s u r a n ce u n d e r w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a s h p a y m e n ts a r e m a d e d ir e c t ly
t o the in s u r e d o n a w e e k ly o r m on th ly b a s i s d u rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ilit y .
I n fo r m a tio n i s p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll su ch p la n s to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t e s . H o w e v e r , in New Y o r k an d New J e r s e y , w h ich
h ave e n a cte d t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e la w s w h ich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s , 5 p la n s a r e in c lu d e d o n ly i f the e m p lo y e r ( l ) c o n ­
tr ib u t e s m o r e than is le g a lly r e q u ir e d , o r (2 ) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fit s whicTi e x c e e d the r e q u ir e m e n t s o f the la w . T a b u la tio n s
o f pa id s i c k - le a v e p la n s a r e lim it e d to fo r m a l p la n s 6 w h ich p r o v id e

5 T he t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lifo r n ia and R h ode Is la n d
d o not r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s .
6 A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h avin g a fo r m a l p la n i f
it e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t th e m in im u m n u m b er o f d a y s o f s ic k le a v e that
c o u ld b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . Such a pla n n eed not b e w r itte n ,
bu t in fo r m a l s i c k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te r m in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s i s ,
w e r e e x c lu d e d .




fu ll pay o r a p r o p o r t io n o f the w o r k e r * s pay d u rin g a b s e n c e f r o m w o rk
b eca u se o f illn e s s .
S ep a ra te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) p la n s w h ich p r o v id e fu ll pay and no w a itin g p e r io d , and (2 ) plans
p r o v id in g e it h e r p a r t ia l p a y o r a w a itin g p e r io d .
In a d d itio n to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s w ho a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in s u r a n ce o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an u n d u p lica ted to ta l is
show n o f w o r k e r s w h o r e c e iv e e ith e r o r both ty p e s o f b e n e fit s .

C a ta str o p h e in s u r a n c e , s o m e t im e s r e f e r r e d to a s ex ten d ed
m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e , in c lu d e s th o s e p la n s w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o te c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju r y in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s bey on d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p it a liz a t io n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e r e f e r s to pla n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r tia l
p a ym en t o f d o c to r s * f e e s . Such p la n s m a y be u n d erw ritten b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in s u r a n ce c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e l f-in s u r e d .
T a b u la tio n s o f r e tir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim it e d to
th o s e p la n s that p r o v id e m on th ly p a y m en ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w ork er*s life .

4
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

T h e ta b le b e lo w p r e s e n t s in d e x e s o f s a la r ie s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s an d in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s , and o f a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f s e le c t e d
pla n t w o r k e r g r o u p s .
F o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s , the in d e x e s
r e la t e to a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r n o r m a l h o u r s o f w o r k , that i s ,
the sta n d a rd w o r k sc h e d u le f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s a r e p a id .
F o r plant w o r k e r g r o u p s , th ey m e a s u r e ch a n g e s in s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly
e a r n in g s , e x clu d in g p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k ­
e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
T h e in d e x e s a r e b a s e d on data f o r
s e le c t e d k e y o c c u p a t io n s and in clu d e m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p o rta n t
jo b s w ith in e a c h g ro u p . T h e o f f ic e c l e r i c a l data a r e b a s e d on w o m e n in
the fo llo w in g 18 j o b s : B i l l e r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a c h in e ); b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A and B ; C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c l e r k s , f i l e ,
c l a s s A and B ; c l e r k s , o r d e r ; c l e r k s , p a y r o ll; k e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ;
o f f ic e g i r l s ; s e c r e t a r i e s ; s t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l; s w itc h b o a r d o p e r a ­
t o r s ; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ;
tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; an d ty p is t s , c l a s s A and B .
T h e in d u s tr ia l n u r se data a r e b a s e d on w o m e n in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s . M en
in the fo llo w in g 10 s k ille d m a in ten a n ce jo b s and 3 u n s k ille d jo b s w e r e
in clu d e d in the plant w o r k e r da ta:
S k illed — c a r p e n t e r s ; e le c t r ic ia n s ;
m a c h in is ts ; m e c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e ; m illw r ig h t s ; p a in t e r s ;
p ip e fit t e r s ; s h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s ; and t o o l and d ie m a k e r s ; u n s k ille d —
ja n it o r s ,
p o rte rs,
an d c le a n e r s ; l a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g; and
w a tc h m e n .
A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s w e r e
c o m p u te d fo r e a c h o f the s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s . T h e a v e r a g e s a la r ie s
o r h o u r ly e a r n in g s w e r e th en m u ltip lie d b y the a v e r a g e o f 1953 an d
1954 e m p lo y m e n t in th e jo b .
T h e s e w e ig h te d e a r n in g s f o r in d iv id u a l




T a b le

2.

o c c u p a t io n s w e r e th en to ta le d to o b ta in
tio n a l g r o u p . F in a lly , th e r a t io o f th e s e
y e a r t o th e a g g r e g a te f o r th e b a s e p e r io d
w a s c o m p u te d an d th e r e s u lt m u ltip lie d
g et the in d e x f o r the g iv e n y e a r .

an a g g r e g a te f o r e a c h o c c u p a ­
g ro u p a g g r e g a te s f o r a g iv e n
(s u r v e y m on th , w in te r 1952-53)
b y the b a s e y e a r in d e x (1 0 0 ) to

T h e in d e x e s m e a s u r e , p r in c ip a lly , the e f f e c t s o f ( l ) g e n e r a l
s a la r y and w a g e c h a n g e s ; (2 ) m e r it o r o th e r in c r e a s e s in pay r e c e iv e d
b y in d iv id u a l w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b ; and (3) ch a n g e s in the
la b o r f o r c e su ch a s la b o r t u r n o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c ­
t io n s , an d ch a n g e s in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t pay l e v e l s .
C h a n g es in th e la b o r f o r c e ca n
c a u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c c u p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s w ith ou t
a c tu a l w a g e c h a n g e s . F o r e x a m p le , a f o r c e e x p a n s io n m igh t in c r e a s e
the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s in a s p e c if i c o c c u p a tio n an d r e ­
su lt in a d r o p in the a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s a r e d u c tio n in the p r o p o r t io n
o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s w ou ld h ave the o p p o s ite e f f e c t . T h e m o v e m e n t
o f a h ig h -p a y in g e s t a b lis h m e n t ou t o f a n a r e a c o u ld ca u s e the a v e r a g e
e a r n in g s t o d r o p , e v e n th ou gh no ch a n g e in r a t e s o c c u r r e d in o th e r
a r e a e s t a b lis h m e n t s .
T h e u se o f co n s ta n t e m p lo y m e n t w e ig h ts e lim in a t e s the e f fe c t s
o f c h a n g e s in th e p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h jo b in ­
c lu d e d in the d a ta .
N o r a r e the in d e x e s in flu e n c e d b y ch a n g e s in
sta n d a rd w o r k s c h e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e , s in c e th ey
a r e b a s e d on pa y f o r s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r s .
I n d e x e s f o r the p e r io d 1953 to 1958 f o r w o r k e r s in 17 m a jo r
la b o r m a r k e t s a p p e a r e d in BL.S B u ll. 1 2 2 4 -2 0 , W ages and R e la te d
B e n e fit s , 19 L a b o r M a r k e t s , W in te r 1 9 5 7 -5 8 .

In d e x e s o f stan dard w e e k ly s a l a r ie s and s t r a ig h t-t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s
in B a lt im o r e , M d ., A u gu st 1958 and A u gu st 1957, and p e r c e n t o f in c r e a s e f o r s e le c t e d p e r io d s
In d e x e s
(O c t o b e r 1 9 5 2 -1 0 0 )

In d u stry and o c c u p a t io n a l g ro u p

A u gu st
1958

A u gu st
1957

P e r c e n t in c r e a s e s , f r o m —
June 1952
A u g u st 1957 A p r i l 1955 O c t o b e r 1952
to
to
to
to
A u g u st 1958 A u gu st 1957 A p r il 1955 O c t o b e r 1952

A l l in d u s t r ie s :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l ( w o m e n ) __________________________ •
I n d u s tr ia l n u r s e s ( w o m e n ) ----------------------------------S k ille d m a in te n a n ce ( m e n ) _______________________
U n s k ille d plant (m e n ) _ _________________________

1 3 4 .2
139. 1
1 4 1 .6
1 4 3 .6

129 .7
1 3 2 .8
1 3 4 .5
1 4 0 .0

3. 5
4 .7
5 .3
2 .5

1 4 .9
1 3 .3
1 6 .3
2 1 .6

1 2 .9
1 7 .2
1 5 .7
1 5 .2

9. 1
7 .6
7 .7
6. 5

M a n u fa ctu rin g :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l (w o m e n )__________________________
I n d u s tr ia l n u r s e s ( w o m e n ) _______________________
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce ( m e n ) ____________________ _
U n s k ille d plant ( m e n ) _____________________________

1 3 9 .2
140. 8
143. 7
145. 8

132. 1
1 3 3 .8
1 3 6 .3
1 4 0 .9

5 .4
5 .2
5 .4
3 .5

15. 7
14. 5
1 6 .8
2 0 .3

1 4 .2
1 6 .9
16. 7
17. 1

8. 5
8 .3
6 .9
6 .9

A*

O c c u p a t io n a l

5

E a r n in g s

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area b a s is ,
by industry d ivision , B a ltim ore, Md. , August 1958)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Avbbaqb
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Num
ber
of
workers

$
$
*
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
W
eekly 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00
earnings1
TSS
and
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60. 00 65.00 70. 00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 over

Men
Clerks, accounting, class A --------------------Manufacturing-----------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------Financet --------------------------------

387
236
151
83

39.0
39.5
38.0
37.0

$
96.50
100.00
91. 50
83.00

-

.
-

.
"

_
"

2
2

Clerks, accounting, class B --------------------Manufacturing----------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------

142
83
59

40.0
39.5
40.0

84. 50
82. 50
87. 00

-

“

■

j
1
‘

Clerks, order -------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Wholesale trade--------------------------

156
117
72

40.5
40.0
40.0

81.50
82.50
86.50

-

_
-

Clerks, payroll------------------------------Manufacturing------------------------------

159
143

40.0
40.0

107.50
110.00

-

12

"

*

Office boys----------------------------------Manufacturing--------------------- --------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Finance t --------------------------------

245
125
120
59

38.5
39.0
38.0
37.0

49.50
51.00
47. 50
47. 50

_
-

Tabulating-machine operators------------------Manufacturing-----------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Financef --------------------------------

301
126
175
78

39.0
39.5
38. 5
39.0

84. 50
93.00
78.00
69.50

-

-

Billers, machine (billing machine)--------------Manufacturing------------------------------

102
65

39.0
38.5

60. 50
61.50

_

_

Billers, machine (bookkeeping machine)----------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Retail trade-----------------------------

103
73
59

39.5
39.5
40.0

54. 50
51.00
50. 50

_

_

“

•

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A ---------Manufacturing-----------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------

124
71
53

39.0
38. 5
39. 5

67.50
70.00
64.50

.

“

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B ------------------Manufacturing-----------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------Retail trade----------------------------Finance^ --------------------------------

688
77
611
97
406

39.0
39.0
38. 5
40.0
39.0

53.00
64. 00
51.50
51.00
50.00

Clerks, accounting, class A --------------------Manufacturing-----------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Retail trade-----------------------------Finance f --------------------------------

503
116
387
106
82

38.5
38.5
38.5
40.0
37.5

73.00
81.00
70.50
60.00
69.00

4




18
V
9
■

*89
T4
15
"

10
10

13
— 5—
8

13
-- j —

8
— g8

8
8

3
— 5—
3

3 13
“T T 10

5
5

17
17

2
2

12
11

4
4
"

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
*

■

32
27
5
-

55
24
31

5
5
-

2

5
5
"

6
4
2
"

14
13
1
■

7
1
6
4

44
20
24
22

3
3
"

9
8

15
2
13

7
5
2

20
11
9

17
9
8

14
14
"

2
2
■

6
— 5—
”

7
7
“

5
— 3—
2

4

15
11
~

38
34
20

2
2
*

6
4
4

8
6
2

13
11
11

9
4

20
5
4

9
5
5

2
2

2
1

6
2

6
5

4
4

3
3

13
10

20
15

9
8
1
1

12
4
8
7

7
3
4
4

4
1
3
-

5
5
-

j
1
*

_
"

“

-

7

14
-- g--

1

6

4 67
Ub
_

79
42
37
19

64
30
34
16

48
27
21
-

.
'

1
1
1

3

7

3
3

7
7

13
13
10

30
3
27
17

45
10
35
22

28
10
18
12

31
12
19
2

26
18
8
2

_
-

17
5

8
5

32
31

14
8

10
-

10
6

8
7

_
-

_
■

3
3

_
“

_
■

_
”

_
"

_
“

15
15
15

16
16
16

24
22
11

21
6
3

7
5
5

18
9
9

_
-

_
■

_
-

2
-

_
“

_
“

■

■

"

“

_
-

1
1

1
-

7
1
6

17
9
8

16
8
8

26
15
11

35
23
12

10
8
2

3
3

1
1

_
“

7
7

_
“

_
“

_
"

_
“

_
-

j
1
1

108
108
16
87

183
5
178
27
150

165
4
161
22
100

116
10
106
17
50

47
27
20
12
5

34
13
21
3
4

17
8
9
9

9
4
5
-

3
3
-

_
-

1
1
"

_

_

-

-

-

4
2
2
"

“

"

_
■

4

8

-

74
2
72

90
4
86
9

13
3
10
-

109
14
95
4

29
20
9
4

23
13
10
1
4

9
3
6
4

6
6

_
-

2
2

8
8
“

54
23
31
10
16

13
13

4

49
13
36
36

20

-

-

-

-

-

12
12 ‘

Wom e n

See footnotes at end o f table.

490888 0-58— 2

-

6
■

14
3
11
5

.
-

28
29
~T3- ~ n —
15
16
14
3

23
22
1
1

1

32
29
~2<5- ~T910
12
5
12

53
34
19
14

5
5
1

2

■

4

1

20
10
4

20
42

8
'

-

4

-

~

_

-

6
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r s elected occupations studied on an a rea b a s is ,
by industry d ivision , B a ltim o re , Md. , August 1958)

Aviiaqi
Sex, occupation, and industry d ivision

Number
of

—

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS

$
Weekly i
Weekly I 3 0 .0 0
hours
earnings
(Standard) (Standard) u n d er
3 5 .0 0
—
—

$
3 5 .0 0

$
4 0 .0 0

-

-

4 0 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0

$

OF—

$

8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

1 0 0 .0 0 1 05 .00 1 10 .00 1 15 .00

46
29

20
18

19
19

5 5 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

*
8 0 .0 0

_
■
~
5 0 .0 0 - 5 i_ o o _ 6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

160
15

182
14

162
29

$

$

$

$

$

9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .00 1 05 .00 110 .00 1 15 .00
and
over

W om en— Continued
$
6 2 .0 0

C le rk s , accounting, cla s s B
M a n u fa ctu rin g-----------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ---------W holesale t r a d e --------R etail t r a d e --------------Finance | ---------------------

1 ,1 3 8
2J T ~
917

3 8 .0
3 9 .6
3 7 .5

6 0 .0 0

56
153
256

39.5
40.0
38. 0

69.00
53.50
54.50

-

C lerk s , file , cla ss A ---------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ---------Finance f ---------------------

117
6l
53

38. 5
38.0 .
37.0

65.00
60.00
57. 00

_
-

C le rk s , file , Class B ---------M an u factu rin g-----------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------W holesale trade --------Retail t r a d e ---------------F in a n ce f-----------------------

822
151
671
75
87
418

38.0
39.0
38.0
39.0
40.0
37.5

47.50
54.00
46.00
48.50
42.50
44.50

7
7
7

C lerk s, o rd er ---------M an u factu rin g----Nonmanufacturing
R etail trade —

421
136
285
166

38.5
38. 5
38. 5
40.0

54.00
55.50
53. 50
49.00

C le rk s , p a y r o l l -----------M a n u fa ctu rin g---------Nonmanufacturing —
P u blic utilities *
R etail t r a d e ------Finance f -------------

542
296
244
44
89
65

39.0
39.0
38.5
37.5
40.0
37.0

67.00
68.00
66.00
72.00
62.50
65.00

-

C om ptom eter operators
Manuf a ctur i n g -------Nonm anufacturing —
W holesale trade R etail t r a d e --------

452
159
293
75
110

38.0
39.0
37.5
40.0
37.0

65.50
70.50
63.00
68.50
62.50

_

_

"

72

39.5

61.50

K ey-punch op erators •
M a n u fa ctu rin g ------Nonmanufacturing P u blic utilities *
W holesale trade ■
Finance t -----------

725
212
513
91
52
224

38.5
39.5
38.0
39.0
40.0
37.5

62.00
69.00
59.00
61.50
79.00
55.50

O ffice g i r l s --------------Nonmanufacturing Pu blic utilities *
Finance " f-----------

121
107
26
63

39.0
39.0
39.0
39.0

48.00
46. 50
49.50
43.50

D uplicating-m achine op erators
(m im eograph o r d i t t o ) ----------

See footnotes at end o f table.




ti.66

1

_

1
1
1

_
-

1

58
22
35

93
5
25
62

145
13
39
47

158
3
31
47

168
10
27
17

133
7
2
21

130
3
2
15

17
1
5
11

2
2
~

-

~

_
-

1
1
-

25
24
20

29
28
21

10
9
5

12
4
2

21
10
5

8
-

3
2
-

1
1
~

2
1

59
59
1
57

273
30
243
24
53
165

192
26
166
20
14
130

173
20
153
23
11
51

66
34
32
15

33
25
8
5
1
-

8
7
1
1
-

11
9
2
2
-

_
-

_
-

_
“

12
12
12

60
7
53
47

76
40
36
36

87
28
59
29

60
20
40
31

75
23
52
3

21
6
15
-

8
1
7
7

12
2
10
1

1
1
-

1
1
1
“

11
11
1
3
1

31
24
7
4
3

48
26
22
2
6
11

61
25
36
6
16
8

135
80
55 8
25
8

55
52
23
6
11
6

62
19
43
2
11
21

53
"15
18
6
10
2

“

18
1
17
8

43
2
41
12
14

54
21
33
9
19

41
14
27
6
12

83
20
63
16
10

69
29
40
3
18

45
17
28
14

2

_
"

58

1
-

10

8

11

5

3

!

6
6
6

22
4
18
16

87
6
81
1
41

78
14
64
12
37

164
40
124
33
50

129
31
98
18
2
38

65
22
43
11
4
19

5
5
3

44
42
1
39

30
29
11
17

28
25
14
4

8
5
-

_

_

-

-

96
3

187
29

182
52

6

10
2

2

6
4

1

-

2
2
_
-

2
2
_
-

_
_

_
-

1
1
-

_
“

4
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
.
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

3
3
-

6
5
1
-

_

_

_

_

_

-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_

_
-

28
26
2
2
-

10
5
5
1
4

20
6
14
10
2
-

4
1
3
-

7
6
l
l

11
9
2
-

4
4
.
-

1
1
-

20
15
5
4
1

20
7
13
5
8

31
23
8
8
“

8
3
5
2
3

20
7
13
10
3

_

_

_

_

-

"

"

"

26

2

4

46
11
35
12
10
13

55
33
22
4
15
3

36
22
14
14

13
13
-

9
8
1
1
■

6
6
6
-

8
8
~

-

-

-

2
1
-

4
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

6
-

8
8
“

]

-

7

Table A-l. Office Occupanons-Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area b a s is ,
by industry division , B a ltim ore, M d ., August 1958)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
o
f
wre*
okr

Atbbaos
$
Weekly
WeeklyL 30.00
h u * 1 erig
or
a n n s and
( t n a d ( t n a d under
S adr) Sadr)
35.00

NUMBER OF WORKER8 RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
s
$
S
S
<
$
$
S
9
9
$
$
$
35. 00 40. 00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 9 0 . 0 0 95.00
40.00

45.00 50.00 55.00

60.00

65. 00

70.00

48
17
31
-

107

165
26
139

248
55
193

2

2

44
26
59

20

$
S
f
105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00
and
105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115-00 over
9

100.0 0

75. 00 80.00 85.00 90. 00

95.00

100.00

170
75
95
13
19

132
69
63
34

127
99
28
3
9
_
14

52
35
17

52
40"

W o m en— Continue d
1,972
Manufacturing----------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Public utilities * ------------------------Wholesale trade------------------------Retail trade ---------------------------Finance f -------------------------------

7W ~

1 183
,
97
170
131
567

38.5
39. 0
37.5
39.0
39.5
39.5
37.5

$
78.50
85.00
74.00
89.50
75.00
6 8.00

72.00

12

"

-

55
684

38.5
39.5
38.0
39.5
39.5
37.5

75750
58.50
78.50
60.50
54.50

_
'

Switchboard operators------------------------Manufacturing----------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Public utilities * -----------------------Retail trade------------ ----------------Finance^ -------------------------------

397
109
288
42
83
81

40. 0
39.5
40. 0
39.5
40.0
38.0

58.00
72.50
52.50
64. 50
49.00
55.00

27
27
-

Switchboard operator-receptionists-------------Manufacturing----------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------Wholesale trade ---------- — -------------

349
203
146
55

39.0
39.5
38.5
39. 5

59.50
59.50
59.50
60. 00

"

_
-

Tabulating-maching operators-----------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------

126
99

38.0
37.5

67.00
63.00

_
-

Transcribing-machine operators, general-------Manufacturing------------------ ---------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Finance^--------------------------------

210

39.0
38. 5
39. 0
38.5

6 2.0 0

69. 50
59.00
56.00

Stenographers, general -----------------------Manufacturing---— ------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---- — -------------------Wholesale trade-------- ----------------Retail trade----------------------------Finance f -------------------------------

1,676
734
942
66

53
157
111

6 6 .00

Typists, class A ----------------------------Manufacturing----------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Public utilities * ------------------------Finance | -------------------------------

794
510
284
55
144

39.0
39.5
38.5
39.0
37.5

73.00
59.50
59.50
58.50

Typists, class B ------- ----------------------Manufacturing---------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Public utilities * -----------------------Wholesale trade------------------------Retail trade----------------------------Finance f -------------------------------

1.386
300
1,086
46
92
124
815

38.5
39.5
38.5
39.0
40.0
40.0
38.0

52.50
63.50
49.50
56. 50
56. 50
51.00
48.00

1
*
s
4
*
t

68 .00

1
1

_
1

3
3
-

-

12

8

12

4

19

150
19
131
-

195
13
182
7

70
70
70

125

35
35
17

52
52
27

6

168

83
14
69
10

20

87
8
8

3
66

25
91

241
46
195
5
17
145

284
113
171
3
115

7
3
55

42

49

27

18

6
21
12

8
10

12

10

22

32
4
7
15

27
3
3

199
113
86

16

24
30

22

88

3
-

13
9
5

64
24
14

80
51
29
9

_
-

6
6

4
4

6
6

16
l6

26
25

28
27

_
-

_
-

7
7
3

37
7
30
27

35

17

12

1

23
15

16

'_
-

_
-

14
3

_

2

1
11
8

11

25
3
-

43

22
21

35
31

41
14
27

62
19
43
16
14

-

-

-

-

4

19

8

214

-

2
212
1

434
32
402
3

-

8

-

_

8

-

25
186

12

46
338

8

305
5$
246
13
32

293 308
90 T18
203 1 9 0
5
6
25
12
15
32
110
98

3

101

77
24
4
5
2

9
-

6

1

59
14
45
9

55
31
24

12

12

10

4
8

5
11

9
4
4

10

16

12

54
35
19
9

39

46

6

15

188
— 51
135
18
17

98
45
53

49
3o
19
3

40
— 32

91
22

69

151
77
74

8

16

20

9
16

182

77

20

12
-

143
118
25
-

8

84
5*
30
18
_
1

171
73
98

-

6

16
5
41

6

66
11

_

22
1

23
-

4

1

2

-

54
40
14

13

3
3
_
-

2
2

.
-

53
53
_
_
-

4
-

_
_
-

_
"

12
12

2

_

2

11

3
_

29
16

13
5
7
_
1

.
_

1
1

_
_
_

-

2
2

3
-

34
3l
3
_
-

.
-

-

2
1
1
1

2
1
1
1

“

3
3
-

8
8

2
1

-

-

_
-

_
-

10

6

9
-

_
- —

4
r~

_
-

_
"

_

_
-

_
.
*

7
7
-

1

_
"

_
-

_
"

_
-

_

_

-

-

17
13
4
4
-

4

7
5

5
—
13
4
9
-

1

”

1

7

14

1
6

10

4

4
-

103
83
“75- 1 6 1

15
— F5
-

8
1

2
1

1

-

18
17
FT" -- T i
6

1

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

1

-

-

-

-

8

2
-

-

-

-

4

—

-

-

10
7
11
“ 9--- “ TO--- --- 6

Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r which em ployees r e c e iv e their regular straigh t-tim e sala rie s and the earnings co rre sp o n d to these w eekly hours.
W orkers w ere distributed as fo llo w s : 21 at $115 to $125; 46 at $125 to $135; 22 at $135 and ov e r.
A ll w ork ers w ere at $115 to $130.
W orkers w e re distributed as fo llo w s : 12 at $115 to $125; 52 at $125 to $135; 3 at $135 and o ver.
Transportation (excluding r a ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities,
Finance, in surance, and real estate.




15

122
112
10
6

95
29

2
2

36

56
56
_
_
_
_
-

1

—

2
2

-

-

-

-

.

14
2
6
r ~ — nr~ — Z-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

8
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis,
by industry division, Baltimore, Md. , August 1958)
Avekagb
Sex, occupation, and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Is
i$
$
*
s
|
s
I
$
$
$
$
S
t
s
$
$
$
$
s
i
1
eekly l
W
eekly l W
65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.001 130.00 135.001140.00|*145.0o! $
150.00 155.00 160.00
hours
earn gs Under 60.00
in
and
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
under
60. 00 65.00 70. 00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00|135.00 14Q.Qoil45~oJ 150.od 155.00 160.001 over
!

Men

l

Draftsmen, leader -------------------------------Manufacturing-----------------------------------

206
T J
iT

40.0
40. 0

$
138.50
141.00

-

Draftsmen, s e n io r --------------------------------Manufacturing----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------------------

696
491
205

39. 5
40. 0
39.5

112.00
115.00
104.50

_
-

_
-

1
1
"

12
i2
-

11
1
10

39
32
7

29
6
23

25
3
22

50
28
22

40.0
40. 0
40.0

77.00
82.00
73.00

34
14
20

28
3
25

59
19
40

71
13
58

53
16
37

101
43
58

40
25
15

29
2z

21

Manufacturing------------------------— ------—
Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------

448
186
262

7

2

156
124

39.5
" 40.0

89.00
91.50

_

5

5
Z

13

27
23

15
10

21
16

7

10

5

30
25

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

19

-

2
2

38

38

6
1

Ill
81
30

80
66
14

71
48
23

27
l5
12

47
25
22

5
5

4

3

4

3

9
8

6
6

5
5

2
2

11
11

38
l3

14

26
6

9
9

8
8

32

3

48
43
5

31
19
12

76
76
-

9
9
-

9
6
3

4
4
-

12
Iz
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

3
3 U

- i

32

*24
24
i 4
4

Women
Nurses, industrial (reg is tered )------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------

1

i
1--------1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
* Workers were distributed as follows: 14 at $160 to $170; 10 at $170 to $180.




| "
1

9
Table A-3. M aintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis,
by industry division, Baltimore, M d . , August 1958)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Number
o
f
wres
okr

Avenge
h u l , Under
ory
erig
anns
$
1.20

$
$
1.20 1.30
and
under
1.30 1.40

$
1.40

$
1 50
.

9

1.60

$
1 70
.

1.90

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

9

2.20

$
2.30

$
2.40

*
2. 50

2. 60

1.50

1.60

1 70
.

1.80 JL30- 2.00

2.10

2.20

2.30

t
1.80

$

2. 70

t
2.80

9

9

2.90

3.20
50
50
-

a35
30
5

70
47
70 — 47“
-

60
60
-

_
_
-

9
7
2

34
Z9
5

4
2
2

11
11
-

6
b
-

1 2

-

16
nr~

_
’

_
-

_
-

124
174
-

-

i
i
-

-

-

-

1
1

■

■

90 119
90” 119

3319
319

2. 60

2. 70

2.80

2.90

3.00

_
-

_
-

1
1

_
“
-

4
z
2

2
2

26
ZO
6

3
1
2

14
3
11

60
55
5

21
5
16

25
ZO
5

4
3
1

13
11
2

35
27
8

26
^6
-

14
14
-

10
10
-

21
21
-

Electricians, maintenance--------------Manufacturing----------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------

693
624
69

2. 62
2. 66
2.30

-

-

-

-

-

11
7
4

3
2
1

6
2
4

8
3
5

54
52
2

37
Z1
16

27
19
8

46
4Z
4

14
9
5

45
43
2

74
73
1

162
145
17

29
29
-

Engineers, stationary------------------Manufacturing----------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------

441
348
93

2.38
2. 46
2. 10

-

-

13
13

-

6
6
-

19
14
5

11
11

13
12
1

22
15
7

18
ll
7

62
■ 53
9

14
6
8

41
33
8

45
19
lz ” 44"'
7
1

28
2i
7

66
bb

Firemen, stationary boiler--------------Manufacturing-----------------------

367
' 317

2. 13
2. 15
"

4
-

-

-

3
2

4
4

27
26

122
122

3
-

2
-

14
5

57
38

8
1

-

12

Helpers, trades, maintenance-----------Manufacturing----------------------Nonmanufacturing---- ---------------Public utilities * ------------------

936
502
134
103

2.13
2. 16
1.92
2.02

6
6
-

31
28
3
-

12
12
-

53
43
10
-

11
8
3
3

59
55
4
4

136
126
10
10

16
6
10
6

11
7
4
2

33
7
26
25

123
73
50
45

56
48
8
8

Machine-tool operators, toolroom--------Manufacturing-----------------------

318
318

2. 67
2. 67

3
3

Machinists, maintenance ---------------Manufacturing-----------------------

1,320
1,289

2.90
2.91

■

-

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance)-----Manufacturing----------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------Public utilities * ------------------

618
233
385
304

2.34
2.29
2.37
2.36

-

-

Mechanics, maintenance ---------------Manufacturing----------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------

1 397
,
1,253
144

2. 67
2. 69
2. 50

-

Millwrights---------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------

161
161

2. 61
2. 61

Oilers-------------------------------Manufacturing-----------------------

491
481

Painters, maintenance-----------------Manufacturing------------------ ----Nonmanufacturing--------------------

-

-

■

-

9

3. 10

8
3
5

2.50

$
2. 52
2. 58
2.22

-

9

3 10
.

2.40

372
301
71

-

38
38

165
165
-

18
T8
-

12
72
-

69
69
-

16
16

23
23

2
2

28
28

20
20

210
210

1
1

14
14

-

3 00
.

3.20
and
over

Carpenters, maintenance---------------Manufacturing----------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------

57
- ST-

9

-

2
2

-

10
10

32
28

61
53

25
25

10
9

57
5b

147
145

183
169

68
" 67

197
197

45
44
1

25
lS
10

5
1
4

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

40
40
-

23
13
10
1

22
13
9
2

33
Z6
7
4

151
'47
104
104

20
Z
18
-

197
5
192
171

56
Zb
30
22

-

-

-

2
2

6
4
2

4
Z
2

41
3z
9

29
Z7
2

73
6T
4

61
52
9

32
Z7
5

60
50
10

50
3b
14

129
1IT"
14

153
137
16

222
197
25

20
"20
-

187
re 7
30

155
' "15T
-

98
98
-

75
75

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

_

5
5

-

28
28

-

2
Z

11
IT

50
50

"V T

3
3

10
10

2
2

3
3

-

“

-

47

-

2. 15
2.15

1

62
62

14
14

"

4
4

6
6

4
4

29
26

43
43

22
19

13
10

59
59

52
5Z

49
" 49

96
9"
6

15
15

14
"14

-

-

243
148
95

2.21
2.40
1.91

4
4

12
12

_
-

8
6
2

8

13
10
3

5
5

26
10
16

5
5

14
9
5

16
8
8

17
10
7

29
17
12

4
3
1

18
18
-

27
27
-

10
10

8

12
5
6

■
_
-

1
1

14
14
-

Pipefitters, maintenance---------------Manufacturing -----------------------

365
313

2. 61
2. 60

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

25
25

16
11

31
30

7
7

12
7

51
48

48
39

110
81

40
40

13
13

2
2

10
10

“
_
_
_
-

Sheet-metalworkers, maintenance----- — —
Manufacturing-----------------------

117
109

2. 79
2.81

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

5
5

~

1
1

9
9

4
3

14
8

17
17

9
9

15
15

9
9

7
7

13
13

4 13
13

Tool and die makers
Manufacturing

287
2 76

2. 94
2.95

6

5

5

12
11

29
24

38
35

79

64
64

43
43

L
O

--------------------

-

-

_

_

-

-

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 All workers were at $3.20 to $3.30.
3 Workers were distributed as follows: 1 at $3.20 to $3. 30; 318 at $3. 30 to $3.40.
4 All workers were at $3.40 to $3. 50.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




-

-

l

8
8 -

7Q
ty

-

_

.

-

6

10
Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis,
by industry division, Baltimore, M d., August 1958)

Number
o
f
wres
okr

Occupation1 and industry division

Elevator operators, passenger (men)--- _
_
Nonmanufacturing _ ___________ _ _
_
_ _

69
66

$
$
Aeae
vrg
hul ,
ory
e r i g Under 0. 70 0.80
enna
and
$
0 70 under .90
.
.80
$
_
3
1.00
29
3
.98
29
-

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
s
$
t
$
S
<
$
$
$
1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2 . 0 0 2. 10
1.30 1.40

$
0.90

$
1 00
.

$
1 10
.

S
1.20

1 00
.

1 10
.

1.20

1.30

1.50

1.60
_

-

2
2

1.40

9
9

12
12

4
4

2
"

_

1 70
.

1.80

-

1
1

6
6

$
2.20

$
$
$
S
2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60

2.00

2.10

2.20

2.30

_
-

1
-

_

_

_

.

"

_
"

-

-

-

-

1.90
_

2.40

2.50

2.60

$
2 70
.
and
2. 70 over
.
-

-

214
214
84
96

•99
.99
.92
1.03

16
16
-

23
23
23
-

8
8
8
"

61
61
26
35

50
50
1/
33

25
25
8
17

8
8
2
6

5
5
5

11
11
“

1
1
"

-

6
6
-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

.
-

-

988
625
363
28

2. 02
2. 17
1.76
1.69

-

-

-

1
1
"

3
3
-

14
14

10
1
9
1

24
12
12
-

13
9
4
-

15
4
11
11

34
32
2
-

231
13
218
10

18
18
-

22
16
6
6

124
41
83
-

119
119
-

244
244
-

30
30
-

44
44
-

2
2
-

28
28
-

12
12
-

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men)__ _
_
_
_ _ ___
_ _
Manufacturing
„ ___ _
Nonmanufacturing ___________ ___
Public utilities*_ _ ___ ___ _ _
_
_ _
Wholesale trade ________ ______ _
_
Retail trade _ ___ „ _ _ _ ___
_
_ _ _
Finance! ___ ______ _ „ ___ __
_

3 022
,
itss !
1,459
148
62
542
291

1.46
1.78
1 12
.
1.56
1.43
1.08
1 10
.

49
49
-

_
-

87
87
65
-

202
202
189
5

682
66
616
18
118
174

192
65
127
1
3
67
54

197
110
87
5
2
36
30

161
99
62
14
10
21
15

130
65
65
44
8
10

118
86
32
10
9
3
1

147
81
66
58
1
5
2

151
138
13
6
6
1
-

148
114
34
9
7
18
-

38 309
29 ~30S
3
9
3
2
5
1
'
-

330
324
6
1
5
-

80
80
-

1
1
1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women)____
Manufacturing
___ „ ___ ___ _
_
Nonmanufacturing _ „ ___ _ ______
_
_
Retail trade _______ „ ____________
Finance! ________ ___ _ ___ —
_

783
227
556
105
353

1.06
1.32
.95
.81
.96

49
49
324

127
127
16
105

57
57
27
24

24
24
24

232
64
168
7
149

117
15
42
2
36

26
15
11
4
7

33
14
19
1
16

64
9
55
14

3
1
2
2

5
3
2
-

8
8
"

5
5
"

5
5
-

7
7
-

21
21
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

266

219

460 291
430 T39
30
52
37
14
30

241
134
107
95
12

350
16?
243
172
10
61

784
694
90
26
1
63

166
148
28
4
24

181
165
16
16

421
21
21
“

42
4l
1
1

22
22
-

39
39
-

-

-

3
3
3
-

_
-

-

3
3
-

~

56
56
■

Elevator operators, passenger
_
Nonmanufacturing ___ _
Retail trade___ ___ _
_
Financef — — ___ —

(women)----_ . _ _ __
_ . _ _
___ _ _ __
_ _
______ — —

HnarHi
Manufacturing _
_ „ _ ___ ____ _
_
_
_
___
Nonmanufacturing ___ ______
_
_ _ _
Public utilities*____ _ ___ _ _ _

Laborers, material handling _ ___ _ _ _
_ _ _
Manufacturing _ _ ________ _ __ __
_
_
Nonmanufacturing ______ _ _ ___
_ _
Public utilities*____ _ ___ ___
_
Wholesale trade ___________________
Retail trade ______
„ ___

4,847
1.85
177^5- ■"lTffff"
1.74
1,089
198
2. 06
267
1.73
618
1.65

_
-

-

4
4
4

.
-

39
15
24
12
11

Order fillers _ _
_ _
___ _
_
_ _ _ _
_ _ _ _
Manufacturing _ ________ ___ _ _
_
_
Nonmanufacturing ______ _ ___
_
_
_
Wholesale trade______
_
_
Retail trade_______________________

1,147
173
974
477
488

1.69
1.57
1.71
1.62
1.80

_
-

_
“

_
-

_
-

177
104
95
9

Packers, shipping (men)____ ________
Manufacturing _ ______ ______ _
_
_
Nonmanufacturing. ___ ______ _ _
_ _
Retail trade
_ _ ___ ______
_ _

355
“ 235119
66

1.75
1755
1.56
1.30

.
“

_
-

_
-

4
4
4

44
32
12
12

34
"T9-15
15

506
—
88

1.25
rm
1.44

_
*

_
_

_
-

1
1

64
60
4

185
181
4

_
-

_
-

24
24
24

_
-

1
1
1

7
7
7

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
_
„
.

Packers, shipping (women) ______ ______
Manufacturing ___ _ _ ___ _____
_ _
Nonmanufacturing_____________________

~ m

257
Receiving clerks _ ___ _ _ _ _ ____ _
_ _ _ _
_
~To9
Manufacturing ____
______ ______
148
Nonmanufacturing _ . ___ ___ _ „
.
_
106
Retail trade
_ . _ _ _ ______
_ . _ _ _
Shipping clerks „ _ ___ ______ ______
_
Manufacturing___ ______ ______ _ __
_
Nonmanufacturing ___ „ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _
Retail trade____ _ _ _ „ . — _
_ _ _
.
_

See footnotes at end of table




237
116
121
81

1.81
' 2767 ”
1.62
1.52
2.01
2.22
1.81
1.74

T ~

159
—
75
9
64

~ u

84
41
43

75
15
60

279
T?n>
24
3
21

603
509
94
4
90

281
160
121
15
104

47
14
33
24
8

92
6
86
39
43

47
ll
36
8
26

78
43
35
15
20

89
62
27
13
13

63
4
59
58

51
5
46
16
30

218
1
217
211
6

90
90
17
73

164
S
159
20
139

1
1
1

30
5
25
25

10
10
9

51
23
3 9 - “ IS
7
12
7
6

4
4
3

_
-

10
10
9

6
2
4

45
36
9

40
9
31
~

14
13
1
1

■

11
11
■

68
55
13

109
99

31
11
20

26
26

■

5
5

5
5

-

~

4
4
■

“

8
8
~

-

“
~

"

”

7
20
3 — - 7
15
14
7

_
-

19
2
17
9

19
10
9
1

25
Id
15
12

7
7

19
i9
*

20
12
“

14
10
4
3

18
9
9
9

31
14
17
8

6
5
1
1

16
13
3
3

4
4
-

-

18
5
13
13

3
’
J
-

19
19
14

12
Z
10
10

21
4
17
17

35
20
15
6

1
1

36
11
25
2

19
7
12
12

11
7
4
1

13
12
1
1

13
11
2
2

17
17
-

4
3
1
1

13
i3
-

~ m r ~ T T i—

67
14
53
16
37

—

2
2
2

10

-

6

T U I5

“

11
Table A~4. Custodial and M aterial Movem ent Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis,
by industry division, Baltimore, Md. , August 1958)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING 8TRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation1 and industry division

Number
o
f
wres
okr

$
$
$
S
$
Avenge
h u l . Under 0. 70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10
ory
erig
ann*
and
$
under
0. 70
.80
.90 1.00 1.10 1.20
$
_
1.94
1.92
1.97
1
-

$
1.20

$
1.30

$
1.40

$
1.50

$
1.60

$
1 70
.

$
1.80

S
1.90

S
<
$
$
*
2.00 2. 10 2.20 2.30 2.40

$
s
2.50 2.60

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

2.10

20
15
5

1
1

-

1 70
.

1.80

1.90

2.00

11
11

52
49
3

23
16
7

12
5
7

13
11
2

-

9
-

45
34
11
32
8
-

64
94
15 “ 44
50
49
9
3
3
13
33

176
99
77
22
18
36

78
34
44
11
29
3

427
Z6
401
60
32
308

23
3
20

14
7
7

6
6
-

24
20
4

47
47

14
14

9

1

25
5

9
-

34
28
6
32
3
-

-

-

-

18
18
18

-

-

-

12

12

12

-

"

-

1
1
1

11
10
1
-

Shipping and receiving clerks------------Manufacturing----------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------

226
159
67

Truckdrivers4 ------------------------Manufacturing----------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------Public utilities * -----------------Wholesale trade------------------Retail trade--- T
------------------

2,647
750
1,867
748
573
491

2.12
2. 19
2.09
2. 18
2.11
2.03

-

-

-

-

1
1

34
34

43
20
23

100
3
97

28
7
21

-

-

-

-

-

12
12

17
3

74
6

Truckdrivers, light (under lV* tons)----Manufacturing--------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------

218
167
51

2.04
2.26
1.32

-

"

-

-

1
1

13
13

7
7

Truckdrivers, medium (l1 to and
/*
including 4 tons)-------------------Manufacturing---------- ---------Nonmanufacturing----------------Public utilities*------- ------ ---Wholesale trade---------------Retail trade--------------------

810
227
583
170
2 73
105

1.96
2.63
1.93
2.06
1.98
1 74
.

-

-

-

-

-

9
9

“

-

-

-

-

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) ----------------------Manufacturing-------------------Nonmanufacturing-----------------Wholesale trade----------------

825
163
662
204

2.30
2. 13
2. 34
2.48

-

-

-

-

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than trailer type)-------------Manufacturing-------- — ----------

551
184

2. 11
2. 32

-

-

-

Truckers, power (forklift)--------------Manufacturing----------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------Public utilities * -----------------Retail trade----------------------

1,520
1 387
,
133
48
52

2. 30
32
2.06
2.26
2. 01

-

-

1 .

5
5

6
6
-

219 640
21 " 28
198 612
28 586
170
25
1

81
34
47
9
38

272
232
40
4a
-

218
174
44
6
38

83
9
74
_
74
-

44
44
44
-

-

15
15
-

-

-

1
1

2
2
"

5
4
1

-

64
15
49
3
13

80
36
44
6
3
30

79
12
67
15
18
33

34
2
32
6
26
-

43
6
37
8
15
14

147
1
146
146
-

130
2
128
103
25
-

9
9
-

13
13
-

83
83
-

-

5
5
5

-

4
4
-

50
48 '
2
-

22
17
5
3

19
14
5
5

30
6
24
24

393
15
378
-

69
47
9

25
5
20
20

76
32
44
6

70
70
70

-

-

-

-

38
38

”

287
5

11
11

25
“

1
1

118
98

31
31

4
"

“

12
8
4
"

-

1
1
-

24
22
2
2

174
170
4
4

52
50
2
2

37
15
22
-

86
54
32
27

23
8
15
15

183
142
41
40
1

121
113
8
8
-

321
321
-

262
262
-

38
38
-

4 174
174
-

-

-

37
37

14
13

51
51

1
1

23
23

34
34

-

43
43

37
37

59
59

19
19

T ill
111

29

61
52
9
“

21
4
17
2
6
"

41
26
15
15
■

12
11
1
1
“

"

21
18
3
1
“

17
10
7
7
■

17
16
1
1
“

“

”

_
_

"

-

-

-

-

-

"

10
10

"

Wa t c h m e n ----------------------------Manufacturing-------------------- -—
Nonmanufacturing-------------------Public utilities * -----------------Retail trade----------------------Finance t -------------------------

569
240
39
60
78

1.36
1.4?
1.21
1.61
1 12
.
1.09

1
1
1

2
2
2

39
30
9
1

35
6
29
15
14

85
85
2
31
21

30
4
26
4
1
16

112
85
27
6
2
19

46
41
5
2
3




8
4
4

15
14
1

-

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Workers were distributed as follows: 21 at $0. 50 to $0. 60; 3 at $0. 60 to $0. 70.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.
All workers were at $3. 10 to $3.20.
Workers were distributed as follows: 155 at $2. 70 to $2.80; 19 at $2.80 to $2.90.
Workers were distributed as follows: 99 at $2. 70 to $2.80; 12 at $2.80 to $2.90.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities,
Finance, insurance, and real estate.

2. 60

8
2
6

-

2. 31
2. 31

1
*
5
4
5
6
7
*
t

2.50

12
12

4
4
-

439
438

1

2. 3Q_ 2.40
44
44
-

10
7
3

-

Truckers, power (other than forklift)-----Manufacturing-----------------------

3 29

2.20

$
2. 70
and
2. 70 over

26

3
2
1

22

112
112

5

44

44
44




12

B :

E s ta b lis h m e n t

P r a c tic e s

and

S u p p le m e n t a r y

W age

P r o v is io n s

Table B-1. Shift Differentials
(P ercen t o f manufacturing plant w orkers in establishm ents having form a l p rovisions fo r shift w ork, and in establishm ents
actually operating late shifts by type and amount o f d ifferential, B altim ore, Md. , August 1958)
In establishm ents having form a l
p rovision s 1 fo r—

I'
I

In establishm ents actually
operating—

Shift differential
Second shift
work

I
1

Second shift

Third o r other
shift

__

With shift pay d ifferential
U niform cents (per hour)

17. 7

8. 6

82. 8

17. 2

8. 5

51. 7

__

84. 5

87. 3

Total

47. 7

11. 6

6. 7
_
(
2)
.3
(2)
1. 1
.5
.1
4. 1
.1
.1
.4

89. 8

_

_

_
_
_

_____

8 hou rs' pay fo r 7 V2 hours' w ork _ .
Other fo rm a l pay differential _ „

_

__ _

No shift pay d iffe r e n t ia l______________________

.4
2. 7
.3
8. 2
4 .9
.9
25. 1
2 .4
.8
2.0

.7
.1
•3
(
2)
.6
2. 2
6. 7
.9
.1
-

25. 3

3. 2

1. 7

3. 3
7. 7
1. 2
13. 6
-

7. 7
15.9
1. 7

.1
.9
.3
1. 9
"

.2
1. 4
.1

1.2

U niform percentage

2. 5
.5
1. 5
.4
4. 1
7. 8
26. 8
6 .9
1. 2
25. 8

2 c e n t s _________________________________
3 cents _
__ _
4 cents
4 V cents _
3
5 cents
_
6 cents
__
8 cents ____________________________________
9 cents
10 cents
_
_
11 cents
_
12 cents
12Vz cents
_ _
13%
.
:15 cents
_
16 rents and over
. _

5 percent
7 p ercent
7V2 percen t
10 percent
15 percent

Third or other
shift w ork

1. 2

.3

.1

8. 6

8. 6

2. 1

(
2)

2. 5

1. 7

.5

.1

I
I
I

1 Includes establishm ents cu rren tly operating late shifts, and establishm ents with fo rm a l p rovisions cov e rin g late
even though they w ere not cu rren tly operating late shifts.
2 L e ss than 0. 05 percen t.

shifts

13
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(D istribution o f establishm ents studied in all industries and in industry divisions by m inimum entrance salary fo r s e le cte d ca te g o rie s
o f inexperienced wom en o ffice w o rk e rs, B altim ore, M d ., August 1958)
Inexperienced typists
Minimum weekly s a la r y 1

A ll
industries

|

A ll
industries

B ased on standard weekly hours 3 of—
A ll
schedules ,

40

Other in experienced c le r ic a l w o r k e r s 2
Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Manuf ac tur ing

A ll
schedules

40

37%

A ll
schedules

35

Nonmanufac tur ing

B ased on standard weekly hours 3 o f—
40

A ll­
schedules

40

37l/»

35

181

Establishm ents studied
Establishm ents having a sp ecified m inimum —
Under $ 35 .00 _______________________________
$35 .00 and under $ 3 7 .5 0 ------ _ ----------$ 37 .50 and under $ 40 .00 ..............................
$ 40 .00 and under $ 4 2 .5 0 __________________
_____ __ __ __
$ 4 2 .5 0 and under $ 4 5 .0 0
$ 45 .00 and under $ 4 7 .5 0 _ __
— __
___
$47 . 50 and under $ 5 0 .0 0 __________________
$ 5 0 .0 0 and under $ 5 2 .5 0
_ ___
$ 52.50 and under $ 5 5 .0 0 .
$ 5 5 .0 0 and under $ 5 7 .5 0 _
—
---$ 5 7 .5 0 and under $ 6 0 .0 0 .
— . ------$ 6 0 .0 0 and under $ 62.50 .
______
$ 62.50 and under $ 6 5 .0 0 _ __ __
$ 6 5 .0 0 and under $ 6 7 .5 0 _
—
__ ---$ 67. 50 and under $ 7 0 .0 0 __________________
$ 7 0 .0 0 and under $ 7 2 .5 0 _ _
___
$ 72 .50 and under $ 7 5 .0 0 __________________
$ 7 5 .0 0 and under $ 7 7 .5 0 _
__ ___ __
Establishm ents having no sp ecified m inimum —
Establishm ents which did not em ploy
w orkers in this ca tegory _____________________

71

XXX

110

XXX

XXX

XXX

181

71

XXX

110

XXX

XXX

XXX

88
1
12
14
19
5
12
7
4
1
_
4
3
2
1
2
1
19

37
3
2
5
2
8
3
2
1
_
4
2
1
1
2
1
9

29
3
2
3
2
4
2
1
1
_
4
2
1
1
2
1
XXX

51
1
9
12
14
3
4
4
2
_
_
1
1

30
7
7
7
1
2
3
2

8
1
1
4
1
1
_

7
1
4
2
-

96
1
3
1
29
9
13
8
11
3
4
2
2
3
3
2

36
4
3
6
3
7
1
1
2
3
3
1

28
4
3
4
1
3
1
1
2
_
3
3
1

60
1
3
1
25
6
7
5
4
2
3
2
1

35
1
1
18
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
_
1

9
3
1
2
2
1
-

7
1
2
3
1
_
_
.

-

-

_
_
-

.
.

.
_

-

-

-

1
1
26

1
1
14

1
1
XXX

-

.
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_

12

XXX

XXX

XXX

74

25

XXX

21

XXX

38

XXX

XXX

I XXX

-

-

-

-

_
.
1

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

10

XXX

XXX

XXX

49

XXX

XXX

XXX
59

1 Low est sala ry rate form a lly established fo r hiring inexperienced w ork ers fo r typing o r other c le r ic a l jo b s .
2 Rates applicable to m e ss en g ers, office g ir ls , o r sim ilar su b cle rica l jobs are not con sid ered .
3 Hours re fle ct the workweek fo r which em ployees re ce iv e their regular straigh t-tim e s a la rie s. Data are presented fo r all workweeks com bin ed, and fo r the m ost com m on workweeks rep orted .

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(P ercen t distribution of o ffice and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
o f firs t-s h ift w o r k e rs , B a ltim ore, Md. , August 1958)
OFFICE WORKERS!
W eekly hours

A ll w orkers

__ ________

Under 35 hours - __
____
---35 hours _
. . .
Over 35 and under 3
hours ----------------------37% hour# _ ... .......... _
__
_
._
O ver 37% and under 38% h o u r s ------------------38% hour8 _
___
___
O ver 38% and under 40 hours __ __
40 hours _ _
__ ---- — ----O ver 40 and under 44 hours __ __ ____
44 hnura
45 hours
— _ __ ___
_ __
4 6 % hours - ____ ____ __ .....___ - _
_____
48 hours ’ __
____
__ __ —
O ver 48 hours
___ ___
__ __ __ __
1
2
3
*
t

All
industries 1

M
anufacturing

100

100

2
9
3
10
1
4

(3 )

69
1
(3)

(?)
(3)
-

(3)
3
1
7
2
4
_
82
1
_
_
_
-

Public
utilities*
100
_
1
4
30
_
2
_
63
_
_
.
(3 )
-

W
holesale
trade
100
_
2
7
_
9
82
_
_
_
_
.
-

PLANT WORKERS
Retail trade

Services

A
U
industries c

M
anufacturing
100

100

100

100

4
1
.
_
_
92
3
_
_
.
.
-

.
27
7
14
_
4
_
47
_
_
_
_
-

2
_
1
2
1
_
1
82
2
2
2
_
3
2

Includes data fo r s e rv ice s in addition to those industry division s shown separately.
Includes data fo r rea l estate and s e rv ice s in addition to those industry d ivision s shown separately.
L ess than 0. 5 percent.
Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities,
Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.




Financef

2
_
1
3
1
_
_
87
_
(3)
2
_
3
1

Public
utilities*

W
holesale
trade

100

100

1
_
.

2
_
_
_
_
_
_
85
_
2
11

_
_
97
_
_
_
2
-

-

Retail trade
100
_
_
_
5
_
3
63
9
9
_
4
7

Services

14

Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(P ercen t distribution o f o ffice and plant w o rk e rs in a ll industries and in industry d ivision s by number o f paid holidays
provided annually, B altim ore, M d ., August 1958)
OFFICE WORKERS;

Item

A ll w ork ers

__

All
industries1

_
_

W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays __
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays
_.... _ ..............

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities*

W
holesale
trade

8

Retail trade

Financet

Services

I

PLANT WORKERS

All
industries 2

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities*

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98

99

99

98

93

1

1

2

7

1
1

( 3)

4
_

Services

4
5

99

99

100

100

( 3)

( 3)

-

-

-

-

2

( 3)
1

( 3)
1

-

-

-

-

2
3

( 3)
13

( 3)
9

( 3)

13

67

2

( 3)
( 3)
17

_
_
11

_
_
_

12

_

16

55

2
1
1
( 3)
35

2
2
( 3)
73

( 3)
4
2
6

11
5
30

2
25

_
( 3)

3
2
( 3)
55

3
3
_
69

_
1
1
_
26

4
3
_
_
33

_
_
27

1
11

8

30

5
11

-

2
11

( 3)
9

8

33

3
13

_
_

( 3)
3
8

1
( 3)
2

-

6

5
-

23

1
( 3)
1

1
1

_
-

_
9

1
_

2
22
1
( 3)

(? )
( 3)

57
( 3)

20
-

-

9
50
2
1

3
1
-

( 3)
1
-

38

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

N u m b er o f d a y s

L e s s than 5 holidays _ _ _
5 holidays _
._
_
5 holidays plus:
2 half days
............
_ . ...
1 o r 3 half days ________________________ __
6 holidays ______________________________________
6 holidays plus:
1 half d a y ____________________________________
2 half d a y s ___ _
3 half days __
4 half d a y s ___________________________________
7 holidays
7 holidays plus:
1 half day .. .............. .............................................
8 holidays
8 holidays plus:
1 half day ________ ____ ____ ____________
2 half days __________ ______________________
9 holidays ________________________ ____ ______
9 holidays plus:
1 half d a y ____________________________________
10 holidays _____________________________ ______
11 holidays _________________________ _________
12 o r 13 holidays ____________ ________________

_

1

T otal h o l i d a y t im e 4
13
12
11
10

d a y s ____ ________________________ _________
or m ore d a y s ____ ________ ____ _________
o r m ore days ________________________________
o r m ore days
or m ore days
9 o r m ore days ___ ________________________ ___
8 V2 o r m ore d a y s _________ ___________________
8 o r m ore days
7 V2 o r m ore d a y s ___ _________________________
7 o r m ore d a y s __ ________________________ ___
6 V2 o r m ore days -------------------------------------------6 or m ore days _________________________________
5 o r m ore days
_
1 or m ore days ____________ ___________________

<3 )
( 3)
1

23
25
35
36
47
48
84
86
99
99
99

_
-

( 3)
1
1
3
4
12
12
87
89
98
99
99

(? )
( 3)
57
57
57
5/
89
93
100
100
100
100
100

-

20
20
25
25
36
41
76
87
100
100
100

-

5
5
5
5
31
33
100
100
100

1
1
3
53
62
85
85
96
97
98
98
100
100
100

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

1
3
3
5
5
14
14
72
74
92
96
98

1
1
1
2
3
12
12
83
87
97
99
99

-

1
1
1
1
27
29
84
89
93

1 Includes data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry division s shown separately.
2 Includes data fo r rea l estate and s e rv ice s in addition to those industry division s shown separately.
3 L ess than 0 .5 p ercen t.
4 A ll com binations o f full and half days that add to the sam e amount a re com bined; fo r exam ple, the prop ortion of w o rk e rs
and no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on.
P rop ortion s w ere then cumulated.
* T ransportation (excluding ra ilroa d s), com m unication, and other public utilities,
f Finance, insurance, and real estate.




38
38
38
38
71
71
99
99
99
99
99

-

9
9
22
24
61
65
93
93
98

receiv in g a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days

15

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P ercen t distribution o f o ffice and plant w ork ers in all industries and in industry divisions
by vacation pay p ro v isio n s, B altim ore, Md. , August 1958)
OFFICE WORKERS

Vacation p olicy

PLANT WORKERS

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Financef

100

100

100

100

100

99
99
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

-

-

-

-

100
100
-

All
industries1

A ll w orkers _

All 2
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

99
90
7
2

99
88
9
3

99
99
-

100
83
17
-

100
100
-

-

-

1

(3)

1

-

-

31
12

7
42
41
9
-

16
14
1
(3)
(3)

13
8
1

_
72
1

45
15

-

-

1

-

2
10
7
1
-

_
78
11
11

_

_
78
12
5
3
1

_
26

_

63

95

(3)
73
10
11
2
1

_
82
11
7
-

53
14
29
2
1

60
19
16
3
1

16
37
42
2

17
51
28

Services

M e t h o d off p o y m o n t
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid v a c a t io n s _________ ____________ ________
L en g th -of-tim e payment
__
Percentage payment
_
------Other
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid vacations
_
. . . .

(3)

-

-

8
45
15
3
1

6
47
1
1
2

_
95
(3)
-

5
22
15
5
-

_
18
11
70
(3)
1

_
14
24
60

_
8

_
18

92

82

6
11
82
(3)
1

7
26
65

3
11
83
(3)

4
26
66

_

-

99

-

-

-

A m ou nt off v o c a t i o n p a y 4
A fter 6 months of s e rv ice
Under 1 week
_ _
1 w e e k ______ ______ .. ___ __. ______ _____ _____
O ver 1 and under 2 weeks
__
2 weeks
_
_ _
O ver 2 and under 3 weeks

-

-

-

-

A fter 1 yea r of s e rv ice
Under 1 week
1 wpftk
O ver 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
3 weeks
_ _
__

_
__ __ __ ___
_

_

_

_

_

-

-

2

5

-

-

-

-

-

71
1
(3)

37
-

A fter 2 years of s e rv ice
1 w e e k _____________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks
--------------- -------- _
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 weeks

-

2

4

12

11

-

-

-

_
-

96

88

89

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

(3)

9

_
-

91

1
(3)
98

-

-

11

60

39

-

-

-

87
1
(3)

40

61

-

-

-

1

32
20
48

9
7
84

-

-

A fter 3 years of s e rv ice
1 week
_
_
__
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 weeks __
__ _
____
_ -

3

4

100
-

1

3

1

See footnotes at end of table.




NOTE: In the tabulations o f vacation allow ances by years o f s e r v ic e , payments other than "length of t im e ,"
such as percentage o f annual earnings o r fla t-su m paym ents, w ere con verted to an equivalent time
b a s is; f o r exam p le, a payment o f 2 percent o f annual earnings was co n sid e re d as 1 w eek's pay.

-

97
1
(3)

16
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(P erce n t distribution o f o ffic e and plant w ork ers in all industries and in industry division s
by vacation pay p ro v isio n s, B altim ore, Md. , August, 1958)
OFFICE WORKERS ’

Vacation p olicy

All
.
industries 1 ■ Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

W
holesale
trade

PLANT WORKERS

Retail trade

Financef

Services

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

!

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

A m ou nt o f v a c a t i o n p a y 4— Continued
A fter 5 yea rs of s e rv ice
1 w eek

.

_ _

O v er 1 and under 2 weeks

_ _

1
92

__

2 w eek s
_
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s __ ______
3 w eeks
_
_
_
_ ...

(3)
95

2

5

5

1
67
9
23
"

61
20
19
-

_
_
99
_
(3)

5
_
95
_
-

1
_
97
_

_
_
92

_

_
90
7

_

2

6
2

86
6
2

19

6

98
1

81
_

7
83
_

2

(3)

-

4

_
98
2
-

5
42
1
52
-

1
53
45
-

_
80
20
-

51
28
14
2

1
50
39
7
2

_
98
1
(3)

19
37
20
24
-

38
_
56
-

5
32
59
4

1
75
“

_
24
76
-

4
16
4
73
2
(3)

1
15
5
77
2
-

_
1
_
98
1
-

19
23
_
57
_
1

6
24
_
70
_
-

4

1

A fter 10 yea rs of s e rv ice
1 w eek
.
_
.
...
2 weeks _____ ... ________ _________ ________ _
O v e r 2 and un d er 3 w e e k s
3 w eeks
_ _ _
O ver 3 and un d er 4 w e e k s
.

(3)

4

6

A fter 15 years of s e rv ice
1 week

_

_

_

______

2 w eeks

O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s _____________________
3 w eeks
_
.............. .
O v e r 3 and u nd er 4 w e e k s
4 w eeks

1
17
(3)
82
(3)

88

“

_
5
95
_
-

1
15
(3)
79
5

(3)
10
_
84
6

_
5
_
94
_
(3)

5
32
_
28
35

1
24
73
2

_
18
79
3

4
15
4
71
2
2

1
13
5
75
3
2

_
1
98
1
-

19
23
_
45
13

6
24
_
66
4

1
11
(3)
52
6
30

(3)
10
_
59
13
17

_
5
_
37
57

5
25
31
1
38

1
24
37
38

_
5
57
38

4
15
4
40
22
15

1
13
5
40
30
11

_
1
45
1
53

19
21
27
17
16

6
24
49
20

(3)
12
-

24

A fter 20 yea rs of s e rv ice
1 w e e k __________________________________________
2 weeks ________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 weeks
_
_
3 w eek s
O v e r 3 and u nd er 4 w e e k s

.

.....

4 weeks
A fter 25 yea rs of s e rv ice
1 week
2 weeks
____
O ver 2 and under 3 weeks
3 weeks
_ ....
O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s
4 weeks
...

_

_

_ . _
----

_

_ ....... .

1 Includes data fo r s e rv ice s in addition to those industry d ivision s shown separately.
2 Includes data fo r rea l estate and s e rv ice s in addition to those industry d ivision s shown separately.
3 L ess than 0. 5 percen t.
4 P eriod s of s e rv ice w ere a rb itra rily ch osen and do not n e c e ss a r ily re fle ct the individual p rovision s fo r p ro g re ss io n s ,
elude changes in p rovision s o ccu rrin g between 5 and 10 y e a rs .
*
t

T r a n s p o r ta tio n (ex c lu d in g r a ilr o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and oth e r public u tilit ie s ,
F in a n c e , in su r a n c e and r e a l e s t a t e .




F o r exam ple, the changes in p roportions indicated at 10 y e a rs ' s e rv ice in-

17

Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishm ents providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, B altim ore, M d ., August 1958)
OFFICE WORKERS
Type of benefit

A ll w orkers

_

All
j
industries

_________________________________

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS

Public
utilities*

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

Financef

Services

All 2
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

96

97

100

95

83

99

90

95

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

69

75

34

Services

32

Workers in establishm ents providing:
Life insurance _____ _____ ___________________
Accidental death and dism em berm ent
in su r a n ce________________ __ -----------------------Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both3 ___________________________

40

60

3

42

45

25

35

39

13

83

94

96

84

93

57

91

96

84

90

58

87

13

33

48

'

Sickness and accident in s u r a n c e -------------Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting p e r io d ) ____________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting p e r io d )----- ------- ------- -------------

36

58

3

27

57

5

74

44

46

37

55

4

53

5

1

33

20

6

23

29

57

11

36

"

21

17

38

9

40

Hospitalization insurance
___________________
Surgical insurance ____________________________
M edical insurance _____________________________
Catastrophe insurance ________________________
Retirem ent pension __________________________
No health, insurance, or pension p la n ---------

68
68
30
35
88
1

83
85
32
36
90
2

9
9
3
93

86
84
40
6
78

63
62
34
35
81

65
62
36
48
92
(4 )

75
75
19
10
80
5

87
88
19
11
87
3

29
29
16
99

74
65
24
4
42
19

49
47
22
9
72
2

1 In c lu d es data fo r s e r v ic e s in ad d ition to th o se in d u str y d iv is io n s shown s e p a r a t e ly .
2 In c lu d es data fo r r e a l e sta te and s e r v i c e s in a d d ition to th ose in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a t e ly .
. . .
,
.. ,
3 U n d up licated to ta l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g sic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c cid e n t in su r a n ce shown s e p a r a te ly b e lo w .
S ic k -le a v e p lan s a r e lim ite d to th o se w h ich d e fin ite ly e s t a b is n at
the m in im u m n u m b er o f d ays* pay that can be e x p e c te d by e a c h e m p lo y e e .
In fo r m a l s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n c e s d e te r m in e d on an in d ivid u al b a s is a r e e x c lu d e d .
In s o m e in s ta n c e s the p r o p o r ion s
o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by p r o v is io n s fo r paid sic k le a v e (fu ll pay and no w aiting p e r io d ) a r e som e w h at lo w e r than r e p o r te d in e a r l ie r s tu d ie s , due to a m o r e r ig id a d h e r e n c e to t e c r i e n a
d istin g u ish in g f o r m a l fr o m in fo r m a l p la n s.

*

L ess than 0 .5 percent.

* T r a n sp o r ta tio n (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ) ,
■ F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e .
f




c o m m u n ic a tio n , and oth e r p u b lic u tilit ie s .

18
A p p e n d ix : O ccupational Descriptions
The p r im a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r in g jo b d e s c r ip tio n s f o r the B u r e a u 's w age su r v e y s is to
a s s i s t its fie ld s ta ff in c la s s ify in g into a p p r o p r ia te o c cu p a tio n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p lo y e d u nder
a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll title s and d iffe r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n ts fr o m e sta b lis h m e n t to e sta b lis h m e n t
and fr o m a r e a to a r e a .
T h is is e s s e n t ia l in o r d e r to p e r m it the g rou p in g o f o c cu p a tio n a l w age
r a te s r e p r e s e n t in g c o m p a r a b le jo b con ten t.
B e c a u s e o f th is e m p h a sis on in ter e s ta b lis h m e n t and
in te r a r e a c o m p a r a b ility o f o c c u p a tio n a l con ten t, the B u r e a u 's jo b d e s c r ip t io n s m a y d iffe r s ig n ifi­
ca n tly fr o m th ose in u s e in in d iv id u a l e sta b lis h m e n ts o r th o se p r e p a r e d f o r o th e r p u r p o s e s .
In
a p p ly in g th e se jo b d e s c r ip t io n s , the B u r e a u 's fie ld r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s a r e in s tr u c te d to e x clu d e w o r k ­
ing s u p e r v i s o r s , a p p r e n t ic e s , le a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , t r a in e e s , h a n d ica p p ed w o r k e r s , p a r t -t im e ,
t e m p o r a r y , and p r o b a tio n a r y w o r k e r s .

Off i c e
B IL L E R ,

M ACH IN E

P r e p a r e s s ta te m e n ts , b i lls , and in v o ic e s on a m a ch in e o th e r
than an o r d in a r y o r e le c t r o m a t ic t y p e w r ite r . M ay a l s o k eep r e c o r d s
a s to b illin g s o r sh ip p in g c h a r g e s o r p e r fo r m o th e r c l e r i c a l w o r k in ­
cid e n ta l to b illin g o p e r a t io n s .
F o r w ag e study p u r p o s e s , b i l l e r s ,
m a c h in e , a r e c la s s if i e d b y type o f m a c h in e , as fo llo w s :
B i lle r , m a ch in e (b illin g m a c h in e )——U s e s a s p e c ia l b illin g
m a ch in e (M oon H o p k in s, E llio tt F is h e r , B u r r o u g h s , e t c . , w h ich
a r e co m b in a tio n typin g and addin g m a c h in e s ) to p r e p a r e b ills and
in v o ic e s fr o m c u s t o m e r s ' p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , in te r n a lly p r e p a r e d
o r d e r s , sh ip p in g m e m o r a n d a , e t c .
U s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a tio n
o f p r e d e te r m in e d d is co u n ts and sh ipp in g c h a r g e s and e n try o f
n e c e s s a r y e x te n s io n s , w h ich m a y o r m a y n ot b e c o m p u te d on the
b illin g m a c h in e , and to ta ls w h ich a r e a u to m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la te d
b y m a c h in e .
T h e o p e r a tio n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e n u m b er o f
c a r b o n c o p ie s o f the b i ll b e in g p r e p a r e d and is o fte n done on a
fa n fo ld m a c h in e .
B i lle r , m a ch in e (b ook k eep in g m a c h in e )— U ses a b o o k k e e p in g
—
m a ch in e (& undstrand, E llio tt F is h e r , R em in g ton R and, e t c . , w h ich
m a y o r m a y n ot h ave ty p e w r ite r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s t o m e r s '
b ills a s p a r t o f the a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le o p e r a t io n .
G e n e r a lly
in v o lv e s the sim u lta n e o u s en tr y o f fig u r e s on c u s t o m e r s ' le d g e r
record .
T he m a ch in e a u to m a tic a lly a c c u m u la te s fig u r e s on a
n u m b er o f v e r t ic a l c o lu m n s and c o m p u te s and u s u a lly p r in ts a u to ­
m a t ic a lly the d eb it o r c r e d i t b a la n c e s
D o e s n ot in v o lv e a k n o w l­
ed g e o f b o o k k e e p in g . W o rk s fr o m u n ifo r m and sta n d a rd ty p es o f
s a le s and c r e d i t s l ip s .
B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O p e ra te s a b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e (R em in g ton R and, E llio tt
F is h e r , S u n dstra n d, B u r r o u g h s , N a tion a l C a sh R e g is t e r , w ith o r w ith ­
out a ty p e w r ite r k e y b o a r d ) to k eep a r e c o r d o f b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t io n s .




B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R ----- C on tinu ed
C la s s A-— K eep s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u ir in g a k n ow led ge o f
and e x p e r ie n c e in b a s ic b o o k k e e p in g p r in c ip le s and fa m ilia r it y w ith
the s tr u c tu r e o f the p a r t ic u la r a c c o u n tin g s y s te m u s e d .
D eter­
m in e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s and d is tr ib u tio n o f d eb it and c r e d i t ite m s
to b e u se d in e a ch p h a s e o f the w o r k . M ay p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a te d
r e p o r t s , b a la n c e s h e e ts , and o th e r r e c o r d s b y hand.
C la s s B ----- K eep s a r e c o r d o f on e o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c tio n s
o f a s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a lly r e q u ir in g little k n ow led ge o f b a s ic b o o k ­
k e e p in g .
P h a s e s o r s e c tio n s in clu d e a c c o u n ts p a y a b le , p a y r o ll,
c u s t o m e r s ' a c c o u n ts (not in clu d in g a s im p le type o f b illin g d e s c r ib e d
u n d er b i l l e r , m a c h in e ), c o s t d is tr ib u tio n , ex p e n s e d is tr ib u tio n , in ­
v e n t o r y c o n t r o l, e t c . M ay c h e c k o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r a tio n o f t r ia l
b a la n c e s and p r e p a r e c o n t r o l sh e e ts f o r the a c c o u n tin g d e p a rtm e n t.
CLERK,

A C C O U N TIN G

C la s s A — U n der g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a c c o u n t ­
ant, has r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r k eep in g on e o r m o r e s e c tio n s o f a c o m ­
p le te s e t o f b o o k s o r r e c o r d s r e la tin g to on e p h a se o f an e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t's b u s in e s s tr a n s a c t io n s . W o r k in v o lv e s p o s tin g and b a la n cin g
s u b s id ia r y le d g e r o r le d g e r s su ch as a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le o r a c ­
cou n ts p a y a b le ; e x a m in in g and c o d in g in v o ic e s o r v o u c h e r s w ith
p r o p e r a c c o u n tin g d is tr ib u tio n ; r e q u ir e s ju d g m en t and e x p e r ie n c e
in m a k in g p r o p e r a s s ig n a tio n s and a llo c a t io n s .
M ay a s s i s t in
p r e p a r in g , a d ju stin g , and c lo s in g jo u r n a l e n tr ie s ; m a y d ir e c t c la s s
B a c c o u n tin g c l e r k s .
C la s s B -----U n der s u p e r v is io n , p e r fo r m s one o r m o r e rou tin e
a c c o u n tin g o p e r a tio n s su ch a s p o s tin g s im p le jo u r n a l v o u c h e r s ,
a c c o u n ts p a y a b le v o u c h e r s , e n te r in g v o u c h e r s in v o u c h e r r e g is t e r s ;
r e c o n c ilin g bank a c c o u n ts ; p o s tin g s u b s id ia r y le d g e r s c o n t r o lle d
b y g e n e r a l le d g e r s .
T h is jo b d o e s n ot r e q u ir e a k n ow led g e o f
a c c o u n tin g and b o o k k e e p in g p r in c ip le s but is fou nd in o f f i c e s in
w h ich the m o r e ro u tin e a c c o u n tin g w o r k is su b d iv id e d on a fu n c ­
tio n a l b a s is a m on g s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .

19
CLERK,

F IL E

C la s s A ----- R e s p o n s ib le f o r m a in ta in in g an e s t a b lis h e d filin g
s y s t e m . C l a s s if ie s an d in d e x e s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o r o th e r m a te r ia l;
m a y a ls o f ile th is m a t e r ia l. M ay k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r io u s ty p es
in c o n ju n ctio n w ith f i l e s o r s u p e r v is e o th e r s in filin g and lo c a tin g
m a t e r ia l in the f i l e s .
M ay p e r fo r m in cid e n ta l c l e r i c a l d u tie s .
C la s s B ----- P e r f o r m s r o u tin e filin g , u su a lly o f m a t e r ia l that
h as a lr e a d y b e e n c la s s if i e d , o r lo c a t e s o r a s s i s t s in lo c a t in g m a ­
t e r ia l in the f i l e s .
M ay p e r fo r m in c id e n ta l c l e r i c a l d u tie s .
CLERK,

ORDER

R e c e iv e s c u s t o m e r s ' o r d e r s fo r m a t e r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e by
m a il, ph on e, o r p e r s o n a lly .
D u ties in v o lv e an y c o m b in a tio n o f the
fo llo w in g : Q uotin g p r ic e s to c u s t o m e r s ; m a kin g out an o r d e r sh e e t
lis tin g the it e m s to m a k e up the o r d e r ; c h e c k in g p r ic e s and q u a n tities
o f it e m s on o r d e r sh eet; d is tr ib u tin g o r d e r s h e e ts to r e s p e c t iv e d e ­
p a rtm en ts to b e f ill e d .
M ay c h e c k w ith c r e d it d e p a rtm e n t to d e t e r ­
m in e c r e d it ra tin g o f c u s t o m e r , a c k n o w le d g e r e c e ip t o f o r d e r s fr o m
c u s t o m e r s , fo llo w up o r d e r s to s e e that th ey h a v e b e e n fille d , k eep
file o f o r d e r s r e c e iv e d , and c h e c k sh ipp in g in v o ic e s w ith o r ig in a l
ord ers.

CLERK,

K E Y -P U N C H O P E R A T O R
U nder g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n and w ith no s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s i­
b i lit ie s , r e c o r d s a cc o u n tin g and s t a t is t ic a l data on tabu latin g c a r d s
by punching a s e r ie s o f h o le s in the c a r d s in a s p e c ifie d se q u e n c e ,
usin g an a lp h a b e tic a l o r a n u m e r ic a l k e y -p u n c h m a ch in e , fo llo w in g
w ritte n in fo r m a t io n on r e c o r d s .
M ay d u p lic a te c a r d s b y u sin g the
d u p lica tin g d e v ic e a tta ch ed to m a c h in e .
K e e p s f i l e s o f punch c a r d s .
M ay v e r if y ow n w o r k o r w o r k o f o t h e r s .
O F F IC E BO Y O R G IR L
P e r f o r m s v a r io u s ro u tin e d u ties su ch a s running e r r a n d s ,
o p e r a tin g m in o r o f f i c e m a c h in e s su ch a s s e a le r s o r m a ile r s , open in g
and d is tr ib u tin g m a il, and o th e r m in o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .
SECRETARY
P e r f o r m s s e c r e t a r ia l an d c l e r i c a l d u ties f o r a s u p e r io r in an
a d m in is tr a tiv e o r e x e c u tiv e p o s it io n . D u ties in clu d e m a kin g a p p o in t­
m en ts fo r s u p e r io r ; r e c e iv in g p e o p le c o m in g in to o f f i c e ; a n sw e r in g
and m a k in g phone c a lls ; h an dlin g p e r s o n a l and im p o rta n t o r c o n f i­
d en tia l m a il, and w ritin g r o u tin e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e on ow n in itia t iv e ;
taking d ic ta tio n (w h e re tr a n s c r ib in g m a ch in e is n ot u se d ) e ith e r in
sh orth an d o r b y sten otyp e o r s im ila r m a ch in e , and tr a n s c r ib in g d ic t a ­
tion o r the r e c o r d e d in fo r m a t io n r e p r o d u c e d on a t r a n s c r ib in g m a c h in e .
M ay p r e p a r e s p e c ia l r e p o r t s o r m e m o r a n d a fo r in fo r m a t io n o f s u p e r io r .

PAYROLL
STENOGRAPH ER,

GENERAL

C o m p u te s w a g e s o f co m p a n y e m p lo y e e s and e n te r s the n e c e s ­
s a r y data on the p a y r o ll s h e e ts . D u ties in v o lv e : C a lcu la tin g workers'
e a r n in g s b a s e d on tim e o r p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s ; p o s tin g c a lc u la te d data
on p a y r o ll sh e e t, sh ow in g in fo r m a t io n su ch a s w o r k e r 's n a m e , w o rk in g
da y s, tim e , r a te , d e d u ctio n s fo r in s u r a n c e , and to ta l w a g e s d u e. M ay
m ake out p a y c h e c k s and a s s i s t p a y m a s te r in m a k in g up and d i s ­
trib u tin g pay e n v e lo p e s .
M ay u se a c a lc u la tin g m a c h in e .

P r im a r y duty is to take d ic ta tio n fr o m on e o r m o r e p e r s o n s ,
e ith e r in sh orth a n d o r b y sten oty p e o r s im ila r m a ch in e , in v o lv in g a
n o r m a l ro u tin e v o c a b u la r y , and to t r a n s c r ib e th is d ic ta tio n on a ty p e ­
w r it e r . M ay a ls o type fr o m w ritte n c o p y . M ay a ls o se t up and k eep
f ile s in o r d e r , k eep s im p le r e c o r d s , e t c .
D o e s n ot in clu d e tr a n ­
s c r ib in g -m a c h in e w o r k (s e e t r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r ).

COM PTOM ETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPH ER,

P r im a r y duty is to o p e r a t e a C o m p to m e te r to p e r fo r m m a th e ­
m a tic a l c o m p u ta tio n s .
T h is jo b is n ot to b e c o n fu s e d w ith that o f
s t a t is t ic a l o r o th e r type o f c le r k , w h ich m a y in v o lv e fr e q u e n t u se o f
a C o m p to m e te r but, in w h ich , u se o f th is m a ch in e is in cid e n ta l to
p e r fo r m a n c e o f o th e r d u tie s .

P r im a r y duty is to take d ic ta tio n fr o m on e o r m o r e p e r s o n s ,
e ith e r in sh orth an d o r b y sten oty p e o r s im ila r m a ch in e , in v o lv in g a
v a r ie d t e c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y su ch a s in le g a l b r ie f s o r
r e p o r t s on s c ie n t ific r e s e a r c h and to t r a n s c r ib e th is d ic ta tio n on a
t y p e w r it e r .
M ay a l s o type fr o m w ritte n c o p y . M ay a ls o se t up and
k eep f ile s in o r d e r , k eep s im p le r e c o r d s , e t c .
D o e s n ot in clu d e
t r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e w o r k .

T E C H N IC A L

D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (M IM E O G R A P H OR D IT T O )
SW IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R
U nder g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n and w ith no s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n ­
s ib ilit ie s , r e p r o d u c e s m u ltip le c o p ie s o f ty p e w ritte n o r h an d w ritten
m a tte r, usin g a m im e o g r a p h o r d itto m a c h in e . M a k es n e c e s s a r y a d ­
ju stm e n t su ch a s fo r in k and p a p er fe e d co u n te r and c y lin d e r s p e e d .
Is not r e q u ir e d to p r e p a r e s t e n c il o r ditto m a s t e r . M ay k e e p f ile o f
u sed s t e n c ils o r ditto m a s t e r s .
M ay s o r t , c o lla t e , and sta p le c o m ­
p leted m a t e r ia l.




O p e r a te s a s in g le - o r m u lt ip le -p o s it io n telep h on e sw itch b o a rd .
D u ties in v o lv e han dlin g in c o m in g , ou tg oin g , and in tra p la n t o r o ffic e
c a lls .
M ay r e c o r d to ll c a lls and take m e s s a g e s .
M ay g iv e in f o r ­
m a tion to p e r s o n s w ho c a ll in , o r o c c a s io n a lly take te le p h o n e o r d e r s .
F o r w o r k e r s w ho a ls o a c t a s r e c e p t io n is t s s e e s w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t .

20
T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R ,

SW ITC H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T

tion
type
T h is
tim e

In a d d ition to p e r fo r m in g d u ties o f o p e r a t o r , on a sin g le p o s i ­
o r m o n it o r -t y p e s w itc h b o a r d , a c ts a s r e c e p t io n is t and m a y a ls o
o r p e r fo r m ro u tin e c l e r i c a l w o r k as p a rt o f r e g u la r d u tie s .
typing o r c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y take the m a jo r p a rt o f th is w o rk e r * s
w h ile at s w itc h b o a r d .

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O p e ra te s m a ch in e that a u to m a tic a lly a n a ly z e s and tr a n s la te s
in fo r m a tio n pu nch ed in g r o u p s o f tabu latin g c a r d s and p r in ts t r a n s ­
la te d data on fo r m s o r a c c o u n tin g r e c o r d s ; s e ts o r a d ju s ts m a ch in e ;
d o e s s im p le w irin g o f p lu g b o a r d s a c c o r d in g to e s t a b lis h e d p r a c t ic e
o r d ia g r a m s ; p la c e s c a r d s to be ta b u la ted in fe e d m a g a z in e and s ta r ts
m a c h in e . M ay f ile c a r d s a fte r th ey a r e ta b u la ted . M ay, in a d d itio n ,
o p e r a te a u x ilia r y m a c h in e s .

T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R ,

in c lu d e d . A w o r k e r w ho ta k es d ic ta tio n in sh orth an d o r by sten otyp e
o r s im ila r m a ch in e is c la s s if i e d a s a ste n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l.
T Y P IS T
U s e s a ty p e w r ite r to m a k e c o p ie s o f v a r io u s m a te r ia l o r to
m a k e out b ills a fte r c a lc u la tio n s h ave b e e n m a de by a n oth er p e r s o n .
M ay do c l e r i c a l w o r k in v o lv in g lit tle s p e c ia l tra in in g , su ch a s k e e p ­
ing s im p le r e c o r d s , filin g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s o r s o r tin g and d i s ­
trib u tin g in c o m in g m a il.
C la s s A ----- P e r f o r m s one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g :
T ypin g
m a t e r ia l in fin a l fo r m fr o m v e r y rou g h and in v o lv e d d r a ft; c o p y ­
ing fr o m pla in o r c o r r e c t e d c o p y in w h ich th e r e is a fre q u e n t
and v a r ie d u se o f te c h n ic a l and unusual w o r d s o r fr o m fo r e ig n la n g u a g e c o p y ; c o m b in in g m a te r ia l fr o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s , o r
plann in g la y o u t o f c o m p lic a t e d s t a t is t ic a l ta b le s to m a in tain u ni­
fo r m it y and b a la n c e in s p a c in g ; typing ta b le s fr o m rou g h d ra ft in
fin a l fo r m .
M ay type ro u tin e fo r m le t t e r s , v a ry in g d e ta ils to
su it c ir c u m s t a n c e s .

GENERAL

P r im a r y duty is to t r a n s c r ib e d ic ta tio n in v o lv in g a n o r m a l
rou tin e v o c a b u la r y f r o m t r a n s c r ib in g m a ch in e r e c o r d s .
M ay a ls o
type fr o m w ritte n c o p y and do s im p le c l e r i c a l w o r k . W o r k e r s tr a n ­
s c r ib in g d ic ta tio n in v o lv in g a v a r ie d te c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u ­
la r y su ch a s le g a l b r ie f s o r r e p o r t s on s c ie n t ific r e s e a r c h a r e n ot

Professional

DRAFTSM AN,

JUNIOR

(A s s is ta n t d r a fts m a n )
D ra w s to s c a le units o r p a rts o f d ra w in g s p r e p a r e d b y d r a ft s ­
m an o r o th e r s fo r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s tr u c tio n , o r m a n u fa ctu rin g p u r ­
p oses.
U s e s v a r io u s ty p es o f d ra ftin g t o o ls a s r e q u ir e d . M ay p r e ­
p a re d ra w in g s fr o m s im p le pla n s o r s k e t c h e s , o r p e r f o r m o th e r d u ties
under d ir e c t io n o f a d r a fts m a n .
DRAFTSM AN,

LEADER

P la n s and d ir e c t s a c t iv it ie s o f on e o r m o r e d r a fts m e n in
p r e p a r a tio n o f w o rk in g plan s and d e ta il d ra w in g s fr o m rou g h o r p r e ­
lim in a r y s k e tch e s fo r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s tr u c tio n , o r m a n u fa ctu rin g
p u r p o s e s . D u ties in v o lv e a c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : In te rp re tin g
b lu e p r in ts , s k e t c h e s , and w ritte n o r v e r b a l o r d e r s ; d e te rm in in g w o r k
p r o c e d u r e s ; a s s ig n in g d u ties to su b o r d in a te s and in s p e c tin g th e ir w o rk ;
p e r fo r m in g m o r e d iffic u lt p r o b le m s . M ay a s s i s t s u b o r d in a te s du rin g




G E N E R A L -----C on tinu ed

C la s s B — P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : T ypin g
f r o m r e la t iv e ly c le a r o r ty p e d d r a fts ; ro u tin e typing o f f o r m s ,
in s u r a n c e p o li c ie s , e t c . , settin g up s im p le sta n d a rd ta b u la tion s, o r
c o p y in g m o r e c o m p le x ta b le s a lr e a d y set up and s p a c e d p r o p e r ly .

nd

Technical

DRAFTSM AN,

L E A D E R ----- C on tin u ed

e m e r g e n c ie s o r a s a r e g u la r a s s ig n m e n t, o r p e r fo r m r e la t e d d u ties
o f a s u p e r v is o r y o r a d m in is tr a tiv e n a tu re .
DRAFTSM AN,

SENIOR

P r e p a r e s w o rk in g plans and d e ta il d ra w in g s fr o m n o te s ,
r o u g h o r d e ta ile d s k e tch e s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s tr u c tio n , o r m a n u ­
fa c tu r in g p u r p o s e s .
D u ties in v o lv e a c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g :
P r e p a r in g w o rk in g p la n s , d e ta il d r a w in g s , m a p s , c r o s s - s e c t i o n s , e t c . ,
to s c a le by use o f d ra ftin g in s tr u m e n ts ; m akin g e n g in e e r in g co m p u ta ­
tio n s s u c h a s th o se in v o lv e d in stren g th o f m a t e r ia ls , b e a m s and
t r u s s e s ; v e r ify in g c o m p le t e d w o rk , ch e c k in g d im e n s io n s , m a te r ia ls
to be u s e d , and q u a n titie s ; w ritin g s p e c ific a t io n s ; m akin g a d ju stm e n ts
o r c h a n g e s in d r a w in g s o r s p e c ific a t io n s . M ay ink in lin e s and le t t e r s
on p e n c il d r a w in g s , p r e p a r e d e ta il units o f c o m p le t e d r a w in g s , o r
t r a c e d r a w in g s .
W o rk is fr e q u e n tly in a s p e c ia liz e d fie ld su ch as
a r c h it e c t u r a l, e l e c t r i c a l , m e c h a n ic a l, o r s tr u c tu r a l d r a ftin g .

21
NURSE,

N URSE,

IN D U S T R IA L (R E G IS T E R E D )

e n v ir o n m e n t, o r oth er a c t iv it ie s
sa fe ty o f a ll p e r s o n n e l.

A r e g is t e r e d n u r s e w ho g iv e s n u r sin g s e r v i c e to i l l o r in ju r e d
e m p lo y e e s o r oth er p e r s o n s w ho b e c o m e i l l o r s u ffe r an a c c id e n t on
the p r e m is e s o f a fa c t o r y o r o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
D u ties in v o lv e a
co m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : G ivin g f i r s t a id to the i l l o r in ju r e d !
attending to su b seq u en t d r e s s in g o f e m p lo y e e s * in ju r ie s ; k eep in g r e c o r d s
o f patien ts tr e a te d ; p r e p a r in g a c c id e n t r e p o r t s fo r c o m p e n s a tio n o r
oth er p u r p o s e s ; con d u ctin g p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n s and h ea lth e v a lu a tio n s
o f a p p lica n ts and e m p lo y e e s ; and planning and c a r r y in g out p r o g r a m s
in v olv in g h ealth e d u ca tio n , a c c id e n t p r e v e n tio n , ev a lu a tio n o f plant

Mainte nance

CARPENTER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r f o r m s the c a r p e n t r y d u ties n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t and
m a in tain in g o o d r e p a ir b u ild in g w o o d w o r k and eq u ip m en t su ch a s b in s ,
c r ib s , c o u n te r s , b e n c h e s , p a r titio n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s , s t a ir s , c a s in g s ,
and t r im m a d e o f w o o d in an e s t a b lis h m e n t. W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f
the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g and la y in g ou t o f w o r k fr o m b lu e p r in ts , d r a w ­
ings^ m o d e ls , o r v e r b a l in s t r u c t io n s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f c a r p e n te r* s
h a n d to o ls , p o r ta b le p o w e r t o o ls , and sta n d a rd m e a s u r in g in s tr u m e n ts ;
m a k in g stan d ard sh op c o m p u ta tio n s r e la tin g to d im e n s io n s o f w o rk ;
s e le c t in g m a t e r ia ls n e c e s s a r y fo r the w o r k . In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f
the m a in ten a n ce c a r p e n t e r r e q u ir e s ro u n d ed tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e
u su a lly a c q u ir e d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r eq u iv a len t tr a in ­
ing and e x p e r ie n c e .

E L E C T R IC IA N ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l tr a d e fu n c tio n s su ch a s the
in sta lla tio n , m a in te n a n ce , o r r e p a ir o f eq u ip m en t fo r the g e n e r a tin g ,
d is tr ib u tio n , o r u tiliz a tio n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : In sta llin g o r r e p a ir in g any o f
a v a r ie ty o f e l e c t r i c a l eq u ip m en t su ch a s g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s fo r m e r s ,
sw itch b o a rd s , c o n t r o ll e r s , c ir c u it b r e a k e r s , m o t o r s , h eatin g units,
con d u it s y s t e m s , o r oth er t r a n s m is s io n eq u ip m en t; w o rk in g fr o m b lu e ­
p rin ts, d ra w in g s , la y ou t, o r o th e r s p e c ific a t io n s ; lo c a tin g and d ia g ­
n osin g tr o u b le in the e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m o r eq u ip m en t; w o rk in g sta n d a rd
com p u ta tion s r e la tin g to lo a d r e q u ir e m e n t s o f w irin g o r e le c t r ic a l
equ ipm en t; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c i a n ’ s h a n d tools and m e a s u rin g
and testin g in s tr u m e n ts .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m a in ten a n ce
e le c t r ic ia n r e q u ir e s rou n d ed tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly a c ­
q u ire d
through
a
fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a len t tra in in g and
exp erien ce.




IN D U S T R IA L (R E G IS T E R E D ) -----C on tinu ed
a ffe c tin g

the

health,

w e lfa r e ,

and

TRACER
C o p ie s plans and d ra w in g s p r e p a r e d by o th e r s , by pla cin g
tr a c in g c lo t h o r pa per o v e r d raw in g and tr a c in g w ith pen o r p e n c il.
U s e s T - s q u a r e , c o m p a s s , and oth er d ra ftin g t o o l s .
M ay p r e p a r e
s im p le d r a w in g s and do s im p le le t te r in g .

a

d

Powerplant

E N G IN E E R ,

S T A T IO N A R Y

O p e ra te s and m a in ta in s and m a y a ls o s u p e r v is e the o p e r a tio n
o f s ta tio n a r y e n g in e s and eq u ip m en t (m e c h a n ic a l o r e l e c t r i c a l ) to su p ­
ply the e s ta b lis h m e n t in w h ich e m p lo y e d w ith p o w e r, h eat, r e f r i g e r a ­
tion, o r a ir -c o n d it io n in g .
W ork in v o lv e s ; O p era tin g and m ain tain in g
eq u ip m en t su ch a s ste a m e n g in e s , a ir c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o ­
t o r s , tu r b in e s , v en tila tin g and r e fr ig e r a t in g eq u ip m en t, s te a m b o i le r s
and b o i l e r - f e d w a ter pu m ps; m akin g eq u ip m en t r e p a ir s ; k eepin g a
r e c o r d o f o p e r a t io n o f m a c h in e r y , te m p e r a tu r e , and fu e l c o n s u m p ­
tion . M ay a ls o s u p e r v is e th e se o p e r a t io n s . H ead o r c h ie f e n g in e e r s
in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g m o r e than on e e n g in e e r a r e e x c lu d e d .
F IR E M A N ,

S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R

F ir e s s ta tio n a ry b o i le r s to fu rn is h the e s ta b lis h m e n t in w h ich
e m p lo y e d w ith h eat, p o w e r, o r s te a m .
F e e d s fu e ls to fir e by hand
o r o p e r a t e s a m e c h a n ic a l s t o k e r , g a s , o r o il b u r n e r ; c h e c k s w ater
and s a fe ty v a lv e s .
M ay c le a n , o il, o r a s s i s t in r e p a ir in g b o i l e r r o o m e q u ip m e n t.
HELPER,

TRADES,

M A IN T E N A N C E

A s s i s t s one o r m o r e w o r k e r s in the s k ille d m a in ten a n ce
tr a d e s , b y p e r fo r m in g s p e c if i c o r g e n e r a l du ties o f l e s s e r s k ill, su ch
a s k e e p in g a w o r k e r su p p lied w ith m a te r ia ls and to o ls ; cle a n in g w o r k ­
ing a r e a , m a ch in e , and eq u ip m en t; a s s is tin g w o r k e r by h old in g m a ­
t e r ia ls o r t o o ls ; p e r fo r m in g o th e r u n s k ille d ta sk s a s d ir e c t e d by jo u r ­
n ey m a n . The kind o f w o rk the h e lp e r is p e r m itte d to p e r fo r m v a r ie s
fr o m tr a d e to tr a d e :
In s o m e tr a d e s the h e lp e r is c o n fin e d to su p ­
p ly in g , lift in g , and h old in g m a t e r ia ls and t o o ls and cle a n in g w ork in g
a r e a s ; an d in o th e r s he is p e r m itte d to p e r fo r m s p e c ia liz e d m a ch in e
o p e r a t io n s , o r p a rts o f a tra d e that a r e a ls o p e r fo r m e d by w o r k e r s
on a f u ll- t i m e b a s is .

22
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R ,

TOOLROOM

S p e c ia liz e s in the o p e r a tio n o f on e o r m o r e ty p es o f m a ch in e
to o ls , su ch as jig b o r e r s , c y lin d r ic a l o r s u r fa c e g r in d e r s , en gin e
la th e s, o r m illin g m a ch in e s in the c o n s tr u c tio n o f m a c h in e -s h o p to o ls ,
g a u g e s , ji g s , fix t u r e s , o r d ie s . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
P la n n in g and p e r fo r m in g d iffic u lt m a ch in in g o p e r a t io n s ; p r o c e s s in g
it e m s r e q u ir in g c o m p lic a t e d setu p s o r a high d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ;
u sin g a v a r ie ty o f p r e c i s io n m e a s u r in g in s tru m e n ts ; s e le c t in g fe e d s ,
s p e e d s , to o lin g and o p e r a tio n s e q u e n c e ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t­
m en ts du rin g o p e r a tio n to a c h ie v e r e q u is ite t o le r a n c e s o r d im e n s io n s .
M ay be r e q u ir e d to r e c o g n iz e w hen t o o ls n e e d d r e s s in g , to d r e s s to o ls ,
and to s e le c t p r o p e r c o o la n ts and cuttin g and lu b r ic a tin g o i l s .
F or
c r o s s - in d u s t r y w age study p u r p o s e s , m a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m ,
in to o l and die jo b b in g sh op s a r e e x c lu d e d fr o m th is c la s s ifi c a t io n .

M ACH IN IST,

M E C H A N IC ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

R e p a ir s m a c h in e r y o r m e c h a n ic a l equ ip m en t o f an e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t.
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : E xam in in g m a ch in e s
an d m e c h a n ic a l eq u ip m en t to d ia g n o se s o u r c e o f tr o u b le ; d ism a n tlin g
o r p a rtly d ism a n tlin g m a ch in e s and p e r fo r m in g r e p a ir s that m a in ly
in v o lv e the u se o f h a n d tools in s c r a p in g and fittin g p a rts ; r e p la c in g
b r o k e n o r d e fe c tiv e p a rts w ith it e m s ob ta in ed fr o m sto c k ; o r d e r in g the
p r o d u c tio n o f a r e p la c e m e n t p a rt b y a m a ch in e shop o r sen din g o f
the m a ch in e to a m a ch in e sh op fo r m a jo r r e p a ir s ; p r e p a r in g w ritte n
s p e c ific a t io n s fo r m a jo r r e p a ir s o r fo r the p r o d u c tio n o f p a rts o r d e r e d
f r o m m a ch in e sh op ; r e a s s e m b lin g m a c h in e s ; and m akin g a ll n e c e s s a r y
a d ju stm e n ts fo r o p e r a t io n .
In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f a m a in ten a n ce
m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s rou n d ed tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly a c q u ir e d
th rou g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r eq u iv a len t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
E x c lu d e d fr o m th is c la s s ifi c a t io n a r e w o r k e r s w h ose p r im a r y d u ties
in v o lv e settin g up o r a d ju stin g m a c h in e s .

M A IN T E N A N C E
M IL L W R IG H T

P r o d u c e s r e p la c e m e n t p a rts and new p a rts in m a k in g r e p a ir s
o f m e ta l p a rts o f m e c h a n ic a l eq u ip m en t o p e r a t e d in an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : In te rp re tin g w ritte n in s t r u c ­
tio n s and s p e c ific a t io n s ; planning and la y in g out o f w o rk ; u sin g a v a ­
r ie t y o f m a c h in is t 's h a n d tools and p r e c i s io n m e a s u r in g in s tru m e n ts ;
settin g up and o p e r a tin g sta n d a rd m a ch in e t o o ls ; shaping o f m e ta l
p a rts to c l o s e t o le r a n c e s ; m a k in g sta n d a rd sh op c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t ­
ing to d im e n s io n s o f w o rk , to o lin g , fe e d s and s p e e d s o f m a ch in in g ;
k n ow led g e o f the w o rk in g p r o p e r t ie s o f the c o m m o n m e t a ls ; s e le c tin g
sta n d a rd m a t e r ia ls , p a r ts , and eq u ip m en t r e q u ir e d fo r h is w o rk ; fittin g
and a s s e m b lin g p a r ts in to m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t.
In g e n e r a l, the
m a c h in is t 's w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a rou n d ed tra in in g in m a c h in e sh op p r a c t ic e u su a lly a c q u ir e d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a len t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

In sta lls new m a c h in e s o r h ea v y equ ip m en t and d is m a n tle s and
in s t a lls m a c h in e s o r h ea v y eq u ip m en t w hen c h a n g e s in the plant la y ­
ou t a r e r e q u ir e d . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g and
la y in g out o f the w o rk ; in te r p r e tin g b lu e p r in ts o r o th e r s p e c ific a t io n s ;
u sin g a v a r ie t y o f h a n d tools and r ig g in g ; m akin g sta n d a rd sh op c o m ­
pu ta tion s r e la tin g to s t r e s s e s , stren g th o f m a t e r ia ls , and c e n t e r s o f
g r a v it y ; a lin in g and b a la n cin g o f eq u ip m en t; s e le c t in g stan d ard t o o ls ,
e q u ip m en t, and p a rts to be u sed ; in sta llin g and m a in tain in g in g o o d
o r d e r p o w e r t r a n s m is s io n eq u ip m en t su ch a s d r iv e s and s p e e d r e ­
d u c e r s . In g e n e r a l, the m illw r ig h t 's w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a rou n d ed
tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e in the tra d e a c q u ir e d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p r e n ­
t ic e s h ip o r eq u iv a len t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
O IL E R

M E C H A N IC ,

A U T O M O T IV E (M A IN T E N A N C E )

R e p a ir s a u to m o b ile s , b u s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s , and t r a c t o r s o f
an e s t a b lis h m e n t.
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : E x am in in g
a u to m o tiv e eq u ip m en t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f tr o u b le ; d is a s s e m b lin g
eq u ip m en t and p e r fo r m in g r e p a ir s that in v o lv e the u se o f su ch h an dt o o ls as w r e n c h e s , g a u g e s , d r i l l s , o r s p e c ia liz e d eq u ip m en t in d i s ­
a s s e m b lin g o r fittin g p a r ts ; r e p la c in g b r o k e n o r d e fe c t iv e p a rts fr o m
s to c k ; g rin d in g and a d ju stin g v a lv e s ; r e a s s e m b lin g and in s ta llin g the
v a r io u s a s s e m b li e s in the v e h ic le and m akin g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n ts ;
a lin in g w h e e ls , a d ju stin g b r a k e s and lig h ts , o r tigh ten in g bod y b o lt s .
In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the a u to m o tiv e m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s rou n d ed
tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n t ic e ­
sh ip o r e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .




L u b r ic a t e s , w ith o il o r g r e a s e , the m ov in g p a rts o r w e a rin g
s u r fa c e s o f m e c h a n ic a l eq u ip m en t o f an e s ta b lis h m e n t.

P A IN T E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P a in ts and r e d e c o r a t e s w a lls , w o o d w o rk , and fix tu r e s o f an
e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o rk in v o l v e 8 the fo llo w in g : K n ow led g e o f s u r fa c e
p e c u lia r it ie s and ty p e s o f paint r e q u ir e d fo r d iffe r e n t a p p lic a tio n s ;
p r e p a r in g s u r fa c e fo r painting by r e m o v in g o ld fin is h o r by p la cin g
putty o r f ill e r in n a il h o le s and i n t e r s t ic e s ; a p plyin g paint w ith sp ra y
gun o r b r u s h .
M ay m ix c o l o r s , o i l s , w hite le a d , and oth er
paint
in g r e d ie n ts to ob ta in p r o p e r c o l o r
o r c o n s is t e n c y .
In g e n e r a l, the
w o r k o f the m a in ten a n ce p a in ter r e q u ir e s rou n d ed tra in in g and e x ­
p e r ie n c e u su a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a ­
le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

23
P I P E F IT T E R ,

S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

In sta lls o r r e p a ir s w a te r , ste a m , g a s , o r oth er ty p es o f pipe
and p ip e fittin g s in an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the f o l ­
lo w in g : L a y in g out o f w o r k and m e a s u r in g to lo c a t e p o s itio n o f p ip e
fr o m d ra w in g s o r o th e r w ritte n s p e c ific a t io n s ; cuttin g v a r io u s s iz e s
o f pipe to c o r r e c t le n g th s w ith c h is e l and h a m m e r o r o x y a c e ty le n e
t o r c h o r p ip e -c u ttin g m a ch in e ; th rea d in g pipe w ith s t o c k s an d d ie s ;
bending p ip e by h a n d -d r iv e n o r p o w e r -d r iv e n m a c h in e s ; a s s e m b lin g
pipe w ith c o u p lin g s and fa sten in g pipe to h a n g e r s ; m a k in g stan d ard
sh op co m p u ta tio n s r e la tin g to p r e s s u r e s , flo w , and s iz e o f pipe r e ­
q u ir e d ; m akin g sta n d a rd te s ts to d e te rm in e w h eth er fin is h e d p ip es m e e t
s p e c ific a t io n s .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m a in ten a n ce p ip e fitte r
r e q u ir e s ro u n d e d tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a
fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r eq u iv a len t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e . W o r k e r s
p r im a r ily e n g a g e d in in s ta llin g and r e p a ir in g b u ildin g sa n ita tion o r
h eating s y s t e m s a r e e x c lu d e d .
PLUM BER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

K e e p s the plu m bin g s y s t e m o f an e s ta b lis h m e n t in g o o d o r d e r .
W o rk in v o lv e s : K n ow led g e o f s a n ita ry c o d e s r e g a r d in g in sta lla tio n o f
v en ts and tr a p s in p lu m b in g s y s t e m ; in sta llin g o r r e p a ir in g p ip e s and
fix t u r e s ; op en in g c lo g g e d d r a in s w ith a p lu n ger o r p lu m b e r* s sn a k e.
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m a in ten a n ce p lu m b e r r e q u ir e s rou n d ed
tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly a c q u ir e d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p r e n t ic e ­
sh ip o r eq u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

F a b r ic a t e s , in s t a lls , and m a in ta in s in g o o d r e p a ir the s h e e tm e ta l eq u ip m en t and fix t u r e s (su c h a s m a ch in e g u a rd s , g r e a s e pan s,
s h e lv e s , l o c k e r s , tanks, v e n t ila t o r s , c h u te s , d u cts, m e ta l r o o fin g )
o f an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g

Custodial

ELEVATOR O PERATOR,

and

T r a n s p o r ts p a s s e n g e r s b e tw e e n f l o o r s o f an o f f ic e b u ild in g ,
a p a rtm en t h o u s e , d e p a rtm e n t s t o r e , h o te l o r s im ila r e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o r k e r s w ho o p e r a t e e le v a t o r s in c o n ju n c tio n w ith oth er d u ties su ch
a s th o s e o f s t a r t e r s and ja n it o r s a r e e x c lu d e d .
G U AR D
P e r f o r m s ro u tin e p o lic e d u tie s , e ith e r at fix e d p o s t o r on
to u r, m a in ta in in g o r d e r , u sin g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . In ­
c lu d e s g a te m e n w ho a r e sta tio n e d at g a te and c h e c k on id en tity o f
e m p lo y e e s and o th e r p e r s o n s e n te r in g .
*




and la yin g out a ll ty p e s o f s h e e t -m e t a l m a in ten a n ce w o r k fr o m b lu e ­
p r in ts , m o d e ls , o r o th e r s p e c ific a t io n s ; settin g up and o p e r a tin g a il
a v a ila b le ty p e s o f s h e e t -m e t a l-w o r k in g m a c h in e s ; using a v a r ie ty o f
h a n d to o is in cu ttin g, ben d in g , fo r m in g , sh ap in g, fittin g , and a s s e m ­
b lin g ; in sta llin g s h e e t-m e ta l a r t ic le s a s r e q u ir e d .
In g e n e r a l, the
w o r k o f the m a in ten a n ce s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r r e q u ir e s rou n d ed tra in in g
and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e
T O O L A N D DIE M A K E R
(D ie m a k e r ; jig

m a k e r ; to o lm a k e r ;

fix tu r e

m a k e r ; gau ge

m a k e r)

C o n s tr u c ts and r e p a ir s m a c h in e -s h o p t o o ls , g a u g e s , ji g s , f i x ­
tu r e s o r d ie s f o r fo r g in g s , punching and oth er m e t a l-fo r m in g w o r k .
•Work in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g and la yin g out o f w o rk
f r o m m o d e ls , b lu e p r in ts , d r a w in g s , o r o th e r o r a l and w ritte n s p e c i f i ­
c a tio n s ; u sin g a v a r ie ty o f t o o l and d ie m a k er*s h a n d toois and p r e c is io n
m e a s u r in g in s tru m e n ts , u n derstan d in g o f the w ork in g p r o p e r t ie s o f
c o m m o n m e ta ls and a llo y s ; settin g up and o p e r a tin g o f m a ch in e t o o ls
an d r e la t e d eq u ip m en t; m a kin g n e c e s s a r y sh op co m p u ta tio n s re la tin g
to d im e n s io n s o f w o rk , s p e e d s , fe e d s , and to o lin g o f m a c h in e s ; h e a ttr e a tin g o f m e ta l p a rts du rin g fa b r ic a tio n a s w e ll a s o f fin is h e d to o ls
an d d ie s to a c h ie v e r e q u ir e d q u a litie s ; w ork in g to c l o s e t o le r a n c e s ;
fittin g and a s s e m b lin g o f p a rts to p r e s c r i b e d t o le r a n c e s and a llo w ­
a n c e s ; s e le c t in g a p p ro p r ia te m a t e r ia ls , t o o ls , and p r o c e s s e s .
In
g e n e r a l, the t o o l an d d ie m a k e r ’ s w o r k r e q u ir e s a ro u n d ed tra in in g
in m a c h in e -s h o p and t o o lr o o m p r a c t ic e u su a lly a c q u ir e d th rou gh a
fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a len t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
F o r c r o s s - in d u s t r y w age study p u r p o s e s , to o l and d ie m a k e r s
in to o l and d ie jo b b in g sh op s a r e e x c lu d e d fr o m th is c la s s ifi c a t io n .

Material

P A S SE N G E R

M A IN T E N A N C E -----C on tinu ed

Movement

JA N IT O R ,

PORTER,

OR C L E A N E R

(S w e e p e r ; c h a rw o m a n ; ja n it r e s s )
C lea n s and k e e p s in an o r d e r l y c o n d itio n fa c t o r y w ork in g
a r e a s an d w a s h r o o m s , o r p rem ise-s o f an o f f ic e , a p a rtm en t h o u se ,
o r c o m m e r c i a l o r o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t. D u ties in v o lv e a c o m b in a tio n
o f the fo llo w in g : S w eep in g , m op p in g o r s c r u b b in g , and p o lish in g f l o o r s ;
r e m o v in g c h ip s , tr a s h , and o th e r r e fu s e ; du sting eq u ip m en t, fu rn itu r e ,
o r fix t u r e s ; p o lish in g m e ta l fix tu r e s o r tr im m in g s ; p r o v id in g su p p lie s
and m in o r m a in ten a n ce s e r v i c e s ; c le a n in g la v a t o r ie s , s h o w e r s , and
r e s t r o o m s . W o r k e r s w ho s p e c ia liz e in w in d ow w ash in g a r e e x c lu d e d .

24
LABORER,

M A T E R IA L H AN DLIN G

(L o a d e r and u n lo a d e r ; h an d ler and s t a c k e r ; s h e lv e r f tr u c k e r ;
stock m a n o r s t o c k h e lp e r ; w a r e h o u se m a n o r w a r e h o u s e h e lp e r )

SH IPPIN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K -----C on tinu ed
o th e r r e c o r d s ; ch e ck in g fo r s h o r ta g e s and r e je c t in g d a m a g ed g o o d s ;
rou tin g m e r c h a n d is e o r m a te r ia ls to p r o p e r d e p a rtm e n ts; m ain taining
n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s and f i l e s .

A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa ctu rin g plant,
s t o r e , o r oth er e s ta b lis h m e n t w h o s e d u ties in v o lv e one o r m o r e o f
the fo llo w in g : L oad in g and unloadin g v a r io u s m a t e r ia ls and m e r c h a n ­
d is e on o r fr o m fr e ig h t c a r s , tr u c k s , o r o th e r tr a n s p o rtin g d e v ic e s ;
unpacking, sh elv in g , o r p la cin g m a te r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r
s to r a g e lo c a t io n ; tr a n s p o rtin g m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e by hand tr u ck ,
c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w . L o n g s h o r e m e n , w ho lo a d and u n loa d sh ip s a r e
e x clu d e d .

F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e c la s s if i e d as fo llo w s :
R e c e iv in g c le r k
Shipping c le r k
Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k

T R U C K D R IV E R
O R D E R F IL L E R
(O rd e r p ic k e r ; s t o c k s e l e c t o r ; w a r e h o u s e sto ck m a n )
F ills sh ipp in g o r t r a n s fe r o r d e r s fo r fin is h e d g o o d s fr o m
s t o r e d m e r c h a n d is e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c ific a t io n s on s a le s s lip s ,
c u s to m e r s * o r d e r s , o r o th e r in s t r u c t io n s . M ay, in a d d ition to fillin g
o r d e r s and in d ica tin g it e m s fille d o r o m itte d , k eep r e c o r d s o f ou t­
g oin g o r d e r s , r e q u is itio n a d d itio n a l s to ck , o r r e p o r t sh o r t su p p lie s
to s u p e r v is o r , and p e r fo r m oth er r e la t e d d u tie s .
PACKER,

D r iv e s a tr u c k w ith in a c ity o r in d u s tr ia l a r e a to tr a n s p o rt
m a t e r ia ls , m e r c h a n d is e , eq u ip m en t, o r m en b etw een v a r io u s ty p es o f
e s ta b lis h m e n ts su ch a s : M an u fa ctu rin g pla n ts, fr e ig h t d e p o ts, w a r e ­
h o u s e s , w h o le s a le and r e t a il e s ta b lis h m e n ts , o r betw een r e t a il e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts and c u s to m e r s * h o u s e s o r p la c e s o f b u s in e s s .
M ay a ls o
lo a d o r u n loa d tr u c k w ith o r w ith ou t h e lp e r s , m ake m in o r m e c h a n ic a l
r e p a ir s , and k eep tr u c k in g o o d w ork in g o r d e r . D r iv e r - s a l e s m e n and
o v e r - t h e - r o a d d r iv e r s a r e e x c lu d e d .
F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , t r u c k d r iv e r s a r e c la s s if i e d by s iz e
and type o f equ ip m en t, a s fo llo w s :
( T r a c t o r -t r a i l e r sh ou ld be ra te d
on the b a s is o f t r a ile r c a p a c it y .)

SH IPPIN G

P r e p a r e s fin is h e d p r o d u c ts fo r sh ip m en t o r s t o r a g e b y p la cin g
th em in shipping c o n t a in e r s , the s p e c ifi c o p e r a t io n s p e r fo r m e d b ein g
depen den t upon the ty p e, s iz e , and n u m b er o f units to b e p a ck e d , the
type o f c o n ta in e r e m p lo y e d , and m e th o d o f sh ip m en t. W o r k r e q u ir e s
the p la cin g o f ite m s in sh ipping c o n t a in e r s and m a y in v o lv e on e o r
m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : K n ow led g e o f v a r io u s it e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r
to v e r ify con ten t; s e le c t io n o f a p p r o p r ia te type and s iz e o f c o n ta in e r ;
in s e r tin g e n c lo s u r e s in c o n t a in e r ; u sin g e x c e l s i o r o r o th e r m a t e r ia l to
p r e v e n t b re a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c lo s in g and se a lin g c o n t a in e r ; ap p lyin g
la b e ls o r e n te rin g id e n tify in g data on c o n t a in e r .
P a c k e r s w ho a ls o
m a k e w ood en b o x e s o r c r a t e s a r e e x c lu d e d .

T r u c k d r iv e r (c o m b in a tio n o f s iz e s lis te d s e p a r a te ly )
T r u c k d r iv e r , lig h t (under IV 2 to n s )
T r u c k d r iv e r , m e d iu m (IV 2 to and""including 4 ton s)
T r u c k d r iv e r , h ea v y (o v e r 4 ton s, t r a ile r type)
t r u c k d r i v e r , h ea v y (o v e r 4 ton s, oth er than t r a ile r type)
TRU CKER,

O p e ra te s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o lle d g a s o lin e - o r e le c t r ic - p o w e r e d
tr u ck o r t r a c t o r to tr a n s p o r t g o o d s and m a t e r ia ls o f a ll kinds abou t
a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa ctu rin g plant, o r o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t.

SH IPPIN G AN D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K
tr u ck ,
P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d is e fo r sh ip m en t, o r r e c e i v e s and is r e ­
s p o n s ib le fo r in co m in g sh ip m en ts o f m e r c h a n d is e o r o th e r m a t e r ia ls .
Shipping w o r k in v o l v e s ; A k n ow led ge o f sh ipp ing p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c ­
t i c e s , r o u t e s , a v a ila b le m e a n s o f tr a n s p o r ta tio n and r a t e s ; and p r e ­
p a rin g r e c o r d s o f the g o o d s sh ip p ed , m a k in g up b i lls o f la d in g , p o s t ­
ing w eigh t and sh ipping c h a r g e s , and keep in g a f ile o f sh ipp in g r e c o r d s .
M ay d ir e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r in g the m e r c h a n d is e fo r sh ip m en t.
R e c e iv in g w o r k in v o l v e s ; V e r ify in g o r d ir e c tin g oth ers in v e r ify in g
the c o r r e c t n e s s o f sh ip m en ts a g a in s t b i lls o f la d in g , in v o ic e s , o r




POW ER

F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e c la s s if i e d by type o f
a s fo llo w s :
T ru ck er,
T ru ck er,

p ow er (fo r k lift )
p ow er (o th e r frhan fo r k lift )

W ATCHMAN
M a k es rou n d s o f p r e m is e s p e r io d ic a lly in p r o te c tin g p r o p e r t y
a g a in s t f i r e , th eft, and ille g a l e n tr y .
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1958 0 — 4 9 0 8 8 8

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in 20 major labor markets during late 1958 and early 1959* These bulletins, numbered
1240-1 through 1240-20, when available, may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25»D. C.,
or from any of the regional sales offices shown,
A summary bulletin (1240-21) containing data for all labor markets, combined with additional analysis will be issued early in I960.
A bulletin for the area listed below is now available.




Seattle, Wash., August 1958 — BLS Bull. 1240-1, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102