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!:■ A:V !  ,  r  Tomorrow’s Jobs: Overview Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1990-91 Edition U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics  S.M.8.U. LIBRARIES  Bulletin 2350-1   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  • •  ni h  A.II,  irvjj  ^  *r' /' -yi-  ■viOc-t'  >?5;v?V  Tomorrow’s Jobs Every other year, the Bureau of Labor Statistics develops projections of the labor force, economic growth, industry employment, and occu­ pational employment under alternative assumptions. These projec­ tions, which usually cover a 10- to 15-year period, provide the frame­ work for the discussion of the job outlook in each of the occupational statements in the Handbook. Each of the approximately 250 statements in this edition of the Handbook identifies the principal factors that affect job prospects and indicates how these factors are expected to affect the occupation in the future. This chapter uses the moderate alternative of each of the projections to provide a framework for the individual job outlook discussions. Population Trends Population trends affect employment opportunities in a number of ways. First of all, changes in the size and composition of the population influence the demand for goods and services—a growing and aging population has increased the demand for health services, for example. Equally important, population changes produce corresponding changes in the size and characteristics of the labor force. The U.S. population is expected to grow more slowly over the next 12 years than it did during the previous 12-year period. However, even slow population growth will increase the demand for goods and services, causing greater demand for workers in many occupations and industries. The age structure will shift toward relatively fewer children and youth and a growing proportion of middle-aged and older people well into the 21st century. Several things account for this. The decline in the proportion of children and youth reflects low birth rates that have prevailed for the past 20 years and that seem likely to continue; the impending large increase in the middle-aged population reflects the maturing of the “baby boom” generation born after World War II; and the very rapid growth in the number of old people is attributable to high birth rates prior to the Great Depression of the 1930’s, together with strides in medical science that have made it possible for most Americans to survive into old age. Minorities and immigrants will constitute a larger share of the U.S. population in 2000 than they do today. Substantial increases in the number of Hispanics, Asians, and blacks are anticipated, reflecting high birth rates in these population groups as well as net immigration. Substantial inflows of migrants, both documented and undocumented, are expected to continue. The arrival of immigrants from every comer of the world has significant implications for the labor force because immigrants tend to be of working age but of different educational and occupational backgrounds than the U.S. population as a whole. Population growth varies greatly among geographic regions, which is reflected in differences in the demand for goods and services. Between 1980 and 1988, the population of the Midwest and the Northeast grew by only 1.7 percent and 3 percent, respectively, compared with 12.3 percent in the South and 17.4 percent in the West. These differences reflect the movement of people seeking new jobs or retiring as well as higher birth rates in some areas than in others. Projections by the Bureau of the Census indicate that the West will continue to be the fastest growing region of the country, increasing about 17 percent between 1988 and the year 2000. In the South, the population is expected to increase about 15 percent. The number of people in the Midwest is expected to remain about the same, while the Northeast is projected to increase slightly, by about 2 percent. Geographic shifts in the population alter the demand for and the supply of workers in local job markets. Moreover, many areas are dominated by one or two industries, and local job markets may be extremely sensitive to the economic fortunes of those industries. For these and other reasons, local employment opportunities may differ Digitized 2 for FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  substantially from the projections for the Nation as a whole presented in the Handbook. Sources of information on State and local employment prospects are identified on page 460. Labor Force Trends Population is the single most important factor governing the size and composition of the labor force, which comprises people who are either working or looking for work. The civilian labor force totaled 121.7 million in 1988 and is expected to reach 141.1 million in the year 2000. This projected increase—16 percent—represents a slowing in both the number added to the labor force and the rate of labor force growth, largely due to slower population growth (chart 1). American workers will be an increasingly diverse group as we approach the year 2000: White non-Hispanic men will make up a smaller share of the labor force, and women and minority group members will make up a larger share. White non-Hispanics have historically been the largest component of the labor force, but their share has been dropping and is expected to fall to about 74 percent by 2000. Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian and other racial groups will account for roughly 33 percent of labor force entrants between 1988 and 2000. Women will continue to join the labor force in growing numbers. In the past, much of the growth in the labor force has been due to dramatic increases in participation by women, who are expected to account for slightly over half of all entrants through the year 2000. Not only do most American women of working age hold jobs, they tend to continue working despite competing demands for their time. By 2000, 4 out of 5 women between the ages of 25 and 54 will be in the labor force, which then will be almost evenly divided in terms of its composition by sex. Women were only 41 percent of the labor force as recently as 1976; by 2000, they are expected to account for 47 percent. The changing age structure of the population will directly affect Chart 1.  Labor force growth will slow in the future due to slowing population growth.  Source Bureau of Labor Statistics  For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402  Chart 2  The age distribution of the labor force is changing. (percent)  / /  / 55 years and over  15 percent  35 to 54 years  36 percent  Employment Change Employment is expected to increase from 118.1 million in 1988 to 136.2 million in 2000, or 15 percent. This is only about half the rate of increase recorded during the previous 12-year period. The 18.1 million jobs that will be added to the U.S. economy by 2000 will not be evenly distributed across major industry and occupational groups, which means that the structure of employment will change. The following two sections look at projected employment change from both the industry and occupational perspectives.  / 25 to 34 years  25: : :: percent;;  / 16 to 24 years  ■ ’ 24  ;  percent  / 1976  1988  2000  Source Bureau of Labor Statistics  tomorrow’s labor force. As the proportion of young workers declines, the pool of experienced workers will increase (chart 2). The number of youths (16 to 24 years of age) in the population will drop until the children of the baby-boom generation enter the labor force during the 1990’s. Among youths, the teenage labor force (16 to 19 years of age) will decline until 1992, then rise over the rest of the decade for a net increase of 800,000 over the 1988-2000 period. However, because the labor force 22 to 24 years of age is projected to decline until 1998, with only a slight recovery by 2000, the total size of the youth labor force should remain the same over the projection period and account for only 16 percent of the entire labor force at the end of the century, compared to 19 percent in 1988 and 24 percent in 1976. Thus colleges, the Armed Forces, eating and drinking places, and other establishments can expect to see a decrease in the population from which they draw students and young workers throughout most of the 1988-2000 period. The scenario should be different for prime-age workers (25 to 54 years of age). These workers, many of whom were bom during the baby-boom years, should account for 72 percent of the labor force in 2000, up from 69 percent in 1988 and 61 percent in 1976. Even more striking is the growing proportion of workers between the ages of 35 and 54. These workers should account for 49 percent of the labor force by the year 2000, a significant increase from 40 percent in 1988 and 36 percent in 1976. Because workers in their mid-thirties to mid-fifties usually have substantial work experience and tend to be more stable and reliable than younger workers, this could result in im proved productivity and a greater pool of experienced applicants from which employers may choose. Contrary to popular belief, the number of older workers (55 years and above) is expected to be only slightly higher in 2000 than in 1988 because the labor force participation of those in this age group is not expected to change appreciably. Older workers should make up 12 percent of the work force in 2000, the same as in 1988 and down from 15 percent in 1976. In recent years, the educational attainment of the labor force has risen dramatically. Between 1976 and 1988, the proportion of the labor force age 18 to 64 with at least 1 year of college increased from 32 to 42 percent, while the proportion with 4 years of college or more increased from 16 to 22 percent (chart 3). The emphasis on education will continue. Three out of the four  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  fastest growing occupational groups will be the executive, administra­ tive, and managerial; professional specialty; and technicians and re­ lated support occupations. These occupations generally require the highest levels of education and skill. In contrast, such factors as office and factory automation, changes in consumer demand, and substitution of imports for domestic products are expected to cause employment to stagnate or decline in many occupations that require little formal education—laborers, assemblers, and machine operators, forexample. Opportunities for high school dropouts will be increasingly limited, and workers who cannot read and follow directions may not even be considered for most jobs.  Industrial Profile The shift from goods-producing to service-producing employment is very well known and not at all recent. (See chart 4.) By 2000, nearly 4 out of 5 jobs will be in industries that provide services. Expansion of service sector employment is linked to a number of different factors, including changes in consumer tastes and preferences, legal and regula­ tory changes, advances in science and technology, and changes in the way businesses are organized and managed. Factors responsible for varying growth prospects in major industry divisions are noted below. Service-Producing Industries. Services. Services is both the largest and the fastest growing industry division within the serviceproducing sector (chart 5.) This division provided 34.5 million jobs in 1988; employment is expected to rise 28 percent to 44.2 million by 2000, accounting for almost one-half of all new jobs. Jobs will be found in small firms as well as in large corporations, in all levels of government, and in industries as diverse as banking, hospitals, data processing, and management consulting. The two largest industry groups in this division, health services and business services, are Chart 3  The proportion of workers with a college background has increased substantially since  1 to 3 years 16 percent  4 years of high school or less 68 percent 20 percent  57 percent  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  3  Chart 4  Industries providing services will account for nearly four out of five jobs by the year 2000. Workers  122.1 million  105 million  96.4 \ million/  79.1  million  79.7 : million  55.7 million  Total \ employment \ Service-producing employment  3I \I  \  ;:- million. 23.4 > ! a  25 3  million  million  Goods-producing employment  Source. Bureau of Labor Statistics  projected to continue to grow very fast, and educational services, which has been growing slowly, is projected to have average growth. Health care will continue to be one of the most important groups of industries in the economy in terms of job creation. Employment in the health services industries is projected to grow from 8.2 to 11.3 million. New technology and a growing and aging population will increase the demand for health services. Because of the rapid expansion of health care employment, 7 of the 10 fastest growing occupations between 1988 and 2000 will be health related. Not all of the health industries will grow at the same rate; outpatient care facilities and offices of “other health practitioners,” which includes chiropractors, optome­ trists, psychologists, and other practitioners will be increasing the fastest. Hospitals, both private and public, will be growing more slowly than all the other health industries, but faster than the average for all industries. Nonetheless, hospitals will continue to employ the most workers among the health care industries. Another important industry group that is expected to generate many jobs is business services. These industries employed 5.6 million workers in 1988 and are projected to employ 8.3 million in the year 2000. Person­ nel supply services, which includes temporary help agencies, is the largest industry in this group and will add the most new jobs. Business services also includes the fastest growing industry in the economy— computer and data processing services. This industry is expected to grow five times faster than the average for all industries, due to a rapidly increasing demand from business firms, government agencies, and indi­ viduals. A third industry in business services—research, management, and consulting—is expected to have very rapid growth, although not as rapid as computer and personnel supply services. Education, in both the private and public sectors, is expected to add 1.2 million jobs to the 8.9 million employed in 1988. The increase reflects rising enrollments projected for elementary and secondary schools. The elementary school age population (ages 5-13) will rise by over 2 million between 1988 and 2000, and the secondary school age (14-17) by 1.3 million. On the other hand, the traditional college age population (18-24) has been declining and is projected to continue to decline for the next decade; however, rising enrollments of older students, women, foreign students, and part-time students have offset the absolute decline in the 18-24 population. Not all the increase in employment in education will be for teachers; teacher aides, counsel­ ors, technicians, and administrative staff are also projected to increase. Digitized for 4 FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Retail trade. Nearly 3.8 million jobs will be added in retail trade, which will provide 22.9 million jobs in 2000, up 20 percent from the 1988 level. Eating and drinking places will employ the most workers in the retail trade division and also will be among the fastest growing industries. Substantial increases in retail employment are also antici­ pated in grocery stores, department stores, and miscellaneous shopping goods stores. Government. Between 1988 and 2000, government employment, excluding public education and public hospitals, is expected to increase 7 percent, from 9 million to 9.6 million jobs. Most of the growth will be in State and local government; the Federal Government is expected to add only 88.000 jobs. Finance, insurance, and real estate. Employment is expected to increase 16 percent—adding 1.1 million jobs to the 1988 level of 6.7 million. The fastest growing industry within this division is expected to be security and commodity brokers and exchanges, although it will not be growing as fast as in the past. Wholesale trade. Employment in wholesale trade is expected to rise from 6 million to 6.9 million between 1988 and 2000, an increase of 15 percent. Transportation, communications, and public utilities. Overall em­ ployment in this division is expected to rise 10 percent from the 1988 level of 5.5 million. The three fastest growing industries in this division are arrangement of transportation, freight forwarding, and air carriers, each growing at least three times as fast as the division as a whole. Only modest employment growth is expected in the communications industry. Although output will show an increase, new laborsaving technology will result in very little job growth. Goods-Producing Industries. Employment in this sector peaked in the late 1970’s and has not recovered from the recessionary period of the early 1980’s and the trade imbalances that began in the mid1980’s. Although overall employment in goods-producing industries is expected to show little change, growth prospects within the sector vary considerably. Construction. Construction is expected to add 760,000jobs between 1988 and 2000. Construction employment is expected to increase by 15 percent, from 5.1 to 5.9 million jobs, in response to economic conditions and demographic trends. Manufacturing. Manufacturing employment is expected to decline 2 percent from the 1988 level of 19.4 million. The projected loss of  Chart 5  Some industries will grow more rapidly than others.  Percent change in employment, 1988-2000 Service-producing  7? $ .Af A# 4Trb .4 ®  Source  Bureau of Labor Statistics  Goods-producing  . CT..C; <3 dSS  m a  manufacturing jobs reflects productivity gains achieved from increased investment in manufacturing technologies as well as a winnowing out of less efficient operations. The composition of manufacturing employment is expected to shift since most of the jobs that will disappear are production jobs. The number of professional, technical, and managerial positions in manu­ facturing firms will actually increase. Mining. Mining employment is expected to remain at about the present level of 700,000. Underlying this projection is the assumption that domestic oil production will drop and oil imports will rise sharply. Agriculture. Employment in agriculture has been declining for many decades and this trend is expected to continue—the number of jobs is projected to decline 4 percent, from 3.3 million to 3.1 million. The decline in agricultural jobs reflects a decrease of 225,000 in the number of self-employed workers. Wage and salary positions are projected to increase by 91,000—with especially strong growth in the agricultural services industry. Occupational Profile Continued expansion of the service-producing sector conjures up an image of a work force dominated by cashiers, retail sales workers, and waiters. However, although service sector growth will generate millions of clerical, sales, and service jobs, it will also create jobs for financial managers, engineers, nurses, electrical and electronics technicians, and many other managerial, professional, and technical workers. In fact, the fastest growing occupations will be those that require the most educational preparation. This section furnishes an overview of projected employment in 12 categories or “clusters” of occupations based on the Standard Occupa­ tional Classification (SOC). The SOC is used by all Federal agencies that collect occupational employment data, and is the organizational framework for grouping statements in the Handbook. In the discussion that follows, projected employment change is described as faster, slower, or the same as the average for all occupa­ tions. (These phrases are explained on page 2.) While occupations that are growing fast generally offer good opportunities, the numerical change in employment also is important because large occupations, such as retail sales worker, may offer many more new jobs than a small, fast-growing occupation, such as paralegal (chart 6). Technicians and related support occupations. Workers in this group provide technical assistance to engineers, scientists, and other profes­ sional workers as well as operate and program technical equipment. Employment in this cluster is expected to increase 32 percent, from 3.9 to 5.1 million, making it the fastest growing in the economy (chart 7). It also contains the fastest growing occupation—paralegals. Employment of paralegals is expected to skyrocket due to increased utilization of these workers in the rapidly expanding legal services industry. Professional specialty occupations. Employment in this cluster is expected to grow 24 percent, from 14.6 to 18.1 million jobs. Much of this growth is a result of rising demand for engineers; computer specialists; lawyers; health diagnosing and treating occupations; and preschool and elementary and secondary school teachers. Service occupations. This group includes a wide range of workers in protective services, food and beverage preparation, and cleaning and personal services. These occupations are expected to grow 23 percent, from 18.5 to 22.7 million, because a growing population and economy, combined with higher incomes and increased leisure time, will spur demand for all types of services. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations. Employ­ ment in this cluster is expected to increase 22 percent, from 12.1 to 14.8 million. Growth will be spurred by the increasing complexity of business operations and by large employment gains in trade and services—industries that employ a higher than average proportion of managers. Employment in management-related occupations tends to be tied to industry growth. Thus jobs for employment interviewers are projected to grow much faster than the average, in line with the expected growth in the personnel supply industry. Hiring requirements in many managerial and administrative jobs are rising. Work experience, specialized training, or graduate study will be increasingly necessary. Familiarity with computers is a “must” in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chart 6  Even though an occupation is expected to grow rapidly, it may provide fewer openings than a slower growing larger occupation.  75 percent  A percent  Percent change in employment,  730.000  1988-2000  Absolute change in employment,  workers  62,000 workers  1988-2000 Paralegals  Retail sales workers  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  a growing number of firms, due to the widespread use of computerized management information systems. Marketing and sales occupations. Employment in this large cluster is projected to increase 20 percent, from 13.3 to 15.9 million jobs. Demand for real estate brokers, travel agents, and securities and financial services sales workers is expected to grow much faster than the average due to strong growth in the industries that employ them. Many part- and full-time job openings are expected for retail sales workers and cashiers due to the large size, high turnover, and faster than average employment growth in these occupations. The outlook for higher paying sales jobs, however, will tend to be more competitive. Construction trades and extractive occupations. Overall employ­ ment in this group of occupations is expected to rise from 4.0 to 4.7 million, or 16 percent. Virtually all of the new jobs will be in construction. Employment growth in construction will be spurred by new projects and alterations to existing structures. On the other hand, continued stagnation in the oil and gas industries and low growth in demand for coal, metal, and other materials will result in little change in the employment of extractive workers. Mechanics, installers, and repairers. These workers adjust, main­ tain, and repair automobiles, industrial equipment, computers, and many other types of equipment. Overall employment in these occupa­ tions is expected to grow 13 percent—from 4.8 to 5.5 million—due to increased use of mechanical and electronic equipment. One of the fastest growing occupations in this group is expected to be automotive body repairers, reflecting the growth in the number of lightweight cars that are prone to collision damage. Telephone installers and repairers, in sharp contrast, are expected to record a decline in employment due to laborsaving advances. Administrative support occupations, including clerical is the largest major occupational group. Workers in these occupations perform the wide variety of tasks necessary to keep organizations functioning smoothly. The group as a whole is expected to grow 12 percent, from 21.1 to 23.6 million jobs. However, technological advances are pro­ jected to decrease the demand for stenographers and typists, word proc­ essors , and data entry keyers. Others, such as receptionists and informa­ tion clerks, will grow much faster than the average, spurred by rapidly expanding industries such as business services. Moreover, because of their large size and substantial turnover, clerical occupations will offer abundant opportunities for qualified jobseekers in the years ahead.  5  Chart  7.  Employment change will vary widely by broad occupational group. Percent change in employment, 1988­ 2000  Occupational group Total, all occupations Technicians and related support occupations Professional specialty occupations Service occupations Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations Marketing and sales occupations Construction trades and extractive occupations Mechanics, repairers, and installers Administrative support occupations, including clerical Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers Production occupations Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related occupations SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Transportation and material moving occupations. Workers in this cluster operate the equipment used to move people and equipment. Employment in this group is expected to increase 12 percent, from 4.6 to 5.2 million jobs. Employment of busdrivers and truckdrivers will grow as fast as the average, while employment of material moving equipment operators is expected to grow more slowly due to greater use of automated materials handling equipment in factories and ware­ houses. Railroad transportation workers and water transportation workers are projected to show a decline in employment. Production occupations. Workers in these occupations set up, in­ stall, adjust, operate, and tend machinery and equipment and use handtools and hand-held power tools to fabricate and assemble prod­ ucts. Employment is expected to decline 2 percent, from 12.8 to 12.5 million. More efficient production techniques—such as computeraided manufacturing and industrial robotics—will eliminate some pro-  duction worker jobs. Many production occupations are sensitive to fluctuations in the business cycle and competition from imports. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers. Workers in this group assist skilled workers and perform routine, unskilled tasks. Employment is expected to increase only about 2 percent, from 4.9 to 5.0 million jobs as routine tasks are automated. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing occupations. Workers in these occupations cultivate plants, breed and raise animals, and catch fish. Although demand for food, fiber, and wood is expected to increase as the world’s population grows, the use of more productive farming and forestry methods and the consolidation of smaller farms are expected to result in a 5 percent decline in employment, from 3.5 to 3.3 million jobs. Replacement Needs Most jobs through the year 2000 will become available as a result of replacement needs. Thus, even occupations with little or no employ­ ment growth or slower than average employment growth may still offer many job openings. Replacement openings occur as people leave occupations. Some transfer to other occupations as a step up the career ladder or to change careers. Others stop working in order to return to school, to assume household responsibilities, or to retire. The number of replacement openings and the proportion of job openings made up by replacement needs varies by occupation. Occupa­ tions with the most replacement openings generally are large, with low pay and status, low training requirements, and a high proportion of young and part-time workers. Some examples include cashiers, waiters and waitresses, and childcare workers. The occupations with relatively few replacement openings, on the other hand, are those with high pay and status, lengthy training require­ ments, and a high proportion of prime working age, full-time workers. Among these occupations are education administrators, lawyers, and tool and die makers. Workers in these occupations generally have spent several years acquiring training that often is not applicable to other occupations. Interested in More Detail? Readers interested in more information about projections and detail on the labor force, economic growth, industry and occupational em­ ployment, or methods and assumptions should consult the November 1989 Monthly Labor Review or Outlook 2000, BLS Bulletin 2352. Information on the limitations inherent in economic projections also can be found in either of these two publications. Additional occupa­ tional data as well as statistics on educational and training completions can be found in the 1990 edition of Occupational Projections and Training Data, BLS Bulletin 2351.  Leads to More Information In this chapter you will find many other ways to obtain information about occupations, counseling, education and training, financial aid, and finding a job. Also, look at the end of each occupational statement in the Handbook, under Sources of Additional Information, for organi­ zations that have agreed to provide information about that particular occupation. Career Information A good place to start collecting the information you will need is from the people closest to you, your family and friends. These personal contacts are often overlooked but can be extremely helpful. They may be able to answer your questions directly or, more importantly, put you in touch with someone who can. This “networking” can lead to an “informational interview” where you can meet with someone who is willing to answer your questions about a career or a company and who can provide inside information on related fields and other helpful hints. This is a highly effective way to learn what type of training is Digitized for 6 FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  recommended for a certain position, how someone in that position entered and advanced, and what he or she likes and dislikes about the work. While you are developing your network of contacts, you may want to begin exploring other avenues. Public libraries, career centers, and guidance offices have a great deal of career material. To begin your library search, look in the card catalog or at the computer listings under “vocations” or “careers” and then under specific fields. Also, leaf through the file of pamphlets that describe employment in different organizations. Check the periodicals section, where you will find trade and professional magazines and journals about specific occupations. Familiarize yourself with the ac­ tivities of potential employers by skimming their annual reports and other information they distribute to the public. You can also find occupational information on video cassettes, in kits, and through computerized information systems. Check career centers for programs such as individual counseling, group discussions, guest speakers, field trips, and career days.  Assess career guidance materials carefully. Information should be current. Be skeptical of materials produced by schools for recruitment purposes that seem to glamorize the occupation, overstate the earnings, or exaggerate the demand for workers. You may wish to seek the advice of a counselor. Counselors are trained to help you discover your strengths and weaknesses and guide you through an evaluation of your goals and values so you can begin to determine what you want in a career. The counselor will not tell you what to do, but will administer interest inventories and aptitude tests, interpret the results, and help you explore your options. Counsel­ ors also may be able to discuss local job markets and the entry require­ ments and costs of the schools, colleges, or training programs that offer preparation for the kind of work in which you are interested. You can find counselors in: —high school guidance offices. —career planning and placement offices in colleges. —placement offices in private vocational/technical schools and insti­ tutes. —vocational rehabilitation agencies. —counseling services offered by community organizations. —private counseling agencies or private practices. —State employment service offices affiliated with the U.S. Employ­ ment Service. Before employing the services of a private counselor or agency, seek recommendations or check their credentials. The International Association of Counseling Services (IACS) accredits counseling ser­ vices for areas throughout the country. To receive the listing of accred­ ited services for your region, call (703)823-9800 or send a self-ad­ dressed, stamped envelope to IACS, 5999 Stevenson Ave., 3rd Floor, Alexandria, VA 22304. The Directory of Counseling Services, an IACS publication providing employment counseling and other assis­ tance, may be available in your library or school career counseling center. Professional societies, trade associations, labor unions, business firms, and educational institutions provide a variety of free or inex­ pensive career material. Many of these are identified in the Sources of Additional Information section of each Handbook statement. For information on an occupation not covered in the Handbook, consult the directories in your library’s reference section for the names of potential sources. You may need to start with The Guide to American Directories or The Directory of Directories. The Encyclopedia of Associations, an annual multivolume publication listing thousands of trade associations, professional societies, labor unions, and fraternal and patriotic organizations, is another useful resource. The National Audiovisual Center, a central source for all audiovisual material produced by the U.S. Government, rents and sells material on jobs and careers. For a catalog, contact the National Audiovisual Center, 8700 Edgeworth Dr., Capitol Heights, MD 20743. Phone: (301) 763-1896. For first-hand experience in an occupation, you may wish to intern or take a summer or part-time job. Some internships offer academic credit or pay a stipend. Check with guidance offices, college career resource centers, or directly with employers. State and Local Information The Handbook provides information for the Nation as a whole. For help in locating State or area information, contact the State occupa­ tional information coordinating committee (SOICC) in your State. These committees may provide the information directly or refer you to other sources. Refer to the chapter beginning on page 460 for addresses and telephone numbers of the SOICC’s. Forty-six States have career information delivery systems (CIDS). Jobseekers can use the computers, printed material, microfiche, and toll-free hotlines to obtain information on occupations, educational opportunities, student financial aid, apprenticeships, and military ca­ reers. Look for these systems in secondary schools, postsecondary institutions, libraries, job training sites, vocational rehabilitation cen­ ters, and employment service offices. Ask counselors and SOICC’s for specific locations. State employment security agencies develop detailed information  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  about the labor market, such as current and projected employment by occupation and industry, characteristics of the work force, and changes in State and local area economic activity. Addresses and telephone numbers of the directors of research and analysis in these agencies are listed in the chapter beginning on page 460. Education and Training Information Check with professional and trade associations for lists of schools that offer career preparation in a particular field. The Sources of Additional Information section of many Handbook statements directs you to organizations that can provide training information. Refer to various directories, such as those that follow, for descrip­ tions of courses of study, admissions requirements, expenses, and student financial aid information for colleges, universities, and other training institutions. Guidance offices, libraries, and large bookstores usually carry copies. Be sure to use the most recent edition because these directories are revised frequently. Guidance offices and libraries also have collections of college catalogs that list their specific pro­ grams, requirements, and expenses. The Directory of Educational Institutions, published annually, lists schools accredited by the Association of Independent Colleges and Schools (AICS). Most AlCS-accredited institutions are business schools, offering programs in secretarial science, business administra­ tion, accounting, data processing, court reporting, paralegal studies, fashion merchandising, travel/tourism, culinary arts, drafting, elec­ tronics, and other subjects. For a copy of the Directory, write: Associa1 tion of Independent Colleges and Schools, 1 Dupont Circle NW., Suite 350, Washington, DC 20036. Phone: (202) 659-2460. For information on private trade and technical schools, write to the National Association of Trade and Technical Schools (NATTS). Among its publications are the Handbook of Accredited Private Trade and Technical Schools and a series of pamphlets, including How to Choose a Career and a Career School. For a complete list, write: NATTS, 2251 Wisconsin Ave. NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007. Information about home study programs is available from The Na­ tional Home Study Council. It publishes the Directory of Accredited Home Study Schools. Direct requests for the Directory as well as a list of other publications to the National Home Study Council, 1601 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009. Phone: (202) 234-5100. Local labor unions, school guidance counselors, and State employ­ ment offices provide information about apprenticeships. Copies of The National Apprenticeship Program and Apprenticeship Information are available from the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S. De­ partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 535-0545. , Financial Aid Information Information about financial aid is available from a variety of sources. Contact your high school guidance counselor and college financial aid officer for information concerning scholarships, fellowships, grants, loans, and work-study programs. In addition, every State administers financial aid programs—contact State Departments of Education for information. Banks and credit unions can provide information about student loans. You also may want to study the directories and guides to sources of student financial aid available in guidance offices and public libraries. The Federal Government provides grants, loans, work-study pro­ grams, and other benefits to students. Information about programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education is presented in The Student Guide to Federal Financial Aid Programs, updated annually. To get a copy, call: 1-800-333-4636 or write: Federal Student Aid Programs, P.O. Box 84, Washington, DC 20044. Meeting College Costs, an annual publication of the College Board, explains how student financial aid works and how to apply for it. The current edition is available to high school students through guidance counselors. Need a Lift?, an annual publication of the American Legion, con­ tains career and scholarship information. Single copies may be ob­ tained without charge by calling (317) 635-8411. Multiple copies cost $1 each prepaid (including postage) and can be obtained from:  7  American Legion, Attn: National Emblem Sales, 700 N. Pennsylvania St., Indianapolis, IN 46204. Some student aid programs are designed to assist specific groups— Hispanics, blacks, native Americans, or women, for example. Higher Education Opportunities for Minorities and Women, published by the U.S. Department of Education, is a guide to organizations offering assistance. This publication can be found in libraries and guidance offices, or may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information. The Armed Forces have several educational assistance programs. These include the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC), the New G.I. bill, and tuition assistance. Information can be obtained from military recruiting centers, located in most cities. Information on Finding a Job It takes some people a great deal of time and effort to find a job they enjoy. Others may walk right into an ideal employment situation. Don’t be discouraged if you have to pursue many leads. Friends, neighbors, teachers, and counselors may know of available jobs in your field of interest. Read the want ads. Consult State public employment service offices and private or nonprofit employment agencies or contact employers directly. Merchandising Your Job Talents, a U.S. Department of Labor pamphlet, offers tips on organizing your job search, writing a resume, taking preemployment tests, and making the most of an interview. It is available at most State public employment service offices or may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information. Informal job search methods. It is possible to apply directly to employers without a referral. You may locate a potential employer in the Yellow Pages, in directories of local chambers of commerce, and in other directories that provide information about employers. When you find an employer you are interested in, you can file an application even if you don’t know for certain that an opening exists. Want ads. The “Help Wanted” ads in newspapers list hundreds of jobs. Realize, however, that many job openings are not listed there. Also, be aware that the classified ads commonly do not give some important information. Many offer little or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some ads do not identify the employer. They may just give a post office box for sending your resume. This makes followup inquiries very difficult. Furthermore, some ads offer out-of-town jobs; others advertise employment agencies rather than employment. Keep the following in mind if you are using want ads: —Do not pin your hopes on finding a job through the classifieds; follow other leads as well. —Answer ads promptly. The opening may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops appearing in the paper.  Where To Learn About Job Openings • State employment service offices. • Civil service announcements (Federal, State, local). • Classified ads. —Local and out-of-town newspapers. —Professional journals. —Trade magazines. • Labor unions. • Professional associations (State and local chapters). • Libraries and community centers. • Women’s counseling and employment programs. • Youth programs. • School or college placement services. • Employment agencies and career consultants. • Employers. • Parents, friends, and neighbors. Digitized 8for FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  —Follow the ads diligently. Checking them every day as early as possible gives you an advantage that may result in your being hired. —Beware of “no experience necessary” ads. These ads often signal low wages or poor working conditions or straight commission work. —Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded. Public employment service. The State employment service, some­ times called the Job Service, operates in coordination with the Labor Department’s U.S. Employment Service. Its 2,000 local offices, also known as employment service centers, help jobseekers locate employ­ ment and help employers find qualified workers at no cost to them­ selves. To find the office nearest you, look in the State government telephone listings under “Job Service” or “Employment.” Job matching and referral. At a State employment service office, an interviewer will determine if you are “job ready” or if counseling and testing services would be helpful before you begin your job search. You may examine the Job Bank, a computerized listing of public and private sector job openings that is updated daily when you are “job ready.” Select openings that interest you, then get more details from a staff member who can describe job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers. Counseling and testing. Centers can test for occupational aptitudes and interests and then help you choose and prepare for a career. Job Interview Tips Preparation: • Learn about the organization. • Have specific job or jobs in mind. • Review your qualifications for the job. • Prepare to answer broad questions about yourself. • Review your resume. • Arrive before the scheduled time of your interview. Personal Appearance: • Be well groomed. • Dress appropriately. • Do not chew gum or smoke. The Interview: • Answer each question concisely. • Be prompt in giving responses. • Use good manners. • Use proper English and avoid slang. • Convey a sense of cooperation and enthusiasm. • Ask questions about the position and the organization. Test (if employer gives one): • Listen carefully to instructions. • Read each question carefully. • Write legibly and clearly. • Budget your time wisely and don’t dwell on one question. Information To Bring to an Interview: • Social Security number. • Driver’s license number. • Resume. Although not all employers require applicants to bring a resume, you should be able to furnish the interviewer with information about your education and previous employment. • Usually an employer requires three references. Get permission from people before using their names. Try to avoid using relatives. For each reference, provide the following information: Name, address, telephone number, and occupation. For more information on interviews and resumes, see Resumes, Application Forms, Cover Letters, and Interviews in the Spring 1987 Occupational Outlook Quarterly. A reprint of this article may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information.  Services for special groups. By law, veterans are entitled to priority at State employment service centers. Veterans’ employment represen­ tatives can inform you of available assistance and help you deal with any problems. Summer Youth Programs provide summer jobs in city, county, and State government agencies for low-income youth. Students, school dropouts, or graduates entering the labor market who are between 16 and 21 years of age are eligible. In addition, the Job Corps, with more than 100 centers throughout the United States, helps young people learn skills or obtain education. Service centers also refer applicants to opportunities available under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982. JTPA prepares economically disadvantaged persons and those facing barriers to em­ ployment for jobs. Call the Federal Job Information Center, operated by the Office of Personnel Management, for information about employment with the U.S. Government. The phone number is (202) 653-8468 or write to: Federal Job Information Center, 1900 E St. NW., Room 1416, Washington, DC 20415. Private employment agencies. These agencies can be very helpful, but don’t forget that they are in business to make money. Most agencies operate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon a success­ ful match. You or the hiring company will have to pay a fee for the matching service. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying it before using the service. While employment agencies can help you save time and contact employers who otherwise may be difficult to locate, in some cases, your costs may outweigh the benefits. Weigh any guarantee they offer when figuring the cost. College career planning and placement offices. College place­ ment offices facilitate matching job openings with suitable jobseekers. You can set up schedules and use available facilities for interviews with recruiters or scan lists of part-time, temporary, and summer jobs maintained in many of these offices. You also can get counseling, testing, and job search advice and take advantage of their career resource library. Here you will also be able to identify and evaluate your interests, work values, and skills; attend workshops on such topics as job search strategy, resume writing, letter writing, and effective interviewing; critique drafts of resumes and videotapes of mock inter­ views; explore files of resumes and references; and attend job fairs conducted by the office. Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations offer counsel­ ing, career development, and job placement services, generally tar­ What Goes Into a Resume A resume should summarize your qualifications and employment history. It is usually required when applying for a managerial, administrative, professional, or technical position. Although there is no set format, it should contain the following information: • Name, address, and telephone number. • Employment objective. • Education, including school name and address, dates of atten­ dance, curriculum, and highest grade completed or degree awarded. • Experience, paid or volunteer. Include the following for each job: Job title, name and address of employer, and dates of em­ ployment. • Special skills, knowledge of machinery, honors received, awards, or membership in organizations. • Note on your resume that references are available on request. On a separate sheet, list the names, addresses, and telephone num­ bers of three references.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  geted to a particular group, such as women, youth, minorities, ex­ offenders, or older workers. Many communities have career counseling, training, placement, and support services for employment. These programs are sponsored by a variety of organizations, including churches and synagogues, nonprofit organizations, social service agencies, the State employment service, and vocational rehabilitation agencies. Many cities have com­ missions that attend to the concerns of and provide services for these special groups. Organizations for Specific Groups The organizations listed below provide information on career planning, training, or public policy support for specific groups. Handicapped: President’s Committee on Employment of the Hand­ icapped, 1111 20th St. NW., Room 636, Washington, DC 20036. Phone: (202) 653-5044. The blind: Call the Job Opportunities for the Blind Program, a division of the National Federation for the Blind, toll-free, at: 1-800­ 638-7518. Minorities: League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), National Educational Service Centers Inc., 400 First St. NW., Suite 716, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202) 347-1652. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 4805 Mount Hope Dr. Baltimore, MD 21215-3297. Phone: (301) 358-8900. National Urban League, Employment Department, 500 E. 62nd St., New York, NY 10021. National Urban League, Washington Operations, 1111 14th St. NW., 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20005. Older workers: National Association of Older Workers Employ­ ment Services, c/o National Council on Aging, 600 Maryland Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202) 479-1200. American Association of Retired Persons, Worker Equity, 1909 K St. NW., Washington, DC 20049. Phone: (202) 872-4891. Asociacion Nacional Pro Personas Mayores (National Association for Hispanic Elderly), 2727 W. 6th St., Suite 270, Los Angeles, CA 90057. Phone: (213) 487-1922. Specifically serves low-income minority older persons. National Caucus/Center on Black Aged, Inc., 1424 K St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 637-8400. National Urban League, Employment Department, 500 E. 62nd St., New York, NY 10021. Veterans: Contact the nearest regional office of the Veterans Ad­ ministration. Women: U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, 200 Consti­ tution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 523-6652. Catalyst, 250 Park Ave. South, New York, NY 10003. Phone: (212) 777-8900. (Ask for the free referral pamphlet called Career Development Resources.) Wider Opportunities for Women, 1325 G St. NW., Lower Level, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 638-3143. Federal laws, executive orders, and selected Federal grant programs bar discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, and handicap. Information on how to file a charge of discrimination is available from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission offices around the country. Their addresses and telephone numbers are listed in telephone directories under U.S. Government, EEOC, or are available from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2401 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20507. Phone: (202) 634-6922. Information on Federal laws concerning fair labor standards such as the minimum wage and equal employment opportunity can be obtained from the Office of Information and Consumer Affairs, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room C-4331,200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210.  9  Sources of State and Local Job Outlook Information State and local job market and career information is available from State employment security agencies and State Occupational Informa­ tion Coordinating Committees (SOICC’s). State employment security agencies develop occupational employment projections and other job market information. SOICC’s provide or help locate labor market and career information. The following list provides the title, address, and telephone number of State employment security agency directors of research and SOICC directors. Alabama Chief, Research and Statistics, Alabama Department of Industrial Relations, Industrial Relations Bldg., 649 Monroe St., Room 427, Montgomery, AL 36130. Phone: (205) 261-5461. Director, Alabama Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Bell Bldg., 207 Montgomery St., Suite 400, Montgomery, AL 36130. Phone: (205) 261-2990.  Alaska Chief, Research and Analysis Section, Alaska Department of Labor, P.O. Box 25501, Juneau, AK 99802-5501. Phone: (907) 465-4500. Coordinator, Alaska Department of Labor, Research and Analysis Section, P.O. Box 25501, Juneau, AK 99802-5501. Phone: (907) 465-4518.  American Samoa Program Director, American Samoa State Occupational Information Coordinat­ ing Committee, Office of Manpower Resources, American Samoa Government, Pago Pago, AS 96799. Phone: (684) 633-2153.  Arizona Research Administrator, Arizona Department of Economic Security, P.O. Box 6123, Site Code 733A, Phoenix, AZ 85005. Phone: (602) 255-3616.  Delaware Chief, Office of Occupational and Labor Market Information, Delaware Depart­ ment of Labor, P.O. Box 9029, Newark, DE 19714-9029. Phone: (302) 368­ 6962. Executive Director, Office of Occupational and Labor Market Information, Delaware Department of Labor, University Office Plaza, P.O. Box 9029, Newark, DE 19714-9029. Phone: (302) 368-6963.  District of Columbia Chief, Labor Market Information and Analysis, District of Columbia Depart­ ment of Employment Services, 500 C St. NW., Room 201, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202) 639-1642. Executive Director, District of Columbia Occupational Information Coordinat­ ing Committee, Department of Employment Security, 500 C St. NW., Room 207, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202) 639-1090.  Florida Chief, Bureau of Labor Market Information, Florida Department of Labor and Employment Security, 2574 Seagate Dr., Room 203, Tallahassee, FL 32399­ 0674. Phone: (904) 488-1048. Manager, Florida Occupational Information System, Bureau of Labor Market Information, Department of Labor and Employment Security, 1320 Executive Center Dr., Atkins Bldg., Suite 210, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0674. Phone: (904) 488-7397.  Georgia Director, Labor Information Systems, Georgia Department of Labor, 148 International Blvd. NE., Atlanta, GA 30303. Phone: (404) 656-9639. Executive Director, Georgia Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, 148 International Blvd., Sussex Place, Atlanta, GA 30303. Phone: (404) 656-9639.  Executive Director, Arizona Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, P.O. Box 6123, Site Code 897J, Phoenix, AZ 85005. Phone: (602) 542­ 6466.  Guam  Arkansas  Executive Director, Guam State Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee, Human Resource Development Agency, P.O. Box 2817, Agana, GU 96910. Phone: (871) 646-9341.  Manager, Labor Market Information - UI/BLS, Employment Security Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock, AR 72203. Phone: (501) 371-1541. Executive Director, Arkansas Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, Research and Analysis Section, Arkansas Employment Security Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock, AR 72203. Phone: (501) 682-3159.  California Chief, Employment Data and Research Division, Employment Development Department, P.O. Box 944216, MIC-57, Sacramento, CA 94244-2160. Phone: (916) 427-4675.  Administrator, Department of Labor/Bureau of Labor Statistics, Government of Guam, P.O. Box 944216 (GMF), Tamuning, GU 96911-290.  Hawaii Chief, Research and Statistics Office, Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, 830 Punchbowl St., Room 304, Honolulu, HI 96813. Phone: (808) 548-7639. Executive Director, Hawaii Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, 830 Punchbowl St., Room 315, Honolulu, HI 96813. Phone: (808) 548­ 3496.  Idaho  Executive Director, California Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee, 800 Capitol Mall, MIC-67, Sacramento, CA 95814. Phone: (916) 323­ 6544.  Acting Chief, Research and Analysis, Idaho Department of Employment, P.O. Box 35, Boise, ID 83735. Phone: (208) 334-2755.  Colorado  Director, Idaho Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Len B. Jordan Bldg., Room 301,650 West State St., Boise, ID 83720. Phone: (208) 334-3705.  Director, Labor Market Information, Colorado Division of Labor and Employ­ ment, 1330 Fox St., Suite 801, Denver, CO 80203. Phone: (303) 866-6316. Director, Colorado Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, State Board Community College, 1391 Speer Blvd., Suite 600, Denver, CO 80204­ 2554. Phone: (303) 866-4488.  Connecticut Acting Director, Research and Information, Employment Security Division, 200 Folly Brook Blvd., Wethersfield, CT 06109. Phone: (203) 566-2120. Executive Director, Connecticut Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee, Connecticut Department of Education, 25 Industrial Park Rd., Middle­ ton, CT 06457. Phone: (203) 638-4042.  Digitized for 10 FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Illinois Director, Economic Information and Analysis, Illinois Department of Employ­ ment Security, 401 South State St., 2 South, Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: (312) 793-2316. Executive Director, Illinois Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, 217 East Monroe, Suite 203, Springfield, IL 62706. Phone: (217) 785­ 0789.  Indiana Manager, Statistical Services, Indiana Department of Employment and Train­ ing, 10 North Senate Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46204. Phone: (317) 232-7701.  Executive Director, Indiana Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, 10 North Senate Ave., Room 101, Indianapolis, IN 46204. Phone: (317) 232-8547.  Director, Missouri Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 421 East Dunklin St., Jefferson City, MO 65101. Phone: (314) 751- 3800.  Iowa  Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Labor and Industry, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, MT 59624. Phone: (406) 449-2430.  Chief, Audit and Analysis, Iowa Department of Employment Services, 1000 East Grand Ave., Des Moines, IA 50319. Phone: (515) 281-8181. Executive Director, Iowa Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 200 East Grand Ave., Des Moines, IA 50309. Phone: (515) 281-8075.  Kansas Chief, Research and Analysis, Kansas Department of Human Resources, 401 Topeka Ave., Topeka, KS 66603. Phone: (913) 296-5061. Director, Kansas Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 401 To­ peka Ave., Topeka, KS 66603. Phone: (913) 296-1865.  Kentucky Acting Manager, Labor Market Research and Analysis, Department for Em­ ployment Services, 275 East Main St., Frankfort, KY 40621-0001. Phone: (502) 564-7976. Information Liaison/Manager, Kentucky Occupational Information Coordinat­ ing Committee, 275 East Main St., 2 Center, Frankfort, KY 40621-0001. Phone: (502) 564-4258.  Louisiana  Montana  Program Manager, Montana Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, MT 59624. Phone: (406) 444-2741.  Nebraska Administrator, Labor Market Information, Nebraska Department of Labor, P.O. Box 94600, Lincoln, NE 68509-4600. Phone: (402) 475-8451. Administrator, Nebraska Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 94600, State House Station, Lincoln, NE 68509-4600. Phone: (402) 471-4845.  Nevada Chief, Employment Security Research, Nevada Employment Security Depart­ ment, 500 East Third St., Carson City, NV 89713. Phone: (702) 885-4550. Executive Director, Nevada Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, 1923 North Carson St., Suite 207, Carson City, NV 89710. Phone: (702) 885-4577.  New Hampshire  Director, Research and Statistics Section, Louisiana State Department of Labor, P.O. Box 94094, Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9094. Phone: (504) 342-3141.  Director, Economic Analysis and Reports, New Hampshire Department of Employment Security, 32 South Main St., Concord, NH 03301. Phone: (603) 224-3311.  Coordinator, Louisiana Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 94094, Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9094. Phone: (504) 342-5149.  Director, New Hampshire Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 64B Old Suncook Rd., Concord, NH 03301. Phone: (603) 228-9500.  Maine  New Jersey  Director, Division of Economic Analysis and Research, Maine Department of Labor, 20 Union St., Augusta, ME 04330. Phone: (207) 289-2271. Executive Director, Maine Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, State House Station 71, Augusta, ME 04333. Phone: (207) 289-2331.  Director, Division of Planning and Research, New Jersey Department of Labor, P.O. Box 2765, Trenton, NJ 08625. Phone: (609) 292-2643. Staff Director, New Jersey Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1008 Labor and Industry Bldg., CN 056, Trenton, NJ 08625-0056. Phone: (609) 292- 2682.  Maryland Director, Research and Analysis Division, Maryland Department of Employ­ ment and Training, 1100North Eutaw St., Baltimore, MD21201. Phone: (301) 383-5000.  Chief, Economic Research and Analysis, (6097), Employment Security Depart­ ment, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Phone: (505) 841-8645.  Executive Director, Maryland Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee , Department of Employment and Training, 1100 North Eutaw St., Room 600, Baltimore, MD 21201. Phone: (301) 333-5476.  Director, New Mexico Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Tiwa Bldg., 401 Broadway NE., P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Phone: (505) 841-8636.  Massachusetts  New York  Director of Research, Massachusetts Division of Employment and Training, Charles F. Hurley Bldg., Boston, MA 02114. Phone: (617) 727-6556. Director, Massachusetts Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Massachusetts Division of Employment Security, Charles F. Hurley Bldg., 2nd Floor, Government Center, Boston, MA 02114. Phone: (617) 727- 6718.  New Mexico  Director, Division of Research and Statistics, New York Department of Labor, State Campus, Bldg. 12, Room 400, Albany, NY 12240-0020. Phone: (518) 457-6181. Executive Director, New York Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee, Department of Labor, Research and Statistics Division, State Campus, Bldg. 12, Room 400, Albany, NY 12240-0020. Phone: (518) 457-6182.  Michigan Director, Bureau of Research and Statistics, Michigan Employment Security Commission, 7310 Woodward Ave., Room 516, Detroit, MI 48202. Phone: (313) 876-5445. Executive Coordinator, Michigan Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 310 Hollister Bldg., 106 W. Allegan, Box 30015, Lansing, MI 48909. Phone: (517) 373-0363.  North Carolina Director, Labor Market Information Division, Employment Security Commis­ sion of North Carolina, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh, NC 27611. Phone: (919) 733-2936. Director, North Carolina Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1311 St. Mary’s St., Suite 250, P.O. Box 27625, Raleigh, NC 27611. Phone: (919) 733-6700.  Minnesota Director, Research and Statistics Office, Minnesota Department of Jobs and Training, 390 North Robert St., 5th Floor, St. Paul, MN 55101. Phone: (612) 296-6545.  North Dakota  Director, Minnesota Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Min­ nesota Department of Economic Security, 690 American Center Bldg., 150 East Kellogg Blvd., St. Paul, MN 55101. Phone: (612) 296-2072.  Coordinator, North Dakota Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, 1600 East Interstate, Suite 14, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck, ND 58502­ 1537. Phone: (701) 224-2197.  Mississippi  Ohio  Chief, Labor Market Information Division, Mississippi Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 1699, Jackson, MS 39215-1699. Phone: (601) 961­ 7424. Executive Director, Mississippi Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee, P.O. Box 771, Suite 1005, Jackson, MS 39205. Phone: (601) 359­ 3412.  Missouri Chief, Research and Analysis, Missouri Division of Employment Security, P.O. Box 59, Jefferson City, MO 65104. Phone: (314) 751- 3591.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chief, Research and Statistics, Job Service of North Dakota, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck, ND 58502-1537. Phone: (701) 224-2825.  Acting Director, Labor Market Information Division, Ohio Bureau of Employ­ ment Services, P.O. Box 1618, Columbus, OH 43216. Phone: (614)466-8806. Director, Ohio Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Division of LMI, Ohio Bureau of Employment Services, 1160 Dublin Rd., Bldg A, Columbus, OH 43215. Phone: (614) 644-2689.  Oklahoma Director, Research and Planning Division, Oklahoma Employment Security Commission, 2401 N. Lincoln, Room 310, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. Phone: (405) 557-7105.  11  Executive Director, Oklahoma Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee, Department of Voc/Tech Education, 1500 W, 7th Ave., Stillwater, OK 74074. Phone: (405) 377-2000.  Bldg., Room 526T, 15th and Congress, Austin, TX 78778. Phone: (512) 463­ 2399.  Utah Oregon Assistant Administrator, Research and Statistics, Oregon Department of Human Resources, 875 Union St. NE., Room 207, Salem, OR 97311. Phone: (503) 378-3220. Executive Director, Oregon Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, 875 Union St. NE., Salem, OR 97311. Phone: (503) 378-8146.  Pennsylvania Chief, Research and Statistics Division, Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, Seventh and Forster Sts., Room 1216, Harrisburg, PA 17121. Phone: (717) 787-3265. Director, Pennsylvania Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, 1224 Labor and Industry Bldg., Harrisburg, PA 17120. Phone: (717) 787-8646.  Puerto Rico Director of BLS, Department of Labor and Human Resources, Research and Analysis Division, 505 Munoz Rivera Ave., 17th Floor, Hato Rey, PR 00918. Phone: (809) 754-5339. Executive Director, Puerto Rico Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee, 202 Del Cristo St., P.O. Box 6212, San Juan, PR 00936-6212. Phone: (809) 723-7110.  Rhode Island Acting Supervisor, Employment Security Research, Rhode Island Department of Employment Security, 24 Mason St., Providence, RI 02903. Phone: (401) 277-3704. Director, Rhode Island Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 22 Hayes St., Room 133, Providence, RI 02908. Phone: (401) 272-0830.  South Carolina Director, Labor Market Information Division, South Carolina Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 995, Columbia, SC 29202. Phone: (803) 758­ 8983. Director, South Carolina Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1550 Gadsden St., P.O. Box 995, Columbia, SC 29202. Phone: (803) 737­ 2733.  South Dakota Director, Labor Market Information Center, Department of Labor, P.O. Box 4730, Aberdeen, SD 57401. Phone: (605) 622-2314. Executive Director, South Dakota Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, South Dakota Department of Labor, 607 North 4th St., Box 1730, Aberdeen, SD 57401. Phone: (605) 622-2314.  Tennessee Director, Research and Statistics Division, Tennessee Department of Employ­ ment Security, 500 James Robertson Pky., 11th Floor, Nashville, TN 37245­ 1000. Phone: (615) 741-2284. Director, Tennessee Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 500 James Robertson Pky., 11th Floor Volunteer Plaza, Nashville, TN 37219. Phone: (615) 741-6451.  Texas Chief, Economic Research and Analysis, Texas Employment Commission, Room 208-T, 1117 Trinity St., Austin, TX 78778. Phone: (512) 463-2616. Director, Texas Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, TEC  Digitized 12 for FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Director, Labor Market Information Services, Utah Department of Employment Security, P.O. Box 11249, Salt Lake City, UT 84147-0249. Phone: (801) 533­ 2014. Executive Director, Utah Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 11249, 174 Social Hall Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 841147-0249. Phone: (801) 533-2028.  Vermont Chief, Research and Analysis, Vermont Department of Employment and Train­ ing, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05602-0488. Phone: (802) 229- 0311. Director, Vermont Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Green Mountain Dr., P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05602-0488. Phone: (802) 229­ 0311.  Virginia Director, Economic Information Services, Virginia Employment Commission, P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23211. Phone: (804) 786-5670. Executive Director, Virginia Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, Virginia Employment Commission, 703 East Main St., P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23211. Phone: (804) 786-7496.  Virgin Islands Acting Director, Virgin Islands Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statis­ tics, Research and Analysis Section, P.O. Box 3359, St. Thomas, United States VI 00801-3359. Phone: (809) 776-3700. Coordinator, Virgin Islands Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, P.O. Box 3359, St. Thomas, United States VI 00801-3359. Phone: (809) 776-3700.  Washington Director, Labor Market and Economic Analysis Branch, Washington Employ­ ment Security Department, 605 Woodview Dr., Olympia, WA 98503. Phone: (206) 438-4804. Director, Washington Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 212 Maple Park, MS KG-11, Olympia, WA 98504-5311. Phone: (206) 438-4803.  West Virginia Director, Labor and Economic Research Section, West Virginia Department of Employment Security, 112 California Ave., Charleston, WV 25305. Phone: (304) 348-2660. Executive Director, West Virginia Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1600 1/2 Washington St. East, Charleston, WV 25311. Phone: (304) 348-0061.  Wisconsin Director, Labor Market Information Bureau, Department of Industry, Labor and Human Relations, P.O. Box 7944, Madison, WI 53707. Phone: (608) 266­ 7034. Executive Director, Wisconsin Occupational Information Coordinating Coun­ cil, Division of Employment and Training Policy, 201 East Washington Ave., P.O. Box 7972, Madison, WI 53707. Phone: (608) 266-8012.  Wyoming Chief, Research and Analysis Section, Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 2760, Casper, WY 82602. Phone: (307) 235-3646. Director, Wyoming Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Occu­ pational Information Program, Herschler Bldg., 2nd Floor East, Cheyenne, WY 82002. Phone: (307) 777-7340.  JMJ.S.  GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:  1990-256-577
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102