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U. S, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JAMES J. DAVIS, SECRETARY WOMEN'S BUREAU M A R Y ANDERSON, Director BULLETIN O F T H E W O M E N ' S B U R E A U , NO- 27 THE OCCUPATIONAL PROGRESS OF WOMEN AN INTERPRETATION OF CENSUS STATISTICS OF WOMEN I N GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS WASHINGTON G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G OFFICE 1922 CONTENTS. Page. Introduction and summary 1 Part I . W O M E N A T W O R K I N C O N T I N E N T A L U N I T E D S T A T E S 7 Changes i n number and proportion of women in general divisions of occupations Domestic and personal service I Manufacturing and mechanical industries Industries i n which women predominate Industries in which women have increased at least 10,000 since 1910 Unusual occupations for women Skilled trades Hazardous occupations ^ 1 Transportation Trade ! Public service Professional service Clerical occupations Changes i n women's occupational status Occupations w i t h more than 50,000 women In each Occupations w i t h more than 1,000 women i n each Women i n proprietary, official, and supervisory occupations* Striking changes i n occupations for women Changes in occupations numerically unimportant Comparison w i t h changes i n the occupations o f men Part I I . W O M E N A T W O E K I N A M E E I C A N T E E B I T O E I E S General divisions of occupations Principal occupations Statistics f o r cities Industrial home work i n Porto Rico—^ 7 7 10 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 18 21 22 22 26 26 31 : 32 34 36 36 T E X T TABLES. Table I. Number and proportion of a l l women 10 years of age and over engaged in each general division of occupations, 1920 and 1910I I . Number of emploj^ees in those manufacturing industries i n which women predominated both in 1920 and in 1910, classified by sex I I I . Occupations i n manufacturing and mechanical industries in each of which the number of women employed increased 10,000 or more f r o m 1910 to 1920, w i t h number and per cent of increase IV. Numerical increase or decrease from 1010 to 1920 among women 10 years of age and bver, according to general division of occupations ^ V. Occupations i n which 50,000 or more women 10 years of age and over were employed in 1920 and number of women employed in each, 1920 and 1910 ^ ni 8 11 12 18 19 IV CONTENTS, Table V I . N u m b e r of occupatious i n each general d i v i s i o n of occupations ^^^^ i n w h i c h 1,000 or m o r e w o m e n 10 years of age and over were employed, 1020 and 1910 2i V I I . E i g h t occupations i n each of w h i c h the number of women 10 years of age and over increased 50,000 or more f r o m 1910 to 1920, a n d number a n d per cent of increase ' 93 V I I I . Seven occupations i n each of w h i c h the n u m b e r of women 10 years of age and over decreased 50,000 or more f r o m 1910 to 1920, a n d number a n d per cent of decreafcie 23 I X . Occupations h a v i n g 500 or m o r e women each i n 1920 which had moVe t h a n doubled i n n u m b e r since 1910, number of women occupied i n 1920 a n d i n 1910, a n d p e r cent of increase 24 X . Increase or decrease f r o m 1910 t o 1920 i n n u m b e r of i)ersons of each sex 10 years of age a n d over engaged i n certain selected occupations, and per cent of increase or decrease 20 X I . T o t a l f e m a l e population, p o p u l a t i o n 10 years of age and over, a n d per cent of increase f r o m 1910 t o 1920, f o r continental U n i t e d States, f o r A l a s k a , f o r H a w a i i , a n d f o r Porto Rico 31 X I I . N u m b e r a n d p r o p o r t i o n of occupied women 10 years of age and over i n continental U n i t e d States, i n A l a s k a , i n H a w a i i , and. i n P o r t o Rico, 1920 a n d 1910 J 32 X I I I . Number a n d per cent d i s t r i b u t i o n of women 10 years of age and over i n each general d i v i s i o n of occupations f o r continental U n i t e d States, f o r A l a s k a , f o r H a w a i i , and f o r Porto Rico, 1920 33 X I V . Women 10 years of age a n d over engaged i n selected occupations, f o r A l a s k a , f o r H a w a i i , a n d f o r P o r t o Rico, 1920 Si CHARTS. Occupational d i s t r i b u t i o n of women, 1920 a n d 1910 AVomen i n selected professions, 1920 a n d 1910 , W o m e n i n selected m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , 1920 and 1910 Frontispiece. Facing p. 16. Facing p. 20. L E T T E R O F T R A N S M I T T A L . U N I T E D S T A T E S D E P A R T ^ I E N T OF L A B O R , WoME^s^'s B U R E A U , 'Wmhington^ Septemler 30] SIR: Herewith is transmitted a report showing the occupational progress of women. This report is an interpretation of preliminary census statistics of women in gainful occupations. The bureau is trjing to answer in this report questions continually asked of it, such as: How many women are at work in the United States and its Territorial possessions? Where do they work? What do they do? Has their number increased or decreased during the last decade? The replies to at least some of these questions are to be found in this bulletin. The research work and the writing of this report were done by Miss Mary V. Dempsey, special agent of the Women's Bureau. l L \ R Y ANDERSON, Hon. JAMES J . DAVIS, Secretary of Labor, Director. OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN IQ20 U.7 22.6 'Qqriculture. f o r e s t r y a n d M i n i m a l Wusloandry VVla n u f Q c t u r \ n c ^ and m e c h a n i c Q p mdustr l e s I I . Q >^Sportafion t " Q. I 31.3 2 . 5 , 6 e>v549,3il UJomen q a m f u l l y e m p l o y e d 8 , 0 7 5 ^ 7 7 i g u j o m e n cjolnfully. e m p l o y e d j THE OCCUPATIONAL PROGRESS OF WOMEN. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY. The country's half-awakened interest i n the problems of women i n industry was completely aroused by the unusual conditions attending the World War. Never before had women been called so urgently to take the places of men at the plow, the lathe, and the desk; and n^ver had industrial crises been met more valiantly. During this chaotic period of replacing the labor of men by that of women many adverse conditions were met and endured and women achieved a deserved recognition as potent factors in the industrial world. Since that time has passed i f seems likely that women will to some extent continue to pursue the occupations which they then undertook; at any rate, that they w i l l not lose the recognition gained during the war of their importance to industry. The industrial problems of women are far more conspicuous than they were ten—even fiye_years ago, but their f u l l importance can not be known unless certain questions are first answered: How many women are at work in the United States and in its territorial possessions? Where do they work? What do they do? Has their number increased or decrea^d during the last few years? The replies to many of these questions are to be found i n several bulletins on occupation statistics recently issued by the Federal Bureau of the Census.^ Since the figures shown i n these bulletins have so direct a bearing on the problems of women in industry, the Women's Bureau is publishing this interpretation of the material which they present. During the past few years, every time a woman invaded an occupation hallowed for generations as a pursuit for men only, attention ^as called to the fact by the woman's coworkers and i n some cases V the press. The publicity given these changes i n the occupational status of women caused the public to believe that a large and increasing proportion of women were seeking employment outside S. Bureau of the Census. 14th Census: 1920. Population. tive occupation statistics for the United States. 1922. 'Bulletin: Alaska—Occupation statistics. 1922. Bulletin: Hawaii—Occupation statistics. 1922. • Bulletin: Porto Bico—Occupation statistics. 1922. Bulletin: Compara- statistics quoted in the present discnsslon include women 10 years of age ana over, for the reason that figures showing the age distribution of gainfully occypied vom^ ^ere not available a t the time this report wa« written. 1 2 T H E OCCUPATIONAL. PROGRESS OF W O M E K . the home. When a Avoman dropped out of domestic service or gave up dressmaking to work in a munition factory or to become a streetcar conductor, the entire community heard of her new employment, but no one mentally subtracted her from the ranks of those in her former occupation; and so the impression gained ground that vast numbers of women were taking up gainful occupations for the first time. This impression is not upheld, however, by census statistics. In continental United States 8,549,511 women 10 years of age and over were gainfully occupied on January 1, 1920. This number represents an actual increase since 1910 of nearly half a million; but if the increase in population be taken into consideration the proportion of all women 10 years of age and over gainfully occupied decreased from 23.4 per cent in 1910 to 21.1 per cent i n 1920. Such general figures as these, however, by no means tell the whole story or represent the true conditions for many important groui:)S of wage-earning women. I n studying the returns for certain occupations i t appears that, although the decrease in the number of women working on farms was very great, there were large increases in many other occupations. As the figures showing the mimber of women employed on farms in 1910 and 1920 are not strictly comparable (see explanation i n footnote to Table I , p. 8), the change indicated for " all occupations " may be considered less significant than those for smaller groups. I n nonagricultural occupations the proportion of all women 10 years of age and over increased from 18.1 per cent i n 1910 to 18.5 per cent i n 1920. Furthermore, eliminating child labor from consideration", 21.3 per cent of all Avomen 16 years of age and over were employed in nonagricultural pursuits in 1920, as compared w i t h 20.7 per cent similarly employed in 1910.2 This comparison confirms the general impression that proportionately more women were engaged in industrial and allied pursuits in 1920 than in 1910, a fact which is obscured when the figures as a whole are considered, because of the apparent great decrease in the number of women working on farms. Considering the general divisions of occupations, it is evident that striking changes took place in the employment of women during this decade. Changes in census date and instructions to census enumerators partially explain the tremendous decrease among women returned as employed in agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry. this decrease loses some of its significance, such is not the case wit a decrease of 344,297 (13.6 per cent) among women engaged in domestic and personal service; an increase of 832,892 (140.4 pe** S. Bureau of the Census, children. l^ourteentb Census: 1920. Population: Occupations of 3 T H E OCCUPATIONAL. PROGRESS OF W O M E K . cent) among women in clerical occupations; an increase of 282,607 (38.5 per cent) among women in professional service; an increase of 106,429 (99.8 per cent) among women engaged in transportation; and an increase of 109,771 (only 6 per cent) in manufacturing and mechanical industries. Ceii:ain of these changes indicate upheavals in the traditions of women's employment, which may be verified by a closer study of the facts. The really significant deduction to be made from a study of the census statistics is that, while the proportion of women 10 years of age and over engaged in nonagricultural pursuits showed but a slight increase from 1910 to 1920, there was a decided change in the distribution of women among the various gainful occuj)ations. I n 1910 there were 203 occupations in which 1,000 or more women were employed; in 1920 the occupations in this group had increased in number to 232, and a very large part of this increase was in occupations in manufacturing and mechanical industries and professional service. Increases of 50,000 or more occurred among w^omen who were clerks in offices, stenographers and typists, bookkeepers and cashiers, teachers, sales^vomen, telephone operators, trained nurses, and clerks in stores. Decreases of 50,000 or more occurred among farm laborers (at home), farm laboi^ers (working out), cooks, general servants, laundresses, dressmakers, and seamstresses (not i n factory), and milliners and millinery dealers. I f the w^omen employed as sen^ants, as fainn laborers, as dressmakers, and as milliners had held their own in numbers from 1910 to 1920, a pronounced increase in the proportion of all women employed would have resulted. I f the women in these four occupations had shown an increase in number commensurate with that of the female population, then 25.4 per cent of all women 10 years of age and over would have been gainfully employed in 1920, as compared wnth 23.4 per cent so occupied in 1910. On the whole, the great change seems to have been in a decrease among women working in or for the home and in personal-service occupations, and a corresponding increase in clerical and allied occupations, in teaching, and in nursing, all of which have been womenemploying occupations for many decades but have not before reached such numerical importance. In manufacturing and mechanical industries it is necessary to search more closely for the significant changes. Increases since 1910 of more than 10,000 w^omen were found among semiskilled operatives in food, iron and steel, and clothing industries, in silk and knitting ^Jiills, and in electrical supply, shoe, and cigar and tobacco factories; ^niong laborers in cotton mills; and among forewomen and overseers in manufacturing. Tlie most striking increase shown for women i n ^^y industrial group was that for operatives in automobile fac- 4 THE OCCUPAnON"AL. PROGRESS OF WOMEN, tories, among whom there was an increase of 1,408 per cent. In the entire iron and steel industry women increased 145.4 per cent as semiskilled operatives. A slightly larger increase (148.1 per cent) occurred among women operatives i n electrical supply, factories. Many of the changes which took place i n manufacturing and me-, chanical industries were indicative of changes w i t h m the industries themselves and showed increases for men also, but i t is significant to find that while women operatives i n automobile factories increased 1,408 per cent (from 848 i n 1910 to 12,788 i n 1920), the largest percentage increase for women i n any one industry, men operatives in automobile factories increased only 435.4 per cent (from 20,243 in 1910 . to 108,376 i n 1920), the second largest percentage increase for men. Clearly, i n this one rapidly developing industry the employnient of women was increasing at a much greater rate than that ^ men, though the number of men employed was still far in excess of the number of women. I n studying all occupations employing an appreciable number (1,000 or more) of both men and women i n 1910 and 1920, an interesting situation was found to exist. The changes in rate of increase or decrease for the two sexes were entirely disproportionate, and i n by far the greater number of cases the women took the lead i n the rate of increase. O f course, i n most of the occupations considered, men still were numerically far above women, and the conspicuously large percentage increases shown f o r women in certain occupations are the direct result of small basic figures in 1910; but these huge increases none the less indicate that more and more industrial opportunities are being offered to women. Contrary to general impression, women seem not to have gone into absolutely new occupations to any great extent. They had, however, enlarged their field of work by entering i n greater numbers occupations in which formerly they had but scant representation. The statistics for women i n American Territories show that nnusual problems exist for these women whose conditions of employment are a more direct national responsibility. From these figures i t appears that while the numbers gainfully employed in Alaska are so small as to be almost negligible (2,005), Hawaii and Porto Eico both have considerable numbers of gainfully occupied women whose employment falls under somewhat different classifications from those for the women in continental United States. I n Hawaii 45 per cent of the, 14,263 gainfully employed women are engaged i n agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry, 24 per cent >are in domestic and personal service, and 13.4 per cent are m professional service, most of the last group being teachers. THE O O C T J P A T I O K A L PROGRESS OF W O M E N - . 5 The number of women employed i n Porto Eico (86,462) was much larger than the number i n either Hawaii or Alaska, and their occupational distribution indicates a very different situation for them. In domestic and personal service were found 37.6 per cent of Porto Eican women, while another very large group, 35.6 per cent, were i n manufacturing and mechanical industries; only 20.5 per cent were in agriculture. Of the more than 86,000 Porto Kican women who were engaged in manufacturing and mechanical industries nearly 14,000, about one-sixth, were reported as sewing outfeide of factories, numbers which illustrate the great prevalence of industrial home work for women i n Porto Rico. All the figures for the Territories, however, are representative of such unusual conditions that they can not be compared in any way with what seem to be similar figures for continental United States, and can be satisfactorily interpreted only in connection with an intimate knowledge of the local situations. They are presented in this bulletin in the hope that they may somewhat illuminate the question and draw attention to the extent of the problem regarding the employment of women w i t h which this country is faced in the regulation of its territorial affairs. PART I. WOMEN A T W O R K I N CONTINENTAL U N I T E D STATES, CHANGES I N NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF WOMEN I N GENERAL DIVISIONS OF OCCUPATIONS. In all general divisions of occupations other than agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry and domestic and personal service, women have increased in number since 1910. (See Table I.) I n clerical occupations they were nearly two and one-half times as numerous in 1920 as i n 1910, as they were also in the extraction of minerals, though the number in the latter industrial group was small; the number i n transportation doubled; those in trade increased 42.7 per cent, and those i n professional service 38.5 per cent. Much more significant than numerical increases or decreases, however, is the comparison of the proportion of all women occupied in 1920 and in 1910 as shown for each general division of occupations in Table I , on the page following. Domestic and personal service. In domestic and personal service a great decrease in both the number and the proportion of women so occupied is shown in Table I. Under this heading the Census Bureau groups not only servants, waitresses, and laundresses, as one might expect, but all persons who cater directly to our personal needs, Avith the exception of physicians, trained nurses, healers, etc., who are classified under professional service. For instance, barbers, hairdressers, and manicurists, bootblacks, elevator tenders, janitors and sextons, laundry operatives, midwives and nurses (not trained), porters, bartenders, bathhouse keepers and attendants, cleaners and renovators (clothing, etc.) are among the occupations which belong in this group. Certain proprietary occupations likewise fall in this class, such as laundry owners, officials, and managers; restaurant, caf6, and lunch-room keepers; hotel keepers and managers; boarding and lodging house keepers; saloon keepers; and billiard room, dance hall, and skating-rink keepers. The designation "domestic and personal service " thus includes a much larger group than servants only, though the latter comprise nearly one-half of the total number 'Of women engaged in this general division of occupations. In this group w^ere employed 5.4 per cent of all women 10 years of age and over i n 1920, as compared w i t h 7.3 per cent i n 1910. This decrease, however, does not necessarily represent a net loss to 7 T H E OCCUPATIONAL. PROGRESS OF WOMEK. 8 tlie ranks of those gainfully employed, for some women turned from domestic service to factory work or other industrial employment, a statement especially true of negro women, who entered factory employment in large numbers during the war. TABLE I.—Number and proportion of all women 10 years of age and over engaged in each general division of occupations, 1920 and 1910.^ 1920 General division of occupations. 1910 Per cent of Number of women Number of women. 10 years women. of age and over. Per cent of women 10 years ofage and over. 40,449,34G 100.0 34,552,712 loao 8,549,511 21.1 8,075,772 23.4 Agriciature, forestry, and animal husbandry. 1,084,128 2.7 1,807,501 5.2 Nonagrricultural occupations _. . Extraction of minerals Jfanufacturing and mechanical industries.... Transportation Trade Public service (not elsewhere classified 3) Professional service Domestic and personal service Clerical occupations 7,485,383 2,864 1,930,341 213,054 667,792 21,794 1,016,498 2,186,924 1,426,116 18.5 6,268,271 1,094 1,820,670 106,625 468,088 13,558 733,891 2,531,221 593 224 18.1 POPULATION 10 YEABS OP AGE A N D OVER All occupations 4.8 .5 1.7 .1 2.5 5.4 3.5 ) 53 w .3 1.4 2.1 r.3 1.7 1 The decrease during the decade 1910 to 1920 in the proportion of all women 10 years of age and over who were gainfully occupied is to some extent apparent only and may probably be attributed to three main causes: 1. The change in the census date from April 15 in 1910 to January 1 in 1920—from a very busy farming season to a time of the year when all farming activities are at their lowest ebb. This change in date probably resulted in a great reduction in the number of women returned In agnculture,^ forestry, and animal husbandry, though the returns for men apparently were to a less extent affected by the same circumstance. 2. An overstatement in 1910 of the number of women engaged in agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry—a general division of occupations which comprised 22.4 per cent of all occupied women in 1910 and 12.7 per cent in 1920. The Census Bureau in 1910 (U. S. Bureau of the Census. 13th Census; 1910, v. 4, Population; occupation statistics, p. 28) estimates this overstatement at ahnost half a million, and suggests that it may have been largely the result of an instruction issued to census enumerators to return every woman working regularly at outdoor farm work as a farm laborer. In compliance with this instruction many women who regularly fed their chickens or did other chores for an hour or s o each morning undoubtedly were returned as gainfully occupied. To correct this tendency to overetatement census enumerators were in 1920 instructed as follows: ''159. Women doing farm work. For a woman who work-^ onlj/ occasionally, or only a sTiort time each day at outdoor farm or garden work, or m the dairy, or in caring for live stock or poultry, the return should he none; but for a woman who wcrKS regularly vsorliing a n d moat of the time a t such w o r k , t h e r e t u r n s h o u l d be farm laborer—home out: laborer-garden; laborer—dairy farm; laborer—'stock farm; or lahorer^poultry lamm— farm; farm yard, as the case may be. Of course, a woman who herself operates or runs a farm or plantation should be reports as farmer and not as a ^farm laborer.'" This stringent instmction, together with the change in ^usus date, naturally resulted in the return of relatively fewer women in agricultural pursuits, since m JamW few women are regularly employed most of the time out of doors on farms. Possibly, also, early in 1920 some women who had formerly been emploved on farms may have been occupied vdth other work, though tnere IS but Uttlo evidence to support this theory. 3. A great decrease in the employment of girls 10 to 15 y<^rs of age. This decrease to a large extent overlaps the decrease among women in a g r i c u l t u r a l work, omu is by no means confined to this sphere ^ of the Census. 14th Census: 1920. P.^ -— 10 to 15 years of ago who were gainfully occupied uroppea irom ii.y per ueut nX IVLKf W a." I't/* The numerical decrease during the decade was 290,476, of which 222,106 was in the number employea in agricultural pursuits and 68,370 in the number employed in nonagricultural pursuits. ® Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. ' For explanation, see p. 15. Many and varied are the reasons assigned for a numerical decrease of 344,297 women in domestic and personal service in a single decade, most of which occurred among women employed as servants and laundresses. Some persons have reached the conclusion that " the secret lies in the perfecting of the machine " ; i n other words, that 9 T H E OCCUPATIONAL. PROGRESS OF W O M E K . fewer servants are needed because of the widespread adoption of mechanical household devices.^ But is the extensive use of these devices the cause or the eifect of a shortage of servants"? Would so many families have invested i n vacuum cleaners, in electric laundry appliances, in iceless refrigerators, none of which is inexpensive, i f servants were to be had as in former days? Probably in many instances the machine i n the home has displaced the servant, while in other cases i t merely took the place already abandoned by the servant. It is true that during the war period large numbers of those who had been servants were attracted to other pursuits by the higher wage offered, thus leaving an actual shortage of servants in many sections—a shortage which still existed to a considerable extent in 1920. It is also true that the wages of servants have within the past decade increased beyond the ability of many families to pay. This phenomenal increase might be considered an enticement for women to enter this class of work, yet servants become fewer and fewer in number, and apparently the American people are becoming reconciled to the scarcity and have decided to n m their homes without them. The servant problem pertains almost exclusively to the urban community. Few, indeed, relatively speaking, are the servants employed on farms, and though the tendency of wealthy families to live the year round in country homes within motoring distance of the large cities becomes more and more evident, such families comprise an extremely small proportion of our population. I n the cities a great drift toward apartment-house life has been noted in recent years and the scarcity of servants has been considered a prominent factor, in the trend away from large private houses. Is the decrease i n the number of servants permanent or temporary? "WTiat part does the higher esteem usually shown toward factory work, with its clearly defined hours, play in this shortage? How much of the falling off is due to the curtailment of immigration since 1914, which has meant practically the elimination of those J^ecruits who in the past took the places of girls who went on to other employment? D i d the war-time action of the Government in urging the American people to release for more necessary employment every servant possible place a lasting stigma on domestic and personal service as nonessential work? Or, what is far more likely, did this action of the Government tend to introduce women who lacked initiative to new kinds of work which they individually would never have undertaken, yet which they found themselves perfectly 'Exit the servant in 'the house, America at Work. V,- 0, No. 1, June, 1022. 10' T H E OCCUPATIONAI. PROGRESS OF WOMEK. capable of doing and which was often more interesting, at. higher pay, and done under more desirable working conditions? ;Were there not also at the date of the census some women customarily employed as servants who were remaining at home because it was easy for the men of the family to find work? Was not the latter cause responsible for some part of the decrease among negro women iservants in the South? To what extent the.suggestions here made may be considered factors in the reduction i n the number of women employed in domestic and personal service is a matter of sheer conjecture, the only certainty being an actual decrease since l&lO of 431,546 among women employed as servants and laundresses. Yet not every occupation listed under domestic and personal service shows a falling off in numbers during this decade. On the contrary, the most phenomenal change i n any one occupation was that of elevator tenders, a group which increased from 25 in 1910 to 7,337 i n 1020. Large increases were noted also among barbers, hairdressers, and manicurists; restaurant, cafe, and lunch-room keepers; laundry owners, officials, and managers; cleaners and renovators (clothing, etc.); janitors and sextons; and waitresses; while smaller increases were found in the numbers of housekeepers and stewardesses, nurses (not trained), and laundry operatives. These increases, however, were completely outweighed by the enormous decreases among servants, laundresses (not in laundry), cooks, and boarding and lodging house keepers. Manufacturing and mechanical industries. Under manufacturing and mechanical industries are grouped not only all factory laborers and semiskilled operatives but all persons engaged in the skilled building and hand trades, together with their apprentices, and all persons working i n manufacturing industries in proprietary, official, and supervisory capacities. Clerks in factories are grouped with clerical occupations. Over 100,000 more women were employed in manufacturing and mechanical industries i n 1920 than i n 1910, yet the proportion which women in this general division of occupations formed of all women 10 years of age and over decreased from 1910 to 1920. I n other words, the number of women engaged i n manufacturing and mechanical industries increased only 6 per cent, while the number of women 10 years of age and over in the population increased IT per cent. Industries m which women predoimnate,—^Women employees outnumbered men in 11 manufacturing industries both i n 1920 and in 1910. Among these were the clothing industries as a whole, as well as four of their six subdivisions; also silk mills, knitting m i l l s , candy t h e occupational progress of w0me2t. 11 factories, and other groups less important numerically. The numbers of men and women occupied in these 11 industries are shown in Table II. TABLE n.—Kumifcr of employees ^ in those manufacturing industries in icomen predominated both in 1920 and 1910, classified hp sex. 1920 which 1910 Industry. Male. Female. Male. Enitting mills Lace and embroidery mills. linen mills Paper-box factories Sift mills 33,554 4,518 15,453 272,005 12,101 17,631 43,407 125,957 154,290 1,661 5,799 14,132 31,360 33,525 6,763 1,224 9,478 50,303 Clothing industries Corset factories Glove factories Shirt, collar, and-ciiflf factories.. Other clothing factories» 7,763 25,311 150,132 1,309 7,483 11,678 32,545 Blank-book, envelope, tag, paper-bag, etc., factories. Candy factories 86,022 13,264 1,808 14,358 75,498 26,792 4,804 1,182 5,653 31,705 Female. 7,071 68,878 11 928 1 540 13,667 51,472 »Includes laborers and semiskilled operatives. • Except hat factories (felt) and suit, coat, cloak, and overall factories. According to the census bulletin the only instance of an industry where women lost in 1920 the numerical supremacy which they had in 1910,is in straw factories (including straw-hat factories), where in 1910 women numbered 4,064 and men 2,264, while in 1920 there were 8,264 men and only 6,415 women. Offsetting the decrease in this industr}^, however, is the striking increase in numbers of women in cigar and tobacco factories. I n 1910 these women numbered T6,801, as compared with 91,392 men, while the 1920 figures for the same industry show 97,822 women and 82,557 men. This comparison indicates that women are supplanting men in the manufacture of cigars and tobacco, but there is only slight evidence of a similar tendency in other industries. Industries in which women have increased at least lOfiOO since iW.^Those groups listed under manufacturing and mechanical industries in which at least 10,000 more women were employed i n 1920 than in 1910 afford an interesting study, even though the increase in per cent is not always large. Great numerical increases are shown among women employed as semiskilled operatives in food, iron and steel, and clothing industries. But a number of different specific industries form the component parts of each of these groups, making the inclusive figures less significant. Considering, therefore, specific industries rather than groups of related industries, it is apparent that durirng the decade 1910 to 1920 women operatives increased more in number i n 14819'—22 3 12 the ogoupa;rional peogress o f women. " other clothing factories," i n silk mills, in " other iron and sted factoriesj"' in electrical-supply factox'ies, and i n knitting mills, than i n any other factories.^ I n general, however, these increases m merely indicative of changes which are taking place for all workers regardless of sex. T a b l e Ilh—Ocaipations in manufaGt^ring and mechanical industries in each of which the ivumher of women employed increased 10,000 or more from 19io to 1920, with nHmJ)er and per cent of increase. Increase 1910 to 1920. Occupation. Number. Percent Semiskilled operatives, food industries. SemiskiUed operatives, candy factories Semiskilled operatives, iron and steel industries. Semiskilled operatives, automoMJe factories Semiskilled operatives, other iron and steel factories i. Semiskilled operatives, clothing industries 35,S02 81.0 34,263 145.4 11,940 20,295 1,408.0 126. s 28,273 Semiskilled operatives, other clothing factories*. SemiskiUed operatives, silk mills. Semiskilled operatives, electrical supply factories... Semiskilled operatives, knitting mills Semiskilled operatives, shoe factories Semiskilled operatives, cigar and tobacco factories.. Laborers, cotton mills Forewomen and overseers (manufacturing) 97.8 14,033 12.0 .35.4 tm 348 15,344 14,146 12,116 10,902 10,431 44.5 148.1 23.5 23.9 16.9 189.0 J Includes ail iron and steel factories and foundries other than agricultural implement factories, automobile factories, blast furnaces and steel rolling mills, car and railroad shops, ship and boat building, and wagon and carriage factories. i Includes aU clothing factories other than corset factories, glove factories, hat factories (felt), shirt, ooUar, and cuff factories, and suit, coat, cloak, and overall factories. Ummial aoeupaiions for women.—Occupations grouped under manufacturing and mechanical industries which form one of the last strongholds of which men have a monopoly are the skilled building and hand trades. To be sure, some women returned their occupations as machinists, electricians, carpenters, and house painters, but they were extremely few i n number. The widow who continues to run her husband's plumbing, blacksmith, or carpenter shop has a tendency to return her occupation as plumber, b l a c k s n i i t h , or carpenter, though she may never have had the tools of the trade in her hands- The girl who after long experience i n a factory becomes expert i n the operation of a certain machine may decide that she ought to return her occupation as machinist. Largely because of such returns the error in the number of women reported in the skilled building and hand trades is stiU believed to be high, though every * F o r explanation of terms, see footnotes to Table I I I . THE OCCTJPATIOIJ^AL PROGRESS OF WOMEiT, 13 practicable means was used to insure the accuracy of figures showing w o m e n i n unusual occupations. Although women have l o n g been firmly established as an integral part of our i n d u s t r i a l l i f e , they seem more reluctant t h a n men to assume the four years^ apprenticeship necessary to become a ma.chinist, an electrician, or a cabinetmaker, as evidenced by the small n u m b e r of women apprentices who are reported f o r tiiese trades. The small number o f women i n the b u i l d i n g 4ind hand trades may also be due t o the fact that these occupations involve w o r k of a very heavy nature. Skilled trades,—Certain skilled hand trades in which women have been more or less numerous in the past showed decreases during the decade under consideration. These trades are bakers; compositors, linotypers, and typesetters; jewelers and lapidaries (factory); tailoresses; enamelers, lacquer^rs, and japanners; and shoemakers and cobblers (not in factory), liurger reductions in the number of dressmakers and milliners are discussed on page 24. The numbers of women employed as jewelers and watchmakers (not in factory) and as engravers show slight increases. I t will be <obsexved that the hand trades enumerated i n this paragraph combine lighter work and less rigid apprenticeships tlian tliose of most other trades. These ieatures may explain their attraction for women. On January 192Q, the skilled building andliand trades in which no women were employed were boilermakers; .millwrights.; wheelwrights; brass jnolders, founders, and .casters; cement .finishers; pressmen and plate printers (printing); rollers and roll hands (metal) ; roofers and slaters; and structural-iron workers (building), fewer tlian 10 women returned their occupations as blacl^smiths, forgemen, and hammermen; bride and stone masons; cabinetmakers; coopers; loom fixers; macliinists; toolmakers and die setters and ankers; gunsmiths, locksmiths, and bellhangers; millers tg^ain, flour, feed, etc.); iron molders, founders, and caters; plasterers; plumbers and gas and steam fitters; sawj^ers; annealers and temperers (metal); stonecutters; and coppersmiths. Bazardom occwpatians.—K few distinctive occupations are shown separately under manufactui^ng and mechanical industries, not because they are necessarily classed as skilled trades but because of the peculiar occupational hazards involved. One of these groups includes filers, grinders, buffers, and polishers (metal). This occupation group gave employment to 2,470 women i n 1920, as compared ^ith 2,846 in 1910. By far the greater number of tliese w^omen were t^mployed as buffers and polishers—occupations in which the workers pin the risk of contracting diseases caused l)y metal dust and filings fe the air. .14 the occupationai. progress women. Only six women were classified in the group of furnacemen, smeltermen, heaters, pourers, etc.—metal^working occupations in which the employees are necessarily exposed to great e^rtremes.of heat. Forty-four women worked as oilers of machinery in factories, an occupation with a high accident rate. Women employed in lead and zinc factories numbered 346 in 1920, as against 337 in 1910. Many of the processes carried on in this industry have been proved by medical authorities to be extremely detrimental to the health of women, as are also certain processes involving work with lead in potteries, paint, rubber, and chemical factories. Transportation. This term includes water transportation; road and street transportation (including the building, repair, and cleaning of streets); railroad transportation; and transportation by express, post, telegraph, and telephone. The 106,625 women engaged in this general division of occupations in 1910 had practically doubled in 1920. (See Table I.) Perhaps women are pioneering more in this field than in any other general division of occupations. Though small numbers are involved—possibly to some extent because of the very recent dates on which women began to undertake these occupations—there has been a great increase among women chauffeurs; among draymen, teamsters, and expressmen; garage keepers; garage laborers; switchmen and flagmen on steam railroads; ticket and station agents; telegraph messengers; steam and street railway laborers, etc.; while the large numbers of women working as telephone operators and telegraph operators in 1910 had in each case more than doubled by 1920. I n this general division of occupations the census returns for January 1, 1920, show no women working as locomotive engineers or firemen, brakemen, steam railroad conductors or motormen, railway mail clerks, or forewomen on docks or in water transportation. That there were no women railway mail clerks may seem surprising in view of the fact that on December 6, 1919, the United States Civil Service Commission threw open to women the examinations for railway mail clerks. Some time in 1920 after the census was taken, appointments were made from this register and women now technically hold the positions of railway mail clerks. These women are employed, however, only in terminal stations and are never permitted to work on trains where they would be s u b j e c t e d to the peculiar hazards attached to this occupation. Notwithstanding the fact that from 1910 to 1920 women e n t e r e d in numbers many transportation pursuits which they previously the o c c u p a t i o k a l p r o g r e s s o f woilen^. 15 had not followed to any great extent, yet of the total increase of women in these pursuits during the decade more than 84 per cent was in the single occupation of telephone operator. Trade. tfnder " Trade " are listed wholesale and retail dealers and most of their employees; bankers, brokers, and money lenders; real estate and insurance agents; undertakers; and workers in coal and lumber yards, grain elevators, stockyards, and warehouses. The number of women engaged in trade increased 42.7 per cent from 1910 to 1920, and in many occupations, mainly those of a proprietary nature, enormous increases are shown. Of the total net increase of 199,704 women in trade, 164,637, or 82.4 per cent, were engaged in two occupations which women have long pursued—clerks in stores and saleswomen in stores. There is no occupation listed under " Trade " in which women are not engaged. Public service. In the group known as " Public service (not elsewhere classified) " the number of women increased 60.7 per cent. The persons shown in this general division of occupations form for the most part a residuary public-service group, as many persons who work for the Government are classified according to the actual work they are doing. For instance, all Government clerks, stenographers, etc., are classed with clerical occupations, nav'y yard machinists are grouped with other machinists in the manufacturing and mechanical industries, operatives in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and in the Government Printing Office are classified as printing-office operatives rather than as Government employees, and physicians and trained nurses in the Government service are classified under professional service. Because of the multiplicity of activities in which the Government was engaged at the date of the census—a year after the close of the war—the Census Bureau deemed it imperative to group under " Public service " only those Government employees who were engaged in peculiarly public-service pursuits and who could not properly be classified under any other general division of occupations. During the decade under consideration women officials have greatly increased i n number, especially county officials; also Federal officials other than postmistresses increased from 275 in 1910 to 652 in 1920. Probation and truant officers numbered 780 in 1920, though there were only 188 in 1910. A t the date of the census no women ^ere employed as firemen in city fire departments, and there were Jio Women soldiers, sailors, or marines. During the war women doing subclerical work in the Navy Department were known as yeomen (f) and were entitled to all the privileges of military status, X6 THE OCCUPATIO:N'AL PROGRESS o r WOKK^T. but the Secretary of the Na.vy ruled i n 1919 that yeomen (f) should thereafter be given a civil rather than a military status, -provided they were able to meet the qualifications laid down by the Civil Service Commission. Professional service. Professional service may be said to have three main subdivisions: Professional and semiprofessional pursuits and the occupations of attendants and helpera From 1910 to 1920 women in this general division of occupations increased 38.5 per cent, and i n 1920 they comprised 11.9 per cent of all gainfully occupied women as against per cent i n 1910. I n 1920 professional service included eight more occupations with 1,000 or more women in each than there had been in 1910. (See Table VI.) These eight occupations were those of chemists, assayers, and metallurgists; clergymen; draftsmen; lawyers, judges, and justices; osteopathstheatrical owners, managers, and officials; a]3stractors, notaries, and justices of the peace; and theater ushers. Professionsan which women trebled in number from 1910 to 1920 are those o^^ chemists, assayers, and metallurgists; lawyers, judges, and justices; college presidents and professors; religious, charity, ^nd welfare workers; and teachers of athletics and dancing. Draftsmen were' five times as numerous as i n 1910 and designers had doubled in number. The marked increase in women librarians, a group which numbered nearly two and one-half times as many in 1920 as in 1910, and the large decrease in librarians' assistants and attendants were due in part to the classification of cataloguers in libraries with librarians in 1920 and with librarians' assistants and attendants in 1910. Considering these two groups as one unit, the number of women so engaged has increased 73.6 per cent. A slight decline was noted in the number of artists, sculptors, and teachers of art, as well as in the number of women physicians and surgeons and osteopaths combined, while there was a pronounced decrease in the case of women musicians and teachers of music. The instruction to enumerators which stated that a woman's occupation should be one pursued regularly and most of tlie tiim^ no doubt militated against the occupational returns of a large number of music teachers who are occupied neither regularly nor most of the time. A decrease from 1,220 to 698 is noted among fortune tellers, hypnotists, and spiritualists—a group classed with s e m i p r o f e s s i o n a l pursuits. Increasing legal restrictions may have tended to reduce ® The number of women osteopaths in 1910 was unknown, since they were at that time included with physicians and snrgeons. WOMEN IN SELECTED^ PROFESSIONS, 1920-1910 to O O SQ O O tOO Trained 70 000 lAOfOOO nurses m u s i c i a n s and teachers o| music 25»67g Reliqious,choritv,Qnd vielfore woAers 8,889 Qrtists, sculptors,ona 14-,6I7 teachers of ort QoTors ond showmen t4,354* iB88S0B 1920 \QlO L i b r^arians C o l l e a e presidents or\d processors f0»075 ^,958 Physicians^ surqeons, / and osnreopotris 8 , 8 8 ^ Q.OIO CTuthors, editors, and reporters 8 , 7 3 6 Healers Desiqners,draftsmen inventors 3,0 i x Oil r^OOO in or ^920, proj'essions m o r e ep<'cept includedl women school v^ere in whIoK enqocjedl teocKincj. the o c c u p a t i o n a l progress o f w0me2t. 71 the number of women in this class. To some extent the decrease in the numbers of women artists, musicians, fortune tellers, etc., may have been due to the greater demand for women workers in 1920 and the higher compensation paid in other occupations. Mining engineering is apparently the only profession not yet invaded by at least one woman, though but one, the superintendent of a dog hospital, reported her occupation as veterinary surgeon. Among the somewhat unusual professions for women are noted 8 aeronauts, 27 inventors, 41 technical engineers, and 137 architects. Two occupations listed under agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry, though they require professional attainments, are landscape gardeners, of whom 25 were women, and foresters, forest rangers, and timber cruisers, an occupation engagingbut 2 women. Of the total net increase of 282,607 women in professional service, 228,370, or 80.8 per cent, Avere found in two time-honored feminine pursuits—^those of teachers and trained nurses. Clerical occupations. This general division of occupations, in which the number of women increased 140.4 per cent in the decade, presumably embraces all clerical workers regardless of the industry in which they may be employed. I n 1920, 16.7 per cent of all women workers were engaged in clerical occupations, as compared with 7.3 per cent in, 1910. At both dates the number thus reported is probably slightly, low. This condition is a result of the unfortunate tendency in common parlance to call saleswomen in stores "clerks in stores." Although census enumerators were specifically directed to the contrary, thousands of saleswomen have undoubtedly been so returned. Since all evidence pointed to the fact that the overwhelming majority of these " clerks in stores" were actually selling" goods, those so designated have been classed with " Trade," even though i t is recognized that in so doing some clerical workers in stores are unavoidably separated from clerical occupations. The increase from IWO to 1920 of 832,892 women in clerical occupations formed 69.6 per cent of the net increase of 1,197,112 women in nonagricultural pursuits. In other words, the numerical increase among women in clerical occupations was greater than the increase shown for all other general ^visions of occupations combined; it was seven and one-half times great as the increase among women in manufacturing and ftiechanical industries and almost three times as great as that among ^omen in professional service. These facts are strikingly brought in the following Table I V which shows the actual increase or flecrease in number of women employed in each general division of occupations. 18 the occxtpational pkogress of womeiir. O^ABi^ IX^^^'^unierical increase or decrease from 1910 to J920 among ivomen 10 years of age and over, according to general division of occupations. General division of occupations. Increase, Decrease. ieioto 1920. 1920. 47^739 A<mVtiltiirA forftstrv. andftTilitifll husbandry Extraction of minerals i,T70 109,771 723.373 m,m S,236 282^^7 344,297 CHANGES IN WOMEN'S OCCUPATIONAL OTATUS, Some of the most conspicuous changes in the occupational status of women are brought out by a study of those occupations and occupation groups in which vast numbers of women were employed, as shown by reports of the Twelfth, Thirteenth, and JPoiirteeath Censuses. Occupations with more than 50,000 women in each. The Fourteenth Census, taken i n 1^20, lists 30 occupatiouB i n «ach of which more than 50,000 women were employed in jeontinent a l United States. <See Table V ) . I n 1910 there were oeeupations employing such numbers of women and in 1900 only 19 occupations, I n 20 years^ then, the number of occupations and occupation groups employing as many as 50,000 women increased from 19 to 30, though the validity of the comparison with the 1900 figures is somewhat impaired by changes made since that time in the occupation classification scheme used by the Census Bureau. Until 1010, however, the number of women employed in each of the following occupation groups, the classification of which has remained essentially the same since 1900 and which now employ numbers greatly in excess of 50,000, was below that figure; Retail dealers, telephone operators, shoe-factory operatives, cigar and tobacco factory operatives, and silk, woolen and worsted, and knitting mill opemtives. The 19 occupation groups each employing more than 50^000 women i n 1900 comprised 88.8 per cent of all wage-earning women 16 years of age and over ; the 28 similar groups shown i n 1910 represented 88.t per cent of all working women 10 years of age and over; but while these groups increased to 30 in number in 1920, ^^^ proportion they formed of all gainfully occupied wromen 10 years of age and over decreased to 85.7 per cent—another indication that the occupational field for women is broadening rather than concentrating on a few long-established occupations. I t is true, however, t h e occtjpationiu:^ p r o g r e s s o f w o m e i t . 19 that only a very small proportion of all gainfully occupied women iyere in 1920 engaged i n occupations not pursued by women for laany years. liBLE v . - — w h i c h 50,000 or more loomen 10 years of age and over icere employed in 1920 and mnnber of women employed in each, 1920 a^d mo^ Occupation. Number of women 10 years of aee and over employed in— 1920 Tarmers, general farms Farm laborers, general farms « Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in factory)... jCUiners and millinery dealers Cigar and tobacco factories Clothing industries Food industries Iron and steel industries.... j h e factories So Cotton mills.. Woolen and worsted millstdTOljoii© operators. QerKsin stores* Retail dealers Salfiswomen (stores; Hasiclansand tea Teiichers (school), Trained nurses B^eepers and cashiers Clerks (except clerks in stores) Stenographers and typists ^7,253 788,611 235,519 83,960 265,^43 72,402 6^819 73,412 149,185 72,768 61,715 178,379 170,397 7S,9S0 356,321 72,678 635,207 143,664 114,740 m,350 385,874 80,747 132,658 1,012,133 116,921 345,746 472,163 564,744 1910 257,703 1.514,107 447,760 122,447 71,845 36,600 23,557 69,266 140,666 65,338 50,360 62,056 111.664 67,103 250,487 84,478 476,864 76,508 142,400 173,333 520,<X>1 76,355 110,912 1,309,^9 85,798 183,569 122.665 263,315 of differences in the occupation classification used by the Census Bureau in 1900, it was not ifl^bleto mclude the 1900figuresin .this table. I Includes farm laborers (home farm) and farm laborers (working out). Many of the ''Clerks in stores" probably are Saleswomen." »includes chambermaids, cooks, ladies* maids, nursemaids, bell girls, chore girls, etc., and other servants. About one-half of the 30 occupation group.s each employing more than 50,000 women in 1920 have for. many decades been considered tiaditionally feminine callings; such as servants, dressmakers, milliners, schoolteachers, boarding-house keepers, stenographers iind typists, musicians, nurses both trained and untrained, laundresses, clothing-factory operatives, textile-mill operatives, etc. Certain other occupations, such as saleswomen, bookkeepers and cashiers, ^^tail dealei^, cigar^factory operatives, shoe-factory operatives, clerks in stores, and clerks in offices, have within the last decade or ^w come to be regarded as offering opportunities just as suitable for ^o ^omen as for men. Not all Americans know that farm labor is the occupation in ^tich more women are engaged tihan in any other except domestic yet according to census figui'es this condition has prevailed 20 T H E OCCUPATIONAL PROGRESS OF WOMEN. in the United States for at least 40 years. The number of. women who i n 1920 returned their occupation as farm laborer on general farms was 788,611, and this figure, admitted by the Census Bureau to be an understatement because of the change in census date,® represents an enormous decrease since 1910 in this occupation. The number ot women farmers operating general farms sliows a decrease of only 10,450. This group has probably not been affected by the change in date, for i t is likely that a woman who owns and operates her farm considers herself just as much of a farmer in January as in April, but a woman who works in the fields during the summer months does not always return her occupation as farm laborer during January. Some of the 28 occupations which in 1910 had more than 50,000 women at work showed great decreases i n 1920, notably farm laborers, servants, laundresses, dressmakers, and milliners, yet all of them retained in the census of 1920 their standing as employing more than 50,000 women. The two groups in which the number of women employed reached 50,000 for the first time in 1920 are semiskilled, operatives in iron and steel industries and in food industries. Partly because of the seasonal nature of the food industries and the change in census date to a time nearer the latest harvest season, and partly because of the growth of the industries, the number of men, women, and children returned as operatives in food industries shows a great increase since 1910. Iron and steel industries,—^It is probable that women are a permanent factor in the iron and steel industries. The number employed as semiskilled operatives increased 145.4 per cent during the decade 1910 to 1920, and the niunber of women laborers more than doubled. Although the census was taken only 14 months after the close of the war, and the industrial prosperity due to the war still existed, the fact must not be overlooked that there was a great increase from 1900 to 1910 in the number of women employed in the iron and steel industries, indicating that women were firmly established there even before the war, whose industrial upheaval served only to accelerate a movement already well imder way. The greatest increase for any manufacturing industry in which an appreciable number of women were employed in 1920 is shown for automobile factories, where Avomen working as semisldlled operatives increased 1,408 per cent, or from 848 in 1910 to 12,788 in 1^20, Men operatives in automobile fectories increased from 20,243 in to 108,376 i n 1920, or 435.4 per cent, the largest i n c r e a s e in any occupation for men except operatives i n ship and boat building. Women operatives i n blast furnaces and steel-rolling mills, another subdivision of the iron and steel industries, numbered^^^^j^j^ « See footnote to Table I , p. 8. WOMEN IN SELECTED^ MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 1920'IQIO Clothin<) mdustnes 243'0S6 Cotton nulls I65.e5 146,43. Ciqarand tobacco '|Qctone& .Food mdusTries = I020 = 1910 KniTTinc] rri'Jls Sl^oo f a o t o r i e s Silk milts Iron_. and.steel industries Ufode^rji^ond urorsled Vail i n d u s t r i e s inciucJedi m w h t o K >50,000 o r m o r e worv^en w e r e e m p l o y e d in 1Q20. THE OCOUPATIOKAIi P O R S OF W0ME2T. E GES 21 1920, nearly twice as many as were similarly employed in 1910. Women are seldom employed in the actual operation of blast furnaces and steel-rolling mills, but a number of steel mills have ironmanufacturing departments employing women who may have returned their occupations as steel-mill operative. The increase in the number of women employed as operatives i n iron and steel factories and foundries manufacturing machinerjT^ and iron and steel products other than those already mentioned was 126.5 per cent during the decade considered, 36,338 being employed on the census date. Occupations with more than 1,000 women in each* The number of occupations each employing 1,000 or more women in the various industrial groups is shown in the table following. T a b i j : VL—Number of occupations in each general fpliich i.OOO or more women 10 years of age and end 1910, General division of occupations. divhion of occupations in over were employe^, 1920 Number of occupations in wbich 1,000 or more women 10 years of age and over were employed. 1S20 AU occupations.. A^culture, forestry, and animal husbandry., Extraction of minerals Jfanufacturing and mechanical industries. - . „ Transportation. Trade..... PuWie gervioe (not elsewhere classified) F^easioual service Domestic and personalserviee... Clmcal occupations 232 15; 1 L. Ill ' 6 I 30 J 5 32 22] 11 1910 20313 98 6 27 3 24 22 10 The comparison presented in Table V I is the more interesting i f one considers that only 125 occupations were represented by 1,000 or more women each in the census of 1900. This difference must be discounted^ however, because of the fact that the occupation classification in use at that census was much less comprehensive in scope than were those used in 1910 and 1920. Furthermore, as the population increases i t is natural to find a larger number of occupations affording employment to 1,000 women, even i f each occupation had nierely retained its relative proportion. On the whole, the number of occupations in which 1,000 or more women were engaged was greater by 29 in 1920 than in 1910. I t is particularly interesting to find that the two groups in which most of these additional occupations were found were the manufacturing and mechanical industries, which showed an increase of 13 in the 22 . T H E OCCUPATIONAL, PROGRESS OF W O M E N . number of occupations employing 1,000 or more women, and profes* sional service, which showed an increase of 8. Of the 572 occupations and occupation groups established by the census classification for 1920, women were employed in all but 35, while of the 428 such classes in 1910 there were 49 in which no women were engaged. I n general, it may be said that the statistics reported for women in unusual occupations are more nearly accurate for 1920 than they were for 1910, because in 1920 a much more rigid scrutiny was made of the returns of such occupations to eliminate every possible error. Women in proprietary, official, and supervisory occupations. Healthy increases occurred among women engaged in proprietary, official, and supervisory pursuits in nearly every field of employment. Women managers and superintendents of factories were nearly three and one-half times as numerous in 1920 as in 1910; officials of factories were more than eight times as numerous, and women manufacturei-s showed a substantial increase. There were in 1920 more than two and one-half times as many women bankers and bank officials as in 1910, while women insurance agents doubled and real estate agents and officials more than trebled in number. Women stockbrokers increased 81.6 per cent, and retail dealers 17.7 per cent, though the number of women commission brokers and wholesale merchants declined. Theater owners, officials, and managers numbered more than four times as many as in 1910, a change probably due in part to the increased number of motion-picture theaters. In spite of the great general decrease noted in the case of women engaged in agricultural pursuits farm forewomen increjjsed 84.4 per cent between 1910 and 1920. Forewomen and overseers in factories increased 52.8 per cent. Laundry owners, officials, and managers increased 47.4 per cent; restaurant, cafe, and lunchroom keepers also showed a big increase, though hotel keepers and managers p r a c t i c a l l y remained stationary. Women proprietors, officials, and managers of telegraph and telephone companies decreased from 1,409 in 1910 to 544 in 1920, a condition probably due in part to the taking over of small rural exchanges by the large telephone companies. Striking changes in occupations for women. I n certain occupational groups overwhelming changes have occurred in the employment of women during the decade from 1910 to 1920. The unusual conditions brought about by the war, as well as the phenomenal' development and specialization of industry during this period, are responsible for these changes, the nature of which is brought out by a study of the eight occupations in each of which the number of women increased at least S - O during thp decade, ana, OO O j the o c c U p a t i o n a l progress of 23 w0me2t. the seven occupations i n each of which a similar decrease took place. as a c o n t r a s t ) T B E Vll^—Eight occupations in each of tchich the mimher of women 10 years AL of age and over increased 50,000 or more from 1910 to 1920, and numher and percent of increase. Increase^l910tol920. Occupation. Number. Per cent. nprtfl recent clerks in stores) ^lAnnffrftTihers Slid tvoistsiirtfttrfifiners and cashiers Tpftchprs fschool). fiftlMiroitten ( s t o r e s ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trainwinurses Clerks in stores * . 349,498 301,429 162,177 158,343 . . . . . . . . .105,834 9a 117 67,156 58^803 284.9 114.5 88-3 33.2 42.3 102.1 87.8 52.7 »lfanyof the "Clerks in stores*' probably are "Saleswomen." TABLE VIIL—/SEI^EN occupations in each of which the number of ^vomen 10 years of age and over decreased 50,000 or more from 1910 to 1920, and number and per cent of decrease. Decrease 1910 to 1920. Occupation. Number. Per cent, Fann laborers (home farm) i General servants » Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in factory)., Laundresses (not in laundry) Fann laborers (working out) i C os ok .. . . Hilliners and millinery dealers .! 599,943 216,762 212,241 134,130 125,563 "64,818 61.0 23.7 47.4 25.8 37.2 19.4 43.2 ^T^e d^prease in this occupation, which is primarily due to the change in the census date, is discussed "Ij^pt chambermaids, cooks, ladies' maids, nursemaids, and bell girls, chore girls, etc. During the decade considered the greatest numerical increases ^ere found i n the various clerical occupations, a field i n which women have been prominent for many years, though not to so overwhelming an extent prior to 1920. As fast as the war claimed men in clerical occupations women filled their places, and it seems doubtful that women w i l l relinquish the position which they have won in this field of endeavor. Telephone operators have more than doubled in number since 1910 and still the telephone companies scour the bypaths and hedges for operators and yet more operators. Tliese figures bear mute testi^pny to the eminence which the telephone has attained in our industrial and social life. The great increase in the number of trained nurses is probably directly traceable to war conditions; furthermore, the number reported in 1920 may even be an understatement, because the Census 24 t h e oooupationai. progress of womek. Bureau classifies in this group only those who made i t clear that they were trained, registered, graduate, or professional nurses; .those who deemed i t sufficient to return their occupations simply as "nurse" or as " nurse, private family," or in some other indefinite fashion, were relegated to the group of practical nurses, who themselves had increased more than 20,000 during the decade. The understatement i n the number of trained nurses is probably slight, however, since i t is a trait of human nature to return the highest occupation to which one is entitled. No doubt war conditions with their accompanying new opportimities in industry brought about some part of the decreases among laundresses, cooks, and servants, as has already been stated. To the great development of the steam laundry and its machinery may be attributed no small part of the decrease i n the case of laundresses working at home; while the increasing tendency of women to buy their clothes ready-made, together with the better paid positions opened during the war to many former workers in this occupation, presumably accounts for a large part of the great reduction in the number of dressmakers and seamstresses who were not employed in factories. I n the case of milliners and millinery dealers, however, the decrease is not so readily accounted for, though i t is known that so-caUed millinery factories where standardized hats are manufactured are both increasing in number and enlarging in size. The number of women more than doubled from 1910 to 1920 in 77 occupations employing each at least 500 women in 1920 (see Table I X ) . Between 1890 and 1900—only 20 years earlier—there were but 14 occupations in which the number of women increased by more than 100 per cent. TABLE I X . — O c c u p a t i o n s having 500 or more women each in 1920 which had more than doubled in niimher since 1910, numher of women occupied in 1929 and in 1910, and per cent of increase. Number of women Percent ofinoccupied in— Occupation. 1920 Elevator tenders ChaufYeurs Laborers, automobile factories Theater ushers Serniskmed operatives, automobHe factories Switchmen and flagmea (steam railroGd) Semiskilled operatives, petroleum refineries grajroen, teamsters, and expressmen Officials (manufacturing) Laborer, butter, cheese, and condensed milk factories SmiskiUed operatives, butter, cheese, and condensed milk factories, B/aftsmen... . ... La^rers, furniture factories... Theatrical owners, managers, and o f f i c i i ' . Protiation and tmant officers »Not computed because base is less than 100. 1 7,337 'm 2,467 2 363 12,788 m 3,381 1,016 2,745 1,985 2^672 i.m 1 257 780 1910 25 33 139 147 848 52 70 73 401 128 533 391 529 233 295 188 1910 to m 1 674.8 1 500.7 m 693.8 415.0 407.7 405.1 345.9 326.1 3119 the 25 o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s op w o m e k . TIBLE lX.---OcGupatioii8 Tiaving 500 or more women each in 1020 which had more than doahled in number since 1910^ number of women occupied in 1920 and in ^910^ and per cent of increase—Continued. Number of women Per cent occupied in— ofinOccupation. 1920 dOTis in stores).Accountants and^auditors 'tics, dancing, etc.)„. ts (manufacturing).. houses.. ,hter and paddnglio a canning nticeg , ng and packingMcstate agents and officials: Uborers, brass mill^.*. -MA driers, ciothing and men's fumishiiigs Semiskilled operative^ sugar factories and refineries.. Bdigious, charity, and wdfare workers Laborers, rul)t>er factories-.. rSjCottoff mills lAborers, slaughter and packing houses.. laborers, cigar and tobacco factories . Opticians (retail dealers) Decorators, drapers, and window dressers (stores).. ifiaiskilled operatives^ car and railroad shops«., Laborers, tanneries B n es and bank officials a kr km^'managers and officials. " Sm^ed operatives,flourand £ Um^ States officials (except post] tats (retaU dealers) T. Mail dealers, departmentstores WM^electrical supply factories. 1" *!! I l l I! fie^skilled operatives^ other iron'and steel factories ^ wborers, other woodworking factories * - curios, antiquW/and no v^^^ e^^ Retaildealers.mu' .» . . ^ I- W C I u uoi i» tives.. . ., U Jgsmger, errand, and office girls 6".. ^wrers, steam railroad fv^ " "petaiorSr,, fjborers, porters, and helpers in stores j«oorers,Bianoand organ factories rs^tos^^ziers, and vamishers (factory) 1111.. 1910 8,910 472,163 13 378 1,495 4,034 10,075 4,950 S,08o 3,315 2,290 122,665 3,586 405 1,163 2,958 1,462 2 405 987 1,504 990 2,927 279 558 1,044 216 3,223 9,208 871 1,738 3 213 662 26,927 3 952 1 714 112 1,155 2,476 1,787 976 777 4.226 27,389 2.169 2,730 4,349 584 588 652 962 952 3.227 13 602 36 338 2,993 4,931 6,652 5,016 5ei;744 760 549 1,530 725 9,787 3.262 16 860 6,586 6,098 858 178,379 8,403 '725 2.263 5 0S3 1,322 579 5,767 1,432 4; 956 330 439 948 685 377 307 1,672 11,041 878 1,112 1,781 240 242 275 407 406 1,381 16,043 1,346 2,245 2,577 2,325 263,315 358 259 729 347 4,695 1,675 8,219 3 248 3,009 424 88,262 4,164 360 1,129 2,537 1910 to 1920. 289.1 284.9 27aa 269.1 216.9 24a6 238.6 236;2 235.9 228-5 225.6 214.6 212.2 21US 207.8 206.5 202.9 198.9 196.0 189.0 187.^ 179.7 169.4 163.1 161.2 160.9 158.9 153.1 152.8 148.1 147.0 145.5 144.2 143.3 143.0 137:1 136.4 134.5 133.7 131.0 125.5 122.4 119.6 119.3 115.7 114.5 112.3 112.0 109.9 108.9 108.5 107.1 105,1 102.8 102.7 102.4 102.1 101.8 101.4 100.4 100.4 t w S ^ y includes some teachers in schools below coUegiate rank. ^ mS. ^^^^ ^^^ steel factories and foundries other'than agncidtural implement fiictories,. autoa^d^* fumac^ and steel rolling millsrcar and; railroad shops, ship and boat building. J d ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ o r S n r ^ t o r i e f f other than ftiniitarBfoctories».piano and organ factories, and saw ^^cept telegraph messengers. E x c e p t under extraordinary conditions, those occupations whicli ^^^ increases amounting to huge numbers (see Table V I I ) are not 26 THE OCCUPATIONAL PROGRESS OF W 0 M E 2 t . 26 the ones which show great percentage increases. Clerks (except clerks in stores), stenographers and typists, and telephone operators are occupations which appear in Tables VII and IX as having increased enormously both in number and in per cent. Changes in occupations numerically unimportant. Changed times and changing conditions are evidenced also by increases and decreases in occupations which are unimportant numerically. The country loses nothing by the fact that there are fewer midwives, fewer women bartenders and saloon keepers, fewer bathhouse keepers and attendants, and fewer dance-hall and skatingrink keepers. Nor is the country always the gainer when women branch out into new and untried occupations; for instance, 323 women reported their occupations as longshoremen and stevedores in 1920, as compared with 44 i n 1910; 1,495 said they were .coal-mine operatives, and 163 gave their occupations as laborers on road and street building and repairing. On the other hand, policewomen numbered 236 in 1920 and street 'car conductors 253; in neither of these occupations was a single woman returned in 1910. COMPARISON W I T H CHANGES IN T H E OCCUPATIONS OF MEN. As women branch out into every phase of industry, are they taking, the places of men or are they merely keeping pace with development in our industrial life? Table X throws a little light on this question, as i t shows the increase or decrease from 1910 to 1920 in the number of men and women engaged in occupations in which 1,000 or more persons of each sex were employed at each census. T a b l e X . — / n e r e a ^ e or decrease from 1910 to 1920 in number of persons of each sex 10 years of age and over engaged in certain selected ^ occupations, and per cent of inoi'ease or deci'ease. Increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) , 1910 to 1920. Occupation. Number. POPULATION 10 TEARS OF AGE AND OVEE AU occupations AgricTdtnre, forestry, and animal husbandry +5,262,411 +2,973,173 -982,551 Dairy fanners, farmers, and stock raisers +230,041 Dairy farm, farm, and stock farm laborers -1,302,635 Daily farm, farm, garden, orchard, etc., foremen +35,289 Gardeners, floats, fruit growers, and nurserymen..,... +28,695 Garden, greenhouse, orchard, and nursery laborers... +1,136 Poultry raisers and poultry yard laborers +3,C02 Extraction of minerals ployed at each census (1920 and 1910). Female. Male. +123,284 Number. Percent. +14.2 +5,896,634 +17.1 Per cent. +473,739 +5.9 - 9 . 1 . -723,373 -40.0 +4.0 -28.6 +81.3 +2L8 +0.9 +30.6 -8,120 -725,169 +6 564 + 1 449 + 1 947 -271 -3.1 -47.8 +12.8 +1,770 +iei.i +9.9 THE O C C U P A T I O N A L PHOGEESS OF 27 WOMEN. TABLE or decrease from 1910 to 1920 in number of persons of each sejp 10 years of age and over engaged in certain selected ocmpations, and per cent of increase or decrease—Continued. Increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) , 1910 to i m Occupation. Male. Pemale. Number.. Per cent. +2,080,022 ICannfacturing ajid mechanical industries. -245,604 +31,283 +9,859 -32,223 +990 +13,509 +67,706 +240,221 +20,637 -3,354 +19,827 +3,669 +35,291 +6,242 -28.8 +78.8 +86.2 -21.1 +18.3 +134.4 +89.6 +50.4 +49.0 +109,771 +6.0 Broom and brush factories Button factories Oiemiealand allied industries Cigar and tobacco factories Clay, glass, and stone industries Clothing industries Electrical supply fiictories Food industries Iron and steelindustries Other metal industries leather belt, leather case. etc.. factories. Lumber and furniture industries Paper and pulp mills., box factories, -278 -2,745 +10,431 -792 -3.9 -12.1 -19.5 +52.8 -42.9 +66.2 +70.3 +288.7 +78.5 -671 +1,265 +8,906 +1,941 +1,546 +1,846 +9,814 +6,451 +2,477 +6,723 +1,048 +726 +2,630 +2,691 -4.2 +62.3 +179.7 ; +81.3 +32.1 +133.7 +155.2 +105.1 +93-9 +167.4 +73.3 .+39.8 +198.9 +115.7 +86.2 +64.9 +173.6 +78.0 +91.6 -11.4 -33.0 +14.0 +10,902 +1,800 +1,618 +1,944 +3,488 +3,627 -52,849 +1,134 +189.0 +50.8 +145.5 +95.1 +238.6 +77.2 -43.2 +100.4 +1,182 Manuiacturers and officials.. Milliners and millinery dealers -186 + 14,914 -18,694 -6,961 -5,148 +23,816 +47,810 +286,678 +11,888 +4,336 - 4 246 +15,618 +2,215 +6,430 +46,200 +11,069 +5,806 -3,148 ng industries Electrical supply factories.. Food industries - Iron and steel industries Other meta 1 industries Lumber and furniture industries. Paper and pulp mills.. Prmting and pul " " Rubber factone Shoe factories Textile industriesCk)tton mills.., Knitting milU Silk mills..... Woolen and worsted mills. +13.1 +16.3 +86.9 -23.4 -8.8 -3.5 +174.7 +69.6 +83.0 +24.3 +51.2 ' -2.8 +60.1 +46.6 +19.6 +218.2 +9.1 +298.5 -9.9 +261 +430 +4,722 +12,115 +3,704 +28,373 +16,348 +35,802 +34,262 +9,688 +1,300 +4,693 +2,768 +5,183 +8,411 +14,146 +2,381 +1,722 +12.3 +9.0 +34.9 +16.9 +39.2 +12.0 +148.1 +97.8 +145.4 +46.0 +42.2 +33.6 +26.2 +2.5 +14.4 +80.7 +23.9 +60.0 +90.3 -4,652 +13,786 —56 +4,394 +1,750 +1,692 +214 +13,934 +986 +11,573 -3,391 +8,410 -26.3 +9.9 -2.8 +19.5 +40.4 +56.0 .+9.2 +48.0 +8.8 +21.8 -2.1 +44.4 -9,308 +8,519 -397 +15,344 +1,306 +245 -36 +22,408 +379 +9,659 -8,985 +974 -47.3 +6.1 -15.2 +23.5 +11.2 +7.0 -3.5 +44.5 +7.3 +18.6 -22.0 +75.3 +319,733 +12.6 +106,429 +99.8 -76,307 -14.1 +13.1 +L4 +22.3 +3,338 +309 +8,641 +90,117 +i;053 +102.8 +30.6 +105.1 +102.1 +87.2 +1,086 Rubber facto.. Shoe factories Straw factories Tanneries Textile industriesCarpet mills; Cottoi . aiding, and tent factories.. SUk mills Textile dyeing,finishingVandp^^^^ ^^^ worsted mills :"::::::: +10.1 +1.0 +13.5 +78.5 -12.3 Percent. +27,609 +2,339 +4,664 +7,993 +94,023 -28,603 -1,802 +8,349 Bakers. Buffers and polisbers (metal) Compositors, linotypers, and tn)esctters., Foremen and overseers (manufacturing).. Jewelers and lapidaries (factory) Laborers: Building, general, and not specified laborers.. Chemical and allied industn Cigar and tobacco factories. Trwsportation. +23.6 +8,595 - +293 +15,321 + 121,884 -1,082 Number. -1.1 +6.1 28 „ T H E . OCCUPATIOITAL. PEOGEESS OF o j a b l e x.—/w^jrease or dea^ease from WOMEK. 1910 to Id^O in number of persons of each sex 10 years of age and over enffa^ed in certain selected occupations^ and pep cent of increase or decrease—Continued. Increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) , igiO to 1920. Occupation. Male. Female. Number. Trade Bankers and bank official? Clerks in stores* -— Cominercial travelers Demonstrators Floorwalkers and foremen in stores. Fruit graders and packers Inspectors, gaugers, and samplers Insurance agents Laborers, porters, and helpers in stores Packers, wbolesaie and retail tmde Beal estate agents and officialsRetail dealers Sales agents Salesmen and saleswomen (stores) Public service (not elsewhere dMSified) t>fficials and inspectors (city) Officials and inspectors (county) Postmasters Professional service • Actors and showmen Artists^ sculptors, and teachers of artw Authors, editors, and reporters College presidents and professors 3 Dentists H ^ e r ^ i c e p t ost^palis ^ d p h y ^ a n s an( Keepers of charitable and penal institutions. LibrariansMusidans and teachers of music Officials of I edges, societies, etc Photographers Physicians and surgeons and osteopaths^.... Religious, charity, and welfare workers Teachers (athletics, dancing, etc.) Teachers (school) Trained nurses Domestic and personal-service Barbers, hairdressers, and manicurists Boarding and lodging house keepers Charwomen and cleaners Cleaners and renovators (clothing, etc.) Cooks (Jeneralservantsii Hotel keepers and managers Housekeepers and stewards Janitors and sextons Laborers (domestic and professional service). Launderers and laundresses (not in laundry) Laundry operatives Nurses (not trained) Restauran.t, caf6, and lunch room keepers... Waiters Clerical occupations Accountants and auditors Agents, canvassers, and collectors Bookeepers and cashiers Bundle and cash boys and girls.. Messenger, errand, m d offic^ioysaiid ^fis ^ Stenographers and typists Percent, +428,605 +13.6 +199.704 +23,762 -32,068 +15,487 +389 +2,311 +998 +28,909 +18,433 +3,211 +16,992 +121,369 +8,783 +142,710 +43.7 -U.6 +9.6 +31.1 +11.2 +86,3 +8.5 +33-6 +18.8 +30.9 +13.8 +10.8 +27.9 +22.8 +2,554 +58,803 +213 +54 +993 +1,048 -730 +2,546 +4,241 +3,089 +6,281 +11,877 -2,464 +105,834 +302,933 +68.0 +S,236 -281 +1,361 +1,600 -0.9 +7.S +8.4 +576 +1,687 +2,486 +167,921 +17.5' +2S2,6ffr +1,66S -1,475 +10,622 - C 2 +11.3 -1-2 Number. Percent. +1,254 -^812 +2,497 +83.6 +40.2 +5.9 +217.9 +5L6 +3,075 +5.0 +53^ -11800 +192 -^355 -0.7 +99.8 +105.1 -1.3 -6.1 +158,343 +67,156 -23,370 -1.9 -344,297 +9,988 -4,400 +4 653 +4,879 +12,853 +11,292 +5.8 -19,1 +64.7 +39.9 +11.0 +13.0 -17.5 +8.3 +63.3 -37.9 -20.5 +11.3 +21.4 +43.'8 +9.3 +15,580 H^547 +4,710 +2,707 +201 +2,755 +3,329 +329 -992 +7,070 -8,820 +1,322 +57,961 -19,041 -2,811 +4 059 +3; 412 +22,027 +9,509 +12.6 +1.2 +^'686 -64,818 -216,762 -101 +31,017 +7,586 -1540 -134,130 +4,392 +21,746 +5 128 +31,123 +556,596 +48.7 +832,892 +09,420 +63,616 +6,599 -1,768 +417,909 +3,788 -2,968 +194.7 +66.0 +2.5 -41.4 +69.9 +4.1 -5.6 +9,792 +7,029 +162,177 - 2 125 +349,498 +5,092 +301,429 «Many ofthe "Clerksin stores"' probably are " Salesmen and saleswomen." » Probably includes some teache „?^^nsus ori910 and therefore they mmt •Osteopaths were included with ] be combined with physicians and surgeons In 1920 for purposes of comparison. wtnen* cooks; 6Exclusive of bell W s , chore boys, etc.; butlers; chambermaids; coachmen and footmen, ladies' maids, valets, etc.; and nursemaids. ? Except telegraph messengers. T H E OCGUPATIONAL» PROGRESS OF WDMEK; 29 , A study of this table shows that in a majority of the occupalisted an increase or a decrease was common to both sexes. Of the 125 occupations shown, only 29 indicated a decrease for o e sex and an increase for the other. Most of these 29 occupan tions were in manufacturing and mechanical industries and in professional service. The rate of increase in the various occupations, however, was by no means the same for each sex. Table X shows 83 occupations with increases for both men and women and 50 occupations with greater percentage increases for women than for men. With all due allowa c for the smaller basic figures in the case of women workers, it is ne nerertheless of interest to note that in each of 12 occupations the per eait of increase for women was more than 100 points higher than that shown for men in the same occupation. No one is surprised to learn that men decreased in number and women increased as clerks in stores^ as school teachers, as trained nurses, and as stenographers and typists. But why should men actors and showmen decrease 1,475 during this decade and women in the same profession increase 1,254? Why did the number of m n authors, editors, and reporters decline 382 in ten years and e women increase 2,497 during the same period? On the other hand, why did the number of women musicians and artists decrease while m n in the same professions were increasing? The only answers e to these questions which suggest themselves are that the war may have caused a temporary shortage in the number of men actors; and that many women musicians and artists who had previously been content to " dabble " in these pursuits turned to more remunerative employment. It is even more startling to learn that male cooks increased 12,853 and general servants 11,292, when the reduction among women in these two classes has already been shown to have run into the hundreds of thousands. The Census Bureau does not distinguish between servants in private homes and those employed in more public capacities, but it is probable that the proportion of all men servants who are employed in hotels, restaurants, clubs, etc., is pater than the proportion of all women servants so employed, and it is probable that an increase rather than a reduction has taken place ^inong employees in this type of establishment. The great increase in the number of women telegraph operators has already been mentioned in this report, but its significance is not brought out unless one understands that there was no corre^onding increase among the men engaged in this occupation. I n 1 2 there were 8,641 more women and 840 more men workmg as 90 telegraph operators than in 1910. I n 1920 men still outnumbered tions 30 T H E OCCUPATIONAL PROGRESS OF WOMEN. women nearly four to one in this occupation, but if the rate of increase noted for the decade in question continues, it will not be long before women overtake the men in numbers. From Table X it appears that women are supplanting men in cigar and tobacco factories, while they show increases in lumber and furniture industl^ies and in clay, glass, and stone industries which are made conspicuous by decreases in the number of men as well as by the fact that they have in the past not been considered as offering any special inducements leading to the employment of women. The numbers of both men and women operatives greatly increased in those industries which showed an unusual development during this decade, notably iron and steel industries, food industries, rubber factories, electrical supply factories, and silk mills. These industries experienced an imperative demand for labor, but in general it may be said that the numerical increases for the semiskilled of the two sexes were in the same proportion, roughly speaking, as were the total numbers of gainfully employed i n the United States—a ratio of nearly 4 men to 1 woman. These JBgures show that the employment of women in important industrial occupations is keeping pace with the needs of industry, that opportunities for such employment are steadily increasing, and that a very significant development of the use of women in manufacturing and mechanical industries has occurred during the past decade, even though men are numerically much more important. PART I I . WOMEN AT WORK I N AMERICAN TERRITORIES. Much information of interest concorning the employment of women in the territorial possessions of the United States is found in three bulletins on " Occupation Statistics " issued by the Bureau of the Census early in 1922. These bulletins give the number of gamfully employed women in Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico, classified by occupation, by color or race, nativity, and parentage, by age, and by marital condition, for each of the Territories as a whole, and for Honolulu and Hilo in Hawaii, and for Arecibo, Bayamon, Caguas, Mayaguez, Ponce, and San Juan in Porto Rico. Comparisons are m d with the census statistics of 1910 and 1900. ae In studying the statistics for women at work in the three Terri, tories, two things must be borne in mind: First, the difference in size of the female population of the three Territories; and second, the remarkable differences in the per cent of increase shown for this population from 1910 to 1920. Table X I shows the increases in the Territorial population for women during the decade considered and compares them with the corresponding increase for continental United States. TABLE X I . — T o U i l female population^ fan ale population 10 years of age and over, ana per ceiH of increase from 1910 to 1920, for continental United States, for Alaska, for Hawaii, and for Porto Rico, Total female population. Female population 10 years of age and over. Area. 1920 Sgjgental United States HawaU Porto Rico... 1910 51,810,189 20,497 m,766 651,984 44,639,989 18,499 68,810 560,711 Per cent of increase. 1920 1910. Percent of increase. 16.1 40,449,346 34,552,712 13,859 1^824 10.8 47,502 70,994 52.3 395,084 456,646 16.3 17.1 7.0 49.5 15.6 phenomenal increase for one decade is noted in the female population of Hawaii, the per cent shown being more than three times as great as that for continental United States- The number of ^omen in Alaska is increasing very slowly, however, while in , Bico, by far the most populous of the Territories, the increase ^ female population is practically the same as that for the United states as a whole. 31 32 THE OCCUPATIO]SRAL, P R O G R E S S OE WDMEJS". I n each of the three Territories studied the per cent of increase is less among women 10 years of age and over than among those of all ages; the opposite is true of the United States. These facts may indicate a higher birth rate in the Territories than in the United States; or, on the other hand, they may indicate that the accessions by immigration of adult women overbalance m the United States the natural increase in the population. Alaska is the only Territory in which the increase in the number of gainfully employed women has more than kept pace with the increase in female population 10 years of age and over. Thi? fact is brought out in Table X I L T A B i i E X I I . — N u m 7 ) e r and proportion age and over in dontinental United Rico, 1920 and 1910. of gainfully occupied teamen 10 years of States, in Alaska, in Bateau^ and in Porto Women 10 years of age and over. 1320 Area. Total number. 1910 Engaged in gainful occupations. Number. Continental TJnited States........ 4(^449,346 Alaska...... ............ .... 141824 Hawaii 70,994 Porto Rico 456,645 8,649,511 2L0S5 14,263 86,462 Total mimber. Number. Percent. Per cent. 21.1 14.1 20.1 18,9 Engaged in gainful Dccupatioais. 3^ 552,712 13,859 47,502 395,084 8,075,772 1 723 11 271 76,892 25.4 12.4 23.7 19.5 I n 1920 there was a larger proportion of women employed in Hawaii than in Alaska or i n Porto Kico, though a slightly smaller proportion than in continental United States. I n 1910 the proportion of women occupied was higher in Hawaii than in continental United States, much higher than in Porto Eico, and nearly twice as high as in Alaska. I n Porto Rico and in Hawaii, as in continental United States, the proportion of women occupied decreased from 1910 to 1920; this decrease was especially marked in Hawaii. I n the United States the ratio of gainfully employed men to women in 1920 was 3.9 to 1; in Alaska it was 11.9 to 1; in Hawaii 6.8 to 1; and in Porto Eico 3.7 to 1. GENERAL DIVISIONS OP OCCUPATIONS- Table X I I I gives an idea of what the women in the T e r r i t o r i e s are doing and compares their distribution in the general divisions of occupations with that for continental United States. 33 T H E OCCUPATIONAL PROGRESS OF WOMEN*. T BE AL p^^ ^^^^^ distribution of women 10 years of age and met in each general division of occupations for continental United States, for Alaslca, for Hawaii, and for Porto Rico, 1920. Continental U n i t ^ StatesGeEeral division of occupations. Number. Alaska. Per cent Numdistriber. bution. HawaU. Porto Rico. Per Per cent Numcent Numdistriber. distriber. bution. bution. Per cent distribution. 8,549,511 100.0 2,085 100.0 14,263 100.0 86,462 100.0 1,084,128 2,m 12.7 0) 61 20 2.9 1.0 6,415 45.0 17,719 20.5 1,030,341 213,054 667 792 Trade 21 7&4 Pablic service (n. e. c.') 1,010,498 Phtfesaonal service Domestic and personal service— 2,186,924 1,426,116 fleriraloccuDatioxLS..... 22.6 2.5 7.8 0.3 11.9 25.6 16.7 503 32 169 18 395 739 148 24.1 L5 8.1 0.9 18.9 35.4 7.1 1,057 153 708 20 1,918 3,419 573 7.4 1.1 5.0 0.1 13.4 24.0 4.0 30,809 '283 916 63 3,253 32,482 937 35.6 0.3 1.1 ai 3.8 37.6 1.1 AMctature, forestry, and animal nnshandrv * FTtrai'tion of minerals.... Manufecturing and mechanical iTidiistriGs I Less than one-teuth of 1 per cent. »Not elsewhere classified- Agricultural pursuits claimed a much larger proportion of the working women in Hawaii than i n the other two Territories; nearly one-half of the employed women i n these islands were working on farms, while 20.5 per cent in Porto Eico, 12.7 per cent in continental United States, and 2.9 per cent in Alaska were similarly engaged. Porto Rico occupied the highest place in the proportion of wageearning women who were engaged in manufacturing and mechanical industries (35.6 per cent); between 20 and 25 per cent were so occupied in Alaska and i n the United States and only 7.4 per cent in Hawaii. A much smaller proportion of the working women of Porto Bico were engaged i n trade than in the other areas considered. The proportion of professional women was highest in Alaska, and higher in Hawaii than in the United States; while professional women in Porto Eico comprised only 3.8 per cent of all gainfully occupied women. One out of every three working women i n Porto Eico and Alaska Ws engaged in domestic and personal service, as compared with one a oiit of every four in continental United States and in Hawaii- Yet Porto Eico, which had the highest proportion of women in this general division of occupations, showed a numerical decrease from 1910 tol920 of 12,667 (28.1 per cent) among those so occupied; in Hawaii fte corresponding decrease was 355 (9.4 per cent); and in the United States 344,297 (13.6 per cent). I n Alaska the number of women engaged in domestic and personal service increased 11.3 per cent during fte decade, though the proportion of all women so engaged showed a '34 ,THE OCCUPATIONAL PRINCIPAL PROGRESS OF WOMEN. OCCUPATIONS. I n Table X I V are presented certain selected occupations which -offer employment to women in the Territorial possessions. TABLE X I V . — ^ V o n l e n 30 years of age and over for Alaska, for Hawafi, engaged in selected^ occupations and for Porto Rico, 1920. ' Women 10 years of age and over: 1920. Occupation. Porto Rico. Alaska. 2,085 14,263 86.462 61 6,415 17,719 140 AU occupations., •Agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry. Hawaii. 771 2,153 238 122 193 Fanners, coffee farms Farmers, general farms Farmers, sugar farms Farmers, tobacco farms Garden and orchard laborers.. General farmers (laborers)... Laborers, coffee f^rms......... Laborers, general farms Laborers, pineapple farms Laborers, sugar farms Laborers, tobacco farms "134' 424 180 629 4,651 282 2,268 2,964 1,774 6,667 20 3Bxtraction of minerals 503 Apprentices to dressmakers and milliners Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in factory). Straw hat makers Tailoresses Workers * in— ' Cigar making and tobacco working Clothing industries Food industries Fish curing and packing Fruit and vegetable canning, etc Sugar factories Textile industries Lace and embroidery making 1,057 30,809 120 UazLUfacturing and mechanical industries 10 274' 19 102 1,311 12,650 3,633 U 3,568 (') 201 . 34 8 23 8 32 91( 39 223 433 70 442 , 373 395 Laborers, i , and helpers in stores Retail dealers.. Saleswomen (stores). 190 708 1 68 84 Trade 123 169 Telephone operators 153 25 Transportation 1,918 3,253 25 15 245 75 ^ . 1,447 233 6 3 18 Public service (not elsewhere speclfled).. Professional service Musicians and teachers of music Religious, charity, and welfare workers Teachers Trainednurses — =.. 1 Only those occupations are shown in this table in which 100 or more women were employed in Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico combined. • , * „ lahnrprs 3 " General farmers (laborers)" operate small f&rms of their own, but work most of the time as laoorers for other farmers. ' x. ^ a with«\ll * I f any women were engaged in this occupation they were so few in number as to be classea wim • other occupations" in the census bulletins. * Includes laborers and semiskilled operatives. THE OCCUPATIOKAL TABLE X I V . — W o m c / t 10 years PROGRESS of age ami for Alaska, for Hawaii, over OF engaged and for Porto Rico, 'B5 WOMEN. in selected occupat'mia, Continued. Women 10 years of age and over: 1920. Occupation. Alaska. Domestic and personal service. Barbers, hairdressers, and manicurists ' Boarding and lodging house keepers Hotel keepers and managers Housekeepers and stewardesses . Hunters, trappers, and guides Janitors and sextons Laundresses (not in laundry) Laundry operatives Midwives and nurses (not trained) Restaurant, caf6, and lunch room keepers-. Servants Cooks Nursemaids ClKlcal bccnpations. Bookkeepers and cashiers Clerks (except clerks in stores)., Stenographers and typists Hawaii. 739 3,419 15 49 28 50 74 5 63 43 39 15 244 148 131 49 16 155 Porto Eico. 73 502 76 148 16 2,159 510 30 107 17 39 6t 102 28 119 16,317 116 ,.147 126 15,382 6,016 153 28 ,148 573 937 110 108 '331. 140 235 506 »If any women were engaged in this occupation they were so few in number as to be classed with " All other occupations ** i n the census bulletins. Some occupations numerically important deserve special mention. In Alaska there were only three occupations employing as many as approximately 250 women; these were workers in fish curing and packing, teachers, and servants. More than 90 per cent of the 252 women working in Alaskan fish curing and packing were American Indians, and nearly two-thirds of the women engaged in this industry were married. As might be expected, 207 of the 245 women teachers were Americans by birth; more than one-third of the teachers were married women. A number of women of each race and nativity group represented in the Territory were employed as servants. In Hawaii 4,651 women were working as sugar-farm laborers; 4,116 of these women, or 88.5 per cent, were Japanese; more than three-fourths of all the sugar-farm laborers were married women. The servants in Hawaii numbered 2,159, of whom 1,667 were Japanese, with a scattering number in each of the many races represented among the women of these islands. One-half of these women servants were married. Of the 1,447 women teachers 707 were classed as "Other Caucasians " and presumably the majority of them were Americans; 176 were part Caucasian and part Hawaiian; 164 were Japanese, 113 Chinese, 97 native Hawaiian, 97 Portuguese, and 82 part Hawaiian and part Asiatic. Among the women working as laborers on coffee farms and on pineapple farms the Japanese had an overwhehning majority, as indeed they bad in all agricultural 36 T H E OCCUPATION'AIJ PROGRESS OF WOMEN-. pursuits. As retail dealers and as saleswomen the Japanese women also predominated. More than one-half of the trained nurses in TIawaii were of Caucasian origin, as were also more than one-half of the women engaged in clerical pursuits. Nearly three-fourths of the women engaged in agricultural pursuits in Porto Rico were classed as "Native whites" by the-Census Bureau. Presumably the great majority of persons in this vohv and nativity group were bom in Porto Kico of Spanish ori^n. Among the dressmakers and their apprentices 70.4 per cent were ^'native whites,^' and in most other occupations this nativity group predominated, though in domestic and personal service nearly one-half the women were negroes. STATISTICS P O R CITIES- Occupation statistics are shown s e p a r ^ l y for Honolulu and Hilo i n Hawaii. Only one-third of the women workers of the islands were living in these two cities, axsondition that bears close relation to the fact that 45 per cent of all women at work in Hawaii ^ere engaged in agricultural pursuits. No urban communities are mentioned in the bulletin on Alaska, but for Porto Eico statistics ^re given showing the women occupied i n Arecibo, Bayamon, Caguas, Mayaguez, Ponce, and San Juan. The women workers in these six cities comprised only one-fourth of the total number at work—an even smaller proportion than in Hawaii. This situation can not be explained as in Hawaii, however, l)y a large proportion in agricultural pursuits, since only 20.5 per cent of all women workers were thus engaged i n Porto Eico in 1920. INDUSTRIAL HOME WORK I N PORTO RICO. Nearly 14,000 women, or one-sixth ,of all gainfully occupied women in Porto Eico, were workiag as dressmakers and seamstresses or their apprentices (not in f^tories) whUe in continental United States only 3.8 per cent of all working women were so engag^ Probably the majority of these women were engaged i n h a n d w o r k o n fine muslin underwear, generally done at home. Because of the fact that this work was done at home and by hand, most of the workers returned their occupations as dressmakers or as seamstresses and were classified by the Census Bureau as dressmakers and seamstresses (not i n fa<;tory), the only possible classification of tlie data as returned. On the other hand, .these women for the most part were in reality industrial home workers, just as are those sweat-shop workers who in the big industrial cities of the United States perform certain factory processes on the sewing machine or by hand m their own homes. I n other industries also work is given out to be the o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s op w o m e ^ t . 37 done at home, and lace makers, cigar makers, tobacco workers, and straw-hat makers were found engaged in home work on factory processes. Conditions are, of course, by the very nature of things decidedly different in Porto Eico from those in a large industrial center, and, although definite information as to the extent of home work in, those trades is not given, tfeSl the Census Bureau by a slight change in wording from that used to describe similar occupations in the United States indicates that a majority of those whose occupations are listed above seem to be engaged in home work on factory processes as well as dressmaking.