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o

Occupational Projections
and Training Data
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1979
Bulletin 2020




Occupational Projections
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L Norwood,
Acting Commissioner
j

April 1979

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Bulletin 2^20




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For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $3.25
Stock Number 029-001-02298-1

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Preface
Projections of occupational employment and information on occupational training are needed to
plan education and training programs and provide vocational guidance. This bulletin presents both
general and detailed information on the relationship between occupational requirements and
training needs. It is a revision and updating of Bulletin 1918 of the same title published in 1976, and
was prepared as part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) program for developing and
disseminating projections of economic and employment data. The BLS revises its projections every
2 years. During the next revision, projections will be developed for 1990. A projection of the labor
force will be available in late 1978 and occupational projections will be developed in 1979.
This bulletin was prepared in the Division of Occupational Outlook under the general direction
of Neal H. Rosenthal. Susan C. Gentz supervised its preparation. The data and information
presented were collected, analyzed, and prepared by H. James Neary and John P. Griffin. Daniel E.
Hecker contributed the discussion of job prospects for college graduates. The employment
projections and the information on training required for entry to individual occupations represent
the work of economists who prepared the 1978-79 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without the
permission of the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite
Occupational Projections and Training Data, 1978 Edition, Bulletin 2020.




iii

Contents
Chapters:

pagi

1

- 1. Introduction
2. Occupational projections.........................................................................................................................................
Occupational profile.......................................................................................................................................
Job openings, 1976-85 ..................................................................................................................................

3
4
7

3. Occupational training ...........................................................................................................................................
9
Public vocational education......................................................................................................................... 9
Private vocational education............................................................................................... ,...................... 10
Employer training ........................................................................................................................................ 11
Apprenticeship programs............................................................................................................
Federal employment and training programs .............................................................................................. 13
Armed Forces training..................................................................................................
Home study schools ...................... :............................................................................................................. 15
Community and junior colleges................................................................................................................... 15
Colleges and universities ............................................................................................................................... 16
4. Relating training to occupational needs ......................................................................................
The outlook for college graduates ...............................................................................................................
Industrial production and related occupations .................................................
Foundry occupations..........................................................................................................................
Machining occupations.......................................................................................................................
Printing occupations ........................................................................................................................
Other industrial production and related occupations ..........................................
Office occupations ...............................................................................................................
Clerical occupations......................................................................................................................
Computer and related occupations...................................................................................................
Banking occupations ..........................................................................................................................
Insurance occupations........................................................................................................................
Administrative and related occupations ...........................................................................................
Service occupations ......................................................................................................................................
Cleaning and related occupations .....................................................................................
Food service occupations ...................................................................................................................
Personal service occupations ...............................................................
Private household service occupations.........................................................................................
Protective and related service occupations ......................................................................................
Other service occupations ..................................................................................................................
Education and related occupations.......... ................................................................................
Teaching occupations.................................................................................................
Library occupations ...........................................................................................................................
Sales occupations .........................................................................................................................................
Construction occupations............................................................................................................................
Occupations in transportation activities ....................................................................................................
Air transportation occupations .........................................................................................................
Merchant marine occupations ...........................................................................................................
Railroad occupations .........................................................................................................................
Driving occupations ....................................................................................




iv

1

18
23
23
24

29
31
32
33
34
36

36
36
38
39
40

4
42
43
45
48
48
49
50

Contents— Continued
Page
Chapter 4— Continued
Scientific and technical occupations........................................................................................................ 52
Conservation occupations ............................................................................................................... 52
Engineers .......................................................................................................................................... 53
Environmental scientists ...........................................................................................
53
Life science occupations ................................................................................................................. 54
Mathematics occupations ............................................................................................................... , 55
Physical scientists............................................................................................................................ j 56
Other scientific and technical occupations.................................................................................... 58
Mechanics and repairers............................................................................................................................ \ 59
Telephone craft occupations ..........................................................................................................j, 59
Other mechanics and repairers ....................................................................................................... 59
Health occupations................................................................................................................................. ...r 63
Dental occupations .........................................................................................................................., 63
Medical practitioners........................................................................................................................ 64
Medical technologist, technician, and assistant occupations ....................................................... 65
Nursing occupations.......................................................................................................................,. 67
Therapy and rehabilitation occupations ........................................................................................ 68
Other health occupations ................................................................................................................ 69
Social scientists ........................................................................................................................................,. 71
Social service occupations ......................................
73
Counseling occupations................................................................................................................. j. 73
Other social service occupations..................................................................................................... 73
Art, design, and communications-related occupations .........................................................................I. 1 75
Performing artists........................................................................................................................... 75
Design occupations ........................................................................................................................L 75
Communications-related occupations ..............................
77

L

Charts:
1. Construction and finance, insurance, and real estate industries differ substantially
in the kinds of workers they em ploy.................................................................................................
2. The shift toward white-collar occupations will continue through 1985.............................................
3. Job openings are determined by replacement plus growth .................................................................
4. Bachelor’s degrees earned increased rapidly during the 1960’s, leveled off during the
1970’s, and will remain on this plateau through 1985....................................................................
5. Recent college graduates have been entering types of jobs graduates traditionally have not sought
6. College graduates entering the labor force between 1976 and 1985 are expected to
exceed openings in jobs traditionally filled by graduates by 2.7 million ....................................

3
4
7
19
20

21

Tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Employment by major occupational group, 1976 and projected i985 ................................................
Projected employment and job openings, by major occupational group, 1976-85 .................................
Examples of curriculums offering training for specific occupations ............................... ....................... ... .
Enrollments in public vocational education, by level, fiscal years 1963-76 ...........................................
Enrollments in public vocational education, by major vocational education area, fiscal year 1976 ...h..
Number of private postsecondary schools with occupational programs, and full- and
part-time enrollments by type of school, 1975-76 .................................................................................
7. Enrollments and completions in private postsecondary schools with occupational
programs, by program, 1975-76 ............................ ......... .........................................................................
8. Training status of registered apprentices in all trades, 1960-76 .....................................................................




v

5
6
10
11
11
12
12
14

Contents— Continued
Page
Tables— Continued
9. Total enrollments in 4-years institutions of higher education, and earned degrees,
by level, 1965-66 to 1076-77 ................................................................................................................................ 16
10. Openings for traditional Ph. D. jobs and new supply, by field, 1976-85 ................................................................ 22
11. Openings, new supply, and nontraditionally employed Ph. D.’s, by field, 1976-85.............................................. 22
Appendix:
A. Assumptions and methods used to prepare the employment projections ............................................................ 78
B. Detailed occupational projections ............................................................................................................................. 80
C. Detailed training statistics ................................................................................................................................ ........ 89
D. State employment security agencies.......................................................................................................................... I l l
E. Bibliography................................................................................................................................................................. 113




vi

Chapter 1. Introduction
Each year occupational training is sought by millions of >
young people, the disadvantaged, and the hard-core un­
employed to qualify for entry level jobs, and by thousands^
o f experienced workers who wish to improve their job skills
or acquire new skills for new careers. Many of these
individuals attend vocational schools, enroll in home study
courses, enter apprenticeship programs, or pursue college
degrees. Others join the Armed Forces or seek training
through a federally funded program such as the Job Corps.
In addition, many more persons receive training on the job.
What role do these training programs play in preparing
people for work? How many persons enter a given program,
each year? How many complete it? Does a specific training
program meet employers’ needs today? Will it meet their
needs tomorrow? Are enough workers currently being
trained for a particular occupation? Will programs need to
be expanded or cut back in the future? The answers to
these and other questions affect the decisions that will be
made by educators, employers, training specialists, and
economic policymakers. They also may influence the
decisions that individuals make when determining their own
career plans.
Through its occupational outlook program, the Bureau
o f Labor Statistics (BLS) conducts research in, and pro­
duces information on, future occupational and industrial
employment requirements and resources. The results of this
research appear in publications, such as the Occupational
Outlook Handbook, that are designed for use in vocational
guidance, and in special bulletins and reports oriented more ■
towards the needs of training specialists and government
policymakers. Much of the data and information assembled
or developed by the BLS as part of its research effort is
pertinent to the issues raised above. This bulletin provides,
in summary form, the information believed to be useful to
ill concerned with occupational training.
Chapter 2 presents a general discussion of the Bureau’s
projections for major occupational groups. Estimates of
1976 employment and 1985 projections are presented, as
are data on job openings resulting from growth and from
deaths and retirements. Similar information for detailed
occupations is provided in tabular form in appendix table
B-l.
Estimates of future occupational openings constitute
only part of the information needed for analyzing occupa­
tional training needs and job outlook. Information on the
prospective supply of workers also is required. To deter­
mine the number of entrants to each occupation, data
would be needed on (1) the number of persons completing



1

training specifically designed to prepare them for work in
that occupation, (2) the number completing related train­
ing, (3) the proportion of persons completing these two
types of training who can be expected to seek entry to the
occupation, (4) the number of persons who can be
expected to transfer from other occupations, (5) the
number of persons currently not in the labor force who are
qualified for and can be expected to seek employment in
the occupation, (6) unemployed persons who are qualified
for the occupation and can be expected to seek reentry,
and (7) the number of immigrants who are qualified.
Generally, much better data are available on entrants
from specific training programs than from other sources.
Chapter 3 provides general descriptions of current occupa­
tional training programs and highlights enrollment and
completion data for each. It also contains a brief descrip­
tion of some of the problems involved in developing supply
projections.1
Chapter 4 presents a comprehensive supply-demand
analysis for college graduates as a whole. It also includes a
supply-demand analysis for the few occupations where
supply information is adequate for such an analysis. In
addition, for each occupation covered in this publication,
chapter 4 provides a brief discussion of the training
required, projections of job openings due to growth and
labor force separations, and available data on completions
of related training programs.
The employment projections in chapter 4 reflect the
national situation. Most vocational counseling and educa­
tion and training planning, however, are done at the State
and local levels. To meet the need for local data, the BLS,
in cooperation with the Employment and Training Admin­
istration and State employment security agencies, conducts
the Occupational Employment Statistics program. Under
this program, occupational projections are prepared by
State agencies using procedures developed by the. BLS.
During fiscal year 1978, projections were begun for the
1976-85 period for all States and for Standard Metropolitan
Statistical Areas having a population of 50,000 or more.
These projections will be consistent with those in this
bulletin. Information on the availability of data for
individual States can be obtained from the State agencies
listed in appendix D.

* A detailed discussion ot occupational supply is presented in
Occupational Supply: Concepts and Sources o f Data for Manpower
Analysis, Bulletin 1816 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1974).

ticeships, are not available on a national basis, as discussed
in chapter 3.
A major limitation is the lack of information on
transfers among occupations. Because the transfer of
workers among occupations is a source of both job
openings and new entrants to specific occupations, infor­
mation on mobility is critical to estimating future needs for
new workers. A discussion of the work the BLS has done in
this area appears in chapter 2.
Readers who desire more information on occupational
training than this summary bulletin can provide may wish
to consult the bibliography in appendix E for other sources.
The bibliography also lists sources of information on
earnings and other data related to occupations that users of
this bulletin may find helpful;

The limitations of the data on occupational demand and
supply must be taken into account when they are used for
vocational guidance or for planning education and training
programs. Since the future cannot be predicted with
certainty, many assumptions must be made in preparing
projections. (The broad assumptions on which projections
in this bulletin are based are listed in appendix A.) The
projections incorporate many judgments concerning the
effects of new technology, legislation, and other factors.
For example, to project employment of keypunch opera­
tors, a judgment must be made concerning the rate of
introduction of new data-entry equipment. In addition,
information required for analysis often is unavailable or
incomplete. For example, data on completions of CETA or
employer training programs, other than registered appren­




2

Chapter 2. Occupational Projections

insurance, and Teal estate industry. Should the demand foi
new houses and office buildings rise, the number ot cran
workers needed in construction would rise also. In contrast,
even if the demand for financial and insurance services
skyrocketed, the impact on craft workers would be small.
Also, because the construction industry is the larger of the
two, an increase in demand would have a larger impact even
on occupations which constitute a similar proportion of
employment in both industries, such as professional and
technical workers.
A second factor affecting occupational employment is
business organizational structure. The ways in which
establishments are organized and operated have changed
significantly in recent years, and have affected the demand
for workers in many occupations. As more stores, restau­
rants, motels, and other enterprises have become chain
operations, the number of salaried managers has grown,

Many factors interact in the economy to change employnent levels in occupations. A key factor is change in
3mployment among industries, which is a function of the
demand for different products and services and changing
technology. Generally, a rise in demand causes a rise in
employment, and a drop in demand, a decline. The effects
of technological innovation may be limited to only one
industry or may be widespread. In the past, the develop­
ment of new products and processes both created some
industries and eliminated others.
Precisely what effect changes in industry employment
will have on a particular occupation depends on the
occupational structure of the industries involved. As shown
in chart 1, industries differ greatly in the types of workers
they employ. In 1976, craft workers constituted about 55
percent of the work force of the construction industry, for
example, but only 2 percent of employment in the finance,

Chart 1. Construction and finance, insurance, and real estate industries differ substantially
in the kinds of workers they employ.

technical workers

N onfarm
laborers

Managers

14. 2%

11. 9 %

Operatives

Sales
workers

0. 3%
Clerical
workers

7. 3%

Craft workers

Construction

Finance, insurance, and real estate

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.




3

while the number of self-employed managers has declined
The trend toward self-service has slowed the growth of
employment of retail clerks and gas station attendants.
Finally, supply-demand conditions in one occupation
affect the demand for another. When workers in a highly
skilled or professional occupation are in short supply,
employers may hire more assistants or technicians. In
hospitals, for example, nursing aides have performed some
of the duties of registered nurses when registered nurses
have been in' short supply.
This chapter presents the BLS projections for major
occupational groups through the mid-1980’s. Information
on the general methodology and assumptions used by the
Bureau in developing its employment projections is pro
vided in appendix A. Projections for individual occupations
are presented in appendix B. A detailed discussion of the
development of projections for the aggregate economy
appears in the March 1976 issue of the Monthly Labor
Review.

proportion of the total labor force, white-collar workers
now represent about half of the total. Service workers also
have risen rapidly, while blue-collar workers have grown at
a slower rate and farm workers have declined. The
following sections describe expected changes among
the broad occupational groups between 1976 and 1985.
Professional and technical workers include a wide range
of workers, many of whom are highly trained. Among this
group are scientists and engineers, medical practitioners,
teachers, entertainers, and accountants. Employment in this
group is expected to rise from 13.3 to 15.8 million workers,
or about 18 percent, between 1976 and 1985, slightly less
than the rate of growth expected for total employment.
Thus, the share of total employment attributable to
professional and technical workers will remain about the
same during the 1976-85 period (table 1).
Greater efforts in energy production, transportation, and
environmental protection will contribute to a growing
demand for scientists, engineers, and technicians. The
medical professions can be expected to grow as the health
service industry expands. The demand for professional
workers to develop and utilize computer resources also is
projected to grow rapidly.
Some occupations will offer less favorable job prospects,
in many cases because the supply of workers exceeds
available openings. Teachers will continue to face competi­
tion. as will artists, entertainers, and oceanographers.

Occupational profile

Customarily, occupations are divided into four groups:
(1) White-collar workers— professional and technical
in
clerical, sales, and managerial jobs; (2) blue-collar workers—
in craft, operative, and laboring jobs; (3) service workersand (4) farm workers. Growth rates among these groups
have differed markedly, as shown in chart 2. Once a small

Chart 2. The shift toward white-collar occupations will continue through 1985.
Workers (in millions)

Note: 1 4 - and 15- y e a r-o ld s are included prior to 1958.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics




4

Clerical workers make up both the largest and fastest
growing occupational group. Clerical employment is pro­
jected to rise from 15.6 to 20.0 million between 1976 and
1985, or about 29 percent. The clerical share of total
employment will increase from 17.8 to 19.2 percent during
this period.
New developments in computers, office machines, and
dictation equipment will affect employment in various
occupations within this group. For example, the more
extensive use of computers to store information and for
billing, payroll, and other clerical calculations will limit
employment opportunities for file clerks and office
machine operators while at the same time the need for
computer and peripheral equipment operators will increase.
Dictation machines will continue to adversely affect stenog­
raphers who are not trained as court reporters. Tech­
nological innovations will not affect many types of clerical
workers whose jobs involve a high degree of personal
contact. Substantial growth is anticipated for secretaries,
typists, and receptionists as business services and medical
and health care services expand.

Table 1. Employment by major occupational group, 1976
and projected 1985
[Numbers in thousands]

Hrmpationai aroup

1976
employment

Projected
1985
employment

Percent
change,
1976-85

Number Percent Number Percent
Total............ 87,485

100.0 104,300 100.0

19.2

White-collar workers..... 43,700
Professional and
technical workers 13,329
Managers and
administrators... 9,315
Sales workers........ 5,497
Clerical workers.... 15,558

49.9

53,500

51.3

22.4

15.2

15,800

15.1

18.2

10.6
6.3
17.8

11,300
6,400
20,000

10.8
6.1
19.2

21.0
16.6
28.8

Blue-collar workers....... 28,958
Craft and kindred
workers.......... 11,278
Operatives........... 13,356
Nonfarm laborers..., 4,325

33.1

34,100

32.7

17.9

12.9
15.2
4.9

13,700
15,600
4,800

13.2
15.0
4.6

21.6
16.9
11.3

Service workers.......... . 12,005
Private household
1,125
workers..........
Other service
workers.......... 10,880

13.7

14,800

14.2

23.4

1.3

900

.9

-18.8

12.4

13,900

13.3

27.7

2,822

3.2

1,900

Farm workers.............

Sales workers are employed primarily in retail stores,
manufacturing and wholesale firms, insurance companies,
and real estate agencies. Employment of this group is
expected to increase from 5.5 to 6.4 million workers, or 17
percent, a slower rate than for total employment. As a
result, the proportion of sales workers to total employed
will decrease from 6.3 to 6.1 percent.
Much of the increase in the number of sales workers will
result from expansion in the retail trade industry, which
employs about one-half of these workers. The demand for
both full- and part-time sales workers in retail trade will
increase because a growing population creates demand for
more shopping centers and stores. Despite the widespread
use of laborsaving merchandising techniques, such as selfservice and computerized checkout procedures, suburban
expansion and longer operating hours will cause employ­
ment to increase.

1.8 -34.1

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of roundino

Managers and administrators include workers such as
corporate executives, school and hospital administrators,
department store managers, and self-employed business
operators. This group is expected to increase from 9.3 to
11.3 million workers, or 21 percent. This rate of growth is
slightly faster than that anticipated for total employment,
but the share of total employment attributable to managers
and administrators should change only slightly, from 10.6
to 10.8 percent in 1985.
Changes in business size and organization have resulted
in differing trends for self-employed and salaried managers.
The number of self-employed managers will continue to
decline as many areas of business are increasingly domi­
nated by large corporations and chain operations. Super­
markets, corporately owned restaurants, and fast food
chains, to cite examples, will continue to restrict opportuni­
ties for the self-employed. Requirements for salaried
managers, on the other hand, will grow as management
specialists increasingly operate corporate-owned establish­
ments and more technically trained managers administer
research and development programs. Some small retail trade
and business services establishments still will provide
opportunities for self-employment, however. Rapidly
expanding service industries are expected to offer more jobs
for managers than manufacturing industries, which will
grow more slowly.



Craft and kindred workers. Craft workers include a wide
variety of highly skilled workers, such as automobile
mechanics, carpenters, electricians, machinists, and tooland-die makers. Craft worker employment is expected to
increase from 11.3 to 13.7 million during the 1976-85
period, or about 22 percent. The craft share of total
employment will increase slightly, from 12.9 to 13.2
percent.
Construction occupations and mechanics and repairers,
the two largest occupational categories within the craft
group, are expected to account for about two-thirds of the
group’s employment gain, and blue-collar supervisors and
metalcraft workers for most of the remainder.
Nearly all construction trades are expected to grow,
particularly cement masons, plumbers, structural metal
workers, roofers, and heavy equipment operators. The most
rapid increases will be for mechanics and repairers who

5

install, maintain, or repair computers, office machines, air
conditioners, and radio and television sets.
In contrast, the long-run employment decline in the
railroad industry will lead to the decline of some craft
occupations concentrated in that industry, such as railroad
and car shop repairers. Similarly, very little growth is
anticipated in printing craft occupations because of ad­
vances in printing technology.
Operatives, the largest blue-collar group, include
workers such as assemblers, packers, truck and bus drivers,
and many types of machine operators. Employment ol
operatives is tied closely to the production of goods,
because the majority of these workers are employed in
manufacturing industries. The projected slow growth of
manufacturing, along with improved production processes,
will hold down the demand for these workers. Textile
operatives, such as spinners, knitters, and'weavers, are
expected to decline as the textile industry uses more
machinery.
Outside of manufacturing, employment of most trans­
portation operatives, such as truckdrivers, route drivers, and
busdrivers will increase as the transportation industry
grows. Employment of brake and switch operators, how­
ever, is expected to decline along with the decline of the
railroad industry.
Employment of operatives is expected to increase from
13.4 to 15.6 million between 1976 and 1985, or about 17
percent. The operative share of total employment is
expected to decline slightly, from 15.2 to 15.0 percent.
Laborers (except farm) include workers such as garbage

collectors, construction laborers, freight and stock handlers,
and vehicle washers and equipment cleaners. Employment
in this group is expected to grow only slowly as machinery
increasingly replaces manual labor in construction and
manufacturing, the two largest industries employing these
workers. For example, power-driven equipment will handle
more and more materials in factories, warehouses, and on
construction sites, and more plants will install integrated
systems to process and convey materials and equipment.
Between 1976 and 1985, employment of laborers is
expected to rise from 4.3 to 4.8 million, or about 11
percent. The proportion of total employment made up of
laborers will decline slightly, from 4.9 to 4.6 percent.
Service workers include a wide range of workers—
fire­
lighters, janitors, cosmetologists, private household work­
ers, and bartenders are a few examples. These workers,
mostly employed in service-producing industries, make up
one of the fastest growing occupational groups. Factors
expected to increase the need for these workers are tht
increasing demand for medical care; the greater need for
protective and cleaning services; and the more frequent use
of restaurants, beauty salons, and leisure services as incomes
rise. Employment of private household workers, however,
will continue to decline despite a rising demand for their
services because low wages and the strenuous nature of the
work make this occupation unattractive to many people.
Between 1976, and 1985, employment ot service work­
ers is expected to increase from 12.0 to 14.8 million
workers, or 23 percent. In contrast, private household
workers are projected to decline from 1.1 million to
900,000, or nearly 20 percent.

Table 2. Projected employment and job openings, by major occupational group, 1976-85
[Numbers in thousands]
Openings, 1976-85

1976
employment

Projected
1985
employment

Percent
change

Total

Growth

Replacements

Total.........................

87,485

104,300

19.2

45,900

16,800

29,100

White-collar workers...............
Professional and technical
workers......................
Managers and administrators.
Sales workers..................
Clerical workers...............

43,700

53,500

22.4

24,800

9,800

15,000

13,329
9,315
5,497
15,558

15,800
11,300
6,400
20,000

18.2
21.0
16.6
28.8

6,400
5,400
3,000
10,000

2,400
2,000
900
4,500

3,900
3,400
2,1005,500

Blue-collar workers.................
Craft and kindred workers...
Operatives......................
Nonfarm laborers.............

28,958
11,278
13,356
4,325

34,100
13,700
15,600
4,800

17.9
21.6
16.9
11.3

12,800
5,500
5,800
1,600

5,200
2,400
2,300
500

7,700
3,100
3,500
1,100

Service workers......................
Private household workers....
Other service workers........

12,005
1,125
10,880

14,800
900
13,900

23.4
-18.8
27.7

8,100
500
7,600

2,800
-200
3,000

5,300
700
4,600

Farm workers.......................

2,822

1,900

-34.1

200

-1,000

1,200

Occupational group

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounomy.




6

Chart 3. Job openings are determined by replacement plus growth.
Workers needed— 1976-85 (in millions)
-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Clerical workers

Service workers, except private household

Professional and technical workers

Operatives
Craft workers

Managers and administrators, except farm

Sales workers

N onfarm laborers

Private household workers

Farm workers

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

source of both job openings and new entrants to specific
occupations, information on transfers is critical to estimat­
ing future needs for new workers. Data from occupational
mobility studies also can provide qualitative information
about opportunities for jobseekers. If most new entrants to
an occupation are transfers and older workers, the occupa­
tion is not likely to present good opportunities for young
workers. By contrast, the data may identify occupations
where entrants are mostly new entrants to the labor force.
Such occupations are likely to provide entry-level jobs for
young workers.
Because of its complexity, occupational mobility has
been one of the more difficult types of labor force behavior
to quantify. Its measurement requires (1) a longitudinal
data source to identify labor force status and occupation of
individuals at two points in time and (2) a large sample to
provide reliable information by age and sex for relatively
detailed occupational categories.
Data collected in the 1970 Census of Population provide
a unique opportunity for analysis of occupational mobility
because they give not only current labor force status and
occupation, but also work status and occupation in April
1965. The resulting data base, though not without limita­
tions, is the most comprehensive one available to measure
changes in work status and occupation over a specific time
period.

Farm workers include farmers, farm operators, and farm
laborers. Employment on the farm has declined for decades
as the trend to fewer but larger farms, the use of more and
better machinery, and the development of new feeds,
fertilizers, and pesticides have increased farm productivity.
Developments in picking, packing, inspecting, and sorting
systems for fruits, vegetables, and other agricultural prod­
ucts also are expected to reduce labor requirements in the
future. Employment of farm workers is expected to decline
from 2.8 to 1.9 million between 1976 and 1985, or slightly
more than one-third.
Job openings, 1976-85

Employment growth represents only part of the demand
for workers in an occupation. The need to replace workers
who die or retire is expected to produce almost twice as
many openings as employment growth. As illustrated in
chart 3, replacements will be a more significant source of
job openings in every major occupational group and also in
many individual occupations. Table 2 presents 1976
employment data, projected 1985 employment, and ex­
pected job openings through 1985, by major occupational
group.
Because the transfer of workers among occupations is a




7

exclusion of occupational transfers from estimates of job
openings and entrants is a serious limitation. A detailed
discussion of the Bureau’s analysis of the census data
appears in the January 1977 Monthly Labor Review. 3

An analysis of occupational demand and supply devel­
oped by the BLS from Census data indicates that between
1965 and 1970 about one-third of all workers moved to a
different detailed occupational category, creating three
openings in the occupations they left for every two created
by workers who died or left the labor force. Transfers also
were a substantial proportion of entrants to occupations*
outnumbering new labor force entrants by 3 to 2. Because
of the magnitude of the movement of workers, the




3 Dixie Sommers and Alan Eck, “Occupational Mobility in the
American Labor Force,” Monthly Labor Review, Jan. 1977, pp.
3-19.

8

Chapter 3. Occupational Training
For many other occupations that require formal train­
ing, adequate analyses of supply are impossible since only
limited data on training completions and entry rates are
available. Usually, these occupations can be filled by
workers from many different training programs, and a
significant portion of training takes place on the job.
Among this group are many professional and administrative
fields, such as marketing and personnel work, and most
skilled craft occupations, such as carpenters and television
and radio repairers.
Finally, there are many occupations for which compre­
hensive supply analyses are meaningless because, in compar­
ison to the number of job openings available, many workers
possess entry level skills. Examples of these occupations are
receptionist, retail clerk, and assembler.
This chapter presents information on one component of
supply—
structured training programs. It describes current
programs and highlights enrollment and completion data
for each. Detailed estimates are presented in appendix C.
Training programs discussed are:

The potential supply of workers for any occupation
consists of persons currently employed in that field, plus
individuals from other sources. They may be graduates of
programs specifically designed to train workers for the
occupation, or graduates of training programs for related
fields. They may be persons who possess the necessary
qualifications but who are employed in other occupations,
unemployed, or not in the labor force. They also may be
persons who will immigrate.
To determine supply, one must know not only the
number of persons who would fall in each category, but
also the proportion who actually will seek jobs in the
occupation. In general, far more data are available on the
number completing formal training programs than on any
other component of supply.3
The supply of physicians, for example, can be gauged
with some confidence. Entry is limited to graduates of U.S.
medical schools and qualified immigrants, and virtually all
graduates and qualified immigrants become physicians.
Therefore, only projections of medical school graduates
plus projections of qualified immigrants are needed to
specify supply. Good data are available on medical degrees
granted in the past, and M.D. degrees are projected through
fairly reliable methods. Good historical data on immigrant
physicians also are available on which to base projections.
There are several other occupations for which sufficient
data are available to specify future supply, but the
estimates must be used cautiously because some of the
components of supply are difficult to project. For example,
in engineering, the primary source of supply is new
graduates of engineering schools and historical data on
degrees granted are available on which to base degree
projections. Sufficient data also are available to develop
estimates of the proportion of new graduates who can be
expected to enter engineering. In the past, however, a large
number of workers also have entered engineering from
other sources, including new college graduates with degrees
in related fields such as mathematics and the physical
sciences, transfers from other occupations, and immigrants.
Prospective supply from these sources can be projected
based on past trends, but because the number of entrants
depends on the relative wages among related occupations
and the availability of jobs in engineering versus related
fields, accurately estimating this component of supply is
very difficult.

Public vocation al education
Private vocation al education
E m ployer training

Apprenticeship programs
Federal em p loym en t and training programs
Armed Forces training
H om e study schools
C om m unity and junior colleges
Colleges and universities

Public vocational education

Vocational education in the public schools originated
with the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917. Subsequent legislation
included the George-Barden Act (1941), which called for
expanded occupational training and increased expenditures
for vocational education; the Vocational Education Act of
1963, which provided for research and construction for the
first time; and the Vocational Education Amendments of
1968, which added new programs and money while
changing the philosophical emphasis of vocational edu­
cation to focus on the needs of individuals rather than on
specific occupational areas. The 1963 law and its 1968
amendments not only provided for increased enrollments
and expenditures but improved the quality and expanded
the scope of vocational programs. Further amendments in
1976 set up improved data collection systems for voca­
tional education.

3A detailed discussion of occupational supply is presented ir
Occupational Supply, BLS Bulletin 1816.




9

Vocational education is conducted on three levels—
secondary, postsecondary, and adult vocational and tech­
nical programs. Secondary vocational education is provided
to high school students as part of the curriculum and
includes academic as well as vocational courses. Postsecondary vocational education is intended for persons who have
completed or left high school and includes those who are
enrolled in programs leading to an associate or other degree
below the baccalaureate. Adult vocational and technical
programs retrain as well as update and improve skills of
persons already in the labor force.

Private vocational education

In the 1975-76 academic year, there were about 7,500
private vocational schools, according to the National Center
for Education Statistics (table 6). The largest enrollments
were in business/office schools, cosmetology/barber
schools, vocational/technical schools, and trade schools.
About two-thirds of the 7,500 private vocational schools
enrolled fewer than 100 students in about 175 different
program areas. Some business schools offer shorthand,
typing, stenography, and fundamentals of accounting and
computing operations, while others offer only a specialized
area. Trade schools offer many diverse courses, from air
conditioning installation and repair to welding and cutting
operations. Programs in other types of vocational and
technical schools also cover a broad range, including dental
assisting, commercial pilot training, and fashion designing.

Types o f training available. Originally, vocational education
emphasized agricultural and trade and industrial education.
At present it also includes areas such as distribution, health,
home economics, and office and technical occupations.
Other programs that are offered, such as consumer and
homemaking training and industrial arts, do not lead
directly to an occupational skill. Special vocational pro­
grams for the disadvantaged and handicapped also are
provided.
Curriculums generally prepare trainees for specific oc­
cupations. Table 3 records examples of instructional pro­
grams related to job titles in the Dictionary o f Occupational
Titles.

Table 3. Examples of curriculums offering training for
specific occupations
Major vocational area

Occupational title

\griculture............ Agricultural mechanics

Farm equipment
mechanic
Soil conservationist
Forest aid

Soil
Forestry

Enrollments. Vocational education grew rapidly after the
Vocational Education Act of 1963, and further growth
took place after passage of the 1968 amendments (table 4).
Enrollments in federally aided vocational-technical edu­
cation programs in 1976 totaled 15.1 million persons,
including 1.9 million disadvantaged and nearly 285,000
handicapped. Of the major vocational areas leadine to an
occupational skill, the largest enrollments were in the office
and the trades and industry groups, which enrolled 3.1
million each (table 5). Programs with the largest enroll­
ments in 1976 were: Stenography, secretarial, and related
skills (700,000); typing and related skills (656,000); filing
and office machines (593,000); agricultural productior
(575,000); and accounting and computing (512,0001.

Distribution........... Floristry
Distributive services
Recreation and
tourism

Floral designer
Purchasing agent
Recreation director

Health................. Dental assistant
Medical lab assisting
Occupational therapy

Dental assistant
Medical lab assistant
Occupational therapy
aide

Home ecunomics.... Care and guidance of
children
Food management,
production, and
services

Child care attendant

Office...,............... Peripheral equipment
operator
Secretaries
Quality control clerk

High-speed printer
operator
Legal secretary
Claim examiner

TechnicaL............. Commercial pilot
training
Electronic technology
Scientific date
processing

Commercial airplane
pilot
Electrical technician
Programmer,
engineering and
scientific

Trades and industry.., Body and fender repair

Completions and placements. Of the nearly 2,150,000
persons completing programs during 1976, about 1,184,000
or 55 percent were available for employment. Followup
studies of graduates indicate that of those available for
employment or placement, 64.4 percent were employed
full time in the field in which they trained or in a related
field, 25.3 percent obtained other employment, and 10.3
percent were unemployed. Of the remaining 966,000
completing programs, about 25 percent were not available
for placement (many continued their schooling), and 20
percent did not report or their status was unknown.4

Automobile body
repairer
Flight engineer
Industrial designer

Aircraft operation
Product design

Cook

SOURCE: Vocational Education and Occupations,
OE80061
(U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of
Education; and U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower Administra­
tion), July 1969.

4Summary Data, Vocational Education, Fiscal Year 1976 (U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education
Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education, January 1978.)



Instructional program

10

As an indication of the popularity of certain vocational
education programs and the extent to which they were
offered during 1975-76, nearly one-third of the 175
program offerings were in the eight fields shown below:
Program

Table 5. Enrollments in public vocational education, by
major vocational education area, fiscal year 1976

v/ocational education area

Number offered

C osm etology ...................................................................
C om m ercial pilot ..........................................................
Nursing (all t y p e s ) ................................................. .......
S ecreta ry ...........................................................................
A uto m echanic (all t y p e s ) .........................................
A c c o u n tin g /b o o k k e e p in g ...........................................
R adiologic tech n ology ................................................
Data processing ..............................................................

1963........
1964........
1965........
1966........
1967........
1968........
1969........
1970........
1971........
1972........
1973........
1974........
1975........
1976........

4,217,198
4,566,390
2 5,430,611
2 6,070,059
2 7,047,501
2 7,533,936
2 7,979,366
8,793,960
10,495,411
11,602,144
12,072,445
13,555,639
15,340,426
15,133,322

Post­
secondary
144,060
170,835
207,201
442,097
499,906
592,970
706,085
1,013,426
1,140,943
1,304,092
1,349,731
1,572,779
1,889,946
2,202,800

7.0
6.0
4.5
3.1
20.6
3.2
20.6
23.2
13.2

example, cosmetology, commercial pilot training, truck
driving, and mortuary science, generally record far more
than one-half of enrollees completing the program. Some
programs graduate as few as one-sixth of enrollees, but
these are in the minority. Detail on job placements for
students completing private vocational education programs
is not available.
Employer training

Many companies in private industry have developed
educational training programs to meet their various business
needs. Generally these programs serve three purposes: (1)
To train new employees, (2) to improve the performance of
employees in their present jobs, and (3) to prepare
employees for new jpbs and responsibilities.
Training varies among occupations. Skilled and semi­
skilled occupations have three on-the-job training paths—
apprenticeship, structured on-the-job instruction, and learn­
ing by doing. Structured instruction may range from
scheduled training conducted by designated instructors to
periodic training from supervisors and fellow employees.
Unstructured training often involves simple directions on
how to perform a routine task on a machine; further skills
then are acquired or developed at the employee’s initiative.
White-collar employees also may receive structured
training. In larger companies, structured training usually
consists of “in-house” programs that offer courses eithei
during or after working hours. These courses normally are
designed to meet specific company needs.
In addition, companies may allow employees to enroll in
college or university courses. For example, under the
tuition-aid program, employees may be partially or fully
reimbursed for job-related courses taken after working

2,123,122
2,254,799
2,378,522
2,530,712
2,941,109
2,987,070
3,050,466
2,666,083
2,859,827
3,066,404
3,368,752
3,549,110
4,024,104
4,069,575

1Unduplicated total.
includes enrollments in special needs programs as follows:
1965, 25,638; 1966, 49,002; 1967, 73,663; 1968, 111,000; 1969,
143,420.
SOURCE: Summ ary Data, Vocational Education, Fiscal Years
(U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office
of Education, Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education).
1963-76




1,059,717
900,604
684,904
471,289
3,114,692
484,807
3,109,950
3,515,042
2,004,858

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education.

Adult

1,950,016
2,140,756
2,819,250
3,048,248
3,532,823
3,842,896
4,079,395
5,114,451
6,494,641
7,231,648
7,353,962
8,433,750
9,426,376
8,860,947

100.0

1 Unduplicated total.
2 Includes prevocational, prepostsecondary, remedial, industrial
arts, volunteer firefighters, and other programs not elsewhere classi­
fied.

Table 4. Enrollments in public vocational education, by
level, fiscal years 1963-76

Secondary

15,133,322

Agribusiness ...............................
Distribution..................................
Health........................................
Home economics .... ......................
Office............. ........ ...................
Technical.....................................
Trades and industry.........................
Consumer and homemaking...............
Special programs2 ..........................

Completions. The ratio of completions to enrollments
varies considerably among programs. Several programs, for

Total1

Percent
distribution

Total1 ...............................

2 ,2 9 0
1,292
1,142
992
736
662
609
567

Enrollments. Private vocational education courses are classi­
fied, for analytic purposes, into seven areas similar to those
used for public vocational education programs: Agribusi­
ness, distribution,health, home economics, office, tech­
nical, and trades and industry. In 1975-76, slightly more
than 30 percent of all students in private vocational
education were in trades and industry programs, another 30
percent were in office training, and about 14 percent were
in technical occupation programs (table 7).
Private vocational education programs with the largest
enrollments during the 1975-76 school year were: Cos­
metology (89,100) and stenography, secretarial, and related
occupations (79,700). (See appendix table C-8 for further
detail.)

Fiscal year

Number

11

Table 6. Number of private postsecondary schools with
occupational programs, and full- and part-time enrollments
by type of school, 1975-76
Number
of
schools

Total

Total..............

7,509

930.7

669.9

238.9

Vocational/technical....
Technical institute........
Business/off ice............
Cosmetology/barber.....
Flight......................
Trade.......................
Hospital....................
Other.......................

603
172
1,220
2,325
1,361
701
897
230

127.7
50.6
338.4
132.1
67.4'
123.5
61.3
29.7

82.2
37.0
252.8
110.0
12.7
95.5
60.8
18.9

Although narrow in scope, the study presents character­
istics of training programs never before documented, along
with enrollment and completion data. Some highlights from
the BLS/ETA training survey follow:

41.3
13.7
72.1
21.1
53.4
26.0
.5
10.8

Type of school

Enrollments (thousands)

1. Only 15 percent of all establishments in the four
metalworking industries selected provided structured
occupational training in the 14 occupations studied.

Full time Part time

2. Establishments with 1,000 employees or more ac­
counted for 44 percent of all enrollments in struc­
tured training.
3. About 71
conducted
occupation
current job

4. More than two-thirds of all structured occupational
training was provided on the job.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
National Center for Education Statistics.

5. Establishments provided training primarily because
they felt job skills could best be taught in their own
training programs and because employees’ education
or training was inadequate.
6. Employee interest in an occupation was the primar
factor used to select employees for training.

hours. Occasionally, employees are permitted to take
outside courses on company time or even to arrange for
extended educational leaves of absence.
Limited data indicate that companies use education and
training programs quite extensively. In a 1975 survey of
firms with 500 or more employees, the Conference Board5
found that of the 32 million employed, 4.3 million
participated in “in-house” company programs and 1.25
million were in tuition-aid programs. Although firms with
fewer than 500 employees often do not have the resources
to develop “in-house” programs, tuition-aid programs are
not uncommon among these companies.
The lack of data on employer training hinders detailed
analysis of occupational training and supply, however. The
BLS, with the support of the Employment and Training
Administration, conducted a pilot survey in 1970 to test
the feasibility of collecting data on occupational training in
selected industries, and to determine the best method of
collecting such data.6 The results encouraged the Bureau,
with further support from the Employment and Training
Administration, to conduct a nationwide, full-scale mail
survey of employer training in nearly 5,000 establishments
in 1975 and early 1976. The resulting report, published in
1977, describes the characteristics of occupational training
provided by employers for 14 selected occupations in four
metalworking industries.7

Apprenticeship programs

Training authorities generally recommend apprenticeship
as the best way to acquire all-round proficiency in a craft.
Most apprenticeships range from 1 to 5 years, depending
upon the particular trade involved. The programs involve
planned on-the-job training and experience, with instruc­
tion and required supervision, combined with technical
studies in subjects related to the trade. Masicry of a
particular trade requires: (1) Learning the skills of the
trade; (2) perfecting the use of each specific skill; and (3}

Table 7. Enrollments and completions in private post
secondary schools with occupational programs, by program,
1975-76
[Numbers in thousands]
Enrollments
Program

Completions

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Total..............

638.5

100.0

347.7

100.0

Agribusiness...............
Distribution................
Health......................
Home economics.........
Office......................
Technical...................
Trades and industry......

5 Seymour Lusterman, Education in Industry, Report 719 (New
York, The Conference Board, Inc., 1977).
6 “The BLS Pilot Survey of Training in Industry,” Monthly Labor
Review, Feb. 1974, pp. 26-32.
7Occupational Training in Selected Metalworking Industries: A
Report on a Survey o f Selected Occupations, 1974, BLS Bull.
1976/ETA R&D Monograph 53, (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics and Employment and Training Administration,
1977).




percent of all structured training was
to qualify employees for work in an
whereas 29 percent was to improve
skills.

2.5
57.2
94.0
1.7
204.5
72.5
206.1

.4
9.0
14.7
.3
32.0
11.4
32.3

2.0
44.8
48.6
.2
90.9
38.8
122.4

.6
12.9
14.0
.1
26.1
11.2
35.2

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: UJS. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
National Center for Education Statistics.

12

bringing each skill up to the speed and accuracy required of
the job.

Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. Uijder the
Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, all States,
cities, and counties, with populations of 100,000 or more
receive Federal grants to run comprehensive employment
and training programs in their localities. Some smaller units
and rural areas also qualify for Federal allocations. In fiscal
year 1977, about 446 eligible units called prime sponsors
received funds to provide some of the services or to
contract with others. The amount each prime sponsor
receives is based upon its current population, unemploy­
ment rate, training needs, and number of economically
disadvantaged persons.
To receive Federal funds, every eligible sponsor must
submit a comprehensive plan describing its area, the services
to be provided, and persons to be served. To the maximum
extent feasible, employment and training services, including
the development of job opportunities and placement in
public service jobs, are provided for unemployed, under­
employed, and economically disadvantaged persons.

Many apprenticeship programs have committees of
employers and local trade unions that interview applicants,
review the apprentice’s progress, and determine when
apprenticeship has been completed satisfactorily. Many pro­
grams are registered with Federal or State apprenticeship
agencies, but sponsors are not required to register their pro­
grams. No estimate is available of the number of appren­
tices in programs that are not registered.
The Department of Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training (BAT) registers, but does not finance, appren­
ticeship programs. BAT provides technical assistance and
support to State apprenticeship agencies and to employers
and unions in establishing and maintaining apprenticeship
programs. In addition, BAT maintains records of new
registrations, completions, and cancellations of apprentice­
ships for each apprenticeable trade by State.
Of the 49,447 registered apprenticeship completions in
1976, about 59 percent were in construction trades, 11
percent in metalworking, 3 percent in printing, and the
remaining 28 percent in a miscellaneous trades category.
(See appendix tables C-l and C-4.) Although the steady
growth of apprenticeship registrations which took place in
the 1960’s has not continued in the 1970’s (table 8),
apprenticeship training continues to be important to
employers, unions, and government policy planners.

Every State and area that operates a comprehensive
employment development program must have a planning
council whose members represent clients, labor, business,
education, community organization > the employment serv­
,
ices, training agencies, and, where appropriate, agriculture.
The councils help governments decide on the services
needed and check on program operations.
In fiscal year 1977, CETA served about 2.5 million
individuals, not counting nearly a million youth in subsi­
dized summer jobs. About 22 percent received classroom
training, 13 percent obtained on-the-job training, 35 per­
cent were in public service employment, and 23 percent
were provided work experience. The remaining 7 percent
received a variety of services designed to improve their
employability.

Although apprenticeship cancellations represent a poten­
tial loss of highly trained workers, many dropouts eventual­
ly become skilled cralt workers through less structured
means. In many instances, particularly when jobs aie
plentiful, apprentices drop their apprenticeship in favor of
earning a skilled worker’s wage immediately. When the job
market is depressed, they are more likely to complete their
a jprenticeships.

Unfortunately, under this decentralized system, national
data such as completions are not available. However, State
and local area data may be available from prime sponsors.

Federal employment and training programs

Work Incentive (WIN) Program. The Work Incentive (WIN)
Program helps employable recipients of Aid to Families
with Dependent Children (AFDC) get and keep jobs. WIN,
created by 1967 amendments to the Social Security Act,
was significantly changed by 1971 amendments. The
revised program has been referred to as WIN II.

The Federal Government has conducted structured
employment and training programs since the enactment of
the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) of
1962. With the passage of the Comprehensive Employment
and Training Act (CETA) of 1973, programs were decen­
tralized. Although the Federal Government has retained a
few programs, such as the Work Incentive (WIN) Program,
most Federal employment and training funds now are
distributed to State and local governments, along with the
responsibility for planning and managing these programs.8

WIN, which is administered jointly by the Department
of Labor and the Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare through State employment services and welfare
agencies, provides job development services and referrals
and helps to find employment, subsidizes employment, and
provides limited training and supportive services, as needed,
to registrants.
After registrants are interviewed to determine their job
potential and needs, an employability plan is started to
identify services and activities they need to get jobs. WIN
tries to place people in unsubsidized jobs. Of the 1,060,700
registrants during the 1977 fiscal year, about 272,000

8Apprentice Registration Actions, by Region and State (annual)
may be obtained from Division of Reporting Operations, Employ­
ment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor,
Washington, D.C. 20210. In addition, the annual Employment and
Training Report o f the President contains a tabulation of the
training status of registered apprentices.



13

Table 8. Training status of registered apprentices in all trades, 1960-76

Year

In training at
beginning
of year

Apprentice actions during /ear
New registra­
tions and
Completions
Cancellations1
reinstatements

In training at
end
of year

1960..................................
1961..................................
1962..................................
1963..................................
1964..................................

172,161
161,128
155,649
158,887
163,318

54,100
49,482
55,590
57,204
59,960

31,727
28,457
25,918
26,029
25,744

33,406
26,414
26,434
26,744
27,001

161,128
155,649
158,887
163,318
170,533

1965..................................
1966..................................
1967..................................
1968..................................
1969..................................

170,533
183,955
207,511
2 207,517
237,996

68,507
85,031
97,396
111,012
123,163

24,917
26,511
37,299
37,287
39,64E>

30,168
34,964
47,957
43,246
47,561

183,955
207,511
220,151
237,996
273,952

1970..................................
1971..................................
1972..................................
1973............................ ......
1974..................................
1975..................................
1976..................................

2
2
2
2
2
2
2

108,779
78,535
103,527
133,258
112,830
83,018
88,418

45,102
42,071
53,059
43,580
46,454
45,765
49,447

53,610
43,104
56,750
49,860
56,292
55,338
49,650

279,693
274,024
264,122
283,774
291,049
266,477
254,968

269,626
278,451
247,840
243,956
280,965
284,562
265,647

1 Includes voluntary quits, layoffs, discharges, out-of-State transfers, upgrades within certain trades, and suspensions or interruptions
for military service.
2 Reflects changes or revisions in the reporting system from

previous year.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training.

were placed in unsubsidized jobs and more than 150,000 in
work and training programs.

Armed Forces training

Job Corps. The Job Corps assists youth between 16 and 21
years of age, mostly school dropouts, who have poor
educational records and who are “economically disadvan­
taged,” to become more employable and productive. The
program provides basic educational and vocational skills as
well as social skills and counseling, medical, dental, and
other support. The Job Corps differs from other Federal
employment programs in that centers provide residential
living 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Centers vary in
enrollment from 150 to 2,300 and serve men, women, or
both; they may be urban or rural.
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976, about 64,10C
corps members in 60 ^ntr.rs in 31 States and Puerto Rico
leceivea training. Among lielda oi training were clericalsales, services, forestry-farming, food service, auto and
machine repair, construction trades, electrical appliance
repair, industrial production, transportation, and health
occupations. Approximately 43,100 trainees left the pro­
gram during the fiscal year, of whom about 23,400 were
completers. During' the same period approximately 18,400
completers were reported to be available for placement.
About 12,350 (67 percent) obtained job placements; about
5,250 were placed in their field.
of the remainder
received school or military placement. Training completions
in specific fields are recorded in appendix table C -l.



14

The Armed Forces are among the Nation’s largest
sources of trained workers. Of the five categories of
military training programs—
recruit, specialized skill, officer
acquisition, professional development, and flight— most
the
important in numbers and influence is specialized skill
training. It provides military personnel with skills for
technical jobs such as radio communication and aircraft
engine repair, and for administrative and service-related
specialties such as clerical work and military police duty.
The impact of specialized skill training is clearly re­
flected by the occupational distribution of the Armed
Forces. The number of enlisted personnel in each of the
nine major occupational groups on September 30, 1977,
was as follows:
Infantry, gun crews, and seamanship specialists .
Electronic equipment repairers...........................
Communications and intelligence specialists......
Medical and dental specialists...............................
Other technical and allied specialists...................
Functional support and administration............ .
Electrical/mechanical equipment repairers.........
Draft workers.....................................................
Service and supply handlers.......................... ......

259,647
164,162
148,977
78,690
36,731
265,674
340,936
71,897
161,606

This tabulation shows that the skills of enlisted person­
nel are concentrated in the mechanical and technical areas.
Thus, the military services are potentially a major source of

trained civilian workers in these fields. (See appendix table
C-6 for further detail.)
Although many members of the Armed Forces acquire
valuable skills during their military service, it is difficult to
determine from the Armed Forces listing the transferability
of their skills to civilian life. An employer interviewing a
Navigation/Bombing Trainer and Flight Simulator Special­
ist, for example, may never suspect that the skills necessary
for this service occupation are closely related to those
needed by electronics technicians.
Recently, the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps, in concert
with the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, have
established registered apprenticeship programs for uni­
formed personnel. Only occupations that are comparable or
identical to civilian occupations are registered, however.
Individuals participating in a program record their hours of
training and work assignments in a logbook that documents
their service experience. The logbook thus becomes proof
of their progress in the apprenticeship program and can be
presented to an employer, labor union, or joint apprentice­
ship committee when they apply for a job.
Most service personnel are not in an apprenticeship
program, however. To aid in “ translating” military job
titles, the Department of Defense, Office of the Assistant
Secretary of Defense for Manpower and Reserve Affairs,
has compiled a two-section Military-Civilian Job Compar­
ability Manual. The first section relates military job
specialties by service branch either “highly” or “substantial­
ly” to civilian occupations. A second section, essentially the
inverse of the first, relates civilian job categories to military
specialties. Although intended as a guide for employers and
vocational counselors in job placement for the veteran, the
manual can serve as a useful tool for occupational analysis.
Home study schools

Home study (correspondence) schools provide many
individuals with an alternative means of education and
training. Courses vary in length, skill level, and degree of
specialization and emphasize vocational, academic, or
simply personal enrichment.
In 1976, about 3.5 million students were enrolled in
home study courses, according to the National Home Study
Council (NHSC). The majority, 1.4 million students, were
enrolled in Federal Government and military programs
while 1.2 million took courses offered by schools accred.ted by the National Home Study Council. Most of the
remaining home study students were enrolled in programs
offered by colleges, universities, and religious organizations.
Information on home study is scarce. Few comprehen­
sive studies have been completed that provide a basis for a
thorough analysis of past trends in enrollments, completion
rates, and the usefulness of these ccrurses in career
development. But the lim ited information indicates that the
demand for home study has grown considerably over the
aast decade and is expected to continue because it is £



15

convenient and relatively low-cost method of obtaining new
knowledge or skills.

Community and junior colleges

Since the turn of the century, community and junior
colleges have become an integral part of the American
educational svstem. Originally, these schools served prima­
rily as an intermediate step for students between hign
school and a 4-year college. Over the years, however,
providing vocational training for technical and semiprofes­
sional jobs has become equally important.
Most community and junior colleges offer a wide variety
of courses and programs. Arts and science programs offer £
general educational background for students planning to
transfer to a 4-year college. Students specializing in a
particular field may enroll in vocational or occupational
curriculums such as dental hygiene or banking and finance,
typically lasting about 2 years, for which a student usually
receives an associate degree. According to the American
Association of Community and Junior Colleges, the number
of schools in operation grew about 82 percent between
1960 and 1977, and enrollments increased to over 6 times
their 1960 level.
Each year graduates of community and junior colleges
add substantially to the supply of workers entering the
labor force. According to recent surveys,9 the number of
associate degrees and other awards granted below the
baccalaureate has increased tremendously during the
1970’s. About 423,00 awards were granted in academic
year 1975-76, an increase of 8.8 percent over the previous
year and 54.6 per ent over 1971-72. Awards in occupa­
tional curriculums, constituting 57.5 percent of all awards
granted in 1975-76, have risen the most in recent years.
(Appendix table C-5 provides occupational curriculum data
only.)
Unfortunately, projections of degrees awarded below tne
baccalaureate are not available. Because community and
junior colleges can quickly adjust their programs to meet
new employment situations and student interest, radical
changes in enrollments in particular curriculums can and do
take place in a short period of time. For this reason, reliable

The Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) of
the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) provides annual
data on associate degrees and other awards below the baccalaureate,
including those granted by 4-year colleges. Generally, 2-year colleges
have awarded about 85 percent of these degrees. Unfortunately,
only some of the data collected by NCES can be used to estimate
the number of new graduates entering specific occupations, because
many categories are too broad to allow for meaningful estimates.
For example, to estimate the number of 2-year graduates qualified
to become cosmetologists, the personal service technologies cate­
gory must be broken down into its more specific components,
which cannot be done from the data now available

degree pitojections based on past trends and future expecta­
tions are difficult to make. Without these projections, a
critical component is missing for the development of
employment outlook for specific occupations. Some infor­
mation on future enrollments may be obtained from State
and local community and junior college administrators.

Columbia, 925,746 persons earned bachelor’s degrees,
62,649 earned first professional degrees, 311,771 earned
master’s degrees, and 34,064 earned doctorates. The 1976
decline in enrollments may be reflected in a decline in the
number of earned degrees in future years.1
0
Entry rates. Projections of degrees by curriculum play a
vital part in estimating employment prospects in specific
occupations. Since many graduates do not pursue careers in
their field of study, however, projections alone will not
provide an accurate estimate of future supply. For this
reason, entry rates must be developed that indicate the
probability that a college graduate who majors in a
particular subject area will enter a specific occupation.
These entry rates are calculated from followup studies
conducted during or after training and generally include
data on field of study and intended or current occupation.
Studies have shown that the proportions of graduates of
occupationally oriented programs directly entering related

Colleges and universities

Colleges and universities serve many purposes, including
providing individuals with specific occupational training. A
college education provides the necessary background to
enter fields such as engineering, law, business, the humani­
ties, and the natural sciences.
The length of a college education depends on the
student’s interests and career goals. Most students seek
employment after obtaining a bachelor’s degree, which
usually requires 4 years. Those who wish to qualify for
positions requiring more specialized knowledge often con­
tinue their study. Master’s, doctorate, and first professional
degree programs .require several additional years of study
after the bachelor’s degree. Occasionally, these programs
accept students after 2 or 3 years of undergraduate work.
College and university enrollments increased steadily
during the 1950’s and 1960’s, but the rate of increase
slowed in the early 1970’s and enrollments declined slightly
in the fall of 1976 (table 9). Although no single factor was
responsible for this decline, the tight job market for college
graduates and the expectation it would continue surely
influenced the decisions of many students.
Earned degrees are closely related to enrollments. The
number of degrees conferred by 4-year institutions has
increased throughout the 1960’s and 1970’s. During the
1975-76 academic year in the 50 States and the District of

10 In addition to collecting current data, the NCES annually
develops 10-year projections of enrollments and degrees granted by
curriculum at the baccalaureate level and above. Projections, along
with a discussion of the projection methodology, are published by
the NCES in Projections o f Education Statistics to 1985-86 (NCES
77-402). Projections of total degrees over the 1976-86 period are
presented in the section of chapter 4 dealing with the outlook for
college graduates, and projections by field are presented in the
individual occupations discussed in chapter 4.
The Bureau of Health Manpower within the Health Resources
Administration, U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, has collected training data health
manpower and developed projections of completions of formal
training programs for a number of health-related occupations.
Several of these projections are included in discussions of individual
health occupations in chapter 4.

Table 9. Enrollments in 4-year institutions of higher education^ and earned degrees, by level,
in the 50 States and the District of Columbia, 1965-66 to 1976-77
Academic year

1965-66..............................
66-67..............................
67-68..............................
68-69..............................
69-70..............................
70-71..............................
71-72..............................
72-73..............................
73-74..............................
74-75..............................
75-76..............................
76-77..............................

Total
enrollments1
4,747,912
2 5,064,000
2 5,398,000
5,720,795
6,028,002
6,357,679
6,462,733
6,549,073
6,590,023
6,819,735
7,214,740
7,128,816

Bachelor's
520,923
558,852
632,758
729,071
792,656
839,730
887,273
922,362
945,776
922.933
925,746
3 919,577

1 Fall of academic year.
Estimated.
Preliminary.




Earned degrees
First
Master's
professional
30,124
31,695
33,939
35,114
34,578
37,946
43,411
50,018
53,816
55,916
62,649
3 64,386

140,548
157,707
176,749
193,756
208,291
230,509
251,633
263,371
277,033
292,450
311,771
3317,164

Doctor's except
first professional
18,237
20,617
23,089
26,188
29,866
32,107
33,363
34,777
33,816
34,083
34.064
3 33,232

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, National Center for Education Statistics.

16

occupations tend to be very high, particularly if training
takes a number of years. For example, almost 100 percent
of medical school graduates enter medicine and about 85
percent of engineering school graduates enter engineering.
However, for many liberal arts graduates, whose training is
less occupationally oriented, entry rates into occupations
related to a college major are substantially lower. This is
especially true at the bachelor’s degree level since many
graduates enter professional school, teaching, or occupa­
tions where a college degree in any one of a number of
fields may be adequate preparation.
Comprehensive followup data on college students are
available from the American Council on Education (ACE)
surveys of college freshmen in 1961 and 1966. The 1961
cohort included over 127,000 freshmen, of whom a sample
was resurveyed in 1966 and 1971. The 19^6 cohort




included 254,000 freshmen surveyed at college entry, of
whom a sample of 60,000 was resurveyed in 1971. The
surveys asked questions on high school and college edu­
cation, including major of bachelor’s and higher degrees
received, current employment and occupational status,
work activity, and type of employer. These longitudinal
data allow analysis of occupational entries and career
development over the decade after college entry. Numerous
studies based on the ACE surveys have been published, and
the BLS has developed entry rates for specific occupations
from the survey data.
Additional followup studies of college students and
graduates are available from surveys conducted by college
placement offices, professional societies, and other organ­
izations. Most of these data are limited to graduates from a
single institution or field.

17

Chapter 4. Relating Training to Occupational Needs
This chapter presents projections of job openings and
the training information that the Bureau has gathered or
developed as part of its occupational outlook program.
Approximately 250 individual occupations are discussed.
For each, a description of the ways workers are trained for
the job is presented, along with summary statistics on
1985 projected employment, percent growth over the
1976-85 period, and annual openings over this period due
to growth and replacement needs. For most occupations,
replacement needs include openings due to deaths, retire­
ments, and other labor force separations, but not those
arising from transfers to other occupations. Transfers,
however, account for a significant number of job openings
in many occupations, and therefore estimates of average
annual openings generally understate the actual number of
jobs available.
Also included are the most recent data on the number of
persons completing training. A dash means that statistics on
training are not available. Data are for the following time
periods:

Public vocational education com p letion s - fiscal year
1976
Private vocational education com p letion s - fiscal year

1976

_

A pprenticeship com p letion s in programs registered w ith
the Bureau o f A pprenticeship and Training - calendar
year 1976
Jobs Corps - fiscal year 1976
Junior college graduates - academ ic year 1975-76
C ollege graduates - academ ic year 19 7 5 -7 6 and projected
1978-85 annual average (where available).

For occupations where sufficient data on supply are
available, a brief supply-demand analysis is presented.
Statistics on occupational requirements and training also
are presented in tabular form in appendixes B and C.
A discussion of the overall outlook for college graduates
for the 1976-85 period and some of the major implications
of this outlook precedes the detailed occupational infor­
mation.

The Outlook for College Graduates
Throughout most of the 1960's, a college degree was
considered almost a guarantee of a good job. Overall, there
probably were more jobs for which employers sought
graduates than there were graduates to fill them. Con­
sequently, graduates generally had their pick of jobs and
almost all graduates found the jobs they sought. Beginning
about 1969, however, the job market for college graduates
changed dramatically. The Nation’s economic slowdown
during the early and mid-1970’s and the need for fewer
teachers contributed to this turnabout. However, the
principal reason has been the sharp increase in the number
of bachelor’s degrees granted (chart 4) and the higher
proportions of college graduates seeking jobs. For example,
between March 1966 and March 1976, the proportion of
college graduates age 25 to 34 not in military service who
were employed or looking for work increased from 79 to
85\percent.
Approximately twice as many college graduates entered
the labor market between 1969 and 1976 as during the
previous 7-year period (chart 5). Because job openings in
the occupations which graduates traditionally sought have
not been adequate, more and more graduates have entered



nontraditional areas. Chart 5 compares the kinds of jobs
graduates entered between 1962 and 1969 with those they
entered between 1969 and 1976.
Of the roughly 4 million graduates who entered the
labor force between 1962 and 1969, about 73 percent
entered professional and technical occupations. This group
includes accountants, engineers, doctors, lawyers, teachers,
and other occupations for which a college degree usually is
required. About 17 percent entered managerial and admin­
istrative occupations, another major occupational area
generally felt by graduates to be appropriate for their
education and abilities. Another 3 percent entered sales
jobs, most probably in the better paying sales jobs such as
securities sales workers and manufacturers’ sales representa­
tives. Less than 6 percent entered clerical, blue-collar,
service, and farm occupations.
A different pattern emerged for the 8 million college
graduates who entered the labor force between 1969 and
1976. Although more graduates entered professional and
technical occupations than during the previous 7 years,
because many more graduates were competing for available
positions, a much smaller percentage—
only 46 percent18

Chart 4. Bachelor’s degrees earned increased rapidly during the 1960’s, leveled off during
the 1970’s, and will remain on this plateau through 1985.
Thousands o f bachelor's degrees

1,200

----------------------

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Overall, about 1 out of 4 graduates who entered the
labor force between 1969 and 1976 had to take a job not
sought or filled by graduates in better times, or was
unemployed.
Increased competition for jobs also has adversely af­
fected earnings. Although average salaries of newly hired
graduates have risen since 1969, earnings of nongraduates
have risen more rapidly. As a result, on average, the
premium paid to college graduates has declined, both
because competition in fields traditionally sought by
graduates has kept salaries down and because relatively
more graduates are in lower paying, nontraditional fields.
College graduates entering the labor force through the
mid-1980’s are likely to face job market conditions very
similar to those faced by graduates during the early and
mid-1970’s as entrants continue to exceed openings in jobs
traditionally sought by graduates. Therefore, about 1
graduate in 4 will have to enter a nontraditional occupation
or face unemployment.
It is estimated that about 10.4 million college graduates
will enter the labor force over the 1976-85 period, but only
about 7.7 million job openings are expected to arise in
traditional jobs for college graduates {chart 6). About half
of these projected openings are expected to result from
growth in the kinds of jobs filled by graduates in the past
and from upgrading jobs, and half from the need to replace

found professional and technical jobs. About 19 percent
entered managerial jobs and another 8 percent entered sales
jobs. It is estimated that about one-fourth of the graduates
spilled over into occupations not previously sought or filled
by college graduates. Most were clerical, blue-collar, service
and farm occupations, but some were managerial and sales
occupations. Most of the increase in the proportion
entering managerial and sales jobs probably represents
upgrading which occurs as jobs become more complex and
therefore require people who have more education. The
great majority of graduates who took clerical, service,
blue-collar, and farm jobs over the 1969-76 period, how­
ever, did not enter upgraded positions.
Graduates also have experienced higher rates of unem­
ployment than in the past. From early 1969 to early 1976,
the unemployment rate for all graduates increased from less
than 1 percent to 2.4 percent, and for graduates 20 to 24
years old from 2.4 to, 6.1 percent. Although some of this
increase can be attributed to generally poor economic
conditions, the rise in the rate of unemployment of college
graduates reflects mostly an increasing supply of graduates.
Young graduates still fared much better than young high
school graduates, however, who had an unemployment rate
o f 14.1 percent. The difference in rates indicates, for the
most part, that graduates have been able to outbid
nongraduates for jobs.




19

Chart 5. Recent college graduates have been entering types of jobs graduates traditionally
have not sought.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

graduates who retire, die, or leave the labor force for other
reasons.
Like graduates in the early and mid-1970’s, future
graduates may be less likely to find jobs in the occupation
of their choice than graduates during the 1960’s. Many may
be unemployed or have to move from job to job to find
satisfying employment or compete with nongraduates for
the more desirable jobs not previously filled by graduates.
As in the past, college graduates will have an advantage over
nongraduates but in some fields they may have to compete
with junior and community college graduates who have
learned job-related skills. In addition, there are some jobs,
such as high-paying sales jobs, where proven sales ability
may be valued more highly than a degree. Graduates who
are less well prepared for the job market may be unable to
make full use of their skills and thus experience job
dissatisfaction. As in the early and mid-1970’s, however,
most graduates probably will find a job, and few should
face sustained unemployment.
Although the employment outlook for college graduates
may not be promising, neither is it bleak. Job satisfaction
depends upon a number of factors that are (Jifficult to
analyze. College graduates might be satisfied in occupations
not traditionally sought by graduates. Persons without
college degrees have filled many high-paying responsible
jobs in the past, and graduates can be expected to move




into these in greater numbers. Graduates who enter clerical,
sales, and blue-collar jobs may be able to prove their
abilities on the job and be promoted. Some graduates who
take jobs as clerks should be able to move into administra­
tive positions, and those in craft and service jobs are likely
to have an advantage in advancing within their organization
or in starting their own business.
Finding a job directly related to one’s college major
probably is not necessary for job satisfaction. One study
found that most liberal arts graduates—
those whose college
majors were in fields such as English, history, and psychol­
ogy — generally were happy with jobs in business adminis­
tration.1 1 Business administration, like many other jobs,
permits graduates to use their writing, analytical, and
interpersonal skills. If graduates feel they are using these
skills, they are likely to be satisfied with their jobs.
The study also found that a substantial proportion of
graduates in jobs they considered nonprofessional, perhaps
not fully utilizing these skills, were nevertheless satisfied.

11 Job Satisfaction A fter College. . . The Graduate’s Viewpoint
(Bethlehem, Pa., The CPC Foundation, 1977). The study is a
followup of people who were freshmen in 1961, whose highest
degree held was a bachelor’s degree, and who were working full time
between November 1974 and March 1975.

20

Chart 6. College graduates entering the labor force between 1976 and 1985 are expected to exceed
openings in jobs traditionally filled by graduates by 2.7 million.

12

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

available openings, aitnougft tne actual number is dilticuli
to predict.

Ideas about what constitutes an appropriate job for
graduates are changing. More and more graduates see jobs as
craft workers, farmers, and self-employed retail store
managers, those associated with “alternative life styles,” as
more desirable than the traditional jobs chosen by
graduates. This shift in attitudes eases the problems of
underemployment and job dissatisfaction for many college
graduates.
It should be pointed out that the number ot graduates
entering the labor force may be lower than that projected
in this bulletin because a higher proportion of high school
graduates, aware of the plight of college graduates, may
decide not to attend a 4-year college.
Compared to the job outlook for college graduates, the
prospects for new Ph. D. recipients seeking jobs that
traditionally have required an advanced degree is even less
favorable. A recent BLS study indicated that 83,500 or 47
percent of the estimated 178,000 Ph. D.’s who entered
employment between 1970 and 1976 accepted jobs of the
type neither sought nor filled by Ph. D.’s during the 1960’s.
Between 1976 and 1985, there are expected to be
192,800 openings in traditional jobs for Ph. D.’s. If past
trends continue, 323,000 new Ph. D.’s are expected to
enter the Ph. D. labor market. In addition, many Ph. D.’s
presently in nontraditional jobs may compete for the




Table
counting
expected
(192,800
jobs.

10 shows the projected supply-demand balance
only the 323,000 new Ph. D.’s. Job openings are
to oe sumcient to aosoro about 60 percent
of 323,000) of those seeking traditional Ph. D.

Table 11 shows the projected supply-demand balance
assuming that Ph. D.’s presently employed in nontraditional
jobs also compete for openings in traditional Ph. D. jobs.
Job openings, therefore, will be sufficient to absorb only
about 48 percent (192,800 of 403,200) of those seeking
traditional Ph. D. jobs. Since about 53 percent of all new
Ph. D.’s between 1970 and 1976 entered traditional jobs,
the job outlook over the 1976-85 period for Ph. D.’s is
projected to be comparable to that for the 1970-76 period.
Only in engineering is the outlook substantially better.
Barring any unforeseen major increase in demand for
Ph. D.’s or a large drop in the number of persons acquiring
Ph. D.’s, new Ph. D.’s in most fields will continue to experi­
ence keen competition for traditional Ph. D. jobs. Con­
sequently, many Ph. D.’s will be delayed in obtaining perma­
nent employment in traditional areas, will continue to take
nontraditional jobs, and may experience job dissatisfcation.

21

Table 10. Openings for traditional Ph. D. jobs and new supply by field, 1976-85
[Numbers in thousands]

Projected
new supply,
1976-85

Number of
entrants to
nontraditional
Ph.D. jobs,
1976-85

Openings for traditional
Ph. D. jobs, 1976-85
Field

Entrants to
nontraditional
jobs as a
percent of new
supply, 1976-85

Total
All fields....................
Engineering and natural
science.............................
Engineering....... .............
Physical science...............
Chemistry....... ..........
Physics......................
Life science....................
Mathematics ................
Social science and
psychology.......................
Arts and humanities................
Education............................
Business and commerce............
Other fields...........................

Growth

Deaths and
retirements

192.8

138.1

54.7

323.0

130.2

40.3

100.8
32.4
27.4
14.7
3.7
35.4
5.6

72.5
25.5
17.9
9.4
1.5
25.6
3.5

28.3
7.0
9.5
5.2
2.2
9.8
.2

114.7
22.7
30.7
16.6
7.6
51.7
9.6

13.8
-9.7
3.3
1.8
3.9
16.2
4.0

12.1
-42.8
10.8
11.2
51.2
31.4
41.6

41.5
12.4
31.5
2.9
3.6

31.2
7.2
22.5
2.1
2.6

10.3
5.1
9.1
.8
1.1

70.5
37.0
80.4
8.0
12.4

29.0
24.6
48.8
5.1
8.8

41.2
66.6
60.8
63.6
70.8

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Table 11. Openings, new supply, and nontraditionally employed Ph. D.'s, by *leld. 1976-85
INumbers in thousands]

Field

All fields.......................
Engineering and natural
science.......................
engineering....................
Physical science...............
Chemistry...................
Physics......................
Life science....................
Mathematics...................
Social science and
psychology.......................
Arts and humanities................ j
Education............................ I
Business and commerce l...........
Other fields..........................

Ph. D.'s potentially available to fill
traditional Ph. D. jobs, 1976-85
i
Ph. D.'s
i employed in
nontraditional
jobs in 1976

between
potentially
available
Ph. D.'s
and openings

Excess
potentially
available
Ph. D.'s as a
percent of
new supply,
1976-85

323.0

80.2

210.4

65.1

140.0
27.7
38.1
18.7
12.2
60.2
14.0

114.7
22.7
30.7
16.6
7.6
51.7
9.6

25.3
5.0
7.4
2.2
4.7
8.5
4.4

39.2
-4.7
10.7
4.0
8.6
24.8
8.4

34.1
-20.9
34.9
24.2
113.3
47.9
87.9

79.2
56.2
103.4
10.4
13.9

70.5
37.0
86.4
8.0
12.4

8.7
19.2
3.1
2.4
1.5

37.7
43.8
71 9
7.5
10.3

53.5
118.5
89.5
93.8
82.9

Total openings
for traditional
Ph. D. jobs,
1976-85

Total

192.8

403.2

100.8
32.4
27.4
14.7
3.7
35.4
5.6
41.5
12.4
31.5
2.9
3.6

Projected new
supply, 1976-85

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals Because of rounding.




22

D iffe re n ce

Industrial Production and Related Occupations
Foundry occupations

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ....................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th .......
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Patternmakers. A 5-year apprenticeship is considered the
best way to learn this trade. Vocational school courses in
pat tern making, metalworking, and machining may be
credited toward completion of the apprenticeship. A high
school diploma generally is required and courses in mechan­
ical drawing, blueprint reading, and shop mathematics are
helpful.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Available training data:
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

1 8 ,0 0 0
2 0 ,5 0 0
14.9
900
300
600

Machining occupations

All-round machinists. A 4-year apprenticeship is the best
way to learn the trade; however, some companies have
shorter training programs for machinists who specialize in
one type of product or machine. Many machinists learn
their skills on the job. Apprenticeship programs combine
on-the-job training with classroom instruction in mathe­
matics, physics, and machine shop practices. Taking these
courses in high school or vocational school is good
preparation. A high school diploma is strongly recom­
mended. Applicants should be mechanically inclined and
able to do precise work that requires concentration as well
as physical effort.

129

Molders. Completion of a 4-year apprenticeship is the
recommended way to learn skilled hand molding. Workers
who have this training also are preferred for some kinds of
machine molding. Some people learn molding skills infor­
mally on the job, but this way of learning the trade takes
longer and is less reliable than apprenticeship. In addition
to on-the-job training, apprenticeship programs include
instruction in subjects such as shop mathematics, metal­
lurgy, and shop drawing. An eighth grade education usually
is the minimum requirement for apprenticeship; however,
many employers prefer high school graduates. The less
skilled hand molding jobs can be learned by inexperienced
workers after 2 to 6 months of on-the-job training.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.........................................

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

2 ,5 2 6

Instrument makers (mechanical). Many instrument makers
learn their trade through 4-year apprenticeships that
combine on-the-job training with classroom instruction in
mathematics, physics, and machine shop practices. Others
advance from the ranks of machinists or skilled machine
tool operators and usually require only 1 or 2 years of
instrument shop experience to learn the trade. Employers
generally prefer high school graduates, especially for ap­
prenticeship programs. Courses in algebra, geometry, trig­
onometry, science, and machine shop work are useful.

5 3 ,0 0 0
6 0 ,0 0 0
14.5
1 ,9 0 0
800
1 ,100

1 147

1Includes some coremakers.

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data ................................................

Coremakers. Completion of a 4-year apprenticeship is tbe
recommended way to learn the trade. These programs
combine on-the-job training with classroom instruction in
subjects such as shop mathematics and the properties of
metals. Applicants for apprenticeships must have at least an
eighth grade education; however, most employers prefer
high school graduates, and some require apprentices to have
graduated. For less skilled coremaking jobs, inexperienced
workers may be hired and trained on the job.




4 0 5 ,0 0 0
4 7 5 ,0 0 0
17.1
2 0 ,0 0 0
8 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,0 0 0

Available training data:

Available training data:
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

0 )

1 See molders.

Available training data:
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

2 2 ,0 0 0
2 4 ,5 0 0
14.5
1 ,0 00
300
700

6 ,0 0 0
6 ,9 0 0
17.1
300
100
200

Machine tool operators. These workers are classified as
either semiskilled or skilled operators. Most are trained on
the job. Just a few months of experience are required for
23

most semiskilled operators to learn their trade, but 1 to 2
years of experience often are required for a person to
become a skilled operator. Some operators receive training,
in vocational schools and apprenticeship programs that
combine on-the-job experience with classroom instruction.
A high school diploma is not required, but courses in
mathematics and blueprint reading are helpful. Employers
look for workers who have physical stamina and mechanical
aptitude, or experience working with machinery.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ................................................................
R ep la cem en t........................................................

Printing occupations

Compositors. Some compositors learn their trade through
apprenticeships, which generally require 6 years of on-thejob training supplemented by classroom instruction or
correspondence courses. Applicants for apprenticeships
usually must be high school graduates.
Most compositors learn their trade on the job by
working as helpers for several years; others combine trade
school and helper experience. Many technical institutes,
junior colleges, and colleges offer courses in printing
technology which provide a valuable background for people
who want to be compositors. An increasing number oi
persons entering the trade are not following the traditional
apprenticeship route, but are learning their skills through
on-the-job training. Some jobs, such as tape-perforating
machine operator and computer-typesetting operator, car.
be learned in a year or less.

5 0 8 ,0 0 0
5 9 5 ,0 0 0
16.9
2 2 ,0 0 0
9 ,5 0 0
1 2 ,5 0 0

Available training d ata:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

98

Setup workers (machine tools). Setup workers usually must
be qualified as all-round machinists. They have to know
how to operate more than one type of machine tool and be
able to plan the sequence of a machining operation so that
metal parts will be made according to specifications. Being
able to communicate clearly is important because setup
workers must explain the machining operations that they
set up to the semiskilled workers who will perform the
work.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..............
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 .......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................
Available training d ata:
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

212

Tool-and-die makers. The best way to learn this trade is
through a 4- or 5-year apprenticeship, but many workers
learn in vocational school programs or on the job. Several
years of experience often are required after completing an
apprenticeship for more difficult tool-and-die work. High
school graduates are preferred for apprenticeships. Ap­
plicants should have a good working knowledge of
mathematics and physics, as well as considerable mechanical
ability, finger dexterity, and aptitude for precise work.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ..............•.......................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la cem en t.......................................................

E m p loym en t, 197 6 .......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 .................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

1 8 3 ,0 0 0
2 1 5 ,0 0 0
17.5
9 ,0 0 0
3 ,6 0 0
5 ,4 0 0

A pprenticeship com pletions .........................

292

Photoengravers. Most photoengravers learn their skills
through a 5-year apprenticeship program that combines
on-the-job training with classroom instruction. Applicants
for apprenticeships usually must be high school graduates;
courses in printing, chemistry, and physics are useful.

(')
1,901 1

1 Less than 50.




2 9 ,0 0 0
3 9 ,0 0 0
34.5
1,900
1,1 0 0
800

Available training data:

Available training data:
Private vocation al education
co m p letio n s...................................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

264

Lithographers. Although most ntnographers re a m ineir
trade on the job by helping experienced lithographers,
employers recommend a 5-year apprenticeship program
which combines on-the-job training with classroom instruc­
tion. Apprenticeship programs may emphasize a specific
craft, such as camera operator or platemaker, although an
attempt is made to introduce an apprentice to all lithog­
raphic operations. Applicants for apprenticeships usually
must be high school graduates.
Two-year programs in printing technology, which many
technical institutes, junior colleges, and colleges offer,
provide a valuable background for people who want to be
lithographers. High school and vocational school courses in
printing, photography, mathematics, chemistry, and art also
are useful.

6 0 ,0 0 0
7 5 ,0 0 0
2 5 .0
3 ,5 0 0
1 ,700
1,800

Available training data:
A pprenticeship com p letion s ........................

1 5 2 ,0 0 0
1 4 0 ,0 0 0
-7.9
3 ,6 0 0
-1 ,3 0 0
4 ,9 0 0

24

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
Replace m e” t ........................................................

1 0 .0 0 0
9 ,0 0 0
-1 0 .0
100
-1 0 0
200

E m p loym en t, 1976 .......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data:

Available training data ................................................

Public vocational
education com p letion s ..............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

Electro typers and stereotypers. A 5r iO 6-year apprentice­
ship that combines on-the-job training with classes in
related technical subjects is the usual preparation for these
trades. Applicants for apprenticeships usually must be high
school graduates. A physical examination also generally is
required, because workers must do some heavy lifting.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 .........................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline
...............................................................
R eplacem ent ...................

4 ,0 0 0
3 ,2 0 0
-2 0 .4
60
-90
150

Other industrial production and related occupations

Assemblers. Training varies according to the level of skill
required. Most inexperienced persons can be trained on the
job in a few days or weeks, but for some types of
complicated assembly work, training lasts much longer.
Employers look for workers who can do routine work at a
fast pace. Although a high school diploma usually is not
required, vocational school courses, such as machine shop,
may be helpful, especially for the more highly skilled jobs.

Printing press operators and assistants. The recommended
way to learn the press operator’s trade is through an
apprenticeship program that combines on-the-job training
with classroom or correspondence school work. The ap­
prenticeship program in commercial printing shops lasts 2
years for press assistants and 4 to 5 years for press
operators. Applicants for apprenticeships usually must be
high school graduates.
Many workers learn their skills on the job by working as
helpers or press assistants, or through a combination of
work experience and training in vocational or technical
schools. High school or vocational school courses in
printing, physics, and chemistry are recommended!

E m p loym en t, 1976 ...................................................... 1 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,4 5 0 ,0 0 0
33 .3
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ..............
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
7 0 ,0 0 0
G row th ..................................................................
4 0 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
3 0 ,0 0 0
Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

1 4 5 ,0 0 0
1 6 0 ,0 0 0
11.0
5 ,1 0 0
1,800
3 ,3 0 0

292
466

E m p loym en t, 1976 ..............................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 197 6 -8 5 ....................-.......................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ...........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Bookbinders and bindery workers. A 4- or 5-year ap­
prenticeship that combines on-the-job training with related
classroom instruction generally is the recommended type of
training for skilled bookbinders. Applicants for apprentice­
ships usually must be high school graduates. Because
bindery workers need not be as skilled as bookbinders, they
learn their trade through informal on-the-job training that
may last from several months to 2 years.
Bookbinders must be in good physical condition because
the work involves much standing, lifting, and carrying.




276

Automobile painters. Most of these workers start as helpers
and acquire their skills informally on the job by working
for 3 to 4 years with experienced painters. A small number
learn through a 3-year apprenticeship. A high school
diploma usually is not required. Good color sense and the
ability to do precise work are helpful personal character­
istics.

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com pletion s .........................

1 17,8 5 9
18
2 122

1 Includes com p letion s for bookbinders, com posing
room occu p ation s, lithographic occu p ation s, press oper­
ators, and m iscellaneous printing occupations.
2 There were also 1 ,252 apprenticeship com p letion s for
occu p ation s listed in fo o tn o te 1. The num ber being trained
for each occu p ation cannot be determ ined from available
data.

Available training data ................................................

E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 .......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

8 0 ,0 0 0
8 5 ,0 0 0
6.0
3 ,4 0 0
500
2 ,9 0 0

3 2 ,0 0 0
3 7 ,0 0 0
15.6
1 ,3 0 0
600
700

Available training data .................. ,............................

Blacksmiths. Many blacksmiths are trained on the job while
working as helpers in blacksmith shops or industrial firms
that employ blacksmiths. Some enter through 3- or 4-year

25

apprenticeship programs that combine on-the-job experi­
ence with classroom instruction in blueprint reading,
forging methods, and related subjects. Vocational school or
high school courses in metalworking and blueprint reading
are helpful. A high school diploma is not required.
Blacksmiths who shoe horses are called farriers. Most
farriers learn their craft by assisting experienced workers.
Others take a 3- or 4-week course in horseshoeing before
gaining experience on their own or as a farrier’s assistant.
Several colleges and private horseshoeing schools, mostly in
the Midwest, teach courses in horseshoeing. At least 3 to 5
years of special training or experience are needed to obtain
the skills necessary to shoe racehorses. Farriers who work at
racetracks must pass a licensing examination during which
they demonstrate their knowledge of corrective shoeing
techniques and proper choice of shoes for various track
conditions.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

with experienced employees. It generally takes about 2
years or more to become skilled at these jobs. Although
many boilermakers also leam their trade on the job, most
training authorities recommend a 4-year apprenticeship.
For all three occupations, employers prefer high school or
vocational school graduates who have had courses in shop,
mathematics, blueprint reading, welding, and machine
metalworking. Due to the strenuous nature of the jobs,
most firms require applicants to pass a physical examina­
tion.
E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data:
Apprenticeship com p letion s .........................

1 0 ,0 0 0
6 ,0 0 0
-33.3
100
-4 0 0
500

Blue-collar worker supervisors. Most blue-collar supervisors
are high school graduates who have risen through the ranks
and learned their skills on the job. Rising through the ranks
gives supervisors the advantage of knowing how the work
should be done and what problems may arise. Supervisors
sometimes are former union representatives who are
familiar with grievance procedures and union contracts. To
supplement work experience, most employers provide
either written materials or classroom training covering
subjects such as communication skills, motivation, and
management decisionmaking.
Although fewer than one-tenth of all supervisors are
college graduates, a growing number of employers are hiring
supervisor trainees who have college backgrounds. This is
most prevalent in industries with highly technical produc­
tion processes, such as the chemical, oil, and electronics
industries. Employers prefer backgrounds in business
administration, industrial relations, mathematics, engineer­
ing, or science.

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

7 3 ,0 0 0
7 2 ,0 0 0
-1.4
1,500
-100
1,600

Available training data ................................................

Electroplaters. Most electroplaters learn their trade on the
job, but a small percentage learn through a 3- or 4-year
apprenticeship program that combines on-the-job training
with classroom instruction. Applicants for apprenticeships
usually must be high school graduates. A few people take 1or 2-year courses in electroplating that are offered by junior
colleges, technical institutes, and vocational schools. High
school or vocational school courses in chemistry, electric­
ity, physics, mathematics, and blueprint reading are useful.

E m ploym ent, 1976 ..................................
1 ,4 4 5 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 .................................... 1 ,7 7 5 ,0 0 0
2 2.9
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
7 9 ,0 0 0
G r o w th ..................................................................
3 7 ,0 0 0
R e p la cem en t.......................................................
4 2 ,0 0 0

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Available training data:

3 6 ,0 0 0
4 1 ,0 0 0
12.9
1 ,3 0 0
500
800

Available training data ................................................
12,105

Forge shop occupations. Most workers learn these trades on
the job. Generally, they start as helpers or heaters on
hammer or press crews and learn by watching and assisting
experienced workers. Thus, new workers begin at the

Boilermaking occupations. Included in this group are layout
workers, fitters, and boilermakers. Mo$t layout workers and
fitters are hired as helpers and learn the craft by working



508

Boiler tenders. Most of these workers acquire their skills by
working as helpers or oilers in boiler rooms. High school
graduation usually is not required; however, courses in
mathematics, motor mechanics, chemistry, and blueprint
reading may be helpful. Stamina and endurance are
necessary because boiler tenders are exposed to noise, heat,
fumes, and smoke on the job. Some large cities and a few
States require boiler tenders to be licensed. Applicants for a
license must pass a written test.

Available training data ................................................

Public vocational
education com p letion s ..............................

3 4 ,0 0 0
5 6 ,0 0 0
64.7
3 ,8 0 0
2 ,4 0 0
1,400

26

bottom of the ladder and advance to more skilled occu­
pations as they gain experience and as openings occur.
Some forge shops offer 4-year apprenticeship programs for
skilled jobs, such as die sinker and heat treater. These
programs combine on-the-job experience with classroom
instruction in metal properties, power hammer and furnace
operation, blueprint reading, safety, and other machine
shop subjects. High school graduation generally is not
required, but may be preferred for the more skilled
occupations. Workers need stamina and endurance to work
in the heat and noise of a forge shop, and strength to lift
and move heavy forgings and dies.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
’
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la cem en t.......................................................

Millwrights. Generally, these workers learn their skills on
the job. New employees start as helpers to skilled workers
and rotate from job to job for 6 to 8 years. Millwrights also
are trained through 4-year apprenticeship programs that
combine on-the-job training with classroom instruction,
blueprint reading, mathematics, welding, and safety. Onthe-job training covers the use of hoisting equipment and
the installation, assembly, and repair of industrial machin­
ery. Good physical condition is required. High school
courses in science, mathematics, mechanical drawing, and
machine shop are useful.
E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R eplacem ent ........................................................

7 1 ,0 0 0
8 0 ,0 0 0
13.3
2 ,7 0 0
1 ,0 0 0
1 ,7 0 0

Available training data:

Available training data ................................................

A pprenticeship com p letion s ...............

Furniture upholsterers. The most common way to learn this
trade is to work with experienced upholsterers for about 3
years and acquire skills on the job. Vocational or high
school courses in upholstery provide a good background,
but experience on the job still is necessary to refine one’s
skills. A high school diploma is not required.

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R ep la c e m e n t.......................................................

2 7 ,0 0 0
2 7 ,7 0 0
2.6
1 ,1 0 0
100
1 ,000

1 4 ,3 3 6
600
125

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 Includes som e upholsterers other than furniture.

Inspectors (manufacturing). Inspectors generally learn their
skills on the job. Depending on the skill required for the
particular job, training may last from a few hours to several
months. Requirements for the job vary. Some employers
hire applicants who do not have a high school diploma, but
who have worked as an assembler and are able to follow
instructions and concentrate on details. Good eyesight
with or without glasses —usually is necessary.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R ep la cem en t........................................................

1 6 ,5 0 0
1 7 ,0 0 0
3.0
1 ,2 00
0
1,200

Available training data ................................................

Ophthalmic laboratory technicians. Most technicians learn
their skills on the job, but some learn through 3- to 4-year
apprenticeship programs that combine on-the-job training
with classroom instruction. Some technicians receive train­
ing in the Armed Forces. Employers prefer high school
graduates; applicants for apprenticeships usually must be
graduates. High school courses in the basic sciences are
useful. Some States require ophthalmic laboratory tech­
nicians in retail optical shops to be licensed. Applicants for
a license must pass an examination.

6 9 2 ,0 0 0
9 5 0 ,0 0 0
37.5
5 2 ,0 0 0
2 9 ,0 0 0
2 3 ,0 0 0

Available training data




9 33

Motion picture projectionists. Most motion picture theaters
in urban areas are unionized and projectionists in these
theaters must meet union membership requirements. Some
union locals accept only persons who have experience
running theater projectors. Other locals conduct apprentice­
ship programs for inexperienced persons. In these programs,
apprentices work with a variety of projection equipment
under the supervision of experienced projectionists. They
also may take courses in basic electronics and mechanics. In
a non-union theater, a trainee may start as an usher or
helper and learn the trade by working with an experienced
projectionist.
A high school diploma is preferred by employers and
may be required by union locals. Experience with projec­
tors gained while serving in the Armed Forces is helpful.
Local governments may require projectionists to be
licensed.

Available training data:
Public vocational
education com p letion s ........................
Private vocational
education com pletion s ..............................
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................

9 6 ,0 0 0
1 0 5 ,0 0 0
9.4
3 ,6 0 0
1 ,0 00
2 ,6 0 0

27

E m p lo y m e n t, 1976 .....................................................
Projected em ploym ent, 1985 ..................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G ro w th ................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t......................................................

Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1 976-85 ................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

2 2 ,0 0 0
2 9 ,0 0 0
29.3
1,500
700
80 0

Available training data ................................................

Available training data .........................................

Stationary engineers. Many stationary engineers start as
helpers or craftworkers in other trades and acquire their
skills informally during many years on the job. This
experience can be supplemented by technical or other
training in vocational schools or through home study. A
good background also can be obtained in the Navy or
Merchant Marine. Most training authorities, however,
recommend completion of a 4-year apprenticeship as the
best way to learn this trade. These programs combine
on-the-job training with classroom instruction in practical
chemistry, blueprint reading, and other technical subjects.
Employers prefer to hire high school graduates; high
school or vocational school courses in mathematics,
machine shop, mechanical drawing, chemistry, and physics
are an asset. Many States and larger cities require stationary
engineers to be licensed. Each of the six classes of license
specify the steam pressure or horsepower of the equipment
the engineer may operate. A high school diploma may be
required for higher class licenses. Generally, applicants
must be at least 18, meet the experience requirements for
the class of license, and pass a written examination.

Photographic laboratory occupations. Most photographic
laboratory workers learn their skills through on-the-job
training. High school graduates generally are preferred by
employers. Some trainees become specialists in a particular
laboratory procedure; training time for one of these
semiskilled occupations ranges from a few weeks to several
months. Other trainees become all-round technicians, learn­
ing their trade in about 3 years. College courses in
photographic technology are useful for technicians who
wish to become supervisors or managers.
E m p lo y m en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1985 ..............................
P ercen t grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

3 5 ,0 0 0

47,000
3 4 .0
2 ,4 0 0
1 ,3 0 0
1 ,100

A vailable training data:
Public vocational
education co m p letio n s................................
Junior college gra d u a tes..................................

1 3,361
1 810

E m p loym en t, 1976 .......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 May include other photographic occupations.

Power truck operators. Newly hired operators are trained
on the job. Most workers can learn how to operate a power
truck in just a few days, but it may take several weeks to
learn the physical layout and operation of a plant and the
most efficient way of handling the materials to be moved.
Some power truck manufacturers conduct short training
courses for operators employed by their customers. A high
school diploma is not required.
E m p lo y m en t 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 .........................................
A verage annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w t h ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.................................... >
..................

Public vocational
education co m p letio n s.................................
A pprenticeship c o m p le tio n s...............

2 ,3 5 0
288

Wastewater treatment plant operators (sewage plant opera­
tors). Trainees usually start as helpers and learn their skills
on the job. Some States require, and employers generally
prefer, persons who have at least a high school diploma or
its equivalent. Some positions, especially in larger cities and
towns, are covered by civil service regulations and appli­
cants may be required to pass examinations on elementary
mathematics, mechanical aptitude, and general intelligence.
A 2-year program leading to an associate degree in
wastewater technology provides a good general knowledge
of the water pollution control field, as well as basic
preparation for the job. Vocational schools also provide
courses in wastewater treatment.
In 40 States, operators who are supervisors or re­
sponsible for a plant’s operation must pass an examination
certifying that they are capable of overseeing treatment
operations. Voluntary certification programs exist in the
remaining States, excluding Alaska.

2 6 0 ,0 0 0
4 3 3 ,0 0 0
21 .7
1 4 ,6 0 0
8 ,6 0 0
6 ,0 0 0

Production painters. New workers usually learn by watch­
ing and helping experienced painters. Beginners often start
out assigned to loading and unloading the conveyor lines
that carry the items to be painted. Training may vary from
a few days to several months. A high school diploma is not
required. Good physical condition is necessary because
painters must stand, stoop, and bend in their work, and are
exposed to fumes.




1 9 4 ,0 0 0
1 9 4 ,0 0 0
0 .0
7 ,4 0 0
0
7 ,4 0 0

Available training data:

A vailable training data ................................................

E m p lo y m en t, 1 976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................

37.5
6 ,9 0 0
4 ,3 0 0
2 ,6 0 0

1 0 4 ,0 0 0
1 4 3 ,0 0 0

28

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

highly critical factor, welders may be required to pass a
qualifying examination given by an employer or govern­
ment agency.

1 0 0 ,0 0 0
1 5 0 ,0 0 0
5 1 .o
1 0 ,4 0 0
5 ,6 0 0
4 ,8 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Available training data ..........................................

Welders. There are several levels of skill within this
occupation and the training time varies accordingly. Some
less skilled jobs can be learned in a few months on the job,
but generally it takes several years of training and experi­
ence to become a skilled welder. For entry to skilled jobs,
many employers prefer to hire applicants who have high
school or vocational school training in welding. Before
being assigned to work where the strength of the weld is a

6 6 0 ,0 0 0
8 3 5 ,0 0 0
2 6 .3
3 3 ,8 0 0
1 9 ,3 0 0
1 4 ,5 0 0

Available training data:
Public vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
Private vocation al
education c o m p letio n s...................
Job Corps c o m p le tio n s.......... ..........................

4 0 ,8 4 0
9 ,7 0 0
1,593

Office Occupations
Collection workers. Newly hired workers are trained on the
job and learn chiefly by observing experienced workers. A
high school diploma generally is required. Business courses
are good preparation and the ability to get along with
different people is very important.

Clerical occupations

Bookkeeping workers. High school graduates who have
taken business arithmetic, bookkeeping, and accounting
meet the minimum requirements for most bookkeeping
jobs. Some employers prefer applicants who have com­
pleted business courses at a junior college or business school
and have had some work experience. General knowledge of
how computers are used to perform bookkeeping trans­
actions is very helpful, as is the ability to type and use
various office machines. Cooperative work/study programs
also can provide high school students with an opportunity
to learn bookkeeping skills through on-the-job experience.

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data ................................................

File clerks. Newly hired workers usually are given several
weeks or months of on-the-job training to learn the
employer’s filing system and procedures. High school
graduates usually are preferred for beginning jobs. Most
employers seek applicants who can type and have some
knowledge of office practices. These and other office skills
can be learned in high schools, vocational schools, private
business schools, and community and junior colleges. In
addition, many States and localities sponsor programs
which furnish training in basic clerical skills, particularly to
prepare underemployed and low-skilled workers for entry
level jobs.

E m p loym en t, 1976 ...................................................... 1 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0
12.8
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
9 5 ,0 0 0
G row th ..................................................................
2 3 ,9 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
7 1 ,1 0 0
Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

76

Cashiers. Many cashiers learn their skills on the job under
the supervision of an experienced cashier. In large firms,
training often includes classroom instruction in the use of
electronic or computerized cash registers and other phases
of the job. Cashier training also is available in many public
school vocational programs. The cashier’s job may serve as a
stepping stone to a more responsible clerical position or to
a supervisory or managerial job.

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985
Percent grow th, 1 976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1976 ..............
1 ,2 5 0 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,6 4 0 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
30.5
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
9 2 ,0 0 0
G row th ..................................................................
4 3 ,0 0 0
R e p la cem en t........................................................
4 9 ,0 0 0




2 7 0 ,0 0 0
3 2 0 ,0 0 0
19.0
1 6 ,5 0 0
5 ,7 0 0
1 0 ,8 0 0

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

Available training data:

Job Corps completions

6 4 ,0 0 0
8 0 ,0 0 0
2 5.5
4 ,4 0 0
1 ,800
2 ,6 0 0

342

Hotel front office clerks. High school graduation is the
usual requirement for front office jobs. Newly hired

92
29

workers usually begin as mail, information, or key clerks
and are trained on the job. College training is an asset for
advancement to managerial jobs. Most hotels fill front
office jobs by promotion from within, so that a key or mail
clerk may be promoted to room clerk, then to assistant
front office manager, and eventually to front office
manager. Clerks can improve their opportunities for pro­
motion by taking courses in hotel management offered by
colleges, junior colleges, and vocational schools, or by
taking home study courses, such as those offered by the
Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel
Association.
E m ploym ent, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G rowth ..................................................................
R ep la c e m e n t.......................................................

Receptionists. Receptionists are trained on the job and
usually can learn the proper office procedures in a month.
If operating a switchboard is part of the job, this skill may
take longer to learn. A high school diploma generally is
required and courses in English, typing, and elementary
bookkeeping are helpful. Some employers prefer applicants
who have had some college training. College or business
school training can help a receptionist advance to secretary
or administrative assistant.
E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

6 2 ,0 0 0
6 8 ,0 0 0
9.3
3 ,3 0 0
600
2 ,7 0 0

Available training data:
Job Corps co m p letio n s......................................

Available training data ................................................

1 6 3 ,0 0 0
1 8 0 ,0 0 0
10.4
7 ,7 0 0
1 ,9 0 0
5 ,8 0 0

Fourteen States require court reporters to be Certified
Shorthand Reporters (CSR’s). Certification is administered
by a board of examiners in each State. The National
Shorthand Reporters Association confers the designation
Registered Professional Reporter (RPR) upon individuals
who pass a two-part examination and participate in
continuing education programs. This designation, which is
widely recognized as a mark of excellence in the field, can
be substituted for the CSR in some of the States which
require it.
The mark of achievement in the secretarial field is the
designation Certified Professional Secretary (CPS), which
the National Secretaries Association awards to individuals
who pass a series of examinations.

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................

10

Postal clerks. These workers are trained on the job.
Applicants must be at least 18 except for high school
graduates, who must be at least 16. Applicants must pass an
examination that tests clerical accuracy, and the ability to
read, do simple arithmetic, and memorize mail sorting
systems. Applicants also must pass a physical examination
and may have to show that they can handle mail sacks
weighing up to 70 pounds.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ...................................................... 3 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ................................... 4 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
37.1
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
2 9 5 ,0 0 0
G r o w th ..................................................................
1 4 5 ,0 0 0
1 5 0 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t................

2 7 0 ,0 0 0
2 4 0 ,0 0 0
-9.8
3 ,7 0 0
-2 ,9 0 0
6 ,6 0 0

Available training data:
Public vocational
education co m p letio n s................................
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s................................

Available training data:

Job Corps completions ............................



52

Secretaries and stenographers. High school graduation is the
minimum educational requirement for practically all secre­
tarial and stenographic positions. Good spelling, punctua­
tion, and grammar are important skills. Many employers
prefer to hire applicants who have had additional training at
a public or private vocational school or in college. These
courses range in length from several months’ instruction in
shorthand and typing to 1- or 2-year programs that teach
specialized skills, such as legal or medical secretarial work.
Employers generally test applicants to see that they meet
minimum standards of typing (50 words per minute) and
stenographic speed (110 words per minute). Persons seeking
a job as a shorthand reporter should be able to transcribe
225 words per minute.

Office machine operators. These workers generally are
trained on the job; the amount of training varies with the
type of machine being operated. Training can range from a
few days for duplicating machine operators to several
months of training at a manufacturer’s school for book­
keeping and billing machine operators. Employers prefer to
hire high school or business school graduates and generally
expect applicants to be able to type and know how to
operate adding machines and calculators. A knowledge of
business arithmetic also is helpful. Many high schools,
vocational schools, and State and local training programs
teach these skills.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ........
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

5 0 0 ,0 0 0
6 4 0 ,0 0 0
27.5
3 8 ,0 0 0
1 5 ,5 0 0
2 2 ,5 0 0

78
30

151,541
3 3 ,7 0 0

Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
Junior college gra d u a tes..................................
B achelor’s degrees in secretarial studies.....

145
1 9 ,7 0 4
1,538

Shipping and receiving clerks. High school graduates are
preferred for beginning jobs in shipping and receiving
departments. English, typing, business arithmetic, and other
high school or vocational school business subjects are
helpful. Newly hired workers are trained on the job and
often begin by filing, checking addresses, attaching labels,
and verifying the contents of shipments. After gaining
experience, clerks may be assigned more responsible tasks,
such as dealing with damaged merchandise.
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w t h ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

4 4 0 ,0 0 0
5 3 5 ,0 0 0
2 1 .2
2 3 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,5 0 0
1 2 ,5 0 0

Typists. Employers generally prefer to hire high school
graduates who can type at least 50-60 words per minute.
Good spelling, punctuation, and grammar are important
skills. Most typists learn their skills in high school, or take
courses lasting several months at public or private vocation­
al schools. Community and junior colleges also offer the
business courses needed for a typist job.
E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 ....................................................... 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
21 .8
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
6 3 ,0 0 0
G r o w th ..................................................................
2 4 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
3 9 ,0 0 0
Available training data:
Public vocational
education co m p letio n s................................
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s.................................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

1 1 4 ,1 8 2
6 ,9 0 0
1,123

Available training data ..........................................

Statistical clerks. A high school diploma or its equivalent is
required for most jobs as statistical clerks. Newly hired
workers are trained on the job and taught their employers’
record systems and procedures. In some instances, individ­
uals are hired as general office clerks before being promoted
to statistical clerk. High school courses in mathematics,
data processing, bookkeeping, and typing are good prepara­
tion.
E m p lo y m en t, 1 976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ............
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

3 3 7 ,0 0 0
4 1 0 ,0 0 0
2 1 .4
2 1 ,0 0 0
8 ,0 0 0
1 3 ,0 0 0

Available training data ...........................................

Stock clerks. There are no specific educational require­
ments for beginning stock clerks, although employers prefer
to hire high school graduates. The ability to read and write
well and a knowledge of arithmetic are necessary; knowing
how to type and file is useful. Newly hired workers learn
their skills on the job and usually begin by counting and
marking stock. Basic duties usually are learned in a few
weeks. Stock clerks who handle jewelry, liquor, or drugs
must be bonded (which requires good character references).
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w t h ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................




Computer operating personnel. High school graduation is
the minimum educational requirement for computer
operating jobs such as keypunch operator, auxiliary equip­
ment operator, and console operator. Many employers
prefer console operators who have some college education.
Beginners usually are trained on the job; the length of
training varies. Auxiliary equipment operators can learn
their jobs in a few weeks, but console operators require
several months of training before they are sufficiently
familiar with the equipment to be able to trace the causes
of breakdowns.
Formal computer training is desirable because most
employers look for applicants who already are skilled in
operating data entry equipment or computer consoles.
Many high schools, vocational schools, computer and
business schools, and community and junior colleges offer;
computer training.
E m p loym en t, 197 6 .......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 6 -8 5 ...........
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

5 6 5 ,0 0 0
5 4 0 ,0 0 0
-4.0
8 ,5 0 0
-2 ,3 0 0
1 0 ,8 00

Available training data:
Public vocational
education co m p letio n s................................
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
Job Corps com p letion s ................. .-................
Junior college g ra d u a te s..................................

4 9 0 ,0 0 0
5 8 5 ,0 0 0
18.7
2 5 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,5 00
1 4 ,5 0 0

10,625
1 1 ,0 0 0
1 282
1 4,441

1 Includes training for k eyp u n ch and other input tech­
nologies, com puter operators and peripheral equipm ent
operators, and general data processing workers.

Available training data:

Job Corps completions .........................

Computer and related occupations

190

31

Programmers. There are no universal training requirements
for programmers because employers’ needs vary. Some
require college graduates; others do not. Firms that use
computers for scientific or engineering applications usually
require programmers to have a bachelor’s degree with a
major in the physical sciences, mathematics, engineering, or
computer science. Some of these jobs require a graduate
degree. In firms that use computers for business appli­
cations, experience in inventory control, payroll, or ac­
counting often is more important than a college degree.
Nonetheless, these firms usually prefer applicants who have
had courses in data processing or programming.
Public and private vocational schools, high schools,
community and junior colleges, and colleges and univer­
sities teach computer programming. Instruction ranges from
introductory courses to advanced courses at the graduate
level.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R eplacem ent ...^..................................................

programmers are promoted to analyst trainees. Employers,
computer manufacturers, and colleges and universities offer
formal training in systems analysis.
Because technological advances occur so rapidly in the
computer field, continuous study is required to keep one’s
skills up to date. Usually employers and software vendors
offer 1- and 2-week courses. An indication of experience
and professional competence is the Certificate in Data
Processing (CDP), conferred by the Institute for Certifi­
cation of Computer Professionals upon candidates who
have completed five years’ experience and passed a 5-part:
examination.
E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

2 3 0 ,0 0 0
2 9 0 ,0 0 0
2 7 .4
9 ,7 0 0
7 ,0 0 0
2 ,7 0 0

1 6 0 ,0 0 0
2 1 0 ,0 0 0
32.9
7 ,6 0 0
5 ,8 0 0
1,800

Available training data:
Degrees in system s analysis:
Bachelor’s d e g r e e s.............................................
Master’s d e g r e e s .................................................
D o cto r’s degrees ................................................

89
87
3

Available training data:
Public vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
Private vocation al
education co m p letio n s...............................
Junior college g ra d u a tes.....................

9 ,9 0 9

Banking occupations

3 ,2 0 0
2 ,5 4 7

Bank clerks. These workers are trained on the job, and
generally learn their skills in just a few days or weeks. A
high school diploma is not absolutely required, but definite­
ly is preferred. High school or vocational school courses in
bookkeeping, typing, business arithmetic, and office
machine operation are useful.

Degrees in com puter and inform ation
sciences:
B achelor’s degrees .......................................
Master’s degrees ...........................................
D octor’s degrees............................................

5 ,6 5 2
2 ,6 0 3
244

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Systems analysts. No one way of preparing for a job as a
systems analyst exists because employers’ preferences
depend on the type of work done in the firm. Generally,
however, a bachelor’s degree is the minimum educational
requirement. For a job with a bank, insurance company, or
business Firm, a college degree in accounting, business, or
economics is appropriate. For work in a scientific or
technical organization, applicants need a degree in the
physical sciences, mathematics, engineering, or computer
science. In addition to the bachelor’s degree in a suitable
field, some employers prefer applicants who have work
experience in that field. Others require a graduate degree. A
growing number of employers seek applicants who have a
degree in computer science, information science, or data
processing. Regardless of college major, most employers
look for people who are familiar with programming
languages. Courses in computer concepts, systems analysis,
and data retrieval techniques offer good preparation for a
job in this field.
In addition, most employers prefer applicants who have
some experience in computer programming. Because of the
importance of programming experience, many who begin as



4 5 6 ,0 0 0
6 1 5 ,0 0 0
34.5
3 6 ,0 0 0
1 7,500
1 8,500

Available training d a ta ................................................

Bank officers and managers. These positions generally are
filled by hiring and promoting management trainees,
although outstanding bank clerks or tellers may be pro­
moted to trainee jobs and then to management positions. A
bachelor’s degree is the minimum educational requirement
for management trainees. A major in banking and finance is
useful, but liberal arts graduates who have had courses in
accounting, economics, and statistics also are well qualified.
Some banks prefer to hire persons who have graduate
degrees for trainee positions; the most desirable degree is
the Master of Business Administration. Bank clerks and
tellers who are promoted to management trainee positions
usually are not college graduates. Often, however, they have
taken home study courses in subjects related to banking,
such as finance and commercial credit, offered by the
American Bankers Association.

32

In-house training programs for bank officers generally
last from 6 months to 1 year. Trainees usually rotate among
all the departments in the bank, and are encouraged to
continue their education through courses offered by local
colleges and uni ersities, or through the American Bankers
Association.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...........
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G r o w th .....................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 .....................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data ................................................

3 1 9 ,0 0 0
4 6 5 ,0 0 0
4 5 .8
2 8 ,0 0 0
1 6 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,0 0 0

Claim representatives. A growing number of insurance
companies prefer to hire college graduates for positions as
claim representatives (examiners and adjusters). Although
courses in insurance, economics, or other business subjects
are helpful, a major in almost any field is acceptable. An
adjuster who has a business or accounting major might
specialize in handling claims for losses due to business
interruption or damage to merchandise. Someone who has a
degree in industrial engineering might adjust industrial
claims. College training is not always necessary, however.
Persons experienced in automobile repair work might be
hired as auto adjusters, and those who have clerical work
experience might get jobs as inside adjusters.
Newly hired claim representatives are trained on the job
under the supervision of an experienced worker. The
Insurance Institute of America offers a six-semester pro­
gram leading to a diploma in insurance loss and claim
adjusting upon successful completion of six examinations.
Adjusters can prepare for these examinations through home
study or classroom courses.
The Life Office Management Association (LOMA), in
cooperation with the International Claim Association,
offers a claims education program for life and health
examiners. The program is part of the LOMA Institute
Insurance Education Program leading to the professional
designation, FLMI (Fellow, Life Management Institute)
upon successful completion of eight written examinations.
About three-fourths of the States require adjusters to be
licensed. State licensing requirements vary, but applicants
usually must complete an approved course in insurance or
loss adjusting, and pass a written examination. They should
be bonded (which requires good character references) and
be at least 20 years old.

Available training data:
D egrees in banking and finance:
Bachelor’s degrees .......................................
Master’s degrees ...........................................
D octor’s d e g r e e s...........................................

7,091
2 ,4 1 4
41

Bank tellers. These workers learn their skills on the job.
Generally, banks prefer to hire high school graduates who
have some experience in office work. Prior experience is
important because employers look for applicants who have
the maturity and tact to deal with customers. High school
courses in typing, mathematics, and office machine opera­
tion are useful. Because tellers handle large amounts of
money, applicants must be bonded (which requires good
character references).
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ........................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

3 1 0 ,0 0 0
4 0 5 ,0 0 0
3 0 .0
2 1 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,5 0 0
1 0 ,5 0 0

Available training data ...............................................

Insurance occupations

Actuaries. A bachelor’s degree with a major in mathematics
or statistics provides a good background for a beginning job
in a large life or casualty company; a degree in actuarial
science is even better. Some companies hire applicants who
have an economics or business administration major,
provided they have a thorough foundation in calculus,
probability, and statistics. Other useful courses are insur­
ance law, economics, and accounting. Although only 25
colleges and universities offer a degree in actuarial science,
several hundred schools offer a degree in mathematics or
statistics.
It usually takes from five to ten years after beginning an
actuarial career to complete the entire series of examina­
tions required for full professional status. Applicants who
pass the first two examinations while still in college usually
have an advantage in competing for actuarial jobs upon
graduation. The advanced examinations require extensive
home study and on-the-job experience.



9 ,0 0 0
1 1 ,400
2 6 .7
500
250
250

E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 .......
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ....................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 5 5 ,0 0 0
1 9 0 ,0 0 0
2 1 .8
7 ,7 0 0
3 ,8 0 0
3 ,9 0 0

Available training data ................................................

Underwriters. A bachelor’s degree is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for beginning underwriting jobs in most
insurance companies. Applicants who have degrees in
business administration or liberal arts are preferred, but
college training in almost any field is acceptable. In some
companies, high school graduates who have experience as
underwriting clerks are trained as underwriters. Independ­

33

ent study programs, which often are required for advance­
ment in underwriting, are available through the American
Institute of Property and Liability Underwriters, the
American College of Life Underwriters, the Academy of
Life Underwriters, the Health Insurance Association of
America, and the Life Office Management Association.
The following estimates represent combined data for
insurance agents, brokers, and underwriters.

2-year programs in marketing and purchasing. Generally,
however, employers accept graduates in any field and train
them on the job.
Many stores have formal training programs for all
management trainees, including buyers. These programs last
from 6 to 8 months and combine classroom instruction in
merchandising and purchasing with short rotations to
various jobs and departments in the store.

E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................

E m p loym en t, 1976 .......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ..............
A nnual average openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t...........:.................... ...................

Projected employment, 1985 .........
Percent growth, 1976-85 .............................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w t h ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.........................................

4 9 0 ,0 0 0
5 8 0 ,0 0 0
18.6
2 7 ,5 0 0
1 0 ,1 0 0
1 7 ,4 0 0

Available training data

A vailable training data

Administrative and related occupations

Accountants. Most large firms require applicants to have a
bachelor’s degree with a major in accounting or a closeiy
related field, such as business administration or economics.
Some prefer applicants who have a master’s degree in
accounting. Training in accounting also is available in junior
and community colleges, business schools, and correspond­
ence schools; however, job opportunities for graduates of
these 1- and 2-year programs usually are limited to small
accounting and business firms.
All States require certified public accountants (CPA’s) to
be certified by the State board of accountancy. Individuals
receive this designation by passing the CPA examination,
which is prepared by the American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants, and meeting the education and
experience requirements of the State. Three-fourths of the
States require CPA candidates to be college graduates, and
nearly all of them insist on 2 or more years of public
accounting experience.

G ty managers. Although some individuals who have bach­
elor’s degrees in public administration may find employ­
ment as city managers, a master’s degree in public or
business administration is becoming an essential qualifica­
tion. Workers in this field usually begin as management
assistants in positions such as administrative assistant,
department head assistant, or assistant city manager. As
they gain experience and administrative skills, assistants
may advance to more responsible positions or to city
manager jobs. Professional advancement usually involves
relocating to city manager jobs in progressively larger cities.
E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Credit managers. A bachelor’s degree usually is required for
beginning jobs in credit management. Employers generally
prefer applicants who have majored in business adminis­
tration, economics, or accounting, although some employ­
ers hire liberal arts graduates as well. Experience may be
substituted for the college degree; some employers accept
high school graduates who have had experience in credit
collection or in processing credit information.

A vailable training data:
Junior college g r a d u a tes..................................

E m p loym en t, 197 6 .......
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings 1976-85 ..........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

9 ,3 7 4

D egrees in accounting:

1975-76
3 5 ,8 0 6
2 ,7 3 0
55

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

5 3 ,0 0 0
6 0 ,0 0 0
13.2
2 ,5 0 0
800
1,700

Available training data ................................................
'4 0 ,3 4 5
4 ,1 0 3
101

Hotel managers and assistants. Although experience and
management ability are the most important considerations
in selecting hotel managers, employers increasingly prefer
college graduates. Formal training in hotel or restaurant
management can be helpful, in part because such programs
also provide opportunities for part-time or summer job

Buyers. Although many buyers have worked their way from
stockroom and sales positions, a college degree is increasing­
ly important and may be required in the future. Many
colleges, junior colleges, and business schools offer 1- or



3 ,0 0 0
3 ,9 0 0
28 .3
250
100
150

Available training data ................................................

8 6 5 ,0 0 0
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,0 5 0 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
2 1 .3
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
5 1 ,5 0 0
G r o w t h ..................................................................
2 0 ,5 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t................................................
3 1 ,0 0 0

B achelor’s degrees
M aster’s degrees ...
D o cto r’s degrees ..

1 0 9 ,0 0 0
1 2 0 ,0 0 0
10.1
5,700
1,20C
4 ,5 0 0

34

experience and contacts with prospective employers. Many
employers prefer applicants who have completed a 4-year
college curriculum in hotel and restaurant administration.
In 1976, about 30 such programs were offered. Others hire
graduates of the hotel training programs offered by some
junior and community colleges, vocational schools, and
home study (correspondence) schools. Some large hotels
have special management trainee programs in which newly
hired workers or persons promoted from within rotate
among various departments to acquire a thorough knowl­
edge of the hotel’s operation.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ..... -..................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 3 7 ,0 0 0
1 5 0 ,0 0 0
9 .6
7 ,0 0 0
1,500
5 ,5 0 0

Available training data:
Public vocational
education com p letio n s................................
D egrees in h otel and restaurant
agement:

3 ,0 2 2

man­

Junior college grad u ates...............................
B achelor’s d eg rees...........................................
Master’s d e g r e e s...............................................

1,865
1,499
64

Lawyers. In all States, admission to the bar is required
before an individual can practice law. To qualify for the bar
examination, most States require 4 years of college
followed by 3 years of law school. Four years of study
usually are required to complete a night school law
curriculum.
Although formal training takes place in law school, the
courses one selects as an undergraduate are important
because there is no “prelaw major.” Students should choose
courses that develop and expand their reading, writing,
verbal, and analytical skills. College majors in the social
sciences, natural sciences, or humanities are particularly
suitable. Competition for admission to law school is
intense, and as is true for other professional schools, law
schools vary widely in quality and reputation. Graduates
will find that their standing in the graduating class and the
stature of the school they attended are important to
prospective employers.
Unless a significant change occurs in enrollment trends,
the current oversupply of law school graduates can be
expected to continue. It is anticipated that about 23,400
new lawyers will be needed annually between 1976 and
1985. The National Center for Education Statistics projec­
tions indicate that an average of about 34,000 law students
will graduate each year. Not all law school graduates pass
the bar examination and seek to practice law, however. In
the past, either by choice or because of job market
conditions, some have entered politics, public administra­
tion, business, and other fields. Many future law school
graduates may have to find employment in these other
occupations.




35

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training d ata:

Law sch ool graduates-........

3 9 6 ,0 0 0
4 9 0 ,0 0 0
25 .0
2 3 ,4 0 0
1 0 ,4 0 0
1 3 ,0 0 0
P ro jected

1 9 7 5 -7 6
3 2 ,2 9 3

1 9 7 6 -85
(an n u alaverage)
3 3 ,8 3 8

1 Includes L.L.B. and J.D. degrees.

Personnel and labor relations workers. A bachelor’s degree
is the minimum educational background for a beginning job
in personnel work— field which includes occupations such
a
as recruiter, interviewer, job analyst, position classifier,
wage administrator, training specialist, and employee
counselor. Some employers look for college graduates who
have majored in personnel administration, public adminis­
tration, business, or economics, while others prefer appli­
cants who have a liberal arts background. Graduate study in
industrial relations, economics, business, or law usually is
required for labor relations jobs. The combination of a law
degree plus a master’s in industrial relations is increasingly
desirable for people seeking to enter the small and highly
competitive labor relations field. Experience is important,
too, and some workers gain essential experience in person­
nel work and then switch to labor relations. While at least
200 colleges and universities offer programs leading to a
bachelor’s degree in personnel and labor relations, only 30
schools offer the master’s degree in labor or industrial
relations.
E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th .............................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

3 3 5 ,0 0 0
4 5 0 ,0 0 0
34.9
2 3 ,0 0 0
1 3 ,000
1 0 ,000

Available training data ................................................

Public relations workers. A bachelor’s degree in journalism,
communications, or public relations usually is the preferred
educational background for beginning jobs. Some employ­
ers seek college graduates who have a degree in a scientific
or technical field, plus communications skills. Experience
can be very important in getting a job, and many employers
prefer applicants who have media or journalism experience.
Some companies that have large public relations staffs
have formal training programs for new workers. The Public
Relations Society of America accredits those who have
passed a comprehensive examination and worked at least 5
years’ in the field.
E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 .........
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data

1 1 5 ,0 0 0
1 5 0 ,0 0 0
30.5
8 ,3 0 0
3 ,9 0 0
4 ,4 0 0

Purchasing agents. A college degree is required for a
beginning position with a large company. Many companies
hire business administration or liberal arts majors for
trainee positions, but firms that manufacture machinery or
chemicals generally prefer applicants who have a science or
engineering degree. A growing number of large companies
look for applicants who have a master’s degree in purchas­
ing management or a related field. Some small firms select
purchasing agents from their own staff, and do not require
a college degree.
Continuing education is essential for career advance­
ment. Purchasing agents are encouraged to participate in
seminars sponsored by professional societies and to take
courses in purchasing at local colleges and universities. The
recognized mark of experience and professional compe­
tence in private industry is the designation Certified
Purchasing Manager (CPM), conferred by the National
Association of Purchasing Management upon candidates
who have passed four examinations and meet educational
and experience requirements. In government agencies, the
mark of professional competence is the Certified Public
Purchasing Officer (CPPO), conferred by the National
Institute of Governmental Purchasing upon persons who
have passed two examinations and meet educational and
experience requirements.

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 9 2 ,0 0 0
2 6 0 ,0 0 0
3 4 .9
1 3 ,8 0 0
7 ,4 0 0
6 ,4 0 0

Available training data ................................................

Urban planners. The master’s degree in planning is the usual
requirement for jobs at the entry level. There are some
beginning jobs, however, for which a bachelor’s degree in
city planning, architecture, landscape architecture, engi­
neering, or other closely related fields is acceptable. A
master’s degree is essential for advancement in most jobs.
E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 .................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 6 ,000
2 3 ,0 0 0
46.5
1 ,1 0 0
800
300

Available training data:
Degrees in city , com m u n ity, and regional planning:
B achelor’s d e g r e e s .......................................
Master’s degrees ...........................................
D o cto r’s d e g r e e s...........................................

448
1,411
51

Service Occupations
job. Courses in housekeeping are offered by several colleges
and universities that have programs in hotel administration,
and also by junior colleges, vocational schools, and home
study (correspondence) schools. Persons who have degrees
in institutional housekeeping management or who have
taken courses in this area may have the best opportunities
to advance to executive housekeeper.

Cleaning and related occupations

Building custodians. Most building custodians are trained
on the job. A high school diploma is not required, as a rule,
but workers should know simple arithmetic and read well
enough to follow written instructions. High school shop
courses are helpful because minor plumbing or carpentry
may be part of the job. Training in custodial skills is
available through government training programs and labor
unions.

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

E m p loym en t, 1976 ...................................................... 2 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 2 ,4 2 3 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ................................
15.3
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
1 6 0 ,0 0 0
G row th ..................................................................
3 5 ,0 0 0
R ep la c e m e n t.......................................................
1 2 5 ,0 0 0

Available training data:

Private vocational education completions....

Available training data:
Public vocational
education com p letion s...............................
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
Job Corps c o m p le tio n s.......................

0 )

1 Less than 50.
3 ,9 4 2
0 )
Food service occupations

1,077

1 Less than 50.

Bartenders. Most bartenders learn their trade on the job. A
high school diploma is not required. Experience as a
bartender’s helper, dining room attendant, waiter, or
waitress is good training. Generally, bartenders must be at
least 21 years old, and some employers prefer to hire

Hotel housekeepers and assistants. Employers prefer to hire
applicants who are high school graduates. Experience or
training in hotel housekeeping also is helpful in getting a




1 7 ,000
1 9 ,0 0 0
11.9
1 ,100
200
900

36

persons who are 25 or older. Some States require bar­
tenders to have health certificates assuring that they are
free from contagious diseases. In some instances, bartenders

Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

m ust be b onded.

Available training data:

E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w t h .................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

2 6 1 ,0 0 0
3 1 0 ,0 0 0
18.8
1 7 ,8 0 0
5 ,4 0 0
1 2 ,4 0 0

1 3 ,8 0 0

1 Includes training com pleted in all quantity fo o d service
o ccu p atio n s.

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..............
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Cooks and chefs. Most cooks acquire their skills on the job
while employed as kitchen helpers, although it is becoming
common for cooks to have had high school or post-high
school training in food preparation. A few cooks and chefs
are trained as apprentices under trade union contracts or
employee training programs conducted by large hotels and
restaurants. A high school diploma is not required for most
beginning jobs; however, employers usually prefer high
school graduates and applicants for apprenticeship-must be
graduates. A few private schools have 2- to 3-year training
programs for cooks and chefs. The Armed Forces also are a
good source of training and experience in food service
work. Persons who wish to become chefs may find courses
in business administration helpful since chefs often are
responsible for directing the operation of their kitchens,
including purchasing supplies, planning menus, and super­
vising other kitchen staff. Most States require cooks and
chefs to have health certificates.

Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

2 1 5 ,0 0 0
2 0 0 ,0 0 0
-7 .9
4 ,9 0 0
-1 ,9 0 0
6 ,8 0 0

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

121
853

Waiters and waitresses. Although most waiters and wait­
resses learn their skills on the job, some attend special
training courses offered by public' and private vocational
schools and restaurant associations. Employers generally
prefer applicants who have had at least 2 or 3 years of high
school, and are good in arithmetic. Expensive restaurants
that take pride in the quality of service they provide often
hire only experienced waiters and waitresses. Restaurants
specializing in food of a foreign country may prefer
applicants who speak that country’s language. State laws
often require waiters and waitresses to obtain health
certificates.

1 1,717
1 548

1 Includes bakers.

Dining room attendants and dishwashers. These occu­
pations can be learned on the job with very little formal
training. A high school diploma is not required, but State
laws often require dining room attendants and dishwashers
to obtain health certificates.




66

Meatcutters. Although many learn their skills informally on
the job, most meatcutters complete a 2- to 3-year ap­
prenticeship program. At the end of the training, appren­
tices are given a meatcutting test which their employers
observe. Employers prefer high school graduates. Courses in
business arithmetic are helpful in weighing and pricing meat
and in making change. Some States require meatcutters to
have health certificates showing that they are free of
contagious diseases.

A vailable training data:

E m p lo y m en t, 1 976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ............
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................

4 2 1 ,0 0 0
5 7 0 ,0 0 0
3 5 .2
3 3 ,0 0 0
1 6 ,5 0 0
1 6 ,5 0 0

Available training data:

E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ...................................................... 1 ,0 6 5 ,0 0 0
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,3 5 0 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 .......................................
2 6 .6
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
7 9 ,0 0 0
G row th ................... ,.............................................
3 1 ,5 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
4 7 ,5 0 0

Job Corps com pletion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

69

Food counter workers. Most counter workers learn their
skills on the job. For counter jobs that require totaling bills
and making change, employers prefer persons who are good
in arithmetic and have attended high school. A diploma
generally is not necessary. Managers of fast-food restaurants
often hire high school students as part-time counter
workers. State laws often require counter workers to obtain
health certificates'

A vailable training data:
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s................................

2 2 ,4 0 0
1 1 ,4 0 0
1 1 ,000

4 4 2 ,0 0 0
5 4 5 ,0 0 0
2 3 .3

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ...................................................... 1 ,2 6 0 ,0 0 0
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 .................................... 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0

37

Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th .................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

tion for taking a State licensing examination. In some
States completion of an apprenticeship program can sub­
stitute for graduation from cosmetology school but few
cosmetologists learn their skills this way. Both public and
private vocational schools offer training in cosmetology. A
daytime course usually takes 9 months to 1 year; an
evening course takes longer. An apprenticeship generally
lasts 1 or 2 years.

19.5
7 1 ,0 0 0
2 7 ,0 0 0
4 4 ,0 0 0

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................

69

Personal service occupations

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Barbers. Most States require barbers to be licensed. To
obtain a license applicants must have graduated from a
State-approved barber school, have completed the eighth
grade, pass a physical examination, and be at least 16 years
old (in some States 18). Nearly all States require a beginner
to take an examination for an apprentice license, and then,
after 1 or 2 years of work, take a second examination for a
license as a registered barber. Many public and private
schools and a few vocational schools offer barber training
which usually lasts 9 to 12 months. Because most States do
not recognize out-of-State training, apprenticeship work, or
licenses, persons who wish to become barbers should review
the laws of the State in which they wish to work before
entering barber school.
E m ploym ent, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Available training data:
Public vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

1 2 4 ,0 0 0
1 2 6 ,0 0 0
1.4
8 ,1 0 0
200
7 ,9 0 0

810
5 ,0 0 0
2
1 347

1 May include som e beauticians.

Bellhops and bell captains. Bellhops are trained on the job.
Many hotels promote elevator operators to these jobs.
Although a high school diploma is not required, it improves
chances for promotion to bell captain or to front office
clerk. Opportunities for advancement to bell captain are
limited, however.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ................................................... ;............
R e p la cem en t.......................................................

1 8,309
4 9 ,4 0 0
87

Funeral directors and embalmers. All States require embalmers to be licensed. Although licensing standards vary
by State, an embalmer generally must be 21, have a high
school diploma or its equivalent, graduate from a mortuary
science school, serve an internship and pass a State board
examination. About half of the States require a year or
more of college in addition to training in mortuary science.
About half of all mortuary science programs are offered
by private vocational schools and last 1 year. The others are
offered by colleges and junior colleges. Most of these
programs are 2 years in length, although a few last 4 years.
Internships are 1 to 2 years in length and may be served
before, during, or after one attends mortuary school
depending on State regulations.
All but six States also require funeral directors to be
licensed. The requirements are similar to those for em­
balmers, but directors have special internship training and
board examinations. Most people obtain both licenses.

Available training data:
Public vocational
education com p letio n s...............................
Private vocational
education co m p le tio n s...............................
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s ........................

5 3 4 ,0 0 0
6 2 5 ,0 0 0
16.7
3 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,0 0 0
2 0 ,0 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 6 ,6 0 0
1 6 ,5 0 0
-0.9
600
0
600

4 5 ,0 0 0
4 5 ,0 0 0
0 .0
2 ,2 0 0
0
2 ,2 0 0

Available training data:
Public vocational
education co m p letio n s................................
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s................................

111
3 ,8 0 0

Available training data ...............................................
Private household service occupations

Cosmetologists. All States require cosmetologists to be
licensed. Most States require applicants for a license to pass
a physical examination, be at least 16 years old, and have
completed the 10th grade. Successful completion of a
State-approved cosmetology course is appropriate prepara­




Private household workers. Most household worker jobs
require no formal education. Instead, the ability to cook,
sew, wash and iron, clean house, and care for children is
important. Many necessary skills are learned in the home;

38

more advanced skills can be learned in home economics
courses in high schools, vocational schools, and through
government and private training programs.

Junior college graduates...................................

9 4 ,2 4 7
200

Protective and related service occupations

Correction officers. Most State and local governments
prefer individuals who are high school graduates and are at
least 21 years old. Many require applicants to pass a
physical examination and meet standards of height, weight,
vision, and hearing. Some State and local governments
require applicants to qualify through a written examination
that tests general intelligence. Although some correction
officers attend training academies, most are trained on the
job. Areas covered during their training include institutional
policies and regulations, inmate behavior, custody pro­
cedures, report writing, and security.

Available training data

9 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 5 ,0 0 0
16.9
8 ,9 0 0
1,700
7 ,2 0 0

.............................................

Firefighters. In most communities, qualifying examinations
are open to high sch ool graduates w ho are at least 18.
Those who score the highest on these examinations, which
test intelligence, strength, stamina, and agility, have the
best chances for appointment. Experience as a volunteer
firefighter or in the Armed Forces may help chances for
appointment, too. Beginners in large fire departments
generally are trained for several weeks at the city’s fire
school before assignment to local fire companies. Small
communities either train firefighters on the job or hire
experienced workers. Additional study can be valuable in
preparing for promotion examinations. Fire departments
fiequently conduct training programs, and vocational
ichools offer courses in fire and fire safety technology
dany colleges and universities offer courses in fire engileering and fire science.
Employment, 1976 ......................................................
•rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
’ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................




3 ,2 3 4

Guards. Employers prefer high school graduates; applicants
who have not completed high school may be tested for
their ability to read, write, and follow written and oral
instructions. Police experience gained in the Armed Forces
or in State or local police departments is helpful. Most
newly hired guards receive on-the-job training combined
with formal instruction that covers areas such as the use of
firearms, first aid, emergency procedures, and security
problems.

Available training data:

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G rowth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

8 ,3 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
3 ,3 0 0

Available training data:

E m ploym ent, 1976 ...................................................... 1 ,1 2 5 ,0 0 0
9 1 5 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
-18.8
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
5 3 ,0 0 0
D ecline .................................................•...............
-2 3 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................
7 6 ,0 0 0

Public vocational
education com p letio n s...............................
Private vocational
education com p letio n s...............................

Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th .......................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

5 0 0 ,0 0 0
6 8 0 ,0 0 0
3 6 .3
6 3 ,0 0 0
2 0 ,0 0 0
4 3 ,0 0 0

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

6

Police officers. Most large cities and many smaller commu­
nities fill police jobs by competitive examination. Candidates
usually must be at least 21 years old, high school graduates,
in good health, and must meet height, weight, hearing, and
vision requirements. Police departments in some large cities
generally require 1 or more years of college, and a growing
number of police departments hire students majoring in law
enforcement as police interns. Some small cities may
consider applicants who have not finished high school.
Small communities often train police officers on the job;
large cities have formal training at a police academy for a
few weeks or several months. Training usually includes
instruction in laws and ordinances, civil rights, investigation
techniques, traffic control, self-defense, use of firearms, and
first aid.
E m ploym ent, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t......................................

5 0 0 ,0 0 0
7 0 0 ,0 0 0
4 0 .4
3 2 ,5 0 0
2 2 ,8 0 0
9 ,7 0 0

Available training data:
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
Junior college g ra d u a tes..................................

100
1 18,698

1 May include som e State police officers.

State police officers. State civil service regulations govern
the appointment of State police officers; a competitive ex­
amination generally is required. In most States, the
examination is open to high school graduates, or to persons
who have an equivalent combination of education and ex­
perience. State police officers must be at least 21, in good

2 1 0 ,0 0 0
2 6 0 ,0 0 0
21.1

39

must meet height, weight, hearing, and vision
Tests o f strength and agility often are required.
T h e character and background of candidates usually are
investigated. In some States, high school graduates who are
u nd er 21 may enter State police work as cadets. They at­
ten d classes, are assigned nonenforcement duties, and, if
th e y q u a lify , may be appointed officers at age 21.
In all States recruits must enter a formal training
program fo r several months of classroom instruction in
topics such as State laws and jurisdictions, traffic control,
and accident investigation. Recruits also learn self-defense,
use o f firearms, driving techniques, and first aid.
H ig h school and college courses in English, government,
psychology, sociology, and physics are useful. Physical
education and sports develop stamina and agility. Driver
education courses and military police training also are

degree or 3 years of responsible work experience are
required. Other Federal inspectors must pass an examina­
tion based on specialized knowledge, in addition to having
work experience in a related field. Qualifications for
inspectors at the State and local level usually are similar to
those for Federal employees. All inspectors are trained in
the laws and inspection procedures in their specific field
through a combination of classroom and on-the-job train­
ing.

h e a lth , and
standards.

E m p loym en t, 1 976 .......................................................
Project em p lo y m en t, 1985 ........................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th .................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data:

h e lp fu l.

Employment 1 9 7 6 .......................... .......................... ..
Projected employment, 1985 ...................................
Percent growth, 1976-85 ..................................
A verage annual openings, 19 7 6 -8 5 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Junior college g ra d u a tes.................................
4 8 ,0 0 0
5 7 ,0 0 0
2 0 .6
1 ,9 0 0
1 ,1 0 0
800

Mail carriers. These workers are trained on the job.
Applicants must be at least 18 except for high school
graduates, who must be at least 16. They also must pass an
examination that tests clerical accuracy and the ability to
read, do simple arithmetic, and memorize mail sorting
systems. If the job involves driving, an applicant must have
a driver’s license and pass a road test. Applicants also must
pass a physical examination and may be asked to show that
they can handle mail sacks weighing up to 70 pounds.

(‘ )
(‘ )

1 See P olice officers.

Construction inspectors (government). These workers re­
ceive most o f their training on the job. Generally, appli­
cants must have several years of experience as a construc­
tion contractor, supervisor, or craftworker. Previous experi­
ence as an electrician, plumber, pipefitter, or carpenter is
particularly helpful. A high school diploma is required by
Federal, State, and most local governments. Many
employers prefer inspectors to be graduates of an appren­
ticeship program or to have had college courses in architec­
ture, engineering, mathematics, or construction technology.
Periodic retraining is necessary to keep abreast of changes
in technology, building codes, and related areas.
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w t h ................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

b m p lo y m en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ............................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

2 5 0 ,0 0 0
2 5 0 ,0 0 0
-0.4
5 ,3 0 0
0
5 ,3 0 0

Available training data ................................................

Telephone operators. New operators are trained on the job.
Instruction and practice usually last from 1 to 3 weeks, and
then operators are assigned to regular operator jobs and
receive further instruction from supervisors. PBX operators
may have a somewhat shorter training period than tele­
phone company operators. High school graduation is
required, and courses in speech, office practices, and
business arithmetic are helpful.

2 2 ,0 0 0
3 0 ,0 0 0
3 6 .4
2 ,3 0 0
900
1 ,4 0 0

A vailable training data ................................................

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Health and regulatory inspectors (government). Because
inspectors perform a wide range of duties, qualifications for
employment vary. The Federal Government requires a
passing score on the Professional and Administrative Career
Examination (PACE) for several occupations, including
immigration, customs, occupational safety, and consumer
safety inspectors. To take the examination, a bachelor’s




460

Other service occupations

A vailable training data:
Private vocational
ed u cation com p letio n s...............................
Junior college g ra d u a te s..................................

1 1 5 ,0 0 0
1 4 5 ,0 0 0
2 7 .4
7 ,9 0 0
3 ,5 0 0
4 ,4 0 0

3 4 0 ,0 0 0
3 3 0 ,0 0 0
-3.0
1 1 ,6 0 0
-1 ,1 0 0
1 2 ,7 0 0

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

40

25

Education and Related Occupations
Teaching occupations

parochial schools. To become certified, an individual must
have a bachelor’s degree from an institution with a
State-approved teacher education program. Student-teach­
ing and basic education courses also are required. In 1976,
the District of Columbia required a master’s degree for
initial certification, and 14 States required a fifth year of
study, or a master’s degree, within a specified time after
beginning work. Some States demand U.S. citizenship,
some an oath of allegiance, and several a health certificate.
Local school systems sometimes have additional require­
ments.
The supply of secondary school teachers is expected to
greatly exceed the available number of openings through
the mid-1980’s if past trends of entry into the profession
continue. The number of teaching positions is projected to
decline during this period as enrollment in secondary
schools declines. The largest source of secondary teachers is
new degree recipients. The National Center for Education
Statistics projects an average of about 1 million new
bachelor’s degrees to be awarded annually over the 1976-85
period, although not all graduates will be qualified to teach
in secondary schools. On the basis of recent trends, it is
anticipated that about 156,000 graduates will be prepared
to teach each year. Of these, 108,000 are expected to
actively seek teaching positions.

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers. All States
require public elementary school teachers to be certified,
and some States also require certification of elementary
teachers in private and parochial schools. To become
certified, an individual must have a bachelor’s degree from
an institution with a State-approved teacher education
program. Student teaching and basic education courses also
are required. In 1976, 14 States required teachers to obtain
supplementary postgraduate education —usually a master’s
degree or a fifth year of study — after their initial
certification. Some States demand U.S. citizenship, some an
oath of allegience, and several a health certificate. Local
school systems sometimes have additional requirements.
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers are ex­
pected to face competition for jobs of their choice through
the mid-1980’s. The primary source of teacher supply is
new degree recipients. The National Center for Education
Statistics projects an average of about 1 million new
bachelor’s degrees to be awarded annually over the 1976-85
period, although not all graduates will be qualified to teach
in elementary schools. On the basis of recent trends, it is
anticipated that an average of 119,000 graduates will be
prepared to teach each year. Of these, 99,000 are expected
to actively seek teaching positions.
Teachers who have left the labor force and certified
teachers who did not enter the labor force after graduation
also are sources of supply. However, the number of
prospective entrants from these sources is influenced by
factors which cannot be projected with accuracy, such as
the availability of teaching jobs relative to other jobs, and
salaries of teachers relative to other occupations. Despite
the problem of estimating future supply, there is every
indication that the potential supply will exceed the average
annual openings over the 1976-85 period. As a result, an
increasing proportion of new college graduates certified to
teach in elementary schools, as well as delayed entrants and
reentrants, may have to seek employment in other occupa­
tions.

Teachers who have left the labor force and certified
teachers who did not enter the labor force after graduation
also are sources of supply. However, the number of
prospective entrants from these sources cannot be projected
with accuracy, as it is affected by the availability of
teaching jobs relative to other jobs, and salaries of teachers
relative to other occupations. Despite the problem of
estimating future supply, there is every indication that the
potential supply will exceed the expected number of
openings. As a result, an increasing proportion of new
college graduates certified to teach in secondary schools, as
well as delayed entrants and reentrants may have to seek
employment in other occupations.
E m p loym en t, 1 976 ...................................................... 1 ,1 1 1 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
9 8 6 ,0 0 0
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
-11.3
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
1 3 ,000
D ecline ..................................................................
-1 4 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
2 7 ,0 0 0

E m ploym ent, 1976 ...................................................... 1 ,3 6 4 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,4 9 8 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ........................
9.8
Average annual openings, 1 9 7 6 -8 5 ..........................
7 0 ,0 0 0
Grow th ..................................................................
1 5 ,000
R eplacem ent.........................................................
5 5 ,0 0 0

Available training data:
N ew college graduates prepared to teach
in secondary sch ools in 1 9 7 6 .................

Available training data:
N ew college graduates prepared to teach
in elem entary sch ools in 1976 ................

1 N ational E ducation A ssociation data.
1 1 1 0 ,9 6 8

College and university teachers. Most beginning instructor
positions require a master’s degree in the subject to be
taught. A Ph. D. degree generally is preferred, and may be
required by some institutions. Advancement to assistant
professor, to associate professor, and then to a full

1 N ational E ducation A ssociation data.

Secondary school teachers. All States require public sec­
ondary school teachers to be certified, and some States also
require certification of secondary teachers in private and




1 144,931

41

professorship requires additional teaching and research
experience.
Individuals seeking teaching positions in colleges and
universities can expect to face keen competition through
the mid-1980’s. The National Center for Education Statis­
tics projects an average of about 40,000 Ph. D’s to be
awarded annually between 1976 and 1985. In the past,
more than one-half of all Ph. D. recipients entered college
teaching. If this entry rate continues, the supply of Ph. D’s
alone who are seeking teaching positions could exceed
available openings. It appears, therefore, that an increasing
proportion of prospective college teachers, especially those
with master’s degrees, will have to seek nonacademic jobs.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ...................................................... 1 5 9 3 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 6 1 0 ,0 0 0
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
2.9
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .............................
17^00
Grow th ..................................................................
2 ,0 0 0
R ep la c e m e n t............................................................
1 5 ,0 0 0
Available training data ................................................
1 D oes not include part-tim e junior instructors.

E m ploym ent, 1 9 7 6 ........................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t..... ..................................................

Teacher aides. Requirements vary widely. Some schools
hire high school graduates; some do not require a diploma.
Others want aides to have some college training or a
bachelor’s degree. Teacher aides may be trained on the job
or through a formal training program. A growing number of
junior and community colleges offer teacher aide programs
that culminate in an associate degree. When hiring, schools
may give preference to individuals who have experience
working with children and have the most education. Some
schools have regulations regarding the hiring of aides.
Applicants may be required to have a family income below
a certain level or to be parents of children in the school
district. In addition, health regulations may require teacher
aides to pass a physical examination.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ....................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ..................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 .........................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .......................
G row th .................................................................
R eplacem ent ......................................................

1 4 5 ,0 0 0
13.3
8 ,0 0 0
2 ,0 0 0
6 ,0 0 0

Degrees in library science:
B achelor’s d e g r e e s .......................................
Master’s degrees ...........................................
D o cto r’s d e g r e e s...........................................

843
8 ,0 3 7
71

Library technicians and assistants. These workers may
receive training either on the job or in a formal post-high
school program. Some libraries require only graduation
from high school for library clerks, who, after a few years
of training on the job, may advance to technician positions.
Other libraries hire only technicians who have formal
training.
In 1976, 120 institutions, mostly 2-year colleges, offered
this training. Programs usually consist of a year of liberal
arts courses and a year of library-related study and
culminate in an associate of arts degree in library tech­
nology.

3 2 0 ,0 0 0
4 9 5 ,0 0 0
54 .4
2 9 ,0 0 0
1 9 ,0 0 0
1 0,0 0 0

5 ,8 4 0

Library occupations

Librarians. A master’s degree in library science generally is
equired to enter the occupation. A Ph. D. degree is an asset
or individuals who plan a teaching career or who aspire to
a xtop administrative post, particularly in a college or
university library, or in a large library system. Information
scientists and special librarians generally need a master’s
degree or doctorate in the subject area of the specialized
library. Most States require public school librarians to be
certified both as teachers and librarians. Some States




1 2 8 ,0 0 0

Available training data:

Available training data:
Junior college gra d u a tes..................................

require certification of public librarians; the specific
education and experience necessary vary.
The employment outlook for librarians is expected to be
somewhat competitive through the mid-1980’s. The Nation­
al Center for Education Statistics projects that about 9,900
master’s degrees in library science will be awarded annually
between 1976 and 1985, although not all graduates will
seek entry into the profession immediately upon gradua­
tion. If past trends continue, an average of about 7,900
master’s degree recipients will seek librarian positions
annually. In addition, a smaller number of bachelor’s and
Ph. D. degree recipients also will seek these jobs. Many
qualified librarians outside the labor force who have not
worked in the field or who have left the field are expected
to seek entry or reentry to the profession also. Yet another
source of supply is persons who have degrees in education
with a specialization in librarianship or audiovisual tech­
nology. Although data on entrants from these sources are
limited, it is anticipated that the number of people seeking
to enter or reenter the field may exceed openings, and some
may have to find employment in other occupations.

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t................

1 4 3 ,0 0 0
1 6 8 ,0 0 0
17.5
8 ,3 0 0
2 ,8 0 0
5 ,5 0 0

Available training d a ta :
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
Junior college g r a d u a tes..................................

42

1
594

Sales Occupations
Automobile parts counter workers. These workers learn on
the job, usually beginning as helpers to experienced
employees. Generally 2 years of work experience are
needed before a person becomes thoroughly familiar with
most types of parts and accessories. Employers usually
prefer to hire high school graduates. High school or
vocational school courses in auto mechanics, commercial
arithmetic, selling, and bookkeeping are helpful. Practical
work experience in a gasoline station or automobile repair
shop also is an asset.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

7 5 ,0 0 0
9 7 ,0 0 0
27.5
4 ,2 0 0
2 ,3 0 0
1 ,900

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................

1 3 0 ,0 0 0
1 6 0 ,0 0 0
23.1
9 ,0 0 0
3 ,9 0 0
5 ,1 0 0

Available training data ................................................

2 4 ,0 0 0
2 7 ,0 0 0
15.6
1 ,000
400
600

Available training data




4 2 0 ,0 0 0
4 7 0 ,0 0 0
12.6
1 4 ,8 0 0
5 ,8 0 0
9 ,0 0 0

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

Automobile service advisors. These workers are trained on
the job. Trainees usually are selected from among personnel
already employed in the organization. For example, an
experienced mechanic or parts counter worker may be
selected. Generally, 1 to 2 years of training are needed
before a new service advisor can handle all aspects of the
job. A high school diploma is preferred but not required.
Because the job involves close contact with customers and
mechanics in the shop, personal characteristics, such as an
ability to deal with customer complaints and communicate
clearly, are important.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ......................».
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

74

63

Automobile sales workers. Most beginners are trained on
the job, although large dealers sometimes provide formal
classroom training. Many employers require beginning sales
workers to be at least 21 years old and high school
graduates. Courses in public speaking, commercial arith­
metic, psychology, business law, and selling are useful.
Appropriate personal characteristics, such as a pleasant
appearance, an outgoing personality, and the ability to
inspire confidence, also are important. Previous sales
experience or other work involving contact with the public
is desirable.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Gasoline service station attendants. These workers are
trained on the job. A high school diploma usually is not
required and students often are hired for these jobs.
Attendants who wish to become station managers need a
diploma, however, to participate in service station manage­
ment programs conducted by oil companies. Applicants for
attendant jobs should have a driver’s license, a general
understanding of how an automobile works, and some sales
ability.

43

Insurance agents and brokers. Many employers prefer
college graduates for insurance sales workers. Degrees in
almost any field are acceptable, but applicants who have
studied accounting, economics, finance, business law, or
insurance are preferred. Because success in selling greatly
depends on personal qualities such as aggressiveness and
self-confidence, employers look for these traits. Some
employers hire experienced individuals who have these
characteristics, whether or not they have attended college.
Newly hired workers usually receive some formal train­
ing in insurance regulations, selling, policy writing, and
techniques for determining the amount of insurance policy­
holders require. Trainees may attend company-sponsored
classes or courses at local colleges and universities. Home
study (correspondence) courses also are available.
Many sales workers take courses offered by insurance
organizations. The Life Underwriter Training Council
(LUTC) awards a diploma in life insurance marketing to
agents who successfully complete the Council’s 2-year life
program; there also is a course in health insurance. As
agents and brokers gain experience and knowledge, they
can qualify for the Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU)
designation by passing a series of examinations given by the
American College of Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. Propertyliability agents can qualify for the Chartered Property
Casualty Underwriter (CPCU) designation by passing a
series of examinations given by the American Institute for
Property and Liability Underwriters. The CLU and CPCU
designations are recognized marks of achievement in their
respective fields.
All agents and most brokers must be licensed in the
State where they sell insurance. Most States require
candidates for a license to pass a written examination in
insurance fundamentals and State insurance laws.
Data for insurance agents and brokers are combined with
data on underwriters.

E m p lo y m en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 .....................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ...........
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

4 9 0 ,0 0 0
5 8 0 ,0 0 0
18.6
2 7 ,5 0 0
1 0 ,1 0 0
1 7 ,4 0 0

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G rowth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t....................

A vailable training data ................................................

Available training data:
Public vocation al
ed u cation co m p letio n s
Private vocational
education com p letion s

Manufacturers’ sales workers. Employers generally prefer to
hire college graduates for these positions. A bachelor’s
degree in liberal arts or in business administration is good
preparation for selling non-technical products. Industrial
manufacturers look for applicants who have degrees in
science or engineering, and pharmaceutical companies
usually prefer persons who have studied pharmacy.
Newly hired sales workers may receive specialized train­
ing before they start on the job. Some companies,
especially those that manufacture complex technical prod­
ucts, have formal training programs that last 2 years or
longer. Other firms offer classroom instruction followed by
additional training under the supervision of field managers.
E m p lo y m en t, 197 6 .......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th .......................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

...........................

1 7,452

..........................

2 1 ,2 0 0

Retail trade sales workers. Most sales workers learn their
skills on the job. In large stores, training programs for
newly hired workers usually begin with several days of
classroom instruction, followed by on-the-job training
under the supervision of an experienced worker. In small
stores, an experienced worker, or in some cases the
proprietor, trains new sales workers. Employers prefer to
hire high school graduates, and courses in commercial
arithmetic and merchandising provide a good background.
Thousands of high schools also offer distributive education
programs that allow students to work part-time at local
stores while taking courses in merchandising, accounting,
and other aspects of retailing. Some programs are intended
for adults as well, and offer training for persons beginning
their careers or seeking advancement.

3 6 2 ,0 0 0
4 1 7 ,0 0 0
15.1
1 7 ,6 0 0
6 ,0 0 0
1 1 ,6 0 0

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ....................................................... 2 ,7 2 5 ,0 0 0
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ................................... 3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
10.2
1 5 5 ,0 0 0
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
3 1 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
1 2 4 ,0 0 0

Available training data

Real estate agents and brokers. All States require real estate
agents and brokers to be licensed. To obtain a license as an
agent, an individual must be a high school graduate, be at
least 18 years old, and pass a written test. Many large firms
prefer to hire college graduates. However, most employers
consider personality traits as important as academic training
and seek applicants who have maturity, tact, and sales
ability.
Most States require candidates for the general sales
license to have completed 30 hours of classroom instruction
in the fundamentals and legal aspects of real estate
transactions. Courses to prepare candidates for the real
estate sales examination are offered in high schools,
vocational schools, and colleges and universities. Many real
estate firms offer these preparatory courses and some
periodically offer continuing education courses for their
experienced sales workers.. In addition, many community
and junior colleges and 4-year colleges and universities offer
courses and programs leading to associate, bachelor’s or
advanced degrees in real estate. Courses in areas such as
mortgage financing, real estate appraisal, and real estate
management are offered to experienced salesworkers
through affiliates of the National Association of Realtors.
Most States require candidates for the real estate
broker’s license to have completed 90 hours of classroom
instruction in real estate and have 1-3 years of experience
selling real estate.




4 5 0 ,0 0 0
5 7 5 ,0 0 0
27.5
4 5 ,5 0 0
13 ,8 0 0
3 1 ,7 0 0

Available training data:
Public vocation al
education com p letion s ..............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

1 4 ,9 5 5
74

1 Includes training for other occu p ation s in retail trade.

Route drivers. Although some large companies have classes
in sales techniques, most route drivers are trained on the
job. Employers generally prefer applicants who are high
school graduates and have good driving records. Most States
require route drivers to have a chauffeur’s license.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

2 0 0 ,0 0 0
1 9 4 ,0 0 0
-3.6
3 ,4 0 0
-800
4 ,2 0 0

Available training data ................................................

Securities sales workers. Employers generally prefer to hire
college graduates as sales workers and consider a degree
in business administration, economics, finance, or liberal
arts good preparation for the job. Employers look for
individuals who are well-groomed, able to motivate others,
ambitious, and self-starters. Successful sales or managerial,

44

experience is particularly helpful. Almost all States require
securities sales workers to be licensed; a personal bond is
required and applicants must pass a written test. In
addition, practically all sales workers must be registered
representatives of their firms according to the regulations of
the securities exchanges through which they do business, or
the National Association of Securities Dealers. Examina­
tions and character investigations are required for registra­
tion.
Most employers provide training to help newly hired
salesworkers meet the requirements for registration. De­
pending on the size of the firm, this initial training varies
from short informal programs to combined classroom
instruction and on-the-job experience lasting 6 months or
more.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

9 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 5 ,0 0 0
15.4
5 ,5 0 0
1 ,6 0 0
3 ,9 0 0

Available training data ................................................

Travel agents. Although no specific educational background
is required, some employers prefer to hire college graduates
for these jobs. Useful experience may be gained by working
as a reservation clerk or receptionist in a travel agency or as
an airline reservation or ticket agent. Correspondence
schools provide a basic understanding of the travel industry.
High school courses in geography, history, and foreign
languages can be helpful.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 .......... ........................

Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

4 6 .7
1 ,400
800
6 00

Available training data ................................................

Wholesale trade sales workers. Employers generally require
applicants to be high school graduates, although college
training is becoming a requirement for an increasing
number of these jobs. The background a sales worker needs
depends mainly upon the product line and the market.
Selling certain products, such as pharmaceuticals, may
require a background in chemistry, biology, or pharmacy,
for example. High school graduates may begin in a
nonselling job and work their way up or may be hired as
sales trainees. In either case, beginners usually work in
several types of nonselling jobs, such as stock clerk or
shipping clerk, before receiving sales training from an
experienced sales worker. Learning the job in this way takes
about 2 years. College graduates enter the sales force
directly out of school. Very large wholesalers offer formal
training programs; smaller firms rely on experienced sales
workers to instruct trainees.
E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

8 0 8 ,0 0 0
9 4 5 ,0 0 0
16.9
4 1 ,0 0 0
1 5 ,0 0 0
2 6 ,0 0 0

Available training data:
Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s...............................

1 5 ,0 0 0
2 2 ,0 0 0

2 ,1 7 0

Construction Occupations

Bricklayers, stonemasons, and marblesetters. Most brick­
layers learn their trade on the job, usually in 3 to 5 years.
But, some bricklayers and most stonemasons and marbleset­
ters learn their skills through a 3-year apprenticeship
program that combines on-the-job training with classroom
instruction. A high school diploma or its equivalent is
usually required by employers for entry into apprenticeship
programs. Courses in blueprint reading and shop provide a
useful background.

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la cem en t.......................................................




Available training data:
Public vocational
education com p letion s .............................
Private vocation al
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Job Corps co m p letio n s....................................
A pprenticeship co m p letio n s..........................

1 1 1 ,4 6 8
(3 )
1 671
1 1,407

1 Also includes tilesetters.
3 Less than 50.

Carpenters. The recommended way to learn this trade is to
complete a 4-year apprenticeship. Most workers learn on
the job, however, often by beginning as a helper to
experienced carpenters and gradually acquiring skills. It
takes much longer to become a skilled carpenter in this way
than it does through an apprenticeship. Some knowledge of

1 7 5 ,0 0 0
2 0 5 ,0 0 0
17.1
7 ,5 0 0
3 ,3 0 0
4 ,2 0 0

45

the skills needed for the occupation also may be acquired
through vocational school courses. Employers prefer to hire
high school or vocational school graduates who have 1 year
of algebra. Courses in electricity, electronics, mechanical
drawing, science, and shop provide a good background.
Applicants for apprenticeships must be high school gradu­
ates. Most cities require electricians to be licensed. To
obtain a license applicants must pass a written test and may
have to demonstrate their skill.

th e trade also m ay be obtained through vocation al sch ool
courses in carpentry, sh op , m echanical drawing, and m ath e­
m atics. E m ployers generally prefer to hire applicants w ho
are high sch o o l graduates but a diplom a is n o t required.
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ...................................................... 1 ,0 1 0 ,0 0 0
P rojected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,2 6 0 ,0 0 0
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
2 4.8
A verage annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
6 7 ,0 0 0
G row th ..................................................................
2 8 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t.............................................
3 9 ,0 0 0
A vailable training data:
P ublic vocational
education c o m p le tio n s...............................
Private vocation al
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

3 9 ,7 1 2
200
1 ,959
6,211

Available training data: >
Public vocation al
education co m p le tio n s...............................
Private vocation al
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Job Corps .............................................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

Cement masons and terrazzo workers. Most cement masons
learn their trade informally on the job in 2 to 3 years.
Others complete a 2- or 3-year apprenticeship program that
combines on-the-job training with classroom instruction in
subjects such as basic mathematics, blueprint reading, and
safety. Employers prefer to hire high school graduates, and
courses in mathematics and mechanical drawing provide a
useful background.
E m p lo y m en t, 197 6 ......................................................
P rojected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

419
566

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

7 1 5 ,0 0 0
9 0 0 ,0 0 0
25.9
4 0 ,0 0 0
2 0 ,5 0 0
1 9 ,5 0 0

A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

283

Glaziers (construction). The majority of these workers learn
their trade through a 4-year apprenticeship which combines
on-the-job training with classroom instruction in related
subjects such as blueprint reading and safety. Others learn
on the job and a few pick up the skills while working in
another industry where glass is installed, for example,
automobile manufacturing. Employers generally prefer to
hire high school graduates, and a diploma is required for
entry into apprenticeship programs. Courses in mathematics
and mechanical drawing are helpful.

76

Electricians (construction). Completion of a 4-year appren­
ticeship that combines on-the-job training with classroom
instruction in subjects such as circuits and wiring, funda­
mentals of electronics, and the National Electrical Code is
the recommended way to learn the trade. Many electricians
learn their skills on the job, however. Training in some of




8 5 ,0 0 0
1 0 0 ,0 0 0
20.5
3 ,2 0 0
1,900
1,300

Available training data:

A vailable training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

500
604
6 ,5 6 3

Floor covering installers. Most of these workers learn their
skills on the job, usually beginning as helpers to experi­
enced workers. Others qualify through apprenticeship
programs that combine on-the-job training with related
classroom instruction. The program for floor covering
installers lasts 2 to 4 years. Individuals also may learn the
basic skills necessary for the trade as part of an apprentice­
ship in carpentry, tilesetting, bricklaying, or stone and
marble setting. Employers prefer to hire high school or
vocational school graduates, and courses in general mathe­
matics and shop may be helpful. Applicants for apprentice­
ships generally must have a high school diploma.

7 1 ,0 0 0
1 2 0 ,0 0 0
6 9 .0
7 ,5 0 0
5 ,4 0 0
2 ,1 0 0

Construction laborers. Most laborers are trained on the job
as this work does not require specific skills. Generally,
applicants must be at least 18 years old and in good
physical condition. An experienced construction laborer
can advance to carpenter, bricklayer, cement mason, or
other craft occupation.
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 .............................
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w t h .................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

15,371

1 A ll electricians, including m aintenance.

A vailable training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

2 6 0 ,0 0 0
3 2 0 ,0 0 0
25.5
13 ,7 0 0
6 ,7 0 0
7 ,0 0 0

46

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

their skills on the job, starting as helpers or oilers and then
progressing from operating light equipment to highly
complex construction machinery. A few individuals learn
their skills in the Armed Forces. Most employers prefer
high school graduates, and a diploma may be required for
entry into apprenticeship programs. Courses in automobile
mechanics are helpful.

1 0 ,0 0 0
1 3 ,0 0 0
3 0 .0
600
350
250

Available training data:
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

266

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Insulation workers. The majority of these workers learn
their trade on the job. Others learn through a 4-year
“improvership” program that combines on-the-job training
with classroom instruction in areas such as safety and
insulation application techniques. The “improvership” pro­
gram is similar to an apprenticeship. A few insulation
workers pick up their skills while working in another trade
or in a manufacturing plant where applying insulation is
part of their job. Employers prefer to hire high school
graduates who are licensed to drive. High school or
vocational school courses in blueprint reading and shop
mathematics are helpful.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Growth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

3 0 ,0 0 0
5 0 ,0 0 0
66.7
2 ,9 0 0
2 ,2 0 0
700

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

264

1 “ Im provership” and apprenticeship are interchangeable
in reference to insulation workers.

Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

7 1 ,0 0 0
1 1 2 ,0 0 0
6 0 .0
6 ,5 0 0
4 ,7 0 0
1 ,8 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

2 ,2 7 3

2 4 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,0 0 0
4.7
900
100
800

Available training data:

Operating engineers (construction machinery operators).
Completion of a 3-year apprenticeship program including
related classroom instruction is recommended. Learning to
operate a variety of machines through apprenticeship or, in
some instances, private training schools usually results in
better job opportunities. Some operating engineers learn



708
1,139

Plasterers. A 3- to 4-year apprenticeship that combines
on-the-job training with classroom instruction in subjects
such as blueprint reading, tool care, and safety is the
recommended way to learn the trade. Many plasterers learn
the trade on the job, however, by working as plasterer’s
helpers or laborers. Employers generally prefer to hire high
school graduates. Courses in mathematics, mechanical
drawing, and shop are useful.

Available training data:
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

4 2 5 ,0 0 0
5 2 5 ,0 0 0
23.5
2 9 ,4 0 0
1 1 ,300
1 8 ,100

Available training data:

Ironworkers (structural, ornamental, and reinforcing iron­
workers; riggers; and machine movers). Most workers learn
their skills on the job; however, completion of a 3-year
apprenticeship program that supplements on-the-job experi­
ence with related classroom instruction is recommended.
Employers generally prefer to hire high school graduates.
Courses in blueprint reading, drafting, and mathematics are
helpful. The job requires agility, a good sense of balance,
and above-average strength.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

633
945

Painters and paperhangers. Although completion of a 3-year
apprenticeship combining on-the-job experience and related
classroom instruction is recommended, opportunities are
very limited. Informal on-the-job training is available
through local contractors, however. A high school educa­
tion is preferred but not essential. Manual dexterity and
good color sense are important assets. Painters and paperhangers should be free of allergies to paints and chemicals
used on the job.

Available training data:
A pprenticeship co m p letio n s1 ......................

5 8 5 ,0 0 0
8 1 0 ,0 0 0
38.5
4 1 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,0 0 0
1 6 ,000

Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

202
153

Plumbers and pipefitters. Although many learn their trade
informally on the job, completion of a 5-year apprentice­

47

ship is recommended. Employers prefer high school gradu­
ates. High school or vocational school courses in mathe­
matics, drafting, physics, and chemistry can provide some
useful skills. Some localities require workers to be licensed;
applicants must pass a written examination.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t....................................................

apprenticeship program is the recommended way to enter
the occupation. These programs combine on-the-job train­
ing with classroom instruction in subjects such as sheetmetal drawing and patternmaking, applied mathematics,
and blueprint reading. A high school diploma is preferred
by employers and required for entry to apprenticeship
programs. Courses in mathematics, mechanical drawing, and
shop provide a helpful background for learning the trade.

3 8 5 ,0 0 0
5 3 5 ,0 0 0
3 9 .0
3 0 ,0 0 0
1 7 ,0 0 0
1 3 ,0 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ........................... ,......
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Available training data:1
Public vocational
education com p letio n s...............................
Private vocational
education com p letio n s...............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s ........................

6 ,7 0 7

Available training data:
100
176
6,061

Public vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

1 Includes sprinkler fitters and steam fitters.

Roofers. The majority of roofers acquire their skills on the
job as helpers to experienced workers. Completion of a
3-year apprenticeship that combines on-the-job training
with classroom instruction in cutting and applying various
roofing materials, blueprint reading, and safety is recom­
mended, however. Employers prefer to hire high school
graduates; courses in mechanical drawing and basic mathe­
matics are helpful.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

6 5 ,0 0 0
7 5 ,0 0 0
15.4
2 ,6 0 0
1 ,1 0 0
1 ,500

4 ,6 3 8
117
2,351

Tilesetters. The best way to learn this trade is through a
3-year apprenticeship program, but many workers acquire
their skills on the job, working as helpers. When hiring
apprentices or helpers, employers usually prefer high school
or vocational school graduates who have had courses in
mathematics, mechanical drawing, and shop. Good physical
condition, manual dexterity, and a good sense of color
harmony also are important.

9 0 ,0 0 0
1 3 0 ,0 0 0
4 4 .0
6 ,3 0 0
4 ,4 0 0
1 ,9 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................

3 6 ,0 0 0
4 5 ,0 0 0
2 5 .0
1,800
1,000
800

Available training data:
A pprenticeship com p letion s ........................

Available training d a ta 1 .............................................

482

Sheet-metal workers. Although many workers learn the
trade informally on the job, completion of a 4-year

1 See bricklayers, stonem asons, and marblesetters.

Occupations in Transportation Activities
E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Air transportation occupations

Air traffic controllers. Trainees are selected through the
competitive Federal Civil Service System. Applicants must
be not more than 30 years old, pass a written test, and have
either 3 years of work experience that demonstrates their
potential, or a college degree. Newly hired controllers
receive 16 weeks of formal training as well as on-the-job
training during which they learn Federal Aviation Adminis­
tration regulations, operation of their equipment, and
performance characteristics of different aircraft. It usually
takes 2 to 3 years of experience to learn the job
thoroughly.



2 1 ,0 0 0
2 8 ,4 0 0
35.8
1,100
800
300

Available training data ............................ ...................

Airplane mechanics. Most mechanics learn their job while in
the Armed Forces or through 2-year programs offered by
trade schools certified by the Federal Aviation Administra­
tion (FAA). A few learn on the job. The majority of
mechanics who work on civilian aircraft are licensed by the

48

FAA as “airframe mechanics,” “powerplant mechanics,” or
“ aircraft inspectors.” Airframe mechanics work on the
structural parts of the plane; powerplant mechanics work
on the engine. Some mechanics and all aircraft inspectors
must have both licenses.
At least 18 months of work experience are required for
an airframe or powerplant license; for a combined license,
at least 30 months of experience working with both engines
and airframes are required. To obtain an inspector’s license,
a mechanic must have held an airframe-and-powerplant
license for at least 3 years. Applicants for all licenses must
pass written and oral tests and demonstrate their ability to
do the work.
Employers prefer to hire high school graduates. Courses
in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and mechanical draw­
ing are helpful.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Public vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 1 0 ,0 0 0
1 3 8 ,0 0 0
25.5
5 ,2 0 0
3 ,1 0 0
2 ,1 0 0

P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1 976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Reservation, ticket, and passenger agents. Most agents
receive a week of classroom instruction and about 3 weeks
of on-the-job training during which they learn how to use
flight schedule information, book reservations, and deal
with customers. A pleasant speaking voice is essential and a
high school diploma is required.

1 ,4 0 0
48

E m p loym en t, 1976 ..................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Growth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................

5 1 ,0 0 0
6 5 ,0 0 0
26 .9
2 ,9 0 0
1 ,5 00
1,400

Available training data ................................................

Merchant marine occupations

Merchant marine officers. Candidates must either have
acquired at least 3 years of sea experience in the Coast
Guard or Navy, or have graduated from the U.S. Merchant
Marine Academy, from one of five State merchant marine
academies, or from a trade union training program. Candi­
dates also must pass a Coast Guard examination to obtain a
license. Usually, applicants who have sea experience but are
not graduates of academies must obtain training to pass the
examination. A high school diploma is not required.
E m p loym en t, 1 976 .............................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G rowth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......... ............................................

8 3 ,0 0 0
1 1 0 ,0 0 0
3 3 .6
4 ,1 0 0
3 ,1 0 0
1 ,0 0 0

Available training data

1 3 ,3 00
1 5 ,2 00
14.6
600
200
4 00

...............................................

Merchant marine sailors. Most sailors learn on the job,
although previous sea experience in the Coast Guard or
Navy is helpful. Graduation from high school is not

Available training data:




4 2 ,0 0 0
7 6 ,0 0 0
7 9 .2
6 ,0 0 0
3 ,7 0 0
2 ,3 0 0

Available training data ................................................

Airplane pilots. Pilots who are paid to transport passengers
or cargo must have at least a commercial pilot’s license
from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).. To
obtain a license, applicants must be at least 18, have at least
250 hours of flight experience, and must r ass a stic t
physical examination. Applicants must pass a vvritten test
covering the principles of safe flight, navigation techniques,
and FAA regulations. They also must demonstrate their
flying ability to FAA examiners. Pilots who have to fly in
bad weather also must be licensed to fly by instruments.
This license requires 40 hours of experience using instru­
ments, passing a written test, and demonstrating the ability
to fly by instruments to an FAA examiner.
Airline pilots must fulfill additional requirements which
most new pilots hired as flight engineers have already done.
Airline captains must have a transport pilot’s license which
requires even more flight experience.
Flying can be learned in military or civilian flying
schools, but the airlines and many businesses prefer pilots
trained in the Armed Forces. Pilots hired by the airlines
must be high school graduates; however, most airlines
require 2 years of college and prefer to hire college
graduates.
Employment, 1976 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1985 ...................................

2 0 ,6 0 0

Flight attendants. Most large airlines train their own flight
attendants; those that do not operate schools usually send
their trainees to another airline’s school. Training programs
generally last about 5 weeks during which attendants learn
flight regulations and how to handle emergencies and how
to deal with passengers. Applicants must be high school
graduates and individuals who have 2 years or more of
college or experience dealing with the public are preferred.

A vailable training data:
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
A pprenticeship com p letion s ........................

433

49

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G rowth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

required. A pplicants m ust obtain a d o cto r’s certificate
stating that th ey are in ex cellen t health, a letter from an
em ployer stating that th ey w ill be hired if a job becom es
available, and special id en tification papers, “ m erchant
mariner’s d ocu m en ts,” from the Coast Guard.
Several training programs exist to help experienced

Available training data ................................................

sailors upgrade their skills, but o n ly the sch ool operated by
the Seafarer’s International U nion o f N orth America trains
inexperienced sailors.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la cem en t.......................................................

Shop trades. C om pleting a 3- to 4-year apprenticeship
program is the m ost com m on w ay to enter shop trades,

3 3 ,2 0 0
3 0 ,6 0 0
-7.8
400
-300
700

although som e helpers and laborers are upgraded to these
jo b s. A high sch ool diplom a is preferred but n ot required.
Shop training in high sch ool or vocational sch ool is an
advantage. A u tom ob ile repair and m achining courses are
useful for m achinists. Courses in electricity and physics w ill
help applicants w h o w ant job s as electrical workers.

Available training data

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Railroad occupations
B rake operators. On som e railroads, operators receive a few
days o f training, but m ost learn their skills on the jo b . It
usually takes a year to learn the job thoroughly. Em ployers
prefer applicants w h o have a high sch ool diplom a, and
require applicants to have good eyesight and hearing.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em ploym ent. 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R eplacem ent ...................................................................

3 3 ,3 0 0
3 9 ,5 0 0
18.6
2 ,4 0 0
700
1,700

Available training data

7 2 ,6 0 0
6 0 ,0 0 0
-17.5
800
-1 ,4 0 0
2 ,2 0 0

...............................................

Signal department workers. These w orkers are trained on
the jo b . N ew em p loyees are assigned as helpers to experi­
enced w orkers. After 60 to 9 0 days o f training, th ey may

6 5 ,0 0 0
6 8 ,0 0 0
4.8
1 ,7 0 0
300
1 ,400

• advance to assistants; after 2 to 4 years’ additional training
and exp erience, th ey m ay be prom oted to signal installers
or m aintainers. Railroads prefer applicants w h o are high
sch ool or vocational sch ool graduates and have had courses
in blueprint reading, electricity , or electronics.

Available training data ................................................

q ualify, a person m ust have several years’ experience as a
brake operator and pass exam inations covering signals,

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

tim etables, operating rules, and related subjects.

Available training data ................................................

C onductors. C onductors are prom oted from the ranks o f
qualified brake operators on the basis o f seniority. To

E m ploym ent, 1976 .......................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

3 5 ,9 0 0
4 2 ,0 0 0
16.7
2 ,2 0 0
700
1 ,5 0 0

1 1 ,5 0 0
1 1 ,4 0 0
-0.9
400
0
400

Station agents. These w orkers rise from the ranks o f other
railroad occu p ation s. E xperienced
telegraphers, tele­
p h o n e s , tow er operators, and clerks m ay advance to job s as
agents in small station s, and may be prom oted to larger
. wtions as th ey gain seniority.

Available training data ................................................

E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 .......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

L o c o m o tiv e engineers. Openings in engineer jobs usually are
filled b y training and prom oting engineer helpers according
to their seniority. Applicants for helper job s must be at
least 21 years old and have good eyesigh t, hearing, and

Available training data

color vision. High school graduates are preferred. Helpers

7 ,0 0 0
3 ,0 0 0
-57.1
-300
-400
100

..............................................

are placed in engineer training programs w ithin a year after
th ey are hired. They qualify for prom otion to engineer by

Telegraphers, telephoners, and tower operators. These jobs

proving their ability to operate locom otives and by passing

usually

a com prehensive exam ination on subjects such as m echan­

according to seniority provisions. U pon p ro m o tio n , new

ical and electrical equipm ent and operating rules and

w orkers receive on-the-job training that covers operating

regulations.

rules, train orders, and station




50

are

filled

from

the

ranks o f clerical workers

operations. Before the

promotion is final, they must pass examinations on train
operating rules and show that they can use all the
equipment. A high school diploma generally is preferred
and may be required by some railroads.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...............................
Percent change, 1976-85 ...................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ...................
D ecline ..................................................................
R ep la cem en t........................................................
Available training data

22.5
5 ,1 0 0
2 ,0 0 0
3 ,1 0 0

Available training data ................................................

1 0 ,200
6 ,5 0 0
-36.3
-200
-400
200

..............................................

Track workers. Most workers acquire their skills in about 2
years of on-the-job training. A high school diploma is not
required, but applicants should be able to read and write.
The ability to perform heavy work is essential.
E m ploym ent ...................................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Growth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

5 6 ,2 0 0
5 2 ,0 0 0
-7.1
800
-5 0 0
1 ,3 0 0

Local truckdrivers. New drivers usually are trained on the
job. Many drivers begin by working as freight handlers on
the trucking company’s loading dock. In most States,
applicants must have a chauffeur’s license, and employers
prefer to hire individuals who have good driving records.
The amount of driving experience required often depends
on the size of truck to be driven and value of the cargo. A
high school diploma is not required.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ...................................................... 1 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,9 4 0 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
21.7
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
7 3 ,0 0 0
G row th ..................................................................
3 8 ,0 0 0
3 5 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................
Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

Available training d a ta .................................................

1 46

1 May include som e long-distance truckdrivers.
Driving occupations

Intercity busdrivers. These workers are trained on the job.
Most companies conduct 2- to 8-week training programs for
new employees that include driving and classroom instruc­
tion. Minimum qualifications established by the U.S.
Department of Transportation require intercity busdrivers
to be at least 21 years old, pass a physical examination, and
pass a written test on motor vehicle regulations. Most States
require a chauffeur’s license. Bus companies generally have
even higher requirements. Most prefer applicants who are at
least 25 years old; some prefer those who have truck or bus
driving experience. A high school diploma is preferred, but
not required. High school driver training is useful.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1 9 8 5 ....................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..................................................................
R eplacem ent ......................................................

2 5 ,0 0 0
3 0 ,0 0 0
17.9
1 ,4 0 0
500
900

Long-distance truckdrivers. Minimum qualifications set by
the U.S. Department of Transportation require drivers to be
at least 21 years old, pass a physical examination, and pass
a written test on motor carrier safety regulations. Most
States require drivers to have a chauffeur’s license. Individ­
ual trucking companies may have even higher standards.
Many companies specify height and weight requirements
for drivers and some hire only applicants who have several
years’ experience driving trucks.
Driver training courses in high school or in a private
driving school are good preparation, but they do not assure
a job. Most truckdrivers start as freight handlers at a
trucking company’s loading dock, advance to local truckdriver, and then to long-distance driver.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Available training data ................................................

4 6 7 ,0 0 0
5 2 0 ,0 0 0
10.9
1 5 ,400
5 ,7 0 0
9 ,7 0 0

Available training data

Local transit busdrivers. New drivers receive several weeks
of classroom and driving instruction in which they learn
company rules, safety regulations, how to keep records, and
how to deal with passengers. Applicants must be at least 21
years old, have a chauffeur’s license, and have good
eyesight—
with or without glasses. Most employers require
applicants to pass a physical examination and a written test.
A good driving record is essential. A high school diploma is
not required, but is preferred by many employers.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................



Parking attendants. These workers are trained on the job.
Some employers offer training, ranging from a few hours to
a week, that includes a review of proper driving techniques
and an outline of company policy on recordkeeping
procedures and damage claims. Applicants must have a
driver’s license and be able to drive all types of cars. The
ability to keep records of claim tickets, compute parking
charges, and make change also is important. Generally,
employers prefer high school graduates.

8 1 ,0 0 0
9 9 ,0 0 0

51

E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

3 8 ,0 0 0
4 0 ,0 0 0
5.3
2 ,5 0 0
200
2 ,3 0 0

A vailable training data .................t.............................

Taxicab drivers. In most cities taxi drivers must have a
chauffeur’s license and pass a written test on taxicab and
traffic regulations to obtain a special license issued by the
local police or safety department or Public Utilities

Commission. Some companies teach drivers taxicab regula­
tions and the location of streets. A large number of
companies hire only applicants who are at least 21 and
some require drivers to be 25 or older.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

9 ^ ,0 0 0
9 4 ,0 0 0
0 .4
4 ,2 0 0
0
4 ,2 0 0

Available training data

Scientific and Technical Occupations
Conservation occupations

Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Foresters. A bachelor’s degree with a major in forestry
generally is required to become a forester. Because of the
large supply of forestry graduates, however, many employ­
ers prefer applicants who have advanced degrees. Teaching
and research generally require advanced degrees.
Through the mid-1980’s, persons seeking forester posi­
tions can expect to face competition. In recent years, the
number of forestry graduates has exceeded available open­
ings, and this situation is expected to continue. Opportuni­
ties will be better for individuals who can offer an employer
either an advanced degree or several years of related work
experience.
Growth and replacement needs are expected to create
about 1,100 openings annually between 1976 and 1985.
The National Center for Education Statistics project's that
about 2,700 bachelor’s degrees in forestry will be awarded
each year during this period. Followup data on forestry
graduates indicate that about two-thirds, including those
who go on to graduate study, seek entry to the field. If this
entry pattern continues, about 1,700 graduates can be
expected to seek forester positions each year.
Other sources of supply are immigrants, reentrants to
the labor force, and transfers from other occupations.
Foresters who enter other occupations also create job
openings. Current data on occupational mobility are not
adequate to assess the net effect of transfers as a source of
supply or openings. Nor are data on immigrants and
reentrants to the labor force adequate to allow an assess­
ment of the effect of these sources of supply. Overall,
however, it appears that the number of persons seeking jobs
as foresters will exceed available openings. As a result, a
number of forestry graduates will be forced to seek
employment in other fields.

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................ :..............
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ....................



400
700

Available training data:

Degrees in forestry:

1 9 7 5 -7 6

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

B achelor’s degrees .... ....... 2 ,6 6 0
Master’s degrees ..... .......
405
D o cto r’s degrees .....
92

2 ,7 0 9
5 22
148

Forestry technicians. Most persons qualify for beginning
jobs as forestry technicians by completing a specialized
course of study in a 1- or 2-year postsecondary program, or
through work experience on firefighting crews, in tree
nurseries, or in other forest work. Most employers require a
high school diploma. Postsecondary training can be
obtained in technical institutes, junior or community
colleges, and some universities.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 1,000
1 4,000
27 .2
600
300
300

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
Junior college g r a d u a te s..................................

175
2 ,1 3 3

Range managers. A bachelor’s degree with a major in range
management, range science, or a closely related field usually
is required for employment as a range manager. An
advanced degree generally is necessary for research and
teaching positions. In addition, courses in economics,
forestry, computer science, and wildlife and recreation are
considered useful. Many college students obtain valuable
experience through summer jobs with Federal Government
agencies, such as the Forest Service or Bureau of Land
Management.

2 5 ,0 0 0
2 9 ,0 0 0
15.7
1 ,1 0 0

52

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th 1976-85 .............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

annually during this period. Follow-up data on college
graduates of the 1960’s indicate that about 85 percent of
the bachelor’s degree recipients in engineering, including
those who went on to graduate study, actually entered the
field. This proportion dropped to 80 percent for graduates
during the mid-1970’s. Because of the high level of
recruiting during this period, this entry rate probably
represents fairly accurately the proportion of graduates
who seek engineering jobs. If an 80-percent rate continues,
an average of about 49,800 engineers are expected to enter
the field annually. In addition, data from the same
followup studies indicate that if past trends continue, about
7,000 graduates in other fields, primarily mathematics and
the natural sciences, will seek engineering jobs each year.
Other sources of supply are immigrants, reentrants to
the labor force, and transfers from other occupations.
Engineers who enter other occupations also create job
openings. Current data on occupational mobility are not
adequate to assess the net effect of transfers as a source of
supply or openings. But there is evidence that the number
of persons transferring into engineering is related to the
availability of graduates for the number increases during
shortages and declines when the supply is sufficient. Data
on immigrants and reentrants to the labor force are not
adequate to allow an assessment of the effect of these
sources of supply. Overall, however, it appears that the
number of persons likely to seek employment as engineers
will roughly equal the number of expected job openings.

3 ,0 0 0
4 ,1 0 0
37.5
200
100
100

Available training data:
Degrees in range managem ent:
B achelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s......................................
D octor’s degrees ....................................

174
39
18

Soil conservationists. Because few colleges and universities
offer degrees in soil conservation, most soil conservationists
have degrees in agronomy or a closely related field of
natural resource science, such as wildlife biology, forestry,
and agricultural education. A background in agricultural
engineering and courses in cartography are very useful.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R ep la c e m e n t.......................................................

7 ,5 0 0
9 ,0 0 0
2 0 .0
400
200
200

Available training data:
Degrees in agronom y:
Bachelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................
D octor’s d e g r e e s ....................................

958
303
178

E m p loym en t, 1976 ...................................................... 1 ,1 3 3 ,0 0 0
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,4 1 5 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
.25.0
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
5 6 ,5 0 0
G r o w th ..................................................................
3 1 ,5 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................
2 5 ,0 0 0

Engineers

Engineers. A bachelor’s degree in engineering generally is
required for most entry positions. College graduates who
have degrees in one of the physical sciences or mathematics
also may qualify for some beginning jobs. Occasionally,
experienced technicians are able to advance to some
engineering jobs. Graduate training in engineering is being
emphasized for a number of jobs, however, and is essential
for teaching and research, and for advancement in many
areas.
In all States, engineers must be registered if they offer
their services directly to the public, or if they design
buildings, dams, or other projects where safety is a factor.
The majority of engineers are not registered. Registration
requirements include a degree from an accredited engineer­
ing school, 4 years of relevant work experience, and passing
a State-board written examination.
Employment opportunities for engineers are expected to
be good through the mid-1980’s in most specialties. Growth
and replacement needs are expected to result in an annual
average of about 56,500 openings between 1976 and 1985.
The major source of supply of engineers is new graduates
majoring in engineering. Projections of the National Center
for Education Statistics indicate that about 62,300 bache­
lor’s degrees in engineering are expected to be awarded



Available training data:
Degrees in engineering:!

Projected
1 9 7 5 -7 6
B achelor’s degrees ....
4 6 ,3 3 1
Master’s d e g r e e s........ 1 6 ,3 4 2
D octor’s d e g rees........ 2,821

1 9 7 6 -8 5
(an n u al average)
6 2 ,3 0 0
16,3 8 2
2 ,4 5 4

1 Includes engineering tech n ology.

Environmental scientists

Geologists. A bachelor’s degree in geology or a related field
is appropriate training for many entry jobs. An advanced
degree is helpful for promotion in most types of work and
is required for college teaching and some research positions.
Employment opportunities in geology are expected to
be good for geology graduates and persons who have a
degree in a related science with geology courses. Growth in
the employment of geologists and replacement needs are
expected to result in about 2,300 openings each year

53

between 1976 and 1985. The major source of supply of
geologists is new graduates majoring in geology and earth
sciences. The National Center for Education Statistics
projects that bachelor’s degrees in these majors will average
about 4,9Q0 during this period. Followup data on college
graduates of the 1960’s indicate that about 30 percent of
the bachelor’s degree recipients in these majors, including
those who went on to graduate study in geology or the
earth sciences, actually entered geology. The rapid increase
in the employment of geologists during the past few years,
however, indicates that this proportion may have increased.
Assuming an entry rate of 30 percent at a minimum, at
least 1,500 geology and earth science graduates can be
expected to seek entry to the field annually. In addition,
data from the same followup studies indicate that if past
trends continue, at least 450 graduates in other fields can
be expected to seek geologist jobs each year.
Other sources of supply are immigrants, reentrants to
the labor force, and transfers from other occupations.
Geologists who enter other occupations also create job
openings. Current data on occupational mobility are not
adequate to assess the net effect of transfers, as a source of
supply or openings, however. Nor is it possible to determine
the effects of immigration and reentrants on supply.
Overall, however, it appears that the number of persons
likely to seek employment as geologists will roughly equal
the number of expected job openings in the field.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R ep la cem en t.......................................................

Degrees in geophysics and seism ology:
B achelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

89
62
29

Meteorologists. Generally, the minimum requirement is a
bachelor’s degree in meteorology or a related science,
usually physics, mathematics, or engineering, with courses
in meteorology. An advanced degree is necessary for some
positions, particularly in research and in college and
university teaching.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

5 ,5 0 0
6 ,3 0 0
14.0
200
100
100

Available training data:
Degrees in atm ospheric
m eteorology:

sciences

and

B achelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................
D o cto r’s degrees .............................................

365
197
61

Oceanographers. An advanced degree, preferably a Ph. D.
degree in oceanography, one of the natural sciences, or
engineering generally is required to become an oceanog­
rapher. A bachelor’s degree is sufficient for beginning jobs
as a research or laboratory assistant in oceanography.

3 4 ,0 0 0
4 7 ,5 0 0
38.1
2 ,3 0 0
1 ,5 0 0
800

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ..............................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Growth .................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Available training data:

2 ,7 0 0
3 ,4 0 0
25.3
150
100
50

Degrees in geology and earth science:
Available training d ata:

1 9 7 5 -7 6
B achelor’s degrees ... . 4 ,3 3 2
Master’s degrees ..... . 1 ,1 6 0
322
D octor’s degrees .....

P ro jected
197 6 -8 5
(annual average)
4 ,9 1 2
1,230
366

Degrees in oceanography:
B achelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s............................ .........
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

240
152
81

Life science occupations

Geophysicists. A bachelor’s degree in geophysics or a
geophysical specialty, or a bachelor’s degree in a related
field of science or engineering with courses in geophysics,
physics, geology, mathematics, chemistry, and engineering
generally is the minimum requirement for these positions.
Graduate training usually is necessary for jobs in research
and college and university teaching, and for supervisory
positions in exploration activities.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Biochemists. Many beginning jobs in biochemistry, especial­
ly in research and teaching, require an advanced degree. A
Ph. D. degree usually is necessary for high-level biochemical
research and for advancement to management and adminis­
trative jobs. A bachelor’s degree with a major in biochemis­
try or chemistry, or with a major in biology and a minor in
chemistry, may be sufficient for entry jobs as research
assistants or technicians.

1 2 ,000
1 6 ,7 0 0
3 8 .0
800
500
300

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Available training data:



54

1 2 ,7 0 0
1 5 ,7 0 0
2 3 .6
600
300
300

Available training data:
Degrees in biochem istry:
Bachelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................
D octor’s degrees .................................

1,622
252
431

Life scientists. This group includes scientists such as
botanists, zoologists, microbiologists, and nutritionists.
Although a bachelor’s degree is adequate for some jobs in
these fields, most positions require graduate training. A Ph.
D. degree usually is required to teach in a college or
university, or to obtain a senior research or administrative
position. A professional health degree, such as an M.D. or
D.D.S., is necessary for some jobs in medical research.
Most colleges and universities offer life science curriculums, but different schools may emphasize different areas.
For example, liberal arts colleges may emphasize the
biological sciences, while many State universities may
concentrate on programs in agricultural science. Students
seeking careers in the life sciences should obtain as broad a
background as possible in the sciences, including biology,
chemistry, physics, and mathematics.
Employment prospects for advanced degree holders are
expected to be good, but persons who have bachelor’s
degrees will face competition for jobs. Growth in employ­
ment of life scientists and replacement needs are expected
to result in about 12,000 openings each year between 1976
and 1985. The National Center for Education Statistics
projects that about 80,000 bachelor’s degrees in the
biological and agricultural sciences will be awarded annually
during this period. Followup data on college graduates
indicate that in the past about 25 percent of those who
received bachelor’s degrees in these areas, including students
who went on to graduate study in the life sciences, actually
entered the field. (In the past, individuals who earned
bachelor’s degrees in the life sciences have become second­
ary school teachers, laboratory technicians, ranchers or
farmers, or have gone to medical, dental, or veterinary
school.) Thus, if past entry patterns continue, an average of
20,000 biology and agricultural sciences graduates can be
expected to seek life scientist positions each year.
Prospects for persons who have advanced degrees appear
more favorable. About 12,000 master’s degrees and 5,500
doctorates will be granted in the life sciences annually,
between 1976 and 1985. Followup data indicate that about
55 percent of the master’s degree recipients and 95 percent
of the doctorate recipients entered the field in the past. If
this pattern continues, about 9,500 individuals with ad­
vanced degrees, including those having a master’s degree
already, can be expected to enter the life sciences annually.
Although this number compares very favorably with the
estimate of annual openings (12,000), data from the same
followup studies indicate that several thousand graduates in
other fields also can be expected to seek life scientist
positions. Because some positions require a professional



55

medical degree, a number of individuals who have these
degrees are expected to enter the field.
Other sources of supply are immigrants, reentrants to
the labor force, and transfers from other occupations. Life
scientists who enter other occupations also create job
openings. Current data on occupational mobility are not
adequate to assess the net effect of transfers as a source of
supply or openings, however. Nor is it possible to determine
the effects of immigration and reentrants on supply.
Overall, it appears that the number of persons with
advanced degrees who will seek employment as life scien­
tists will roughly equal the number of job openings in the
field.
E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

2 0 5 ,0 0 0
2 6 5 ,0 0 0
2 8 .6
12,0 0 0
6 ,5 0 0
5 ,5 0 0

Available training data:
Degrees in b iological sciences and in agricultural
and natural resources:

1 9 7 5 -7 6
B achelor’s degrees ....
M aster’s degrees ........
D octor’s degrees ....

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

7 3 ,6 7 7
9 ,9 2 2
4 ,3 2 0

8 0 ,3 2 0
11,967
5 ,4 9 4

Soil scientists. A bachelor’s degree in soil science, agron­
omy, or a closely related field usually is required. Some
employers also require applicants to have had courses in
chemistry and cartography. Soil scientists who have trained
in both field work and laboratory work may have the edge
in obtaining the best jobs. A few States require certification
of soil scientists who inspect soil conditions before con­
struction starts. To be certified, applicants must have a
bachelor’s degree and 3 years’ experience as a soil scientist
or a master’s degree and 2 years’ experience. Applicants
must pass a written examination.
E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1 9 7 6 -8 5 ..........................
G rowth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

2 ,5 0 0
2 ,8 0 0
12.0
80
30
50

Available training data:
D egrees in soil science:
Bachelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s......................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

434
121
53

Mathematics occupations

Mathematicians. Although a bachelor’s degree in mathe­
matics is adequate for some jobs in private industry and

government, employers usually require an advanced degree.
A Ph. D. degree almost always is required to teach in a
college or university.
Competition for mathematician jobs is expected to
-emain keen throughout the 1976-85 period. Intense
competition is expected for jobs in academic areas because
declining student enrollments in mathematics will require
fewer mathematics teachers. Individuals who have advanced
degrees in applied mathematics should have the best
chances for employment. Those mathematics degree
holders who are unable to locate mathematician jobs may
find openings in other areas requiring a mathematics
background, such as actuarial work, statistics, and com­
puter work.
Growth in the employment of mathematicians and
replacement needs are expected to create about 1,000 job
openings annually between 1976 and 1985. The major
source of supply of these workers is new graduates majoring
in mathematics. The National Center for Education Statis­
tics projects that about 500 doctorates and 4,100 master’s
degrees will be awarded each year during this period.
Followup data on college graduates of the 1960’s indicate
that almost half of the master’s degree recipients and
almost all of the doctorate recipients actually entered the
field. During the 1970’s, the entry rate for master’s degree
recipients dropped to slightly more than one-fourth, largely
due to the growing competition for mathematician jobs and
the availability of jobs in the computer field that utilized a
mathematics background. However, at least one-third of the
master’s degree recipients and almost all the doctorate
recipients apparently did seek mathematician jobs. If the
same proportions of degree recipients seek mathematician
positions in the future, about 1,600 advanced degree
holders, including doctorate recipients employed as mathe­
maticians, are expected to seek mathematics positions each
year. If past trends continue, several hundred graduates in
other fields, primarily the natural sciences, could look for
mathematician jobs.
Other sources of supply are immigrants, reentrants to
the labor force, and transfers from other occupations.
Mathematicians who enter other occupations also create job
openings. Current data on occupational mobility are not
adequate to assess the net effect of transfers as a source of
supply or openings. Nor are data on immigrants and
reentrants to the labor force adequate to evaluate the effect
of these sources on supply. Overall, however, it appears
that, despite a continued decline in the number of persons
receiving advanced degrees in mathematics, many degree
holders will have to seek employment in other fields.

Available training data:
Degrees in m athem atics:
B achelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s......................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

15,248
3 ,2 2 2
671

Statisticians. A bachelor’s degree in statistics or mathe­
matics generally is required to become a statistician. For
some jobs, however, a bachelor’s degree in economics or
another applied field and a minor in statistics is preferable.
An advanced degree is required for some positions, partic­
ularly college teaching. Courses in computer programming,
systems analysis, and other computer-related subject areas
are highly recommended.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Growth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

2 4 ,0 0 0
3 0 ,0 0 0
26.7
1,500
700
800

Available training data:
Degrees in statistics:
Bachelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

248
471
141

Physical scientists

Astronomers. The usual requirement for a job in astronomy
is a Ph. D. degree. Persons who have less education may
qualify for some entry level jobs; however, advancement in
most areas is open only to those who have a doctorate. In
1976, about 50 colleges and universities had programs
leading to the bachelor’s degree in astronomy. Students
with a bachelor’s degree in physics, or in mathematics with
a physics minor, usually can qualify for graduate programs
in astronomy. Almost all doctorate recipients can be
expected to seek entry to the field. Unless the number of
doctorates granted in the future is substantially lower than
the number granted in 1975-76, many doctorate recipients
may be forced to enter other occupations.
E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

2 ,0 0 0
2 ,1 0 0
5.0
40
10
30

Available training data:
Degrees in astronom y:

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R ep la cem en t........................................................




B achelor’s degrees ........................................
Master’s d e g r e e s......................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

3 8 ,0 0 0
4 1 ,0 0 0

116
81
113

8 .8

1,000
300
700

Chemists. A bachelor’s degree in chemistry usually is the
minimum requirement for entry positions in analysis and

56

testing, quality control, technical service and sales, or jobs
as assistants to senior chemists in research and development
laboratories. Graduate training is essential for many posi­
tions, and is helpful for advancement in all types of work.
A Ph. D. degree generally is required for teaching in colleges
and universities.
Employment opportunities in chemistry are expected to
be good for graduates at all degree levels through the
mid-1980’s. About three-fourths of the available openings
will be in private industry, primarily in the development of
new products. Little growth in college and university
employment is expected, and competition for teaching
positions will be keen.
Growth in the employment of chemists and replacement
needs are expected to average about 6,300 openings
annually between 1976 and 1985. The major source of
supply of chemists is new graduates majoring in chemistry.
Projections of the National Center for Education Statistics
indicate that an annual average of about 11,200 bachelor’s
degrees in chemistry are expected to be awarded during this
period. Followup data on college graduates indicate that in
the past fewer than half of those who received bachelor’s
degrees in chemistry, including those who went on to
graduate study in chemistry, actually entered the field.
(Many of those not entering chemistry have gone on to
medical, dental, or veterinary schools, or have become
secondary school teachers.) Thus, if past entry patterns
continue, an average of 5,000 new graduates are expected
to seek jobs as chemists each year. In addition, data from
these same followup studies indicate that about 2,000
recent graduates in other fields, primarily biology and other
natural sciences, could seek chemist jobs each year.
Other sources of supply are immigrants, reentrants to
the labor force, and transfers from other occupations.
Chemists who enter other occupations also create job
openings. Current data on occupational mobility are not
adequate to assess the net effect of transfers as a source of
supply or openings, however. Nor is it possible to determine
the effects of immigration and reentrants on supply.
Overall, however, it appears that the number likely to seek
employment as chemists will roughly equal the number of
expected job openings in the field.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Food scientists. A bachelor’s degree with a major in food
science or in the physical or life sciences, such as chemistry
and biology, is the usual minimum requirement for entry
jobs. An advanced degree is necessary for many jobs,
particularly research and college teaching and for some
management level jobs in industry. About 60 colleges and
universities offered programs leading to the bachelor’s
degree in food science in 1976. Undergraduates usually take
courses in physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology, the
social sciences and humanities, and business administration,
as well as food science courses. Food science courses cover
areas such as preservation, processing, sanitation, and
marketing of foods. People planning careers as food
scientists should have analytical minds and like details and
technical work.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t................
Available training data:
Degrees in food science and tech n ology:
B achelor’s degrees .................................
Master’s d e g r e e s......................................
D o cto r’s degrees .............................................

Available training data:
Degrees in chem istry:

B achelor’s degrees ..
Master’s d egrees......
D octor’s d eg rees.....



Projected
1976-85
(annual average)

1 1 ,019
1,783
1,621

580
282

Physicists. Graduate training in physics or in a field closely
related to a specialized field in physics is necessary for most
jobs. A doctorate usually is required for teaching positions
in colleges and universities, and for senior research posi­
tions. A bachelor’s degree is adequate for some entry level
jobs, but graduate training is needed for advancement.
For persons who have graduate degrees in physics,
employment opportunities are expected to be favorable
through the mid-1980’s. Most openings will be in research
and development work. However, competition is expected
to be keen for teaching positions in colleges and univer­
sities. Persons who have only a bachelor’s degree are
expected to face very stiff competition for physicist jobs.
Growth in the employment of physicists and replace­
ment needs are expected to result in an annual average of
about 1,100 openings between 1976 and 1985. Most of
these openings will require graduate training and a substan­
tial number will require doctorates.
College graduates who have majored in physics are the
primary source of supply. Since individuals who have only a
bachelor’s degree in physics rarely find physicist jobs, the
number of graduate degrees in physics that are expected to
be awarded is of more importance. (Many of those who do
not pursue a graduate degree enter high school teaching,
computer-related occupations, and engineering.) The Na­
tional Center for Education Statistics projects that an
average of about 1,500 master’s and 700 doctor’s degrees
will be awarded annually between 1976 and 1985. Follow­
up data on college graduates of the 1960’s indicate that

1 4 8 ,0 0 0
1 7 5 ,0 0 0
19.0
6 ,4 0 0
3 ,2 0 0
3 ,2 0 0

1975-76

7 ,0 0 0
8 ,4 0 0
2 0 .0
3 00
150
150

1 1 ,183
1,980
1,431

57

81

about 60 percent of the master’s degree recipients and 95
percent of the doctorate recipients entered the field. Al­
though the proportion actually entering dropped
for graduates in the 1970’s, the entry rates of the 1960’s
are considered to more accurately reflect the proportion
seeking physicist jobs between 1976 and 1985. In addition,
it should be noted that some doctorate recipients were
employed as physicists after acquiring their master’s degrees
and, therefore, were not new entrants. If past trends
continue, an average of about 1,200 new graduate degree
recipients are expected to seek physicist jobs each year.
In addition to new graduates in physics, individuals also
enter the field from other sources: Graduates with degrees
in related fields, immigrants, reentrants to the labor force,
and transfers from other occupations, physicists who enter
other occupations also create openings. Current data on oc­
cupational mobility are not adequate to assess the net
effect of transfers as a source of supply or openings. Over­
all, however, it appears that the number of persons likely to
seek employment as physicists will roughly equal the num­
ber of expected openings in the field.
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Private vocational
education co m p letio n s...............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

Engineering and science technicians. Many combinations of
education and work, experience qualify individuals for these
occupations, but most employers prefer applicants who
have had some specialized technical training. This special­
ized training consists of 1 to 4 years of full-time study at a
technical institute, junior or community college, extension
division of a college or university, or vocational-technical
high school. Training also can be acquired on the job,
through part-time courses in postsecondary schools, or
through correspondence school courses. Experience in
technical jobs in the Armed Forces also can be good
preparation for these occupations. A high school diploma
usually is required.
E m p loym en t, 1976 .......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ............
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

4 8 ,0 0 0
5 3 ,0 0 0
8.7

Available training data:

500
600

Public vocational
education co m p letio n s................................
Private vocational
education co m p letio n s.................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................
Junior college g ra d u a te s..................................

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

2 8 ,2 3 4
6 ,0 0 0

2

1 354
4 6 ,8 3 2

E lectronics technicians.
Includes graduates from all m echanical and engineering
tech n ologies, general natural science tech n ologies, marine
and oceanographic tech n ologies, and general laboratory
technologies.
1
2

D egrees in physics:
B achelor’s degrees..
M aster’s.degrees ..
D o cto r’s degrees ..

5 8 6 ,0 0 0
7 6 0 ,0 0 0
2 9 .9
2 9 ,0 0 0
1 9 ,5 0 0
9 ,5 0 0

1 ,1 0 0

A vailable training data:

1 9 7 5 -7 6

1,900
77
246

3 ,4 5 6
1,421
968

3 ,7 2 4
1,531
673

Surveyors. A combination of postsecondary school courses
in surveying and extensive on-the-job training is the most
common way to enter this occupation. Junior colleges,
technical institutes, and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-, and
3-year programs in surveying. Some colleges and universities
offer degrees in surveying or a closely related field such as
geodesy, photogrammetry, or civil engineering. High school
courses in mathematics, drafting, and mechanical drawing
provide a good background. Surveyors who are responsible
for locating and describing land boundaries must be
licensed by the State in which they work. Requirements for
licenses vary, but applicants generally must have 3 to 8
years of surveying experience and must pass a written test.

Other scientific and technical occupations

Drafters. Specialized training in technical institutes, junior
and community colleges, extension divisions of universities,
and vocational and technical high schools generally provides
the best preparation for beginning drafters. The necessary
skills also may be acquired by combining on-the-job
training programs with part-time schooling, through 3- or
4-year apprenticeship programs, or in the Armed Forces. A
high school diploma usually is required. High school or
vocational school courses in mathematics, physical sciences,
mechanical drawing, and drafting are useful.
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th .............................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

3 2 0 ,0 0 0
4 2 0 ,0 0 0
3 0 .6
1 6 ,5 0 0
1 0 ,9 0 0
5 ,6 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

5 2 ,0 0 0
7 4 ,0 0 0
41.5
3 ,5 0 0
2 ,4 0 0
1,100

A vailable training data:
Available training data:
Public vocation al
ed u cation co m p letio n s...............................



Junior college g ra d u a te s..................................

2 9 ,3 1 7

58

2 ,2 1 9

Mechanics and Repairers
areas, rely on local vocational and technical schools to
provide classroom training. A few 4-year apprenticeships
also are available in which State employment agencies
provide classroom training. A high school diploma is not
required. Training in installing telephone systems while in
the Armed Forces is helpful. Because the job is strenuous,
applicants usually are given physical examinations. Most
line installers and cable splicers transfer to other telephone
occupations as they advance in age.

Telephone craft occupations

Central office craft occupations. Trainee jobs generally are
filled by employees already with the company, such as
telephone operators or line installers. Occasionally, workers
are hired from outside. A high school diploma is not
required, but a basic knowledge of electricity or electronics
is helpful. Telephone training in the Armed Forces is good
preparation for the job. New craft workers receive both
classroom instruction and on-the-job training. Some voca­
tional schools, particularly those in rural areas served by
small independent telephone companies, also offer training.
A few people learn these crafts through apprenticeship
programs designed by State employment agencies in con­
junction with local telephone companies. Because electrical
wires usually are color coded, applicants must not be color
blind.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R ep la c e m e n t....,.............................................

E m p loym en t, 197 6 .......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t...........................................
Available training data ................................................

Telephone and PBX installers and repairers. These workers
are trained on the job. Telephone companies provide several
weeks of classroom instruction in subjects such as mathe­
matics and electrical and electronic theory, supplemented
by on-the-job training. Many small independent telephone
companies, particularly in rural areas, rely on local voca­
tional and technical schools to train workers. A few 4-year
apprenticeships also are available in which State employ­
ment agencies provide classroom training. Because tele­
phone wires are color coded, applicants must not be color
blind. Physical examinations are sometimes required, and
applicants may have to pass a test to determine their
aptitude for the job. Often trainees are chosen from current
telephone company employees. A high school diploma is
preferred but not required.

1 3 5 ,0 0 0
1 6 5 ,0 0 0
23 .3
5 ,0 0 0
3 ,5 0 0
1,500

Available training data ................................................

Central office equipment installers. These workers learn
their skills on the job. New employees attend classes the
first few weeks to learn basic installation and then begin
on-the-job training. Often trainees will be transported to
the plant where the equipment is manufactured to receive
their training. It usually takes several years to become a
skilled installer, and training continues throughout an
installer’s career to improve skills and teach new installing
techniques. A high school diploma generally is preferred,
and courses in blueprint reading and electronic theory are
helpful. Because electrical wires are color coded, applicants
must not be color blind.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t......................................

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t...;...................................................

2 0 ,0 0 0
1 6 ,0 0 0
-2 0 .0
-3 0 0
-5 0 0
200

1 1 0 ,0 0 0
1 3 5 ,0 0 0
2 4 .2
4 ,1 0 0
2 ,9 0 0
1,200

Available training data ................................................

Other mechanics and repairers

Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heating mechanics.
Most workers start as helpers and learn their skills on the
job in about 3 years. A few individuals learn the trade
through a 4-year apprenticeship program that combines
on-the-job training with classroom instruction in related
subjects. In addition, many high schools and vocational
schools offer courses in air-conditioning, refrigeration, and
other subject areas that prepare students for entry jobs.
Employers generally prefer to hire high school graduates
with vocational education courses to fill entry level jobs.
Courses in mathematics, physics, basic mechanics, electron­
ics, and blueprint reading are helpful.

Available training data ..........................................

Line installers and cable splicers. These workers usually are
trained on the job. Classrooms are equipped with actual
telephone apparatus, including poles and other fixtures, to
simulate working conditions as much as possible. Trainees
learn how to climb poles and are taught safe working
practices to avoid falls and contact with power wires. After
several weeks, trainees generally are assigned to a crew for
on-the-job training under a line supervisor. Some small
independent telephone companies, particularly in rural



5 4 ,0 0 0
5 5 ,0 0 0
2.8
600
200
400

59

E m ploym ent, 1976 ...........................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ........
Percent grow th, 1976-85 .................
Average annual openings, 1976-85
Grow th .......................................
R e p la c e m e n t............................

Available training data:

1 7 5 .0 0 0
2 8 5 .0 0 0
6 2 .9
17,4 0 0

Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s...............................
Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s...............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

12,200
5 ,2 0 0

Available training data:
Public vocational
education com p letion s ..............................
Private vocational
education com p letion s ..............................
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................
A pprenticeship c o m p le tio n s..........................

1 4 ,4 0 2

2 1 ,3 0 7
800
765
266

Automobile mechanics. Most automobile mechanics learn
their trade through 3 to 4 years of on-the-job experience,
but additional time may be needed to learn a difficult
specialty such as automatic transmission repair. Training
authorities usually recommend completion of a 3- or 4-year
apprenticeship program which combines on-the-job experi­
ence with classroom instruction in mathematics, physics,
shop safety, and customer relations. Automobile mechanic
training in the Armed Forces is good preparation. High
school or vocational school courses in science, mathematics,
automobile repair, and machine shop also are useful. A high
school diploma is preferred but not required.

3 ,1 0 0
252
360

Appliance repairers. These workers usually start as helpers
and receive their training on the job. Formal training in
appliance repair is available in some vocational and tech­
nical schools, and community colleges. Graduates of these
programs still need on-the-job experience, however, to
become familiar with a variety of appliances and repairs.
Generally, it takes about 3 years to learn the trade. A high
school diploma usually is required and courses in appliance
repair, electricity, electronics, shop mathematics, and blue­
print reading provide a good background. To keep up with
changes in appliance design, experienced repairers may
attend training programs conducted by appliance manufac­
turers.

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

7 9 0 ,0 0 0
9 1 5 ,0 0 0
15.9
3 2 ,0 0 0
1 4 ,0 0 0
1 8 ,0 0 0

Available training data:
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

1 4 4 ,0 0 0
1 7 2 ,0 0 0
19.6
7 ,0 0 0
3 ,2 0 0
3 ,8 0 0

Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s..............................
Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s ........................

8 2 ,6 5 6
3 ,9 0 0
1,669
1,343

Available training data:
Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s..............................
Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s..............................
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................

Boat-engine mechanics. Most mechanics learn on the job.
Generally 2 to 3 years of experience are required to become
skilled in repairing both outboard and inboard motors. A
high school diploma is preferred by employers, but is not
required. High school or vocational school courses in small
engine repair, auto mechanics, and machine shop are help­
ful.

4 ,6 6 3
500
16

Automobile body repairers. Generally 3 to 4 years of
on-the-job training are necessary to learn all phases of
automobile body repair. Most repairers learn informally on
the job, but completion of a 3- or 4-year apprenticeship
that combines on-the-job training with classroom instruc­
tion in safety procedures, shop mathematics, and business is
the recommended way to enter this occupation. Although
high school graduation is not required, most employers
consider it an asset. High school or vocational school
courses in automobile body repair or automobile mechanics
are helpful.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................



E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings ............................................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 5 ,0 0 0
1 7 ,7 0 0
15.0
800
300
500

Available training data ................................................

Business machine repairers. These workers usually are hired
as trainees and taught their skills on the job. Trainees who
work in a manufacturer’s branch office or for a franchised
dealer usually receive several weeks to several months of
training at a school sponsored by the manufacturer.
Training offered by independent repair shops generally is
less formal, with trainees completing a self-study course and
receiving on-the-job training from an experienced repairer.

1 7 4 ,0 0 0
2 0 0 ,0 0 0
15.3
6 ,0 0 0
2 ,9 0 0
3 ,1 0 0

60

A few repairers learn their skills by completing an appren­
ticeship program.
Applicants must be high school graduates, and some
employers require at least 1 year of technical training in
basic electricity or electronics. Employers like to hire
veterans who have had this type of training in the Armed
Forces. Good eyesight, including color vision, and good
hearing are important. High school courses in physics,
chemistry, and mathematics are helpful.
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ......................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data:
Public vocation al
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

5 8 ,0 0 0
8 0 ,0 0 0
37.8
3 ,4 0 0
2 ,4 0 0
1,000

1

941
700
43
567

May include som e com puter service technicians.

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................ :..............
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..........................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Computer service technicians. Employers usually require
applicants to have 1 to 2 years of post-high school training
in basic electronics or electrical engineering from a com­
puter school, a technical institute, a junior college, or
college. A few technicians are trained through appreaticeship programs. Electronics training in the Armed Forces
also is excellent preparation. Generally, 6 months to 2 years
of on-the-job experience is required before newly hired
technicians are considered competent to work on the more
complex systems. High school courses in mathematics,
chemistry, and physics are considered good preparation.
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................

Projected employment, 1985 ...................................
Percent growth, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t................................

Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

6 6 ,0 0 0
8 2 ,0 0 0
2 2 .4
4 ,0 0 0
1 ,700
2 ,3 0 0

34

Industrial machinery repairers. Most workers learn their
skills on the job as helpers to experienced workers by
rotating from job to job for several years. Others learn their
trade through 4-year apprenticeship programs that combine
on-the-job training with classroom instruction in welding,
blueprint reading, shop mathematics, and safety. A high
school diploma is not required, but high school or
vocational school courses in mathematics and machine shop
may be helpful. Good physical condition and agility are
necessary because repairers sometimes have to lift heavy
equipment or climb to reach large machines.

5 0 ,0 0 0
9 3 ,0 0 0
8 6 .0
5 ,2 0 0
4 ,8 0 0
400

188

E m p loym en t, 197 6 .......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Diesel mechanics. Most workers learn their skills informally
on the job or through an apprenticeship program that
combines on-the-job training with classroom instruction.
Generally 3 to 4 years is required to become skilled in all
aspects of diesel engine repair. Trade and technical school
courses in diesel engine maintenance, and experience
repairing vehicles in the Armed Forces or as a hobby are
useful. Employers prefer to hire high school graduates.
Courses in blueprint reading, auto repair, and machine shop
are helpful, as are courses in science and mathematics.
Good physical condition is important because mechanics
often have to lift heavy engine parts.



3 ,5 0 0
137

Available training data:

Available training data:
Junior college com p letion s ...........................

5 ,3 1 6

Farm equipment mechanics. Most farm equipment mechan­
ics begin as helpers and learn their skills on the job.
Employers generally prefer to hire high school graduates
who have a farm background. Usually, at least 3 years of
on-the-job experience are necessary before a person is able
to handle all types of repairs. Some mechanics learn their
skills by completing a 3- to 4-year apprenticeship program,
while others learn through a vocational program,, High
school courses in automobile repair, machine shop, science,
and mathematics are helpful.

A vailable training data : 1
Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

1 0 0 ,0 0 0
1 2 5 ,0 0 0
22.9
5 ,0 0 0
2 ,6 0 0
2 ,4 0 0

3 2 0 ,0 0 0
5 0 0 ,0 0 0
5 7 .0
3 0 ,0 0 0
2 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,0 00

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................

61
920

Jewelers. These workers generally learn the jewelry trade
either by serving an apprenticeship in a jewelry factory, or
through informal on-the-job training while working for an
experienced jeweler. Apprentices usually are selected from

61

among the production workers already employed in a
jewelry factory. Apprenticeships are specialized, teaching
only one skill, perhaps stone setting or modelmaking, in 3
to 4 years. For an individual to learn all the major skills of
the trade, several apprenticeships would have to be served.
Most jewelers learn only two or three skills in this way, and
learn others on the job.
Some technical schools offer jewelry repair courses that
are good training for someone outside the industry. These
courses can last from 6 months to 3 years, depending on
the particular skill being learned. Employers prefer to hire
high school graduates. Courses in art, mechanical drawing,
and metalworking are helpful.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t...... ................................................

are offered by a small number of technical schools and by a
few 4-year colleges. Home study (correspondence school)
courses in piano technology also are available.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data ................................................

Shoe repairers. These workers generally start as helpers and
are trained on the job in shoe repair shops. It usually takes
about 2 years to learn all aspects of the job. Some repairers
learn the trade in vocational schools, but additional training
under an experienced shoe repairer generally is helpful. A
high school diploma is not required. Business courses are
useful because many shoe repairers own their own shops.
Some high schools and junior colleges offer courses in shoe
repair.

1 9 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,0 0 0
10.5
1 ,300
200
1,100

Available training data ................................................

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
D ecline ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Maintenance electricians. Most maintenance electricians
work at least 4 years informally on the job to learn their
trade. Some workers learn through 4-year apprenticeship
programs which combine on-the-job training with classroom
instruction in subjects such as electricity, blueprint reading,
and safety. A high school diploma usually is required.
Vocational education courses in electrical construction are
useful, as are high school courses in electricity, physics,
mathematics, and science. Many cities and counties require
electricians to be licensed. To obtain a license, an applicant
must pass a written examination and may have to demon­
strate occupational skills.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R ep la cem en t.......................................................

Television and radio service technicians. Employers usually
hire persons who have had formal training in electronics
while in high school, vocational school, technical school, or
in the Armed Forces. Generally, 2 to 4 years of on-the-job
training are necessary to become skilled in most types of
repair work. Persons who do not have formal training but
have an aptitude for the work or have worked with radios
and televisions as a hobby may be hired as helpers. A high
school diploma is preferred but not required.

3 0 0 ,0 0 0
3 7 0 ,0 0 0
23 .3
1 5 ,9 0 0
7 ,8 0 0
8 ,1 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 0 0

29
1 ,106

1 1 4 ,0 0 0
1 5 0 ,0 0 0
31.1
6 ,7 0 0
4 ,0 0 0
2 ,7 0 0

Available training data:
Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s..............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s ......

Piano and organ tuners and repairers. Most workers learn
their trade on the job. Generally, 3 to 4 years of on-the-job
training are needed to qualify as a piano, pipe organ, or
electronic organ technician, although piano tuning alone
may be learned in less than 2 years. Employers prefer high
school graduates for beginning jobs in these fields. Music
courses are helpful in developing an ear for tonal quality
and woodworking courses also are useful because many
moving parts in pianos and pipe organs are made of wood.
Electronic organ technicians usually need formal training in
electronics available in technical schools, junior colleges,
and some vocational schools. Courses in piano technology



2 5 ,0 0 0
2 4 ,0 0 0
-4.0
1,800
-100
1,900

Available training data ................................................

Available training data:
Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s..............................
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s ........................

8 ,0 0 0
8 ,4 0 0
4.9
650
50
600

1,500
33
108

Truck mechanics and bus mechanics. Most mechanics learn
their skills on the job in 3 to 4 years, but completion of a
4-year apprenticeship program is the recommended way to
learn this trade. These programs combine on-the-job train­
ing with classroom instruction in mathematics, physics, and
shop safety. A high school diploma is preferred by
employers and strongly recommended for applicants for
apprenticeships. High school or vocational school courses in
automobile repair and mathematics provide good prepara­

62

tion. For some jobs that require driving, mechanics must
have a chauffeur’s license. Employers also may require
mechanics who drive to meet the qualifications of age.
eyesight, and physical condition established by the U.S.
Department of Transportation.
E m ploym ent, 1976 .............................................. „ ....
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R ep la c e m e n t.......................................................

to 4-year apprenticeship. Courses in watch repair cover use
and care of tools and machines, how to take apart and
reassemble various types of watches, and solving repair
problems. A high school diploma is preferred. A few States
require watch repairers to be licensed; to obtain a license
applicants must pass a written test and a bench examina­
tion. Business courses may be useful to individuals who
wish to open their own watch repair shops.

1 4 5 ,0 0 0
1 8 0 ,0 0 0
20 .8
6 ,9 0 0
3 ,4 0 0
3 ,5 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Available training data ................................................

Watch repairers. Most repairers learn their trade through 18to 24-month courses offered by watch repair schools. Others
learn informally on the job in about 3 years, or through a 3-

2 1 ,0 0 0
2 3 ,0 0 0
9.5
1,500
200
1,300

Available training data

Health Occupations
have an advantage when seeking a job. A high school
diploma is required, and courses in biology, chemistry,
health, and typing are helpful.

Dental occupations

Dentists. All States require dentists to have a license to
practice. To be licensed, candidates must graduate from a
dental school approved by the American Dental Association
and pass a State board examination. Most States’ licenses
permit dentists to engage in both general and specialized
practice. However, 14 States require specialists to have 2 or
3 years of graduate education and pass a State examination
on the specialty. Dental school training generally lasts 4
academic years, although some institutions condense it into
3 calendar years. Applicants to dental school must have 2
to 4 years of college education, including courses in the
sciences and humanities. In 1976, about 4 out of 5 students
in dental school had a bachelor’s or master’s degree.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ..................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..................................................................
R ep la cem en t.......................................................

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
Growth .................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................
Available training data:
Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s...............................
Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ...............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
Junior college g ra d u a tes..................................

1 1 2 ,0 0 0
1 3 5 ,0 0 0
20.8
4 ,8 0 0
2 ,6 0 0
2 ,2 0 0

D ental sch ool graduates...

5 ,425

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)
5 ,3 4 0

Dental assistants. Most dental assistants learn their
skills on the job, but an increasing number are trained
through post-high school programs offered in junior and
community colleges, and in vocational and technical
schools. These programs generally take 1 year to complete
and lead to a certificate or diploma. Graduates of 2-year
programs offered in junior and community colleges earn an
associate degree. Training also is available in the Armed
Forces. Individuals who have had formal training generally



5 ,8 83
5 ,0 0 0
39
1,425

Dental hygienists. Completion of an associate degree pro­
gram usually is sufficient training to practice in a dentist’s
office. To do research, teach, and work in public or school
health programs, at least a bachelor’s degree is required.
Dental hygienists must be licensed and only graduates of
the associate or bachelor’s degree programs of accredited
dental hygiene schools are eligible for licensing. To obtain a
license, applicants must pass both a written and a practical
examination. Dental hygiene training given in the Armed
Forces does not fully prepare one to pass the licensing
examination, but credit for that training may be granted to
persons seeking admission to accredited schools. High
school courses in biology, health, chemistry, and mathe­
matics are useful.

Available training data:

1 9 7 5 -7 6

1 3 5 ,0 0 0
2 0 0 ,0 0 0
51.1
1 3 ,500
7 ,6 0 0
5 ,9 0 0

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ......................
Grow th ...........................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

63

2 7 ,0 0 0
6 0 ,0 0 0
121.9
5 ,1 0 0
3 ,6 0 0
1,500

Available training data:
P ublic vocation a l
ed u cation c o m p le tio n s ...............................
Junior college g r a d u a tes..................................

Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ...........................................................
R e p la c e m e n t..................................................

1,378
3 ,5 3 8

Available training data:

D egrees in dental hygiene:
B achelor’s degrees ................................
M aster’s d e g r e e s......................................
D o c to r ’s d e g r e e s ....................................

Chiropractic sch o o l g r a d u a te s......................
1,115
24
16

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ...........................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

O ptom etry sch ool g r a d u a te s.........................

4 2 ,0 0 0
6 2 ,0 0 0
4 8 .3
3 ,7 0 0
2 ,2 0 0
1,500

844
600
138
622

Chiropractors. All States require chiropractors to meet
certain educational requirements and pass a State board
examination for a license. Although the type of chiropractic
procedures permitted and education required vary, most
States require graduation from a 4-year chiropractic course
following 2 years of undergraduate college work.
Enrollments in chiropractic colleges have grown dra­
matically. As more students graduate and the number of
practitioners swells, new chiropractors may find it increas­
ingly difficult to establish a practice in those areas where
chiropractors already are located.




975

Physicians and osteopathic physicians. All States require a
license for the practice of medicine. Applicants for a license
must graduate from an approved medical school or school
of osteopathy, pass a State board examination, and in many
States, serve a 1-year hospital residency. Most students who
enter medical school or a school of osteopathy have earned
a bachelor’s degree, although many schools accept students
who have had just 3 years of college. No one college major
is best. A major in one of the sciences, or a major in the
humanities with extra course work in the sciences, is good
preparation. Most medical schools and schools of osteo­
pathy have 5-year curriculums. Persons who wish to
specialize must complete “advanced residency training”
usually followed by 2 or more years of practice in the
specialty before they may take the specialty board exami­
nations.
The employment outlook for physicians and osteopathic
physicians is expected to be very good. Over the 1976-85
period, about 1,000 foreign medical graduates are expected
to enter the country annually, and about 17,100 students
are projected to graduate from U.S. medical schools each
year, according to the U.S. Public Health Service. This
number is somewhat lower than the 21,800 new physicians
and osteopathic physicians expected to be needed annually.

Medical practitioners

E m p lo y m en t, 1 976 ......................................................
P rojected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................

1 9,700
2 3 ,0 0 0
16.8
1,500
400
1,100

Available training data:

A vailable training data:
P ublic vocation al
ed u cation c o m p le tio n s ...............................
Private vocation al
ed u cation c o m p le tio n s ...............................
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................
Junior college graduates ................................

1,577

Optometrists. All States require optometrists to be licensed.
Applicants for a license must have a Doctor of Optometry
degree from an accredited school of optometry and pass a
State board examination. The Doctor of Optometry degree
requires a minimum of 6 years of education after high
school, consisting of 4 years of optometry school preceded
by at least 2 years of undergraduate college study. In 1976,
the American Optometric Association accredited 12
schools.
Employment opportunities are expected to be favorable
through the mid-1980’s. About 1,500 new optometrists will
be needed annually, although the U.S. Public Health Service
projects an average of 1,000 optometry graduates each
year.

Dental laboratory technicians. Many dental laboratory
technicians learn their skills on the job, usually in 4 to 5
years. A few vocational schools offer courses in dental
laboratory work. High school graduates are preferred, and
courses in art, crafts, metal shop, metallurgy, and science
are helpful. Persons who receive dental laboratory training
in the Armed Forces usually qualify for civilian jobs as
technicians.
In 1976, 48 junior colleges, colleges, and vocational and
technical schools offered training programs accredited by
the American Dental Association. After completion of
these 2-year programs, the trainee may need about 3 years
o f experience to become a fully qualified technician. Dental
laboratory technicians may become certified dental tech­
nicians by passing written and practical examinations given
by the National Association of Dental Laboratories. Certifi­
cation is becoming increasingly important as evidence of a
technician’s competence.
E m p lo y m e n t, 1 976 ......................................................
P rojected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent growth, 1976-85 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1,600
400
1,200

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................

1 8 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,6 0 0
2 0 .0

64

3 7 5 ,0 0 0
5 2 0 ,0 0 0
37.8
2 1 ,8 0 0

G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 6 ,0 0 0
5 ,8 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 ................................................................. 3 0 ,5 0 0
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 .............................................3 9 ,5 0 0
Percent grow th, 1 976-85 ............................................
2 7 .0
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
1 ,800
G row th ..................................................................
900
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
900

Available training data:

1 9 7 5 -7 6

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

M.D. d e g r e e s................... * 1 4 ,1 6 3
D.O. degrees ....................
*806

Available training data:

* 1 5 ,9 9 7
* 1 ,1 2 8

1U.S. Public Health Service data.

1 9 7 5 -7 6
Veterinary sch ool
graduates .................... 1 ,532

Podiatrists. All States require a license for the practice of
podiatry. Applicants for a license must graduate from an
accredited 4-year program in a college of podiatric medicine
and pass a State board examination. Four States also
require serving a 1-year residency. At least 2 years of
college are required for admission to any of six colleges of
podiatric medicine. Most successful applicants to schools of
podiatry in 1976 had bachelor’s degrees. No one college
major is required.
Opportunities for graduates to establish new practices or
obtain salaried positions are expected to be favorable. It is
anticipated that an average of 500 podiatrists will be
needed each year, while projections of new graduates
developed by the U.S. Public Health Service indicate that
450 podiatrists will graduate annually.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Medical technologist, technician, and assistant occupations

Electrocardiograph (EKG) technicians. Generally, EKG
technicians are trained on the job for 3 months to 1 year by
an EKG supervisor or a cardiologist. Vocational schools in
several States and junior colleges give college credit for
courses in cardiology technology, and some colleges offer
associate degrees in the field. A high school diploma is
required, and courses in health, biology, and typing are
helpful.
E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

7 ,5 0 0
8 ,7 0 0
15.1
500
100
400

Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s..............................
Job Corps c o m p le tio n s ...................................
Junior college g ra d u a tes......... ......................

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

2 0 0

28
*6 6

* Includes all electrodiagnostic technicians.
439

*450

’ U .S. Public Health Service data.

Veterinarians. A license is required to practice veterinary
medicine in all States. To be licensed a candidate must earn
the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.) degree, pass a
State board examination, and in some States have some
practical experience.
Four years of study in a college of veterinary medicine
preceded by at least 2 years of undergraduate education are
required to earn the D.V.M. degree. Applicants for admis­
sion to veterinary colleges must have completed 2 to 3
years of study in a program that emphasizes the physical
sciences. Most students, however, have completed 3 to 4
years of college study.
Employment opportunities are expected to be favorable
through the mid-1980’s. About 1,800 new veterinarians will
be needed annually, while the U.S. Public Health Service
projects an average of 1,700 students will graduate each
year.



12,000
15,000
28.8
700
400
300

Available training data:

Podiatry school
g ra d u a tes......................

' 1,700

* U .S. Public H ealth Service data.

Available training data:

1 9 7 5 -7 6

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

65

Electroencephalographic (EEG) technicians. Most EEG
technicians and technologists are trained on the job by
experienced EEG personnel. Training authorities, however,
recommend completion of a 6-month program approved by
the American Medical Association (AMA) for technicians,
and completion of a 1- to 2-year program for technologists.
Programs may be offered in colleges, junior colleges,
medical schools, hospitals, and vocational or technical
schools. In 1976, only 9 AMA-approved programs existed,
however. High school graduation is required, and courses in
health, biology, and electronics are helpful.
EEG personnel who have 1 year of training and 1 year of
experience and pass a written and oral examination
administered by the American Board of Registration of
Electroencephalographic Technologists can become
“ Registered EEG Technologists.” Registration is not a
requirement for employment, but is acknowledgement of a
technologist’s qualifications and makes it easier to obtain
better paying positions.

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Available training data:

4 ,3 0 0
5 ,5 0 0
3 1 .0
300
150
150

Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s..................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
Junior college g ra d u a te s..................................

Available training data:
Junior college gra d u a tes..................................
1

D egrees in m edical laboratory te c hnologies:
Pachelor’s d e g r e e ...................................
Master’s degree .......................................

1 6 6

Includes all electrodiagnostic technicians.

Emergency medical technicians (EMT’ Few EMT’s re­
s).
ceived formal training until recent years. Now instruction in
emergency medical care techniques is mandatory. A stand­
ard training course is the 81-hour program designed by the
U.S. Department of Transportation. This program or its
equivalent is offered in all States by police, fire, and health
departments; in hospitals; and in medical schools, colleges
and universities. A high school diploma and a valid driver’s
license are required for entrance into a training program.
High school courses in health and science and driver
education are recommended. Training in the Armed Forces
as a “medic” also is good preparation. Physical strength and
coordination are required.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

2 8 7 ,0 0 0
5 0 0 ,0 0 0
7 4 .2
3 7 ,0 0 0
2 4 ,0 0 0
1 3 ,0 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Medical laboratory workers. There are 3 occupations within
this group—
medical laboratory assistant, medical laboratory
technician, and medical technologists. Most medical labor­
atory assistants are trained on the job. In recent years,
however, an increasing number have completed 1-year
training programs conducted by hospitals, junior colleges,
and vocational schools. Applicants to these programs must
have a high school diploma with courses in science and
mathematics.
Medical laboratory technicians may obtain training
through 2-year programs offered by junior colleges, colleges
and universities, and vocational and technical schools. Some
are trained in the Armed Forces. Medical technologists
usually must complete 4 years of college, including 12
months of study and extensive laboratory work in medical
technology. About 700 hospitals and colleges and universi­
ties offered programs accredited by the American Medical
Association. A bachelor’s degree usually is awarded upon
completion, although a few programs require a bachelor’s
dbgree for entry.




2 ,4 0 0
17
3,3 1 3
5,3 8 9
241

Medical record technicians and clerks. High school gradu­
ates who have basic secretarial skills can enter the medical
record field as clerks. About 1 month of on-the-job training
is needed to learn routine tasks. Although not required,
high school courses in science, health, and mathematics are
helpful. The American Medical Record Association
(AMRA) offers a correspondence course in medical tran­
scription; the certificate awarded upon successful comple­
tion of the course is helpful in applying for a job as a clerk.
Most employers prefer to fill technician positions with
graduates of 2-year associate degree programs in medical
record technology. In 1977, the American Medical Associ­
ation and the AMRA had accredited 66 programs. Tech­
nicians may take the Accredited Record Technician (ART)
examination. Passing the examination indicates competence
in the field and can be helpful for promotion.

Available training data ..........................................

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R ep la cem en t........................................................

4,721

5 7 ,0 0 0
1 0 6 ,0 0 0
8 6 .0
9 ,0 0 0
5 ,4 0 0
3 ,6 0 0

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
Junior college g ra d u a tes..................................

62
919

Operating room technicians. Most operating room
technicians are trained in vocational and technical schools,
hospitals, and community and junior colleges. Generally
these programs last from 9 months to 1 year, but some
junior college programs last 2 years and lead to an associate
degree. Some technicians are trained on the job. The length
of training ranges from 6 weeks to 1 year, depending on the
individual’s qualifications and the extent and difficulty of
the work assigned. Applicants who have worked as nursing
aides or practical nurses may be preferred. Some operating
room technicians are trained in the Armed Forces, also. A
high school diploma generally is required, and courses in
health and biology are helpful.
The Association of Operating Room Technicians awards
a certificate to operating room technicians who pass its
comprehensive examination. This certification is recognized
as a sign of competence and generally commands a higher
salary.

2 4 0 ,0 0 0
3 5 0 ,0 0 0
45 .8
2 0 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,0 0 0
8 ,0 0 0

E m p loym en t, 197 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ..................................

66

3 0 ,0 0 0
4 1 ,0 0 0

P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

D egrees in radiologic technologies:

3 4 .4
2 ,1 0 0
1 ,2 0 0
900

B achelor’s degrees .................................
M aster’s d e g r e e s......................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

263
26
4

A vailable training data:
Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ...............................
Junior college grad u a tes...................................

Respiratory therapy workers. There are three levels of
workers—
assistants, technicians, and therapists. Assistants
trained on the job learn their skills in about 6 weeks. A high
school diploma is not required, but may be preferred by
some employers. Formal training beyond high school is
required for technicians and therapists. Programs are
offered in colleges and universities, junior colleges, and
hospitals. Generally technician training programs last 12
months, while therapist training programs last 18 to 24
months. Therapists completing the 2-year program at a
college earn an associate degree. Some colleges and universi­
ties offer 4-year programs for therapists that culminate in a
bachelor’s degree. High school courses in health, biology,
mathematics, physics, and bookkeeping are useful prepara­
tion for these occupations.

1,106
252

Optometric assistants. Most optometric assistants are train­
ed on the job, but training also can be acquired through 1or 2-year courses in junior colleges. A high school diploma
or its equivalent, including knowledge of mathematics and
office procedures, is preferred for both on-the-job and
formal training.
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................

Projected employment, 1985 ...................................
Percent growth, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 1 ,8 0 0
1 5 ,3 0 0
29.5
700
400
300

The National Board of Respiratory Therapy awards the
Registered Respiratory Therapist (RRT) and Certified
Respiratory Therapy Technician (CRTT) credentials to
individuals who meet their requirements. To earn the RRT,
therapists must complete an approved training program,
have 62 semester hours of college credit, 1 year of
experience, and pass written and oral examinations. To earn
the CRTT, technicians must complete an approved training
program, have 1 year of experience, and pass a written test.

Available training data:
Junior college g ra d u a tes..................................

519

Radiologic (X-ray) technologists. Completion of a 2-year
training program in X-ray technology is required for entry
to the field. These programs are offered in hospitals,
medical schools, colleges, junior colleges, vocational
schools, and the military services. A few schools conduct 3or 4-year programs, and some schools award bachelor’s and
master’s degrees in X-ray technology. Generally, there is
more potential for advancement for persons who hold
bachelor’s or master’s degrees. High school graduation is
required for entry to all training programs, and courses in
mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology are helpful.
Although the demand for radiologic technologists should
continue to be strong, the number of graduates of
AMA-approved programs in this field is expected to grow
rapidly through the mid-1980’s. If present enrollment
patterns continue, the number seeking to enter the occupa­
tion is likely to exceed the number of openings. As a result,
graduates may face competition for positions of their
choice.
Employment, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1985 ...................................
Percent growth, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data:
Public vocation al
education c o m p le tio n s..............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................
Junior college g r a d u a tes..................................

Registered nurses. All States require professional nurses to
be licensed. Applicants for a license must graduate from a
school approved by the State board of nursing and pass the
State board examination. All nursing schools require a high
school diploma for entry. Programs vary in length from 2 to
5 years. Nurses who complete 2-year courses earn associate
degrees; those who complete 3-year courses earn diplomas;
and bachelor’s degrees are awarded to graduates of 4- and
5-year courses. A master’s degree is preferred for research,
consultation, teaching, and clinical specialization.
Employment opportunities are expected to be favorable
through the mid-1980’s. Between 1976 and 1985, an
average of 83,000 new registered nurses will be needed

8 0 ,0 0 0
1 1 2 ,0 0 0
39 .9
6 ,3 0 0
3 ,6 0 0
2 ,7 0 0

Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................

Junior college g ra d u a te s..................................



1,707
5
2 ,0 8 0

Nursing occupations

Available training data:

Private vocational
education com pletions ................

3 6 ,0 0 0
6 5 ,0 0 0
8 0 .6
4 ,7 0 0
3 ,2 0 0
1,500

1,847
3 ,0 0 0
3 ,3 2 3

67

taking temperatures, and giving back rubs. Public and
private vocational schools also offer this training.

annually. The U.S. Public Health Service projects that the
average number of graduates each year will approximate
this demand. Traditionally, not all graduates have entered
nursing immediately upon graduation, however, and many
have left the labor force early in their careers. Thus, a
substantial pool of qualified nurses exists outside the labor
force. Many nurses are expected to seek entry or re-entry
into the field, but the number depends on many factors
which are difficult to analyze, such as the availability of
jobs in specific localities, general economic conditions, and
job opportunities and salaries in other occupations for
which nurses are qualified.

1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
E m p loym en t, 1 976 .................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,3 5 0 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
36 .2
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
8 3 ,0 0 0
G row th ..................................................................
4 0 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
4 3 ,0 0 0
Available training data:
Public vocation al
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Private vocation al
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Job Corps c o m p le tio n s ...................................

9 6 0 ,0 0 0
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ................................... 1 ,3 2 0 ,0 0 0
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
37 .6
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
8 3 ,0 0 0
G row th ..................................................................
4 0 ,0 0 0
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
4 3 ,0 0 0

Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Junior college g ra d u a tes..................................

i ^

7 4

1

Occupational therapists. A bachelor’s degree in occupation­
al therapy generally is required to enter this profession.
Some schools, however, offer programs leading to a
certificate or a master’s degree in occupational therapy for
students who have a bachelor’s degree in another field.
Graduates of approved programs may take the American
Occupational Therapy Association examination to become
registered occupational therapists (OTR). This designation
is recognition of professional competence.
The increasing number of graduates from training
programs is likely to exceed the number of job openings
through the mid-1980’s. New graduates, therefore, may
face competition for jobs in some geographic areas.

Q

j qqq

'3 4 ,1 8 7

Degrees in nursing:
B achelor’s d e g r e e s..................................
M aster’s d e g r e e s .....................................
D o cto r’s d eg rees.....................................

2 6 ,7 2 6
3,035
16

1Some graduates may be counted in both junior college and voca­
tional education programs.

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ......
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Licensed practical nurses. All States require applicants for
licenses as practical nurses to complete a State-approved
course in practical nursing and pass an examination.
Educational requirements for enrollment in these courses
vary by State and range from completion of eighth or
ninth grade to high school graduation. Generally, the course
lasts 1 year and is given in junior colleges, local hospitals,
health agencies, and vocational schools.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ...........................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

D egrees in occu p ation al therapy:
B achelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s......................................

4 6 0 ,0 0 0
7 1 0 ,0 0 0
54 .3
5 3 ,0 0 0
2 8 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,0 0 0

1,453
166

Occupational therapy assistants. Most occupational therapy
assistants are trained on the job in hospitals and other
health care facilities. Some learn their skills in vocational
and technical programs. Other assistants graduate from 1or 2-year junior college programs or complete an approved
occupational therapy assistant program in the Armed
Forces. Applicants for training programs must have a high
school diploma or its equivalent.

3 6 ,7 5 9
3 ,4 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

6 6

2 ,7 9 4

Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants. Although some
employers prefer to hire high school graduates, a diploma is
not required. Training usually is acquired on the job, often
in combination with classroom instruction covering areas
such as the correct procedures for changing bed linens,



1 0,600
1 8 ,100
70.8
1,300
900
400

Available training data:

Available training data:
Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Private vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................
Junior college gra d u a tes..................................

4 ,1 0 0
lj79U

Therapy and rehabilitation occupations

Available training data:
Public vocational
education c o m p le tio n s ..............................

2 9 ,8 1 9

8 ,9 0 0
1 6 ,300
83.1
1,200
800
400

Available training data:
Junior college g ra d u a te s..................................

68

560

Physical therapists. All States require physical therapists to
be licensed. Applicants for a license must have a bachelor’s
degree in physical therapy and pass a State board exami­
nation. For persons who have bachelor’s degrees in other
fields, 12- to 16-month certficate programs and 2-year
master’s degree programs are available. A graduate degree
combined with clinical experience increases advancement
opportunities, especially in teaching, research, and adminis­
tration.
The rapidly growing number of new graduates is
expected to exceed the number of openings that will occur
each year in this occupation. As a result, new graduates are
expected to face some competition through the mid-1980’s.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R ep la cem en t.......................................................

Speech pathologists and audiologists. Most States prefer
and some require applicants for beginning jobs in public
schools to have a master’s degree. In addition, a teacher’s
certificate often is required and some States insist that
workers who deal with handicapped children have special
training. Many Federal programs, such as Medicare and
Medicaid, require participating speech pathologists and
audiologists to have a master’s degree.
Competition for jobs in many areas of the country is
expected to be keen. Over the 1976-85 period, an average
of 2,900 new speech pathologists will be needed each year.
Graduates of master’s degree programs alone are expected
to exceed that number, and a number of bachelor’s degree
holders also will compete for jobs. Some rural and
inner-city jobs have been difficult to fill, however, so
opportunities for master’s degree holders who are willing to
work in these areas should be favorable.

2 5 ,0 0 0
3 6 ,0 0 0
44 .8
2 ,1 0 0
1,200
900

E m ploym ent, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 .......
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Growth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Available training data:
Degrees in physical therapy:
B achelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................
D octor’s degrees ....................................

2 ,0 6 0
167
1

3 8 ,0 0 0
5 3 ,5 0 0
39.2
2 ,9 0 0
1 ,700
1,200

Available training data:
Degrees in speech pathology and audiology:

Physical therapist assistants and aides. Some States now
license physical therapist assistants. To obtain a license,
applicants must complete an approved 2-year associate
degree program. A few States, however, license those who
learned their skills before the associate degree programs
became available. States which do not require licensing
allow physical therapist aides to advance to assistants by
acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills on the job, but
employers often prefer to hire graduates of approved
programs for assistant jobs.
Physical therapist aides train on the job. The length and
content of these training programs depends on the diffi­
culty of the duties aides are expected to perform and the
needs of the patients in the particular program. Employers
generally prefer to hire high school graduates who have
worked as hospital nursing aides. High school courses in
health, biology, psychology, and physical education are
useful preparation for both aides and assistants.

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R ep la cem en t........................................................

B achelor’s d eg rees..................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

Other health occupations

Dietitians. A bachelor’s degree, preferably with a major in
foods and nutrition or institution management, is the basic
educational requirement. This degree usually is earned
through departments of home economics. To qualify for
professional recognition, the American Dietetic Association
recommends completion of an approved dietetic internship
or an approved individual traineeship program following
graduation. The internship lasts 6 to 12 months and the
traineeship program 1 to 2 years. A growing number of
programs enable students to complete all requirements in 4
years.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

12,5 0 0
1 8 ,0 0 0
4 4 .0
1 ,100
600
500

1

Degrees in fo o d s and nutrition:
Bachelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s......................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

19
749

2 ,7 6 7
526
57

Dispensing opticians. Most dispensing opticians learn their

Less than 50.




4 5 ,0 0 0
5 2 ,0 0 0
15.6
2 ,8 0 0
800
2 ,0 0 0

Available training data:

Available training data:
Private vocational
education com pletions
Job Corps com pletion s ...................................
Junior college gra d u a tes.................................

3,925
3 ,1 1 9
109

69

E m p loym en t, 1 9 7 6 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ....................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

skills on the job. Employers prefer high school graduates,
and graduation is required for formal training programs.
Some dispensing opticians learn their skills through 3- to
4-year apprenticeship programs that teach optical mathe­
matics, optical physics, and the use of laboratory equip­
ment. Apprentices also are taught to fit patients with
eyeglasses and contact lenses. High school courses in
geometry, algebra, and mechanical drawing are useful.
A small number of schools offer post-high school
training that leads to an associate degree in optical
fabricating and dispensing work. In 1976, 19 States
required dispensing opticians to be licensed. Applicants for
a license must pass an examination.
Employment, 1 9 7 6 .........................
Projected employment, 1985 ...................................
Percent growth, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1 976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Available training data:
Degrees in m edical record librarianship:
Bachelor’s degrees ................................

1 4 ,5 0 0
2 1 ,1 0 0

46 .5
1 ,3 0 0
800
500

140
519

Health services administrators. Educational requirements
for health administrators vary. A master’s degree in hospital
and health care administration or in public health some­
times is required; however, some employers hire persons
who have other backgrounds. A few hospitals and clinics
require administrators to be physicians or registered nurses.
E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th .................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

1 6 0 ,0 0 0
2 3 0 ,0 0 0
4 5 .0
1 6 ,0 0 0
8 ,0 0 0
8 ,0 0 0

A vailable training data:
D egrees in hospital and health care adm inistration:
B achelor’s degrees ................................
M aster’s d e g r e e s .....................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

421
1,129
11

Medical record administrators. Preparation for a career as a
medical record administrator is offered in specialized 4-year
programs in colleges and universities. Most programs lead to
a bachelor’s degree in medical record administration. Some
persons transfer into these programs from junior colleges.
One-year certificate programs are available for persons who
already have a bachelor’s degree and the required courses in
the liberal arts and biological sciences. High school courses
in health, business administration, mathematics, and
biology are useful.
Graduates of approved schools in medical record ad­
ministration may become Registered Record Administra­
tors by passing an examination given by the. American
Medical Record Association.




521

Pharmacists. All States require pharmacists to be licensed.
To obtain a license, one must graduate from an accredited
pharmacy college, pass a State Board examination, and
usually have a specified amount of practical experience or
period of internship under a registered pharmacist. For
entry to a college of pharmacy, at least 1 or 2 years of
prepharmacy education in an accredited junior college,
college, or university usually is required. At least 5 years of
study beyond high school are required to graduate from
one of the degree programs accredited by the American
Council on Pharmaceutical Education in the 72 colleges of
pharmacy. Most graduates receive a Bachelor of Science
(B.S.) or Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) degree. About
one-third of the colleges offer advanced professional degree
programs leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.)
degree; 3 schools offer only the Pharm. D. degree. The
Pharm. D. or a master’s degree or Ph. D. degree in pharmacy
is required for certain research, administrative, or teaching
positions. Some pharmacists enter medical, dental, or law
school, or pursue graduate degrees in science or engineering.
If the number of pharmacy college graduates continues
to rise as rapidly as it has in recent years, the current
favorable outlook for graduates may change, and the job
market may become increasingly competitive. Job pro­
spects vary within the profession. Although community
pharmacies will continue to be the primary employer of
pharmacists; employment of these workers is expected to
rise fastest in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health
facilities. Pharmacists in these settings increasingly provide
direct patient care and consultative services to physicians
and other professionals.

A vailable training data:
A pprenticeship com p letion s .........................
Junior college g ra d u a te s..................................

1 2 ,3 0 0
1 5 ,6 0 0
2 6 .6
1,000
400
600

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..................................................................
R eplacem ents .....................................................

1 2 0 ,0 0 0
1 4 0 ,0 0 0
16.4
8 ,9 0 0
2 ,2 0 0
6 ,7 0 0

Available training d a ta :
Degrees in pharmacy:
B achelor’s degrees
Master’s degrees ......................................
D octor’s d e g r e e s.....................................

70

g

3 5 9

307
81

Social Scientists
Anthropologists. A Ph. D. degree in anthropology usually is
necessary to become an anthropologist, especially if one
seeks a permanent college teaching position. A master’s
degree, plus field experience, is sufficient for many begin­
ning jobs in business and government, but advancement
generally is limited.
The number of persons seeking to enter the field is
expected to exceed available positions. As a result, persons
who have a Ph. D. degree may face keen competition,
particularly for college and university teaching positions.
Master’s and bachelor’s degree holders are likely to face
even greater competition, although some may find research
or administrative positions in government and industry, or
teaching jobs in junior colleges or high schools.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R ep la c e m e n t........................................................

3 ,5 0 0
4 ,3 0 0
2 2 .4
200
100
100

Available training data:
Degrees in anthropology:

1 9 7 5 -7 6

B achelor’s degrees ...
Master’s degrees ......
D o cto r’s d e g r e e s .....

5 ,1 8 0
937
419

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

6 ,8 4 7
1,391
647

Economists. A bachelor’s degree in economics is sufficient
for many beginning jobs in government and industry, but a
master’s degree may be required for more responsible
research and administrative positions. A Ph. D. degree
generally is required for permanent teaching positions in
colleges and universities and is an asset for advancement in
all areas.
Persons who have Ph. D. degrees are likely to face
competition for academic positions, but should find favor­
able prospects in government, industry, research organ­
izations, and consulting firms. Master’s degree holders may
face keen competition for academic positions, but may find
good opportunities for administrative, research, and plan­
ning positions in government and industry. Bachelor’s
degree holders are expected to face very strong competition
for jobs as economists, although some may find employ­
ment in government, industry, and business as management
or sales trainees, or as research assistants.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ...........................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ........
Percent grow th, 1976-85 .................
Average annual openings, 1976-85
Grow th .......................................
R e p la c e m e n t............................




Available training data:
Degrees in econom ics:

1 9 7 5 -7 6
Bachelor’s degrees...
Master’s degrees.......
D o cto r’s degrees.......

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

14,741
2 ,0 8 7
763

11,715
2 ,2 7 3
766

Geographers. A bachelor’s degree in geography is the
minimum educational requirement for beginning jobs in
government and industry, but a master’s degree may bo
required for advancement. A Ph. D. degree generally is
necessary for permanent teaching positions in colleges and
universities, and for some senior level research, planning,
and administrative positions.
A growing number of jobs are expected to require
knowledge of cartography, climatology, and remote sens­
ing. Government will need geographers to work in health
services planning, environmental management, community
and regional development, and intelligence. Private industry
will need geographers for market research and location
analysis.
Persons who have a Ph. D. degree are expected to face
competition for academic positions, but should have
favorable prospects for research and administrative jobs in
government, industry, research organizations, and consult­
ing firms. Master’s degree holders may face strong competi­
tion for academic positions, but should find job opportu­
nities in planning and marketing in government and
industry. Bachelor’s degree holders are likely to face
competition for jobs as geographers. Some may find jobs as
cartographers, climatologists, or intelligence analysts.
Others may find employment as management trainees or
research or administrative assistants. As in the past,
bachelor’s degree holders also may become secondary
school teachers, or earn library science degrees and become
map librarians.

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.................................

1 0 ,000
1 2 ,500
25.3
600
300
300

Available training data:
Degrees in geography:

1 1 5 .0 0 0
1 4 8 .0 0 0
2 7 .4
6 ,4 0 0
3 ,5 0 0
2 ,9 0 0

1 9 7 5 -7 6
Bachelor’s d e g r e e s... .
Master’s d e g r e e s......
D o cto r’s d e g r e e s......

71

3 ,7 3 3
665
168

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)
4 ,0 0 2
111
243

Historians. Graduate education usually is necessary for
employment as an historian. Although a master’s degree is
sufficient for some positions, advancement opportunities
may be quite limited for persons who do not have a Ph. D.
degree. A Ph. D. is required for permanent teaching
positions in colleges and universities and for many research
and administrative jobs.
Only a small number of historians will be needed to fill
positions in colleges and universities, junior colleges, li­
braries,archives,museums,secondary schools, research organ­
izations, publishing firms, and government agencies. Those
who have training in a specialty, such as historic preserva­
tion, and those trained in quantitative methods are ex­
pected to have the best opportunities. Persons who are able
to teach several areas of history should have the best
prospects for jobs in colleges and universities.
Although information on patterns of entry to the field is
limited, available data indicate that the number of persons
expected to seek jobs as historians will greatly exceed
available positions. Ph. D’s are expected to face keen
competition, particularly for academic positions, and many
may have to accept part-time, temporary assignments.
Master’s degree holders may face even greater competition
for jobs as historians, although some may find teaching
positions in community colleges or high schools. Persons
who have bachelor’s degrees are likely to find very limited job
opportunities in the field. A major in history, however, pro­
vides an excellent background for some jobs in internation­
al relations, journalism, and other areas, and for continuing
education in law, business, and other disciplines. Some
graduates will find jobs as secondary school teachers, as
management or sales trainees, or as research or administra­
tive assistants.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
Grow th .................................................................
R ep la cem en t.......................................................

The number of persons seeking to enter this field is
expected to greatly exceed the number of available posi­
tions. Ph. D’s may face stiff competition, particularly for
academic positions, and many are expected to accept
part-time, temporary assignments. Graduates who are train­
ed in quantitative methods, American government, public
administration, or policy science may have the most
favorable opportunities for academic and nonteaching jobs.
Competition for foreign service positions is expected to
remain very keen.
Master’s degree holders are likely to face very stiff
competition for academic jobs, but those who have
specialized training in areas such as public administration or
policy science may find jobs in government, research
organizations, political organizations, and business firms.
Bachelor’s degree holders are expected to find limited
opportunities for jobs as political scientists. Some
graduates, however, may find jobs as trainees in govern­
ment, business, and industry. As in the past, many are
expected to continue their studies in areas such as law,
journalism, foreign affairs, and other fields.
E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................
Available training data:
D egrees in political science and governm ent:

1 9 7 5 -7 6
B achelor’s degrees.....
Master’s degrees..........
D o cto r’s degrees.........

2 2 ,5 0 0
2 4 ,5 0 0
9.1
900
200
700

Degrees in history:

Bachelor’s degrees...
Master’s degrees......
D o cto r’s degrees.......

2 8 ,4 0 0
3,6 5 8
1,014

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)
2 3 ,2 2 9
4 ,1 5 4
960

Political scientists. Graduate training generally is required
for employment as a political scientist. A Ph. D. degree
normally is necessary for permanent teaching positions in
colleges and universities and is helpful for advancement in
nonacademic areas. Individuals who have master’s degrees
often qualify for various administrative and research jobs in
government, industry, and in nonprofit research or civic
organizations.




P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

2 8 ,3 0 2
2,191
723

2 4 ,3 9 6
2 ,5 0 6
797

Psychologists. A doctoral degree in psychology generally is
the minimum educational requirement for employment as a
psychologist. It is needed for many beginning positions and
is increasingly important for advancement. The Ph. D.
degree culminates in a dissertation, whereas the Psy. D.
(Doctor of Psychology) is based on practical work experi­
ence and examinations. Master’s and bachelor’s degree
holders are qualified for jobs as assistants.
As of late 1976, the District of Columbia and all States
except Missouri had certification or licensing requirements
for psychologists who wanted to enter independent prac­
tice. The requirements generally include a doctorate in
psychology, 2 years of professional experience, and success­
ful completion of a written examination.
The American Board of Professional Psychology awards
diplomas in clinical, counseling, industrial and organiza­
tional, and school psychology. Requirements generally
include a doctorate in psychology, 5 years of qualifying
experience, professional endorsement, and successful com­
pletion of a written examination.

Available training data:

1 9 7 5 -7 6

1 4 ,0 0 0
1 5 ,3 0 0
7.0
400
100
300

72

Persons who have doctoral degrees are expected to face
increasing competition for jobs, particularly for academic
positions in large colleges and universities. Prospects should
be better in smaller and newer institutions. Persons who
have doctorates in applied areas, such as clinical, counsel-1
ing, and industrial or organizational psychology are ex­
pected to have better opportunities than those trained in
traditional academic specialties, such as experimental,
physiological or comparative psychology. Master’s degree
holders are likely to face very stiff competition, particularly
for academic positions. Some may find opportunities in
government, industry, and human service organizations;
training in applied areas such as evaluation research will be
helpful in getting these jobs.
Some bachelor’s degree holders may enter the field as
trainees. For those who wish to continue their education in
medicine, social work, sociology, law, counseling, recrea­
tion, gerontology, or related disciplines, psychology pro­
vides an excellent background.
E m p loy m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

9 0 ,0 0 0
1 2 0 ,0 0 0
3 3.8
5 ,6 0 0
3 ,4 0 0
2 ,2 0 0

E m ploym ent, 1976 .......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Growth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Available training data:
D egrees in p sychology:

1 9 7 5 -7 6
B achelor’s degrees...
M aster’s degrees.......
D o cto r’s degrees.....

4 9 ,9 0 8
7,811
2,581

permanent teaching positions in colleges and universities,
for jobs as directors of major research projects, administra­
tors, or consultants.
The number of persons seeking to enter this field is
likely to greatly exceed available job openings. Persons who
have Ph. D. degrees face increasing competition, partic­
ularly for academic positions, and some may accept
part-time, temporary jobs. Others may take research and
administrative positions in government, industry, research
organizations, and consulting firms. Master’s degree holders
may face very stiff competition, but some, particularly
those who have strong training in quantitative research,
statistical, and computer methods, may teach in junior
colleges or find jobs in government agencies, research firms,
and industry. Bachelor’s degree holders are expected to find
their job opportunities as sociologists very limited. As in
the past, some may become administrative or research
assistants, while others may continue their studies in law,
journalism, social work, recreation, counseling, and related
disciplines.

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

1 9 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,7 0 0
14.5
800
300
500

Available training data:
Degrees in sociology:

5 3 ,4 6 2
9 ,7 9 9
3 ,4 3 3

1 9 7 5 -7 6

Sociologists. A master’s degree in sociology generally is the
minimum educational requirement for employment as a
sociologist. A Ph. D. degree usually is necessary for

B achelor’s degrees...
Master’s degrees.......
D o cto r’s degrees.......

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -85
(annual average/

2 7 ,6 3 4
2 ,0 0 9
729

2 7 ,0 9 8
2 ,3 0 6
794

Social Service Occupations
ence, students can major in any field. A few States
substitute a counseling internship for teaching experience.
One to two years of study are necessary to earn a master’s
degree in counseling.

Counseling occupations

School counselors. Most States require school counselors to
have both counseling and teaching certificates, although an
increasing number of States no longer require teaching
certification. To obtain a teaching certificate, an individual
must have a bachelor’s degree from an institution with a
State-approved teacher education program and complete
basic education courses and student teaching. Depending on
the State, graduate work and from 1 to 5 years of teaching
experience usually are required for a counseling certificate.
Most undergraduate students interested in becoming
school counselors take the regular program of teacher
education with additional courses in psychology and
sociology. In States that do not require teaching experi­



E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent change, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

4 3 ,0 0 0
4 5 ,9 0 0
6.0
1,500
300
1,200

Available training data: ........................................
Other social science occupations

Cooperative extension service workers. These workers must
have at least a bachelor’s degree in the field in which they

73

homemaker-home health aides, and require at least a year’s
experience as a nursing aide in a hospital or nursing home.
As a rule, homemaker-home health aides undergo orien­
tation and training after they are hired; the length and
quality of this training vary, however. Agencies that insist
on previous experience as a nursing aide may provide only a
few hours of orientation. Most agencies, however, provide 1
or 2 weeks of training, including classroom instruction in
topics such as nutrition, meal planning and preparation,
personal care of the sick, emotional aspects of illness, and
the aging process.

will conduct their educational program. Although one can
specialize in a variety of areas, the most common are
agriculture, home economics, youth activities, and com­
munity resource development. In addition, training in
educational techniques and in a communications field, such
as journalism, is helpful. Often workers receive instruction
in extension work in pre-induction training programs and
can improve their skills through regular in-service training
programs.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

1 6 ,0 0 0
1 8 ,0 0 0
12.5
600
200
400

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G rowth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Available training data ................................................

7 0 ,0 0 0
1 7 8 ,0 0 0
154.3
3 7 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,0 0 0

Home economists. A bachelor’s degree in home economics
is required for most entry positions in the field. A master’s
or doctor’s degree is necessary for college teaching, for
some research and supervisory positions, for work as an
extension specialist, and for most jobs in nutrition. Ad­
vanced courses in chemistry and nutrition are important for
work in foods and nutrition; science and statistics for
research work; and journalism for advertising and public
relations work. To teach home economics in high school,
students must complete the courses required for a teaching
certificate. High school courses in home economics, speech,
health, mathematics, and chemistry are useful.
Individuals seeking jobs as home economists, especially
those wishing to teach in high schools, will face keen
competition for jobs through the mid-1980’s. Other areas
of home economics also will be competitive as those unable
to find teaching jobs look for other positions. For those
with an advanced degree, however, employment prospects
in college and university teaching are expected to be good.

Social service aides. Social service aides are trained on the
job. These workers have a wide range of educational
backgrounds, from elementary school to college. An aide’s
level of responsibility usually is related to formal education­
al attainment, so that people who have more schooling do
different kinds of work than those who have less. For
example, persons who have a grade school education may
enter the field in clerical positions, while those who have a
college degree may assume some duties normally performed
by social workers.
In hiring, employers consider an applicant’s desire to
help people and his or her ability to communicate with
community agencies and clients. An individual’s potential
for advancement and need for work also may be consider­
ed. Most employers emphasize the development of career
ladders for these workers based upon on-the-job training,
work experience, and further education.

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R ep la cem en t........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Available training data ................................................

1 4 1 ,0 0 0
1 4 3 ,0 0 0
1.4
6 ,1 0 0
200
5 ,9 0 0

Available training data:

Available training data:

Junior college g ra d u a te s..................................

Degrees in hom e econom ics:

Bachelor’s d e g r e e s........................
Master’s d e g r e e s................
D octor’s d e g r e e s....................................

3 ,0 0 9

Social workers. A bachelor’s degree in social work generally
is the minimum educational requirement for beginning jobs
in the field. However, many positions, particularly super­
visory, research, or administrative jobs, require a master’s
degree in social work. A doctorate often is preferred for
teaching positions.
In mid-1976, 20 States had licensing or registration laws
concerning social work practice and the use of professional
social work titles. Usually, work experience, successful
completion of an examination, or both are required. One of
these titles is ACSW (Academy of Certified Social Workers)
which can be used by members of the National Association

17,4 0 9
2 ,1 7 9
178

Homemaker-home health aides. Homemaker-home health
aides need to be able to read and write, but high school
graduation generally is not required. High school home
economics courses, such as meal planning and family living,
are helpful, however, particularly for young persons who
have little personal experience in homemaking. Some
employers hire only experienced nursing aides for jobs as



1 0 0 ,0 0 0
1 3 0 ,0 0 0
30.3
7 ,6 0 0
4 ,3 0 0
3 ,3 0 0

74

of Social Workers who have at least 2 years of post-master’s
degree work experience and have passed the ACSW exami­
nation.
E m ploym ent, 1976 .........................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ..........
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G r o w th ..........................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.................................................. :...

Available training data:
Degrees in social work and helping services:
Bachelor’s degrees ....................
Master’s d e g r e e s.......... ..........................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

3 3 0 ,0 0 0
4 4 0 ,0 0 0
32 .7
2 5 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,0 0 0
1 3 ,0 0 0

1 0 ,852
8 ,9 4 3
163

Art, Design, and Communications—Related Occupations
Performing artists

Actors and actresses. Formal training in acting is increasing­
ly necessary for entrance in the field. Training can be
obtained at dramatic arts schools, located chiefly in New
York, and in hundreds of colleges and universities through­
out the country. Experience is important; participating in
school or community productions is excellent preparation.
E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

5,691
1 ,394
112

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
Grow th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

8 ,0 0 0
9 ,9 0 0
2 3 .8
500
200
300

2 3 ,0 0 0
2 7 ,0 0 0
17.4
1 ,2 0 0
400
800

Available training data ................................................
Design occupations

Architects. All States require architects to be licensed
(registered). To obtain a license, applicants must have a
bachelor’s degree in architecture, have 3 years of experience
in an architect’s office, and pass a 2-day written exami­
nation. Those who have master’s degrees need only 2 years
of experience. In most States 12 years of practical
experience as an architect may be substituted for the
bachelor’s degree.
Competition for jobs is expected to be keen through the
mid-1980’s. The National Center-for Education Statistics
projects that about 6,800 bachelor’s degrees in architecture
will be awarded annually between 1976 and 1986. An

Available training data:
Degrees in dance:
772
180
1

Musicians. Studying an instrument, either through school or
private lessons, should begin at an early age. More advanced
training can be acquired through further study under an
accomplished musician, in a college or university which has
a strong music program, or in a music conservatory.



5 ,0 7 7
2,315
249

Singers. As a rule, intensive voice training should not begin
until after the individual has matured physically. Voice
training can be obtained through private lessons, or in a
music conservatory or department of music in a college or
university. A background in music theory and history is
helpful for persons interested in singing professionally,
although formal voice training is not essential for a
successful career in popular music.

Dancers. Serious training at a dance school or through
private lessons should begin by age 12 or earlier, especially
for ballet dancers. Training and practice continue through­
out a dancer’s career. Many colleges and universities offer
dance instruction, but a college education is not required
for employment as a professional dancer.

Bachelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

Degrees in m u sic : 1

1 Includes degrees in music perform ance, com p osition,
and theory.

Degrees in drama:

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R ep la c e m e n t.......................................................

1 2 7 ,0 0 0
1 5 3 ,0 0 0
20.5
7 ,2 0 0
2 ,9 0 0
4 ,3 0 0

Available training data:

Bachelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

1 3 ,0 0 0
15,0 0 0
15.4
600
200
400

Available training data:

B achelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

75

additional 1,750 master’s degrees are expected to be
conferred. Not all of these graduates are expected to
become registered. Based on a followup study of architec­
tural graduates, it is anticipated that 5,200 graduates will
actively seek registration and an architectural position each
year. This number still exceeds estimated annual openings,
however.
E m p lo y m e n t, 1 976 ...........................
P rojected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ........
P ercen t change, 1976-85 .................
A verage annual openings, 1976-85
G row th .......................................
R e p la c e m e n t.............................

4 9 ,0 0 0
6 1 ,6 0 0
2 5 .0
3 ,1 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,7 0 0

A vailable training data:

G r o w th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Available training data

Floral designers. Although there are no minimum educa­
tional requirements, most employers prefer high school
graduates. Training usually takes place on the job. However,
an increasing number of these workers receive training by
attending adult education programs, junior colleges, or
commercial floral design schools. Manual dexterity and a
good sense of color, balance, and proportion are primary
qualifications. High school courses in business arithmetic,
bookkeeping, selling techniques, and other business subjects
are helpful.

D egrees in architecture:

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected 1985 em p lo y m en t ....................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t............. ..........................................

P ro jected

1976-85
1975-76
B achelor’s degrees...
M aster’s degrees.......
D o cto r’s degrees.......

(annual average)

5 ,607
1,318
18

500
1,400

6 ,8 1 4
1 ,752
20

3 7 ,0 0 0
5 2 ,0 0 0
40.5
3 ,3 0 0
1,600
1,700

Available training data

Commercial artists. Artistic ability and good taste are the
most im portant qualifications for success in commercial art.
However, these qualities must be developed through special­
ized training in the techniques of commercial and applied
art. Individuals can prepare for a career in commercial art at
a 2- or 4- year trade school, or a junior college, college, or
university. Although many employers prefer to hire grad­
uates o f a college or university program, the quality and
reputation of a particular program is more important than
the type of institution at which it is offered. Limited
training in commercial art also may be obtained through
vocational high schools and on-the-job experience, but
supplemental training usually is needed for advancement.

Industrial designers. The usual way to enter this field is to
complete an industrial design curriculum in an art school,
an art department of a university, or a technical college.
Persons who have degrees in other fields, such as engineer­
ing, architecture, or fine arts, may qualify as industrial
designers if their backgrounds match the type of work
being done by their employers. Artistic talent is important.

E m p lo y m en t, 1976 .......................................................
P rojected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercen t grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 976-85 .........................
G row th .................................
R e p la c e m e n t....................

Available training data ..........................................

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1 976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

6 7 ,0 0 0
8 0 ,0 0 0
19.4
3 ,6 0 0
1 ,5 0 0
2 ,1 0 0

Interior designers. Formal training in interior design is
becoming increasingly necessary for entrance into the field.
Training is available through a 2- or 3-year course at an art
school or institute specializing in interior decorating and
design, or through a 4-year college or university program
leading to a degree in interior design and decoration. In
most cases, 1 to 5 years of on-the-job training also are
necessary before a trainee becomes eligible for advancement
to designer.

A vailable training data:
P ublic vocational
education com p letion s ..............................
Private vocation al
ed u cation c o m p le tio n s ..............................
Job Corps com p letion s ...................................

1 2,000
1 3,300
10.8
500
200
300

8 ,0 4 9
3 ,0 0 0
8

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

Display workers. Most display workers learn their trade on
the job in 1 to 2 years. A high school diploma is usually
required, and some employers prefer applicants who have
studied interior decorating, fashion design, or art. Many
high schools and vocational schools offer these courses.

3 7 ,0 0 0
4 5 ,0 0 0
2 1 .6
1,900
900
1,000

Available training data:
D egrees in interior design:

E m p lo y m en t, 1976 ......................................................
P rojected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
P ercen t grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1976-85 .........................



3 6 ,0 0 0
4 0 ,0 0 0
1 1.1
1 ,9 0 0

Bachelor’s degrees .................................
Master’s d e g r e e s......................................
D o cto r’s degrees ....................................

76

786
13
1

Landscape architects. A bachelor’s degree in landscape
architecture through a 4- to 5-year program of study is the
usual requirement for employment. To qualify for a license
for independent practice, which is required in more than
half of all States, applicants must have a degree in landscape
architecture from an accredited school, 2 to 4 years’
experience, and must pass an examination. Experience
sometimes may be substituted for the degree.

E m ploym ent, 1976 .......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ....................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 ........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

Communications-related occupations

Newspaper reporters. Most large newspapers will hire only
applicants who have a bachelor’s degree; either a journalism
major or another major combined with journalism classes is
preferred. Graduate work is becoming increasingly impor­
tant. Some jobs are available for talented writers without
college training on rural, small-town, and suburban papers,
but even these jobs are largely filled by college graduates
who are seeking experience.

1 3 ,0 0 0
1 7 ,0 0 0
30.8
900
400
500

E m p loym en t, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p lo y m en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

4 0 ,5 0 0
4 6 ,0 0 0
13.9
2 ,1 0 0
600
1 ,500

Available training data:
Available training data:
Degrees in landscape architecture:
Degrees in journalism :
B achelor’s degrees ................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................

948
217
1 9 7 5 -7 6
Bachelor’s degrees..
Master’s degrees.....
D o cto r’s degrees....

Photographers. There are several ways to prepare for work
as a professional photographer. People interested in com­
mercial photography often start as trainees in a commercial
studio, and learn the necessary skills through 2 or 3 years of
on-the-job training. For work in industrial or scientific
photography, post high school education and training are
needed. Requirements for news photographers vary with
the size of the newspaper or magazine. Photographic
training is available in colleges, universities, community and
junior colleges, and art schools. Programs leading to
associate, bachelor’s and master’s degrees in photography
are offered, and some schools have certificate programs.

E m ploym ent, 1976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 .............................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G rowth ..................................................................
R e p la c e m e n t.......................................................

8 5 ,0 0 0
9 7 ,0 0 0
14.0
3 ,7 0 0
1 ,3 0 0
2 ,4 0 0

E m p loym en t, 1 976 ......................................................
Projected em p loym en t, 1985 ...................................
Percent grow th, 1976-85 ............................................
Average annual openings, 1976-85 .........................
G row th ............................
R e p la c e m e n t........................................................

810

Degrees in photography:
B achelor’s degrees .................................
Master’s d e g r e e s.....................................




7,711
956
15

1 0 ,8 7 2
1,322
28

Radio and television announcers. A college liberal arts
education provides an excellent background for an an­
nouncer, and many universities offer courses of study in the
broadcasting field. A number of private vocational schools
also offer training. It often is helpful to have a Federal
Communications Commission radio telephone operator
license, since the added skill enables announcers to handle a
variety of broadcasting duties. Such versatility often is
important in small stations, and may give applicants an
extra edge in the very competitive broadcasting job market.
Experience often is necessary. People who are seeking
their first jobs may have difficulty finding the position they
want, and may have to take a job at a small, rural station to
gain the experience required by larger stations. Work at a
college station may be helpful.

Available training data:
Junior college g ra d u a tes..................................

P ro jected
1 9 7 6 -8 5
(annual average)

846
115

Available training data

77

2 6 ,0 0 0
3 4 ,5 0 0
32.2
1,300
900
400

Appendix A. Assumptions and Methods Used to
Prepare the Employment Projections
The projections in this bulletin were developed as part of
the Bureau’s program for conducting research in, and
producing information on, future occupational and indus­
trial requirements and resources. The Bureau revises its
projections every 2 years; during the next revision, projec­
tions will be prepared for 1990.
The Bureau’s projections to 1985 presented here were
developed from data on population, industry and occupa­
tional employment, productivity, consumer expenditures,
and other factors expected to affect employment. The
Bureau’s research efforts provided much of these data, but
many other agencies of the Federal Government were
important contributors. In addition, experts in industry,
unions, professional societies, and trade associations
furnished data and supplied information through inter­
views.
Information compiled from these sources was analyzed
in conjunction with the Bureau’s model of the economy in
1985. Like other models used in economic forecasting, it
encompasses the major facets of the economy and repre­
sents a comprehensive view of its projected structure. The
Bureau’s model is comprised of internally consistent pro­
jections of gross national product (GNP) and its compo­
nents—
consumer expenditures, business investment, govern­
ment expenditures, and net exports; industrial output and
productivity; labor force; average weekly hours of work;
and employment for detailed industry groups and oc­
cupations. The methods used to develop the employment
projections used in this bulletin are the same as those used
in other Bureau of Labor Statistics studies of the economy.
Detailed descriptions of these methods appear in The U.S.
Economy in 1985: A Summary o f BLS Projections, Bul­
letin 1809, and the BLS Handbook o f Methods for Surveys
and Studies, Bulletin 1910.

reach full employment (defined as an unemployment
rate of 4 percent) in the mid-1980’s;
No major event such as widespread or long-lasting
energy shortages or war will significantly alter the in­
dustrial structure of the economy or alter the rate of
economic growth;
Trends in the occupational structure of industries
will not be altered radically by changes in relative
wages, technological changes, or other factors.

Methods

Beginning with population projections by age and sex
developed by the Bureau of the Census, a projection of the
total labor force is derived using expected labor force
participation rates for each of these groups. In developing
the participation rates, the BLS takes into account a variety
of factors that affect a person’s decision to enter the labor
force, such as school attendance, retirement practices, and
family responsibilities.
The labor force projection then is translated into the
level of GNP that would be produced by a fully employed
labor force. Unemployed persons are subtracted from the
labor force estimate and the result is multiplied by a
projection of output per worker. Estimates of future
output per worker are based on an analysis of trends in
productivity (output per work hour) among industries and
changes in the average weekly hours of work.
Next, the projection of GNP is divided among its major
components: Consumer expenditures, business investment,
government expenditures—
Federal, State, and local—
and
net exports. Each of these components is broken down by
producing industry. Thus, consumer expenditures, for
example, are divided among industries producing goods and
services such as housing, food, automobiles, medical care,
and education.
Estimates developed for these products and services are
translated into detailed projections of industry output not
only for industries producing the final product, but also for
intermediate and basic industries that provide raw mate­
rials, electric power, transportation, component parts, and
other inputs to production. The Department of Commerce
has developed input-output tables that indicate the amount
of output from each industry—
steel, glass, plastics, etc.
—
required to produce a final product, automobiles for
example.

Assumptions

The Bureau’s projections to 1985 are based on the fol­
lowing general assumptions:
The institutional framework of the U.S. economy
will not change radically;
Current social, technological, and scientific trends
will continue, including values placed on work, educa­
tion, income, and leisure;
The economy will gradually recover from the
higher unemployment levels of the mid-1970’s and



78

From estimates of future output per work hour based on
studies of productivity and technological trends for each
industry, industry employment proiect’^ s are derived
from the output estimates.
These projections are then compared with employment
projections derived using regression analysis. Regression
analysis develops equations that relate employment by
industry to combinations of economic variables, such as
population and income, that are considered determinants of
long-run changes in employment. By comparing projections
from input-output analysis and regression analysis, areas
may be identified where one method produces a projection
inconsistent with past trends or with the Bureau’s economic
model. The projections are then adjusted accordingly.
Projections of industry employment are translated into
occupational employment projections using an industryoccupation matrix. This matrix, which is divided into 201
industry sectors and 421 occupation sectors, describes the
current and projected occupational structure of each
industry. By applying projected industry occupational
structures to projected industry employment and aggre­
gating the results, employment projections for each of the
421 matrix occupations are obtained. The growth rate of an
occupation, thus, is determined by 1) changes in the
proportion of workers in the occupation to the total work
force in each industry, and 2) the growth rate of industries
in which an occupation is concentrated. An occupation
projected to increase as a proportion of the work force in
each industry, for example, or one concentrated in indus­
tries projected to grow more rapidly than the average for all
industries, would be projected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations.
In some cases employment is related directly to one of
the components of the BLS m odel-for example, the
number ot cosmetologists is related to consumer expendi­




79

tures for beauty shop services. In others, employment is
related to an independent variable not explicitly projected
in the model, but believed to be a primary determinant of
employment in that occupation. The projection of auto­
mobile mechanics, for example, is based on the expected
stock of motor vehicles. Independent projections are
revised, if necessary, to assure consistency with those in the
matrix.
In addition to occupational employment projections, the
number of workers needed as replacements is projected.
Separations constitute a significant source of openings; in
most occupations, more workers are needed to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the occupation than are
needed to fill jobs created by growth.
To estimate replacement openings, the BLS has devel­
oped tables of working life based on actuarial experience
for deaths and on decennial census data for general patterns
of labor force participation by age and sex. Withdrawals
from each occupation are calculated separately for men and
women by age group to compute an overall separation rate
for the occupation. These rates are used to estimate average
annual replacement needs for each occupation over the
projection period.1
Supply estimates used in analysis of certain occupations
represent the numbers of workers who are likely to seek
entry to a particular occupation if past trends of entry to
the occupation continue. These estimates are developed
independently of the demand estimates. Thus, supply and
demand are not discussed in the usual sense, in which wages
play a major role in equating supply and demand.

1For detailed information see Tomorrow’s Manpower Needs,
Supplement 4, Estimating Occupational Separations from the Labor
Force for States (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1974).

Appendix B. Detailed Occupational Projections
This appendix presents 1976 employment, projected
1985 employment, and projected average annual job
openings in tabular form for 241 occupations. These data
were developed as part of the research underlying the
1978-79 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook.
The 13 occupational clusters from the Handbook have been
used: Industrial production and related occupations; office
occupations; service occupations; education and related
occupations; sales occupations; construction occupations;
occupations in transportation activities; scientific and tech­

nical occupations; mechanics and repairers; health occupa­
tions; social scientists; social service occupations; and art,
design, and communications-related occupations.
Applicable program codes for related instructional pro­
grams are included, both for vocational and higher educa­
tion (Vocational Education Codes and Higher Education
General Information Survey (HEGIS) Codes). Totals and
percentages in table B-l were calculated from unrounded
figures and may not correspond exactly to the rounded
data shown.

Table B-1. Employment, 1976 and 1985 (projected), and average annual openings, by occupation, 1976-85

Occupation

Vocational HEGIS
educational code2
code1

Estimated
employment,
1976

Projected
employment,
1985

Percent
change,
1976-853

Annua average openings, 1976-85
Employment Replacement
Total
change
needs4

Industrial production and
related occupations:
Foundry occupations:
Patternmakers....................
M olders............................
Coremakers.......................
Machining occupations:
All-round machinists............
Instrument makers
(mechanical) ...................
Machine tool operators............
Setup workers
(machine to o ls)...................
Tool-and-die makers ..............
Printing occupations:...............
Bookbinders and bindery
workers............................
Compositors .......................
Electrotypers and stereotypers...
Lithographers.......................
Photoengravers......................
Printing press operators
and assistants.....................
Other industrial production
and related occupations:
Assemblers..........................
Automobile painters ..............
Blacksmiths.........................
Blue-collar worker supervisors ...
Boilermaking occupations........
Boiler tenders.......................
Electroplaters.......................
Forge shop occupations .........
Furniture upholsterers............

17.2302
17.3699
17.2301
17.2301

18,000

20,500

14.9

900

300

600

53,000
22,000

60,000
24,500

14.5
14.5

1,900
1,000

800
300

1,100
700

17.2302

405,000

475,000

17.1

20,000

8,000

12,000

17.2302
17.2302

6,000
508,000

6,900
595,000

17.1
16.9

300
22,000

100
9,500

200
12,500

60,000
183,000

75,000
215,000

25.0
17.5

3,500
9,000

1,700
3,600

1,000
5,400

17.1906
17.1901
17.1903
17.1902
17.1904

80,000
152,000
4,000
29,000
10,000

85,000
140,000
3,200
39,000
9,000

6.0
-7.9
-20.4
34.5
-10.0

3,400
3,600
60
1,900
100

3.400
- 3,600
60
1,900
100

17.1902

145,000

160,000

11.0

5,100

1,800

17.0301
17.2399
17.1700
17.1099
17.3200
17.2399
17.2399
17.3500

1,100,000
32,000
10,000
1,445,000
34,000
73,000
36,000
71,000
27,000

1,450,000
37,000
6,000
1,775,000
56,000
72,000
41,000
80,000
27,700

33.3
15.6
-33.3
22.9
64.7
- 1.4
12.9
13.3
2.6

70.000
1,300
100
79,000
3,800
1,500
1,300
2,700
1,100

40,000
600
-4 0 0
37,000
2,400
-1 0 0
500
1,000
100

17.2302
17.2307
17.1900

—

5009

See footnotes at end of table.




80

2.900
4.900
150
800
200
3,300

30.000
700
500
42,000
1,400
1,600
800
1,700
1,000

Table B-1. Employment, 1976 and 1985 (projected), and average annual openings,
by occupation, 1976-85— Continued

Occupation

Inspectors (manufacturing) ......
Millwrights..........................
Motion picture projectionists___
Ophthalmic laboratory
technicians .......................
Photographic laboratory
occupations.......................
Power truck operators............
Production painters...............
Stationary engineers ..............
Wastewater treatment
plant operators
(sewage plant operators)........
Welders...............................
Office occupations:

Vocational HEGIS
Estimated
Projected
educational code2 employment, employment,
code1
1976
1985

Percent Annual average openings, 1976-85
Employment Replacemen
change,
change
1976-85* Total
needs4

17.2400
17.1099

....

692,000
96,000
16,500

950,000
105,000
17,000

37.5
9.4
3.0

52,000
3,600
1,200

29,000
1,000
0

23,900
43,000
1,800

07.0601
17.2101

5212

22,000

29,000

29.3

1,500

700

5007

35,000
360,000
104 000
194,000

47,000
433,000
143,000
194*000

34.0
21.7
37.5

0.0

2,400
14,600
6,900
7,400

1,300
8,600
4,300
0

100,000
660,000

150,000
835,000

51.6
26.3

10,400
33,800

5,600
19,300

5,700
600
1,900
-2,900
15,500
145,000
10,500
8,000
10,500
24,000

1,700,000
1,250,000
64,000

1,900,000
1,640,000
80.000

12.8
30.5
25.5

95,000
92,000
4,400

23,900
43,000
1,800

71,100
49,000
2,600

270,000
62,000
163,000
270,000
500,000
3,500,000
440,000
337,000
490,000
* 1,000,000

320,000
68,000
180,000
240,000
640,000
4,800,000
535,000
410,000
585,000
1,200,000

19.0
9.3
10.4
-9 .8
27.5
37.1
21.2
21.4
18.7
21.8

16,500
3,300
7,700
3,700
38,000
295,000
23,000
21,000
25,000
63,000

5,700
600
1,900
-2,900
15,500
145,000
10,500
8,000
10,500
24,000

10,800
2,700
5,800
6,600
22,500
150,000
12,500
13,000
14,500
38,000

5102
5104

565,000

540,000

-4.0

8,500

-2,300

10,800

0704
5103
0705

230,000

290,000

27.4

. 9,700

7,000

2,700

160,000

210,000

32.9

7,600

5,800

1,800

456,000

615,000

34.5

36,000

17,500

18,500

319,000

465,000

45.8

28,000

16,000

12,000

310,000

405,000

30.0

21,000

10,500

10,500

9,000
155,000

11,400
190,000

26.7
21.8

500
7,700

250
3,800

250
3,900

490,000

580,000

18.6

27,500

10,100

17,400

20,500

31,000

17.0900
17.100302
17.3200

17.3203
17.2306

5308

14.0000

Clerical occupations:
Bookkeeping workers..............
Cashiers.............................
Collection workers.................
File clerks ..........................
Hotel front office clerks...........
Office machine operators ........
Postal clerks.........................
Receptionists.......................
Secretaries and stenographers___
Shipping and receiving clerks___
Statistical clerks ....................
Stock clerks.........................
Typists .............................
Computer and related occupations:
Computer operating personnel___

Programmers......................
Systems analysts.................
Banking occupations:
Bank clerks .........................

Bank officers and managers......
Bank tellers .........................
Insurance occupations:
Actuaries ..............................
Claim representatives ................
Insurance agents,
brokers, and underwriters
Administrative and related
occupations:.........................
Accountants.......................

14.0102
14.0103
04.0800
14 9900
14.0302
04.1100
14.0104
14.0403
14.0406
14.0700
14.0503
14.0303
14.0504
14.0900

5005

....
5005

5005

14.0200
14.0201
14.0202
14.020201
14.0203
14.0204
14.0102
14.0104
14.0303
14.0399
04.0400
14.0105
04.1300

0504
5003
0512
1703

04.1300
04.1300

....

•
0502
5002

865,000

See footnotes at end of table.



81

1,050,000

21.3

51,500

Table B-1. Employment, 1976 and 1985 (projected), and average annual openings,
by occupation, 1976-85—Continued
Occupation

Advertising workers ............
Buyers ............................
City managers....................
College student personnel
workers..........................
Credit managers .................
Hotel managers and assistants ..
Industrial traffic managers ___
Lawyers ..........................
Marketing research workers___
Personnel and labor relations
workers .........................

Public relations woricers ........
Purchasing agents ...............

Vocational
educational
code1
04.0100
04.0800

Food service occupations:
Bartenders..........................
Cooks and chefs ...................
Dining room attendants
and dishwashers .................
Food counter w orkers............
Meatcutters .........................
Waiters and waitresses ............
Personal service occupations:
Barbers ............................
Bellhops and bell captains........
Cosmetologists......................
Funeral directors and
embalmers.........................
Private household service
occupations:
Private household workers......

Protective and related service
occupations:
Correction officers ..............
FBI special agents ................
Firefighters .......................
Guards ............................
Police officers ....................

0600
0509
5004
2102

180,000
109,000

0826
0504
5003
0508

Annual average openings, 1976-85
Total

Employment Replacement
change
needs4

( 5)
10.1

( 5)
5,700

( 5)
1,200

( 5)
4,500

3,000

3,900

28.3

250

100

150

57,000
53,000

( 5)
60,000

( 5)
13.2

( 5)
2,500

( 5)
800

( 5)
1,700

137,000
21,000
396,000
25,000

150,000

9.6
( 5)
25.0

7,000

( 5)
490,000

( 5)
23,400

1,500
( 5)
10,400

5,500
( 5)
13,000

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

335,000

450,000

34.9

23,000

13,000

10,000

115,000
192,000

150,000
260,000

30.5
34.9

8,300
13,800

3,900
7,400

4,400
6,400

16,000

23,000

46.5

1,100

800

300

17.1100

2,100,000

2,423,000

15.3

160,000

09.0205

17,000
27,000

19,000

11.9

1,100

200

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

900
( 5)

17.2902

261,000
1,065,000

310,000
1,350,000

18.8
26.6

17,800
79,000

5,400
31,500

12,400
47,500

442,000
421,000
215,000
1,260,000

545,000
570,000
200,000
1,500,000

23.3
35.2
-7 .9
19.5

22,400
4,900
71,000

11,400
16,500
-1,900
27,000

11,000

17.2904
17.2903
17.2904

124,000
16,600
534,000

126,000
16,500
625,000

1.4
-0 .9
16.7

8,100
600
30,000

200
0
10,000

600
20,000

07.0909

45,000

45,000

0.0

2,200

0

2,200

09.0201
09.0202
09.0203
09.0205

1,125,000

915,000

-18.8

53,000

-23,000

76,000

90,000
8,600
210,000
500,000
500,000

105,000

16.9
( 5)
21.1
36.3
40.4

8,900
( 5)
8,300
63,000
32,500

1,700

( 5)
260,000
680,000
700,000

7,200
( 5)
3,300
43,000
9,700

14.0899
04.1100
04.1900
04.0100
14.0602
14.0603
14.0699
04.0100
04.0800

1401
0509

0515
0516
0509
5004
0206

35,000

125,000

17.2900

17.2601
04.1100
17.2602

17.2801
17.2802
17.2802

. . ..

5006
5006

5507
2105

See footnotes at end of table.



Percent
change,
1976-853

( 5)
120,000 '

Urban planners ...................
Service occupations:
Cleaning and related occupations:
Building custodians...............
Hotel housekeepers and
assistants..........................
Pest controllers ....................

Estimated
Projected
HEGIS
employment, employment,
code2
1976
1985

82

33,000

( 5)
5,000
20,000
22,800

16,500
6,800
44,000

7,900

Table B-1. Employment, 1976 and 1985 (projected), and average annual openings,
by occupation, 1976-85—Continued
Occupation

State police officers...............

Construction inspectors
(government) ....................
Health and regulatory
inspectors (government) ........
Occupational safety and
health workers ...................

Other service occupations:
Mail carriers.........................
Telephone operators ..............
Education and related occupations:
Teaching occupations:
Kindergarten and elementary
school teachers .................
Secondary school teachers ......
College and university teachers .
Teacher aides ......................
Library occupations:
Librarians..........................
Library techincians and
assistants .........................

Estimated
Vocational
educational HEGIS employment,
code2
code1
1976

Total

Employment
change

Replacement
needs4

20.6

1,900

1,100

800

22,000

30,000

36.4

2,300

900

1,400

115,000

145,000

27.4

7,900

3,500

4,400

16.0602
17.2801
17.2899

28,000

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

14.0403
14.0401

250,000
340,000

250,000
330,000

-0.4
-3.8

5,300
11,600

0802
0803
0805

1,364,000
1,111,000
593,000
320,000

1,498,000
986,000
610,000
495,000

9.8
-11.3
2.9
54.4

1601

128,000

145,000

13.3

5504

143,000

168,000

0509
0507
5004
0509
5004

75,000
130,000

17.2899
17.2899

5408

0
-1,100

5,300
12,700

15,000
70,000
13,000 -14,000
2,000
17,000
19,000
29,000

55,000
27,000
15,000
10,000

8,000

2,000

6,000

17.5

8,300

2,800

5,500

97,000
160,000

27.5
23.1

4,200
9,000

2,300
3,900

1,900
5,100

24,000

27,000

15.6

1,000

400

600

420,000
362,000

470,000
417,000

12.6
15.1

14,800
17,600

5,800
6,000

9,000
11,600

8,300
450,000

( 5)
575,000

( 5)
27.5

( 5)
45,500

( 5)
13,800

( 5)
31,700

2,725,000

3,000,000

10.2

155,000

31,000

124,000

200,000
90,000
15,000
808,000

194,000
105,000
22,000
945,000

-3 .6
15.4
46.7
16.9

3^400
5,500
1,400
41,000

-8 0 0
1,600
800
15,000

4,200
3,900
600
26,000

17.1004
17.1001

175,000
1,010,000

205,000
1,260,000

17.1
24.8

7,500
67,000

3,300
28,000

4,200
39,000

17.1099
17.1099
17.1008
17.1002
17.1099
17.1099
17.1099

71,000
715,000
45,000
260,000
20,000
85,000
10,000

120,000
900,000

69.0
25.9

7,500
40,000

5,4U0
20,500

2,100
19,500

( 5)
320,000

( 5)
25.5

( 5)
13,700

(5)
6,700

( 5)
7,000

( 5)
100,000
13,000

( 5)
20.5
23.3

( 5)
3,200
600

(5)
1,900
350

( 5)
1,300
250

14.0499
04.0000

Automobile service advisors......

04.0300

Gasoline service station attendants
Manufacturers'sales w orkers___

04.1600
04.1200

Models .............................
Real estate agents and brokers ..

04.1700

0511
5004

Retail trade sales w orkers........

04.0800

0509
5004

04.0400

0505

04.0800

0509

0509
5004

See footnotes at end of table.



Annual average openings, 1976-85

57,000

2105
2209
5505

04.0300
04.0300

Construction occupations:
Bricklayers, stonemasons, and
marblesetters ......................
Carpenters............................
Cement masons and terrazzo
workers ............................
Construction laborers ..............
Drywall installers and finishers ...
Electricians (construction) ........
Elevator constructors ..............
Floor covering installers ...........
Glaziers ...............................

Percent
change,
1976-85*

48,000

17.2802

Sales occupations:
Automobile parts counter
w orkers............................
Automobile sales workers ........

Route drivers ......................
Securities sales workers .........
Travel agents ......................
Wholesale trade sales workers ...

Projected
employment,
1985

83

Table B-1. Employment, 1976 and 1985 (projected), and average annual openings,
by occupation, 1976-85—Continued
Vocational
Estimated
Projected
HEGIS
educational
code2 employment, employment,
code1
1976
1985

Occupation

Insulation workers ...............
Ironworkers .......................
Lathers .............................
Operating engineers (construction
machinery operators) ...........
Painters and paperhangers ........
Painters ..........................
Paperhangers ....................
Plasterers............................
Plumbers and pipefitters .........
Roofers .............................
Sheet-metal workers ..............
Tilesetters ..........................
Occupations in transportation
activities:
Air transportation occupations:
Air traffic controllers ...........
Airplane mechanics..............
Airplane pilots ...................
Flight attendants.................
Reservation, ticket, and
passenger agents...............
Merchant marine occupations:
Merchant marine officers ......
Merchant marine sailors.........
Railroad occupations:
Brake operators

17.1099
17.1099
17.1006

2,200
4,700

700
1,800

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

38.5

41,000

25,000

16,000

500,000
25,000
25,000
535,000
130,000
75,000
45,000

21.4
92.3
4.7
39.0
44.0
15.4
25.0

27,000
2,400
900
30,000
6,300
2,600
1,800

10,000
1,300
100
17,000
4,400
1,100
1,000

17,000
1,100
800
13,000
1,900
1,500
600

21,000
110,000
83,000
42,000

28,400
138,000
110,000
76,000

35.8
25.5
33.G
79.2

1,100
5,200
4,100
6,000

800
3,100
3,100
3,700

300
2,100
1,000
2,300

04.1900

51,000

65,000

26.9

2,900

1,500

1,400

17.0802
17.0801

13,300
33,200

15,200
30,600

14.6
-7 .8

600
400

200
-3 0 0

400
700

65,000
35,900
33,300
72,600
11,500
7,000

68,000
42,000
39,500
60,000
11,400
3,000

4.8
16.7
18.6
-17.5
-0 .9
-57.1

1,700
2,200
2,400
800
400
-3 0 0

300
700
700
-1,400
0
-4 0 0

1,400
1,500
1,700
2,200
400
100

14.0401

10,200
56,200

6,500
52,000

-36.3
-7.1

-2 0 0
800

-4 0 0
-5 0 0

200
1,300

04.1900
04.1900

25,000
81,000
1,600,000
467,000
38,000
94,000

30,000
99,000
1,940,000
520,000
40,000
94,000

17.9
22.5
21.7
10.9
5.3
0.4

1,400
5,100
73,000
15,400
2,500
4,200

500
2,000
38,000
5,700
200
0

900
3,100
35,000
9,700
2,300
4,200

25,000
11,000
3,000
7,500
1,133,000
50,000
12,000
3,000
12,000
53,000
155,000

29,000
14,000
4,100
9,000
1,415,000
58,500
15,000
3,800
15,000
64,000
192,000

15.7
27.2
37.5
20.0
25.0
14.7
25.0
26.7
25.0
20.6
23.9

1,100
600
200
400
56,500
1,500
600
150
600
2,100
8,900

400
300
100
200
31,500
800
300
100
300
1,200
4,100

700
300
100
200
25,000
700
300
50
300
900
4,800

30,000
71,000
20,000

50,000
112,000
( 5)

( 5)

585,000

810,000

17.1006
17.1007
17.1010
17.2305
17.1004

410,000
15,000
24,000
385,000
90,000
65,000
36,000

17.0400
17.0403
17.0401
16.0601
04.1900

17.100302
17.1005

5006

.....................

Conductors .........................
Locomotive engineers

..............

Shop trades ............................
Signal department workers........
Station agents ......................
Telegraphers, telephoners,
and tower operators ...........
Track workers ......................
Driving occupations:
Intercity busdrivers ...............
Local transit busdrivers...........
Local truck drivers ...............
Long-distance truck drivers......
Parking attendants ...............
Taxicab drivers ....................
Scientific and technical occupations:
Conservation occupations:
Foresters ..........................
Forestry technicians ..............
Range managers....................
Soil conservationists ..............
Engineers 6 .........................
Aerospace .........................
Agricultural.........................
Biomedical .........................
Ceramic.............................
Chemical ............................
Civil ................................

17.1402
04.1900
14.0103

04.0300
04.1900

01.0700
01.0601
01.0608

0114
5403
0117

....
0900
0902
0903
0905
0916
0906
0908

See footnotes at end of table.



Percent Annual average openings, 1976-85
Employment Replacement
change,
change
1976-853 Total
needs4

84

66.7
60.0

2,900
6,500

Table B-1. Employment, 1976 and 1985 (projected), and average annual openings,
by occupation, 1976-85—Continued
Occupation

Electrical............................
Industrial............................
Mechanical .........................
Metallurgical .......................
Mining ...............................
Petroleum ..........................
Environmental scientists:
Geologists ............................
Geophysicists.........................
Meteorologists .......................
Oceanographers ......................
Life science occupations:
Biochemists ..........................
Life scientists.........................
Soil scientists .......................
Mathematics occupations:
Mathematicians ......................
Statisticians ..........................
Physical scientists:
Astronomers .........................
Chemists .............................
Food scientists.......................
Physicists.............................
Other scientific and technical
occupations:
Broadcast technicians
............
Drafters
............................
Engineering and science
technicians
.......................

Surveyors

Vocational
Estimated
Projected
Percent
HEGIS
educational
code2 employment, employment, change,
code1
1976
1985
1976-85*

Employment Replacement
change
needs4
5,000
4,300
4,500
400
300
400

300,000
200,000
200,000
17^000
6*000
20,000

370,000
255,000
245,000
22*000
8*800
28,000

23.3
27.9
21.5
29.4
46.7
40.0

12,800
10,500
9,300
900
600
1,300

7,800
6,200.
4,800
500
300
900

1914
1916
1913
1919

34,000
12,000
5,500
2,700

47,500
16,700
6*300
3,400

38.1
38.0
14.0
25.3

2,300
800
200
150

1,500
500
100
100

800
300
100
50

0414
0400
. . ..

12,700
205*000
2,500

15,700
265*000
2,800

23.6
28.6
12.0

600
12,000
80

300
6,500
30

300
5,500
50

1701
1702

38,000
24,000

41,000
30,000

8.8
26.7

1,000
1,500

300
700

700
800

1911
1905
0113
1902

2,000
148,000
7*000
48,000

2,100
175,000
8,400
53,000

5.0
19.0
20.0
8.7

40
6,400
300
1,100

10
3,200
150
500

30
3,200
150
600

16.0108
17.1300

5008
5304

22,500
320,000

420,000

30.6

16,500

10,900

5,600

16.0100

.5300
5401
5407
5409

586,000

760,000

29.9

29,000

19,500

9,500

52,000

74,000

41.5

3,500

2,400

1,100

17.1501

135,000

165,000

23.3

5,000

3,500

1,500

17.1501

20,000

16,000

-20.0

-3 0 0

-500

200

17.1402

54,000

55,000

2.8

600

200

400

17.1501

110,000

135,000

24.2

4,100

2,900

1,200

* 175,000
144,000
174,000
790,000
15,000
5,800
58,000
50,000
100,000
10,000
66,000
320,000
75,000
19,000

285,000
172,000
200,000
915,000
17,700

62.9
19.6
15.3
15.9
15.0

17,400
7,000
6,000
32,000
800

12,200
2,900
14,000
300

5,200
3,800
3,100
18,000
500

(5)

(5)

17.0100
17.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.2200
17.1401
17.0600
16.0108
17.0108
17.1002
01.0301
17.10031
17.2101

5317
5310

....

5306

....

5310
5105
5307

....
....
5314

—

See footnotes at end of table.



Total

0909
0913
0910
0914
0918
0907

..........................

Mechanics and repairers:
Telephone craft occupations:
Central office craft occupations..
Central office equipment
installers..........................
Line installers and cable
splicers ............................
Telephone and PBX installers
and repairers......................
Other mechanics and repairers:
Air-conditioning, refrigeration
and heating mechanics ........
Appliance repairers ..............
Automobile body repairers ___
Automobile mechanics...........
Boat-enginer mechanics .........
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics .
Business machine repairers ......
Computer service technicians ...
Diesel mechanics .................
Electric sign repairers ............
Farm equipment mechanics
Industrial machinery repairers ..
Instrument repairers..............
Jewelers ............................

Annual average openings, 1976-85

85

(5)

(5)

80,000
93,000
125,000

A

82,000
500,000

(5)

21,000

(S)

(5)

37.8
86.0
22.9

(5)

22.4
57.0

(5)

10.5

(5)

(5)

3,400
5,200
5,000

(5)

4,000
30,000

(5)

1,300

(5)

3,200

2,400
4,800
2,600

(5)

1,700
20,000

(5)

200

(5)

1,000
400
2,400

(5)

2,300
10,000

(5)

1,100

Table B-1. Employment, 1976 and 1985 (projected), and average annual openings,
by occupation, 1976-85—Continued
Occupation
Locksmiths .......................
Maintenance electricians ........
Motorcycle mechanics ...........
Piano and organ tuners and
repairers .........................
Shoe repairers ....................
Television and radio service
technicians ......................
Truck and bus mechanics ......
Vending machine mechanics . ..
Watch repairers ...................
Health occupations:
Dental occupations:
Dentists.............................
Dental assistants ...................
Dental hygienists..................
Dental laboratory technicians___
Medical practitioners:
Chiropractors.......................
Optometrists.......................
Physicians and osteopathic
physicians..........................
Podiatrists..........................
Veterinarians ......................
Medical technologist, technician,
and assistant occupations:
Electrocardiograph technicians ..
Electroencephalographic
technologists and technicians ..
Emergency medical technicians ..
Medical laboratory w orkers......

Medical record technicians and
clerks .............................
Operating room technicians......
Optometric assistants ............
Radiologic (X-ray) technologists .
Respiratory therapy w orkers___
Nursing occupations:
Registered nurses..................
Licensed practical nurses.........
Nursing aides, orderlies,
and attendants .................
Therapy and rehabilitation
occupations:
Occupational therapists...........
Occupational therapy assistants ..
Physical therapists.................
Physical therapist assistants
and aides..........................
Speech pathologists and
audiologists ......................
Other health occupations:
Dietitians............................
Dispensing opticians ..............

Estimated
Vocational
Projected
HEGIS
employment, employment,
educational
code2
1976
code1
1985
10,000
300,000
12,000

( 5)
370,000

8,000
25,000

8,400
24,000

17.2102 • • • .

114,000
145,000
25,000
21,000

1204
07.0101 5202
07.0102 5203
07.0103 5204

(s)
23.3

( 5)
15,900

( 5)
7,800

( 5)
8,100

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

4.9
-4.0

650
1,800

50
-1 0 0

600
1,900

150,000
180,000

31.1
20.8
( 5)
9.5

4,000
3,400
( 5)
200

2,700
3,500

( 5)
23,000

6,700
6,900
C5)
1,500

112,000
135,000
27,000
42,000

135,000
200,000
60,000
62,000

20.8
51.1
121.9
48.3

4,800
13,500
5,100
3,700

2,600
7,600
3,600
2,200

2,200
5,900
1,500
1,500

1221
1209

18,000
19,700

21,600
23,000

20.0
16.8

1,600
1,500

400
400

1,200

1206
1210
1216
1218

375,000

520,000

37.8

21,800

16,000

5,000

7,500
30,500

8,700
39,500

15.1
27.0

500
1,800

100
900

400
900

07.0902 5217

12,000

15,000

28.8

700

400

300

07.0901 5217
07.0904 5214
07.0200 1223
07.0203 5205
07.0299

4,300
287,000
240,000

5,500
500,000
350,000

31.0
74.2
45.8

300
37,000
20,000

150
24,000
12,000

150
13,000
8,000

5213
5211
5212
5207
5215

57,000
30,000
11,800
80,000
36,000

106,000
41,000
15,300
112,000
65,000

86.0
34.4
29.5
39.9
80.6

9,000
2,100
700
6,300
4,700

5,400
1,200
400
3,600
3,200

3,600
900
300

07.0301 1203
16.0305 5208
07.0302 5209

960,000

1,320,000

37.6

83,000

40,000

43,000

460,000

710,000

54.3

53,000

28,000

25,000

1,000,000

1,350,000

36.2

83,000

40,000

43,000

1208
5210
1212

10,600
8,900
25,000

18,100
16,300
36,000

70.8
83.1
44.8

1,300
1,200
2,100

900
800
1,200

400
400
900

07.0402 5219

12,500

18,000

44.0

1,100

600

500

1220

38,000

53,500

39.2

2,900

1,700

1,200

1306
5212

45,000
14,500

52,000
21,100

15.6
46.5

2,800
1,300

800
800

2,000
500

17.1400
17.3100 ....

17.3402 —
17.1503 5310
5306

14.0499
07.0305
07.0603
07.0501
07.0903

07.0303

07.0401

07.0601
17.2101

See footnotes at end of table.



Annual average openings, 1976-85
Percent
change,
Employment Replacement
1976-8 53 Total
needs4
change

86

( 5)

( 5)
1,300

1,100

2,700
1,500

Table B-1. Employment, 1976 and 1985 (projected), and average annual openings,
by occupation, 1976-85—Continued
Occupation

Estimated
Vocational HEGIS
Projected
Percent
educational code2 employment. employment. change,
code1
1976
1985
1976-85*

Economists..........................
Geographers .......................
Historians ..........................
Political scientists...................
Psychologists .......................
Sociologists .........................

Social service aides.................
Social workers ......................
Art, design, and communicationsrelated occupations:
Performing artists:
Actors and actresses ..............
Dancers .............................
Musicians ..........................

Singers...............................
Design occupations:
Architects............................
Commercial artists.................
Display workers (retail trade)___
Floral designers ....................
Industrial designers............ t...
Interior designers..................
Landscape architects ..............
Photographers ......................

160,000
12,300
120,000

230,000
15,600
140,000

45.0
26.6
16.4

16,000
1,000
8,900

8,000
400
2,200

8,000
600
6,700

3,500

4,300

22.4

200

100

100

115,000
i o ' ooo
22*500
14*000
90,000
19^000

148,000
12 500
24*500
15*300
120*000
21>00

27.4
25.3
9.1
7.0
33.8
14.5

6,400
600
900
400
5,600
800

3,500
300
200
100
3,400
300

2 900
300
700
300
2,200
500

43,000
6,400
19,000

45,900

6.0

1,200

\ )

1,500
( 5)
( 5T

300

( 5)
( 5)

( 5)
( 5)

Q
n

( 5)

(S)

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

12.5
1.4
154.3

600
6,100
37,000

200
200
12,000

400
5,900
25,000

0826

14.0602

3,900

( 5)

16,000
141,000
70,000

18,000
143,000
178,000

85,000

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

100,000
330,000

130,000
440,000

30.3
32.7

7,600
25,000

4,300
12,000

3,300
13,000

1007
1008
1004
1005
1006
1007

13,000
8,000
127*000

15,000
9,900
153^000

15.4
23.8
20.5

600
500
7,200

200
200
2,900

400
300
4,300

23,000

27,000

17.4

1,200

400

800

0202
17.0700 1009
04.0100
17.0702
04.0500
17.0703 . . . .
17.0701 0203
0204
1011

49,000
67,000
36,000

61,600
80,000
40,000

25.0
19.4
11.1

3,100
3,600
1,900

1,400
1,500
500

1,700
2,100
1,400

37,000
12,000
37,000
13,000
85,000

52,000
13,300
45,000
17,000
97,000

40.5
10.8
21.6
30.8
14.0

3,300
500
1,900
900
3,700

1,600
200
900
400
1,300

1,700
300
1,000
500
2,400

1300

04.1800

2103
5506
5506
2104

See footnotes at end of table.




Employment Replacement
change
needs4

2202
2203
2204
2206
2205
2207
2000
2009

..................

Social service occupations:
Counseling occupations:
School counselors .................
Employment counselors...........
Rehabilitation counselors .........
College career planning and
placement counselors ............
Other social service occupations:
Cooperative extension service
w orkers............................
Home economists..................
Homemaker-home health aides
Park, recreation, and leisure
workers ............................

Total

1202
1202
1211

Health services administrators___
Medical record administrators ...
Pharmacists .........................
Social scientists:
Anthropologists

Annual average openings, 1976-85

87

Table B-1. Employment, 1976 and 1985 (projected), and average annual openings,
by occupation, 1976-85—Continued
Occupation

Vocational
Estimated
educational HEGIS employment,
code2
code1
1976

Annual average openings, 1976-85
Percent
Projected
employment, change,
Employment Replacement
1976-853 Total
1985
change
needs4

Communications-related occupations:
Interpreters.............................
Newspaper reporters .................
Radio and television announcers ...
Technical writers ........ ...........

0602
0603

175
40,500
26,000
22,000

( 5)
46,000
34,500

( 5)
13.9
32.2

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)
2,100
1,300

<S )

600
900

( 5)

( 5)
1,500
400
( 5)

Vocational education codes are from Vocational Education and
Occupations (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
and U.S. Department of Labor, 1969).

4 Replacement needs include openings arising from deaths,
retirements, and other separations from labor force. Does not in­
clude transfers to other occupations.

H E G IS codes are from the Higher Education General Informa­
tion Survey. See A Taxonomy o f Industrial Programs in Higher
Education. (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
1970).

6Totals do not equal the sum of individual estimates because all
branches of engineering are not covered separately.

2

3

5 Not available.

N O T E : Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Percentages calculated from unrounded numbers.




88

Appendix C. Detailed Training Statistics
This appendix presents detailed statistics on the number
of persons completing formal training programs. Table C-l
presents statistics for those occupations listed in appendix
B that generally require less than a bachelor’s degree for
entry. Tables C-2 and C-3 present data on bachelor’s,
master’s, doctor’s, and first professional degrees awarded,
by field of study.
Tables C-4 and C-5 present limited historical data on
junior or community college graduates who are in occupa­
tion-related curriculums and on persons who have com­
pleted apprenticeship programs, respectively. Table C-6

presents data on enlisted military personnel trained in a
particular occupational specialty, and tables C-7 and C-8
give data on vocational education completions.
Because data in these tables are fragmentary and
inconsistent, they must be used with caution. In table C-l,
data are not strictly comparable because different programs
cover different time periods (fiscal years, calendar years,
and academic years). Furthermore, many junior and com­
munity college completions in table C-5 and vocational
education completions in C-7 do not match a specific
occupation. Extensive footnotes indicate data limitations.

Table C-1. Available training data for occupations generally requiring less than a bachelor's degree

Occupation

Vocational
education
code

Industrial production
and related occupations:
Foundry occupations:
Patternmakers...................
M olders..........................
Coremakers ....................

17.2302
17.2301
17.2301

Machining occupations:
All-round machinists .........
Machine tool operators ......
Setup workers (machine tools)
Tool-and-die m akers...........

Public
vocational
HEGIS
education
code2 completions,
Fy 1976

17.2302
17.2303
17.2302
17.2307

Printing occupations:2
Compositors ....................
Lithographers ...................
Printing press operators and
assistants ......................
Bookbinders and bindery
workers .......................
Other industrial production
and related occupations:
Assemblers ......................
Blue-collar worker supervisors
Boilermaking occupations ...
Furniture upholsterers ........
Millwrights ......................

17.1900
17.1906
17.1902

Job
corps
completions,
Fy 1976

Apprenticeship
completions,
1976

\

>

f

147
2,526

98
212
1,901

C1)
5009

1,374
264
292

17,859

17.1902

292

466

17.1906

18

122

276
17.1700
17.1099
17.3500
17.1099

Junior
college
graduates,
1975-76

129

✓

12,105
508
34,336

600

125
933

See footnotes at end of table.



Private
vocational
education
completions,
1975-76

89

587

Table C-1. Available training data for occupations generally requiring less
than a bachelor's degree—Continued

Occupation

Photographic laboratory
occupations4 .........
Stationary engineers ...
Welders................. .
Office occupations:
Clerical occupations:
Bookkeeping w o rkers.........
Cashiers..........................
File clerks ......................
Office machine operators ----Postal clerks ....................
Receptionists ...................
Secretaries and stenographers..
Stock clerks ....................
Typists ..........................
Computer and related occupations:
Computer operating personnel .
Programmers

...................

Vocational
education HEGIS
code
code

17.0900
17.3200
17.2306

5007

14.0000

Public
vocational
education
completions,
Fy 1976

3,361
2,350
40,840

Private
vocational
education
completions,
1975-76

Job
corps
completions,
Fy 1976

Apprenticeship
completions,
1976

Junior
college
graduates,
1975-76

810
288
9,700

1,593

5 587.537

62,686
14.0102
14 0103
14.0302
14.0104
14.0403
14 0406
14.0700
14.0504
14.0900
14.0200
14.0201
14.0202
14.0203

76
92
342
5005

10

5005

151,541

33,700

7 19,704

5005

114,182

’ 6,900

78
52
145
190
1,123

5101
5102
0704
5103

10,625

2,600
8,400
3,200

8 282

8 4,441

9,909

2,547

Administrative and related
occupations:
5002
0508
5010

Accountants...................
Hotel managers and assistants

9,374
3,022
9 1,865

Service occupations:
Cleaning and related occupations:
Building custodians............
Hotel housekeepers
and assistants.................
Food service occupations:
Cooks and chefs ...............
Dining room attendants
and dishwashers...............
Food counter workers.........
Meatcutters ....................
Waiters and waitresses ........
Personal service occupations:
Barbers ..........................
Cosmetologists .................
Funeral directors and
embalmers ....................
Private household service
occupations:
Private household service
workers .......................

Protective and related
service occupations:
Firefighters ----Guards ...........

3,942

17.1100

X 1)

09.0205

10 3,800
111,717

17.2902

11 548

69
17.2904
17.2903
17.2904

....

66
121

....

69

17.2601
17.2602

5006
5006

810
18,309

5,000
49,400

17.0909

111

09.0200

25,669
19,740
34,034
5,503
2,078

12 347

1394,247

09.0201
09.0202
09.0203
09.0204
09.0205

2

853

3,800

17.2801
17.2802

87

200

3,234

5507

6

See footnotes at end of table.



1,077

(*)

90

Table C-1. Available training data for occupations generally requiring less
than a bachelor's degree—Continued

Occupation

Police officers14 ................
Health and regulatory
inspectors (government)___
Other service occupations:
Telephone operators ............

Vocational
education
code

HEGIS
code

17.2802

5505

17.2899

Private
Public
vocational
vocational
education
education
completions, completions,
1975-76
Fy 1976

Job
corps
completions,
Fy 1976

Apprenticeship
completions,
1976

5408

Junior
college
graduates,
1975-76
18,698

100

460

14.0401

25

Education and related occupations:
Teaching occupations:
Teacher aides ....................
Library occupations:
Library technicians and
assistants.........................
Sales occupations:
Automobile parts counter
workers
....................
Gasoline service station
attendants ......................
Real estate agents and
hrnkers ..........................
Retail trade sales workers........
Wholesale trade sales
w orkers..........................
Construction occupations:
Bricklayers, stonemasons,
and marblesetters ..............
Carpenters.........................
Cement masons and

5503

14.0499

5,840

5504

1
1 s 221,767

04.0000

1619,926

15 44,800

04.0300

0509

63

04.1600

5004

74

04.1700
04.0800

5004
0509

17,452
! 174,955

04.0800

0509

2,170

21,200
74
•

C1)
200

671
1,959

18 1,407
6,211

419
76

11,468
39,712

17.1004
17.1001
17 1099
17^1099

566

Drywall installers and
Electricians (construction)19 ...

17 1008
17.1002
17 1099
17 1099
17 1099
17 1099
17 1006

15,371

500

604

100

633
708
202
176

Operating engineers
(construction machinery

Plumbers and pipefitters2 0 ......

Occupations in transportation
activities:
Air transportation occupations:
A ir p la n e

pnuib.............. • •

594

17100302
17 1005
17 1006
17.1007
17 1010
17.2305

6,707

117

4,638

17.0400
17 0401
16.0601

195
6,563
283
266
264
2,273
206

945
1,139
153
6,061
482
2,351

214,143
433

48

1,400
20,600

Driving occupations:
2 246
Scientific and technical
occupations:
Conservation occupations:
Forestry technicians...........

01.0601

175

5403

See footnotes at end of table.



91

2,133

Table C-1. Available training data for occupations generally requiring less
than a bachelor's degree—Continued
Public
vocational
Vocational
education
education HEGIS
code completions,
cods
Fy 1976

Occupation

Private
vocational
education
completions,
1975-76

Job
corps
completions,
Fy 1976

Apprenticeship
completions,
1976

Junior
college
graduates,
1975-76

Other scientific and technical
occupations:
77

246

.......................

17.1300

5304

29,317

1,900

Engineering and science
technicians.................

16.0100

5300
5401
5407
5309

28,234

6,000

17.0100

5317

14,402

3,100

252

360

5310

4,663
21 ',207
82,656
941

500
800
3,900
700

16
765
1,669
43

266
1,343
567

Computer service technicians
Diesel mechanics
Farm equipment mechanics
Industrial machinery repairers
Maintenance electricians.......

17.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.0600
16 0108
17.1200
01 0301
17 10031
17.1400

5,316

3,500

100

137
34
61
29

920
1,106

Television and radio service
technicians ...................

17.1503

5310

1,500

33

108

07.0101
07.0102
07.0103

5202
5203
5204

5,000

39

technicians ...................
Electroencephalographic

07.0902

5217

technologists and technicians

07.0901
07.0200
07 0203
07.0299

5217
1223
5205

14.0499
07.0305
07.0603
07.0501
07.0903

5213
5211
5212
5207
5215

1,847
1,707

07.0301
07.0302

5208
5209

16,740
36,759
29,819

□ rafters

Surveyors....................
Mechanics and repairers:
Other mechanics and
repairers:
Air-conditioning, refrigeration,
and heating mechanics......
Appliance repairers

...........

Automobile body repairers ...
Antnmnhile mechanics

Business machine repairers2 5 ..

Health occupations:
Dental occupations:
Dental assistants .................
Dental h y gie n ists...................

Dental laboratory technicians ..

5306
5310
5105
5307

23

354

2446,832

2,219

188

5,883
U78
844

1,425
3,538
622

138

600

Medical technologists, technicians,
and assistant occupations:
Electrocardiograph

Medical laboratory workers...

Medical record technicians and
clerks
Operating room technicians
flptnmetric assistants

Radiologic (X-ray) technologists
Respiratory therapy workers ..
Nursing occupations:
Registered nurses27 ............
I irensed practical nurses

26

28

66

26

200

66

17
2 953
1*768

3,313

100
2,300
62

5

252
519
3,323
2,080

1,000
3,400

66

34,117
2,794

4,100

1,790

1,106
3,000
• •••••••• t

Nursing aides, orderlies,
and assistants

................

Therapy and rehabilitation occups:
Occupational therapy assistants
Physical therapist assistants and
aides...............................
Other health occupations:
Dispensing opticians ...........

07.0303
07.0401
07.0402

5219

07.0601

560

5210

5212

C1)

140

See footnotes at end of table.



749

19

92

519

Table C-1. Available training data for occupations generally requiring less
than a bachelor's degree—Continued______________________________ ___
Vocational
education
code

Occupation

HEGIS
code

Public
Private
vocational
vocational
education
education
completions, completions,
Fy 1976
1975-76

Job
corps
completions,
Fy 1976

Apprenticeship
completions,
1976

Junior
college
graduates,
1975-76

Social service occupations:
Snr.ial service aides

3,009

5506

............................

Art, design, and communicationsrelated occupations:
Design occupations:
r.n m m ercjal artists
P h o to g raph ers

...............................

17.0700

1009
1011

8,049

8
4810

14 May include some State police officers.
15 Includes all distribution programs.
16 Recipients of associate degrees in marketing, distribution,
purchasing, business, and industrial management.
1 7 Includes training for other occupations in retail trade.
18 Includes tilesetters.
1 ’ Training data may include some maintenance electricians.
20 Includes sprinkler fitters and steamfitters.
21 Includes all persons who completed air transportation occupa­
tion programs.
2 2 May include some over-the-road drivers.
2 3 Electronics technicians.
24 Includes an unknown number of workers trained for skilled
craft occupations and technical occupations, such as industrial
drafters.
2 5 May include some computer service technicians.
2 6 E E G and E K G technicians combined.
2 7Some graduates may be counted in both junior college and
vocational education programs.

1 Less th an 5 0 c o m p le tio n s.
2 In c lu d e s b o o k b in d e rs, co m p o sin g room o c c u p a tio n s, lith o ­
g rap h ic o c c u p a tio n s, press o p e ra to rs, a n d m isce llan eo u s p rin tin g
o c cu p a tio n s.
3 In clu d e s som e u p ho lsterers o th e r th a n fu rn itu re .
4 M ay in c lu d e o th e r p h o to g ra p h ic o c cu p a tio n s.
5 In c lu d e s all persons w h o c o m p le te d o ffic e o c c u p a tio n p ro ­
gram s.
6 In clu d e s all p ersons w h o co m p le te d cle rica l o c c u p a tio n p ro ­
gram s.
7 In clu d e s o ffic e m a c h in e tra in in g .
8 In c lu d e s tra in in g fo r k e y p u n c h a n d o th e r in p u t a n d perip heral
e q u ip m e n t o p e ra to rs, a n d general d ata processing w o rkers.
’ In c lu d e s restauran t m anag em en t.
I 0 In c lu d e s all p ersons w h o c o m p le te d q u a n tity fo o d p rep aratio n
p rogram s.
I I In clu d e s bakers.
12 In clu d e s b e a u tic ia n s.
1 3 In c lu d e s all p erso ns w h o c o m p le te d p rivate h o u se h o ld service
o c c u p a tio n p rogram s.




3,000

93

Table C-2. Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees congerred by institutions of higher education,
by field of study, 1975-76
Doctor's
degrees
(Ph.D., Ed.D.,
etc.)

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

All fields.....................................................................................

925,746

311,771

34,064

Agriculture and natural resources....................................................................
Agriculture, general.................................................................................
A gronom y...........................................................................................
Soil science.........................................................................................
Animal science.....................................................................................
Dairy science.......................................................................................
Poultry science.....................................................................................
Fish, game, and wildlife management..........................................................
Horticulture.........................................................................................
Ornamental horticulture..........................................................................
Agricultural and farm management..............................................................
Agriculture economics.............................................................................
Agriculture business...............................................................................
Food science and technology....................................................................
Forestry.............................................................................................
Natural resources management..................................................................
Agriculture and forestry technologies..........................................................
Range management.................................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

19,402
1,730
958
434
3,868
296
91
1,477
1,336
466
307
1,168
917
580
2,660
2,038
167
174
735

3,340
323
303
121
442
77
33
256
211
19
3
465
26
282
405
223
23
39
89

928
6
178
53
135
21
10
,54
61
—
160
1
81
92
38
5
18
15

Architecture and environmental design..............................................................
Environmental design, general....................................................................
Architecture.........................................................................................
Interior design.......................................................................................
Landscape architecture.............................................................................
Urban architecture.................................................................................
City, community, and regional planning........................................................
Other.................................................................................................

9,146
1,222
5,607
786
948
1
448
134

3,215
76
1,318
13
217
153
1,411
27

82
6
18
1
—
51
6

Area studies.............................................................................................
Asian studies, general...............................................................................
East Asian studies...................................................................................
South Asian (India, etc.) studies................................................................
Southeast Asian studies..........................................................................
African stu d ie s.....................................................................................
Islamic studies.......................................................................................
Russian and Slavic studies........................................................................
Latin American studies............................................................................
Middle Eastern studies...................................................................... ..
European studies, general........................................................................
Eastern European studies........................................................................
West European studies............................................................................
American studies...................................................................................
Pacific area studies.................................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

3,079
236
209
17
2
14
126
302
81
54
10
49
1,715
1
263

945
138
87
21
25
2
47
152
23
2
1
5
296
7
139

182
7
8
4
1
8
2
6
6
9
1
100
30

Biological sciences.....................................................................................
Biology, general.....................................................................................
Botany, general.....................................................................................
Bacteriology.........................................................................................
Plant pathology.....................................................................................
Plant pharmacology.................................................................................
Plant ph ysio lo gy..................................................................................
Zoology, general...................................................................................
Pathology, human and animal....................................................................
Pharmacology, human and a n im a l..............................................................

54,275
40,163
1,031
442
76
71
5,492
13
15

6,582
3,177
306
56
118
27
528
101
76

3,392
624
208
28
77
20
276
101
163

Major field of study




94

—

Table C-2. Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education,
by field of study, 1975-76—Continued
Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph. D., Ed. D.,
etc.)

Physiology, human and anim al..................................................................
M icrobiology.......................................................................................
Anatomy.............................................................................................
Histology.............................................................................................
Biochemistry.......................................................................................
Biophysics...........................................................................................
Molecular biology...................................................................................
Cell biology.........................................................................................
Marine b io lo g y .....................................................................................
Biometrics and biostatistics......................................................................
Ecology .............................................................................................
Entomology.........................................................................................
Genetics.............................................................................................
Radio biology.......................................................................................
Nutrition, scientific................................................................................
Neuro sciences.......................................................................................
Toxicology...........................................................................................
Embryology.........................................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

313
2,485
3
1,622
86
191
61
429
13
586
272
109
121
69
9
603

229
529
93
1
252
55
23
9
133
77
149
219
115
21
125
4
9
2
148

226
336
123
431
85
71
25
18
26
43
143
121
9
45
34
7
1
151

Business and management............................................................................
Business and commerce, general..................................................................
Accounting.........................................................................................
Business statistics...................................................................................
Banking and finance..............................................................................
Investments and securities........................................................................
Business management and administration......................................................
Operations research.................................................................................
Hotel and restaurant management..............................................................
Marketing and purchasing........................................................................
Transportation and public utilities..............................................................
Real estate...........................................................................................
Insurance.............................................................................................
International business............................................... ............................
Secretarial studies...................................................................................
Personnel management............................................................................
Labor and industrial relations....................................................................
Business economics.................................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

143,436
30,138
35,806
197
7,091
11
44,140
345
1,499
14,649
1,057
689
576
269
1,538
1,325
1,105
2,576
425

42,620
8,413
2,730
149
2,414
61
23,358
458
64
1,182
108
79
45
1,198
1
715
763
342
540

956
129
55
15
41
492
53
43
^3
4
5
8
1
5
17
80
5

Communications.......................................................................................
Communications, general........................................................................
Journalism...........................................................................................
Radio/television.....................................................................................
Advertising...........................................................................................
Communication media............................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

21,282
7,571
7,711
3,366
1,236
1,237
161

3,126
1,549
956
299
88
165
69

204
162
15
18
8
1

Computer and information sciences................................................................
Computer and information sciences, general....................................................
Information.........................................................................................
Data processing.....................................................................................
Computer processing..............................................................................
Systems analysis.....................................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

5,652
4,530
493
483
3
89
54

2,603
2,349
166
1
—
87
—

244
221
20
—
3

Education...............................................................................................
Education, general................................................................................
Elementary education, general..................................................................

154,758
4,020
60,264

127,948
17,884
22,748

7,769
1,497
196




95

Table C-2. Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by
field of study, 1975-76—Continued_________________________________________________
_____
Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph. D., Ed. D ,
etc.)

Secondary education, general....................................................................
Junior high school education....................................................................
Higher education, general........................................................................
Junior and community college education......................................................
Adult and continuing education..................................................................
Special education, general........................................................................
Administration of special education............................................................
Education of the mentally retarded..............................................................
Education of the gifted............................................................................
Education of the d e a f............................................................................
Education of the culturally disadvantaged......................................................
Education of the visually handicapped..........................................................
Speech correction..................................................................................
Education of the emotionally disturbed........................................................
Remedial education................................................................................
Special learning disabilities.......................................................................
Education of the physically handicapped......................................................
Education of the multiple handicapped........................................................
Social foundations................................................................................
Educational psychology..........................................................................
Pre-elementary education........................................................................
Educational statistics and research..............................................................
Educational testing, evaluation, and measurement .........................................
Student personnel..................................................................................
Educational administration......................................................................
Educational supervision..........................................................................
Curriculum and instruction......................................................................
Reading education................................................................................
Art education......................................................................................
Music education....................................................................................
Mathematics education............................................................................
Science education..................................................................................
Physical education................................................................................
Driver and safety education......................................................................
Health education..................................................................................
Business, commerce, and distributive education...............................................
Industrial arts, vocational and technical education...........................................
Agricultural education............................................................................
Education of exceptional children, not classified above.....................................
Home economic education........................................................................
Nursing education.......................................................................... .
Other.................................................................................................

4,996
255
14
9
8,174
10
4,929
21
433
8
142
2,716
738
831
233
119
23
370
5,869
5
3
194
32
64
264
227
4,565
7,908
1,358
768
24,181
110
2,019
5,289
7,271
1,063
201
4,171
377
514

7,585
105
388
234
710
7,692
123
1,299
6
404
151
98
711
678
244
1,790
217
42
624
2,356
2,085
74
208
17,396
11,823
1,207
3,967
6,840
1,044
1,382
746
737
4,761
271
1,149
1,843
3,002
342
177
762
327
1,716

210
345
220
119
208
17
35
4
11
3
9
5
5
6
5
177
576
13
38
28
677
1,497
107
654
117
48
80
55
57
215
4
72
66
231
37
3
25
37
60

Engineering............................................................................................
Engineering, general..............................................................................
Aerospace, aeronautical, astronautical engineering...........................................
Agricultural engineering..........................................................................
Architectural engineering........................................................................
Bioengineering and biomedical engineering...................................................
Chemical engineering..............................................................................
Petroleum engineering............................................................................
Civil, construction, and transportation engineering ............................................
'Electrical, electronics, communications engineering.........................................
Mechanical engineering............................................................................
Geological engineering............................................................................
Geophysical engineering..........................................................................
Industrial and management engineering........................................................

46,331
3,168
1,009
412
221
193
3,140
340
7,923
9,791
6,800
112
52
2,203

16,342
1,305
479
146
37
178
1,031
98
2,999
3,774
1,907
28
3
1,751

2,821
236
139
33
1
58
308
20
370
649
305
3
121




96

Table C-2. Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education,
by field of study, 1975-76—Continued
Doctor's
degrees
(Ph. D., Ed. D.,
etc.)

Major field of study

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Metallurgical engineering...........................................................................
Materials engineering...............................................................................
Ceramic engineering.................................................................. ............
Textile engineering.................................................................................
Mining and mineral engineering........................................... ......................
Engineering physics.................................................................................
Nuclear engineering.................................................................................
Engineering mechanics.............................................................................
Environmental and sanitary engineering........................................................
Naval architecture and marine engineering......................................................
Ocean engineering...................................................................................
Engineering technologies...........................................................................
Other..................................................................................................

351
190
147
20
331
335
418
143
213
402
157
7,943
317

176
223
52
13
70
85
466
181
568
102
118
328
224

72
118
19
18
55
131
77
49
4
12
2
21

Fine and applied arts................................................................................. .
Fine arts, general...................................................................................
Art history and appreciation......................................................................
Music (performing, composition, and theory)..................................................
Music (liberal arts program)......................................................................
Music history and appreciation..................................................................
Dramatic a r t s .......................................................................................
Dance..................................................................................................
Applied design.......................................................................................
Cinematography.....................................................................................
Photography........................................................ .................................
Other.................................................................................................

42,138
5,211
14,252
2,143
5,077
3,827
213
5,691
772
3,350
448
846
308

8,817
735
2,252
399
2,315
814
88
1,394
180
255
161
115
109

620
46
19
65
249
77
42
112
1
1
4

Foreign languages.......................................................................................
Foreign languages, general........................................................................
French...............................................................................................
German...............................................................................................
Ita lia n ...............................................................................................
Spanish...............................................................................................
Russian...............................................................................................
Chinese...............................................................................................
Japanese .............................................................................................
L a tin ..................................................................................................
Greek, classical.....................................................................................
Hebrew ...............................................................................................
A r a b ic ................................. .............. ...............................................
Indian (Asiatic).....................................................................................
Scandinavian languages.............................................................................
Slavic languages (other than Russian)............................................................
African languages (non-Semitic)..................................................................
Other..................................................................................................

15,471
867
4,783
1,983
342
5,984
531
150
146
169
125
142
10
3
27
111
2
96

3,531
552
914
471
85
1,080
81
23
8
42
29
49
7
6
4
79
6
95

864
209
190
164
19
176
13
6
1
2
10
10
2
1
4
36
21

Health professions.....................................................................................
Health professions, general........................................................................
Hospital and health care administration........................................................
Nursing. ........................................................ .....................................
Dental specialties...................................................................................
Medical specialties.................................................................................
Occupational therapy...............................................................................
Optometry.......... ' . ..............................................................................
Pharm acy...........................................................................................
Physical therapy.....................................................................................
Dental hygie ne.....................................................................................

53,958
3,684
421
26,726
80
31
1,453
343
6,869
2,060
1,115

12,556
651
1,129
3,035
430
108
166
13
307
167
24

577
49
11
16
3
33




97

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

-

4

-

3
81
1
16

Table C-2. Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education,
by field of study, 1975-76—Continued
Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Public health.........................................................................................
Medical record librarianship......................................................................
Podiatry or Podiatric medicine..................................................................
Biomedical communication......................................................................
Veterinary medicine specialties..................................................................
Speech pathology and audiology................................................................
Chiropractic.........................................................................................
Clinical social work.................................................................................
Medical laboratory technologies.................................................................
Dental technologies.................................................................................
Radiologic technologies..........................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

585
521
74
24
—

3,925
—

Second-level
(master's)
degrees
2,106
—
1
8
113
3,119
-

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph. D., Ed. D„
etc.)
165
—
—
—
41
109
2
—
—

145
5,389
35
263
215

671
241
26
241

4
43

Home economics.......................................................................................
Home economics, general........................................................................
Home decoration and home equipment........................................................
Clothing and textiles..............................................................................
Consumer economics and home management..................................................
Family relations and child development........................................................
Foods and nutrition..............................................................................
Institutional management and cafeteria management.......................................
Other.................................................................................................

17,409
6,176
987
2,577
666
3,466
2,767
397
373

2,179
689
60
144
97
566
526
54
43

178
23
2
10
18
67
57
—
1

Law, general.........................................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

531
531
-

1,442
1,331
111

76
75
1

Letters...................................................................................................
English, general.....................................................................................
Literature, E nglish.................................................................................
Comparative literature............................................................................
Classics...............................................................................................
Linguistics...........................................................................................
Speech, debate, and forensic science............................................................
Creative writing.....................................................................................
Teaching of English as a foreign language......................................................
Philosophy...........................................................................................
Religious stu die s...................................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

51,515
31,696
2,453
554
483
530
6,380
246
49
4,757
3,690
677

11,293
5,960
631
210
136
523
1,614
280
469
689
667
114

2,447
1,061
228
158
61
151
201
3
9
382
172
21

Library science.........................................................................................
Library science, general..........................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

843
822
21

8,037
7,762
275

71
64
7

Mathematics.............................................................................................
Mathematics, general...............................................................................
Statistics, mathematical and theoretical........................................................
Applied mathematics...............................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

15,984
15,248
248
440
48

3,857
3,222
471
157
7

856
671
141
43
1

Military sciences........................................................................................
Military science ( A rm y )..........................................................................
Naval science (Navy, Marines)....................................................................
Aerospace science (Air Force)....................................................................
Merchant m arine...................................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

1,177
872
3
61
225
16

Physical sciences.......................................................................................
Physical sciences, general...........................................................................

21,465
1,224




98

—

—

_

—

-

-

—

-

-

5,466
283

-

3,431
65

Table C-2. Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education,
by field of study, 1975-76— Continued
Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

Physics, general.....................................................................................
Molecular physics...................................................................................
Nuclear physics.....................................................................................
Chemistry, general.................................................................................
Inorganic chemistry.................................................................................
Organic chemistry...................................................................................
Physical chem istry.................................................................................
Analytical chemistry..............................................................................
Pharmaceutical chemistry........................................................................
Astronomy...........................................................................................
Astrophysics.........................................................................................
Atmospheric sciences and meteorology........................................................
Geology.............................................................................................
Geochemistry.......................................................................................
Geophysics and seismology......................................................................
Earth sciences, general............................................................................
Paleontology.........................................................................................
Oceanography.......................................................................................
Metallurgy...........................................................................................
Other earth sciences..............................................................................
Other physical sciences............................................................................

3,456
88
10,977
5
26
5
2
7
116
50
365
3,259
10
89
1,073
6
240
16
167
284

1,421
30
1,721
1
6
10
7
38
81
8
197
935
6
62
225
4
152
24
107
148

968
10
19
1,498
13
30
30
7
43
113
13
61
280
4
29
42
9
81
16
26
74

•sychology...............................................................................................
Psychology,general. ...............................................................................
Experimental psychology........................................................................
Clinical psychology...................................................................... ..
Psychology for counseling........................................................................
Social psychology...................................................................................
Psychometrics.......................................................................................
Statistics in psychology..........................................................................
Industrial psychology...............................................................................
Developmental psychology......................................................................
Physiological psychology..........................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

49,908
48,818
98
63
71
347
70
365
6
61

7,811
5,218
96
442
1,513
128
37
—
47
162
4
164

2,581
2,047
64
320
41
40
—
—
4
43
13

Public affairs and services............................................................................
Community services, general......................................................................
Public administration..............................................................................
Parks and recreation management..............................................................
Social work and helping services................................................................
Law enforcement and correction................................................................
International public service......................................................................
Other.................................................................................................

33,238
1,788
2,008
5,182
10,852
12,507
109
792

17,106
717
5,135
571
8,943
1,197
129
414

319
19
98
15
163

Social sciences
............................................................................
Social sciences, general............................................................................
Anthropology............................... .......................................................
Archflpn|ngy
..............................................................................
Fcnonmir.s
................................................................................
History
............................... - .......................................
Geography................................................................ ..........................
Political science and government................................................................

126,785
12,325
5,180
79
14,741
28,400
3,733
28,302
27,634
2,306
1,185
396
13
89
1,601

15,874
2,270
937
32
2,087
3,658
665
2,191
2,009
218
710
40
7
3
824

4,160
85
419
14
763
1,014
168
723
729
18
73
6
—
—
16

Major field of study

S n r in ln g y

..................................................................................................................................................

r.riminnlngy
..............................................................................
International relations............................................................................
Afro-American (Black culture) studies..........................................................
American Indian cultural studies................................................................
Mexican-American cultural studies................................. ............................
Urban studies.......................................................................................




99

9

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph. D., Ed. D.,
etc.)

9

9
3

12

Table C-2. Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education,
by field of study, 1975-76—Continued
Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
.4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph. D., Ed. D.,
etc.)

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

Demography.........................................................................................
Other..................................................................................................

22
779

25
198

9
123

Theology..................................................................................................
Theological professions, general..................................................................
Religious m usic.....................................................................................
Biblical languages...................................................................................
Religious education.................................................................................
Other............ ....................................................................................

5,520
3,461
251
30
1,529
249

3,290
1,537
156
32
1,384
181

1,033
960
14
11
29
19

Interdisciplinary studies...............................................................................
General liberal arts and sciences..................................................................
Biological and physical sciences..................................................................
Humanities and social sciences..................................................................
Engineering and o th e r.............................................................................
Other..................................................................................................

32,443
14,736
3,935
4,119
340
9,313

3,791
1,758
318
875
149
691

273
36
38
126
16
57

SO U RCE:

U .S .

D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a lt h , E d u c a t i o n , a n d W e lf a r e ,

N a t io n a l C e n t e r f o r E d u c a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s .

Table C-3. First professional degrees1 conferred by institutions of higher education, 1975-76
Field of study

First professional
degrees

Total, all institutions...................

1,577
5,425
13,426
975
818
439

First professional
degrees

62,649

Chiropractic (D.C.)...........................
Dentistry (D.D.S. or D.M.D.) ..............
Medicine (M.D.) ..............................
Optometry (O .D .)............................
Osteopathy (D.O.)............................
Pharmacy (Pharm. D . ) .......................

Field of study

Podiatry (Pod. D. or D.P.) or
Podiatry Medicine (D.P.M .)............
Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.) ............
Law (LL.B. or J.D.) .........................
Theology (B.D., M. Div., or R abbi)........
Other ..........................................

1 In c lu d e s degrees w h ic h re q uire at least 6 y ea rs o f college
w o rk fo r c o m p le tio n (in c lu d in g a t least 2 years o f p rep ro fess io n a l tra in in g ).




428
1,532
32,293
5,706
30

S O U R C E : U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f H e a lth , E d u c a tio n , and W elfare,
N a tio n a l C e n te r fo r E d u c a tio n S ta tistic s ,

100

Table C-4. Apprentice completions in selected trades, 1962-76
Trade

1962

Construction trades:4
Asbestos and insulation
workers..........................................
Bricklayers, stone and
tilesetters.....................................
Carpenters.......................................
Cement m asons.............................
Dry-wall finishers..........................
E le ctricia n s....................................
G la zie rs...........................................
Lathers.............................................
Operating engineers.......................
Painters.............................................
Plasterers..........................................
Plumbers-p ipef it t e r s ....................
Roofers.............................................
Sheet-metal w o rke rs....................
Sprinkler fitters.............................
Structural iron workers................
Construction workers not clas­
sified above ................................
Metalworking trades:
Boilermakers....................................
Machine set-up and operators. .
M achinists.......................................
Patternmakers................................
Toolmakers, diemakers................
Not classified above.......................
Graphic art trades:
Bookbinders....................................
Compositors....................................
Lithographers, photoengravers .
Press o p e rato rs.............................
Not classified above.......................
Miscellaneous trades:4
A ir-conditioning and refrigera­
tion m e ch a n ics..........................
Aircraft m echanics.......................
Automotive body builders repairers.......................................
Automotive mechanics................
Barbers, beauticians.....................
Butchers, m eatcutters................
Cabinetmakers-millworkers . . .
Car repairers....................................
Cooks, bakers................................
Dental te ch n icia n s.......................
D ra fte rs ..........................................
Electrical workers..........................
Electronic te ch n ician s................
Floor coverers................................
Line erectors, light and power. .
Maintenance mechanics (re­
pairers) .......................................
Millwrights.......................................
Molders, corem akers....................
Office machine servicers.............
Optical w orkers.............................
Radio and T V repairers................

Stationary engineers.........
Not classified above.......................

896
-

1,484
3 ,0 13
312
3,14 8
201
2 16
895
338
2,924
19 7
1,5 58
773
-

1964

1,369
2,882
222
3,887
266
240
770
267
3 ,10 1

282
1,7 4 2
732

1965

1,34 2
3,27 2
297
3,327
222
268
969
18 1
3,050
27 2
1,4 77
870

-

-

111

1966

1,346
3,340
293
3,654
239
198
807
215
2,736
241
1,568
1,0 75

19 6 7 1

1,602
4,249
372
6,075
223
466
1,0 19
264
3,601
379
2,18 4
1,38 7

-

-

19682

1,206
3,423
386
4,742
244
290
-

868
201
3,788
226
2,401
1,209

19693

1,6 5 1
3,698
300
5,091
2 17
14 5
829
228
4,888
290
2,544
2,006

-

-

19 7 1

19 72

19 73

1974

19 75

1976

312
1,5 2 7
2,9 86
327
3,279
202
387
790
290
3,409
228
1,749
-

1963

282

365

295

354

264

1,8 01
3,083
273
5,224
228
202
832
16 1
4,266
278
2,309
1,536

1,4 3 1
3,639
384
4,364
248
188
439
992
16 1
4 ,88 0
257
2,401
1,3 8 1

1,998
5,054
825
5,991
335
276
1,0 35
983
245
5,255
383
2,768
408
2,098

1,400
5 ,7 19
46 C
446
5,730
296
214
848
909
176
4,656
426
2,775
18 7
1,8 01

1,18 4
5 ,2 11
526
404
6 ,138
297
278
829
1,0 57
183
5,766
39 1
2,548
424
1 ,5 13

1,4 18
5,669
664
390
6,003
337
236
932
1,14 8
230
5,560
447
2,302
449
1,9 52

566
19 5
6,563
266
206
945
1,13 9
15 3
5,764
482
2,351
297
2,223

1,2 2 1

451

552

87

112

115

50

1970

200

1,407

6,211

211

59
1,33 0
15 0
1,36 7
227

52
1,309
13 1
1,489
164

1,339
160
1,2 9 3
240

91
1,6 16
150
1,704
446

199
2,367
326
3,596
1,040

13 5
2,108
350
2,502
690

180
3,527
395
4 ,12 5
541

364
3,822
444
4,748
1,3 7 3

405
3,234
290
3,482
446

504
3,695
275
3,825
5 31

353
112
2,357
166
2 ,7 16
-

367
14 1
2,047
18 1
2,051
-

340
144
1,905
158
1,849
-

508
2 12
2,526
129
1,9 01
-

246
869
399
6 11
16 1

453
730
584
598
154

235
668
640
5 51
17 5

18 2
675
329
304
75

160
559
444
423
106

116
807
469
5 17
164

170
8 10
325
721
98

315
837
839
826
160

223
774
987
637
279

142
623
320
354
285

23 1
844
5 18
635
478

81
377
183
507
387

15 1
442
587
684
647

159
475
212
635
326

12 2
264
292
466
230

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

149

65

15 3
53

293
36

212
26

360
48

154
559
401
248
20
27
25
19 7
339
169

117
443
350
243
42
29
23
13 1
371
—
183

13 5
5 17
369
2 13
13
34

13 3
334
448
207
24
40
32
126
277
219

15 1
529
5 31
235
9
29
13
182
362
236

2 18
525
6 31
17 7

2 11
1,0 17
362
120
82
80
65
447
3 19
6 17

91
92
538
446
943

307
774
8 17
2 12
138
261
78
528
1,0 74
377
3 16
621

308
1,269
997
278
128
229
14 5
453
1,691
400
256
586

238
1,2 3 1
176
794
241
174
10 5

30
243
583
552

2 14
705
756
164
140
47
59
3 11
591
4 12

273
833
16 3
294
669

310
1,3 4 1
3 16
9 19
268
185
226
117
338
835
2 17
300
1,15 9

275
1,2 9 7
315
661
285
298
13 5
106
220
778
12 5
324
1,117

266
1,34 3
347
853
294
290
548
138
246
1,10 6
354
283
1 ,1 5 1

552
19 1
83
43
73
-

439
218
106
24
112
-

322
25 1
126
18
-

354
16 5
110
24
16 1
-

442
270
112
12 5
-

718
780
199
14 1
-

1,0 72
331
212
75
-

1,293
6 15
281
11 9
-

1,682
763
200
80
1,447

1,2 5 3
695
2,14 6

1,846
1,080
3,304

774
786
67
199
67
156
130
2 ,1 8 2

73 1
624
87
387
15 3
248
168
2,742

662
794
12 3
479
142

920
933
14 7
567
140
108
288
2,985

59
1 ,0 1 1
19 5
1,33 9

18
128
25 1
201

98
-

77
22

595
641
727
186

101

88

222
179
2,581

F lo r i d a a n d

4 It w a s n o t p o s s ib le t o p r o v id e a h is t o r ic a l s e rie s f o r s e v e ra l t r a d e s

2 F ig u r e s are u n d e r s t a t e d b e c a u s e d e ta ile d d a t a f o r F lo r i d a w e re

because they were either recently listed as a separate trade (i.e.,
moved from a not elsewhere classified category), or were consoli­
dated with one or more related occupations.

1 F ig u r e s are u n d e r s t a t e d b e c a u s e d e t a ile d d a t a f o r

Louisiana were not reported.

n o t re p o rte d .

N O T E : D a s h in d ic a t e s d a t a n o t a v a ila b le
SO U RCE:

3 F ig u r e s are u n d e r s t a t e d b e c a u s e d e t a ile d d a t a f o r C a l i f o r n i a a n d

Florida were

not

a n d T r a in i n g .

reported.




101

U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r, B u re a u o f A p p r e n tic e sh ip

Table C-5. Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate granted in occupational
curriculums, 1969-70 to 1975-761
___________ ______________________________________________
HEGIS
code2

Academic year
Curriculum

All curriculums.........................................
5000 Business and commerce technologies.....................
Business and commerce technologies, general........
5001
5002
Accounting technologies.................................
Banking and finance technologies.......................
5003
5004
Marketing, distribution, purchasing, business and
industrial management.................................
5005
Secretarial technologies (includes office machines
training).................................................
Personal service technologies (flight attendant,
5006
cosmetologist, etc.).....................................
5007
Photography technologies...............................
Communications and broadcasting technologies
5008
(radio/television, newspapers).........................
5009
Printing and lithography technologies................
Hotel and restaurant management technologies. . . .
5010
Transportation and public utilities technologies. . . .
5011
5012
Applied arts, graphic arts, and fine arts
technologies (includes advertising design)..........
5099
Other.......................................................

1969-70 1970-71

1971-72

1972-73

1973-74

1974-75

1975-76

124,327 153,549 190,039 174,101 201,538 217,949
51,037 61,077
55,311
65,326 68,036
11,402
14,666
11,008
12,781
12,379
14,325
4,824
5,301
6,583
6,331
7,880
8,208
642
272
349
460
1,605

243,101
79,179
17,392
9,374
890

4,048

9,237

10,155

9,989

13,559

14,065

19,926

15,388

16,534

20,355

15,526

18,650

19,229

19,704

-

1,262
577

1,297
619

552
661

468
645

580
734

632
810

-

728
512
916
324

986
600
1,258
409

1,032
450
1,451
467

1,292
535
1,852
462

1,525
584
2,037
521

1,850
587
1,865
627

4,249
-

2,998
1,368

3,873
1,832

4,107
2,883

4,594
1,405

4,161
1,425

4,814
708

5100 Data processing technologies.............................
Data processing technologies, general...................
5101
Keypunch operator and other input preparation
5102
technologies.............................................
Computer programmer technologies..................
5103
Computer operator and peripheral equipment
5104
operation technologies.................................
Data processing equipment maintenance
5105
technologies.............................................
5199
Other.......................................................

6,487
-

8,745
5,027

8,971
5,669

7,640
4,584

6,998
4,360

6,821
3,912

7,176
3,989

-

648
2,149

402
2,198

327
2,118

133
2,018

237
2,199

202
2,547

-

387

431

249

205

240

229

-

431
103

104
167

103
259

226
56

179
54

188
21

5200 Health services and paramedical technologies..........
Health services assistant.................................
5201
Dental assistant technologies...........................
5202
Dental hygiene technologies.............................
5203
Dental laboratory technologies.........................
5204
Medical or biological laboratory assistant
5205
technologies.............................................
Animal laboratory assistant technologies..............
5206
5207
Radiologic technologies (X-ray, etc.)..................
Nursing, R.N. (less than 4-year program)..............
5208
Nursing, practical (L.P.N. or L.V.N.-less than
5209
4-year program).........................................
Occupational therapy technologies....................
5210
5211
Surgical technologies.....................................
Optical technologies (includes ocular care,
5212
ophthalmic, optometric technologies)..............
Medical record technologies.............................
5213
Medical assistant and medical office assistant
5214
technologies.............................................
Inhalation therapy technologies.........................
5215
Psychiatric technologies (includes mental health
5216
aide programs)...........................................
Electrodiagnostic technologies (includes EKG,
5217
EEG, etc.)...............................................
Institutional management technologies (rest
5218
home, etc.)...............................................
Physical therapy technologies...........................
5219
5299
Other........................................................

26,778
1,663
2,229
362

34,518
258
2,191
2,506
264

45,412
202
2,779
3,113
374

42,910
121
1,255
3,465
414

51,207
771
1,197
3,738
594

57,943
1,683
1,341
3,717
643

61,918
2,367
1,425
3,538
622

970
647
11,730

1,335
55
1,139
14,408

1,826
162
1,727
18,211

1,902
202
2,157
23,252

2,617
387
2,758
28,158

3,238
502
3,035
31,994

3,313
728
3,323
34,187

6,102
166
133

7,708
243
244

9,939
287
423

2,637
435
110

2,447
491
183

2,486
485
207

2,794
560
252

60
-

81
374

146
447

215
581

395
627

438
753

519
919

-

1,256
570

1,828
982

1,340
1,542

1,623
1,824

1,845
2,103

2,046
2,080

-

634

842

1,138

1,785

1,862

1,730

23

22

55

29

24

55

66

-

176
239
815

225
355
1,489

22
469
1,624

64
717
807

89
839
628

81
749
619

S e e f o o t n o t e s a t e n d o f ta b le .




102

Table C-5. Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate granted in occupational
curriculums, 1969-76 to 1975-761 — Continued
Academic year

H EG IS
code2

Curriculum

37,437
2,560
2,173

44,145
2,925
2,656

34,781
2,455
2,378

37,631
3,295
2,060

40,775
2,436
2,208

45, T69
3,506
1,983

2,917
1,938
589
4,041
721
1,097

2,907
2,369
529
5,109
835
1,548

2,122
1,897
576
3,676
603
652

2,385
2,249
555
4,300
785
579

2,477
2,583
590
4,507
926
842

2,587
2,445
632
4,714
943
1,063

1,637

2,095

2,290

2,203

2,219

2,331

7,851
1,301
1,657
155
203
2,749
65

9,129
1,530
2,313
244
189
2,678
79

6,397
1,179
1,315
245
276
1,954
88

7,470
1,670
1,928
223
259
2,496
77

8,638
2,333
2,011
242
340
2,193
98

11,145
2,549
2,051
329
360
2,451
169

4,299
1,554

4,927
2,083

3,648
3,030

4,652
508

5,632
500

5,285
626

7,028
656
2,870

9,418
795
3,321

9,242
648
3,440

11,496
768
4,470

12,966
785
4,823

13,316
1,004
5,238

1,087
693
872
183
144

1,523
886
1,210
334
162

1,671
704
1,042
378
189

1,980
1,581
1,542
414
211

2,203
2,046
1,770
544
261

2,133
2,138
1,406
413
246

145
378

632
555

346
874

464
66

437
97

460
278

642

14,784
277
744

21,016
504
929

24,167
509
612

28,880
834
558

31,408
914
1,071

36,343
2,003
1,011

3,218
313
4,084

3,856
471
6,873

5,170
571
9,204

4,839
586
11,658

5,840
506
14,915

6,189
607
15,639

5,840
594
18,698

1,146
735

1,965
1,205

2,269
1,448

3,731
2,013

3,712
2,188

3,009
3,234

111
571

186
1,282

240
2,008

354
129

491
597

741
1,213

28,959

5400 Natural science technologies...............................
Natural science technologies, general...................5401
Agriculture technologies (includes horticulture) . . .
5402
Forestry and wildlife technologies (includes
5403
fisheries)..................................................
Food services technologies...............................
5404
Home economics technologies...........................
5405
Marine and oceanographic technologies..............
5406
Laboratory technologies, general.......................
5407
Sanitation and public health inspection technologies
5408
(environmental health technologies).................
Other........................................................
5499

—

-

1,672

-

556
-

1,537

1,755
-

207
9,391
38

-

-

2,596
727
841
-

-

_
—

5500 Public-service-related technologies.......................
Public service technologies, general.....................
5501
Bible study or religion-related occupations..........
5502
Education technologies (teacher aide and 2-year
5503
teacher training programs).............................
Library assistant technologies...........................
5504
Police, law enforcement, correction technologies. . .
5505
Recreation and social work and related
5506
technologies.............................................
Fire control technology.................................
5507
Public administration and management
5508
technologies..............................................
Other........................................................
5509
‘ T h e se d a ta d o
b e lo w

-

_
-

_
—

n o t in c lu d e a s s o c ia t e d e g r e e s a n d o t h e r f o r m a l

th e

b a c c a la u r e a t e

gran te d

in

a rts

and

1975-76

1972-73

5300 Mechanical and engineering technologies................
Mechanical and engineering technologies, general. . .
5301
5302
Aeronautical and aviation technologies.................
5303
Engineering graphics (tool and machine drafting
and design)................................................
5304
Architectural drafting technologies.....................
5305
Chemical technologies (includes plastics)............
Automotive technologies.................................
5306
5307
Diesel technologies.......................................
Welding technologies.....................................
5308
Civil technologies (surveying, photogrammetry,
5309
etc.)........................................................
Electronics and machine technologies (television,
5310
appliance, office machine repair, etc.)..............
Electromechanical technologies.........................
5311
Industrial technologies...................................
5312
Textile technologies.....................................
5313
Instrumentation technologies...........................
5314
Mechanical technologies.................................
5315
Nuclear technologies.....................................
5316
Construction and building technologies (carpentry,
5317
electric work, plumbing, sheet-metal, air
conditioning, heating, e tc .)...........................
Other........................................................
5399

aw ard s

1973-74 1974-75

1971-72

1969-70 1970-71

s c ie n c e s

SO U RCE:

U .S .

D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a lt h , E d u c a t i o n , a n d W e lf a r e ,

N a t io n a l C e n t e r f o r E d u c a t i o n S t a t is t ic s .

c u r r i c u lu m s .
3 H E G IS
m a t io n

codes

Su rvey.

a re f r o m

See

Higher Education

A

(U .S .

th e

H ig h e r

E d u c a t io n

G eneral

In f o r ­

Taxonomy o f Instructional Programs in
D e p a rtm e n t

of

H e a lt h ,

E d u c a t io n ,

and

W e lf a r e , 1 9 7 0 ) .




103

NOTE:
p ro gram s.

D ash

m eans

d a ta

a re

not

a v a ila b le

or

th e re w e re

no

Table C-6. Enlisted strength in Department of Defense occupational groups, September 30, 1977
DOD
code

Group title and description of coverage

0

IN FAN TRY, GUN CREWS, AN D SE A M A N SH IP S P E C IA L IS T S ..................................................................

01

Enlisted
strength

Infantry - Includes weapon specialists, ground reconnaisance specialists and crew-served artillery specialists, armor

259,647

and amphibious crew, and specialists in combat engineering and seamanship................................................

120,184

02

A rm or and A m p h ib io u s .......................................................................... ...................................

23,704

03

Combat Engineering - Includes specialists in hasty and temporary construction of airfields, roads and bridges, and

in demolition, field illumination, and chemical warfare........................................................................
04

20,773

Artillery/Gunnery , Rockets, and Missiles - Includes conventional field, anti-air and shipboard guns and artillery, and

rocket and missile specialists........................................................................................................

54,475

05

A ir Crew - Includes pilots and navigators, flight engineers, and other air crew..............................................

6,131

06

Seamanship - Includes boatswains, navigators, and other seamanship specialists...........................................

14,085

07

Installation Security - Includes specialists who guard weapon systems, defend installations, and protect personnel,

equipment, and facilities.............................................................................................................

1
10

20,295

ELEC TRO N IC EQUIPM ENT R E P A IR E R S ................................. ...........................................................

164,162

Includes fixed and mobile radio, air traffic and tracking radar, communication, navigation, and
electronic countermeasure gear.....................................................................................................

78,702

11

Fire Control Electronic System (N on-M issile).....................................................................................

9,203

f2

Missile Guidance, Control and Checkout -

13

Radio/Radar -

Includes specialists in guidance, control and checkout equipment for
guided and ballistic missiles..........................................................' ..............................................

22,162

Sonar Equipm ent - Includes specialists in underwater detection and fire control systems, oceanographic equipment,

and related anti-submarine gear.....................................................................................................

6,927

14

Nuclear Weapons E q u ip m e n t .......................................................................................................

1,524

15

A D P Com puters........................................................................................................................

7,284

16

Teletype and Cryptographic Eq uip m ent ...........................................................................................

15,366

19

Other Electronic Equipm ent -

Includes training devices, inertial navigation systems, and electronics instruments
specialists..............................................................................................................................

22,994

2

C O M M UNICATIO NS AN D IN T ELLIG EN C E S P E C IA L IS T S ........................................................................

148,977

20

Radio and Radio Code - Includes operators of radio, radio teletype, and visual communications equipment........

43,268

21

So n a r ................................................................................................... ................................

4,091

22

Radar and A ir Traffic Control.......................................................................................................

26,434

23

Signal Intelligence/Electronic Warfare - Includes the intercept, translation, and analysis of foreign communications,

and the operation of electronic countermeasures equipment..................................................................
24

Intelligence - Includes the gathering, receipt, and analysis of non-signal intelligence data, the interrogation of pris­

oners, other language translators and interpreters, image interpretation, and specialists in counterintelligence and in­
vestigational activities...............................................................................................................
25

9,550

Combat Operations Control - Includes specialists in forward area tactical operations and intelligence and in com­

mand post control activities.........................................................................................................
26

22,929

18,563

Com m unications Center Operations - Includes the receipt and distribution of messages, the operation of communi­

cations center equipment, and the operation-of major field communications systems.....................................

24,142

3

M ED IC A L AND DEN T AL S P E C IA L IS T S ...............................................................................................

78,690

30

Medical Care............................................................................................................................

54,360

31

Technical M edical Services - Includes laboratory, pharmaceutical, and X-ray services.....................................

10,964

32

Related Medical Services - Includes specialists in sanitation, health preservation and veterinary services, and pre­
ventive medical services.............................................................................................................

4,969

Dental Care - Includes specialists in dental care and treatment and in related technical and laboratory services

8,397

33




104

Table C-6. Enlisted strength in Department of Defense occupational groups, September 30,1977—Continued
00D
code

Enlisted
strength

Group title and description of coverage

4

OTHER T EC H N IC A L AN D A L L IE D S P E C IA L IS T S .................................................................. ..............

40

Photography - Includes still, motion, and television camera operators, precision photographic processing, editing,

36,731

and broadcasting......................................................................................................................

5,837

41

Mapping, Surveying, Drafting, and Illu stra tin g ...................................................................................

7,880

42

Weather - Includes specialists in the collection of weather and sea condition data and in weather forecasting........

5,609

43

Ordnance Disposal and Diving - Includes the excavation and rendering safe of explosive ordnance and of chemical

and nuclear agents, and underwater demolition and other types of diving....................................................

1,438

45

M usicians...............................................................................................................................

5,416

49

Technical Specialists, N.E.C. - Includes physical science laboratory analysts, specialists in memorial activities,
safety, NBC warfare, and firefighting and damage control, and other technical specialists and aides such as scientific
engineering assistants.................................................................................................................

10,551

5

FU NCTIO NAL SUPPORT AN D A D M IN IS T R A T IO N .................................................................................

265,674

50

Personnel - Includes specialists in personnel administration, personnel and manpower management, and recruiting

and counseling..........................................................................................................................

42,664

51

Adm inistration - Includes clerks, typists, and stenographers and legal and medical administrative specialists........

72,230

52

Clerical/Personnel - Includes combined personnel and administrative specialists and senior enlisted personnel whose

primary responsibilities are non-technical.........................................................................................
53

7,901

Data Processing - Includes computer operators, analysts, and programmers and electric accounting machine oper-

13,476
54

Accounting, Finance, and Disbursing ...............................................................................................

55

14,877

Other Functional Support - Includes specialists who provide support in the functional areas of supply accounting

and procurement, transportation, flight operations and related areas.........................................................
56
57

Includes chaplains' assistants and specialists in theater, arts, sports, and related
activities................................................................................................................................

Religious, Morale, and Welfare -

60

5,247

Inform ation and Education - Includes specialists in public affairs, radio/TV, and other types of information and

education..............................................................................................................................
6

103,008

E LEC T R IC A L/M EC H A N IC A L EQUIPM ENT R E P A I R E R S .................................

...................................

6,271
340,936

Aircraft and Related - Includes aircraft engines, electrical systems, structural components and surfaces, and launch

equipment..............................................................................................................................

153,539

61

Autom otive - Includes construction equipment and other wheel and track vehicles.......................................

50,795

62

Wire Com m unications -

Includes specialists in the installation and maintenance of telephones, switchboards, and
central office and related interior communications equipment................................................................

27,786

63

Missile, Mechanical and Electrical - Includes missiles and missile systems and related components.....................

4,631

64

Arm am ent and M unitions - Includes small arms, artillery, mines, bombs and associated mountings, nuclear weap­

ons, and ammunition renovation...................................................................................................

32,416

65

Shipboard Propulsion - Includes marine main engines, boilers, and auxiliary equipment.................................

34,686

66

Power Generating Equipm ent - Includes nuclear power reactors and primary electric generating plants..............

31,209

67

Precision Equipm ent - Includes optical and other precision instruments and office machines . .........................

4,041

69

Other Mechanical and Electrical Equipm ent -

Includes specialists in the maintenance and repair of mechanical and
electrical equipment which is not readily classifiable in another group........................................................

1,833

7

C R A F T W 0 R K E R S ........................................................................................................................

71,897

70

Metalworking - Includes specialists in the machining, shaping, and forming of metal and in the fabrication of metal

13,907
71

Construction - Includes specialists in construction trades and construction equipment operation.......................




105

25,088

Table C-6. Enlisted strength in Department of Defense occupational groups, September 30, 1977—Continued
DOD
code

Group title and description of coverage

72

Utilities - Includes plumbers, heating and cooling specialists, and electricians..............................................

19,263

74

Lithography ................................................................................. ...........................................

1,854

75

Industrial Gas and Fuel Production - Includes specialists in the production of liquid oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen,

Enlisted
strength

and carbon dioxide....................................................................................................................

1,017

76

Fabric, Leather, and R u b b e r. ........................................................................................................

2,666

79

Other Craft Workers, N.E.C. - Includes specialists in trades such as molding, camouflage, and plastic work, which

are not readily classifiable elsewhere in this section...............................................................................
8

8,102

S E R V IC E A N D SU PPLY H A N D L E R S ....................................................................................................

161,606

80

F oo d Se rv ice . ..........................................................................................................................

81

M otor Transport - Includes the operation of wheel and track vehicles (except construction equipment) and railway

equipment...............................................................................................................................
82

50,710
32,631

Material Receipt, Storage, and Issue - Includes specialists in the receipt, storage, issue, and shipment of general and

specialized classes of supplies, excluding am m unition...........................................................................

30,657

Law Enforcem ent - Includes military police, protective and corrections specialists, and criminals and non-criminal
inspectors and investigators..........................................................................................................

40,295

84

Personal Service - Includes laundry, dry cleaning, and related services......................................................

1,911

85

Auxiliary Labor - Includes unskilled laborers and their supervisors..........................................................

1

86

Forward Area Equipm ent - Includes specialists in parachute packing and repair, in aerial delivery operations, and in
flight equipment fitting and maintenance.........................................................................................

5,401

Other Services, N.E.C. - Includes service specialists who are not readily classifiable in one of the other groups in
this section...............................................................................................................................

0

83

87

Note: Definitions are provided for most occupational groups.
The lack of explanatory material for a few occupational groups
indicates that the title of the grouping is considered a sufficient
definition.




SOURCE: U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Manpower Data
Center - requested tabulation,

106

Table C-7. Enrollments and completions in public vocational education by Office of Education
instructional program, fiscal year 1976
0 E instructional code and title
Total (unduplicated).................
01.

Aancu ture

01.0100
01.0200
01.0300
01.0400
01.0500
01.0600
01.0700
01.9900
04.

.........................

Agricultural production........
Agricultural supplies/services . .
Agricultural m echanics........
Agricultural p ro d u c ts..........
Ornamental horticulture........
Agricultural resources..........
Forestry...........................
O t h e r .............................

Distribution

.........................

Enroll­
ments

Comple­
tions

15,133,322

1,934,693

1,059,717

148,761

575,085
29,476
147,832
15,450
118,370
28,355
19,763
125,386

67,360
7,854
30,532
2,844
21,522
4,885
4,812
8,952

900,604

221,767

04.0100
04.0200
04.0300
04.0400
04.0500
04.0600
04.0700
04.0800
04.0900
04.1000
04.1100
04.1200
04.1300
04.1400
04.1500
04.1600
04.1700
04.1800
04.1900
04.2000
04.3100
04.9900

Advertising services ............
Apparel and accessories........
Automotive.......................
Finance and credit...............
Floristry...........................
Food distribution ...............
Food services.....................
General merchandise............
Hardware, building materials . .
Home furnishings.................
Hotel and lodging ..............
Industrial marketing............
Insurance .........................
International trade...............
Personal services.................
Petroleum.........................
Real estate .......................
Recreation and to u rism ........
Transportation...................
Retail trade, o th e r..............
Wholesale trade, oth er..........
Other .............................

15,761
25,344
9,207
55,296
8,316
35,972
47,458
290,161
7,453
4,370
18,192
26,696
14,293
726
18,181
4,783
131,999
24,383
18,050
17,180
3,859
122,924

4,622
7,741
3,218
9,567
2,617
11.819
16,893
91,965
2,139
1,042
3,022
2,011
1,969
216
6,331
1,469
17,452
3,623
4,155
4,955
2,170
22,771

07.

Health1 ...........................

684,904

159,986

07.0101
07.0102
07.0103
07.0199
07.0203
07.0299

Dental assistant...................
Dental hygiene (associate). . . .
Dental laboratory technology. .
Other dental .....................
Medical laboratory assisting . . .
Other medical laboratory
technology .....................
Nursing, associate degree . . . .
Practical (vocational) nursing . .
Nursing assistant (a id e ) ........
Surgical technician...............
Other nursing.....................
Occupational th e ra p y ..........
Physical th e ra p y ........ ..
Other rehabilitation............
Radiologic technology..........
Nuclear medical technology . . .
Other radiologic.................
Ophthalmic.......................
Environmental h e a lth ..........
Mental health technology . . . .
Inhalation therapy technology .
Medical assisting...............

21,248
6,427
4,345
254
15,871

5,883
1,378
844
84
2,953

7,153
104,939
98,294
116,622
3,143
42,648
2,658
3,099
1,548
10,174
192
5,438
1,691
2,513
15,736
8,748
24.988

1,768
16,740
36,759
29,819
1,106
3,592
464
596
351
1,847
55
1,177
268
215
1,733
1,707
5,903

07.0301
07.0302
07.0303
07.0305
07.0399
07.0401
07.0402
07.0499
07.0501
07.0503
07.0599
07.0600
07.0700
07.0800
07.0903
07.0904

See footnotes at end of table.



107

OE instructional code and title

Enroll­
ments

Comple­
tions

15,234
54,181
719
117,041

4,816
24,065
111
15,752

Consumer and homemaking1 ..

3,515,042

53,466

09.0101
09.0102
09.0103
09.0104
09.0106
09.0107
09.0108
09.0109
09.0199

Comprehensive homemaking . .
Child development...............
Clothing and textiles. ...........
Consumer education............
Family relations.................
Food and nutrition..............
Home management..............
Housing and home furnishings. .
O t h e r .............................

1,629,107
193,300
340,221
155,107
181,517
338,242
41,299
130,066
506,183

6,098
735
6,248
1,317
896
2,951
64
3,015,
32,142

09.02

Occupational preparation1 . . .

471,289

94,247

09.0201 Care and guidance of children .
09.0202 Clothing management,
production, and services. . . .
09.0203 Food management,
production, and services. . . .
09.0204 Home furnishing, equipment,
and services.....................
09.0205 Institutional and home
management, and services . . .
09.0299 Other .............................

144,208

25,669

105,766

19,740

137,284

34,034

33,198

5,503

12,082
38,751

2,078
7,223

3,114,692

587,537

511,998

95,392

41,747
43,242

10,625
9,909

109,543

20,944

592,608

126,487

41,673

6,143

6,843

1,080

46,216

9,066

699,844

151,541

147,658
656,043
217,277

22,013
114,182
20,155

484,807

61,271

5,279
25,090
10,725
5,167
28,904
24,117
84,412
6,380

656
2,610
1,952
794
3,553
2,400
12,974
726

07.0906
07.0907
07.0909
07.9900

Health a id e .......................
Medical emergency technician .
Mortuary science.................
O t h e r .............................

09.01

14.

Office occupations1 ............

14.0100 Accounting and computing
occupations.....................
14.0201 Computer and console
operators.......................
14.0203 Programmers.....................
14.0299 Other business data
processing.......................
14.0300 Filing, office machines,
clerical occupations..........
14.0400 Information, communication
occupations.....................
14.0500 Materials support,
transportation, etc..............
14.0600 Personnel, training, and
related occupations ..........
14.0700 Stenography, secretarial, and
related occupations..........
14.0800 Supervisory and administrative management occupations.
14.0900 Typing and related occupations
14.9900 Other .............................
16.

Technical1 .......................

16.0101
16.0103
16.0104
16.0105
16.0106
16.0107
16.0108
16.0109

Aeronautical technology . . . .
Architectural technology . . . .
Automotive technology........
Chemical technology.............
Civil te chn o lo gy.................
Electrical technology ..........
Electronic technology..........
Electromechanical technology .

Table C-7. Enrollments and completions in public vocational education by Office of Education
instructional program, fiscal year 1976—Continued
OE instructional code and title
16.0110 Environmental control
technology.....................
16.0111 Industrial technology..........
16.0112 Instrumentation technology . .
16.0113 Mechanical technology ........
16.0114 Metallurgical technology
16.0117 Scientific data technology . . . .
16.0601 Commercial pilot training
16.0602 Fire and safety technology . . .
16.0603 Forestry technology............
16.0604 Oceanographic technology . . .
16.0605 Police science.....................
16.9901 Air pollution technology . . . .
16.9902 Water and waste water
te chn o lo gy.....................
16.9900 O t h e r .......... ..................
17.

Trade and industrial1 ..........

17.0100
17.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.0399
17.0400
17.0500
17.0600

Air conditioning.................
Appliance re p a ir.................
Body and fender re p a ir ........
Auto mechanic...................
Other automotive ...............
Aviation occupations..........
Blueprint reading.................
Business machine
maintenance ...................
Commercial art occupations . .
Commercial fishery occupations
Commercial photographic
occupations.....................
Carpentry, construction........
Electricity, construction........
M asonry...........................
Plumbing and pipefitting . . . .
Other construction and
maintenance trades.............
Custodial services.................
Diesel mechanic .................
Drafting occupations............
Electrical occupations..........
Electronic occupations........
Fabric maintenance services. . .

17.0700
17.0800
17.0900
17.1001
17.1002
17.1004
17.1007
17.1099
17.1100
17.1200
17.1300
17.1400
17.1500
17.1600

Enroll­
ments

Comple­
tions

8,192
20,829
3,466
28,659
4,349
18,644
8,211
24,607
4,174
1,753
91,417
39

891
2,404
304
3,891
657
3,688
433
2,802
405
186
10,355
0

3,358
62,562

617
7,997

3 109 950

591 477

78,275
20,171
80,245
365,534
71,640
26,047
12,765

14,402
4,663
21,307
82,656
7,309
4,143
1,716

4,480
48,699
3,577

941
8,049
439

30,682
153,730
66,524
43,890
44,429

3,361
39,712
15,371
11,468
6,707

140,223
17,339
21,953
151,434
97,249
140,173
4,364

OE instructional code and title
17.1700 Supervisor and management
development....................
17.1900 Graphic arts occupations . . . .
17.2000 Industrial atomic energy
occupations.....................
17.2100 Instrument maintenance and
repair occupations............
17.2200 Maritime occupations..........
17.2302 Machine shop occupations . . .
17.2303 Machine tool operation........
17.2305 Sheet m etal.......................
17.2306 Welding and c u ttin g ............
17.2307 Tool and die m aking............
17.2399 Other metalworking
occupations.....................
17.2400 Metallurgy occupations........
17.2601 Barbering.........................
17.2602 Cosm etology.....................
17.2699 Other personnel services........
17.2700 Plastics occupations............
17.2801 Firefighter training...............
17.2802 Law enforcement training . . . .
17.2899 Other public services............
17.2900 Quantity food occupations . . .
17.3000 Refrigeration ......................
17.3100 Small engine repair...............
17.3200 Stationary energy sources
occupations.....................
17.3300 Textile production and
fabrication .....................
17.3400 Leather w o rk in g .................
17.3500 Upholstering.....................
17.3600 Woodworking occupations . . .
17.9900 O t h e r .............................

20,730
3,942
5,316
29,317
10,985
26,266
942

1 Unduplicated total.

Comple­
tions

112,991
101,035

12,105
17,859

395

171

3,739
9,095
100,793
12,695
24,934
175,937
7,084

470
570
24,345
3,263
4,638
40,840
1,900

123,732
3,110
3,948
74,908
14,911
8,193
69,765
115,457
66,237
48,213
9,987
51,627

15,326
308
810
18,309
1,342
906
8,897
13,403
4,549
9,233
2,137
10,898

12,225

2,350

55,078
2,129
21,210
79,134
177,898

16,238
727
4,336
13,865
41,940

Special programs1 ...............

2,004,858

16,181

99.0100 Group guidance
(prevocational).................
99.0200 Prepostsecondary.................
99.0300 R em ed ial.........................
99.0400 Industrial arts.....................
99.0500 Volunteer firefighter............
99.0600 Other not elsewhere classified .

942,605
45,620
118,837
446,067
182,926
271,131

0
0
0
327
16,016
38

99.

1975 and 1976. (U.S. Dept, of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education).

_,
,
Source: Summary Data, Vocational Education — Fiscal years




Enroll­
ments

108

Table C-8. Total enrollments and total completing programs in private postsecondary schools with
occupational programs, by program: [U.S. total], 1975-76.
[Thousands]
0 E instructional code and title
Total, private schools.................

Completed
program

638.5

347.7

2.5

Agricultural supplies/services . .
01.02
Agricultural resources..........
01.06
01.0299 Veterinarian assistant............

.1
1.2
1.2

.1
1.2
.7

04.

Marketing and distribution. . . .

57.2

44.8

04.01
04.02
04.03
04.04
04.05
04.06
04.07
04.08
04.10
04.11
04.12
04.13
04.14
04.16
04.17
04.18
04.19
04.20
04.99

Advertising services..............
Apparel and accessories........
Autom otive.......................
Finance and credit..............
Floristry...........................
Food distribution.................
Food services.....................
General merchandise............
Home furnishing................
Hotel and lodging.................
Industrial marketing............
Insurance...........................
International trade..............
Petroleum.........................
Real estate.........................
Recreation and to u rism ........
Transportation...................
Retail trade, o th e r..............
Distributive education, other . .

0
19.0
.1
1.0
0
.5
.6
1.0
0
1.3
0
1.6
0
0
25.2
3.9
1.5
1.1
.4

0
15.0
.1
.7
0
.5
.4
.7
0
.7
0
1.4
0
0
21.2
2.5
.8
.6
.2

Health occupations..............
07.
07.0101 Dental laboratory technology . .
07.0103 Dental assisting...... .T ____ _
07.0199 Dental, o th e r.....................
07.0202 Histology...........................
07.0203 Medical laboratory assisting . . .
07.0204 Hem otology.......................
07.0299 Medical laboratory technology,
other .............................
07.0301 Nursing (associate degree) . . . .
07.0302 Practical (vocational) nursing . .
07.0303 Nursing assistant (aide)..........
07.0304 Psychiatric aide...................
07.0305 Surgical technician..............
07.0399 Nursing, other.....................
07.0401 Occupational therapy............
07.0402 Physical therapy...................
07.0499 Rehabilitation services, other . .
07.0501 Radiologic technology..........
07.0503 Nuclear medical technology . . .
Ophthalmic.......................
07.06
Mental health technology . . . .
07.08
07.0902 Electrocardiograph technology .
07.0903 Inhalation therapy..............
07.0904 Medical assisting (office)........
07.0906 Community health a id e ........
07.0907 Medical emergency technician. .
07.0909 Mortuary science.................
07.0915 Medical records technician. . . .
07.0920 Physician's assistant............
Health occuDations, other. . . .
07.99

94.0
.9

48.6
.6
5.0

(!)
( ’)
.2

(!)
C1)
.1

C1)

0)

4.0
2.3
4.7
4.9
0
0
44.9
0
.2
0
6.1
.1

2.3
1.0
3.4
4.1
0
0
14.7
0

C1)
0
.2
0
11.0
0
.1
4.1
.5
1.7
1.7

Home economics.................

09.0202 Clothing management, produc­
tion, and services..............
09.0203 Food management, production,
and services.....................
09.0205 Institutional and home manage­
ment and services..............

Enroll­
ments

.2

.4

.2

1.1

0

.2

C1)

204.5

90.9

25.5
4.5
11.8
7.6
4.8

12.0
2.6
8.4
3.2
2.8

12.9

8.3

5.1
0

4.4
0

79.7

33.7

35.4

6.4

11.8
5.4

6.9
2.2
38.8

Business and office..............

14.01

14.99

Accounting and computing oc­
cupations.........................
Computer operator..............
Keypunch operator..............
Computer programmer..........
Business data processing, NEC. .
Filing, office machines, clerical
occupations.....................
Information communication oc­
cupations.........................
Materials support occupations. .
Steno, secretarial and related oc­
cupations.........................
Supervisory and administrative
management occupations . . .
Typing and related occupa­
tions .............................
Office occupations, other . . . .

16.

Technical occupations..........

72.5

Aeronautical technology........
Agricultural technology........
Architectural technology........
Automotive technology........
Chemical technology............
Civil technology...................
Electrical technology............
Electronic technology..........
Electromechanical technology. .
Environmental control tech­
nology ...........................
Industrial technology............
Instrumentation technology. . .
Mechanical technology..........
Metallurgical technology........
Nuclear technology...............
Scientific data processing . . . .
Legal assistant.....................
Commercial pilot training . . . .
Fire and fire safety tech­
nology ...........................
Police science technology . . . .
Teacher's assistant..............
Library assistant...................
Communications technology . .
Performing artists.................
Air pollution technology........
Water and waste water treat­
ment .............................

.6
0
.2
2.9
.2
.1
.3
10.6
0

14.0201
14.0202
14.0203
14.0299
14.03
14.04
14.05
14.07
14.08
14.09

16.0101
16.0102
16.0103
16.0104
16.0105
16.0106
16.0107
16.0108
16.0109
16.0110
16.0111
16.0112
16.0113
16.0114
16.0115
16.0117
16.0203
16.0601
16.0602

C)

0
3.0
(!)
( !)
0
.2
0
7.2
0
.1
3.8
.2
1.7
1.2

16.0605
16.0606
16.0607
16.0608
16.0695
16.9901
16.9902

109

Completed
program

1.7

14.

See footnotes at end of table.




OE instructional code and title
09.

2.0

01.

Agri-business ....................

Enroll­
ments

0
1.3
0
.2

0)

.5
0
.1
1.6
.1

C1)

.3
3.0
0
0
.2
0
.1

C1)

0
0
1.5
32.4

0
0
.5
20.6

0
0
0

0
0
0
0
8.6
3.2

C)

14.7
7.5
(*)

0)

C1)

C1)

Table C-8. Total enrollments and total completing programs in private postsecondary schools with
occupational programs, by program: [U.S. total], 1975-76—Continued
Enroll­
ments

0 E instructional code and title
17.

Trade and industrial............

17.01

Air conditioning installation and
repair.............................
Appliance repair...................
Body and fender repair..........
Auto mechanic...................
Auto specialization, repair. . . .
Automotive services, other. . . .
Aircraft maintenance............
Aircraft operations..............
Ground operations...............
Blueprint reading.................
Business machine maintenance .
Commercial art occupations. . .
Commercial fishery occupations
Commercial photography occu­
pations ...........................
Carpentry, construction . . . . .
Electricity, construction........
Heavy equipment maintenance
operations.......................
M asonry...........................
Painting and decorating........
Plumbing and pipefitting........
Drywall installation...............
Construction and maintenance
trades, other.....................
Custodial services.................
Diesel mechanic...................
Drafting occupations............
Electrical occupations..........
Radio and TV repair............
Electronics occupations, other .

17.02
17.0301
17.0302
17.0303
17.0399
17.0401
17.0402
17.0403
17.05
17.06
17.07
17.08
17.09
17.1001
17.1002
17.1003
17J004
17.1005
17.1007
17.1008
17.1099
17.11
17.12
17.13
17.14
17.1503
17.1599

Completed
program

206.1

122.4

5.8
.6
1.4
9.0
.3
.9
2.5
.9
.6
0
1.0
4.5
0

3.1
.5
.8
3.9
.1
.3
1.4
;6
.4
0
.7
3.0
0

6.1
.3
.6

2.2
.2
.5

1.9
.1
0
.2
0

C1)
0
.1
0

.3
.1
5.3
5.4
.2
3.2
5.0

17.16
17.17
17.19
17.20
17.21
17.22
17.2302
17.2303
17.2306
17.2307
17.2399
17.24
17.2601
17.2602
17.2699
17.27
17.2801
17.2802
17.2899

1.8

17.29
17.30
17.31

.2
1

17.33

3.5
1.9
.1
1.5
1.8

17.34
17.35
17.36
17.40
17.9900

1 T h e n u m b e r w a s less t h a n 5 0 .
SO U RCE:

U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f

H e a lt h , E d u c a t i o n , a n d W e lf a r e ,

N a t io n a l C e n te r f o r E d u c a t io n S ta tis tic s .




OE instructional code and title

110

Fabric maintenance services. . .
Supervisor and management de­
velopment .......................
Graphic arts occupations........
Industrial atomic energy occu­
pations...........................
Instrument maintenance and re­
pair occupations...............
Maritime occupations............
Machine shop occupations. . . .
Machine tool operations........
Welding and cutting..............
Tool and diemaking..............
Metalworking, o th er............
Metallurgy occupations..........
Barbering...........................
Cosmetology.......................
Personal services, other..........
Plastics occupations..............
Firefighter training...............
Law enforcement training . . . .
Public
service
occupations,
other .............................
Quantity food occupations . . .
Refrigeration.....................
Small engine repair, internal
combustion.....................
Textile production and fabri­
cation.............................
Leatherworking...................
Upholstering.......................
Woodworking occupations. . . .
Truck driving.....................
Trade and industrial occupa­
tions, other .....................

Enroll­
ments

Complete
program

0

0

0
2.7

0
1.2

0

0

.2
2.1
.5
0
15.4
.2
2.1
.7
7.9
89.1
2.9
0
0
.1

C1)
1.8
.3
0
9.7
e1)
1.3
.5
5.0
49.4
2.4
0
0
.1

.4
4.6
1.3

.4
3.8
.8

C1)

C1)

2.7
0
.7
0
10.6

2.6
0
.6
0
9.7

5.7

4.2

_______ ______

Appendix D. State Employment Security Agencies
State employment security agencies develop occupational
projections and related employment statistics in coopera­
tion with the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S.
Alabama .........................
Alaska ............................
A rizona...........................
Arkansas .........................
California ........................
Colorado ........................
Connecticut ...................
Delaware

.......................

District of Columbia.......
Florida ...........................
Georgia ...........................
Hawaii .............................
Idaho ...............................
Illinois .............................
Indiana ...........................
Iowa ................................
Kentucky .......................
Louisiana ........................
Maine ..............................
M aryland.........................
Massachusetts ................
Michigan..........................



Department of Labor. The following list gives the addresses
of the employment security agencies.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Industrial Relations, Industrial Relations
Building, 649 Monroe Street, Montgomery 36130.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Security Division, Department of Labor, P.O. Box
3-7000, Juneau 99811.
Chief, Labor Market Information, Research and Analysis, Department of Economic Security,
P.O. Box 6123, Phoenix 85005.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock
72203.
Chief, Employment Data and Research Division, Employment Development Department, 800
Capitol Mall, Sacramento 95814.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Employment, Department of Labor and Employ­
ment, 251 East 12th Avenue, Denver 80203.
Director, Research and Information, Connecticut Employment Security Division, 200 Folly
Brook Boulevard, Weatherfield 06109.
Chief, Office of Research, Planning, and Evaluation, Department of Labor, 801 West 14th
Street, Wilmington 19899.
Chief, Division of Manpower Reports and Analysis, Office of Administration and Management
Services, D.C. Department of Manpower, 605 G Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20001.
Director, Research and Statistics, Division of Employment Security, Florida Department of
Commerce, 17720 South Gadsden Street, Tallahassee 32304.
Director, Information Systems, Employment Security Agency, Department of Labor, 254
Washington Street S.W., Atlanta 30334.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, 825 Mililani
Street, Honolulu 96813.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Employment, P.O. Box 35, Boise 83707.
Manager, Research and Analysis Division, Bureau of Employment Security, Department of
Labor, 910 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 60605.
Chief of Research, Employment Security Division, 10 North Senate Avenue, Indianapolis
46204.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Division, Department of Labor, 401
Topeka Avenue, Topeka 60603 •
Director, Research and Special Projects, Department of Human Resources, State Office
Building Annex, Frankfort 40601.
Acting Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Employment Security, P.O. Box 44094,
Baton Rouge 70804.
Director, Manpower Research Division, Employment Security Commission, 20 Union Street,
Augusta 04330.
Acting Director, Research Analysis, Department of Human Resources, 110 North Eutaw Street,
Baltimore 21201.
Assistant Director, Research and Information Service, Division of Employment Security,
Hurley Building, Government Center, Boston 02114.
Director, Research and Statistics Division, Employment Security Commission, Department of
Labor Building, 7310 Woodward Avenue, Detroit 48202.

Ill

Minnesota .......................
Mississippi .......................
Missouri

........................

Montana .........................
Nebraska ........................
Nevada ...........................
New Hampshire..............
New Jersey ....................
New Mexico ...................
New York ,......................
North Carolina ..............
North Dakota ...............
Ohio ................................
Oklahoma .......................
Oregon ............................
Pennsylvania ...................
Puerto Rico ...................
Rhode Island ..................
South Carolina ..............
South Dakota .................
Tennessee

......................

Texas ...............................
Utah ................................
Vermont .........................
Virginia ...........................
Washington ....................
West Virginia ..................
Wisconsin ........................
Wyoming ........................




Director, Research and Planning, Department of Employment Services, 390 North Robert
Street, St. Paul 55101
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 1699, Jackson
39205.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Employment Security, Department of Labor and
Industrial Relations, P.O. Box 59, Jefferson City 65101.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Security Division, P.O. Box 1728, Helena 59601.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Employment, Department of Labor, P.O. Box
94600, State House Station, Lincoln 68509.
Chief, Manpower Information and Research, Employment Security Department, 500 East
Third Street, Carson City 89701.
Supervisor, Economic Analysis and Reports, Department of Employment Security, 32 South
Main Street, Concord 03301.
Director, Division of Planning and Research, Department of Labor and Industry, John Fitch
Plaza, Trenton 08625.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquer­
que 87103.
Director, Division of Research and Statistics, Department of Labor, 2 World Trade Center, New
York 10047.
Manager, Bureau of Employment Security Research, Employment Security Commission, P.O.
Box 25903, Raleigh 27602.
Chief, Reports and Analysis, Employment Security Bureau, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck, 58501.
Director, Division of Research and Statistics, Bureau of Employment Services, 145 South
Front Street, Columbus 43216.
Chief, Research and Planning Division, Employment Security Commission, Will Rogers
Memorial Office Building, Oklahoma City 73105.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Division, 875 Union Street N.E., Salem 97310.
Assistant Director, Research and Statistics, Bureau of Employment Security, Department of
Labor and Industry, 7th and Forster Streets, Harrisburg 17121.
Chief of Research and Statistics, Bureau of Employment Security, 427 Barbosa Avenue, Hato
Rey 00917.
Supervisor, Employment Security Research, Department of Employment Security, 24 Mason
Street, Providence 02903.
Director, Manpower Research and Analysis, Employment Security Commission, 1550 Gadsden
Street, Columbia 29202.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Department, 607 North Fourth Street,
Box 730, Aberdeen 57401.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Employment Security, 519 Cordell Hull Building,
Nashville 37219.
Chief, Manpower Data Analysis and Research (MDAR), Employment Commission, TEL
Building, 15th and Congress Avenue, Austin 78778.
Director, Reports and Analysis, Department of Employment Security, P.O. Box 11249, Salt
Lake City 84111.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Employment Security, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier
05602.
Chief, Manpower Research, Virginia Employment Commission, P.O. Box 1358, Richmond
23211.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Department, P.O. Box 367, Olympia
98504.
Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Employment Security, 112 California Avenue,
Charleston 25305.
Director, Research and Statistics, Department of Industry, Labor and Human Relations, P.O.
Box 2209, Madison 53701.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 2760, Casper
82601.

112

Appendix E. Bibliography
This appendix includes additional sources of occupational
information. The publications listed under each subject

General information

heading are intended to provide a representative sample of
the wealth of information available.

U.S. Department of Labor and U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare. Employment and Training
Report o f the President, 1977. Annual since 1963 under
Manpower Report o f the President.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
Census of Population: 1970 Subject Reports, Final
Report PC(2)-7A, Occupational Characteristics, 1973.

Includes the Department of Labor’s annual report on
employment and training requirements, resources and
utilization, and employment and training programs.
Statistical appendix presents data on the labor force,
employment, and education as well as projections
relevant to these areas.

Employment and unemployment data for detailed
occupations by color, sex, class of worker, earnings,
and a variety of other characteristics. Data for earlier
censuses are available in publications of the same title
for the appropriate census years.

U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training
Administration. Research and Developments Projects.
Annual.
Lists completed research and development projects
funded by the Employment and Training Administra­
tions, with annotations.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Handbook o f Labor Statistics, Bulletin 1966, 1977.
Compilation of major statistical series on employ­
ment, unemployment, wages, and other subjects
produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Also
includes related series from other governmental
agencies and foreign countries. Contains 160 tables
which generally begin with 1967 data and run
through 1976. Annual.

Education and training information

Lusterman, Seymour. Education in Industry, Report 719.
New York, The Conference Board, Inc., 1977.
A study of the aims, scope, and character of
employee education and training activities among
corporations with 500 or more employees. Sections
are included on corporate employee education and
training activities, industry’s use of outside resources
for employee development, internal programs con­
ducted during working hours, and case illustrations of
individual company programs.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. BLS
Handbook o f Methods for Surveys and Studies, Bulletin
1910, 1976.
Described each BLS statistical program, noting the
origin of data, defining terms, and outlining concepts.
Tables, survey forms, and mathematical formulations
are presented for clarification. Sources of additional
information also are included.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S.
Working Women: A Databook, Bulletin 1977, 1977.

Neary, H. James. “The BLS Pilot Survey of Training In
Industry.” Monthly Labor Review, February 1974, pp.
26-32.

Statistical report on the changing role of women in
the labor force. Brief text gives highlights of tables
and charts on labor force participation of women,
employment and unemployment, marital status, in­
come, education, job tenure, work life expectancy,
and other social and demographic characteristics.

Describes the results of the BLS pilot survey of
training in metalworking industries, including meth­
ods of data collection and the survey design. The
pilot survey was conducted to determine whether
reliable data could be collected on training enroll­
ments and completions in industry.




113

Renetzky, Alvin, and Gail A. Schlachter, editors. Directory
o f Internships, Work Experience Programs, and On-theJob Training Opportunities. Thousand Oaks, California,
Reddy Reference Press, 1976.
A guide to internship, work experience, and on-thejob training opportunities sponsored by governmental
agencies, business and industry, professional associ­
ations, foundations, and various social and com­
munity organizations.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
National Institute of Education. Home-Based Education:
Needs and Technological Opportunities, 1976.

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office
of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Projections o f Educational Statistics. Annual since 1964.
Lists projections of enrollments, graduates, faculty,
and expenditures for higher education, as well as
similar projections for elementary and secondary
schools.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics and
Employment and Training Administration. Occupational
Training in Selected Metalworking Industries: A Report
on a Survey o f Selected Occupations, 1974, BLS
Bulletin 1976/ETA R&D Monograph 53, 1977.
The results of a nationwide survey of employer
training in nearly 5,000 establishments conducted in
1975 and early 1976. Describes the characteristics of
occupational training provided by employers for 14
selected occupations in four metalworking industries.

Reviews literature on correspondence education and a
Stanford University research project on computerassisted instruction at home. A cross-referenced
annotated bibliography covering the home-based
instructional uses of computers, television, and other
media also is included.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office
of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
The Condition o f Education. Annual since 1975.
A statistical report that examines differences in
educational opportunities, participation, and out­
comes among groups of individuals according to sex,
ethnic origin, family income, and other characteris­
tics.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Tomorrow's Manpower Needs. Bulletin 1606, Supple­
ment 3 (Revised). 1975.
Contains conversion tables for matching occupational
classifications of BLS projections to vocational educa­
tion program codes. Based on 1970 census.
U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training
Administration. Screening and Admissions Guide for
Job Corps Under the Comprehensive Employment and
Training A ct o f 1973, 1976.

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office
of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Digest o f Educational Statistics. Annual since 1962.
Contains data on enrollments, degrees, and other
items. Compiled from various sources indicated in
table footnotes.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office
of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Directory o f Postsecondary Schools with Occupational
Programs, 1971. DHEW Publication No. (OE)73—
11410,1973.

Provides guidelines on the screening and admissions
process and procedures to be followed when recom­
mending and processing youth for enrollment in the
Job Corps programs under CETA.

Wenrich, Ralph C., and J. William Wenrick. Leadership in
Administration o f Vocational and Technical Education.
Columbus, Ohio, Merrill Publishing Co., 1974.
Analyzes changes in vocational education and sug­
gests ways in which a program administrator might
use this information in planning programs designed to
prepare youth and adults for employment.

A comprehensive list of all schools offering postsec­
ondary occupational training, including private voca­
tional schools as well as 2- and 4-year colleges.

Followup data

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office
of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Enrollment in Vocational Education Occupation Pro­
grams Vocational Education Information No. 11. An­
nual since fiscal year 1966.

Astin, Alexander. The College Drop Out: A National
Profile. Washington, D C., American Council on Educa­
tion, 1972.
Examines what happens to college dropouts, their
entry into the labor force, transfer rates, and likeli­
hood of return to college.

Contains enrollments by detailed occupational pro­
gram for fiscal years.




114

Astin, Helen, and Ann S. Bisconti. Career Plans o f College
Graduates o f 1965 and 1970. Bethlehem, Pa., College
Placement Council, Inc., 1972.

College Placement Council, Inc. The Hard-to-Place Majority
- A National Study o f the Career Outcomes o f Liberal
Arts Graduates, Report No. 5. 1975.

Reports on entry to employment by type of employ­
er, undergraduate major, occupation, and other items.
Based on data from the American Council on
Education.

Actual occupations of college graduates compared
with field of study. Analyses flow directly from
Career Plans o f College Graduates o f 1965 and 1970
(see above), with emphasis on liberal arts graduates.

Astin, Helen, and Ann S. Bisconti. Undergraduate and
Graduate Study in Scientific Fields. Washington, D.C.,
American Council on Education, ACE Research Reports,
Vol. 8, No. 3, August 1973.

College Placement Council, Inc., Four-Year Liberal Arts
Graduates: Their Utilization in Business, Industry, and
Government - The Problem and Some Solutions. 1975.

Examines the flow of a national cohort of college
freshmen of 1961 over a decade, focusing on patterns
of undergraduate study, attrition, degree attainment,
advanced study, and employment. Findings on the
progress and goals of 1966 freshmen are included as a
means of comparison with the 1961 cohort. Contains
78 separate cross-tabulations.
Astin, Helen, Elaine El-Khawas, and Ann S. Bisconti.
Beyond the College Years. Washington, D.C., American
Council on Education, 1974.
Report prepared for the National Science Foundation
and the National Institutes of Health. Uses correla­
tion and regression analysis to examine factors associ­
ated with career outcomes and presents data on
career flows.
Bayer, Alan, Jeannie Royer, and Richard Webb .Four Years
A fter College Entry. Washington, D.C., American
Council on Education, ACE Research Reports, Vol. 8,
No. 1,1973.

A position statement covering the dilemma facing
liberal arts graduates, dimensions of the dilemma,
new directions, areas in which action is needed, and
conclusions.
College Placement Council, Inc., Job Satisfaction After
College. . .The Graduate's Viewpoint, 1977.
Followup study of people who were freshmen in
1961, whose highest degree held was a bachelor’s
degree, and who were working full time.
Duis, Harold. “Employment of Vocational Program Grad­
uates,” American Education, February 1968.
Provides data on entrance rates of graduates from
vocational training programs into different occupa­
tional classifications.
El-Khawas, Elaine, and Ann S. Bisconti. Five and Ten Years
After College Entry. Washington, D.C., American Coun­
cil on Education, ACE Research Reports, Vol. 9, No. 1,
1974.

Followup of a sample of the freshman class of 1967.

Descriptive report including 1971 data on college
freshmen of 1961 and 1966.

College Placement Council, Inc. The College Graduate:
Turnover and Mobility, Report No. 3, Bethlehem, Pa.,
1970.

Engineering Manpower Commission. Engineering and Tech­
nology Graduates. New York, Engineers Joint Council.
Annual.

Using National Opinion Research Center data for
33,000 graduates of the class of 1961, the report
studies labor force mobility and job changing during
5 years after graduation. Detail includes degree field,
type of employer, and sex. Earlier reports in the
series dealt with graduates’ attitudes toward business,
and job satisfaction.

Survey of 2-year associate degrees granted for com­
pletion of engineering and technology curriculums.

College Placement Council, Inc. College Graduates and
Their Employers - A National Study o f Career Plans
and Their Outcomes, Report No. 4. 1975.
Actual occupations of college graduates compared
with college-year plans. Analyses flow directly from
Career Plans o f College Graduates o f 1965 and 1970
(see above), but provide greater detail in classification
of majors and careers.



115

Engineering Manpower Commission. Placement o f Engi­
neering Graduates. New York, Engineers Joint Council.
Annual.
Data from a survey of over 200 engineering schools
provide information on the placement status of
24,000 technical and 14,500 nontechnical graduates
who received bachelor’s degrees. Numbers and per­
centages of graduates entering employment, graduate
school, and military service are given.
National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences.
Careers o f Ph.D. ’ - Academic Versus Non-Academic s

A Second Report on Follow-up o f Doctorate Cohorts
1935-1960. Career Patterns Report No. 2, Publication
1577,1968.
By studying the careers of 10,000 holders of thirdlevel research degrees, systematically selected from
the graduating classes of 1935, 1940, 1950, 1955,
and 1960, this report focuses on the factors associ­
ated with choice of employment in academic or other
settings, with particular emphasis on the circum­
stances surrounding a change in employer category.
Project Talent - One Year Follow-up Studies. Pittsburgh,
University of Pittsburgh, School of Education, 1966.
From an original study in 1966 of a 5-percent sample
of high school students (440,000) in 1,353 schools,
the report compiles information on each group 1 year
after graduation. It studies the nature of their
employment and job satisfaction, the nature and
extent of their post-high school education, and long
range career plans.
Project Talent — A 5-year Follow-up Information on High
School Graduates o f 1960. Pittsburgh, University of
Pittsburgh, School of Education, July 1969.
A continuing followup of the high school graduates,
their activities during the 5 years after graduation,
examining employment and continuing education.
Sharp, Laure M., and Albert D. Biderman. Employment o f
Retired Military Personnel. BSSR 361. Washington,
D.C., Bureau of Social Science Research, 1966.
A detailed study of the employment practices of
those leaving the military. Occupational information
is given by age, race, and rank. Excerpts are published
in the Monthly Labor Review, January and February,
1967.
Sharp, Laure M., et. al. Five Years After the College Degree.
Washington, D.C., Bureau of Social Science Research, 5
volumes:
P arti: Graduate and Professional Education. 1965.
Part II: Occupational Outcome (Text Tables: Appen­
dix Tables). 1965.
Part III: Methodological Note. 1966.
Part IV: Military Service. 1967.
PartV: Geographic Mobility. 1967.
Based on a survey in 1963 of 1958 bachelor’s degree
recipients including a subsample of individuals sur­
veyed in the National Science Foundation study, Two
Years A fter the College Degree, who obtained further
graduate and professional education during 1958-63.
Describes occupational entry and other characteristics
by type of training.



Somers, Gerald G. The Effectiveness o f Vocational and
Technical Programs: A National Follow-up Study.
Madison, University of Wisconsin, Center for Studies in
Vocational and Technical Education, 1971.
Based on a 1969 survey of a national sample of 1966
vocational and technical program graduates, reports
labor force and employment status by type of
program, major occupational classification, and per­
sonal characteristics.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Na­
tional Center for Educational Statistics, Office of Educa­
tion. National Longitudinal Study o f the High School
Class o f 1972, Comparative Profiles - One and One-Half
Years after Graduation. DHEW Publication No. (NCES)
76-220, 1975.
A continuing followup study of a sample of 20,000
high school seniors of 1972 to examine their postsec­
ondary educational and occupational status, and its
relation to high school training experience.
Occupational mobility

Byrne, James J. “Occupational Mobility of Workers,”
Monthly Labor Review, February 1975, pp. 53-59.
Discusses occupational mobility of workers between
January 1972 and January 1973 by age, sex, and
race, and compares results of postcensal survey to
those of a similar survey in 1965.
Parnes, Herbert S. “Longitudinal Surveys: Prospects and
Problems,” Monthly Labor Review, February 1972, pp.
11-15.
Discusses the surveys and lists additional articles and
reports based on survey data.
Sharp, Laure M., et. al. Five Years After the College Degree.
Washington, D.C., Bureau of Social Science Research, 5
yolumes: Part V: Geographic Mobility, 1967.
Based on a survey in 1963 of 1958 bachelor’s degree
recipients including a subsample of individuals sur­
veyed in the National Science Foundation study, Two
Years After the College Degree, who obtained further
graduate and professional education during 1958-63.
Sommers, Dixie, and Alan Eck, “Occupational Mobility in
the American Labor Force” , Monthly Labor Review
January, 1977, pp. 3-19.
Provides data on occupational mobility revealed by
the 1970 Census of Population. It discusses the uses
of mobility information, the patterns of separation
and entry, and the limitations on the data.

116

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Census of Population: 1960, Subject Reports, Final
Report PC(2)-2B, Mobility for States and State Econom­
ic Areas, 1963.
Contains data on economic, demographic, and social
characteristics, including major occupational groups,
of the population classified by mobility status.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Census of Population: 1970, Subject Reports, Final
Report PC(2)-7E, Occupation and Residence in 1965,
1973.

Labor force entrants

American Nurses Association. The Nation's Nurses: Inven­
tory o f Registered Professional Nurses. 1965.
Data on work activity and labor force mobility
characteristics of R.N.’s.
National Education Association. Status o f the American
Public School Teacher, 1980-71. Research Report
1972-R3, 1972.
Data on reentrants.
Ornstein, Michael. Entry into the American Labor Force.
New York, Academic Press. Inc., 1976.

Geographic mobility data for major occupational
groups, comparable 1960 data are in Final Report
PC(2)-2B, Mobility for States and State Economic
Areas.

A detailed examination of the way in which a sample
of American men entered the labor force. Discusses
trends and social mobility after entry.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Occupational Mobility o f Workers, Special Labor Force
Report 176, 1975.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
Census of Population: 1970, Subject Reports, Find
Report PC(2)-6C, Persons No t Employed, 1973.

Discusses patterns of mobility, demographic charac­
teristics, flows among occupations, and job and
industrial mobility.

Data on occupational characteristics of persons not in
the labor force or unemployed. Comparable 1960
data in Final Report PC(2)-6C, Labor Reserve.

Immigration
Separations from the labor force

National Science Foundation. Immigrant Scientists and
Engineers in the United States. A Study o f Charac­
teristics and Attitudes. NSF 73-302, 1973.

Fullerton, Howard N. “A New Type of Working Life Table
for Men,” Monthly Labor Review, July 1972, pp. 20-27.

Reports on a survey conducted by NSF in mid-1970
of a sample of those admitted between February
1964 and January 1969 and who filed address reports
with the Immigration and Naturalization Service in
1969.

Uses a “generation” life table in which the life spans
of cohorts are followed through time, instead of a
“period” life table based on mortality rates applicable
to each age observed at one point in time. Includes
tables, data sources, and technical appendix.

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Na­
tional Institutes of Health. The Foreign Medical Grad­
uate: A Bibliography, DHEW Publication No. (NIH)
73-440, November 1972.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Length o f Working Life for Men and Women, 1970,
Special Labor Force Report 187, 1976.

Citations of information about foreign medical grad­
uates in the United States, including their education
abroad, flow into the United States, and their training
and employment in the United States. Includes only
publications before September 1972.
U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training
Administration. Immigrants and the American Labor
Market, Manpower Research Monograph 31, 1974.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Tomorrow’ Manpower Needs, Bulletin 1606, Vol. 1,
s
February 1969, and Supplement 4, Estimating Occu­
pational Separations from the Labor Force for States,
1974.
Vol. 1 discusses the development of death and
separation rates, and shows 1960 rates for individual
occupations by sex in appendix A. Supplement 4
contains estimates of occupational separations for

Discusses the behavior of immigrants in the labor
market, the skills they bring with them, skills being
used, and their adjustment to the labor market.




Discusses worklife expectancies for men and women.
The working life table and its uses are explained in
the technical appendix.

117

States and shows 1970 and 1985 rates for individual
occupations by sex in appendix B.
Earnings

American Society for Personnel Administration. Trends in
Employment o f College and University Graduates in
Business and Industry. Annual since 1946.
Survey of beginning monthly salaries in 185 com­
panies representing large- and medium-sized firms in
22 States and 20 industries. Salaries are for bachelor’s
and master’s degree holders in engineering, account­
ing, sales, business administration, liberal arts, pro­
duction management, physics, chemistry, mathe­
matics, economics, and other fields.
College Placement Council, Inc., College Placement Council
Salary Survey. Issued three times each year.
Reports beginning salary data based on offers made
to graduating students at all degree levels in selected
curricula and graduate programs.
Endicott, Frank S. Trends in Employment o f College and
University Graduates in Business and Industry. American
Society for Personnel Administration. Annual since
1946.
Survey of beginning monthly salaries in 185 compa­
nies representing large- and medium-sized firms in 22
States and 20 industries. Salaries are for bachelor’s
and master’s degree holders in engineering, account­
ing, sales, business administration, liberal arts, pro­
duction management, physics, chemistry, mathe­
matics, economics, and other fields.
Professional and business associations. The following associ­
ations or periodicals conduct salary surveys for occupa­
tions of special interest to them:
Advertising Age (magazine)
American Anthropology Association
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy
American Chemical Society
American Collectors Association, Inc.
American Dental Assistants Association
American Dental Association
American Dental Hygienists Association
American Dietetic Association
American Economic Association
American Institute for Design and Drafting
American Institute of Physics
American Marketing Association
American Mathematical Society
American Petroleum Institute
American Political Science Association




American Psychological Association
American Society of Interior Designers
American Society of Landscape Architects.
American Society of Radiologic Technologists
Child Welfare League of America
Engineers Joint Council
Industrial Designers Society of America
Institute of Food Technologists
International City Management Association
International Personnel Management Association
International Taxicab Association
Medical Economics (magazine)
National Academy of Sciences
National Association of Realtors
National Executive Housekeepers Association
National Farm and Power Equipment Dealers Associ­
ation
PR Reporter (public relations newsletter)
Society of American Foresters
University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston)
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Area
Wage Surveys: Metropolitan Areas, United States and
Regional Summaries. Annual.
Provides national and regional estimates of occupa­
tional earnings, supplementary wage benefits, and
establishment practices for workers in the Nation’s
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Six industry
divisions are covered: Manufacturing; transporation,
communication, and other public utilities; wholesale
trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate;
and selected services.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Directory o f Occupational Wage Surveys, January 1970 December 1976, Report 506, 1977.
Lists publications resulting from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics’ occupational wage programs between 1970
and 1976.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Employment and Earnings, State and Areas, 1939-75,
Bulletin 1370-12, 1977.
This bulletin is a comprehensive historical reference
volume of State and area employment and earnings
statistics released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Employment and Earnings, United States 1909-75,
Bulletin 1312-10, 1976.
Presents historical national earnings data released by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics for individual nonagricultural industries.

118

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
National Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Tech­
nical, and Clerical Pay. Annual since Winter 1959-60,
various bulletins.
Summarizes the results of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics’ annual salary survey of selected profes­
sional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupa­
tions in private industry. Averages are shown for
annual, monthly, and weekly rates, excluding over­
time pay.
Periodicals

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Employment and Earnings, monthly.
Presents charts and detailed tables on the labor force,
employment, unemployment, hours, earnings, and
labor turnover. Compiled from data based on house­
hold interviews, nonagricultural establishment re­
cords, and administrative records of unemployment
insurance systems. March issue contains annual aver­
ages for previous year for all national industry series.




U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training
Administration. Worklife, monthly.
Presents articles on a wide variety of labor-related
topics — jobs, poverty, employment and unemploy­
ment, transportation, education, housing, training,
upgrading, and apprenticeship.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Monthly Labor Review.
Presents articles on employment, labor force, wages,
prices, productivity, unit labor costs, collective bar­
gaining, workers’ satisfaction, social indicators, and
labor developments abroad. Regular features include
a review of developments in industrial relations,
significant court decisions in labor cases, book re­
views, and current labor statistics.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Occupational Outlook Quarterly.
Presents current information on employment trends
and outlook, supplementing and updating infor­
mation in the Occupational Outlook Handbook.

jfrU.S.

119

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Productivity
Indexes for
Selected
Industries,
1978 Edition

This bulletin updates through 1977
indexes of output per employee for
the industries currently included in
the United States’ government pro­
gram of productivity measurement.
Data are presented for these indus­
tries:

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Iron M in in g
C o p p e r M in in g
C o a l M in in g
N on m e tallic M in e ra ls
C a n n in g a n d P re se rv in g
G ra in Mill P ro d u c ts
B a k e ry P ro d u c ts
Sugar
C a n d y a n d C on fe ctio n e ry
Malt B e v e r a g e s
Bottled a n d C a n n e d Soft
D rin k s

•
•
•
•

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P h a rm a c e u tic a ls
P a in ts
P e troleum R e fining
T ire s a n d Inn e r T u b e s
Fo o tw e ar
G la s s C o n ta in e rs
H yd ra ulic C e m e n t
Structural C la y P ro d u cts
C o n c re te P ro d u c ts
R e a d y -m ix e d C o nc re te
Stee l

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R e fin in g of C o p p e r, Lead,
a nd Z in c
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REKCE C S LLEC M

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