View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

BALTIMORE. MD.
A P R I L 1955

BLS

Bulletin No. 1172-15

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary




BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Aryness Joy Wickens, Acting Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey




BALTIMORE, MD.
April 195 5

Bulletin No. 1172-15
June 1955

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Aryness Joy Wickens, Acting Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing O ffice, W ashington 25, D. C.

Price 25 cents




CONTENTS
Page
I N T R O D U C T I O N ______________________________________________________________

1

TABLES:
A:

B:

APPENDIX:

Occupational earnings * A - 1: Office occupations ________________________________________
A-2: Professional a n d technical o c c u p a t i o n s___________________
A - 3: Maintenance and powerplant o c c u p a t i o n s _________________
A-4: Custodial a n d material m o v e m e n t occupations ___________

3
6
7
8

Establishment practices a n d supplementary
w a g e provisions B - 1: Shift differential provisions * _____________________________
B-2: M i n i m u m entrance rates for w o m e n officew o r k e r s ______
B-3: F r e q u e n c y of w a g e p a y m e n t -----------------------------B-4: Scheduled w e e k l y hours * _________________________________
B-5: Paid holiday provisions * _________________________________
B-6: Paid vacations * ___________________________________________

10
11
12
12
13
14

Job

descriptions_______________________________________________

17

* NOTE:
Similar tabulations (also covering health, insurance, a n d pension plans)
are available in the Baltimore area reports for June 1951 an d October 1952.
A
directory indicating date of study a n d the price of the reports, as well as reports
for other m a j o r areas, is available u p o n request.
C u r r e n t reports on occupational earnings an d sup p l e m e n t a r y w a g e practices
in the Baltimore area are also available for m a c h i n e r y industries (January 1955),
a n d m e n ' s a nd boys' dress shirts ( M a y 1954).
Union scales, indicative of p r e ­
vailing p a y levels, are available for the following trades or industries:
Building
construction, printing, local transit operating e m p l o y e e s , a n d m o t o r t r u c k drivers.







OCCUPATIONAL WAGE

, BALTIMORE, MD.
Data a r e show n fo r fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i . e . , th ose h ire d
to w o r k a fu ll-t im e sch ed u le fo r the g iv en occu p a tion a l c l a s s i f i ­
c a tio n . E a r n in g s data e x clu d e p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r
w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s . N on p rod u ction b o ­
n u s e s a r e a ls o e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g b on u ses and in cen tive
e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d . W h ere w e e k ly h o u rs a re r e p o rte d , as fo r
o ff ic e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is to the w o rk sch ed u les
(ro u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf - h o u r ) f o r w h ich s tra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s
a r e paid ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s fo r th e se occu p a tio n s have been
ro u n d e d to the n e a r e s t 50 c e n ts .

Int r o d u c t ion
T he B a ltim o r e a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p o rta n t in d u str ia l
c e n t e r s in w h ich the B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s h as c o n d u cte d
s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s and r e la t e d w a ge b e n e fits on an
a re a w id e b a s i s .
In e a ch a r e a , data a r e o b ta in e d b y p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u re a u fie ld agen ts to r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in 6 b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s : M a n u fa ctu rin g ; tr a n s p o r t a ­
tion (e x c lu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u til­
it ie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l
e s ta t e ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in d u stry g r o u p s e x c lu d e d fr o m th e se
stu d ie s a r e g o v e rn m e n t in stitu tion s and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x ­
tr a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s .
E sta b lish m e n ts having fe w e r than a p r e ­
s c r ib e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s w e r e a ls o o m itte d s in c e th ey fu rn ish
in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o cc u p a tio n s stu d ied to w a rra n t
in c lu s io n . * W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , se p a ra te ta b u la tion s a r e p r o ­
1
v id e d fo r the in d ivid u a l b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .

O cc u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e fe r to the tota l in
a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the s co p e o f the study and not to the
n u m b er a c tu a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d iffe r e n c e s in occu p a tion a l
str u c tu r e a m on g e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f occu p a tion a l
e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d f r o m the sa m p le o f e sta b lish m e n ts studied
s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a te the r e la t iv e im p o r ta n c e o f the jo b s stu died.
T h e se d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l str u c tu r e do not m a te ria lly
a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a rn in g s data.

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e
o f the u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in su rv e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
and to e n s u r e p ro m p t p u b lica tio n o f r e s u lt s .
T o ob ta in a p p r o ­
p ria te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied . In co m b in in g the data,
h o w e v e r , a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a re g iv e n th e ir a p p r o p r ia te w e ig h t.
E s tim a te s a r e p r e s e n te d th e r e fo r e a s r e la tin g to a ll e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts in the in d u s try g rou p in g and a r e a , but n ot to th o se b e lo w
the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied . 2

E sta b lish m e n t P r a c t ic e s and S u p p lem en ta ry
W age P r o v is i o n s
In fo r m a tio n is a ls o p r e s e n te d on s e le c t e d esta b lish m en t
p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fits as th ey rela te to o ff ic e and
plant w o r k e r s .
T he t e r m , ’ ’o f f ic e w o r k e r s ” , as u sed in this
b u lle tin in c lu d e s a ll o f f ic e c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s and e x clu d e s ad ­
m in is tr a tiv e , e x e c u tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and te ch n ica l p e r s o n n e l.
’ ’P la n t w o r k e r s ” in clu d e w o rk in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e rv is o ry
w o r k e r s (in clu d in g le a d m e n and t r a in e e s ) en gaged in n o n o ffice
fu n c tio n s . A d m in is t r a tiv e , e x e c u tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and te ch n ica l
e m p lo y e e s , an d f o r c e a cco u n t c o n s tr u c tio n e m p lo y e e s who a re
u tiliz e d a s a s e p a r a te w o r k f o r c e a r e e x c lu d e d . C a fe te ria w o r k e r s
and ro u te m e n a r e e x clu d e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u stries but a re
in clu d e d a s p lan t w o r k e r s in n on m an u factu rin g in d u s trie s .

O ccu p a tio n s and E a rn in g s
O c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m set o f
jo b d e s c r ip t io n s d e s ig n e d to take a cc o u n t o f in te r e sta b lish m e n t
v a r ia t io n in d u tie s w ithin the sam e jo b (s e e A p p e n d ix fo r listin g
o f th e s e d e s c r ip t io n s ). E a rn in g s data a r e p r e s e n te d fo r the f o l ­
lo w in g ty p e s o f o c c u p a tio n s : (a) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (b ) p r o fe s s io n a l
and te c h n ic a l; ( c ) m a in ten a n ce and p o w e r p lan t; and (d ) c u s to d ia l
and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t.

S h ift-d iffe r e n t ia l data a r e lim it e d to m an u factu rin g in ­
d u s t r ie s .
T h is in fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in te r m s o f (a)
e s ta b lis h m e n t p o l i c y 3 and (b ) e ffe c t iv e p r o v is io n s fo r w o r k e r s

* T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 1s r e g io n a l o ff ic e
in A tla n ta , G a . , by B e r n a r d J. F a h r e s u nder the d ir e c t io n o f
L o u is B . W o y ty ch , R e g io n a l W age and In d u stria l R e la tio n s
A n a ly s t.
1 S ee fo llo w in g ta b le fo r m in im u m -s iz e e s ta b lis h m e n t c o v ­
e r e d b y stu d y .
A n e x c e p tio n is m ad e in the ta b u la tion o f m in im u m e n ­
tr a n c e r a t e s fo r w om en o ff ic e w o r k e r s w h ich r e la t e s to p r o v is io n s
in e s ta b lis h m e n ts a ctu a lly stu d ied .



3
A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as having a p o lic y if
m e t e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s :
( l ) O p era ted late sh ifts
at the tim e o f the s u r v e y , o r (2 ) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s co v e r in g
la te s h ifts .

)

2

a ctu a lly e m p lo y e d on e x tr a sh ifts at the tim e o f the s u r v e y .
T abulation s re la tin g to e s ta b lis h m e n t p o lic y a r e p r e s e n te d in
te r m s o f tota l plant w o r k e r e m p lo y m e n t; e s tim a te s in the s e c o n d
tabulation re la te o n ly to th o s e w o r k e r s a ctu a lly e m p lo y e d on the
s p e c ifie d sh ift.
S u p p lem en ta ry p r a c t i c e s , o th e r than m in im u m e n tra n ce
ra te s fo r w om en o ff ic e w o r k e r s , and sh ift d iffe r e n t ia ls , a r e
tre a te d s ta tis tic a lly on the b a s is that th e se a r e p r o v id e d to a ll
w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o f f ic e s o r plant d ep a rtm e n ts that o b s e r v e
the p r a c tic e in q u e s tio n . 4 B e c a u s e o f v a ry in g e lig ib ilit y r e ­

sch e d u le d w e e k ly h o u rs fo r o ff ic e w o r k e r s (f ir s t s e c tio n
o f table B -4 ) a r e p r e s e n te d in t e r m s o f the p r o p o r tio n o f w om en
o ffic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o ff ic e s w ith the in d ica te d w e e k ly h o u rs
fo r w om en w o r k e r s .

q u ir e m e n ts , th e p r o p o r tio n a ctu a lly r e c e iv in g the s p e c if ic b e n e fits
m a y be s m a l le r .
M o r e o v e r , a p r a c t ic e w a s c o n s id e r e d a s a p ­
p lic a b le to a ll o ffic e o r plant w o r k e r s in an e s ta b lis h m e n t i f it
a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y o f su ch w o r k e r s .
B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g ,
su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s in th e se ta b u la tion s do not n e c e s s a r il y
equ al t o t a ls .
The su m m a r y o f v a ca tio n p la n s is lim it e d to fo r m a l
a r r a n g e m e n ts , ex clu d in g in fo r m a l p lan s w h e r e b y tim e o f f w ith
p ay is g ra n te d at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r o r the s u p e r ­
v is o r .
S ep a ra te e stim a te s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r
p r a c t ic e in com p u tin g v a ca tio n p a y m en ts, su ch as tim e p a y m e n ts,
p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s , o r fla t -s u m a m o u n ts .
H o w e v e r , in
the ta b u la tion s o f v a ca tio n a llo w a n ce s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y ­
m en ts not on a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r te d ; fo r e x a m p le , a p a ym en t
o f 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as the eq u iv a le n t
o f 1 w eek fs p ay.

E sta b lis h m e n ts and W o r k e r s W ithin Scope o f S u rvey and N um ber Studied in B a lt im o r e , M d . , 1 by M a jo r Industry D iv isio n , A p r i l 1955

M in im u m s iz e
es ta b lis h m e n t
in scop e o f
study 2

Ind ustry d iv isio n

A ll d ivision s

__

Studied

616
___

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
W ithin scop e of study

W ith in
sco p e o f
study

101
101
51
101
.5 1
51

.

_____
M anufacturing
_
___ _
Nonm anufacturing
T ransportation (exclud ing r a ilr o a d s ),
com m u n ication , and other pu blic u tilitie s 4 _
W h o lesa le trade _
R etail trade
F in an ce, in su ra n ce, and r e a l e sta te
...................... .
S e r v ic e s 5

N u m b er o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts

Studied

T o t a l3

O ffice

P la n t

171

2 4 9 ,5 0 0

4 0 ,7 0 0

1 7 0 ,6 0 0

1 6 2 ,5 6 0

269
347

64
107

1 5 9 ,6 0 0
8 9 ,9 0 0

1 9 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,7 0 0

1 1 8 ,7 0 0
5 1 ,9 0 0

1 0 5 ,6 7 0
5 6 ,8 9 0

21
90
78
74
84

12
29
23
26
17

2 0 ,5 0 0
1 0 ,2 0 0
3 2 ,4 0 0
1 6 ,1 0 0
1 0 ,7 0 0

3 ,9 0 0
2 ,6 0 0
3 ,7 0 0
1 0 ,4 0 0
*

1 2 ,9 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,4 0 0
500
*

1 8 ,5 9 0
4 ,7 4 0
2 0 ,0 7 0
1 0 ,0 5 0
3 ,4 4 0

T o ta l3

1 The B a ltim o re M e tro p o lita n A r e a (B a ltim o r e C ity , B a ltim o re and Anne A r u n d e l C o u n ties).
The "w o r k e r s within scope o f s tu d y " e s t im a t e s show n in th is ta b le p ro vid e
a reaso n ab ly acc u ra te d e scrip tio n o f the s iz e and co m p o sitio n o f the lab or fo r c e in clu d ed in the s u r v e y .
The e s tim a te s a re not intended, h o w e v e r, to s e r v e a s a b a s is o f c o m ­
p a riso n with other a r e a em p lo y m e n t in d ices to m e a s u r e em p loy m e n t tren d s or le v e l s since ( l ) planning o f w age su rv ey s re q u ir e s the use o f e s ta b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n ­
sid era b ly in advance o f the pay p e rio d stud ied , and (2) s m a ll esta b lis h m e n ts a re exclu ded f r o m the scop e o f the su rv e y .
Includes a ll e sta b lish m e n ts w ith total em p loy m e n t at o r above the m in im u m s iz e lim ita tio n .
A ll o u tlets (within the a re a ) o f co m p a n ies in such in d u str ie s a s tr a d e ,
finance, auto rep a ir s e r v i c e , and m o tio n -p ic tu r e th e a te rs a re c o n sid e re d a s one e s ta b lis h m e n t.
Includes e x e c u tiv e , te c h n ic a l, p r o fe s s io n a l, and other w o r k e r s exclu ded fr o m the sep arate o ffic e and plant c a te g o r ie s .
A ls o e xclu d es ta x ic a b s, and s e r v ic e s inciden tal to w ater tran sp ortation includ ed in e a r lie r s tu d ie s .
H o tels; p e rso n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; au to m o bile r e p a ir sh o ps; ra d io bro a d ca stin g and te le v is io n ; m otion p ic tu r e s ; nonprofit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a tio n s ; and e n g i­
neerin g and a rch ite ctu ra l s e r v i c e s .
* T h is indu stry d iv isio n is re p r e s e n te d in e s t im a t e s fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g " in the S e r ie s A and B ta b le s , although c o v e ra g e w a s in su ffic ie n t to ju stify
separate presen tation o f data.




A : Occupational Earnings
Table A-1: Office Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly h ou rs and e a rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c te d occu p ation s studied on an a re a b a sis
in B a ltim o re , M d. , b y industry d iv isio n , A p ril 1955)
A vkbagx
Number
of
workers

S ex, o ccu p a tion , and in d u stry d iv isio n

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
s
S
$
$
s
t
$
$
1
*
S
\
%
S
I
Under 3 0 .0 0 3 2 .5 0 3 5 .0 0 3 7 .5 0 4 0 .0 0 4 2 .5 0 4 5 .0 0 4 7 .5 0 5 0 .0 0 5 2 .5 0 5 5 .0 0 5 7 .5 0 6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 70. 00 7 5 .0 0 8 0.0 0 8 5.0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0
and
and
(Standard) (Standard) 3 0.0 0 under
32. 50 3 5 .0 0 3 7 .5 0 4 0 .0 0 4 2 .5 0 4 5 .0 0 4 7 .5 0 5 0 .0 0 5 2 .5 0 5 5 .0 0 5 7 .5 0 6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0.0 0 8 5.0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 ioa oo over
Weekly
hours

Weekly
ftsyninga

M en
C le r k s , accou n tin g, c la s s A
M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------N onm anufacturing -----------W h olesa le trade
F inance * * _____________

457
251
206
90
72

3 9.5
3 9.5
3 9 .0
3 9.5
3 7 .0

$
8 1.5 0
8 0.5 0
8 2.5 0
9 5 .0 0
6 9 .0 0

C le r k s , accou n tin g, c la s s B M a n u fa c tu rin g ______________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g_________
W h olesa le t r a d e ________

286
143
143

3 9 .5
4 0 .6
3 9.5
4 0 .0

100

.
-

-

-

-

-

10
1

6

1

-

4
4
3

23
17

-

1

-

-

9
5
4

2

1

2

3

21

4

30

3

-

-

-

4

-

1

1

2

2
1

10

21
6

-

-

-

-

4
-

3

-

3
-

10
20
6

1

2

17
4
-

43
33

1

2
1

6
2

1

5

4

_

_

4
4

3
3

3
3

6
6

6
6

20

1

-

5
5

15

-

3
3

4

_

3
3

11
11

6

8

13

5

5

11

2

14
5
9
7

_
_
_

5
3

9

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6 8.5 0
6 5.0 0
7 2 .5 0
8 2.0 0

_
-

1

1

1

“

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

2

C le r k s , o r d e r -------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g_________

174
128

4 0 .5
4 0 .0

7 5 .5 0
7 4 .5 0

-

C le r k s , p a y r o l l -----------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ______________

187
160

_ 40, 0
4 0 .0

8 0.5 0
8 1 .0 0

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

2
2

O ffice b o y s -------------------------------M anufacturing
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g --------------F inance * * ______________

289
147
142
77

3 9.0
3 9 .0
3 8.5
3 8 .0

4 2 .5 0
4 3 .5 0
4 1 .5 0
4 0 .5 0

43
25
18

48
24
24

50
34
16

28
4
24

20

16
7
9

10

11

12

10

18
13
5
4

2

-

T abulating- m ach in e o p e ra to rs
M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------— ____
N onm anufacturing —-----------F inance * * ------- ------- -------

198
6$
113
61

’ 3 9 .0
' 3 8.5
3 9.5
3 9 .0

6 4 .0 0
6 7 .5 0
6 1 .5 0
5 2 .5 0

3
3
3

6

2

17

16

.

10

6
6

2
2

7
7

9
5
4
1

164

3 9 .0
3 9.5
3 9 .0

5 3 .0 0
5 5.5 0
4 9 .0 0

15
13

16

2

8

47
42
5

11

-

3 9.5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

5 0.0 0
4 8 .0 0
4 4 .5 0

100

3 9.5
3 9.5

6 0 .0 0
6 1.5 0

B ook k eep in g-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B ____________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g_____________ _
F inance * * ____________________

- 577
117
460
358

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
38.5

4 5 .0 0
5 3.5 0
4 2 .5 0
4 1 .0 0

-

1
1

C le r k s , accou n tin g, c la s s A ______
M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g-----------------------,
W h olesale t r a d e -------------------R e ta il t r a d e ------------------------- -F inance * * -------------------------------

446
128
318
77
51
64

38.5
3 9 .0
3 8.5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 7 .0

6 7 .0 0
6 9 .5 0

_

_

_

.

6 6 .0 0

_

6 7 .0 0
5 8 .0 0
6 1 .5 0

_

_

.

.

'

1

15

18

•

6

2

1
1

9
3

16
16

_

_

_

_

_
”

.
_
~

.
.
-

_
_
“

5
.
5
5

-

-

_
-

_
-

.
-

9

-

14
6
1

13
.
13
13

-

.

25
9
16

22

41
33

28

8

2

65
33
32
_

50

8

14

22

9

27

61
47
14
3
9

25
16
. 9
.9

42
23
19
19

39
27
27

10
2
8
8

1
2
2

21
21

15
-

22
12

17
14

18
13

21

16

17

8

-

_
_
_
-

_
„
_
-

_
_
-

9

6

3
4

39
25
14
9
3

26

18

10
2
8

2
2

12

2

8
1

-

-

-

33
23

13

6

14

9
_
9

10

12

8

6

3

4

3
*
*

2

12
8

8

5
5
-

2

4

7
7
“

18
18
-

_
-

9
9
9

5
5
3

8
6

7
5

6

7
5

4
_

_

-

1

-

-

42
29

1
1

17
11

2
1

20

4
4

28
24

8
8

20

33
26
7
-

3

-

-

-

124
32
92

22

35

7
15

21

2

2

_

48
25
23
23
-

57
18
39
*28
-

5
_
5
5

14
_
14
3 14

11
2

9
8

22
*22

18
15

48
47

19
19

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

3

8

3
_
3
"

_
-

_
-

33
21
12

9
1

3

-

-

-

6

$

4

2

2

4

_
_
_

■

“

W om en
B il l e r s , m ach in e (b illin g m ach in e)
M anufacturing — ------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g___________ __ _
B il l e r s , m ach in e (bookkeeping
m ach in e) —_________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g----------------------R eta il t r a d e ---------------------------B ook k eep in g-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s A ____________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------

102
62

101

80
62

_ 138

.

.

_
-

_
-

_
-

9
9

10
10
10

5
5
5

7
7
7

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

43
_
43
43

47
.
47
47

100
12
88

99
97
81

52
7
45
36

_

4

_

2

1

23
4
19
____19.

2

14
4

3

.
.

82

_

•

4

.

-

.

4

-

_

2
2

1

3

-

-

1

85

31
3
28
18

19

14

6

59
30

2
12

6

4

4

2

22
8

30

1

4

2

14

-

-

•

2

11
11

1

2
2

_

6

18
9

1
1

5
3

26

-

2
2

1

”
'

'

‘

See footnotes at end o f table*
,
* T ra n sp ortation (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other public u tilities,
re a l esta te.

Digitized*for in a n ce, in s u ra n ce , and
* F FRASER


8

‘

'

13

12

6

8

30

4
-

15

14

9

12

10

11
6

3
3

4

8
2
6
2

47

32
3
29

6

79
19
60
27

_

5
25

11
10

6
10

4

11

36

1

_

2
1

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
“

1
1

-

-

-

_
-

_

_

1
_

_

.

_

1

_

_
_

-

-

-

18

14

1

1

2

10

_

16
16

4
3

1
1

1
_
_

_

_

14
5

7
4

1

_

_

7

*

*
*

”

_

-

”

'

O ccupation al W age S urvey, B altim ore, M d. , A p ril 1955
U. S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Bureau o f L abor Statistics

Table A-l: Office Occupations - Continued
(A vera g e stra igh t-tim e w eekly h ou rs and earnings 1 fo r s e le c te d occupations studied on an a rea b a sis
in B a ltim o r e , M d. , by industry d iv isio n , A p ril 1955)
NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Sex, occupation, and industry d ivision

Number
of
w
orkers

$
s
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
$
s
$
%
$
S
$
W
eekly
W
eekly Under 30. 00 3 2 .5 0 3 5.0 0 3 7.5 0 4 0 .0 0 4 2 .5 0 4 5 .0 0 4 7 .5 0 5 0.0 0 5 2.5 0 5 5.0 0 5 7.5 0 6 0 .0 0 65. 00 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 90. 0 0
9 5 .0C 1 0 0 . 0 0
earnings
hours
$
and
(Standard) (Standard)
and
3 0 .0 0 under
3 2.5 0 3 5 .0 0 37. 50 4 0 .0 0 4 2 .5 0 4 5 .0 0 47. 50 5 0 .0 0 5 2.50 5 5 .0 0 5 7.5 0 60. 0 0 6 5.0 0 7 0 .0 0 75. 00 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 . 0 0 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 o v e r

Women - Continued
1, 037
C le r k s, accounting, c la s s B
. . . .
M anu factu ring__________________________
343
Nonmanufacturing _ — — ______
694
108
W holesale trade ------------------------------R etail t r a d e _____ ___________________
172
Finance ♦♦
__ __ __
__
283

3 9 .0
3$. 5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .5
38. 5

4 9 .0 0
$ 4 .0 6
4 7 .0 0
5 8.5 0
4 2 .0 0
4 2 .5 0

_
_
_
-

45
45
26
9

C le rk s, file , cla ss A _____________________
M a nu factu ring_____
______
N onm anufacturing______________________
Finance ♦*
__
. . .

172
63
109
78

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .5

5 3 .5 0
5 9.0 0
5 0.5 0
4 8 .0 0

-

_
-

C le rk s, file , cla ss B
M anu factu ring__________________________
_.
__
N onm anufacturing____- __
W holesale trade
—
__ _. .
R etail t r a d e _________________ _________
Finance ♦♦ .
.
_

820
138
682

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
38. 5

4 0 .5 0
4 5 .5 0
3 9.0 0
4 6 .0 0
34. 00
3 7.5 0

4
4
.
4
-

C le rk s, o r d e r ___ r
________________ ________
Manufacturing ________
_ ._ __
N onm anufacturing______________________
R etail t r a d e _____ _____
„ _ _

251
129
92

3 9 .5
3 9 .0
. 4 0 .0
4 0 .0

4 8 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
4 1 .0 0
3 8 .0 0

_
_
-

C le r k s, p a yroll - Manufacturing —
___
Nonmanufacturing _.
P ublic utilities ♦
_
R etail t r a d e ____ . . .

481
285
196
32
90

3 9.5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9.5

5 7 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
5 5 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
5 2 .0 0

_
_
_
.
-

2

1

-

-

521
228
293

5 5.5 0
5 9 .0 0
5 2.5 0
6 1 .5 0
5 0 .5 0

_
-•
_
-

_
3
3

7
7

12

8

10

1

. . .
. . .
_
. . . .

.
.
__
.

1 26

107
378

122

24
24
.
17

56
5
51
2

85
13
72
15

26

6

6

22

1

l
_

_

10

20

-

_

7
7

7
5

4

8

1

3

40
18

41

38

28

15

5

1

8

10

8

2

-

22
2

33

28

7

10
1

21

8
20
20

20
12
8
8

.
4

.
-

.
-

_

3
3
-

-

19
15
4
4

11

10
8
2

5

6
2

7
3
4
-

59
34
25
3

41
32
9
5

39
24
15
4

53
34
19
4

12

20

1

6

8

21
6

26 .

41
14
27

13.

12
162

6

34
51

81
5
4
69

26

_
13

26

12

7
_
7
5

24
15
9
7

13

24

6

10

7

14

2

12

3

19
2

29
16
13
_
7

24

2
1

27
13
14
_

41
5
36
2

2

85
37
48
13

11

34

13

26

26
26
2

_

_

26

12
12

26
18

1

9
_
9
3

_
_

3 9.5
3 9 .5

4 6 .0 0
4 4 .5 0

_

Key-punch op era tors —
_ .
_
_
M a nu factu ring__________________________
Nonm anufacturing . . . . . . . . .
Finance ♦♦
_
,1
T

532
203
329
234

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 8.5

5 0 .5 0
5 5 .0 0
4 8 .0 0
4 5 .5 0

_
-

-

.

8
8

10
10

17
17
15

O ffice g ir ls ------- ------Nonmanufacturing —

127
98

3 9.5
3 9 .5

3 9.5 0
3 8.5 0

1
1

16
16

10
10

22
21

S ecre ta rie s _
.
..
. . . . . 1. 573
M anufacturing .
.
.
796
N onm anufacturing .
777
W holesale trade
. . .
137
R eta il trade —
....
_
99
Finance ♦ * ___________________________
369

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9.5
4 0 .0
3 8 .5

6 5 .5 0
6 8 .5 0
6 2 .5 0
6 4 .0 0
5 9 .0 0
5 9.5 0

5
.
5
_
1

9
9
.
9

7

_
.
.

-

.
_

See footnotes at end o f table.
* T ransportation (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other pu blic u tilities,
♦♦F inance, in su ra n ce, and re a l esta te.

.
.
_
.

-

17
3
8

8

45

-

10

8

_
7

35
_
33

8

-

22

7
3
4
-

8

16
.
13

15

15

5

8
1

6
20
6

9
2

-

6
2

6
1

2

3
3

22

14

37
30
7
1

1
1

21
21

-

1

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

5
5
-

4

_
*" -

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

29
26
3

33
23

4

6
2

3

1

10
6

-

-

1

4
-

15
7

-

_
-

2
2

-

8
2

26
1

13
90
61
29
13
16

36
27
9
4
5

32

25

30
16
14
5
9

3
3

-

7
7
4
3

9
7

5
4

1

-

4
-

1
1

-

24
16

15
8

16
15

1
1

7
-

1

-

10

-

-

-

26
6

8
8

5
5

23

3

6

9

6

1

5

2

9

56

45
12

9
7

44
39

33
27

60
16
44
38

46
17
29
20

63
23
40
31

48

12

11

53
25
28
17

33

9

17

_

21

6

12

-

7
7

5
4

4
-

3
-

-

-

-

-

-

10

35
17
18
_

65
34
31
_
3
19

57
.
57
15

111

64
16
48

151
80
71
17

63
7
56
5

222

204
120

209
157
52
7

12

10

34

32

80
142
39
28
53

178
124
54

1

_
_

1

_

10

_
_

2

10
6

6

34

37
74
12

4'
46

6
6

33

2

3

10

_

8
6

28

1

1

_

1

-

_
-

.
_ j
!
-

-

3
3
3

-

-

..
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

1
2

1

-

_

„
-

_
-

-

-

-

73
44
29

59
47

25
21

23
5

12

4

18

7

2
1

4

-

1
2

23
7
16
5

22

5

_

84
9
9
51

-

.........2

42
29
13
3
7

8
1

-

-

7
3
-

15

28

-

.
-

-

10

72
46

61
38
23

3
.
3
3
-

8
2
6
6

2

-

4

2

-

2
2

1

5
3

20

3
.
3
3
_

T T

47
32
15
9

91
16
75

27
43
91

17
32
------ 2 T — n r
7
7
7
7
7
_
_
_
-

49
—

16
16
16

98
33
65
5
5
48

10

rr

9
_
9
9

87

5
97

_
4
4

70
61
54
16 —
------ 34
54
37
27
10
4
5
.
12
2
13
1
-

19

174

4

20
20

8

32
21
11

14
13

76
_
76
.
16
60

102

108
61




2

2
26

89
47
42

10

D uplicating-m achine op era tors
(m im eograph o r ditto) _
Nonmanufactiiring

_
_
_
_

25

6
2

80
2*)

51

2
2

62
211

_

50

4
19
85

132
52
80
17
18
36

1
1

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 8.5

____

49
9
40

1
1

C om ptom eter o p e r a t o r s ______ ___________ _
Manufacturing —
___
— ____
Nonm anufacturing —
W holesale trade
— _.
— .. ..
R etail trade
_
.

-

146
36
110

1
2

-

1

1

Table A-l: Office Occupations - Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hou rs and e a r n in g s 1 fo r s e le c te d occup ations studied on an a rea b a sis
in B a ltim o re , M d. , by industry d iv isio n , A p ril 1955)
NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS 0 F -

S ex, occu p ation , and industry d iv ision

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

!
4
4
5
42. 50 $ 5 .0 0 ;$ 7 .5 o j$ 0 .0 0 *52. 50 5 5 .0 0 ; *57. 50
50 ^ 5. 0 0 ^ 7. 50 %0 . 0 0 $
W
eekly
W
eekly Under l o . o o
earnings
hours
and
(Standard) (Standard) 30.00 under
32. 50 35.0 0 3 7.5 0 4 0 .0 0 42. 50 4 5 .0 0 4 7 . 0 0 ! 5 0 .0 0 i 5 2 .5 0 5 5 .0 0 5 7 .0 0 6 0.0 0
|

Sw itchboard o p e r a t o r s ____________________
M anufacturing _____
__
_ __
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g______________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s * _____________________
R eta il trade __ __ _ _____ ______ __
F inance * * ____ __

361
89
272
37
78
87

S w itchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s _____
M a n u fa ctu rin g ____ _
_____ _
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g_____ — __ _____ __
W h olesale trade ---- ------------ ---------

375
225
150

T a b u latin g-m a ch in e op e ra to rs ___________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g______________________
F inance * * ___ _____ ________ _____

38.5
39.5
38. 5
3 9.5
39.5
3 7.5
4 0 .0
3 9.5
40. 0
38. 5
40. 5
38. 5

$
55.50
6 1.00
51. 50
6 2.0 0
52.0 0
48. 00
50. 00
5 9.5 0
4 7.0 0
5 6.5 0
4 3.5 0
4 7.5 0

1

_
-

li
7

7

1
_
_
l

7
_
7

8

17

77
1

76
5
_
71

6

1

-

29

1

6
2

17
_
7
7

42
_
24
5

_
-

"

157
123
84

3 9.0
3 9.0
3 9.0

57.0 0
53. 50
4 9.5 0

.
-

1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1

T ra n s crib in g -m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
ge n e ra l _ __
_____________________ __
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ __ __ ________ __ __
N onm anufacturing __ ____ _____ __
F inance * * ___________________________

260
TT5
144
90

3 9.5
3$. 5
39. 5
39. 0

5 2.0 0
■55750 4 9 .0 0
4 4 .5 0

1

T yp ists, cla s s A _ — ____ ________ __ __
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ ___________ __ __ __
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g______________________
P u b lic u tilities * ______
___
R eta il trade — __ _______________ __
F inance * * ___________________________

881
492
389
69
74
198

3 9.5
3 9.5
39.5
39. 0
40. 5
3 9.5

55. 50
60. 0 0
50.0 0
5 2.0 0
50. 50
46. 50

T y p is ts , c la s s B ___ _
1.219
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ __ __ __
__ ______
347
N onm anufacturing __ __ ____ _________
872
P u b lic u tilities * _ _____ _
39
W holesale t r a d e _____________________
'57
_ __
R eta il trade — __ _ _______
176
F inance * * ___ — — __ __ _____ __
586

39. 5
39.5
39. 0
3 9.0
4 0 .0
40. 5
39. 0

4 3 .5 0
4 9 .0 0
41. 50
4 3.5 0
5 2.5 0
4 3 :5 0
39.5 0

-

_
_
_
_

_
_
-

_
1
1

i

!

40
9
30

1

43

8
8
8

29
29
27

5
•_
5
3

15
_
15
15

25
_
25
24

27

15

32

11

1

16
11

14
13

20
12
8

2

5

57

63
14
49

90
16
74

38

179

5
_
_
5

55
_
13
42

2

7
31

14

4
4
4

14

1

9
20

2

8
8
6

185
23

177

162

208
41
167
14
4
28
116

2

_

2

_
34
141

_
11

151

23
13

36
10
26
2
10

1
1

1
1

_

9

39
5
34

10

1

38

21
1
11

66

24

62

48
14

2
1

21

162

54
41
13
-

_
_

2
12

8

i

237 | 1 20
;
34 i
!
31
203
89
11
5
5
12

10
2

_
_
-

14

48

1

29
-

-

_
_
-

7
124

1
1

_

5
5
-

_
_
-

6

18

_
-

68

141
4
137

5
_
5
_

6

_
.
-

zs
25
-

5 2.5 0
5 2.00
5 2.5 0
5 3.00

0

12

5
30
103
19
84
10

9
17
48

10
6

55
205
106
99
7
4
19
67

8

16
9

55
29
26

204
97
107i
1
8

89
36
5
31
7
1

13

i

98
32
66
6
12

170
95
75
I

19

24 I

41

18
3
15
5
5
3

27
15
12

_
3
7

41
28
13

22
11
11

10

3

31
3
28
17

14

10
10
2

18
17
13

23

25
18
7

12
12

28
19
9
2-

8

15
7

113
50
63

60
36
24

8
12

6

7
4
15

27

7
5

77
24
53

66

28

29
37

2

1

15
13
3

4
38
9

10

6

13
6

_
4

2

53
20

33
8
11
12

36
32
4
_
4
_

106
45
61
15
2

30
9
4
5
3
_
2

15
8

7
4
9
6

-

261; 144 i
1561— w 1
105 I 60
14 j
22 '
_ i
2 i
43
14 1
j
1
i
11
46
8
24
3
22
.
17
_
_ I
4
40
24
16

i

!
,

165
132
33
19
8
1

24
23 !

4

16

6
2

10
1

41
25
16
9

150
129

10
6
1

1

l !
1

H ours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r w hich em p loy ees re c e iv e their reg u la r stra igh t-tim e s a la rie s and the earnings co r re s p o n d to these w eekly h ou rs.
1 7A A•«M M J M W«
1
>
A
«
aJ
.
*
.
f
1A
W ork ers w e r e d istrib u ted mm m follow s t O ai. d 1AO X d 1 1A. ^ l (t $110 to 1$120; 7/hat A . d 1AA$130; (t2 OA ^_ J and o v e r .
asm £ 11
12 at $100 to $110; 7 at<1 1A . /h AA «
$120l to . A - i. 1 at $130
W ork ers w e r e d istrib u ted as fo llo w s
6 at $ 1 0 0 to $ 1 1 0 ; 8 at $ 1 1 0 to $ 1 2 0 .
W o rk ers w e r e d istrib u ted as fo llo w s
18 at $ 1 0 0 to $110; 4 at $110 to $120.
T ra n sp ortation (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.
for** F in a n ce, in su ra n ce, and re a l esta te.
FRASER

.
-

_!
-

“

_ i

-

-

-

5
5
-

20

4

36
31
5
_
5
-

8

6

2

5
5
*

23
15
_

13
7

3
- j
i
I
" |

_
_
6

_
_
_
-

-

-

_
-

-

-

_
.
_
_

-

-

_
_
_

6

“ !

i

-

_
_
_

5
_
5
_

- j

-

|

_
"

_

6

_

i
|
i

2

-

15

_

1

_

3
_

10

_
2

-

2

1
1

1

2

_
-

1

-

9
9
-

19

i

2

_
_
-

-

-

_
_
_
_
-

1

2
2

-

“

!

6
2

-

- :
-

j
!

1

-

12

1

- i

1
1

11

11
6

2

6
1
1

6
6

-

5

5

-

2

158
151
7
3
_

21

6

5
5
4

|
j
i
_
_
_

'

17
5
-

10

1

.

12
10
8

!
j
i
!
j
i

1
|

11

6

25
15

!

77
47
30
16
7
7

H

21
11
10
6

4

10

'

Digitized


1

i
|

5
5
5

39.
39.
38.
39.

% 0 . 0 0 * 95.oJ *1 0 0 .0 0
and
• ~ i
65.001 7 0.0 0 75. 00 80. 00 i 85.00 9 0.0 0 95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 over
— ----- 1

j

W om en - Continued
S ten ogra p h ers, gen era l — — ________ __ 1.898
M a n u fa ctu rin g __________________________
772
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g______________________ 1 ,1 2 6
W holesale trad e _____________________
149
R etail t r a d e __________________________ . 82
F inance * * ___________________________
727

$
j
60. 0 0 j^ 5 .0 0 *70. Ou 1*75. 0 0 1*80. 00 *85.00

_
_

!
i

_ i
_ :
I

(

Table A-2: Professional and Technical Occupations
(A vera g e stra igh t-tim e w eek ly h ou rs and earnings 1 fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an a re a b a sis
in B a ltim o r e , M d ., by industry d ivisio n , A p ril 1955)
NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

A verage

Sex, occupation, and industry d ivision

Number
of
workers

s
$
1
$
$
Is
s
s
$
i$
$
$
$
$
6
i
$
$
Under 5 0.0 0 5 2.5 0 5 5 .0 0 5 7.50 6 0 .0 0 6 2 .5 0 6 5 .0 0 6 7 .5 0 70.0 0 7 5.0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 100.00jl05.00 1 1 0 .0 0 115.00 1 2 0 .0 0 125.00 130.00
and
$
~
■
and
■
*
. 5 0.0 0 under
130.00 j o v e r
5 2.5 0 5 5.0 0 5 7 .5 0 6 0 .0 0 6 2 .5 0 6 5 .0 0 6 7 .5 0 7 0 .0 0 75.00 8 0 .0 0 85s 0 0 . -2 0 * 0 0 9.5«.QIL 1Q.Q. Q 1 0 5 .0 0 lll0 .0 0 1 1 5 *Q .O , L2CLHQ
.Q
$

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

$

$

$

i

185
171

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 1 0 .0 0

D raftsm en, senior _ _____ __ ____ __
M a n u factu rin g________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________

650
509
141

3 9.5
3 9 .5
3 9.5

9 1.5 0
9 1 .5 0
9 2.5 0

Draftsm en, junior
__________ __ __ __
Manufacturing _________________________

299
240

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

6 3.0 0
6 3 .5 0

j

1

1

!
-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

15
9

20

28
23

-

-

_
47
"41

13

-

-

-

-

-

4
4
-

4
4
-

4
3

30
27

25
17

19
13

1
21

18

8
6

85
79

34
32 j

47
38

-

-

-

-

-

- 1

19

75
60
15

20
12
8

95
72
23

96
81
15

96
82 '
14

32

12
10

8

16

7

16

13
13

8
11

7
5

22

2

9

6
6

-

15 i
9!
i
71 1
56
15

29
26
3

21

-

-

24
24

127
103

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

7 5.0 0
7 6 .0 0

3

3
3

5

13

1

12

8
6

6

16

5

12

32
30

23
17

17
16

14
14

34
13

15 j
!
9 I
6 !

-

- i

12
12

1
!

13
13

7
1
b

-

j

1
1

* i
'

1
2

14
14

I

W om en
N u rses, industrial (r e g is te re d ) _________
M a n u factu rin g________________________

!

i

$
109.50

D raftsm en, leader ____________ __ __ __
M a n u factu rin g____ ____ __ ____ __

1

i
i

Men

'

'

Hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r which em p loy ees r e c e iv e their reg u la r s tra ig h t-tim e s a la rie s and the earnings c o r re sp o n d to these w eekly h ou rs.
W orkers w ere distrib u ted as fo llo w s: 34 at $40 to $ 4 2 .5 0 ; 10 at $45 to $ 4 7 .5 0 ; 3 at $ 4 7 .5 0 to $ 50 .




O ccu p a tion al W age S urvey, B a ltim o re , M d ., A p ril 1955
U .S . DE P A RT M EN T O F LABO R
B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics

Table A-3: Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage h ou rly earnings 1 fo r m en in se le cte d occupations studied on an a rea b asis
in B a ltim o re , M d ., by industry d iv isio n , A p ril 1935)
NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccupation and ind ustry d ivision

Number
oi
workers

$

Average
hourly
earnings

Jnder 1 . 2 0
and
$
under
1 .2 0

413
324
89

E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n ce -----------------------Manufa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------

686

620

E n g in e e r s , s ta tio n a r y -------------------------------Manufa ctu rin g -------------------- —— ------- ——
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------

424
326
98

2 .0 2

F ire m e n , sta tion a ry b o i l e r ----------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------

362
328

H e lp e rs, tra d e s, m ain ten an ce ---------------M anufacturing ---------------------------------------N onm anufacturing --------------------------------

1.30

1 .3 5

1.40

1, 45

-

-

4
4

2
2

9
7

-

2

_
-

_
-

5
5
-

2
2

6

_

3

-

2
1

_

21

-

18

$

C a r p e n te rs, m a in te n a n c e ------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------

66

1.25

$
$
$
*
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
*
1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1 .7 0 1. 75 1.80 1 .8 5 1 .9 0 1 .95 2 . 0 0 2 .0 5 2 . 10 2. 15 2 . 2 0 2 .2 5 2 .3 0 2 .4 0 2 .5 0
and

2 . 06
2 .0 9
1.93

1

-

1

18
2 .1 9
2 .0 8

_
-

-

1 .9 4

.
-

15

1.69

_
-

15

6

_
-

1.70
1. 71

7
-

1
1

20
20

54
54

26
26

2.

1.2 4 9
1,061
188
95

1. 70
1. 73
1. 57

299
299

1
1

_

18
17

19
7

63
57

1

12

6

1 .6 6

79
52
2 27
£

2 .0 6
2 .0 6

-

-

2 .2 8 .
2 .2 9

-

-

62

1 .98
2 .0 9
1.93
1.95
2 . 16

_
_
-

-

_
_
_
-

M e c h a n ics, m a in te n a n c e --------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------R e ta il t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------

1 .2 8 8
1 ,0 8 4
204
51

2 ,1 4
2. 15
2 .0 6
1 . 79

1

_

M illw r ig h ts ------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------------------------

153
152

O i l e r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------P a in te rs, m aintenance ----------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------

M a ch in e -to o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m ---------- _
M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------M a ch in ists, m aintenance ------------------------M a n u factu rin g--------------------------------—-----M e c h a n ics, a utom otive (m a in te n a n ce )----M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------P u b lic u tilities * ------------------------------W h olesa le t r a d e --------------------------------

1. 175
1 , 128
697
202

495
2 78

-

-

_

-

22
1
1
X

_

-

23

6

- "
6

_

6

-

-

60
57
3
3

-

-

_
-

-

1
1

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

9

1

-

-

*

-

-

-

8
1
1

2 .1 7
2. 17

_

_

_

_

_

_

541
534

1.80
1.81

31
30

-

6
6

2
2

4
4

323
209
114

1.92
2 .0 9
1.61

30
_
3 30

6

_

2

.

1

6

1

2

7
7

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

P ip e fitte r s , m a in te n a n ce --------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------

426
412

2 .2 1
2 .2 1

S h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s , m a in te n a n c e -----------M a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------------------------

. 107
99

2 .2 0
2 .2 2

-

T o o l and d ie m a k e r s ------ --------------------------------------

309
309

2 .3 7
2 .3 7

_

.

-

-

_
_
-

-

-

_

-

1 .6 5

1. 70

1 .7 5

15

16
11

17
16

9

6

2

1

7

_
-

26
23
3

8

32
26

1.55

1 .6 0

3
3

9

5

2

-

-

1.90

1.95

6

16

3
3

12

12
6
6

12

4

4
4
-

15
14

19
17

1

2

7
7

13
4
9

15

14
14

2

-

39
34
5

3
_
3

35
18
17

9
1

6

51
47

4
-

12
12

7
*

_

l

-

1

49
45
4
1
X

44
36

41
33

8
8

8
2

-

-

*

_

_

-

-

10

58

2
2

-

8

21
11
10

-

-

2
2

..

_

_

-

-

-

86

1

6

79
7

-

55
52
3

37
37
-

38
35
3

7
7
-

28
28

17
17

28
27

4
4

_

7
7

206
206

1
1

_
-

_

14
14
-

23
15

140
127
13

39
39
-

50
47
3

15
15
-

17
16

22
21

15

-

8
8

12

10
10

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

8

53
51
2
6

4
2

6
6

28
28

30
30

149
149

4
4

21
21

-

4
4

7
7

8
8

11
11

11
11

11
11

2

11
2

49
46

69
58

66

-

64

79
75

80
80

131
129

41
39

296
284

300
300

37
37

29

69
4
65
3
3

45
3
42
42
-

108
15
93
93

152
29
123
116

4
4
_

28
14
14
-

30

38
32

35
25
10

_

20
10
10

24

6

_

-

_

3
3
-

-

-

*

1

6

6

10

8

47
37

63
38
25
3

56
43
13
9

94
70
24

103
103
-

139
130
9

42
36

33

86

20

249
241

6

13

8

81
5

-

-

2

1

-

-

-

-

9
9

10
10

34
33

13
13

27
27

12
12

7
7

16
16

_

_

-

-

-

5
4

82

14
13

1

14

28
28
-

13
13
-

14

26

12

20
22
22

73
73

2

10

4
4

16
16

!

_

16

22
8

-

12
12

1

-

10
10

6
6

32
32

40
40

22
22

177
177

22
22

52
52

49
49

6
6

12
12

22
22

3
_
3

2

18

23

9

20

3

1

3

1
8

2
1
1

3

10

18
17

11

19
15
4

13

2

5
5

1
2

14
13

29
27

8
8

6
6

90
90

20

44

17
17

18

41
40

2
2

8
8

14
14

16
16

18
14

6
6

37
37

45
45

_
2
2
.

-

-

-

_

5

_

_

_

1

_

4

-

-

16
16

10
6

7

1

_

13
7

39
26
13

_

1

8

1

57
54
3

2
2

28
20
8

16

9
9
4

_

23
23
-

■2..4Q.-2.-5D over

121

20

11

9

JLJdL

32
31

1

_

6
6

55
49

9

_

_

49
45
4

60
59

3
-

-

1

19
15
4

81
73

2

3
3

5

3
5

28
26

13
3
-

2

2 .1 5 , .»2 .Q .2*25
2
.

2

-

-

.

1

2 .1 0

32
30

8

8

2

5

-

5
5

8
1

17

6

8

1

5

_

2
2

8

4
3

-

1
1

2

25
25

_

8

9

16
9
7

22
22

4

-

13

4

12
8

7

.

2

-

8

2
2

25
24

-

4

2
2

3
-

10

10

-

6

25
25

10
6

12

3
_
3
3
-

_

53
43

137

8

.

4
4

159
133
26
26

50
_
-

2 .0 5
31
27
4

78
75
3

-

2 .0 0

7
4
3

135
95
40
34

56
41
15

* E xcludes p rem iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w ork on w eeken ds, holid a ys, and late sh ifts .
* W ork ers w e r e d istrib u ted as fo llo w s : 6 at $ 0 .8 0 to $ 0 .9 0 ; 3 at $ 0 .9 0 to $ 1 ; 8 at $1 to $ 1 . 10; 11 at $ 1 . 10 to $ 1 .2 0 .
3 W ork ers w ere d istrib u ted as fo llo w s : 6 at $1 to $ 1 .0 5 ; 7 at $ 1 . 10 to $ 1 . 15; 17 at $ 1 . 15 to $ 1 .2 0 .
4
W ork ers w ere d istrib u ted as fo llo w s : 2 at $ 2 .5 0 to $ 2 .6 0 ; 29 at $ 2 .6 0 to $ 2 .7 0 ; 14 at $ 2 .9 0 to $3.
Digitized 5 W o rk e rs w e r e d istrib u ted as fo llo w s : 63 at $ 2. 50 to $ 2 . 60; 7 at $ 2. 60 to $ 2 . 70; 6 at $ 2 . 70 to $ 2 .8 0 ; 5 at $ 2 . 80 to $ 2 . 90.
for FRASER
* T ra n sp ortation (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.



1.95

3
3

10

_

1 .8 0

10
10

2

_
-

_
-

22
12
10
2

_
_
-

•

1,50

-

-

„

44

12
12

_

7
7

68

1

6

18
_
18
117
79
38

-

85
77
8
-

3
3

-

_
-

64
64

45
* 45

6
6

5
5

54
54

81

5 gj

O ccupational Wage S urvey, B altim ore, M d ., A p ril 1955
U .S . DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR
Bureau o f L abor Statistics

8

Table A-4: Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A vera g e hou rly earnings 1 fo r s e le c te d occupations 2 studied on an area b a sis
in B a ltim o r e , Md. , by industry d iv isio n , A p ril 1955)
NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O cc u p a tio n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
U nder * 0 .7 0 0 .7 5
L a9 d r
unde
1. 70
.7 5
.8 0

0 . 80

Is
$
$
!$
1
$
$
$
$
$
0 .8 5 0 .9 0 0 .9 5 $1.00 ! 1 .0 5 1. 10 *1 .1 5 *1. 20 *1.25 *1. 30 * 1 .3 5 * 1 .4 0 1 .4 5 * 1 .5 0 * 1 .6 0 *1. 70 *1. 80 * 1 .9 0 2 . 00 j* 10 j 2. 20 2. 30
*2.
_
| and

. 85

.9 0

. 95

1 .0 0

1.05

9
6
6

6
6
-

3
2
2

8
5
4

13
13
4
9

4
4
4
-

7
1
.
1

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ( p a s s e n g e r )
(m e n ) _ ---------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _____________________
F in a n ce * * __________________________

114
101
57

$
0 . 86
. 82
. 77

25
25
3 25

27
27
“

9
9
6

.
-

11
11
11

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s (p a s s e n g e r )
(w o m en ) ______ ________
„ „ „ ___
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ___
R e ta il t r a d e _______ _ ^
________ _
F in a n ce * * ________ _____ ___ _________

211
205
96
92

.7 9
. 78
. 76
. 77

48
48
4 17
5 25

31
31
31
-

9
9
8
1

25
25
18
7

61
61
14
47

G u a rd s ------- __ __ __ ___________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g _ __ __ ___
_________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _____________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s * ____________________

1 .0 7 5
668
407
30

1. 71
1. 80
1 .5 7
1 .4 0

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
(m e n ) — — — — _______________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g _ ______ _____________ ___
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _____________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * _____ __ ________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ____________________
R e ta il tr a d e _________________________
F in a n ce * * ___________________ _____

3. 104
1 ,8 7 5
1 ,2 2 9
147
57
452
283

1. 26
1 .4 5
.9 7
1. 30
1. 08
.9 1
. 88

130
37
6 52

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , an d c le a n e r s
( w o m e n ) __ — _____ _____ __ _________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _________ ... ____________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ___
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * _____ __ __ __ __
R e t a il t r a d e ___ _____ __ __ __ __
F in a n ce * * — ------------- __ _____ __

945
230
715
50
176
420

.9 1
1. 15
. 84
1. 15
. 83
. 79

31
_
31
_
11
16

250
250

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d l i n g ________
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _______ __ _________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * ________ __ ___
W hole s a le tr a d e ___________________
R e ta il t r a d e _________________________

4 .5 5 6
2 ,9 9 1
1 ,5 6 5
227
628
710

1 .4 4
1 .5 2
1. 28
1 .3 9
1. 27
1 .2 5

O r d e r f i l l e r s ___
___
M a n u fa ctu rin g _
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ___
W h o le s a le tr a d e _
R e ta il t r a d e ___ __ _____

1 .1 7 6
296
880
494
386

1 .4 3
1 .4 6
1 .4 2
1 .4 2
1 .4 3

P a c k e r s , sh ippin g _________ _____ ______
M a n u fa c t u r in g ------ ------------- __ ______
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ____ __________________
R e t a il t r a d e __________________________

556
377
179
95

1 .5 7
1 .6 6
1. 37
1. 18

_
_

_
_

-

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s _____ __ _________ _______
M a n u fa ctu rin g _ __ __ ___
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________
_
R e t a il tra d e __ __
____ ____

288
134
154
100

1. 56
1 .6 9
1 .4 5
1 .4 1

_
-

_ .....
___ _
__

1
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

130

70
_
70
_
66
4

109
109
1
8
45
44

_
-

91
8
83
4
35
28

3

7

1 .2 0

1 .2 5

1. 30

1 .3 5

1 .4 0

1 .4 5

1. 50

1 .6 0

1. 70

1. 80

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

3
1
1

2
2
2

_
_

_
.

_
_

_
_

1
-

3
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

5
5
-

_
_

-

2
2
-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
_

11
11
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_

„
_
_

_
_

_
_

.
-

-

-

2
2
_
2

_
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

2

9

6

9
5
4
-

12
2
10
10

13
11
2

-

13
9
4
2

9
9
_

.
_

-

73
73
-

59
59
“

-

386
354
32
10
22
-

119
119
-

32
32
-

127
127
-

_
-

-

-

-

_
“

-

_
-

_
_
-

.
-

_
-

127
118
9
9

127
127
-

7
4

2
-

9
-

6
2

110
24
86
_
6
72
8

120
33
87
7
52
27

138
23
115
_
5
34
31

334
194
140
6
4
27
34

144
67
77
11
_
26
15

229
144
85
14
6
11
12

88
41
47
11
_
5
3

60
43
17
6
4
2

70
20
50
28
2
1
19

38
19
19 i
1
_
14
4

73
62
11
3
_
1
-

127
71
56
56
_
_

34
34
-

475
460
15
15
-

-

-

“

6
6
_
_

3
3
_ .
-

_
_
-

5
5
_
_

1
1
-

11
11
-

over

_
-

_
-

- !
_
-

22
22
“

296
48
248
-

3
-

1

2 . 10 | 2 . 2 0 | 2. 30
1
i
i
. i
|
_ i
;
“
"

281
183
98
-

4
2
2
2

2
-

1

_
“

_
-

-

32
215

91
18
73
.
32
38

63 •
4
59
_
13
43

92
32
60
_
27
-

91
2
89
3
10
69

54
13
41
1
40
-

116
71
45
5
8
16

28
17
11
1
3
7

26
2
24
8
_
16

5
5
.
-

34
2
32
32
-

-

-

-

-

-

11
11
-

-

8
8
-

-

-

-

-

-

14
_
14
_
_
14

48
_
48
_
48

57
5
52
36
16

37
25
12
_
12
-

69
47
22
4
10
8

155
100
55
_
52
3

60
35
25
_
18
7

279
130
149
_
121
28

74
15
59
30
29

204
106
98
42
56

316
197
119
97
9
13

168
102
66
_
8
58

167
66
101
_
7
94

105
87
18
_
7
11

494
295
199
3
18
178

196
168
28
28

160
137
23
17
6

578
334
244
117
91
36

287
101
186
3
119
64

281
259
22
3
6
13

249
248
1
1
-

132
124
8
8
-

272
269
3
_
3
-

106
93
13
13
-

35
35
-

13
13
-

-

-

4
_
4

6
_
6
_
6

19
_
19

22
8
14
4
10

27
3
24
16
8

75
46
29
12
17

17
5
12
4
8

53
45
8
_
8

58
32
26
8
18

363
140
223
195
28

177
3
174
29
145

88
88
57
31

6
6
4
2

3
3
3
-

17
5
12
12
-

1
1
-

_

91
70
21

45
8
37
26
11

8
8

4

11
_
11
4
7

26

-

48
_
48
32
16

19

-

11
_
11
2
9

91

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

8
5
3
3

-

-

5
9
5

23
8
15
8

1
1

24
25
19

44
39
5
-

76
24
52
-

75
75
-

61
61
-

?o
20

2
2

7
6
1
1

49

15
15

78
74
4
-

1

-

9
3
6
6

2

-

18
5
13
12

15

_
_

15
5
10
10

12

_
-

11
5
6
2

1
1
-

13
13
-

4
4
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

12

_

10
10

10
5

9
9
9

3
-

5
5
1

3
-

30
14
16
3

20
5
15
14

13
13
-

35
19
16
14

23
11
12
3

21
5
16
4

52
34
18
16

17
16
1
1

11

-

6
-

3
3

1
1
1

_

-

12
12

-

See footnotes at end o f tab le.
* T ransportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other p ublic u tilitie s.
* * F inance, in su ra n ce, and rea l esta te.
.




2

1. 10 1. 15

-

12
11
2
2
2

5

5
5

3
1

-

26
16
10

-

O ccupation al W age S u rv ey, B a ltim o r e , M d. , A p ril 1955
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T OF LABO R
B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics

19
19
-

-

8

6

5

-

-

9
2

1

-

-

5

3
2

-

9

Table A-4: Custodial and Material Movement Occupations - Continued
(A verage hou rly earnings 1 fo r s e le c te d occupations 2 studied on an a re a b a sis
in B a ltim o r e , M d. , b y industry d iv isio n , A p ril 1955)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccupation and industry d iv ision

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Under 0. 70 0. 75 0 .1 0 0. i:> $0.9C 0 .9 5 1.00 1.05 *1. 10 1. 15 *1. 20 $1.25 $ 30 f . 35
1.
and
0. 70 under
. 75 . 80
.9 5 1.00 1.05 1. 10 1. 15 1 .20 1.25 1. 30 1. 35 1.40
. 85 .9 0

Shipping c le r k s — —--------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g------------------------------

332
197
135
87

$
1.69
1.75
1.59
. 1 >6
>

Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s ___ __ __
M a n u fa c tu rin g ________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g____________________
________
W h olesa le trade — —

271
166
105
62

1.62
1.63
1.60
1.59

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , light (under I V 2 t o n s )__
M anufacturing
— __ __ ______ ___
_____
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ___ — __

487
235
252

1.69
1 . 80
1.59

_
-

_
-

6

-

-

_
-

4

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m ediu m ( l 1 to and
/*
including 4 t o n s ) ______ ________ _ _____
M a n u fa c tu rin g _______ —___ ______ _____
N onm anufac tur i n g ___________ - _______
W h olesa le t r a d e ----------------- ----------R e ta il t r a d e _____ — . . . . __ __

818
251
567
215

1.65
1.67
1.65
1.59
1.41

_
.
.
-

_
.
.
“

_
.
.
-

_
.
.

_
.
-

4
_
4
_
4

T r u c k d r iv e r s , heavy (o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a ile r typ e) — ------- ------ . . ------M a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------N onm anufacturing . . . . ________ ____
P u b lic u tilities * _______________ ___
W h olesa le t r a d e ----------------------------

66

840
277
563

_
-

_
-

15
11
4

-

-

-

4

-

1. 70

1. 80

5
5

16
2
14

1
1

37
23
14

21
7
14

4

11

41
23
18
18

2

21
20
1

26

4
4
4

38
31
7

34
17
17

-

19
7
7

6

8

4

16
16
-

_
-

25

7
3
4

4

17
17

16
14

15
3

26

6
12

8

8

2

18

7

6

.

12
12

10

50
18

1

7

2

-

5

12

_
_
.
_
-

17

45
45
.
-

12
12

17
17
.
-

17
16

12

6

6
6

10

.
.
-

10
2
8

-

5
5
-

6

2

11
1

17
15

6

2

lo

-

2

4

-

8

2
2

16
16
-

40
14

_
-

18
17

8

9

-

1

8

9

16
_
16

2

42
26
16

14

18

18

26

_

12

2
2

10

12
2
2

4

-

-

“

12
12

22

15

18
4
_
4

15
_
15

5
5
•
-

2 .0 0

-

.

T r u c k d r iv e r s , heavy (o v e r 4 to n s ,
oth er than t r a ile r t y p e ) -----------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g-----------------------------W h olesale trade -----------------------------

_ 933
184
749
177

1. 76
1.96
1. 71
1.73

T r u c k e r s , p ow er (fo rk lift) _____________
M anufacturing . ------- ._ ------------ . .
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g____________________

1.040
975
65

1 .6 8

-

T r u c k e r s , p ow er (other than
fo rk lift)
--------- . . . . _____ ________
M a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------------

357
356

1.81
1.82

_

_

-

W atchm en — _____ __________ . . . _____
M anufacturing — -------------------------------N onm anufacturing . . . . _______ _______
P u b lic u tilities * ________________ _
W holesa le trad e —
------------ . .
R eta il t r a d e _______________________
F in a n ce » » --------------------------------------

815
497
318
37
87
104
58

1 . 10
1 . 16
1 .0 2

_

.

.

.

.

_

_

1.79
1.79

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

30

6

_

15

• _

_

-

-

_

30
30

6
6

-

15
15

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

18
18
-

32
32
-

30
30
-

16
16

_

_

_

-

-

-

1

21
6

48
35
13

6

-

2
2

_
-

16

-

18
18
-

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

73
38
35
_
14
7
14

11

-

_

-

-

-

5
5
-

15
15
_

-

-

-

.4
4

78
5
73
3
18
43
9

5

Ill

49

102

6

9
-

43
3
19
16
5

-

6

3

-

_
-

6

-

-

7
.
7

14

6
6

-

-

10

11

-

2
2

-

8
8

-

_
-

_

18
7
7

11
2
-

1
8

-

-

-

-

2
2

2
2

75
55

6
1

86

20

5
-

3
12
2

U

1

12

-

-

1

_
75
53

-

81
5
5

2

-

-

“

_

5

3

22

15

E xclu d es p rem iu m pay fo r ov e rtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, h o lid a y s, and late shifts.
Data lim ited to m en w o r k e rs excep t w h ere otherw ise indicated.
W ork ers w e r e d istrib u ted as fo llo w s: 20 at $0. 55 to $ 0. 60; 5 at $0. 60 to $0. 65.
W ork ers w e r e d istrib u ted as fo llo w s: 5 at $ 0 .6 0 to $ 0 .6 5 ; 12 at $0. 65 to $0. 70.
W ork ers w e r e d istrib u ted as fo llo w s: 10 at $0. 40 to $0. 45; 5 at $0. 45 to $0. 50;5 at $0. 50
to $ 0. 55; 5 at$0. 55 to $0. 60.
* W ork ers w e r e d istrib u ted as fo llo w s: 25 at $ 0 .5 0 to $ 0 .5 5 ; 15 at $ 0 .5 5 to $ 0 .6 0 ; 10 at$ 0 .6 0 to $ 0 .6 5 ;
2 at$ 0 .6 5 to $ 0 .7 0 .
7 A ll w o r k e rs w ere at $ 2. 30 to $ 2. 35.
* T ra n sp ortation (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.
** F in a n ce, in s u ra n ce , and rea l esta te.




1. 60

-

1.64
1.78
2. 17

1
2
3
4
5

1 .5 0

5

-

1 . 88

1. 38
1.06
.91
.8 9

30
18
12

7

274

220

8
8

1.45

5

-

$
$
$
$
$
$
<
$
$
1 .4 0 1.45 *1.50 *1.60 1.70 1. 80 1.90 2 .0 0 2. 10 2 .2 0 2 .3 0

10
6

-

-

6

-

-

4
4
-

2
2

58

1

_
-

1. 90 2 .0 0
10
4
6

11

63
44
19
14

6

48

6

27

2. 10 2 .2 0
17
13
4

7
7
-

10

6

35
31
4
4

3
7
7

-

_
-

173
7
166

9
9
-

27
27
-

7
1
6

108
108
-

8
2
6

2
2

344
94
250
119
16

133

-

57
57
.
-

_
.
.
-

22

131

15
7
7
-

_
.
_
-

_
.
_
-

60
60
.
-

49
49
_
-

83

5

12
12

207

83
.
17

3
.
3

_ 207
_
_
- 7 207

6

_
_
-

21

262
19
243
220
21

2
1

5

2

259

355

259

333
19

14
14
-

83
79
4
4

145
60
85
85

22
1

5
1
1

10 2

-

74
28

239
215
24

167
164
3

292
292
-

3
3
-

12
11

20
20

6
6

56
56

106
106

132
132

_

_

-

10
10

39
26
13

43
35

7
4
3

12
12

2

17
17
17

-

-

-

2
11

11

.

-

-

-

and
o ve r

37
32
5

51
42
9

22
22

2 .3 0

8
6
1
1

54
54
-

15
15
_

3
3
i
1

1
1

-

10

_

10
10

-

7
7
-

-

3
3

1

_
-

_
_
-

_
_

8
8

1

.

_
_
-

-

_

_

.

.

2
1

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

-

-

10




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-1: Shift Differential Provisions*
P e r c e n t o f m anu facturing plant w o r k e r s —

Shift d iffe r e n tia l

(a)
In e sta b lish m en ts having
fo r m a l p r o v is io n s fo r —

(b)
A ctu a lly w ork in g on—

S econ d sh ift
w ork

T hird o r other
shift w ork

S econd sh ift

T o t a l ---------------------------------------------------------------- :----------------------

8 8 .0

82. 7

1 7 .8

9 .6

W ith sh ift p ay d i ffe r e n t i a l ----------------------------------------------------

83; 4

8 0 .0

1 6 .8

9. 1

U n iform cen ts (p er h ou r) -----------------------------------------------

4 8 .6

4 6 .2

1 0 .3

7 .5

3 c e n t s ______ ______ _______ _______________________ _______
4 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------------------------5 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------------------------6 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------------------------7 o r 8 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------------------9 c e n t s ------------------------------------------ —----------------------------10 c e n t s ------------------------------------------ ------------------------------12 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------------------------I 2 V2 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------------------13% c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------15 cen ts and o v e r --------------------------------------------------------

1 .3
3 .9
8 .0
2 7 .2
, 2 .6
4 .4
-

U n iform p e rc e n ta g e — —--------------------------------------------------2 V2 p e r c e n t ------------------------------------------------------------------5 p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------------------------------------7 p e r c e n t -------- ----------------------------------------------- —----------l l/z p e r c e n t --------------------- —----------------------------------------—
10 p e r c e n t ---------------- ----------- ---------------------------------------O v er 10 p e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------------------

_

.9
2 .0
3 .2
3 .9
2 6 .2
2 .3
2. 1
1. 7

.3
1.2
1 .2
6. 7
-

.2
.6

_

.1
A

.6
. 7
5 .0
A

.2
. 1
. 1

1 .2

.4

3 .9
2 3 .3

T h ird o r oth er
sh ift

2 0 .5

3 .8

1. 1
_

1 .0
A

1 .1
4. 5
2 .6
2 .2
1 2 .9
-

2 .6
3 .0
1 3 .7
1 .2

.2
.5
.5
.3
2 .2
“

F u ll d a y 's p a y fo r r e d u ce d h o u r s ---------------------------------O ther fo r m a l paid d i f f e r e n t i a l ---------------------------------------

2 .2
9 .3

4 .0
9 .3

.5
2 .2

.4
.1

No sh ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l -------------------------------------------------------

4 .6

2 .7

1 .0

.5

-

.1

1 Shift d iffe r e n tia l data a r e p re s e n te d in te r m s o f (a) esta b lish m en t p o lic y , and (b) w o r k e r s a c tu a lly em p lo y e d on late
sh ifts at the /tim e o f the su rv e y . An esta b lish m en t was c o n s id e r e d as having a p o lic y if it m et eith er o f the fo llo w in g c o n d i­
tio n s: ( l ) O perated late sh ifts at the tim e o f the su r v e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p ro v is io n s c o v e rin g late sh ifts ,
A L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.
O ccupational W age S urvey, B a lt im o r e , M d . , A p r il 1955
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistic s

Table B-2: Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Office Workers
Number of establishm ents with specified minimum hiring rate in—

B ased on weekly standard hours 2 of—

A ll
industries

A ll
schedules

Establishm ents s tu d ie d ________

_______________ —

171

64

A ll
schedules

$27. 50
$30. 00
$32. 50
$35. 00
$37. 50
$40. 00
$ 42. 50
$45. 00
$47. 50
$ 50. 00
$ 52. 50
$ 5 5 .0 0
$57. 50

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $30. 00 ___ ___________________
under $32. 50 _______________________
under $35. 00 ----------------------------- _
under $37. 50 _______________________
under $40. 00 ______ ____ __________
under $42: 50 —
_________________
under $ 4|: 0 0 ___ _______ _____________
under $ 4 f . 5 0 ___. . . ___ ______________
under $50; 0 0 ___ ______ ;..j__________
under $ 52: 50 ___-___________________
under $ 55: 0 0 __
.
— __r
under $57: 50 __
o v e r ___ ____ :_______ :__ ___ . . . _______

B ased on weekly standard hours 2 of—

107

XXX

171

64

40

A ll
schedules

40

X XX

A ll
schedules

40

XXX

N onmanufac turing

Manufacturing
A ll
industries

40

f o r i n e :XPERIENC ED

E stablishm ents hhvihg a specified m in im u m ______

Number o f establishm ents with specifie<i minimum hiring rate in—

Nonmanufac tur in g

Manufac tur in g
Minimum rate
(weekly salary)

i

107

XXX

FOR OTHER INEXF>ERIENCED C LERICAL WOR*£ERS

TYPISTS

86

35

29

51

40

91

32

26

59

44

_
8
9
16
6
17
9
8
3
3
5
2

_
1
2
4
9
6
4
1
2
-

_
8
8
14
2
8
3
4
2
1
1
-

_
7
5
12
1
7
3
1
2
1
1
-

2
19
11
11
8
17
9
4
1
3

_
2
3
5
8
5
2
1

_
1
3
3
7
4
2
1

2
17
11
8
3
9
4
2
1
2

1
15
7
7
1
5
4
1
1
2

-

-

-

4
2

4
2

3
2

-

-

2

_
1
2
3
8
6
2
2
3
2

-

-

XXX

21

8

XXX

13

XXX

59

24

XXX

35

XXX

4

Establishm ents having no Ip etified minithurri _____

18

7

XXX

11

Establishm ents which did not Employ
w orkers in this c a t e g o r y ________________________ .-

67

22

XXX

45

-

* Low est salary rate form ally eSiabiiiited fo r hiring inexperienced w orkers fo r typing or other c le r ic a l jo b s;
Hours re fle ct the workweek for which £m£loyees re ce iv e their regular straight-tim e sala ries. Data are presented fo r all workweeks com bined, and fo r the m ost com m on workweek reported.




Occupational Wage Survey, B altim ore, M d., 19 5 5
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table B-3: Frequency of Wage Payment
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Frequency of payment

Retail trade

*

Manufacturing

Public
utilities

100

___

Weekly __ ___ ______________
__________
B iw eek ly______________________________________ _
Semimonthly _ __ __ ____ _______ __ ________

1
2
A
*
**

Wholesale
trade

;
i
1
j

A
ll

100

100

100

100

58
23
18
A

68
11
19
A

97
A
A

48
22
30

99
A
-

industries1
*
4
3
2

A ll workers __________

|
Finance **

|

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Public
utilities*

AU
2
industries

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

13
61
26

98
A
A

99
A
-

99
A
-

Services

W
holesaletr ado

j

!
|
!

•

Services

|

Services

Retail trade

ioo

100

85
12
3

96
4
-

Includes data for services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data for real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 2. 5 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroa ds), com m unication, and other public ut ilitie s.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.

Table B-4: Scheduled Weekly Hours
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS1 EMPLOYED IN—

j

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

W e e k ly h o u r s
All
,
industries *

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance**

All
,
industries 9

Services

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

f
A l l w o r k e r s __________

_

_____

_____

U n d e r 3 5 h o u r s ____________________________________________
3 5 h o u r s ______________ _
_ ________
O v e r 3 5 a n d u n d e r 3 7 l / z h o u r s ---------------------------------3 7 1/ z h o u r s ___ ________ ____________________________________
O v e r 3 7 l / z a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s ____________________ _
4 0 h o u r s __
________ _
_
O ver 4 0 and under 44 h o u r s _____ __ _________ ____

44 h ou rs —
___ __________
_ __ _____
O ver 44 and under 48 h o u r s ______________________
48 h ou rs ___________ __ __ _____
____________
O ver 48 hours —___________________ ____ __ _________ _

3

100

100

A
6
3
12
4
72

A
3
A
12
3
79

A
A
A
A

A
A
_
_

100

100

100

A

3

53
A
41

A
A
5
6
84

A

A

.

_
_
_

_
_
_

100

A

A
13
7
8
5

91

66

_
_

A
A
A
A

_
_
.
_

ii

io o

100

100

100

100

72
9
-

.
_
44
12
8
14
18
4

A

-

_

-

A
A

A
3

-

-

77
4

-

88

A

A

-

4

A

6
3

4

3

-

79
17
4

15
.
4

1 Data relates to women w orkers only.
2 Includes data for serv ices in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data for real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Estimates d iffer substantially from those in previous studies, due to the exclusion o f taxicab com panies and se rvice s incidental to water transportation from the scope o f areawide studies (see
scope table, page 2, footnote 4).
A Less than 2.5 percent.
Occupational Wage Survey, B altim ore, Md. , A p ril 1955
* Transportation (excluding ra ilroa ds), com m unication, and other public utilities.
U .S . DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Bureau o f Labor Statistics




Table B-5: Paid Holiday Provisions
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED I N -

Item

AH
,
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PI ANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Finance * *

A
11
industries9

Services

Public
utilities *

Manufacturing

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

|

A ll w orkers

__

__

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_

________ ____

100

100

100

100

100

100

Number of paid holidays
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays _______
_
_ _
L ess than 5 days ____ _ ____ ________ ___ _____
5 d a y s __ __ __ ___
_
_
_
6 days ________ _________ ______ _________________
7 days , - ......... , .................................... .
8 days _________________________________________________
9 days ___
____ ______________ ______ ___________
10 days _ __ _____________________
13 d a y s ______ ______________________________
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays ______________________________________

loo

100

100

100

100

98
A
4
57
23
7
4
A
A

99

100

86

_

_
_

96
9

jj

100
A
A
30
26
11
13
5
13
-

100

100

_

_

3
36
45
7
5
4

4
7
36
51

_

A

-

-

-

100
-

4
36
15
8
21
16

100
A
A
85
11
A

100
-

_

_
_

4
9
13
17
6
51

-

-

-

A
62
28
5
A
A

21
9
29
40

_

64
17

A
4

_

6
_
_
_

14

-

_

_

11
32
11
25
7

4

A

A

66
20
44

72
19
51

60
5
55

55
48
6

57
29
28

A

A

_
_

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

P rov ision s for holidays occurring
on nonworkdays 5
With provisions for holidays falling on
Saturday _______________________________ _________________
Another day off with pay _________________________
Extra day's pay
.... ... .
Option of another day off or extra
day's pay _
. ... ,
„
P rov ision s d iffer for various h o lid a y s ____
Other provisions
Saturday is a scheduled workday for
all w orkers
_ _
. ...
...........
No provisions (or no pay) for holidays
falling on S atu rd a y__________________________
With p rovisions for holidays falling on
Sunday ____ _ _ _
^
^
............
Another day off with p a y _______ ____________ ____
Extra day's pay
Option of another day o ff or extra
day's pay ___________
_
,. ...
P rov ision s d iffer for various h o lid a y s ______
Other p rovision s _
_ ____
Sunday is a scheduled workday for
all w orkers
__
_
_ ..............
No p rovision s (or no pay) for holidays
falling on Sunday ______ _
With p rovisions for holidays falling
during vacation _____________________________
Another day o ff with pay
---------Extra day's p a y ____________________________
Option o f another day o ff o r extra
day's pay .
..
. ___
P rov ision s d iffer for various h o lid a y s ____
Other p rovisions
_
_
No p rov ision s (or no pay) for holidays
falling during v a c a t io n ______________________

3
4

6
3
3

49
48
A

54
45
9

9
9

10

44
23
18

A

3

-

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_

32
2 1

A

.

3

A

A

A

8

A

11

7

3

4

35

65

54

93

50

38

90

21

21

37

27

4

99
96
A

99
94
A

100
99
A

97
97

96
96

100
100

_

_

_

92
81
9

97
88
7

100
53
47

72
70
A

77
74
3

A

3

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

A

_
_

_
_
_

A

_
_

_
_

_
.

_
_
_

_
_
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

A

A

3

4

-

6

A

-

83
62
11

84
40
22

100
94
3

93
93

82
82

75
75

_

-

_

82
37
36

87
26
49

A

A

3

_

21

_
_

_
-

_

9

_
_

_
_
_

3

_

6

17

16

-

7

18

25

16

_

_

14

19

100
77
20

63
62

66
63
3

3

3

A

-

9

_
_

_
_

_
_
_

12

■

23

30

-

* Estim ates include only full-day holidays provided annually.
Includes data fo r serv ices in addition to those divisions shown separately.
Includes data fo r rea l estate, and services in addition to those industry division s shown separately.
Estim ate d iffers substantially from that in previous studies, due to the exclusion of taxicab com panies and s e rv ice s incidental to water transportation from the scope of areawide studies (see
scope table, page 2, footnote 4).
L im ited to prov ision s in establishments having a form al p olicy applying when holidays occu r on nonworkdays; some o f the estim ates would be slightly higher if practices determined inform ally
as the situation occ u rs w ere included.
A L e s s than 2 .5 p ercen t.
Occupational Wage Survey, Baltim ore, M d ., A pril 1955
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
U .S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
FRASER
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Bureau o f Labor Statistics

Digitized for


1

Table B-6: Paid Vacations
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED I N -

Vacation p olicy

All
industries1

A ll workers --------------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

A

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Finance**

All 2
industries

Services

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

!
100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
_
_

100
100
.
_

100
100
_
_

100
100

100
100
_
_

100
100
_
_

100
95
4
.
A

100
93
6
.
A

100
100

98
98

100
100
_
_
_

-

“

-

A

-

.
19

_
5
A
94

A
74
10
14
A
A

A
78
12
8
-

53
16
30
A
A

59
22
19
_

41
15
43
A
A

49
20
31
_
-

97
.
3

8
A
88
A

A
95
3
A

_
97
3

METHOD OF PAYMENT
W orkers in establishments
providing paid v a ca tion s----------------------------------Length-of-tim e paym ent-------------------------------Percentage payment -------------------------------------Fiat-sum payment ----------------------------------------O ther-------------------------------------------------------------W orkers in establishments providing
no paid vacations ----------------------------------------------

-

-

-

-

_
_

-

-

_
_

_
_
A

AMOUNT OF VACATION PAY
After 1 year of se rv ice
Under 1 week--------------------- --------------------------------1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s ----------------------------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------

_
21
21
58
_

9
A
90

81

_
70
14
16

_

_

_

_

-

-

*

-

-

8
10
81
A
A

11
21
68

3
_
95

15
_
85

-

A

7
10
82
A
A

11
21
68
_
-

A
_
99

A
A
94
3
A

A
_
97
_
3

A
20
11
68
A

_

27
3
67
_
3

_
65
_
33
_

_

80
11
9
.

After 2 years of service
1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s-------------------------------------------- ------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks --------------------------------------------3 weeks --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

12
A
86

_

_
100

_

_

_

-

-

-

13
_
87

A

-

9
_
88
_
3

51
>
47

_

43
5
50
-

19
4
77
_

-

-

32
_
66
-

17
4
76
_
3

~

41
3
56

_

-

After 3 years of serv ice
1 w e e k --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------2 weeks —
----------------------------- -—
—— ----------- ---— «—— —
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s ------------------- —
-----------------------3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------

7
92

_

A

_
100
_

-

-

-

After 5 years of serv ice
1 w e e k --------------------------------- ------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------------2 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks --------------------- —
--------3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------

A

7

96

93

5
A
9.4

3

”

_

A

_

_

_
90
10

I

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), com m unication, and other public u tilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




A

Occupational Wage Survey, B altim ore, M d ., A p ril 1955
U .S . DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allow ances by years of se rv ice , payments other than "length of tim e",
such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-sum payments, were converted to an equivalent time
basis; fo r exam ple, a payment o f 2 p ercent o f annual earnings was considered as 1 w eek’ s pay.

15

Table B-6: Paid Vacations - Continued
p e r c e n t

o f

o f f ic e

w o r k e r s

e m p l o y e d

in

—

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

Vacation p olicy
A ll
,
in d u stries

A ll w orkers

M a n u fa ct u r in g

P u b lic .
u tilitie s *

W h o le s a le
tr a d e

R e ta il tr a d e

F in a n c e * *

100

100

100

100

100

100

A
85
A
12

A
86
3

A
96

7
92

S e rv ice s

A ll
,
in d u strie s

M a n u fa ct u r in g

100

100

8
82
A
8

A
89
3
7

8
25
A
65

A
26
3
70

7
22
A
67
A

A
24
3
72
A

P u b lic
u tilitie s *

W h o le s a le
trade

R e ta il tr a d e

100

100

100

97

32
63

17
60

_

-

_

3

3

23

4

32
23

17
35

_

_

>

96

43

48

4

32
23

29

_

_

_

96

43

51
3

AMOUNT OF VACATION PAY - Continued
A fter 10 yea rs of serv ice
1 w e e k -----------------------------2 weeks ---------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks
3 w e e k s -----------------------------

11

5
74

83

-

-

-

-

3

A

21

17

A
5

7
34

5
28

50

A fter 15 yea rs of service

2 weeks -------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s -----------------------

A
27
A
71

A
18
-

-

-

-

-

81

94

59

67

50

A
18

A
A

7
34

5
26

29

-

-

-

-

-

81

98

59

68

71

A fter 20 yea rs o f serv ice

2 weeks --------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks — ------------------------------3 weeks — — --------------------------------------------------------4 weeks and o v e r -------------------------------------------------

A
21
A
77
A

A

17

'

A fter 25 yea rs o f serv ice

2 w e e k s -------- -------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s -------------- -------------------3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------4 weeks and o v e r -------------------------------------------------

A
17
A
65
16

A
18

A
A

7
32

-

-

-

-

-

69
12

98

19
42

37
32

71
16

5
26

1 Includes data fo r s e rv ice s in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data fo r real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
A Less than 2 .5 p ercen t.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




13

7
22
A
60
8

A
24
3
64
8

17

4

32
21

-

_

_

96

20
25

45

29

9

S e rv ice s




17

APPENDIX: JOB DESCRIPTIONS

The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions fo r the Bureau's wage surveys is to
a ss is t its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations w ork ers who are em ployed under
a variety of payroll titles and different w ork arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing com parable job content.
Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and
interarea com parability of occupational content, the Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ sig n ifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared fo r other pu rp oses.
In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field representatives are instructed to exclude w ork ­
ing su p ervisors, apprentices, lea rn ers, beginners, trainees, handicapped w ork ers, part-tim e,
tem porary, and probationary w ork ers.

O ff i c e
BILLER, MACHINE
P rep a res statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordin ary or electrom a tic typew riter. May also keep record s
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other cle ric a l work in ­
cidental to billing operation s.
F or wage study pu rp oses, b ille rs,
m achine, are cla ssifie d by type of m achine, as follow s:
B ille r, m achine (billing machine) - Uses a sp ecial billing
m achine (Moon H opkins, Elliott F ish er, Burroughs, e t c ., which
a re com bination typing and adding machines) to prepare b ills and
in voices from custom ers* purchase ord e rs, internally prepared
o r d e r s , shipping m em oranda, etc.
Usually involves application
of predeterm ined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
n e ce ssa ry extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing m achine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated
by m achine.
The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon cop ies o f the b ill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold m achine.
B ille r, m achine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
m achine (Sundstrand, E lliott F ish er, Remington Rand, etc. , which
m ay or m ay not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare cu sto m e rs’
b ills as part o f the accounts receivable operation.
G enerally
involves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on cu sto m e rs’ ledger
re c o r d .
The m achine autom atically accumulates figures on a
number of v e rtica l colum ns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atica lly the debit or cred it balances.
Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping.
W orks from uniform and standard types of
sales and cre d it slip s.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping m achine (Remington Rand, Elliott
F ish er, Sundstrand, B urroughs, National Cash R egister, with or with­
out a FRASER
Digitized fortypew riter keyboard) to keep a re cord of business transactions.


BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
Class A - Keeps a set of record s requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used.
D eter­
m ines prop er record s and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated
rep orts, balance sheets, and other record s by hand.
Class B - Keeps a reco rd of one or m ore phases or sections
of a set of re cord s usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers ’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing described
under b ille r, m achine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory con trol, etc.
May check or a ssist in preparation of trial
balances and prep are control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has resp on sibility for keeping one or m ore sections of a co m ­
plete set of books or record s relating to one phase of an establish­
m ent’ s business transactions. W ork involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or a c ­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
p rop er accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making prop er assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting cle rk s.
Class B - Under supervision, p erform s one or m ore routine
accounting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering*vouchers in voucher reg isters;
recon cilin g bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general led g ers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the m ore routine accounting w ork is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several w ork ers.

18

CLERK, FILE
Class A - Responsible fo r maintaining an established filing
system . C la ssifies and indexes correspon d en ce or other m aterial;
may also file this m aterial.
May keep re co rd s of various types
in conjunction with files o r supervise others in filing and locating
m aterial in the file s .
May p erform incidental c le r ic a l duties.
Class B - P e rfo rm s routine filing, usually of m aterial that
has already been cla ssifie d , or locates or a ssists in locating m a­
terial in the file s . May p erform incidental c le ric a l duties.
CLERK, ORDER
R eceives custom ers* ord ers fo r m aterial or m erchandise by
m ail, phone, or person ally.
Duties involve any com bination of the
following: Quoting p rice s to cu stom ers; making out an ord er sheet
listing the item s to make up the o rd e r; checking p rice s and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing ord er sheets to resp ective d e­
partments to be filled .
May check with cred it department to deter­
mine credit rating of cu stom er, acknowledge receip t of ord ers from
custom ers, follow up ord ers to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders rece iv e d , and check shipping invoices with original
o rd ers.

KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no su p ervisory re sp o n si­
b ilities, record s accounting and statistical data op tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a num erical key-punch m achine, follow ing
written inform ation on re co rd s.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to m achine.
Keeps files of punch ca rd s.
May v erify own work or work of oth ers.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
P erform s various routine duties such as running errands,
operating m inor office machines such as sea lers or m a ile rs , opening
and distributing m ail, and other m inor c le r ic a l w ork.
SECRETARY
P erform s secretarial and c le r ic a l duties fo r a su p erior in an
adm inistrative or executive position.
Duties include making appoint­
ments fo r superior; receiving people com ing into office ; answering
and making phone calls; handling person al and important or co n fi­
dential m ail, and writing routine corresp on d en ce on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing m achine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or sim ila r m achine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded inform ation reprod uced on a transcribing m achine.
May prep are special reports or m em oranda fo r inform ation of su p erior.

CLERK, PAYROLL
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Computes wages of com pany em ployees and enters the n e c e s ­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating w o rk e rs1
earnings based on time or production r e co rd s; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing inform ation such as worker*s nam e, working
days, time, rate, deductions fo r insurance, and total wages due. May
make out pay checks and a ssist paym aster in making up and d is ­
tributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating m achine.

P rim ary duty is to take dictation from one o r m ore p erson s,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ila r m achine, involving a
norm al routine vocabulary, and to tra n scrib e this dictation on a type­
w riter.
May also type from written copy.
May a lso set up and keep
files in ord er, keep sim ple r e c o r d s , etc.
Does not include tran­
scribin g-m ach in e work (see tran scribin g-m ach in e op era tor).

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

P rim ary duty is to operate a Com ptom eter to perform m athe­
m atical computations.
This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk , which m ay involve frequent use of
a Comptom eter but, in which, use of this m achine is incidental to
perform ance of other duties.

P rim ary duty is to take dictation from one o r m ore p erson s,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ila r m achine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal b riefs or
reports on scientific research and to tran scribe this dictation on a
typew riter.
May also type from w ritten copy.
May a lso set up and
keep file s in ord er, keep sim ple r e c o r d s , etc.
Does not include
transcribing-m achine work.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no su p ervisory resp on ­
sibilities, reproduces m ultiple copies of typewritten or handwriting
m atter, using a m im eograph or ditto m achine.
Makes n ecessa ry ad­
justment Such as fo r ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto m a ster. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto m a sters.
May sort, colla te, and staple c o m ­
pleted m aterial.



Operates a sin gle- or m u ltip le-p osition telephone sw itchboard.
Duties involve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant o r o ffice
ca lls .
May record toll calls and take m e ss a g e s .
May give in fo r­
mation to persons who call in, or o cca sio n a lly take telephone o r d e r s .
F o r w ork ers who also act as reception ists see sw itchboard o p e ra torreceptionist.

19

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
tion
type
This
tim e

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL - Continued

In addition to perform in g duties of operator, on a single p o s i­
or m on itor-typ e switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
or p e rfo rm routine c le ric a l work as part of regular duties.
typing o r c le r ic a l w ork may take the m ajor part of this w ork er’ s
while at sw itchboard.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
O perates m achine that autom atically analyzes and translates
inform ation punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints tran s­
lated data on fo rm s or accounting re co rd s; sets or adjusts machine;
does sim ple w iring of plugboards according to established pra ctice
or diagram s; p la ces ca rd s to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
m achine.
May file ca rds after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary m achines.

included. A w orker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or sim ilar machine is cla ssifie d as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
U ses a typew riter to make cop ies of various m aterial or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do c le ric a l work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing sim ple r e co rd s , filing re co rd s and reports or sorting and d is­
tributing incom ing m ail.
C lass A - P erform s one or m ore of the following: Typing
m aterial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or c o rre cte d copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual w ords or from foreign language copy; combining m aterial from several sources, or
planning layout of com plicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
form ity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form .
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circu m stan ces.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
P rim a ry duty is to tran scribe dictation involving a norm al
routine vocabulary fro m transcribing machine re c o r d s .
May also
type fro m w ritten copy and do simple c le ric a l w ork.
W orkers tran­
scribin g dictation involving a varied technical or sp ecialized vocabu­
la ry such as legal b rie fs o r reports on scientific resea rch are not

Professional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d ra fts­
man or others fo r engineering, construction, or manufacturing p u r­
p o s e s.
U ses variou s types o f drafting tools as required.
May p r e ­
pare drawings fr o m sim ple plans or sketches, or p erfo rm other duties
under d irection o f a draftsm an.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and d ire cts activities of one or m ore draftsm en in
preparation of w orking plans and detail drawings fro m rough o r p r e ­
lim inary sketches fo r engineering, construction, o r manufacturing
p u rp oses.
Duties involve a com bination of the following: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and w ritten or verbal ord ers; determ ining work
p roced u re s; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
 m ore difficult p rob lem s.
perform in g
May a ssist subordinates during


C lass B - P erform s one or m ore of the following: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of form s,
insurance p o licie s , e t c .; settingup sim ple standard tabulations, or
copying m ore com plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

and

Technical

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER - Continued
em ergen cies or as a regular assignm ent, or p erform related duties
of a supervisory or adm inistrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
P rep ares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches fo r engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes.
Duties involve a com bination of the follow ing:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, m aps, c r o s s -s e c tio n s , e t c .,
to scale by use of drafting instrum ents; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of m aterials, beams and
tru sses; verifying com pleted .w ork , checking dim ensions, m aterials
to be used, and quantities; writing sp ecification s; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or sp ecification s.
May ink in lines and letters
on pencil- drawings, prepare detail units of com plete drawings, or
trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, e le ctrica l, m echanical, o r structural drafting.

20

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing serv ice to ill or injured
em ployees or other person s who becom e ill or suffer an accident on
the p rem ises of a factory or other establishm ent.
Duties involve a
combination of the follow ing: Giving fir st aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressin g of employees* in juries; keeping re cord s
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out program s
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, w elfare, and
safety of all personnel.

M a i j i t e na n e e

TRACER
C opies
tracing cloth or
Uses T -sq u a re,
sim ple drawings

and

plans and drawings prep ared by others, by placing
paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pen cil.
com pass, and other drafting tools.
May prep are
and do simple letterin g.

Powerplant

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STATIONARY

P erform s the carpentry duties n ecessa ry to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
crib s, counters, benches, partitions, d oors, flo o r s , stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishm ent.
Work involves m ost of
the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, m odels, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter* s
handtools, portable pow er tools, and standard m easuring instrum ents;
making standard shop computations relating to dim ensions of work;
selecting m aterials n ecessa ry fo r the w ork.
In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requ ires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experien ce.

Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or e le c tr ic a l) to sup­
ply the establishment in which em ployed with pow er, heat, r e fr ig e r a ­
tion, o r air-conditioning.
Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air c o m p r e s s o r s , gen erators, m o ­
to rs, turbines, ventilating and refrig eratin g equipment, steam b o ile rs
and b o ile r -fe d water pumps; making equipment rep a irs; keeping a
reco rd of operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum p­
tion.
May also supervise these operation s.
Head or ch ief engineers
in establishm ents employing m ore than one engineer are excluded.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
P e rfo rm s a variety of e le ctrica l trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of e le ctric energy in an establishm ent.
Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Installing or repairing any of
a variety of e le ctrica l equipment such as gen erators, tra n sform ers,
switchboards, co n tro lle rs, circu it b rea k ers, m otors, heating units,
conduit system s, or other tran sm ission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifica tion s; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the e le ctrica l system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirem ents of wiring or e lectrica l
equipment; using a variety of electricia n ’ s handtools and m easuring
and testing instrum ents.
In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requ ires rounded training and experience usually a c ­
quired through a form a l apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.



FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
F ire s stationary b oilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
em ployed with heat, pow er, or steam .
F eeds fuels to fire by hand
or operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or o il burner; checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or a ss is t in repairing b o ile r room equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or m ore w ork ers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by perform ing sp ecific or general duties of le s s e r skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning w ork ­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assistin g w orker by holding m a­
teria ls or tools; perform ing other unskilled tasks as d irected by jo u r ­
neyman.
The kind of work the helper is perm itted to p erfo rm v aries
from trade to trade: In som e trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is perm itted to p e rfo rm sp ecialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are a lso p erform ed by w ork ers
on a fu ll-tim e basis.

21

M ACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

S p ecia lizes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine
to o ls, such as jig b o r e r s , cylin drical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or m illing m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools,
gauges, jig s , fixtu res, o r d ies.
Work involves m ost of the follow ing:
Planning and p erform in g difficult machining operations; p rocessin g
item s requiring com plicated setups or a high degree of accu racy;
using a variety o f p r e c is io n m easuring instruments; selecting feed s,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making n ecessa ry adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions.
May be required to recogn ize when tools need dressing, to d ress tools,
and to select p rop er coolan ts and cutting and lubricating o ils .
F or
cro ss-in d u s try wage study pu rposes, m achine-tool operator s, toolroom ,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

R epairs m achinery or m echanical equipment of an establish­
ment.
Work involves m ost of the follow ing; Examining machines
and m echanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacem ent part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for m ajor rep airs; preparing written
specifications for m ajor repairs or fo r the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassem bling m achines; and making all necessary
adjustments fo r operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this cla ssifica tion are w ork ers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting m achines.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
MILLWRIGHT
P rod u ces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs
of m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent.
Work involves m ost o f the following: Interpreting written in stru c­
tions and sp ecifica tion s; planning and laying out of work; using a va­
riety of m a c h in is ts handtools and p recision m easuring instrum ents;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to c lo s e tole ra n ce s; making standard shop computations rela t­
ing to dim ensions o f w ork, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working p rop erties of the com m on m etals; selecting
standard m a teria ls, parts, and equipment required fo r his work; fitting
and assem bling parts into m echanical equipment.
In general, the
m achinist’ s work norm ally requ ires a rounded training in m achineshop p ra ctice usually acqu ired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experien ce.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant lay­
out are required.
Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com ­
putations relating to stre s se s, strength of m aterials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
ord er power transm ission equipment such as drives and speed r e ­
d u cers.
In general, the m illw right’ s w ork norm ally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epa irs au tom obiles, bu sses, m otortrucks, and tra ctors of
an establishm ent.
W ork involves m ost of the following: Examining
autom otive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling
equipment and perform in g rep a irs that involve the use of such handtools as w ren ch es, gauges, d rills , or specialized equipment in d is ­
assem bling or fitting p a rts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing the
various a ssem b lies in the vehicle and making n ecessa ry adjustm ents;
alining w heels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the w ork of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and
 experien ce usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.


L ubricates, with o il or g rea se, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishm ent.
Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
p ecu liarities and types of paint required for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by rem oving old finish or by placing
putty or fille r in nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush.
May m ix c o lo rs , o ils , white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper co lo r or con sisten cy.
In general, the
w ork of the maintenance painter requ ires rounded training and ex­
perien ce usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

22

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

SHEET-M ETAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE - Continued

Installs or repa irs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishm ent.
Work involves m ost of the fo l­
lowing: Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specification s; cutting various sizes
of pipe to c o r r e c t lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting m achine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-d riven m achines; assem bling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to p re ssu re s, flow , and size of pipe r e ­
quired; making standard tests to determ ine whether finished pipes meet
specifications.
In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
\A/~orkers
prim arily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
heating system s are excluded.

and laying out all types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blue­
prints, m odels, or other sp ecification s; setting up and operating all
available types of sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of
handtools in cutting, bending, form in g, shaping, fitting, and a s s e m ­
bling; installing sheet-m etal a rticle s as required.
In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-m etal w orker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system o f an establishm ent in good ord er.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or p lu m b er^ snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plum ber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experien ce.
SHEET-M ETAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F a b rica tes, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lo ck e rs, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishm ent.
Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning

Custodial

and

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolm ak er; fixture m aker;

Transports passen gers between flo o r s of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
W orkers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD
P erform s routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining o rd e r, using arm s or fo r c e where n ecessa ry .
In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of
em ployees and other person s entering.

gauge m aker)

Constructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jig s , fix ­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other m etal-form in g work.
Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning and laying out of work
from m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp e cifi­
cations; using a variety of tool and die m ak er1s handtools and p re cisio n
m easuring instruments; understanding of the working p rop erties of
com m on metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making n ecessa ry shop computations relating
to dim ensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as w ell as o f finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to clo se tolera n ces;
fitting and assem bling of parts to p re s crib e d tolera n ces and a llow ­
ances; selecting appropriate m aterials, tools, and p r o c e s s e s .
In
general, the tool and die m aker1s work req u ires a rounded training
in m achine-shop and toolroom p ra ctice usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex perien ce.
F or cross-in d u stry wage study pu rp oses, tool and die m akers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

Material

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER




TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Movement

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; ja n itress)
Cleans and keeps in an ord erly condition fa ctory working
areas and washroom s, or p re m ise s of an o ffice , apartment house,
or com m ercial or other establishm ent.
Duties involve a com bination
of the follow ing: Sweeping, mopping ov_ scrubbing, and polishing flo o r s ;
rem oving chips, trash, and other refu se; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtu res or trim m in gs; providing supplies
and m inor maintenance se rv ice s ; cleaning la va tories, show ers, and
restroom s.
W orkers who sp ecia lize in window washing are excluded.

23

LABORER, MATERIAL, HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman o r stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse h elper)
A w orker em ployed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or m ore of
the follow ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchan­
dise on or fro m freight c a r s , trucks, or other transporting d ev ices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in prop er
storage location ; transporting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck,
ca r, or w heelbarrow .
Longshorem en, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued
other r e co rd s ; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing m erchandise or m aterials to p rop er departments; maintaining
n ecessa ry re co rd s and file s .
F or wage study purposes, w ork ers are classified as follow s:
R eceiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER FILLER
(Order p ick er; stock se le cto r; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored m erchandise in accordan ce with specifications on sales slips,
custom ers* o r d e r s , o r other instructions. May, in addition to filling
ord ers and indicating item s filled or omitted, keep re co rd s of out­
going o rd e r s , requ isition additional stock, or report short supplies
to su p ervisor, and p e rfo rm other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
P re p a re s finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method o f shipment. Work requires
the placing o f item s in shipping containers and may involve one or
m ore of the follow in g: Knowledge of various items of stock in ord er
to v erify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting en closu res in container; using ex ce lsior or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
P ack ers who also
make wooden boxes o r cra tes are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P re p a re s m erchandise fo r shipment, or rece iv e s and is r e ­
sponsible fo r incom ing shipment of m erchandise or other m aterials.
Shipping w ork in v o lv e s: A knowledge of shipping p roced u res, p r a c ­
tic e s , routes, available m eans of transportation and rates; and p r e ­
paring re co rd s of the goods shipped, making up b ills of lading, p ost­
ing weight and shipping ch a rg es, and keeping a file of shipping re c o r d s .
May direct o r a ss is t in preparing the m erchandise for shipment.
R eceiving w
 ork in v olv es: V erifying or directing others in verifying
the co rre ctn e ss of shipments against bills of lading, in voices, or


D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
m aterials, m erchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishm ents such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, w are­
houses, wholesale and retail establishm ents, or between retail estab­
lishm ents and custom ers* houses or p laces of business. May also
load or unload truck with or without h elp ers, make m inor m echanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working o rd er. D river-sa lesm en and
o v e r-th e -ro a d d riv e rs are excluded.
F or wage study pu rp oses, tru ck d rivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (T ra cto r-tra ile r should be rated
on the basis of tra iler c a p a city .)
T ru ckdriver,
T ru ckd river,
T ru ckd river,
T ru ckd river,

light (under IV 2 ton s)
medium (IV 2 to andlncluding 4 tons)
heavy I
[over 4 tons, tra ile r type)
heavy 1 over 4 tons, other than trailer type

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually con trolled gasolin e- or electric-p ow ered
truck or tra ctor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about
a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
F or wage study purposes, w ork ers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:
T ru ck er, pow er (fork lift)
T ru cker, pow er [other than fork lift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of p rem ises period ica lly in protecting property
against fir e , theft, and illegal entry.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102