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1998-99 Edition  J§  *  Ijt j Ml*''," t : . ft: ' mb 1 v : 1 m 1 L«C  1  _  ...  ._  ■  'iii  U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics January 1998 Bulletin 2500 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  IffTV: 51 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Guide to the Handbook •  Highlights of the job outlook between 1996 and 2006 are presented in Tomorrow's Jobs, page 1.  •  A list of occupations growing the fastest and having the largest numerical increase in employment, by level of education and training, appears on page 7.  •  Additional sources of information on careers, education and training, financial aid, and State and local job markets, are described in Sources of Career Information, page 8.  •  Job search methods, and tips on applying for a job and evaluating a job offer, are discussed in Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer, page 14.  •  Highlights and explanation of information presented in the Handbook, and hints on how to interpret this information, appear in Occupational Information Included in the Handbook, page 19.  •  Brief descriptions of the nature of the work, the number of jobs in 1996, the projected 1996-2006 employment change, and the most significant source of training, are presented in Data for Occupations Not Studied in Detail, page 488.  •  The assumptions and methods used in preparing BLS employment projections are described briefly on page 495.  •  A list of Dictionary of Occupational Titles numbers that are related to Handbook occupations are found on page 496.  •  All occupational statements in the Handbook are available in reprint form. For a list of reprints, con­ sult page 515.  •  An alphabetical index of occupations found in the Handbook is on page 518.  •  See page 530 for a description of BLS employ­ ment outlook information on the Internet.  •  Information about publications closely related to the Handbook—Occupational Outlook Quarterly, Occupational Projections and Training Data, 1998 Edition, Bulletin 2501, Employment Outlook: 1996­ 2006, Bulletin 2502, and the Career Guide to Industries, 1998-99 Edition, Bulletin 2503— appears on page 531.  Occupational Outlook Handbook  1998-99 Edition YWTT'oi.  U.S. Department of Labor Alexis M. Herman, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner January 1998 Bulletin 2500 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  S.M.S.U. LIBRARY FEB 2 6 155,1 U.S. DEPOSITORY  Suggested citation: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1998-99 Edi­ tion, Bulletin 2500. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.____________ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328  ISBN 0-1 6-049348-X Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Message from the Secretary •’SSg|||Sg|  : I  Equipping every working American with the skills to find and hold a good job is one of the Department of Labor’s primary goals. Rapid technological advances, growing foreign competition, and changing business practices are the challenges confronting the jobs of the future. These challenges will demand a highly skilled American workforce that can quickly adapt to a changing workplace. The Occupational Outlook Handbook, the Govern­ ment's premier career guidance publication, provides essential information about prospective changes in the world of work and the qualifications that will be needed by tomorrow's workers. ALEXIS M. HERMAN  -i-i-'j- Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  fasra  Hh ^ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Foreword iflSiiB  I' 4"  4 ISSl  For more than 50 years, the Bureau's  .  Occupational  has been a nationally recognized source of career information. Revised every two years, the Handbook describes what workers do on the job, working conditions, the training and education needed, earnings, and expected job prospects in a wide range of occupations. Employment in the approximately 250 occupations covered in the 1998-99 Handbook ac­ counts for about 6 out of every 7 jobs in the economy. The occupational information presented in this new edition should provide valuable assistance to individu­ als making decisions about their future work lives. Outlook Handbook  KATHARINE G. ABRAHAM Commissioner Bureau of Labor Statistics  v Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Acknowledgments The Handbook was produced in the Bureau of Labor Statistics under the general guidance and direction of Neal H. Rosenthal, Associate Commissioner for Employment Projections. Mike Pilot, Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, and Alan Eck, Manager, Occupational Outlook Studies, were responsible for planning and day-to-day direction. Supervisors overseeing the research and preparation of material were Douglas Braddock, Chester C. Levine, and Jon Q. Sargent. Team leaders who monitored the work of occupational analysts and contributed material were Thomas A. Amirault, Theresa Cosca, and Kristina Shelley. Occupational analysts who contrib­ uted material were Megan Barkume, Verada P. Bluford, Hall Dillon, Geof Gradler, Jeffrey C. Gruenert, Jonathan Kelinson, R. Sean Kirby, Richard Melchionno, Mark Mittelhauser, Kurt Schrammel, Gary Steinberg, Michael Steinman, Carolyn M. Veneri, and Drew A. Warwick. Word processing support was handled by Beverly A. Williams.  Note A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial organizations, and government agencies provide career information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organizations and, in some cases, their homepage ad­ dresses on the Internet, are listed at the end of each occupational statement. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has neither authority nor facilities for investigating the organiza­ tions or the information or publications that may be sent in response to a request and cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information. The listing of an organization, therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorse­ ment or recommendation by the Bureau either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue. The occupational information contained in the Handbook presents a general, composite description of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determin­ ing wages, hours, the right of a particular union to represent workers, ap­ propriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Nor should earnings data in the Handbook be used to compute future loss of earnings in adjudication proceedings involving work injuries or accidental deaths. Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Comments about the con­ tents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome. Please address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212.  vii Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Photograph Credits The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to express its apprecia­ tion for the cooperation and assistance of the many government and private sources—listed below—that either contributed photographs or made their facilities available to photographers working under contract to the U.S. Department of Labor. Pho­ tographs may not be free of every possible safety or health haz­ ard. Depiction of company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of Labor. Allen-Mitchell Company, Machine Shop; Amaco Petroleum Products, Yorktown, Virginia Refinery; American Red Cross Blood Bank, Baltimore, Mary­ land; American University; Amtrak; Animal Disease Laboratory of the State of Illinois in Galesburg, Illinois; Appalachian Spring; Audio-Phone of Wash­ ington, DC; Baltimore Specialty Steels; Baltimore Homesteading Program; Brown's Arlington Honda; Burling and Northern Railroad, Galesburg, Illinois; Carlotta Joyner; City Paper of Washington, DC; Craddock-Terry, Inc., Farmville Plant; Cumberland Memorial Hospital; Dance Place, Washington,’ DC; Day’s Inn, Keene, New Hampshire; D.C. Vending Company, Inc.; De­ partment of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security; District of Columbia Fire and Emergency Medical Service Department; D.L. Boyd, Hyattsville, Mary­ land; Dr. Bruce L. Lazerow, Sears Optical; Dr. David Walls-Kaufman, Capi­ tol Hill Chiropractic Center; Dulles International Airport; Eddie Mercer, Inc.; Eric Margry Jewelry; Family Therapy Practice Center; Federal City Papers; Fern Hunt, Computing and Applied Mathematics Laboratory, NIST; Fire­ fighting Department of Landover, Maryland; Fontana Affiliated Graphics, Inc.; General Accounting Office; George Hyman Construction Company; George Meany Labor Studies Center and Archives; George Washington Uni­ versity Hospital and Medical Library; Gerald A. Lipps, D.D.S., P.A.; Giant Food Stores; Gighi's African Fashions and Textile Gallery; Goddard Space Flight Center; H. & H. Bindery, Hyattsville, Maryland; H & R Block, Fort Washington Office; Herb Gordon Dodge, Silver Spring, Maryland; Howard University, Department of Geology; Hurly Company; Industrial Photo of Silver Spring; Institute of Textile Technology; Iona House; Johns Hopkins Hospital, Clinical Engineering Services; Jolles Brothers, Inc.; Joseph Passonneau, FAIA, ASCE; Karla Westjohn, Attorney; Kevin Hassett, State Farm Agent; Kim Roberts; La Parisien Furs, Washington, DC; La Pierre and Com­ pany Design Studio; Lee Lawrence; Legg, Mason, Wood, Walker, Inc.; Lewes-Cape May Ferry; Mar, Inc., Naval Engineering Group; Marc Rubenstein, Advanced Tool and Machine Service of Washington, DC; Maryann Honakar, D.D.S.; Medical Records Corporation; Mid-Town Pharmacy; Mid­ way Marine of Galesburg, Illinois; Montgomery County Library, Chevy Chase Branch; National Court Reporters Association; National Weather Service Forecast Office; Northwestern Illinois Agricultural Research and Demonstration Center; Orthotic & Prosthetic Specialties, Inc. of Laurel, Maryland; Paris London Detective Agency; Parkview Elementary School, Washington, DC; Pastor Laureen E. Smith, Western Presbyterian Church; Pierce Associates, Alexandria, Virginia; Population Reference Bureau, Inc.; Port of Longview, Washington; Port of Portland, Oregon; Port of Seattle, Washington; Potomac Electric Power Company; Professor Therese Hein; Providence Opticians; Quad Cities Nuclear Power Plant; Rapp Funeral Home, Silver Spring, Maryland; Riggs National Bank of Washington, DC; Rock Terrace High School, Montgomery County, Maryland; Rolf Jensen Associ­ ates; SAIC; Sandy Springs School, Sandy Springs, Maryland; Seely Pine Furniture, Berkeley Springs, West Virginia; Sheraton Washington Hotel; Society for Technical Communication; Southern States Cooperative, Lothan, Maryland Grain Elevator; State Farm Insurance Agency; St. Martin's Catholic Church; Strasburger & Siegel, Inc.; Strauss Technical Photo; Suburban Dental Laboratories, Inc., Rockville, Maryland; Susan Pearcy, Visual Artist; Theophus Brooks Upholstery; Travel Bound; United Airlines, Dulles Airport Facility; University of Maryland, Electrical Engineering Department; Urban Institute of Washington, DC; U.S. Air Force; U.S. Army; U.S. Coast Guard; U.S. Marine Corps; U.S. Navy; U.S. Post Office; USG, Inc. Utilities of Lan­ caster, Pennsylvania; Violin House of Weaver, Bethesda, Maryland; Walter Reed Army Hospital, Washington, DC; Washington Area Metropolitan Tran­ sit Authority; Washington Park Zoo, Portland, Oregon; Washington Times; WETA; Whitman-Walker Clinic, Inc. of Washington, DC; Working Images Photographs, Martha Tabor; Wyatt Company.  viii  Contents Special Features Tomorrow's Jobs.........................................................................  1  Sources of Career Information.............................................  8  Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer.......................  14  Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  19  Data for Occupations Not Studied in Detail...................  488  Assumptions and Methods Used in Preparing Employment Projections....................................................  495  Dictionary of Occupational Titles Coverage....................  496  Reprints...........................................................................................  515  Index.................................................................................................  518  Occupational Coverage Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and auditors................................................................ Administrative services managers.................................................. Budget analysts................................................................................. Construction and building inspectors............................................. Construction managers..................................................................... Cost estimators.................................................................................. Education administrators.................................................................. Employment interviewers................................................................ Engineering, science, and computer systems managers............... Farmers and farm managers............................................................ Financial managers........................................................................... Funeral directors................................................................................ General managers and top executives............................................. Government chief executives and legislators............................... Health services managers................................................................ Hotel managers and assistants......................................................... Human resources specialists and managers................................... Industrial production managers...................................................... Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction............. Insurance underwriters..................................................................... Loan officers and counselors........................................................... Management analysts and consultants........................................... Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers............... Property managers............................................................................. Purchasers and buyers...................................................................... Restaurant and food servicemanagers............................................  21 24 25 28 30 32 34 38 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 58 60 63 64 66 68 70 73 76  Aerospace engineers............................................................................ 87 Chemical engineers............................................................................. 87 Civil engineers...................................................................................... 88 Electrical and electronics engineers................................................ 89 Industrial engineers.......................................................................... 89 Mechanical engineers.......................................................................... 90 Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers.............................. 90 Mining engineers.................................................................................. 91 Nuclear engineers................................................................................ 92 Petroleum engineers............................................................................ 92 Engineering technicians................................................................... 93 Architects, surveyors, and drafters Architects............................................................................................. 95 Drafters.................................................................................................. 98 Landscape architects......................................................................... 100 Surveyors and mapping scientists................................................... 102 Computer, mathematical, and operations research occupations Actuaries............................................................................................ Computer programmers...................................................................... Computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts . Mathematicians................................................................................... Operations research analysts........................................................... Statisticians.......................................................................................  104 106 109 113 114 116  Scientists and science technicians Life scientists Agricultural scientists....................................................................... 118 Biological and medical scientists..................................................... 120 Foresters and conservation scientists................................................ 123 Physical scientists Chemists............................................................................................... 125 Geologists and geophysicists............................................................. 127 Meteorologists..................................................................................... 130 Physicists and astronomers.............................................................. 132 Science technicians........................................................................... 134 Legal occupations Lawyers and judges.......................................................................... 136 Paralegals............................................................................................ 140 Social scientists.................................................................................. Economists and marketing research analysts................................... Psychologists....................................................................................... Urban and regional planners..............................................................  143 145 147 150  Social and recreation workers Recreation workers............................................................................. Social and human service assistants................................................. Social workers.....................................................................................  152 154 156 158 158 160 161  162  Professional and Technical Occupations Air transportation-related occupations Aircraft pilots.................................................................................... Air traffic controllers........................................................................  79 81  Clergy.................................................................................................. Protestant ministers............................................................................ Rabbis................................................................................................... Roman Catholic priests......................................................................  Engineers and engineering technicians Engineers...........................................................................................  84  Teachers, counselors, and library occupations Adult education teachers................................................................... Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Archivists and curators..................................................................... College and university faculty......................................................... Counselors.......................................................................................... Librarians........................................................................................... Library technicians............................................................................ School teachers—Kindergarten, elementary, and secondary....... Special education teachers................................................................  164 167 169 172 174 176 179  Health diagnosing practitioners Chiropractors..................................................................................... Dentists............................................................................................... Optometrists...................................................................................... Physicians........................................................................................... Podiatrists........................................................................................... Veterinarians.....................................................................................  181 183 184 186 188 190  Health assessment and treating occupations Dietitians and nutritionists............................................................... Occupational therapists.................................................................... Pharmacists......................................................................................... Physical therapists............................................................................. Physician assistants.......................................................................... Recreational therapists....................................................................... Registered nurses................................................................................. Respiratory therapists......................................................................... Speech-language pathologists and audiologists...............................  193 194 196 197 199 200 202 204 206  Administrative Support Occupations, Including Clerical Adjusters, investigators, and collectors.......................................... Bank tellers......................................................................................... Clerical supervisors and managers................................................. Computer operators........................................................................... Court reporters, medical transcriptionists, and stenographers.... General office clerks........................................................................ Information clerks............................................................................. Hotel and motel desk clerks........................................................ Interviewing and new accounts clerks...................................... Receptionists................................................................................. Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks...................................................................... Loan clerks and credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks............. Mail clerks and messengers............................................................. Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing occupations....................................................... Dispatchers................................................................................... Stock clerks.................................................................................. Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks...................................... Postal clerks and mail carriers......................................................... Record clerks..................................................................................... Billing clerks and billing machine operators........................... Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks........................ Brokerage clerks and statement clerks...................................... File clerks..................................................................................... Library assistants and bookmobile drivers................................ Order clerks.................................................................................. Payroll and timekeeping clerks................................................... Personnel clerks............................................................................ Secretaries.......................................................................................... Teacher aides..................................................................................... Telephone operators......................................................................... Typists, word processors, and data entry keyers...........................  Health technologists and technicians Cardiovascular technologists and technicians................................. 208 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians........................... 209 Dental hygienists................................................................................ 211 Dispensing opticians........................................................................... 213 Electroneurodiagnostic technologists............................................... 214 Emergency medical technicians........................................................ 216 Health information technicians.......................................................... 218 Licensed practical nurses.................................................................... 219 Nuclear medicine technologists......................................................... 220 Radiologic technologists.................................................................... 222 Surgical technicians............................................................................ 224  234 237 239  Performing arts occupations Actors, directors, and producers........................................................ Dancers and choreographers.............................................................. Musicians.............................................................................................  242 244 246 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  288 290 291 292 293 295 297 298 299 299 300 301 302 303 304 306 308 309  Food preparation and beverage service occupations Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers........................................ 312 Food and beverage service occupations......................................... 314 Health service occupations Dental assistants................................................................................ Medical assistants.............................................................................. Nursing aides and psychiatric aides................................................ Occupational therapy assistants and aides..................................... Physical and corrective therapy assistants and aides....................  Marketing and Sales Occupations Cashiers.............................................................................................. Counter and rental clerks................................................................. Insurance agents and brokers........................................................... Manufacturers' and wholesale sales representatives..................... Real estate agents, brokers, and appraisers.................................... Retail sales worker supervisors and managers.............................. Retail sales workers.......................................................................... Securities and financial services sales representatives................ Services sales representatives.......................................................... Travel agents.....................................................................................  284 285 286  Service Occupations  Communications-related occupations Broadcast technicians....................................................................... 225 Public relations specialists................................................................. 227 Radio and television announcers and newscasters.......................... 229 Reporters and correspondents............................................................ 230 Writers and editors............................................................................. 232 Visual arts occupations Designers.............................................................................................. Photographers and camera operators................................................ Visual artists........................................................................................  268 272 274 275 277 279 280 282 283 284  248 249 250 253 255 258 260 261 264 266  x  317 318 319 321 322  Personal, buildings, and grounds service occupations Barbers and cosmetologists............................................................. Flight attendants................................................................................ Homemaker-home health aides....................................................... Janitors and cleaners and cleaning supervisors.............................. Landscaping, groundskeeping, nursery, greenhouse, and lawn service occupations..................................................... Preschool teachers and child-care workers.................................... Private household workers................................................................ Veterinary assistants and nonfarm animal caretakers..................  330 333 335 336  Protective service occupations Correctional officers......................................................................... Firefighting occupations................................................................... Guards........................................................................................ '...... Police, detectives, and special agents............................................. Private detectives and investigators................................................  339 341 343 345 348  324 325 327 329  Food processing occupations Butchers and meat, poultry, and fish cutters.................................. 422  Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Aircraft mechanics, including engine specialists.......................... Automotive body repairers.............................................................. Automotive mechanics..................................................................... Diesel mechanics............................................................................... Electronic equipment repairers........................................................ Commercial and industrial electronic equipment repairers.... Communications equipment mechanics.................................... Computer and office machine repairers.................................... Electronic home entertainment equipment repairers............... Telephone installers and repairers............................................. Elevator installers and repairers..................................................... Farm equipment mechanics............................................................. General maintenance mechanics..................................................... Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration technicians............. Home appliance and power tool repairers..................................... Industrial machinery repairers......................................................... Line installers and cable splicers.................................................... Millwrights......................................................................................... Mobile heavy equipment mechanics.............................................. Motorcycle, boat, and small-engine mechanics............................ Musical instrument repairers and tuners........................................ Vending machine servicers and repairers......................................  350 352 354 356 358 360 361 362 363 363 364 366 368 369 371 373 375 377 378 380 382 384  Inspectors, testers, and graders...................................................  Metalworking and plastics-working occupations Boilermakers..................................................................................... 425 Jewelers.............................................................................................. 427 Machinists and tool programmers.................................................. 428 Metalworking and plastics-working machine operators.............. 430 Tool and die makers......................................................................... 433 Welders, cutters, and welding machine operators........................ 435  Construction Trades Occupations Bricklayers and stonemasons.......................................................... Carpenters.......................................................................................... Carpet installers................................................................................. Concrete masons and terrazzo workers......................................... Dry wall workers and lathers............................................................ Electricians......................................................................................... Glaziers.............................................................................................. Insulation workers............................................................................. Painters and paperhangers............................................................... Plasterers............................................................................................ Plumbers and pipefitters................................................................... Roofers............................................................................................... Sheetmetal workers.......................................................................... Structural and reinforcing ironworkers.......................................... Tilesetters...........................................................................................  387 389 390 392 393 395 397 399 400 402 404 406 407 409 411  413  Blue-collar worker supervisors...................................................  414  Fishing, hunting, and forestry occupations Fishers, hunters, and trappers.......................................................... Forestry and logging workers..........................................................  416 419 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Plant and systems operators Electric power generating plant operators and power distributors and dispatchers....................................................... Stationary engineers......................................................................... Water and wastewater treatment plant operators..........................  436 438 440  Printing occupations Bindery workers............................................................................... Prepress workers.............................................................................. Printing press operators...................................................................  442 443 446  Textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations Apparel workers................................................................................ Shoe and leather workers and repairers......................................... Textile machinery operators............................................................ Upholsterers......................................................................................  448 450 452 454  Woodworking occupations........................................................... 455 Miscellaneous production occupations Dental laboratory technicians.......................................................... 457 Ophthalmic laboratory technicians................................................. 459 Painting and coating machine operators........................................ 460 Photographic process workers........................................................ 462  Transportation and Material Moving Occupations  Production Occupations Assemblers Precision assemblers.........................................................................  424  xi  Busdrivers......................................................................................... Material moving equipment operators........................................... Rail transportation occupation........................................................ Taxi drivers and chauffeurs............................................................. Truckdrivers...................................................................................... Water transportation occupations...................................................  464 466 469 471 473 476  Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers, and Laborers.......  479  Job Opportunities in the Armed Forces ....................................  482 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Additional Information About the 1996-2006 Projections Readers interested in more information about projections and details on the labor force, economic growth, industry and occu­ pational employment, or methods and assumptions should con­ sult the November 1997 Monthly Labor Review, Employment Outlook: 1996-2006, BLS Bulletin 2502; or the Winter 1997-98 Occupational Outlook Quarterly. Information on the limitations inherent in economic projections also can be found in these pub­ lications. For more information about employment change, job openings, earnings, unemployment rates, and training requirements by oc­ cupation, consult Occupational Projections and Training Data, 1998 Edition, BLS Bulletin 2501. For occupational information from an industry perspective in­ cluding some occupations and career paths that the Occupational Outlook Handbook does not cover, consult the 1998-99 Career Guide to Industries, BLS Bulletin 2503.  xii  Tomorrow’s Jobs Making informed career decisions requires reliable information about opportunities in the future. Opportunities result from the relation­ ships between the population, labor force, and the demand for goods and services. Population ultimately limits the size of the labor force—indi­ viduals working or looking for work—which constrains how much can be produced. Demand for various goods and services deter­ mines employment in the industries providing them. Occupational employment opportunities, in turn, result from skills needed within  specific industries. Opportunities for registered nurses and other health-related specialists, for example, have surged in response to the rapid growth in demand for health services. Examining the past and anticipating changes in these relation­ ships are the foundation of the Occupational Outlook Program. This chapter presents highlights of Bureau of Labor Statistics pro­ jections of the labor force and occupational and industry employ­ ment that can help guide your career plans. Sources of detailed information about the projections appear on the preceding page.  The labor force will grow more slowly.  The labor force will become increasingly diverse.  Chart 1. Population and labor force growth— 1976-86,1986-96, and projected 1996-2006  Chart 2. Percent of labor force by race, 1996 and projected 2006 Percent of labor force 80 r  Percent change 25 r  70 -  m  E! Labor force  El 1996  ■ Civilian noninstitutional population  ■ 2006  i 1976-86  1986-96  1996-2006  • The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projects that the labor force will grow to 14.9 million between 1996 and 2006. This is 1.2 million less than the previous 10 years reflecting a slower growth in the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and older. Growth was much faster from 1976 to 1986, when the baby boomers were entering the la­ bor force. • The labor force will grow 11 percent between 1996 and 2006, slightly slower than during the 1986-96 period but only half the rate of growth during the 1976-86 period. •Asa result of an increase in the percentage of the population working or looking for work, the labor force will continue to grow faster than the population rate. • Between 1996 and 2006, employment will increase by 18.6 million or 14 percent. This is slower than during the 1986­ 96 period, when the economy added 21 million jobs. • Wage and salary worker employment will account for 94 per­ cent of this increase. In addition, the number of self-employed workers is expected to increase to 11.6 million in 2006, while the number of unpaid family workers will decline. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  White, nonHispanic  Hispanic, any race  Black, nonHispanic  i Asian and other races  • The labor force growth of Hispanics, Asians and other races, will be faster than for blacks and white non-Hispanics, The projected labor force growth of these ethnic groups stems primarily from immigration. • Despite relatively slow growth, white non-Hispanics will have the largest numerical growth between 1996 and 2006. • Between 1996 and 2006, women’s share of the labor force is projected to slowly increase from 46 to 47 percent, con­ tinuing a pattern since 1976. The participation rate for women will continue to increase for those 20- to 65-years old. • The number of men in the labor force will grow at a slower rate than in the past, in part reflecting declining employment in well-paid production jobs in manufacturing, and a con­ tinued shift in demand for workers from the goodsproducing sector to the service-producing sector. Participa­ tion rates for men will decline for all age groups below age 45 except for 16-19; the rates for those 16-19 will remain steady at 53 percent. Rates for age groups 45 and above will increase.  2 Occupational Outlook Handbook  The labor force will become older.  Industry employment growth is projected to be highly concentrated in service-producing industries.  Chart 3. Percent of labor force by age group, 1996 and projected 2006  Chart 4. Percent change In employment in service-producing industries, 1986-96 and projected 1996-2006 Services  Percent of labor force ■ 2006  Transportation and public utilities  Wholesale and retail trade  Finance, insurance, and real estate 0 1986-96 ■ 1996-2006 16-24  25-34  35-44  45-54  55 and over  Government  Percent change in nonfarm wage and salary employment  • Workers over age 45 will account for a larger share of the labor force as the baby-boom generation ages. • Two age groups with large numbers of baby boomers will grow by more than 30 percent—people 45 to 54 and those 55 to 64. Only the trailing edge of the baby boomers, those born from 1962 to 1964, will be younger than 45 in 2006. • The very large group of workers aged 35 to 44, which is about one-fourth of the labor force, will change hardly at all during the period. The 25- to 34-year old group will decline by 3.0 million, a result of falling birth rates in the late 1960’s. Those 16 to 24 will increase by more than 3.0 mil­ lion, making this group the largest it has been in 25 years. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  • Employment in service-producing industries will increase faster than average, with growth near 30 percent. Service and retail trade industries will account for 14.8 million out of a total projected growth of 17.5 million wage and salary jobs. • Business, health, and education services will account for 70 percent of the growth within the service industry. • Health care services will increase 30 percent and account for 3.1 million new jobs, the largest numerical increase of any industry from 1996-2006. Factors contributing to continued growth in this industry include the aging population, which will continue to require more services, and the increased use of innovative medical technology for intensive diagnosis and treatment. Patients will increasingly be shifted out of hospitals and into outpatient facilities, nursing homes, and home health care in an attempt to contain costs. • Educational services are projected to increase by 1.8 million jobs between 1996 and 2006. Most jobs will be for teach­ ers, who are projected to account for 1.3 million jobs. • Computer and data processing services will add over 1.3 million jobs from 1996-2006. The 108 percent increase is due to technological advancements and the need for higher skilled workers. The high percent increase makes this the fastest growing industry over the projection period.  Tomorrow’s Jobs 3  Growth in goods-producing industries will be restrained by declines in manufacturing and mining.  Chart 5. Percent change in employment in goods-producing industries, 1986-96 and projected 1996-2006  Replacement needs will account for three-fifths of the 50.6 million projected job openings between 1996 and 2006. Chart 6. Total job openings due to growth and replacement needs, projected 1996-2006 Millions  30 r  35 30 25 20 15 10  OM  5  0 Replacement needs  -30 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Construction Agriculture, forestry, Manufacturing Mining and fishing Percent change in nonfarm wage and salary employment  • Projected employment growth in the construction and agri­ culture industries will be offset by a decline in manufactur­ ing and mining jobs. Manufacturing will account for 13 percent of total wage and salary worker employment in 2006, compared to 15 percent in 1996. • Construction employment will grow one-fourth slower than during the previous 10-year period.• • Within the agriculture, forestry, and fishing industry, growth in agriculture services and forestry will more than offset the projected declines in crops, livestock, and livestock related products, and fishing, hunting, and trapping. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job growth  • Job growth can be measured by percent change and numeri­ cal change. The fastest growing occupations do not neces­ sarily provide the largest number of jobs. A larger occupa­ tion with slower growth may produce more openings than a smaller occupation with faster growth. • Job opportunities are enhanced by additional openings re­ sulting from the need to replace workers who leave the oc­ cupation. Some workers leave the occupation as they are promoted or change careers; others stop working to return to school, to assume household responsibilities, or retire. • Replacement needs are greater in occupations with low pay and low training requirements with a high proportion of young and part-time workers.  4 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Of the 25 occupations with fast growth, high pay, and low unemployment that have the largest numerical growth, 18 require at least a bachelor’s degree.  Service and professional specialty occupations will provide about 2 out of every 5 job openings—pri­ marily due to high replacement needs.  Chart 8. Occupations with fast growth, high pay, and low unemployment, that have the largest numerical growth, projected 1996-2006  Chart 7. Job openings due to growth and replacement needs by major occupational group, projected 1996-2006 Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related  Systems analysts  E2 Growth  General managers and top executives  ■ Replacement Needs  Registered nurses  Technicians and related support  Teachers, secondary school Clerical supervisors and managers Data base administrators and computer support specialists Maintenance repairers, general utility  Precision production, craft, and repair Executive, administrative, and managerial  Teachers, special education Computer engineers  Operators, fabricators, and laborers  Social workers Food service and lodging managers  Marketing and sales  College and university faculty Engineering, mathematical, and computer systems managers Licensed practical nurses  Administrative support, including clerical  Financial managers Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers Computer programmers Instructors and coaches, sports and physical training Lawyers  Professional specialty  Service 12  Millions  Physicians Electrical and electronics engineers Corrections officers Securities and financial services sales workers Physical therapists  H 1996-2006 numerical change  Artists and commercial artists  • Employment in professional specialty occupations is pro­ jected to increase at a faster rate and have more job growth than any major occupational group. • Within professional specialty occupations, computer related occupations and teachers will add 2.3 million new jobs, ac­ counting for 15 percent of all new jobs from 1996 to 2006. Professional specialty occupations comprise the only group that will have a majority of job openings stemming from growth. • Little or no change is expected in employment in agricul­ ture, forestry, fishing, and related occupations. All job openings in this cluster will stem from replacement needs. • Office automation will significantly affect many individual administrative and clerical support occupations. Overall, these occupations will increase more slowly than average, though some are projected to decline. • Precision production, craft, and repair occupations and op­ erators, fabricators, and laborers are projected to grow slower than average due to continuing advances in technol­ ogy, changes in production methods, and overall decline in manufacturing jobs. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Thousands  • These 25 occupations are somewhat concentrated, with 5 occupations in computer technology, 4 in health care, and 5 in education. • The 25 occupations with fast growth, higher than average pay, and lower than average unemployment that have the largest numerical growth, will account for 5 million new jobs, or 27 percent of all job growth.  Tomorrow’s Jobs 5  The fastest growing occupations reflect growth in computer technology and health care services. Chart 9. Occupations projected to grow the fastest, 1996-2006  Job growth varies widely by education and training requirements. Chart 10. Growth rates by most significant source of education and training, projected 1996-2006  Database administrators and computer support specialists  Bachelor's degree  Computer engineers  Associate degree  Systems analysts  Doctoral degree  Personal and home care aides  Work experience plus bachelor's or higher degree First professional degree  Physical and corrective therapy assistants and aides  Master's degree  Home health aides  Short-term training and experience Work experience in a related occupation Moderate-term training and experience Long-term training and experience Postsecondary vocational training  Medical assistants Desktop publishing specialists Physical therapists Occupational therapy assistants and aides Paralegals  0 Occupational therapists  5  10  15  20  25  30  Percent change  Teachers, special education  • Five out of the 6 education and training categories projected to have the fastest growth require at least a bachelor’s de­ gree, and the sixth requires an associate’s degree. All cate­ gories that do not require a college degree are projected to grow slower than average.  Social and human services assistants Data processing equipment repairers Medical records technicians Speech language pathologists and audiologists  • Table 1 presents the fastest growing occupations and those having the largest numerical increase in employment over the 1996-2006 period, categorized by the level of education and training.  Dental hygienists Amusement and recreation attendants Physician assistants Percent change  • Computer engineers and systems analysts jobs are expected to grow rapidly in order to satisfy expanding needs of sci­ entific research and applications of computer technology. The three fastest growing occupations are in computer re­ lated fields.• • Many of the fastest growing occupations are concentrated in health services, which are expected to increase more than twice as fast as the whole economy. Personal and home care aides, and home health aides, will be in great demand to provide personal care for an increasing number of elderly people and for persons who are recovering from surgery and other serious health conditions. This is occurring, as hospi­ tals and insurance companies require shorter stays for re­ covery to reduce costs. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  • Occupations usually requiring short-term on-the-job training accounted for 53.5 million jobs in 1996, more than any other education and training category. Occupations requir­ ing a bachelor’s degree or more education accounted for 22 percent of all jobs. Occupations in the four education cate­ gories not requiring postsecondary education accounted for about 70 percent of all jobs. • Occupations that require a bachelor's degree are projected to grow the fastest, nearly twice as fast as the average for all occupations. All of the 20 occupations with the highest earnings require at least a bachelor’s degree. Engineering and health occupations dominate this list. • Education is essential in getting a high paying job. How­ ever, many occupations—for example, registered nurses, blue-collar worker supervisors, electrical and electronic technicians/technologists, automotive mechan-ics, and car­ penters—do not require a college degree, yet offer higher than average earnings. • Labor force groups with lower than average educational attainment in 1996, including Hispanics and blacks, will continue to have' difficulty obtaining a share of the high paying jobs unless they raise their educational attainment. Although high paying jobs will be available without college training, most jobs that pay above average wages will re­ quire a college degree.  6 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Jobs will be available for job seekers from every education and training background.  Chart 11. Job openings by most significant source of education and training, projected 1996-2006  Declining occupational employment stems from de­ dining industry employment and technological ad­ vancement.  Chart 12. Occupations with the largest numerical decrease In employment, projected 1996-2006  Short-term training and experience  Sewing machine operators, garment  Bachelor's degree Moderate-term training and experience Work experience plus bachelor’s or nigher degree Long-term training and experience  Farmers  mm,  Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks Typists, including word processing Secret arias, except legal and medical Cleaners and servants, private household Computer operators, except peripheral equipment  mm  Work experience in a related occupation Postsecondary vocational training Associate degree  Farm workers  First professional degree 3 Replacement needs Doctoral degree ]  Duplicating, mail, and other office machine operators Welfare eligibility workers and interviewers  I Growth  Master s degree 1 10  15  Textile draw-out and winding machine operators and tenders Station installers and repairers, telephone Child care workers, private household Inspectors, testers, and graders, precision  25  Job openings (millions)  • Almost two-thirds of the projected growth will be in occu­ pations that require less than a college degree. However, these positions generally offer the lowest pay and benefits.  Central office operators Machine tool cutting operators and tenders, metal and plastic  • Jobs requiring the least education and training—those that can be learned on the job—will provide 2 of every 3 open­ ings due to growth and replacement needs; 3 of every 4 openings will be in occupations that generally require less than a bachelor’s degree. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Film strippers, printing Peripheral computer equipment operators  Directory assistance operators Custom tailors and sewers -140  -120  -100  -80  -60  -40  -20  Thousands  • Manufacturing and agricultural related jobs, such as sewing machine operators and farmers, are examples of occupations that will lose employment due to declining employment in some goods-producing industries.• • Many declining occupations are affected by structural changes, as a result of factors including technological ad­ vances and organizational changes. For example, the use of typists and word processors will decline dramatically be­ cause of productivity improvements in office automation, and the increased use of word processing equipment by pro­ fessional and managerial employees.  Tomorrow’s Jobs 7 Table 1. Fastest growing occupations and occupations having the largest numerical increase in employment, projected 1996-2006, by level of education and training Education/training category  Fastest growing occupations  Occupations having the largest numerical increase in employment  First-professional degree Lawyers Physicians Clergy Veterinarians and veterinary inspectors Dentists  Chiropractors Veterinarians and veterinary inspectors Physicians Lawyers Clergy Doctoral degree  College and university faculty Biological scientists Medical scientists Mathematicians and all other mathematical scientists  Biological scientists Medical scientists College and university faculty Mathematicians and all other mathematical scientists Master's degree  Speech-language pathologists and audiologists Counselors Psychologists Librarians, professional Operations research analysts  Speech-language pathologists and audiologists Counselors Curators, archivists, museum technicians Psychologists Operations research analysts  Work experience plus bachelor's or higher degree Engineering, science, and computer systems managers General managers and top executives Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers Engineering, science, and computer systems managers Artists and commercial artists Financial managers Management Analysts Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers Financial managers Artists and commercial artists Bachelor's degree Systems analysts Teachers, secondary school Data base administrators and computer support specialists Teachers, special education Computer engineers  Data base administrators and computer support specialists Computer engineers Systems analysts Physical therapists Occupational therapists Associate degree  Registered nurses Paralegals Dental hygienists Radiologic technologists and technicians Health information technicians  Paralegals Health information technicians Dental hygienists Respiratory therapists Cardiology technologists Postsecondary vocational training Data processing equipment repairers Emergency medical technicians Manicurists Surgical technologists Medical secretaries  Licensed practical nurses Automotive mechanics Medical secretaries Emergency medical technicians Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists Work experience  Food service and lodging managers Teachers and instructors, vocational education and training Lawn service managers Instructors, adult education Nursery and greenhouse managers  Clerical supervisors and managers Marketing and sales worker supervisors Food service and lodging managers Teachers and instructors, vocational education and training Instructors, adult (nonvocational) education  Long-term training and experience (more than 12 months of on-the-job training) Desktop publishing specialists Cooks, restaurant Flight attendants Correction officers Musicians Musicians Correction officers Police patrol officers Producers, directors, actors, and entertainers Carpenters Moderate-term training and experience (1 to 12 months of combined on- the-job experience and informal training) Medical assistants Physical and corrective therapy assistants and aides Medical assistants Instructors and coaches, sports and physical training Occupational therapy assistants and aides Social and human services assistants Social and human services assistants Dental assistants Instructors and coaches, sports and physical training Physical and corrective therapy assistants Personal and home care aides Home health aides Amusement and recreation attendants Adjustment clerks Bill and account collectors Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Short-term training and experience (up to 1 month of on-the-job experience) Cashiers Salespersons, retail Truck drivers, light and heavy Home health aides Teacher aides and educational assistants  Sources of Career Information This chapter identifies sources of information about occupa­ tions and career planning, counseling, training and education, and financial aid. The Handbook also includes a section on sources of additional information,, which lists organizations you can contact for more information about particular occu­ pations as well as the training and education that they require.  Career information Listed below are several places to begin collecting informa­ tion on careers and job opportunities.  Personal contacts. The people close to you—your family and friends—can be extremely helpful in providing career infor­ mation. They may be able to answer your questions directly or put you in touch with someone else who can. This type of networking can lead to meeting someone who can answer your questions about a specific career or company, and who can provide inside information and other helpful hints. This is an effective way to learn the type of training necessary for a certain position, how someone in that position entered the field, the prospects for advancement, and what they like and dislike about the work.  Public libraries, career centers, and guidance offices. These institutions maintain a great deal of up-to-date career material. To begin your library search, look at the computer listings under "vocations" or "careers" and then under specific fields. Check the periodicals section, where you will find trade and professional magazines and journals about specific occupa­ tions and industries. Familiarize yourself with the concerns and activities of potential employers by skimming their annual reports and other information they distribute to the public. You can also find occupational information on video cas­ settes, in kits, and through computerized information systems. Don't forget the librarians; they can be a great source of in­ formation and can save you time by directing you to the in­ formation you need. Check your school’s career centers for programs such as individual counseling and testing, guest speakers, field trips, and career days. Also, read through any pamphlets that de­ scribe employment. Always assess career guidance materials carefully. In­ formation should be current. Beware of materials that seem to glamorize the occupation, overstate the earnings, or exag­ gerate the demand for workers.  Counselors. You may wish to seek help from a counselor. These professionals are trained to help you discover your strengths and weaknesses, guide you through an evaluation of your goals and values, and help you determine what you want in a career. The counselor will not tell you what to do, but will administer interest inventories and aptitude tests, interpret the results, and help you explore your options. Counselors also may discuss local job markets, and the entry requirements and costs of the schools, colleges, or training programs offer­ ing preparation for the kind of work that interests you. You can find counselors in: 8 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  • high school guidance offices • college career planning and placement offices • placement offices in private vocational/technical schools and institutions • vocational rehabilitation agencies • counseling services offered by community organizations • private counseling agencies and private practices • State employment service offices affiliated with the U.S. Employment Service Before employing the services of a private counselor or agency, you may want to seek recommendations and check their credentials. The International Association of Counseling Services (IACS) accredits counseling services throughout the country. To receive a listing of accredited services for your region, send a self-addressed, stamped, business-size envelope to: IACS, 101 South Whiting St„ Suite 211, Alexandria, VA 22304.  The Directory of Counseling Services, an IACS publication providing employment counseling and other assistance, may be available in your library or school career counseling center. A list of certified career counselors by State can be obtained from: *■ The National Board of Certified Counselors, 3 Terrace Way, Suite D, Greensboro, NC 27403-3660. Phone: (910)547-0607.  Internet networks and resources.  The growth of on-line listings has made available a wide variety of resources at your fingertips—24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Many companies, professional societies, academic institutions, and government agencies maintain on-line resources or homepages with the latest information on their organization and it's activities. Listings may include information such as government documents, schedules of events, job openings, and even net­ working contacts. Listings for academic institutions often provide links to career counseling and placement services through career resource centers, as well as information on financing your education. Colleges and universities also offer on-line guides to campus facilities and admission require­ ments and procedures. The variety of career information available through the Internet provide much of the same information available through libraries, career centers, and guidance offices. How­ ever, no single network or resource will contain all desired information, so be prepared to search a variety of different places. As in a library search, look through various lists by field or discipline, or by using particular keywords.  Professional societies, trade associations, labor unions, business firms, and educational institutions. These organi­ zations provide a variety of free or inexpensive career mate­ rial. Many of these are in an additional information section of the Handbook. For information on occupations not covered in the Handbook, consult directories in your library's refer­ ence section for the names of potential sources. You may start with The Guide to American Directories or The Direc­ tory of Directories. Another useful resource is The Encyclo­ pedia of Associations, an annual publication listing trade as­  Sources of Career Information 9 sociations, professional societies, labor unions, and fraternal and patriotic organizations. The National Technical Information Service Audiovisual Center, a central source for audiovisual material produced by the U.S. Government, sells material on jobs and careers. For a catalog, contact: *■  NTIS Audiovisual Center, Springfield, VA 22161. Phone: (800) 553­ 6847.  For first-hand experience in an occupation, you may wish to work as an intern. Some internships offer academic credit or pay a stipend, and can lead to a full-time job after gradua­ tion. Check with guidance offices, college career resource centers, or directly with employers for opportunities. Organizations for specific groups. The organizations listed below provide information on career planning, training, or job opportunities prepared for specific groups. Consult directo­ ries in your library's reference center or a career guidance office for information on additional organizations and asso­ ciations geared towards specific groups. Disabled: *■ President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, 1331 F St. NW., 3rd Floor, Washington, DC 20004. Phone: (202) 376-6200.  The blind: Information on the free national reference and re­ ferral service provided by the Federation of the Blind can be obtained by contacting: • Job Opportunities for the Blind (JOB), National Federation of the Blind, 1800 Johnson St„ Baltimore, MD 21230. Phone: (800) 638-7518, or (410) 659-9314 between the hours of 12:30 and 4:00 pm.  Education and training information Colleges, schools, and training institutes readily reply to re­ quests for information about their programs. When contacting these institutions, you may want to keep in mind the following items: • • • • • •  admission requirements courses offered certificates or degrees awarded cost available financial aid location and size of school  Check with professional and trade associations for lists of schools that offer career preparation in a field you are inter­ ested in. High school guidance offices and libraries usually have copies of the directories listed below, as- well as college catalogs that can provide more information on specific insti­ tutions. Helpful resources include the Directory of Private Career Schools and Colleges of Technology, put out by the Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technology. Be sure to use the latest edition because these directories and catalogs are revised periodically. Information about home or correspondence study programs appears in the Directory of Accredited Institutions. Send re­ quests for the Directory and a list of other publications to: • Distance Education and Training Council, 1601 18th St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20009. Phone: (202)234-5100.  Local labor unions, school guidance counselors, and State employment offices provide information about appren­ ticeships. Send requests for copies of The National Appren­ ticeship Program to:  Older workers:  • Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Room N-4649, Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202)219-5921.  • National Association of Older Workers Employment Services, c/o Na­ tional Council on the Aging, 409 3rd St. SW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202)479-1200.  Financial aid information  '•"National Caucus/Center on Black Aged, Inc., 1424 K St. NW„ Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 637-8400.  Veterans: Contact the nearest regional office of the U.S. De­ partment of Labor Veterans Employment and Training Serv­ ice or: • Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS), 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Room S-1315, Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 219­ 9116.  Women: • Department of Labor, Women's Bureau Clearinghouse, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (800) 827-5335 Homepage: • Wider Opportunities for Women, 815 15th St. NW., Suite 916, Washing­ ton, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 638-3143.  Federal laws, executive orders, and selected Federal grant programs bar discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, and handicap. Infor­ mation on how to file a charge of discrimination is available from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of­ fices around the country. Their addresses and telephone num­ bers are listed in telephone directories under U.S. Govern­ ment, EEOC. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Information about financial aid is available from a variety of sources. Contact your high school guidance counselor and college financial aid officer for information concerning quali­ fications and applications for scholarships, fellowships, grants, loans, and work-study programs. Every State admin­ isters financial aid programs; contact State Departments of Education for information. Banks and credit unions will pro­ vide information about student loans. You also may want to consult the directories and guides for sources of student finan­ cial aid available in guidance offices and public libraries. The Federal Government provides grants, loans, workstudy programs, and other benefits to students. Information about programs administered by the U.S. Department of Edu­ cation is presented in The Student Guide to Federal Financial Aid Programs, updated annually. To receive a copy, write to: • Federal Student Aid Information Center, c/o Federal Student Aid Pro­ grams, P.O. Box 84, Washington, DC 20044-0084. Phone: toll-free, (800) 433-3243.  Meeting College Costs, an annual publication of the Col­ lege Board, explains how student financial aid works and how to apply for it. The current edition is available to high school students through guidance counselors.  10 Occupational Outlook Handbook Need a Lift?, an annual publication of the American Legion, contains career and scholarship information. Copies cost $3 each, prepaid (including postage), and can be obtained from:  Executive Director, Alaska Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, Research and Analysis Section, P.O. Box 25501, Juneau, AK 99802­ 5501. Phone:(907)465-4518.  •"American Legion, Attn: Emblem Sales, P.O. Box 1050, Indianapolis, IN 46206. For credit card orders only, call (888) 453-4466.  American Samoa Director, American Samoa Occupational Information Coordinating Council and Research, Department of Human Resources, American Samoa Govern­ ment, Pago Pago, AS 96799. Phone: (684) 633-4485.  The Armed Forces have several educational assistance programs. These include the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC), the New G.I. bill, and tuition assistance. In­ formation can be obtained from military recruiting centers, located in most cities.  State and local information The Handbook provides information for the Nation as a whole. For help in locating State or local area information, you may contact the following:  State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (SOICC). These committees may provide the information directly, or refer you to other sources. The addresses and telephone numbers of the directors of SOICC's are listed below.  State employment security agencies. These agencies develop detailed information about local labor markets, such as current and projected employment by occupation and industry, char­ acteristics of the work force, and changes in State and local area economic activity. Addresses and telephone numbers of the directors of research and analysis in these agencies are listed below. Most States have career information delivery systems (CIDS). Look for these systems in secondary schools, post­ secondary institutions, libraries, job training sites, vocational rehabilitation centers, and employment service offices. The public can use the systems' computers, printed material, mi­ crofiche, and toll-free hotlines to obtain information on occu­ pations, educational opportunities, student financial aid, ap­ prenticeships, and military careers. Ask counselors and SO­ ICC's for specific locations. A computerized State Training Inventory (STI) developed by the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC) is also maintained by the SOICC’s and available in every State. Education and training data are or­ ganized by occupation or training program title, type of insti­ tution, and geographic area. The database is compiled at the State level and includes more than 217,000 education and training programs offered by over 21,000 schools, colleges, and hospitals. If you are interested in STI, contact individual SOICC's for State-specific data. State occupational projections are also available on the Internet at:  Arizona Research Administrator, Department of Economic Security, P.O. Box 6123, Site Code 733A, Phoenix, AZ 85005. Phone: (602) 542-3871. Executive Director, Arizona State Occupational Information Coordinating Council, P.O. Box 6123, Site Code 897J, 1789 West Jefferson St., First Floor North, Phoenix, AZ 85005-6123. Phone: (602) 542-3871. Arkansas LMI Director, Employment Security Department, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock, AR 72203. Phone: (501) 682-3159. Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council/ Em­ ployment Security Division, Employment and Training Services, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock, AR 72203-2981. Phone: (501) 682-3159. California Chief, Labor Market Information Division, Employment Development De­ partment, 7000 Franklin Blvd., Bldg. 1100, MIC 57, P.O. Box 826880, Sac­ ramento, CA 94280-0001. Phone: (916) 262-2160. Executive Director, California Occupational Information Coordinating Coun­ cil, 1116 9th St. Lower Level, P.O. Box 944222, Sacramento, CA 94244­ 2220. Phone:(916)323-6544. Colorado Director, LMI, Colorado Department of Labor, 1515 Arapahoe Ave., Tower 2, Suite 400, Denver, CO 80202-2117. Phone: (303) 620-4977. Director, Colorado Occupational Information Coordinating Council, 1515 Arapahoe Street, Tower Two, level 3, Suite 300, Denver, CO 80202. Phone: (303) 620-4981. Connecticut Director of Research, Connecticut Labor Department, 200 Folly Brook Blvd., Wethersfield, CT 06109. Phone: (860) 566-2121. Executive Director, Connecticut Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Connecticut Department of Labor, 200 Folly Brook Boulevard., Wethersfield CT 06109. Phone: (860) 566-7963. Delaware LMI Director, Department of Labor, 4425 N. Market Street, Wilmington, DE 19809-0965. Phone:(302)761-8069. Executive Director, Delaware OICC / Office of Occupational and Labor Market Information / DOL, University Office Plaza, P. O. Box 9965, Wil­ mington, DE 19809-0965. Phone: (302) 761-8050. District of Columbia Chief of Labor Market Information, Department of Employment Services, 500 C St. NW„ Room 201, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202) 724-7214. Executive Director, District of Columbia Occupational Information Coordi­ nating Council, 500 C St. NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20001-2187. Phone: (202) 724-7205. Florida Chief, Bureau of LMI, Department of Labor and Employment Security, The Hartman Building, Suite 200, 2012 Capitol Circle SE., Tallahassee, FL 32399. Phone: (904) 488-6037.  Alabama Chief, Labor Market Information, Department of Industrial Relations, 649 Monroe St., Room 422, Montgomery, AL 36130. Phone: (334) 242-8859.  Manager, Workplace Development Information Coordinating Committee, Bureau of Labor Market Information, Department of Labor and Employment Security, 2012 Capitol Circle SE., Hartman Bldg., Suite 200, Tallahassee, FL 32399-2151. Phone: (904) 488-1048.  Executive Director, Alabama Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Alabama Center for Commerce, Room 424, 401 Adams Ave., P.O. Box 5690, Montgomery, AL 36103-5690. Phone: (334) 242-2990.  Georgia Director, Labor Information Systems, Department of Labor, 223 Courtlnad St. NE„ Atlanta, GA 30303-1751. Phone: (404) 656-3177.  Alaska Chief, Research and Analysis, Alaska Department of Labor, P.O. Box 25501, Juneau, AK 99802-5501. Phone: (907) 465-4500.  Executive Director, Georgia Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Department of Labor, 148 International Blvd., Sussex Place, Atlanta, GA 30303-1751. Phone:(404)656-9639. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Career Information 11 Guam Executive Director, Guam OICC, Human Resource Development Agency, Guam ITC Bldg., Third Floor, P.O. Box 3358, Agana, GU 96910-2817 Phone: (671) 649-9759. Hawaii Chief, Research and Statistics Office, Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, 830 Punchbowl St., Rm 304, Honolulu, HI 96813. Phone: (808) 586-8999. Executive Director, Hawaii State Occupational Information Coordinating Council, 830 Punchbowl St., Room 315, Honolulu, HI 96813-5080. Phone(808) 586-8750. Idaho Director, Research and Analysis, Department of Employment, 317 Main St., Boise, ID 83735-0001. Phone: (208) 334-6169. Director, Idaho Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Len B. Jordan Bldg., Room 301, 650 West State St., P.O. Box 83720, Boise, ID 83720-0095. Phone: (208) 334-3705. Illinois Economic Information and Analysis Manager, Department of Employment Security, 401 South State St., 2S, Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: (312) 793-2316. Executive Director, Illinois Occupational Information Coordinating Council, 217 East Monroe, Suite 203, Springfield, IL 62706-1147. Phone: (217) 785­ 0789. Indiana Deputy Commissioner for Field Support and Business Development, Depart­ ment of Workforce Development, 10 North Senate Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46204-2277. Phone:(317) 233-5724. Director, Indiana Occupational Information Coordinating Committee/ Workforce Development/Technical Education, Indiana Government Center South, 10 North Senate Ave., Second Floor, Indianapolis, IN 46204-2277 Phone: (317) 233-5099. Iowa Bureau Chief, Research and Information Services, Department of Workforce Development, 1000 East Grand Ave., Des Moines, IA 50319. Phone: (515) 281-8181.  Director, Maryland State Occupational Information Coordinating Council, State Department of Labor, Licensing & Regulation, 1100 North Eutaw St., Room 104, Baltimore, MD 21201-2298. Phone: (410) 626-2953. Massachusetts LMI and Research Director, Division of Employment and Training, Hurley Building, 5* Floor, 19 Stamford St., Boston, MA 02114. Phone: (617) 626­ 6556. Director, Massachusetts Occupational Information Coordinating Council/ Division of Employment Security, Charles F. Hurley Bldg., 2nd Floor, Gov­ ernment Center, Boston, MA 02114. Phone: (617)727-5718. Michigan Deputy Director, Management and Financial Services, Employment Security Commission, 7310 Woodward Ave., Room 510, Detroit, MI 48202. Phone013) 876-5904. Executive Coordinator, Michigan Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Victor Office Center, 201 North Washington Square, 4“ Floor Lansing, MI 48913. Phone: (517) 373-0363. Minnesota Director, Research and Statistical Services, Department of Economic Secu­ rity, 390 North Robert St„ 5th Floor, St. Paul, MN 55101. Phone: (612) 296­ 6546. Director, Minnesota Occupational Information Coordinating Council/Department of Economic Security, 390 North Robert Street., St. Paul, MN 55101. Phone(612) 296-2072. Mississippi Chief, Labor Market Information Department, Employment Security Com­ mission, P.O. Box 1699, 1520 West Charles St., Jackson, MS 39215-1699 Phone: (601)961-7424. SOICC Director, Mississippi State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 301 West Pearl St., Jackson, MS 39203-3089 Phone- (601) 949­ 2240. Missouri Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Employment Security, 421 East Dunkin St., P.O. Box 59, Jefferson City, MO 65104-0059. Phone: (573) 751­ 3595.  Executive Director, Iowa Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Iowa Workforce Development, 200 East Grand Ave., Des Moines, IA 50319. Phone: (515)242-5032.  Director, Missouri Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 400 Dix Rd., Jefferson City, MO 65109. Phone: (573)751-3800.  Kansas Chief, Labor Market Information Services, Department of Human Resources, 401 SW Topeka Avenue, Topeka, KS 66603-3182. Phone: (913) 296-5058.  Montana Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Labor and Industry, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, MT 59624. Phone: (406) 444-2430.  Director, Kansas Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 401 Topeka Ave., Topeka, KS 66603. Phone: (913) 296-3512.  SOICC Director, Montana Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, P.O. Box 1728, 1301 Lockey St., Second Floor, Helena, MT 59624-1728. Phone: (406)444-2741.  Kentucky Manager, LMI Branch, Department of Employment Services, 275 East Main St., Frankfort, KY 40621. Phone: (502) 564-7976. Information Liaison/Manager, Kentucky Occupational Information Coordi­ nating Council, 500 Mero Street, Room 2031, Frankfort, KY 40601. Phone: (502) 564-4258. Louisiana Director, Research and Statistics Division, Department of Employment and Training, P.O. Box 94094, Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9094. Phone: (504) 342­ 3141. Director, Louisiana Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 94094, Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9094. Phone: (504) 342-5149. Maine Director, Labor Market Information Services, Department of Labor/BES, 20 Union St., Augusta, ME 04330. Phone: (207) 287-2271. SOICC Director, Maine Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, State House Station 71, Augusta, ME 04333. Phone: (207) 624-6200. Maryland Director, Office .of Labor Market Analysis and Information, Department of Labor, Licensing, and Regulations, 1100 North Eutaw St., Room 601, Balti­ more, MD 21201. Phone: (410) 767-2250. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nebraska LMI Administrator, Department of Labor, 550 South 16th St., P.O. Box 94600, Lincoln, NE 68509-4600. Phone: (402) 471-9964. Administrator, Nebraska Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 94600, State House Station., Lincoln, NE 68509-4600. Phone: (402) 471-9953. Nevada Chief, Research and Analysis/LMI, Information, Development, and Proces­ sing Division, Employment Security Department, 500 East 3rd St., Carson City, NV 89713-0001. Phone: (702) 687-4550. Manager, Nevada Occupational Information Coordinating Committee/ DETR, 500 East 3rd St„ Carson City, NV 89713. Phone: (702) 687-4550. New Hampshire Director, Labor Market Information, Department of Employment Security, 32 South Main St„ Concord, NH 03301. Phone: (603) 228-4123. Director, New Hampshire Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, 64 Old Suncook Rd., Concord, NH 03301. Phone: (603) 228-3349. New Jersey Assistant Commissioner, Labor Research and Analysis, Department of Labor, CN056, Trenton, NJ 08625-0056. Phone: (609) 292-2643.  12 Occupational Outlook Handbook Staff Director, New Jersey Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Labor Bldg., S* Floor, CN057, Trenton, NJ 08625-0057. Phone: (609) 292­ 2682. New Mexico Chief, Economic Research and Analysis Bureau, Department of Labor, 401 Broadway Blvd. NE„ P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Phone: (505) 841-8645. ' SOICC Director, New Mexico Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee, 401 Broadway NE., Tiwa Bldg., P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Phone:(505)841-8455. New York Director, Division of Research and Statistics, New York State Department of Labor, State Office Building Campus, Room 401, Albany, NY 12240. Phone: (518) 457-6369. Executive Director, New York State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee/DOL, Research and Statistics Division, State Campus, Bldg. 12, Room 488, Albany, NY 12240. Phone: (518) 457-3806. North Carolina Director, Labor Market Information, Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh, NC 27611. Phone: (919) 733-2937. Executive Director, North Carolina Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 700 Wade Avenue, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh, NC 27611. Phone: (919)733-6700. North Dakota Director, Research and Statistics, Job Service North Dakota, P.O. Box 5507, Bismarck, ND 58506-5507. Phone: (701) 328-2868. Program Administrator, North Dakota State Occupational Information Coor­ dinating Committee, 1720 Burnt Boat Dr., P.O. Box 5507, Bismarck, ND 58506-5507. Phone: (701)328-9734. Northern Mariana Islands Executive Director, Northern Mariana Islands Occupational Information Co­ ordinating Committee, P.O. Box 149, Room N-l, Building N, Northern Mariana College, Saipan, CM 96950. Phone: (670) 234-7394. Ohio Administrator, Labor Market Information Division, Bureau of Employment Services, 78-80 Chestnut, 5lh Floor, Columbus, OH 43215. Phone: (614) 752­ 9494. Director, Ohio Occupational Information Coordinating Committee/Division of LMI, Ohio Bureau of Employment Services, 145 South Front St., Colum­ bus, OH 43215. Phone: (614) 466-1109. Oklahoma Director, Research Division, Employment Security Commission, 305 Will Rogers Memorial Office Bldg., Oklahoma City, OK 73105. Phone: (405) 557-7265. Executive Director, Oklahoma Occupational Information Coordinating Coun­ cil, Department of Voc / Tech Education, 1500 W. 7th Ave., Stillwater, OK 74074-4364. Phone:(405)743-5198. Oregon Adminstrator for Research, Tax and Analysis, Oregon Employment Depart­ ment, 875 Union St. NE., Salem, OR 97311. Phone: (503) 378-8656.  Rhode Island Labor Market Information Director, Department of Employment and Training, 101 Friendship St., Providence, RI 02903-3740. Phone: (401) 277-3730. Director, Rhode Island Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 101 Friendship St., Providence, RI 02903. Phone: (401) 272-0830. South Carolina Director, Labor Market Information, Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 995, Columbia, SC 29202. Phone: (803) 737-2660. Director, South Carolina Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1550 Gadsden St.. P.O. Box 995, Columbia, SC 29202-0995. Phone: (803) 737-2733. South Dakota Director, Labor Information Center, Department of Labor, P.O. Box 4730, Aberdeen, SD 57402-4730. Phone: (605) 626-2314. Director, South Dakota Occupational Information Coordinating Council, South Dakota Department of Labor, 420 South Roosevelt St., P.O. Box 4730, Aberdeen, SD 57402-4730. Phone: (605) 626-2314. Tennessee Director, Research and Statistics Division, Department of Employment Secu­ rity, 500 James Robertson Pkwy., 11th Floor, Nashville, TN 37245-1000. Phone: (615) 741-2284. Executive Director, Tennessee Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 500 James Robertson Pkwy., 11th Floor-Volunteer Plaza, Nash­ ville, TN 37245-1600. Phone: (615) 741-6451. Texas Director of Labor Market Information, Texas Workforce Commission, 101 East 15th St„ Room 208T, Austin, TX 78778-0001. Phone: (512) 463-2616. Director, Texas Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Travis Bldg., Suite 205, 3520 Executive Center Dr., Austin, TX 78731. Phone: (512) 502-3750. Utah Director, Labor Market Information, Department of Employment Security, 140 East 300 South, P.O. Box 45249, Salt Lake City, UT 84145-0249. Phone: (801)536-7860. Director, Utah Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, do Utah Department of Employment Security, P.O. Box 45249, 140 East 300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84147. Phone: (801) 536-7806. Vermont Director, Policy and Information, Department of Employment and Training, 5 Green Mountain Dr., P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05601-0488. Phone: (802) 828-4153. Director, Vermont Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 5 Green Mountain Dr., P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05601-0488. Phone: (802) 229-0311. Virginia Director, Economic Information Services Division, VA Employment Com­ mission, 703 East Main St., Richmond, VA 23219. Phone: (804) 786-7496.  SOICC Director, Oregon Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 875 Union St. NE., Salem, OR 97311-0101. Phone: (503) 378-5747.  Acting Executive Director, Virginia Occupational Information Coordinating Committee/Virginia Employment Commission, 703 East Main St., P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23211. Phone: (804) 786-7496.  Pennsylvania Director, Bureau of Research and Statistics, 300 Capitol Associates Building, 3rd Floor, 901 North Seventh St., Harrisburg, PA 17120-9969. Phone: (717) 787-3266.  Virgin Islands Chief, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor, 53A and 54B Kronprindsens Gade, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, VI 00802. Phone: (809) 776­ 3700.  Executive Director, Pennsylvania SOICC, Bureau of Research and Statistics, PA Department of Labor and Industry, 300 Capitol Associates Bldg., Harris­ burg, PA 17120-0034. Phone:(717)772-1330.  Coordinator, Virgin Islands Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee, P.O. Box 303359, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 00803-3359. Phone: (809) 776-3700, extension 2136.  Puerto Rico Director, Research and Statistics Division, Department of Labor and Human Resources, 505 Munoz Rivera Ave., 20th Floor, Hato Rey, PR 00918 Phone' (809) 754-5385.  Washington Director, Labor Market and Economic Analysis, P.O. Box 9046, Olympia, WA 98507-9046. Phone: (360) 438-4804.  Executive Director, Puerto Rico Occupational Information Coordinating Com­ mittee, P.O. Box 366212, San Juan, PR 00936-6212. Phone: (787) 723-7110.  Executive Director, Washington Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, c/o Employment Security Department, P.O. Box 9046, Olympia, WA 98507-9046. Phone: (360) 438-4803. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Career Information 13 West Virginia Assistant Director, Labor and Economic Research, JTP/ES Division, Bureau of Employment Programs, 112 California Ave., Charleston, WV 25305-0112 Phone: (304) 558-2660.  Coordinator, Wisconsin State Occupational Information Coordinating Coun­ cil/Department of Workforce Development, DWE/BWI, 201 East Washington Ave., GEF-1, Room 22IX, P.O. Box 7944, Madison, WI 53707-7944. Phone(608)267-9611. ,  Executive Director, West Virginia Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P O Box 487, Institute, WV 25112-0487. Phone- (304) 766­ 2687.  Wyoming Manager, Research and Planning, Department of Employment, P.O. Box 2760, Casper, WY 82602-2760. Phone: (307) 473-3801.  Wisconsin Director, Department of Workforce Development, Jobs, Employment, and Training Services Division, 201 East Washington Ave., P.O. Box 7946, Madison, WI53707-7946. Phone: (608) 266-5843.  Acting Director, Wyoming Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Post Office Box 2760, 246 South Center St., 2"d Floor, Casper, WY 82602 Phone: (307) 473-3809. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer Information on Finding a Job It takes some people a great deal of time and effort to find a job they enjoy. Others may walk right into an ideal employ­ ment situation. Do not be discouraged if you have to pursue many leads. Friends, neighbors, teachers, and counselors may know of available jobs in your field of interest. Read the clas­ sified ads. Consult State employment service offices and con­ sider private employment agencies. You may also contact employers directly.  • Read the ads every day, particularly the Sunday edition, which usually includes the most listings. • Beware of "no experience necessary" ads. These ads often signal low wages, poor working conditions, or commission work. • Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded, in­ cluding the specific skills, educational background, and per­ sonal qualifications required for the position.  Internet networks and resources. A variety of information is Where To Learn About Job Openings Parents, friends, acquaintances, and neighbors School or college placement services Classified ads —Local and out-of-town newspapers —Professional journals —Trade magazines Employment agencies and career consultants State employment service offices Internet networks and resources Civil service announcements (Federal, State, and local) Labor unions Professional associations (State and local chapters) Libraries and community centers Women’s counseling and employment programs Youth programs Employers  Job Search Methods Personal contacts. Your network of family, friends, and ac­ quaintances may offer one of the most effective ways to find a job. They may help you directly or put you in touch with someone else who can. Such networking can lead to meeting with someone who is hiring for their firm or who knows of specific job openings.  Classified ads.  The "Help Wanted" ads in newspapers list hundreds of jobs. You should realize, however, that many other job openings are not listed, and that the classified ads sometimes do not give all important information. Many offer little or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some ads do not identify the employer. They may simply give a post office box for sending your resume. This makes follow-up inquiries very difficult. Furthermore, some ads offer out-of-town jobs; others advertise employment agencies rather than actual employment openings. Keep the following in mind when using classified ads: • Do not rely solely on the classifieds to find a job; follow other leads as well. • Answer ads promptly, since openings may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops appearing in the paper.  14 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  available on the Internet including jobs and job search re­ sources and techniques. Internet resources are available 7 days a week, 24 hours a day. No single network or resource will contain all information on employment or career opportunities, so be prepared to search for what you need. Remember that job listings may be posted by field or discipline, so begin your search using key­ words. When searching employment databases on the Internet, it is sometimes possible to post your resume on-line or send it to an employer via electronic mail. Some sources provide this service free of charge; although be careful that you are not going to incur any additional charges for postings or updates. A good place to start your job search is America's Job Bank. It can be found at:  Public employment service. The State employment service, sometimes called the Job Service, operates in coordination with the U.S. Employment Service of the U.S. Department of Labor. About 1,700 local offices help jobseekers find jobs and help employers find qualified workers at no cost to them­ selves. To find the office nearest you, look in the State gov­ ernment telephone listings under "Job Service" or "Employ­ ment." Job matching and referral. At the State employment service office, an interviewer will determine if you are "job ready" or if counseling and testing services would be helpful first. After you are "job ready," you may examine available job listings and select openings that interest you. A staff member can then describe the job openings in detail and arrange for inter­ views with prospective employers. Employment counselors can arrange for tests to assess your occupational aptitudes and interests. They will also help you choose and prepare for a career. America's Job Bank, run by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration, provides informa­ tion on preparing your resume and using the Internet for your job search; trends in the U.S. job market and State occupa­ tional projections; and approximately 500,000 job openings on any given day. A wide range of jobs are listed all over the country, and most are full-time jobs in the private sector. Job­ seekers can access these listings through the Internet; comput­ ers with access to the Internet are available to the public in  Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer 15 any local public employment service office, as well as in schools, libraries, and several hundred military installations. Tips for Finding the Right Job, a U.S. Department of Labor pamphlet, offers advice on determining your job skills, or­ ganizing your job search, writing a resume, and making the most of an interview. Job Search Guide: Strategies For Pro­ fessionals, another U.S. Department of Labor publication, discusses specific steps that jobseekers can follow to identify employment opportunities. This publication includes sections on such things as handling job loss, managing personal re­ sources, assessing personal skills and interests, researching the job market, conducting the job search, and networking. Check with your State employment service office, or order a copy of these publications from the U.S. Government Printing Office's Superintendent of Documents. Phone: (202) 512­ 1800 for price and ordering information. Services for special groups. By law, veterans are entitled to priority at State employment service centers. Veterans' em­ ployment representatives can inform you of available assis­ tance and help you deal with any problems. State service centers refer youths between 16 and 21 and economically disadvantaged applicants to opportunities avail­ able under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982, which prepares persons facing barriers to employment for jobs. Federaljob information. Information on getting a job with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299. Information also is available on the Internet: Private employment agencies. These agencies can be helpful, but they are in business to make money. Most agencies oper­ ate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon a per­ centage of the salary paid to a successful applicant. You or the hiring company will have to pay a sizable fee. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying it before us­ ing the service. While employment agencies can help you save time and contact employers who otherwise might be difficult to locate, in cases where you are responsible for the fee, your costs may outweigh the benefits. Consider any guarantee they offer when determining the cost. College career planning and placement offices. College placement offices facilitate matching job openings for their students and alumni. They set up appointments and use the facilities for interviews with recruiters. Placement offices usually list part-time, temporary, and summer jobs offered on campus. They also list jobs in regional business, nonprofit, and government organizations. Students can receive career counseling and testing, job search advice, and use of the ca­ reer resource library. Here you may attend workshops on such topics as job search strategy, resume writing, letter writ­ ing, and effective interviewing; critique drafts of resumes and watch videotapes of mock interviews; explore files of resumes and references; and attend job fairs conducted by the office. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations, in­ cluding churches and synagogues, and vocational rehabilita­ tion agencies, offer counseling, career development, and job placement services, generally targeted to a particular group, such as women, youth, minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers. Employers. It is possible to apply directly to employers with­ out a referral. You may locate a potential employer in the Yellow Pages, in directories of local chambers of commerce, and in other directories that provide information about em­ ployers. When you find an employer you are interested in, you can send a cover letter and resume even if you are not certain that an opening exists.  Applying for a Job Resumes and application forms. Resumes and application forms are two ways to provide employers with written evi­ dence of your qualifications and skills. Most information ap­ pears on both the resume and application form, but the way it is presented differs. Some employers prefer a resume while others require an application form. The accompanying box presents the basic information you should include in your re­ sume. There are many ways of organizing a resume. Depending on the job, you should choose the format that best highlights your skills, training, and experience. It may be helpful to look in a variety of books and publications in your local library or bookstore for different examples.  What Goes Into a Resume • • • •  •  • •  Name, address, and telephone number. Employment objective. State the type of work or specific job you are seeking. Education, including school name and address, dates of attendance, curriculum, and highest grade completed or degree awarded. Experience, paid or volunteer. Include the following for each job: Job title, name and location of employer, and dates of employment. Briefly describe your job duties. Special skills, proficiency in foreign languages, achieve­ ments, membership in organizations, and volunteer work. Note on your resume that "references available upon re­ quest."  In filling out an application form, make sure you fill it out completely and follow all instructions. Do not omit any in­ formation asked and make sure that all information provided is correct. Cover letters. A cover letter is sent with a resume or applica­ tion form, as a way to introduce yourself to employers. It should capture the employer’s attention, follow a business letter format, and should usually include the following information: • The name and address of the specific person to whom the letter is addressed. • The reason for your interest in the company or position. • Your main qualifications for the position (in brief).  16 Occupational Outlook Handbook • A request for an interview. • Your home and work phone number.  ing the labor force after a long absence, or planning a career change.  Interviewing. An interview gives you the opportunity to showcase your qualifications to an employer, so it pays to be well prepared. The information in the accompanying box provides some helpful hints.  The organization.  Job Interview Tips Preparation: Learn about the organization. Have a specific job or jobs in mind. Review your qualifications for the job. Prepare answers to broad questions about yourself. Review your resume. Practice an interview with a friend or relative. Arrive before the scheduled time of your interview. Personal Appearance: Be well groomed. Dress appropriately.  Do not chew gum or smoke. The Interview: Relax and answer each question concisely. Respond promptly. Use good manners. Learn the name of your interviewer and shake hands as you meet. Use proper English and avoid slang. Be cooperative and enthusiastic. Ask questions about the position and the organization. Thank the interviewer, and follow up with a letter. Test (if employer gives one): Listen closely to instructions. Read each question carefully. Write legibly and clearly. Budget your time wisely and don't dwell on one question Information to Bring to an Interview: Social Security number. Driver's license number. Resume. Although not all employers require applicants to bring a resume, you should be able to furnish the interviewer informa­ tion about your education, training, and previous employment. References. An employer usually requires three references. Get permission from people before using their names, and make sure they will give you a good reference. Try to avoid using relatives.  Evaluating a Job Offer Once you receive a job offer, you are faced with a difficult decision and must evaluate the offer carefully. Fortunately, most organizations will not expect you to accept or reject an offer immediately. There are many issues to consider when assessing a job of­ fer. Will the organization be a good place to work? Will the job be interesting? How are opportunities for advancement? Is the salary fair? Does the employer offer good benefits? If you have not already figured out exactly what you want, the following discussion may help you develop a set of criteria for judging job offers, whether you are starting a career, reenter­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Background information on an organi­ zation can help you decide whether it is a good place for you to work. Factors to consider include the organization's busi­ ness or activity, financial condition, age, size, and location. You can generally get background information on an or­ ganization, particularly a large organization, by telephoning its public relations office. A public company's annual report to the stockholders tells about its corporate philosophy, his­ tory, products or services, goals, and financial status. Most government agencies can furnish reports that describe their programs and missions. Press releases, company newsletters or magazines, and recruitment brochures also can be useful. Ask the organization for any other items that might interest a prospective employee. If possible, speak to current or former employees of the or­ ganization. Background information on the organization also may be available on the Internet or at your public or school library. If you cannot get an annual report, check the library for reference directories that may provide basic facts about the company, such as earnings, products and services, and number of employees. Some directories widely available in libraries include the following: • • • • • •  Dun & Bradstreet's Million Dollar Directory Standard and Poor's Register of Corporations Directors and Executives Moody's Industrial Manual Thomas' Register of American Manufacturers Ward's Business Directory  Stories about an organization in magazines and newspapers can tell a great deal about its successes, failures, and plans for the future. You can identify articles on a company by looking under its name in periodical or computerized indexes such as the following—however, it probably will not be useful to look back more than 2 or 3 years. • • • • •  Business Periodicals Index Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature Newspaper Index Wall Street Journal Index New York Times Index  The library also may have government publications that present projections of growth for the industry in which the organization is classified. Long-term projections of em­ ployment and output for more than 200 industries, covering the entire economy, are developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and revised every two years—see the November 1997 Monthly Labor Review for the most recent projections. The U.S. Global Trade Outlook, published annually by the U.S. Department of Commerce, presents detailed analyses of the globalization of U.S. industry and growth prospects for some industrial sectors. Trade magazines also have periodic articles on the trends for specific industries. Career centers at colleges and universities often have in­ formation on employers that is not available in libraries. Ask a career center representative how to find out about a particu­ lar organization. The career center may have an entire file of information on the company.  Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer 17 Is the organization's business or activity in keeping with your own interests and beliefs? It will be easier to apply yourself to the work if you are en­ thusiastic about what the organization does. How will the size of the organization affect you? Large firms generally offer a greater variety of training pro­ grams and career paths, more managerial levels for ad­ vancement, and better employee benefits than small firms. Large employers may also have more advanced technologies. However, jobs in large firms may tend to be highly special­ ized. Jobs in small firms may offer broader authority and re­ sponsibility, a closer working relationship with top manage­ ment, and a chance to clearly see your contribution to the suc­ cess of the organization. Should you work for a fledgling organization or one that is well established? New businesses have a high failure rate, but for many people, the excitement of helping create a company and the potential for sharing in its success more than offset the risk of job loss. It may be as exciting and rewarding, however, to work for a young firm which already has a foothold on success. Does it make any difference to you whether the company is private or public? A privately owned company may be controlled by an indi­ vidual or a family, which can mean that key jobs are reserved for relatives and iriends. A publicly owned company is con­ trolled by a board of directors responsible to the stockholders. Key jobs are open to anyone with talent. Is the organization in an industry with favorable long­ term prospects? The most successful firms tend to be in industries that are growing rapidly. The nature of the job. Even if everything else about the job is good, you will be unhappy if you dislike the day-to-day work. Determining in advance whether you will like the work may be difficult. However, the more you find out about it before accepting or rejecting the job offer, the more likely you are to make the right choice. Actually working in the industry and, if possible, for the company would provide considerable insight. You can gain work experience through part-time, temporary, or summer jobs, or through workstudy programs while in school, all of which can lead to permanent job offers. Where is the job located? If it is in another section of the country, you need to consider the cost of living, the availability of housing and transporta­ tion, and the quality of educational and recreational facilities in the new location. Even if the place of work is in your area, consider the time and expense of commuting in your decision. Does the work match your interests and make good use of your skills? The duties and responsibilities of the job should be explained in enough detail to answer this question. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  How important is the job in this company? An explanation of where you fit in the organization and how you are supposed to contribute to its overall objectives should give you an idea of the job's importance. Are you comfortable with the hours? Most jobs involve regular hours—for example, 40 hours a week, during the day, Monday through Friday. Other jobs require night, weekend, or holiday work. In addition, some jobs routinely require overtime to meet deadlines or sales or production goals, or to better serve customers. Consider the effect of work hours on your personal life. How long do most people who enter this job stay with the company? High turnover can mean dissatisfaction with the nature of the work or something else about the job. Opportunities offered by employers. A good job offers you opportunities to learn new skills, increase your earnings, and rise to positions of greater authority, responsibility, and pres­ tige. A lack of opportunities can dampen interest in the work and result in frustration and boredom. The company should have a training plan for you. What valuable new skills does the company plan to teach you? The employer should give you some idea of promotion possibilities within the organization. What is the next step on the career ladder? If you have to wait for a job to become vacant before you can be promoted, how long does this usu­ ally take? Employers differ on their policies regarding pro­ motion from within the organization. When opportunities for advancement do arise, will you compete with applicants from outside the company? Can you apply for jobs for which you qualify elsewhere within the organization, or is mobility within the firm limited? Salaries and benefits. Wait for the employer to introduce these subjects. Some companies will not talk about pay until they have decided to hire you. In order to know if their offer is reasonable, you need a rough estimate of what the job should pay. You may have to go to several sources for this information. Try to find family, friends, or acquaintances who recently were hired in similar jobs. Ask your teachers and the staff in the college placement office about starting pay for graduates with your qualifications. Help-wanted ads in newspapers sometimes give salary ranges for similar posi­ tions. If you are considering the salary and benefits for a job in another geographic area, make allowances for differences in the cost of living, which may be significantly higher in a large metropolitan area than in a smaller city, town, or rural area. You also should learn the organization's policy regarding overtime. Depending on the job, you may or may not be ex­ empt from laws requiring the employer to compensate you for overtime. Find out how many hours you will be expected to work each week and whether you receive overtime pay or compensatory time off for working more than the specified number of hours in a.week. Also take into account that the starting salary is just that, the start. Your salary should be reviewed on a regular basis— many organizations do it every year. How much can you ex­ pect to earn after 1, 2, or 3 or more years? An employer can­  18 Occupational Outlook Handbook not be specific about the amount of pay if it includes commis­ sions and bonuses. Benefits can also add a lot to your base pay, but they vary widely. Find out exactly what the benefit package includes and how much of the costs you must bear. Check the library or your school's career center for salary surveys such as those conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers or various professional associations. Data on wages and benefits are also available from: w Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Compensation and Working Conditions, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Room 4160, Washington, DC 20212-0001. Phone: (202) 606-6225.  Data from the National Compensation Survey, which inte­ grates data from three existing BLS programs—the Employment Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Cost Index, the Occupational Compensation Survey, and the Employee Benefits Survey—will become available between 1997 and the year 2000 from the BLS office above and from the Internet: Current Population Survey (CPS) data on median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed oc­ cupation, are available from: m- Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Employment and Unemployment Sta­ tistics, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Room 4945, Washington, DC 20212­ 0001. Phone: (202) 606-6400.  CPS data can also be accessed at the following Internet ad­ dress : http://www. stats, bis. gov/cpsaatab. htm  Occupational Information Included in the Handbook The Occupational Outlook Handbook is best used as a refer­ ence; it is not meant to be read from cover to cover. Instead, start by looking at the table of contents, where related occu­ pations are grouped in clusters, or look in the alphabetical index for specific occupations that interest you. This section is an overview of how the occupational descriptions, or state­ ments, are organized. Two earlier chapters—Tomorrow's Jobs, and Sources of Career Information—highlight the forces that are likely to determine employment opportunities in in­ dustries and occupations through the year 2006, and tell you where to obtain additional information. Unless otherwise noted, the source of employment and earnings data presented in the Handbook is the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Many Handbook statements cite earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), while other statements include earnings data from outside sources. Since the characteristics of these data vary, it is difficult to compare earnings precisely among occupations. For any occupation that sounds interesting, use the Hand­ book to find out what the work entails; what education and training is required; what the advancement possibilities, earn­ ings, and job outlook are; and what related occupations are. Each occupational statement in the Handbook follows a stan­ dard format, making it easier for you to compare occupations. The following highlights information presented in each section of a Handbook statement, and gives some hints on how to in­ terpret the information provided.  About those numbers at the beginning of each statement The numbers in parentheses that appear just below the title of most occupational statements are from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (D.O.T.), Fourth Edition, Revised 1991, a U.S. Department of Labor publication. D.O.T. numbers are used primarily by State em­ ployment service offices to classify applicants and job openings. They are included in the Handbook because some career information centers and libraries use them for filing occupational information. An index at the back of this book beginning on page 496 cross­ references the Revised Fourth Edition D.O.T. numbers to occupations covered in the Handbook. The D.O.T. is being replaced by 0*NET, the Occupational Information Network. For more information about this electronic occupational information database, see the Note on page 496.  Significant Points • Highlights key occupational characteristics. Nature of the Work • What workers do, the equipment they use, and how closely they are supervised. • How the duties of workers vary by industry, establishment, and size of firm. • How the responsibilities of entry-level workers differ from those of experienced, supervisory, or self-employed workers. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  • How technological innovations are affecting what workers do and how they do it. • Emerging specialties. Working Conditions • • • • • •  Typical hours worked. The workplace environment. Susceptibility to injury, illness, and job-related stress. Necessary protective clothing and safety equipment. Physical activities required. Extent of travel required.  Employment • The number of jobs the occupation provided in 1996. • Key industries employing workers in the occupation.  • Geographic distribution of jobs. • The proportion of part-time (fewer than 35 hours a week) and self-employed workers in the occupation. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement • Most significant sources of training, typical length of train­ ing, and training preferred by employers. • Whether workers acquire skills through previous work expe­ rience, informal on-the-job training, formal training (in­ cluding apprenticeships), the Armed Forces, home study, or hobbies and other activities. • Formal educational requirements—high school, postsec­ ondary vocational or technical training, college, or graduate or professional education. • Desirable skills, aptitudes, and personal characteristics. • Certification, examination, or licensing required for entry into the field, advancement, or for independent practice. • Continuing education or skill improvement requirements. • Advancement opportunities. Job Outlook • Forces that will result in growth or decline in the number of jobs. • Relative number of job openings an occupation provides. Occupations which are large and have high turnover rates generally provide the most job openings—reflecting the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or stop working. • Degree of competition for jobs. Is there a surplus or short­ age of jobseekers compared to the number of job openings available? Do opportunities vary by industry, size of firm, or geographic location? Even in overcrowded fields, job openings do exist, and good students or well-qualified indi­ viduals should not be deterred from undertaking training or seeking entry. • Susceptibility to layoffs due to imports, slowdowns in economic activity, technological advancements, or budget cuts.  20 Occupational Outlook Handbook Earnings Key phrases in the Handbook This box explains how to interpret the key phrases used to de­ scribe projected changes in employment. It also explains the terms used to describe the relationship between the number of job openings and the number of jobseekers. The descriptions of the relationship between the supply of and demand for workers in a particular occupation reflects the knowledge and judgment of economists in the Bureau's Office of Employment Projec­ tions. Changing employment between 1996 and 2006 If the statement reads:  Employment is projected to:  Grow much faster than average Grow faster than average Grow about as fast as average Grow more slowly than average, or little or no change Decline  increase 36 percent or more increase 21 to 35 percent increase 10 to 20 percent increase 0 to 9 percent decrease 1 percent or more  • Typical earnings of workers in the occupation. • If earnings tend to vary with experience, location, and ten­ ure. • Whether workers are compensated through annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, piece rates, tips, or bonuses. • Earnings of wage and salary workers compared to selfemployed persons, who held about 8 percent of all jobs in 1996. • Benefits, including health insurance, pensions, paid vacation and sick leave, family leave, child care or elder care, em­ ployee assistance programs, summers off, sabbaticals, tui­ tion for dependents, discounted airfare or merchandise, stock options, profit sharing plans, savings plans, or expense accounts. Related Occupations • Occupations involving similar aptitudes, interests, educa­ tion, and training. Sources of Additional Information  Opportunities and competition for jobs If the statement reads:  Job openings compared to jobseekers may be:  Very good to excellent opportunities Good or favorable opportunities May face keen competition or can expect keen competition Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  More numerous In rough balance  • Listings of mailing addresses for associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations which provide useful occupational information. In some cases, toll-free phone numbers, Internet homepage addresses, FAX num­ bers, and electronic mail addresses are provided. • Free or relatively inexpensive publications offering more information, some of which may be available in libraries, school career centers, or guidance offices.  Fewer (For additional sources of information, read the earlier chap­ ter, Sources of Career Information.)  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and Auditors (D.O.T. 160 through .167-042, -054, .267-014)  Significant Points •  Most jobs require at least a bachelor's degree in account­ ing or a related field.  •  Professional recognition through certification or licensure, a master's degree, familiarity with accounting and audit­ ing computer software, or specialized expertise provide an advantage in the job market.  •  Competition will remain keen for the most prestigious jobs—those with major accounting and business firms.  Nature of the Work Accountants and auditors prepare, analyze, and verify financial re­ ports and taxes, and monitor information systems that furnish this information to managers in business, industry, and government. The major fields of accounting are public, management, and gov­ ernment accounting, and internal auditing. Public accountants have their own businesses or work for public accounting firms. They per­ form a broad range of accounting, auditing, tax, and consulting ac­ tivities for their clients, who may be corporations, governments, non­ profit organizations, or individuals. Management accountants—also called industrial, corporate, or private accountants—record and ana­ lyze the financial information of the companies for which they work. Other responsibilities include budgeting, performance evaluation, cost management, and asset management. They are usually part of executive teams involved in strategic planning or new product devel­ opment. Internal auditors verify the accuracy of their organization's records and check for mismanagement, waste, or fraud. Government accountants and auditors maintain and examine the records of gov­ ernment agencies, and audit private businesses and individuals whose activities are subject to government regulations or taxation. Within each field, accountants often concentrate on one aspect of accounting. For example, many public accountants concentrate on tax matters, such as preparing individual income tax returns and ad­ vising companies of the tax advantages and disadvantages of certain business decisions. Others concentrate on consulting and offer ad­ vice on matters such as compensation or employee health care bene­ fits; the design of accounting and data processing systems; and con­ trols to safeguard assets. Some specialize in forensic accounting— investigating and interpreting bankruptcies and other complex financial transactions. Still others work primarily in auditing— examining a client's financial statements and reporting to investors and authorities that they have been prepared and reported correctly. However, accounting firms are performing less auditing relative to consulting services, which are more profitable. Increasing numbers of accounting graduates are working in private corporations. Management accountants analyze and interpret the finan­ cial information corporate executives need to make sound business deci­ sions. They also prepare financial reports for nonmanagement groups, including stockholders, creditors, regulatory agencies, and tax authorities. Within accounting departments, they may work in financial analysis, planning and budgeting, cost accounting, and other areas. Internal auditing is increasingly important. As computer systems make information more timely, top management can base its decisions on actual data, rather than personal observation. Internal auditors ex­ amine and evaluate their firms' financial and information systems, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  management procedures, and internal controls to ensure that records are accurate and controls are adequate to protect against fraud and waste. They also review company operations—evaluating their efficiency, effectiveness, and compliance with corporate policies and procedures, laws, and government regulations. There are many types of highly specialized auditors, such as electronic data processing, environmental, engineering, legal, insurance premium, bank, and health care auditors. Accountants employed by Federal, State, and local governments see that revenues are received and expenditures are made in accor­ dance with laws and regulations. Many persons with an accounting background work for the Federal Government as Internal Revenue Service agents or in financial management, financial institution ex­ amination, and budget analysis and administration. Computers are widely used in accounting and auditing. With the aid of special software packages, accountants summarize transactions in standard formats for financial records, or organize data in special formats for financial analysis. These accounting packages greatly reduce the amount of tedious manual work asso­ ciated with data and records; some packages require few special­ ized computer skills, while others require formal training. Per­ sonal and laptop computers enable accountants and auditors in all fields to use their clients' computer system and to extract infor­ mation from large mainframe computers. Internal auditors may recommend controls for their organization's computer system to ensure the reliability of the system and the integrity of the data. A growing number of accountants and auditors have extensive computer skills and specialize in correcting problems with soft­ ware or developing software to meet unique data needs. Working Conditions Accountants and auditors work in a normal office setting. Selfemployed accountants may be able to do part of their work at home.  ..  , *jSS*S8*?i* Accountants with professional certification have an advantage in the job market.  21  22 Occupational Outlook Handbook Accountants and auditors employed by public accounting firms and government agencies may travel frequently to perform audits at clients' places of business, branches of their firm, or government facilities. Most accountants and auditors generally work a standard 40-hour week, but many work longer, particularly if they are self-employed and free to take on the work of as many clients as they choose. Tax specialists often work long hours during the tax season. Employment Accountants and auditors held over 1 million jobs in 1996. They worked throughout private industry and government, but about onethird worked on salary for accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping firms, or were self-employed. Many accountants and auditors were unlicensed management ac­ countants, internal auditors, or government accountants and auditors. However, many are State-licensed Certified Public Accountants (CPA's), Public Accountants (PA's), Registered Public Accountants (RPA's), and Accounting Practitioners (AP's). Most accountants and auditors work in urban areas, in which pub­ lic accounting firms and central or regional offices of businesses are concentrated. Many individuals with backgrounds in accounting and auditing are full-time college and university faculty, others teach part time while working as self-employed accountants, or as salaried account­ ants for private industry or government. (See the Handbook state­ ment on college and university faculty.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most accountant and internal auditor positions require at least a bachelor's degree in accounting or a related field. Based on recom­ mendations made by the American Institute of Certified Public Ac­ countants, a small number of States currently require CPA candidates to complete 150 semester hours of college coursework—an additional 30 hours beyond the usual 4-year bachelor's degree—and many more States are expected to introduce this requirement in the future. Most schools have altered their curricula accordingly, and prospective accounting majors should carefully research accounting curricula and the requirements for any States in which they hope to become li­ censed before enrolling. Some employers prefer applicants with a master's degree in accounting, or a master's degree in business ad­ ministration with a concentration in accounting. Most employers also prefer applicants who are familiar with computers and their applica­ tions in accounting and internal auditing. For beginning accounting and auditing positions in the Federal Government, 4 years of college (including 24 semester hours in ac­ counting or auditing) or an equivalent combination of education and experience is required. Previous experience in accounting or auditing can help an appli­ cant get a job. Many colleges offer students an opportunity to gain experience through summer or part-time internship programs con­ ducted by public accounting or business firms. Such training is ad­ vantageous in gaining permanent employment in the field. Professional recognition through certification or licensure pro­ vides a distinct advantage in the job market. All CPA's must have a certificate and the partners in their firm must have a license issued by a State board of accountancy. The vast majority of States require CPA candidates to be college graduates, but a few States substitute a certain number of years of public accounting experience for the edu­ cational requirement. As indicated earlier, a growing number of States require 150 hours of coursework; the composition of the addi­ tional 30 hours is unspecified by most States. All States use the four-part Uniform CPA Examination prepared by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. The 2-day CPA examination is rigorous, and only about one-quarter of those who take it each year pass each part they attempt. Candidates are not required to pass all four parts at once, although most States require candidates to pass at least two parts for partial credit. Many States require all sections of the test to be passed within a certain period of Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  time. Most States also require applicants for a CPA certificate to have some accounting experience. The designations PA or RPA are also recognized by most States, and several States continue to issue these licenses. With the growth in the number of CPA's, however, the majority of States are phasing out non-CPA designations—PA, RPA, and AP—by not issuing any more new licenses. Accountants who hold PA or RPA designations have similar legal rights, duties, and obligations as CPA’s, but their qualifications for licensure are less stringent. The AP designation requires less formal training and covers a more limited scope of practice than the CPA. Nearly all States require CPA's and other public accountants to complete a certain number of hours of continuing professional edu­ cation before their licenses can be renewed. The professional asso­ ciations representing accountants sponsor numerous courses, semi­ nars, group study programs, and other forms of continuing education. Professional societies bestow other forms of credentials on a vol­ untary basis. Voluntary certification can attest to professional com­ petence in a specialized field of accounting and auditing. It can also certify that a recognized level of professional competence has been achieved by accountants and auditors who acquired some skills on the job, without the formal education or public accounting work ex­ perience needed to meet the rigorous standards required to take the CPA examination. Employers are increasingly seeking applicants with these credentials. The Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) confers the Cer­ tified Management Accountant (CMA) designation upon applicants who complete a bachelor’s degree, although a minimum score on specified graduate school entrance exams can be substituted for a bachelor's degree; pass a four-part examination; agree to meet con­ tinuing education requirements; comply with standards of profes­ sional conduct; and have at least 2 years' work in management ac­ counting. The CMA program is administered through the Institute of Certified Management Accountants, an affiliate of the IMA. The Institute of Internal Auditors confers the designation Certified Internal Auditor (CIA) to graduates from accredited colleges and universities who have completed 2 years' work in internal auditing, and who have passed a four-part examination. The Information Sys­ tems Audit and Control Association confers the designation Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) upon candidates who pass an examination, and who have 5 years of experience in auditing elec­ tronic data processing systems. However, auditing or data processing experience and college education may be substituted for up to 3 years. The Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation, a satellite organization of the National Society of Public Accountants, confers three designations—Accredited in Accountancy (AA), Ac­ credited Tax Advisor (ATA), and Accredited Tax Preparer (ATP). Candidates for the AA must pass an exam, while candidates for the ATA and ATP must complete the required coursework and pass an exam. Other organizations, such as the National Association of Cer­ tified Fraud Examiners and the Bank Administration Institute, confer specialized auditing designations. It is not uncommon for a practitio­ ner to hold multiple licenses and designations. For instance, an inter­ nal auditor might be a CPA, CIA, and CISA. Persons planning a career in accounting should have an aptitude for mathematics; be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures quickly; and make sound judgments based on this knowledge. They must be able to clearly communicate the results of their work, orally and in writing, to clients and management. Accountants and auditors must be good at working with people as well as with business systems and computers. Accuracy and the ability to handle responsibility with limited supervision are impor­ tant. Perhaps most important, because millions of financial statement users rely on their services, accountants and auditors should have high standards of integrity. Capable accountants and auditors should advance rapidly; those having inadequate academic preparation may be assigned routine jobs and find promotion difficult. Many graduates of junior colleges and business and correspondence schools, as well as bookkeepers and  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 23 accounting clerks who meet the education and experience require­ ments set by their employers, can obtain junior accounting positions and advance to more responsible positions by demonstrating their accounting skills on the job. Beginning public accountants usually start by assisting with work for several clients. They may advance to positions with more respon­ sibility in 1 or 2 years, and to senior positions within another few years. Those who excel may become supervisors, managers, part­ ners, open their own public accounting firms, or transfer to executive positions in management accounting or internal auditing in private firms. Beginning management accountants often start as cost account­ ants, junior internal auditors, or as trainees for other accounting posi­ tions. As they rise through the organization, they may advance to accounting manager, chief cost accountant, budget director, or man­ ager of internal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, finan­ cial vice presidents, chief financial officers, or corporation presidents. Many senior corporation executives have a background in account­ ing, internal auditing, or finance. There is a large degree of mobility among public accountants, management accountants, and internal auditors. Practitioners often shift into management accounting or internal auditing from public accounting, or between internal auditing and management account­ ing. However, it is less common for accountants and auditors to move from either management accounting or internal auditing into public accounting. Job Outlook Accountants and auditors who have earned professional recognition through certification or licensure should have the best job prospects. For example, CPA's should continue to enjoy a wide range of job opportunities, especially as more States enact the 150-hour require­ ment, making it more difficult to obtain this certification. Similarly, CMA's should be in demand as their management advice is increas­ ingly sought. Applicants with a master's degree in accounting, or a master's degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting, may also have an advantage in the job market. Familiar­ ity with accounting and auditing computer software, or expertise in specialized areas such as international business, specific industries, or current legislation, may also be helpful in landing certain accounting and auditing jobs. In addition, employers increasingly seek well rounded applicants with strong interpersonal and communication skills. Regardless of one's qualifications, however, competition will remain keen for the most prestigious jobs—those with major ac­ counting and business firms. Employment of accountants and auditors is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. The need to replace accountants and auditors who retire or transfer to other occupations will produce thousands of additional job openings annually, reflecting the large size of this occupation. As the economy grows, the number of business establishments in­ creases, requiring more accountants and auditors to set up their books, prepare their taxes, and provide management advice. As these businesses grow, the volume and complexity of information devel­ oped by accountants and auditors on costs, expenditures, and taxes will increase as well. More complex requirements for accountants and auditors also arise from changes in legislation related to taxes, financial reporting standards, business investments, mergers, and other financial matters. In addition, businesses will increasingly need quick, accurate, and individually tailored financial information due to the demands of growing international competition. The changing role of accountants and auditors also will spur job growth. Accountants will perform less auditing work due to potential liability and relatively low profits, and less tax work due to growing competition from tax preparation firms, but they will offer more management and consulting services in response to market demand. Accountants will continue to take on a greater advisory role as they develop more sophisticated and flexible accounting systems, and focus more on analyzing operations rather than just providing finan­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  cial data. Internal auditors will be increasingly needed to discover and eliminate waste and fraud. Earnings  According to a salary survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor's degree candidates in account­ ing received starting offers averaging $29,400 a year in 1996; mas­ ter's degree candidates in accounting, $33,000. According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, accountants with limited experience had median earnings of $26,000 in 1995, with the middle half earning between $23,300 and $29,400. The most experienced accountants had median earnings of $87,400, with the middle half earning between $77,600 and $98,000. Public accountants—employed by public accounting firms—with limited experience had median earnings of $29,400, with the middle half earning between $28,200 and $32,000. The most experienced public accountants had median earnings of $48,700, with the middle half earning between $44,500 and $54,000. Many owners and partners of firms earned considerably more. According to a salary survey conducted by Robert Half Interna­ tional, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, accountants and auditors with up to 1 year of experience earned be­ tween $25,000 and $39,400 in 1997. Those with 1 to 3 years of ex­ perience earned between $27,000 and $46,600. Senior accountants and auditors earned between $34,300 and $57,800; managers earned between $40,000 and $81,900; and directors of accounting and auditing earned between $54,800 and $109,800 a year. The variation in salaries reflects differences in size of firm, location, level of edu­ cation, and professional credentials. In the Federal Government, the starting annual salary for junior accountants and auditors was about $19,500 in 1997. Candidates who had a superior academic record might start at $24,200, while applicants with a master's degree or 2 years of professional experi­ ence might begin at $29,600. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. Accountants employed by the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions averaged about $54,000 a year in 1997; auditors averaged $57,900. Related Occupations  Accountants and auditors design internal control systems and analyze financial data. Others for whom training in accounting is invaluable include appraisers, budget officers, loan officers, financial analysts and managers, bank officers, actuaries, underwriters, tax collectors and revenue agents, FBI special agents, securities sales representa­ tives, and purchasing agents. Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in certified public accounting and about CPA standards and examinations may be obtained from: American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Harborside Financial Center, 201 Plaza III, Jersey City, NJ 07311-3881. Homepage:  Information on careers in management accounting and the CMA designation may be obtained from: *■ Institute of Management Accountants, 10 Paragon Dr., Montvale, NJ . 7645-1760. Homepage:  Information on the Accredited in Accountancy/Accredited Busi­ ness Accountant, Accredited Tax Advisor, or Accredited Tax Pre­ parer designations may be obtained from: "■ National Society of Accountants and the Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation, 1010 North Fairfax St„ Alexandria, VA 22314. Homepage:  Information on careers in internal auditing and the CIA designa­ tion may be obtained from: «■ The Institute of Internal Auditors, 249 Maitland Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32701-4201. Homepage:  Information on careers in information systems auditing and the CISA designation may be obtained from:  24 Occupational Outlook Handbook •“ The Information Systems Audit and Control Association, 3701 Algonquin Rd., Suite 1010, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008. Homepage:  For information on accredited programs in accounting and busi­ ness, contact: »• American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, 605 Old Balias Rd., Suite 220, St. Louis, MO 63141. Homepage:  Illgilif  Administrative Services Managers (D.O.T. 163.167-026; 169.167-034; 188.117-122, .167-106)* •  Significant Points •  Many advance to these jobs by acquiring work experience in various administrative positions.  •  Keen competition is expected due to low turnover and an ample supply of competent, experienced workers seeking managerial jobs.  Nature of the Work Administrative services managers are employed throughout the American economy, and their range of duties is broad. They coordi­ nate and direct support services, which may include: secretarial and reception; administration; payroll; conference planning and travel; information and data processing; mail; facilities management; mate­ rials scheduling and distribution; printing and reproduction; records management; telecommunications management; personal property procurement, supply, and disposal; security; and parking. In small organizations, a single administrative services manager may oversee all support services. In larger ones, however, first-line administrative services managers report to mid-level supervisors who, in turn, report to proprietors or top-level managers. The upperlevel managers, with titles such as vice president of administrative services, are included in the Handbook statement on general manag­ ers and top executives. First-line administrative services managers directly oversee a staff that performs various support services. Mid-level managers develop departmental plans, set goals and deadlines, develop procedures to improve productivity and customer service, and define the responsi­ bilities of supervisory-level managers. They are often involved in the hiring and dismissal of employees, but generally have no role in the formulation of personnel policy. As the size of the Firm increases, administrative services managers are more likely to specialize in one or more support activities. For example, some administrative services managers work primarily as facilities managers, office managers, property managers, or un­ claimed property officers. In many cases, the duties of these admin­ istrative services managers are quite similar to those of other manag­ ers and supervisors, some of whom are discussed in other Handbook statements. Administrative services managers who specialize in facilities management or planning may oversee the purchase, sale, or lease of facilities; redesign work areas to be more efficient and user-friendly; ensure that facilities comply with government regulations; and super­ vise maintenance, grounds, and custodial staffs. In some firms, they are called facilities managers. Some mid-level administrative services managers oversee firstline supervisors from various departments, including the clerical staff. In small firms, however, clerical supervisors, who are dis­ cussed in the Handbook statement on clerical supervisors and manag­ ers, perform this function. Property management is divided into the following functions: Management and use of personal property such as office supplies, administrative services management, and real property management (a function of property and real estate managers, who are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook). Personal property managers acquire, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Some individuals start their own administrative management con­ sulting firms.  distribute, and store supplies, and may sell or dispose of surplus property. Other property managers are engaged solely in surplus property disposal, which involves the resale of scraps, rejects, and surplus or unneeded supplies and machinery. This is an increasingly important source of revenue for many commercial organizations. In government, surplus property officers may receive surplus from vari­ ous departments and agencies, and then sell or dispose of it to the public or other agencies. Some administrative services managers oversee unclaimed prop­ erty disposal. In government, this activity may entail auctioning off unclaimed liquid assets such as stocks, bonds, the contents of safe deposit boxes, or personal property such as motor vehicles, after at­ tempts to locate their rightful owners have failed. Working Conditions Administrative services managers generally work in comfortable offices. In smaller organizations, they may work alongside the peo­ ple they supervise and the office may be crowded and noisy. The work of administrative services managers can be stressful, as they attempt to schedule work to meet deadlines. Although the 40hour week is standard, uncompensated overtime is often required to resolve problems. Managers involved in personal property procure­ ment, use, and disposal may travel extensively between their home office, branch offices, vendors’ offices, and property sales sites. Fa­ cilities managers who are responsible for the design of work spaces may spend time at construction sites and may travel between different facilities while monitoring the work of maintenance, grounds, and custodial staffs. Employment Administrative services managers held about 291,000 jobs in 1996. Over half worked in service industries, including management, busi­ ness, social, and health services organizations. Others were found in virtually every other industry. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many administrative services managers advance through the ranks in their organization, acquiring work experience in various administra­ tive positions before assuming first-line supervisory duties. All man­  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 25 agers who oversee departmental supervisors should be familiar with office procedures and equipment. Facilities managers may have a background in architecture, engineering, construction, interior design, or real estate, in addition to managerial experience. Managers of personal property acquisition and disposal need experience in pur­ chasing and sales, and knowledge of a wide variety of supplies, ma­ chinery, and equipment. Managers concerned with supply, inventory, and distribution must be experienced in receiving, warehousing, packaging, shipping, transportation, and related operations. Managers of unclaimed property often have experience in insurance claims analysis and records management. Educational requirements for these managers vary widely, de­ pending on the size and complexity of the organization. In small organizations, experience may be the only requirement needed to enter a position as office manager. When an opening in adminis­ trative services management occurs, the office manager may be promoted to the position based on past performance. In large organizations, however, administrative services managers are normally hired from outside, and each position has formal re­ quirements concerning education and experience. For first-line administrative services managers of secretarial, mail room, and related support activities, many employers prefer an associate degree in business or management, although a high school di­ ploma may suffice when combined with appropriate experience. For managers of audiovisual, graphics, and other technical activi­ ties, postsecondary technical school training is preferred. For managers of highly complex services, a bachelor's degree in busi­ ness, human resources, or finance is often required. The curricu­ lum should include courses in office technology, accounting, business mathematics, computer applications, human resources, and business law. Similarly, facilities managers may need a bachelor's degree in engineering, architecture, or business ad­ ministration, although some have an associate degree in a techni­ cal specialty. Some administrative services managers have ad­ vanced degrees. Whatever the manager's educational background, it must be accompanied by related work experience reflecting demonstrated ability. Persons interested in becoming administrative services manag­ ers should have good communication skills and be able to establish effective working relationships with many different people, rang­ ing from managers, supervisors, and professionals, to clerks and blue-collar workers. They should be analytical, detail oriented, flexible, and decisive. The ability to coordinate several activities at once and quickly analyze and resolve specific problems is im­ portant. Ability to work under pressure and cope with deadlines is also important. Advancement in small organizations is normally achieved by moving to other management positions or to a larger organization. Advancement is easier in large firms employing several levels of administrative services managers. Attainment of the Certified Ad­ ministrative Manager (CAM) designation, through work experience and successful completion of examinations offered by the Institute of Certified Professional Managers, can increase one's advancement potential. A bachelor's degree enhances a first-level manager's opportunities to advance to a mid-level management position, such as director of administrative services, and eventually to a top-level management position, such as executive vice president for admin­ istrative services. Those with the required capital and experience can establish their own management consulting firm. Job Outlook Employment of administrative services managers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Like other managerial occupations, this occupation is characterized by low turnover. These factors, coupled with the ample supply of competent, experienced workers seeking managerial jobs, should result in keen competition for administrative services management positions in the coming years. Many firms are increasingly contracting out administrative serv­ ices positions and otherwise streamlining these functions in an effort Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to cut costs. Corporate restructuring has reduced the number of ad­ ministrative services manager positions in recent years, and this trend is expected to continue. As it becomes more common for firms and governments at all levels to contract out administrative services, demand for administra­ tive services managers will increase in the management services, management consulting, and facilities support services firms provid­ ing these services. Earnings Earnings of administrative services managers vary greatly depending on their employer, specialty, and geographic area in which they work. According to a 1996 survey conducted by the AMS Foundation, building services/facilities managers earned about $53,800 a year in 1996; office/administrative services managers earned about $41,400; and records managers about $37,900. In the Federal Government, facilities managers in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions averaged $49,140 a year in early 1997; miscellaneous administrative and program officers, $53,330; industrial property managers, $47,930; property disposal specialists, $43,460; administrative officers $49,070, and support services admin­ istrators, $39,700. Related Occupations Administrative services managers direct and coordinate support services and oversee the purchase, use, and disposal of personal property. Occupations with similar functions include administra­ tive assistants, appraisers, buyers, clerical supervisors, contract specialists, cost estimators, procurement services managers, prop­ erty and real estate managers, purchasing managers, and personnel managers. Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in facilities management, contact: International Facility Management Association, 1 East Greenway Plaza, Suite 1100, Houston, TX 77046-0194 Homepage: Http://  For information about the certified administrative manager designa­ tion, contact: Institute of Certified Professional Managers, James Madison University, College of Business, Harrisonburg, VA 22807.  For information about compensation of administrative managers, contact: *■ AMS Foundation, 350 W. Jackson Boulevard, Suite 360, Chicago, IL 60661.  Budget Analysts (D.O.T. 161.117-010, .267-030)•  Significant Points •  Federal, State, and local governments employ 1 out of 3 budget analysts.  •  A bachelor's degree generally is the minimum educational requirement; however, some employers require a master's degree.  •  Competition for jobs should remain keen because of the substantial number of qualified applicants; those with a master's degree should enjoy the best job prospects.  Nature of the Work Budget analysts play a primary role in the development, analysis, and execution of budgets. Budgets are financial plans used to estimate future requirements and organize and allocate operating and capital resources effectively. The analysis of spending behavior and the planning of future operations are an integral part of the decision­ making process in most corporations and government agencies.  26 Occupational Outlook Handbook Budget analysts work in private industry, nonprofit organizations, and the public sector. In private industry, a budget analyst examines, analyzes, and seeks new ways to improve efficiency and increase profits. Although analysts working in government generally are not concerned with profits, they too are interested in finding the most efficient distribution of funds and other resources among various departments and programs. A major responsibility of budget analysts is to provide advice and technical assistance in the preparation of annual budgets. At the be­ ginning of the budget cycle, managers and department heads submit proposed operating and financial plans to budget analysts for review. These plans outline expected programs, including proposed program increases and new initiatives; estimated costs and expenses; and capital expenditures needed to finance these programs. Analysts begin by examining the budget estimates or proposals for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with established proce­ dures, regulations, and organizational objectives. Sometimes they review financial requests by employing cost-benefit analysis, assess­ ing program trade-offs, and exploring alternative funding methods. They also examine past and current budgets, and research economic and financial developments that affect the organization's spending. This process allows analysts to evaluate proposals in terms of the organization's priorities and financial resources. After this review process, budget analysts consolidate the individ­ ual department budgets into operating and capital budget summaries. The analysts submit preliminary budgets to senior management, or sometimes, as is often the case in local and State governments, to appointed or elected officials, with comments and supporting state­ ments that justify or deny funding requests. By reviewing different departments' operating plans, analysts gain insight into an organiza­ tion's overall operations. This generally proves useful when they interpret and offer technical assistance to officials approving the budget. At this point in the budget process, budget analysts help the chief operating officer, agency head, or other top managers analyze the proposed plan and devise possible alternatives if the projected results are unsatisfactory. The final decision to approve the budget, however, is usually made by the organization head in a private firm or elected officials in government, such as the State legislative body. Throughout the rest of the year, analysts periodically monitor the budget by reviewing reports and accounting records to deter­ mine if allocated funds have been spent as specified. If deviations appear between the approved budget and actual performance, budget analysts may write a report explaining the causes of the variations along with recommendations for new or revised budget procedures. They suggest reallocation of excess funds or recom­ mend program cuts to avoid or alleviate deficits. They also inform program managers and others within their organization of the status and availability of funds in different budget accounts. Before any changes are made to an existing program or a new one is started, a budget analyst assesses its efficiency and effectiveness. Analysts also may project budget needs for long-range planning. The budget analyst's role has broadened as limited funding has led to downsizing and restructuring throughout private industry and gov­ ernment. In addition to developing guidelines and policies governing the formulation and maintenance of the budget, analysts may measure organizational performance, assessing the effect of various programs and policies on the budget, and help draft budget-related legislation. Budget analysts sometimes conduct training sessions for company or government agency personnel on new budget procedures. Working Conditions Budget analysts work in a normal office setting, generally 40 hours per week. However, during the initial development and mid-year and final reviews of budgets, they often experience the pressure of dead­ lines and tight work schedules. The work during these periods can be extremely stressful, and analysts are usually required to work more than the routine 40 hours a week. Budget analysts spend the majority of their time working inde­ pendently, compiling and analyzing data and preparing budget pro Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Senior budget analysts are prime candidates for promotion to manage­ ment positions. posals. Nevertheless, their routine schedule can be interrupted by special budget requests, meetings, and training sessions. Others may travel to obtain budget details and explanations of various programs from coworkers, and to personally observe what funding is being used for in the field. Employment , Budget analysts held about 66,000 jobs throughout private industry and government in 1996. Federal, State, and local governments are major employers, accounting for one-third of budget analyst jobs. The Department of Defense employed 7 of every 10 budget analysts working for the Federal Government. Other major employers of budget analysts are schools, hospitals, banks; and manufacturers of transportation equipment, chemicals and allied products, electrical and electronic machinery, and industrial machines. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Private firms and government agencies generally require candidates for budget analyst positions to have at least a bachelor's degree. Within the Federal Government, a bachelor's degree in any field is sufficient background for an entry-level budget analyst position. State and local governments have varying requirements, but a bachelor's degree in one of many areas—accounting, finance, busi­ ness or public administration, economics, political science, plan­ ning, statistics, or a social science such as sociology—may qualify one for entry into the occupation. Sometimes, a field closely re­ lated to the employing industry or organization within an industry, such as engineering, may be preferred. An increasing number of States and other employers require a candidate to possess a master's degree to ensure adequate analytical and communication skills. Some firms prefer candidates with business backgrounds because business courses emphasize quantitative analytical skills. Budget and financial experience can occasionally be substituted for formal education when applying for a budget analyst position. Because developing a budget involves manipulating numbers and requires strong analytical skills, courses in statistics or ac­ counting are helpful, regardless of the prospective budget analyst's major field of study. Financial analysis in most organizations is automated, and requires familiarity with word processing and the financial software packages used in budget analysis. Software packages commonly used by budget analysts include electronic  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 27 spreadsheets and database and graphics software. Employers gen­ erally prefer job candidates who already possess these computer skills over those who need to be trained. In addition to analytical and computer skills, those seeking a career as a budget analyst must also be able to work under strict time con­ straints. Strong oral and written communication skills are essential for analysts to prepare, present, and defend budget proposals to decision makers. Entry-level budget analysts may receive some formal training when they begin their jobs. However, most employers feel that the best training is obtained by working through one complete budget cycle. During the cycle, analysts become familiar with all the steps involved in the budgeting process. The Federal Government, on the other hand, offers extensive onthe-job and classroom training for entry-level analysts, who are initially called trainees. Analysts are encouraged to participate in the various classes offered throughout their careers. Beginning analysts usually work under close supervision. Capable entry-level analysts can be promoted into intermediate level positions within 1 to 2 years, and then into senior positions within a few more years. Progressing to a higher level means added budgetary responsi­ bility and can lead to a supervisory role. In the Federal Government, for example, beginning budget analysts compare projected costs with prior expenditures; consolidate and enter data prepared by others; and assist higher grade analysts by doing re­ search. As analysts progress, they begin to develop and formulate budget estimates and justification statements; perform in-depth analy­ ses of budget requests; write statements supporting funding requests; advise program managers and others on the status and availability of funds in different budget activities; and present and defend budget proposals to senior managers. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, senior budget analysts are prime candidates for promotion to management positions in various parts of the organization.  Therefore, budget analysts generally are less subject to layoffs during economic downturns than many other workers.  Job Outlook Despite the increase in demand for budget analysts, competition for jobs should remain keen because of the substantial number of quali­ fied applicants. Job opportunities are generally best for candidates with a master's degree. In some cases, budget and financial experi­ ence can offset a lack of formal education. A working knowledge of computer financial software packages can also enhance one's em­ ployment prospects in this field. Employment of budget analysts is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. In addition to employment growth, many job openings will result from the need to replace experienced budget analysts who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. Planning and financial control demand more attention because of the growing complexity of business and the increasing speciali­ zation within organizations. Many companies will continue to rely heavily on budget analysts to examine, analyze, and develop budg­ ets to determine capital requirements and to allocate labor and other resources efficiently among all parts of the organization. Managers will continue to use budgets as a vehicle to plan, coor­ dinate, control, and evaluate activities within their organizations more effectively. Expanding automation continues to make budget analysts more productive, allowing them to process more data in less time. Also, computers are increasingly used to organize, summarize, and dissemi­ nate data to top-level managers, thereby centralizing decision-making and reducing the need for middle managers in many organizations. However, any computer-induced effects on employment of budget analysts may be offset by growing demand for information and analy­ sis. Easier manipulation of and accessibility to data provide manage­ ment with more considerations on which to base decisions. The financial work performed by budget analysts is an important function in every organization. Financial and budget reports must be completed during periods of economic growth and slowdowns.  Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities as a budget analyst may be available from your State or local employment service. Information on acquiring a job as a budget analyst with the Fed­ eral Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Man­ agement through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number, or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). That number is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site; Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Salaries of budget analysts vary widely by experience, education, and employer. According to a survey conducted by Robert Half Interna­ tional, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, starting salaries of budget and other financial analysts in small firms ranged from $24,000 to $33,200 in 1997; in large organizations, from $28,000 to $38,700. In small firms, analysts with 1 to 3 years of experience earned from $28,000 to $43,100; in large companies, from $31,000 to $51,300. Senior analysts in small firms earned from $34,500 to $50,000; in large firms, from $39,000 to $60,600. Earn­ ings of managers in this field ranged from $40,000 to $65,000 a year in small firms, while managers in large organizations earned between $47,000 and $83,800. A survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas reported that inexperienced budget analysts had median annual earnings of about $30,100 in 1995, with the middle half earning between $26,200 and $35,500 a year. In the Federal Government, budget analysts generally started as trainees earning $19,500 or $24,200 a year in 1997. Candidates with a master’s degree might begin at $29,600. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The average annual salary for budget analysts employed by the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $48,600 in 1997. Related Occupations Budget analysts review, analyze, and interpret financial data; make recommendations for the future; and assist in the implementation of new ideas. Workers who use these skills in other occupations include accountants and auditors, economists, financial analysts, financial managers, and loan officers.  Construction and Building Inspectors (D.O.T. 168.167-030, -034, -038, -046, and -050; .267-010, -102; 182.267; 850.387, .467)  Significant Points •  Over 50 percent are employed by local governments, primarily municipal or county building departments.  •  Construction and building inspectors tend to be older, more experienced workers who have spent years working in other related occupations.  Nature of the Work Constmction and building inspectors examine the construction, al­ teration, or repair of buildings, highways and streets, sewer and water systems, dams, bridges, and other structures to ensure compliance with building codes and ordinances, zoning regulations, and contract specifications. Throughout the country, building codes and standards are the primary means by which building construction is regulated to assure the health and safety of the general public. Inspectors make an  28 Occupational Outlook Handbook initial inspection during the first phase of construction, and follow-up inspections throughout the construction project to monitor compli­ ance with regulations. However, no inspection is ever exactly the same. In areas where certain types of severe weather or natural dis­ asters are more common, inspectors monitor compliance with addi­ tional safety regulations designed to protect structures and occupants in these events. Building inspectors inspect the structural quality and general safety of buildings. Some specialize—for example, in structural steel or reinforced concrete structures. Before construction be­ gins, plan examiners determine whether the plans for the building or other structure comply with building code regulations, and if they are suited to the engineering and environmental demands of the building site. Inspectors visit the work site before the foun­ dation is poured to inspect the soil condition and positioning and depth of the footings. Later, they return to the site to inspect the foundation after it has been completed. The size and type of structure and the rate of completion determine the number of other site visits they must make. Upon completion of the entire project, they make a final comprehensive inspection. In addition to structural characteristics, a primary concern of building inspectors is fire safety. They inspect structure's fire sprinklers, alarms, and smoke control systems, as well as fire doors and exits. Inspectors assess the type of construction, building contents, adequacy of fire protection equipment, and risks posed by adjoining buildings. There are many types of inspections and inspectors. Electrical inspectors examine the installation of electrical systems and equipment to ensure they function properly and comply with electrical codes and standards. They visit work sites to inspect new and existing sound and security systems, wiring, lighting, motors, and generating equipment. They also inspect the instal­ lation of the electrical wiring for heating and air-conditioning systems, appliances, and other components. Elevator inspectors examine lifting and conveying devices such as elevators, escalators, moving sidewalks, lifts and hoists, inclined railways, ski lifts, and amusement rides. Mechanical inspectors inspect the installation of the mechani­ cal components of commercial kitchen appliances, heating and air-conditioning equipment, gasoline and butane tanks, gas and oil piping, and gas-fired and oil-fired appliances. Some special­ ize in boilers or ventilating equipment as well. Plumbing inspectors examine plumbing systems, including pri­ vate disposal systems, water supply and distribution systems, plumbing fixtures and traps, and drain, waste, and vent lines. Public works inspectors ensure that Federal, State, and local gov­ ernment construction of water and sewer systems, highways, streets, bridges, and dams conforms to detailed contract specifications. They inspect excavation and fill operations, the placement of forms for concrete, concrete mixing and pouring, asphalt paving, and grading operations. They record the work and materials used so contract payments can be calculated. Public works inspectors may specialize in highways, structural steel, reinforced concrete, or ditches. Others specialize in dredging operations required for bridges and dams or for harbors. Home inspectors generally conduct inspections of newly built or previously owned homes. Increasingly, prospective home buy­ ers hire home inspectors to inspect and report the condition of a home's major systems, components, and structure. They are typi­ cally hired either immediately prior to a purchase offer on a home, or as a contingency to a sales contract. In addition to structural quality, home inspectors must be able to inspect all home systems and features, from plumbing, electrical, and heat­ ing or cooling systems to roofing. Specification inspectors are employed by the owner of a building or structure under construction to ensure work is done according to design specifications. They represent the owners’ interests, not the general public. These inspectors may also be utilized by insurance companies or financial institutions. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Details concerning construction projects, building and occu­ pancy permits, and other documentation are generally stored on computers so they can easily be retrieved and kept accurate and up to date. For example, inspectors may use laptop computers to record their findings while inspecting a site. Most inspectors use computers to help them monitor the status of construction inspec­ tion activities and keep track of issued permits. Although inspections are primarily visual, most inspectors, ex­ cept home inspectors, may use tape measures, survey instruments, metering devices, and test equipment such as concrete strength measurers. They keep a log of their work, take photographs, file reports, and, if necessary, act on their findings. For example, construction inspectors notify the construction contractor, super­ intendent, or supervisor when they discover a code or ordinance violation or something that does not comply with the contract specifications or approved plans. If the problem is not corrected within a reasonable or specified period of time, government in­ spectors have authority to issue a "stop-work" order. Many inspectors also investigate construction or alterations being done without proper permits. Inspectors who are employ­ ees of municipalities enforce laws pertaining to the proper design, construction, and use of buildings. They direct violators of per­ mit laws to obtain permits and submit to inspection. Working Conditions Construction and building inspectors usually work alone. However, several may be assigned to large, complex projects, particularly be-  Construction and building inspectors make follow-up inspections throughout each phase of a construction project to monitor compli­ ance with regulations.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 29 cause inspectors tend to specialize in different areas of construction. Though they spend considerable time inspecting construction work sites, inspectors may spend much of their time in a field office re­ viewing blueprints, answering letters or telephone calls, writing re­ ports, and scheduling inspections. Inspection sites are dirty and may be cluttered with tools, materi­ als, or debris. Inspectors may have to climb ladders or many flights of stairs, or may have to crawl around in tight spaces. Although their work is not generally considered hazardous, inspectors, like other construction workers, wear hard hats and adhere to other safety re­ quirements while at a construction site. Inspectors normally work regular hours. However, if an accident occurs at a construction site, inspectors must respond immediately and may work additional hours to complete their report. Employment Construction and building inspectors held about 66,000 jobs in 1996. Over 50 percent worked for local governments, primarily municipal or county building departments. Employment of local government inspectors is concentrated in cities and in suburban areas undergoing rapid growth. Local governments employ large inspection staffs, including many plan examiners or inspectors who specialize in structural steel, reinforced concrete, boiler, electrical, and elevator inspection. Another 19 percent of all construction and building inspectors worked for engineering and architectural services firms, conducting inspections for a fee or on a contract basis. Most of the remaining inspectors were employed by the Federal and State governments. Many construction inspectors employed by the Federal Government work for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Other Federal employ­ ers include the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Departments of Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, and Interior. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although requirements vary considerably depending upon where one is employed, individuals who want to become construction and building inspectors should have a thorough knowledge of construction materials and practices in either a general area, such as structural or heavy construction, or in a specialized area, such as electrical or plumbing systems, reinforced con­ crete, or structural steel. Construction or building inspectors need several years of experience as a manager, supervisor, or craft worker before becoming inspectors. Many previously worked as carpenters, electricians, plumbers, or pipefitters. Because inspectors need to posses the right mix of technical knowledge, experience and education, employers prefer to hire in­ spectors who have formal training, as well as experience. Most re­ quire at least a high school diploma or equivalent even for those with considerable experience. More often, employers look for persons who have studied engineering or architecture, or who have a degree from a community or junior college, with courses in constmction technology, drafting, mathematics, and building inspection. Many community colleges offer certificate or associate degree programs in building inspection technology. Courses in blueprint reading, alge­ bra, geometry, and English are also useful. Construction and building inspectors must be in good physical condition in order to walk and climb about construction sites. They must also have a driver's license. In addition, Federal, State, and many local governments may require that inspectors pass a civil service examination. Construction and building inspectors usually receive much of their training on the job, although they must often learn building codes and standards on their own. Working with an experienced inspector, they learn about inspection techniques; codes, ordinances, and regulations; contract specifications; and record keeping and reporting duties. They may begin by inspecting less complex types of construction, such as residential buildings, and then progress to more difficult as­ signments. An engineering or architectural degree is often required for advancement to supervisory positions. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Because they advise builders and the general public on building codes, construction practices, and technical developments, construc­ tion and building inspectors must keep abreast of changes in these areas. Continuing education is imperative in this ever-changing field. Many employers provide formal training programs to broaden in­ spectors' knowledge of construction materials, practices, and tech­ niques. Inspectors who work for small agencies or firms that do not conduct training programs can expand their knowledge and upgrade their skills by attending State-sponsored training programs, by taking college or correspondence courses, or by attending seminars spon­ sored by various related organizations such as model code organiza­ tions. Most States and cities require some type of certification for em­ ployment and, even if not required, certification can enhance an in­ spector's opportunities for employment and advancement to more responsible positions. To become certified, inspectors with substan­ tial experience and education must pass stringent examinations on code requirements, construction techniques, and materials. The three major model code organizations offer voluntary certification as do other professional membership associations. In most cases, there are no education or experience prerequisites, and certification consist of passing an examination in a designated field. Many categories of certification are awarded for inspectors and plan examiners in a vari­ ety of disciplines, including the designation "CBO," Certified Build­ ing Official. Job Outlook Employment of construction and building inspectors is expected to grow as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Growing concern for public safety and improvements in the quality of constmction should continue to stimulate demand for constmction and building inspectors. Despite the expected employment growth, most job openings will arise from the need to replace inspectors who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Constmction and building inspectors tend to be older, more experienced workers who have spent years working in other occupations. Opportunities should be best for highly experienced supervisors and craft workers who have some college education, engineering or architectural training, or who are certified as inspectors or plan ex­ aminers. Thorough knowledge of constmction practices and skills in areas such as reading and evaluating blueprints and plans are essen­ tial. However, inspectors are involved in all phases of constmction, including maintenance and repair work, and are therefore less likely to lose jobs during recessionary periods when new constmction slows. As the population grows and the volume of real estate trans­ actions increases, greater emphasis on home inspections should result in rapid growth in employment of home inspectors. In addition, there should be good opportunities in engineering, architectural and man­ agement services firms due to the tendency of governments—par­ ticularly the Federal and State—to contract out inspection work, as well as expected growth in private inspection services. Earnings The median annual salary of constmction and building inspectors was about $33,700 in 1996. The middle 50 percent earned between $26,500 and $45,800. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,600 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $55,800 a year. Gener­ ally, building inspectors, including plan examiners, earn the highest salaries. Salaries in large metropolitan areas are substantially higher than those in small local jurisdictions. Related Occupations Constmction and building inspectors combine a knowledge of con­ stmction principles and law with an ability to coordinate data, diagnose problems, and communicate with people. Workers in other occupa­ tions using a similar combination of skills include engineers, drafters, estimators, industrial engineering technicians, surveyors, architects, and constmction managers.  30 Occupational Outlook Handbook Sources of Additional Information Information about certification and a career as a construction or building inspector is available from the following model code organizations: International Conference of Building Officials, 5360 Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, CA 90601-2298. Homepage: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Homepage: «■ Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 900 Montclair Rd., Birmingham, AL 35213.  Information about a career as a home inspector is available from: American Society of Home Inspectors, Inc., 85 West Algonquin Rd., Arlington Heights, IL 60005. Homepage:  For information about a career as a State or local government con­ struction or building inspector, contact your State or local employment service.  Construction Managers (D.O.T. 182.167-010, -018, -026, -030, and -034)  Significant Points •  Construction managers make decisions regarding daily construction activities at the job site.  •  Good employment opportunities are expected because the increasing complexity of construction projects should in­ crease demand for management level personnel.  •  More and more employers—particularly, large construc­ tion firms—seek to hire individuals who combine indus­ try work experience with a bachelor’s degree in construc­ tion or building science or construction management.  Nature of the Work Construction managers plan and direct construction projects. They may hold a variety of job titles, such as construction superintendent, general superintendent, project engineer, project manager, general con­ struction manager, or executive construction manager. Construction managers may be owners or salaried employees of a construction man­ agement or contracting firm, or may work under contract or as a sala­ ried employee of the owner, developer, contractor, or management firm overseeing the construction project. The Handbook uses the term "con­ struction manager" to describe all salaried or self-employed managers of construction who oversee construction supervisors and workers. In contrast with the Handbook definition, the term "construction manager" is used more narrowly within the construction industry to denote a management firm, or an individual employed by such a firm, involved in management oversight of a construction project. Under this narrower definition, construction managers generally act as representatives of the owner or developer with other participants throughout the life of a project. Although they generally play no direct role in the actual construction of a structure, they typically schedule and coordinate all design and construction processes in­ cluding the selection, hiring, and oversight of specialty subcon­ tractors. Managers and other professionals who work in the construction industry, such as general managers, project engineers, cost estima­ tors, and others, are increasingly referred to as constructors. This term refers to a broad group of professionals in construction who, through education and experience, are capable of managing, coordi­ nating, and supervising the construction process from conceptual development through final construction on a timely and economical basis. Given designs for buildings, roads, bridges, or other projects, constructors oversee the organization, scheduling, and implementa­ tion of the project to execute those designs. They are responsible for coordinating and managing people, materials, and equipment; budg­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ets, schedules, and contracts; and the safety of employees and the general public. On large projects, construction managers may work for a general contractor—the firm with overall responsibility for all activities. There they oversee the completion of all construction in accordance with the engineer or architect's drawings and specifications and prevailing building codes. They arrange for subcontractors to perform specialized craft work or other specified construction work. On small projects, such as remodeling a home, a self-employed construction manager or skilled trades worker who directs and oversees employees is often re­ ferred to as the construction “contractor.” Large construction projects, such as an office building or indus­ trial complex, are too complicated for one person to manage. These projects are divided into many segments: Site preparation, including land clearing and earth moving; sewage systems; landscaping and road construction; building construction, including excavation and laying foundations, erection of structural framework, floors, walls, and roofs; and building systems, including fire protection, electrical, plumbing, air-conditioning, and heating. Construction managers may work as part of a team or be in charge of one or more of these activi­ ties. Construction managers evaluate various construction methods and determine the most cost-effective plan and schedule. They determine the appropriate construction methods and schedule all required con­ struction site activities into logical, specific steps, budgeting the time required to meet established deadlines. This may require sophisti­ cated estimating and scheduling techniques, and use of computers with specialized software. This also involves the selection and coor­ dination of subcontractors hired to complete specific pieces of the project—which could include everything from structural metalwork­ ing and plumbing, to painting and carpet installation. Construction managers determine the labor requirements and, in some cases, su­ pervise or monitor the hiring and dismissal of workers. They oversee the performance of all trade contractors and are responsible for en­ suring all work is completed on schedule. Managers direct and monitor the progress of construction activities, at times through other construction supervisors. This includes the de­ livery and use of materials, tools, and equipment; the quality of con­ struction, worker productivity, and safety. They are responsible for obtaining all necessary permits and licenses and, depending upon the contractual arrangements, direct or monitor compliance with building and safety codes and other regulations. They may have several subor­ dinates, such as assistant managers or superintendents, field engineers, or crew supervisors, reporting to them. Construction managers regularly review engineering and archi­ tectural drawings and specifications to monitor progress and ensure  Mii  gjSGti  _____________ Duties of construction managers include tracking and controlling costs and budeetine the time reauired to meet established deadlines.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 31 compliance with plans and specifications. They track and control construction costs to avoid cost overruns. Based upon direct obser­ vation and reports by subordinate supervisors, managers may prepare daily reports of progress and requirements for labor, material, and machinery and equipment at the construction site. They meet regu­ larly with owners, subcontractors, architects, and other design profes­ sionals to monitor and coordinate all phases of the construction proj­ ect. Working Conditions Construction managers work out of a main office from which the overall construction project is monitored or out of a field office at the construction site. Management decisions regarding daily construc­ tion activities are usually made at the job site. Managers usually travel when the construction site is in another State or when they are responsible for activities at two or more sites. Management of over­ seas construction projects usually entails temporary residence in an­ other country. Construction managers must be "on call" to deal with delays, bad weather, or emergencies at the site. Most work more than a standard 40-hour week because construction may proceed around-the-clock. This type of work schedule can go on for days, even weeks, to meet special project deadlines, especially if there are delays. Although the work generally is not considered dangerous, con­ struction managers must be careful while touring construction sites. Managers must be able to establish priorities and assign duties. They need to observe job conditions and to be alert to changes and poten­ tial problems, particularly involving safety on the job site and adher­ ence to regulations. Employment Construction managers held about 249,000 jobs in 1996. Around 40,000 were self-employed. Over 85 percent were employed in the construction industry, primarily by specialty trade contractors—for example, plumbing, heating and air-conditioning, and electrical con­ tractors—and general building contractors. Others were employed by engineering, architectural, surveying, and construction management services firms, as well as local governments, educational institutions, and real estate developers. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Persons interested in becoming a construction manager need a solid background in building science, business, and management, as well as related work experience within the construction indus­ try. They need to be able to understand contracts, plans, and specifications, and to be knowledgeable about construction meth­ ods, materials, and regulations. Familiarity with computers and software programs for job costing, scheduling, and estimating is increasingly important. Traditionally, persons advanced to construction management posi­ tions after having substantial experience as construction craft work­ ers—for example, as carpenters, masons, plumbers, or electricians—or after having worked as construction supervisors or as owners of inde­ pendent specialty contracting firms overseeing workers in one or more construction trades. However, more and more employers—particu­ larly, large construction firms—seek to hire individuals who combine industry work experience with a bachelor’s degree in construction or building science or construction management. Construction managers should be adaptable and be able to work effectively in a fast-paced environment. They should be decisive and able to work well under pressure, particularly when faced with unexpected occurrences or delays. The ability to coordinate several major activities at once, while analyzing and resolving specific problems, is essential, as is understanding engineering, architectural, and other construction drawings. Good oral and written communi­ cation skills are also important. Managers must be able to establish a good working relationship with many different people including owners, other managers, design professionals, supervisors, and craft workers. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Advancement opportunities for construction managers vary de­ pending upon the size and type of company for which they work. Within large firms, managers may eventually become top-level man­ agers or executives. Highly experienced individuals may become independent consultants; some serve as expert witnesses in court or as arbitrators in disputes. Those with the required capital may estab­ lish their own construction management services or general con­ tracting firm. In 1996, over 100 colleges and universities offered 4-year degree programs in construction management or construction science. These programs include courses in project control and development, site planning, design, construction methods, construction materials, value analysis, cost estimating, scheduling, contract administration, ac­ counting, business and financial management, building codes and standards, inspection procedures, engineering and architectural sci­ ences, mathematics, statistics, and information technology. Gradu­ ates from 4-year degree programs are usually hired as assistants to project managers, field engineers, schedulers, or cost estimators. An increasing number of graduates in related fields—engineering or architecture, for example—also enter construction management, often after having had substantial experience on construction projects or after completing graduate studies in construction management or building science. Around 30 colleges and universities offer a master's degree program in construction management or construction science, and at least two offer a Ph.D. in the field. Master's degree recipients, especially those with work experience in construction, typically become construction managers in very large construction or con­ struction management companies. Often, individuals who hold a bachelor's degree in an unrelated field seek a master's degree in order to work in the construction industry. Doctoral degree recipi­ ents generally become college professors or work in an area of research. Many individuals also attend training and educational programs sponsored by industry associations, often in collaboration with post­ secondary institutions. A number of 2-year colleges throughout the country offer construction management or construction technology programs. Both the American Institute of Constructors (AIC) and the Con­ struction Management Association of America (CMA) have estab­ lished voluntary certification programs for construction professionals. Both programs’ requirements combine written examinations with verification of professional experience. AIC awards the designations Associate Constructor (AC) and Certified Professional Constructor (CPC) to candidates who meet the requirements and pass appropriate construction examinations. CMA awards the designation Certified Construction Manager (CCM) to practitioners who meet the require­ ments, complete a professional construction management “capstone” course, and pass a technical examination. Although certification is not required to work in the construction industry, voluntary certifica­ tion can be valuable because it provides evidence of competence and experience. Job Outlook Employment of construction managers is expected to increase as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006, as the level of construction activity and complexity of construction projects con­ tinues to grow. Prospects in construction management, engineering and architectural services, and construction contracting firms should be particularly favorable for persons with a bachelor's degree or higher in construction science, construction management, or con­ struction engineering who have worked in construction. Employers prefer applicants with previous construction work experience who can combine a strong background in building technology with proven supervisory or managerial skills. In addition, many job openings should result annually from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. The increasing complexity of construction projects should in­ crease demand for management level personnel within the construe-  32 Occupational Outlook Handbook tion industry, as sophisticated technology and the proliferation of laws setting standards for buildings and construction materials, worker safety, energy efficiency, and environmental protection have further complicated the construction process. Advances in building materials and construction methods and the growing number of mul­ tipurpose buildings, electronically operated "smart" buildings, and energy-efficient structures will further add to the demand for more construction managers. However, employment of construction man­ agers can be sensitive to the short-term nature of many construction projects and cyclical fluctuations in construction activity. Earnings Earnings of salaried construction managers and incomes of selfemployed independent construction contractors vary depending upon the size and nature of the construction project, its geographic location, and economic conditions. According to a 1997 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates with degrees in the field of construc­ tion management received offers averaging $28,060 a year. Bachelor’s degree candidates with degrees in the field of construc­ tion science received offers averaging $31,949 a year. Based on the limited information available, the average salary for experienced construction managers in 1996 ranged from around $40,000 to $100,000 annually. Many salaried construction managers receive benefits such as bonuses, use of company motor vehicles, paid va­ cations, and life and health insurance. Related Occupations Construction managers participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, and implementation. Occupations in which similar functions are performed include architects, civil engineers, construction supervi­ sors, cost engineers, cost estimators, developers, electrical engi­ neers, industrial engineers, landscape architects, and mechanical engineers. Sources of Information For information about career opportunities in the construction indus­ try contact: *■ Associated Builders and Contractors, 1300 North 17th St„ Rosslyn, VA 22209. Homepage: *■ Associated General Contractors of America, 1957 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20006-5199. Homepage:  For information about constructor certification and professional career opportunities in the construction industry, contact: «• American Institute of Constructors, 466 94th Ave. North, St. Petersburg, FL 33702. E-mail address: Homepage:  For information about construction management and construction manager certification contact: *■ Construction Management Association of America, 7918 Jones Branch Dr., Suite 540, McLean, VA 22102. Homepage:  Information on accredited construction science and management programs and accreditation requirements is available from: *■ American Council for Construction Education, 1300 Hudson Lane, Suite 3, Monroe, LA 71201-6054. E-mail address:  Cost Estimators (D.O.T. 169.267-038; 221.362-018, and .367-014)  Significant Points •  Growth of the construction industry, where over 60 per­ cent of all cost estimators are employed, will be the driv­ ing force behind the demand for these workers.  •  Job prospects in construction should be best for those workers with a degree in construction management or Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  construction science, engineering, or architectural draft­ ing, who have experience in various phases of construc­ tion or a specialty craft area. Nature of the Work Accurately predicting the cost of future projects is vital to the sur­ vival of any business. Cost estimators develop cost information for owners or managers to use in determining resource and material quantities, making bids for contracts, determining if a new product will be profitable, or determining which products are making a profit for a firm. Regardless of the industry in which they work, estimators compile and analyze data on all the factors that can influence costs—such as materials, labor, location, and special machinery requirements, in­ cluding computer hardware and software. Job duties vary widely depending upon the type and size of the project. Those with an engi­ neering background who apply scientific principles and methods to undertake feasibility studies, value engineering, and life-cycle costing may be referred to as cost engineers. The methods of, and motivations for estimating costs can vary greatly, depending on the industry. On a large construction project, for example, the estimating process begins with the decision to sub­ mit a bid. After reviewing the architect’s drawings and specifica­ tions, the estimator visits the site of the proposed project. The esti­ mator needs to gather information on access to the site and availabil­ ity of electricity, water, and other services, as well as surface topog­ raphy and drainage. The information developed during the site visit generally is recorded in a signed report that is made part of the final project estimate. After the site visit is completed, the estimator determines the quantity of materials and labor the firm will have to furnish. This process, called the quantity survey or ’’takeoff," involves completing standard estimating forms, filling in dimensions, number of units, and other information. A cost estimator working for a general contractor, for example, will estimate the costs of all items the contractor must provide. Although subcontractors will estimate their costs as part of their own bidding process, the general contractor's cost estimator often analyzes bids made by subcontractors as well. Also during the takeoff process, the estimator must make decisions concerning equipment needs, sequence of operations, and crew size. Allowances for the waste of materials, inclement weather, shipping delays, and other factors that may increase costs must also be incorporated in the takeoff. On completion of the quantity surveys, the chief estimator pre­ pares a total project cost summary, including the costs of labor, equipment, materials, subcontracts, overhead, taxes, insurance, markup, and any other costs that may affect the project. The chief estimator then prepares the bid proposal for submission to the devel­ oper. Construction cost estimators may also be employed by the proj­ ect's architect or owner to estimate costs or track actual costs relative to bid specifications as the project develops. In large construction companies employing more than one estimator, it is common practice for estimators to specialize. For instance, one may estimate only electrical work and another may concentrate on excavation, concrete, and forms. In manufacturing and other firms, cost estimators generally are as­ signed to the engineering, cost, or pricing departments. The estima­ tors' goal in manufacturing is to accurately estimate the costs associ­ ated with making products. The job may begin when management requests an estimate of the costs associated with a major redesign of an existing product or the development of a new product or produc­ tion process. When estimating the cost of developing a new product, for example, the estimator works with engineers, first reviewing blueprints or conceptual drawings to determine the machining opera­ tions, tools, gauges, and materials that would be required for the job. The estimator then prepares a parts list and determines whether it is more efficient to produce or to purchase the parts. To do this, the estimator must initiate inquiries for price information from potential  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 33 suppliers. The next step is to determine the cost of manufacturing each component of the product. Some high technology products require a tremendous amount of computer programming during the design phase. The cost of software development is one of the fastest growing and most difficult activities to estimate. Some cost estima­ tors now specialize in only estimating computer software develop­ ment and related costs. The cost estimator then prepares time-phase charts and learning curves. Time-phase charts indicate the time required for tool de­ sign and fabrication, tool "debugging"—finding and correcting all problems—manufacturing of parts, assembly, and testing. Learning curves graphically represent the rate at which performance im­ proves with practice. These curves are commonly called "cost re­ duction" curves because many problems—such as engineering changes, rework, parts shortages, and lack of operator skills—di­ minish as the number of parts produced increases, resulting in lower unit costs. Using all of this information, the estimator then calculates the standard labor hours necessary to produce a predetermined number of units. Standard labor hours are then converted to dollar values, to which are added factors for waste, overhead, and profit to yield the unit cost in dollars. The estimator then compares the cost of pur­ chasing parts with the firm's cost of manufacturing them to determine which is cheaper. Computers play an integral role in cost estimating today, because estimating may involve complex mathematical calculations and re­ quire advanced mathematical techniques. For example, to undertake a parametric analysis, a process used to estimate project costs on a per unit basis subject to the specific requirements of a project, cost estimators use a computer database containing information on costs and conditions of many other similar projects. Although computers cannot be used for the entire estimating process, they can relieve estimators of much of the drudgery associated with routine, repeti­ tive, and time-consuming calculations. Computers are also used to produce all of the necessary documentation with the help of basic word-processing and spreadsheet software. This leaves estimators with more time to study and analyze projects and can lead to more accurate estimates.  Cost estimators compile and analyze data on all the factors that can influence costs. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Although estimators spend most of their time in an office, construction estimators must make frequent visits to project work sites that are dirty and cluttered with debris. Likewise, estimators in manufacturing must spend time on the factory floor where it also can be noisy and dirty. In some industries, frequent travel between a firm’s headquarters and its subsidiaries or subcontractors also may be required. Although estimators normally work a 40-hour week, overtime is common. Cost estimators usually operate under pressure, especially when facing deadlines. Inaccurate estimating can cause a firm to lose out on a bid or lose money on a job that proves to be unprofitable. Employment Cost estimators held about 188,000 jobs in 1996, over 60 percent of which were in the construction industry. Another 26 percent were employed in manufacturing industries. The remainder worked for engineering and architectural services firms, business services firms, and throughout a wide range of other industries. Operations research, production control, cost, and price analysts who work for government agencies may also do significant amounts of cost estimating in the course of their regular duties. In addition, the duties of construction managers may also include estimating costs. (For more information, see the section on operations research analysts and construction man­ agers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Cost estimators work throughout the country, usually in or near major industrial, commercial, and government centers, and in cities and suburban areas undergoing rapid change or development. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Entry requirements for cost estimators vary by industry. In the con­ struction industry, employers increasingly prefer individuals with a degree in building construction, construction management, construc­ tion science, civil engineering, or architectural drafting. However, most construction estimators also have considerable construction experience. Applicants with a thorough knowledge of constmction materials, costs, and procedures in areas ranging from heavy con­ struction to electrical work, plumbing systems, or masonry work have a competitive edge. In manufacturing industries, employers prefer to hire individuals with a degree in engineering, physical science, operations research, mathematics, or statistics, or in accounting, finance, business, eco­ nomics, or a related subject. In most industries, great emphasis is placed on experience involving quantitative techniques. Cost estimators should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to quickly analyze, compare, and interpret detailed and sometimes poorly defined information, and be able to make sound and accurate judg­ ments based on this knowledge. Assertiveness and self-confidence in presenting and supporting their conclusions are important, as are strong communications and interpersonal skills, because estimators may work as part of a project team alongside other managers as well as owners, engineers, and design professionals. Cost estimators also need to be at ease with computers and their application in the estimating process, including word-processing and spreadsheet packages used to produce necessary documentation. In some instances, familiarity with special estimation software or programming skills may be required. Regardless of their background, estimators receive much training on the job; almost every company has its own way of handling esti­ mates. Working with an experienced estimator, they become familiar with each step in the process. Those with no experience reading construction specifications or blueprints first learn that aspect of the work. They then may accompany an experienced estimator to the construction site or shop floor where they observe the work being done, take measurements, or perform other routine tasks. As they become more knowledgeable, estimators learn how to tabulate quan­ tities and dimensions from drawings and how to select the appropri­ ate material prices. For most estimators, advancement takes the form of higher pay and prestige. Some move into management positions, such as project manager for a construction firm or manager of the industrial engi­  34 Occupational Outlook Handbook neering department for a manufacturer. Others may go into business for themselves as consultants, providing estimating services for a fee to government or construction and manufacturing firms. Many colleges and universities include cost estimating as part of bachelor and associate degree-level curriculums in civil engi­ neering, industrial engineering, and construction management or construction engineering technology. In addition, cost estimating is a significant part of master's degree programs in construction science or construction management offered by many colleges and universities. Organizations representing cost estimators, such as American Association of Cost Engineers (AACE) International and the Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis, also sponsor educational and professional development programs. These pro­ grams help students, estimators-in-training, and experienced es­ timators stay abreast of changes affecting the profession. Spe­ cialized courses and programs in cost estimating techniques and procedures are also offered by many technical schools, commu­ nity colleges, and universities. Voluntary certification can be valuable to cost estimators, because it provides professional recognition of the estimator's competence and experience. In some instances, individual employers may even require professional certification for employment. Both AACE International and the Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis administer certifica­ tion programs. To become certified, estimators generally must have between 3 and 7 years of estimating experience and must pass both a written and an oral examination. In addition, certification requirements may include publication of at least one article or paper in the field. Job Outlook Overall employment of cost estimators is expected to grow about as fast as average for all occupations through the year 2006. Given the fact that no new projects in construction, manufacturing, or other in­ dustries are undertaken without careful analysis and estimation of the costs involved, job opportunities should remain favorable. Even when construction and manufacturing activity decline, there should always remain a demand for cost estimators. In addition to openings created by growth, some job openings will also arise from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Growth of the construction industry, where over 60 percent of all cost estimators are employed, will be the driving force behind the demand for these workers. The fastest growing sectors of the con­ struction industry are expected to be special trade contractors and those associated with heavy construction and spending on the Na­ tion's infrastructure. Construction and repair of highways and streets, bridges, and construction of more subway systems, airports, water and sewage systems, and electric power plants and transmission lines will stimulate demand for many more cost estimators. Job prospects in construction should be best for those workers with a degree in construction management or construction science, engineering, or architectural drafting, who have experience in various phases of con­ struction or a specialty craft area. Employment of cost estimators in manufacturing should remain relatively stable as firms continue to use their services to identify and control their operating costs. Experienced estimators with degrees in engineering, science, mathematics, business administration, or eco­ nomics and who have computer expertise should have the best job prospects in manufacturing. Earnings Salaries of cost estimators vary widely by experience, education, size of firm, and industry. According to limited available data, most starting salaries in the construction industry for cost estima­ tors with limited training were between about $20,000 and $30,000 a year in 1996. College graduates with degrees in fields such as engineering or construction management that provide a strong background in cost estimating could start at a higher level. Ac­ cording to a 1997 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates with degrees in construction science received offers averaging $31,949 a year. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Bachelor’s degree candidates with degrees in construction man­ agement received offers averaging $28,060 a year. Highly experi­ enced cost estimators earned $75,000 a year or more. Starting sala­ ries and annual earnings in the manufacturing sector were usually somewhat higher. Related Occupations Other workers who quantitatively analyze information in a similar capacity include appraisers, cost accountants, auditors, budget analysts, cost engineers, economists, financial analysts, loan officers, operations research analysts, underwriters, and value engineers. In addition, the duties of production managers and construction managers may also involve analyzing costs. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, certification, educational programs, and cost estimating techniques may be obtained from: AACE International, 209 Prairie Ave., Suite 100, Morgantown, WV 26505. Homepage: *■ Professional Construction Estimators Association of America, P.O. Box 11626, Charlotte, NC 28220-1626. »• Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis, 101 S. Whiting St., Suite 201, Alexandria, VA 22304. Homepage:  Education Administrators (D.O.T. 075.117-010, -018, -030; 090.117 except -034, .167; 091.107; 092.167; 094.117-010, .167-014; 096.167; 097.167; 099.117 except-022, .167-034; 100.117-010; 169.267-022; 239.137-010)  Significant Points •  Most jobs require experience in a related occupation, such as teacher or admissions counselor, and a master's or doctoral degree.  •  Competition will be keen for jobs in higher education, but will be much less intense for jobs at the elementary and secondary school level.  Nature of the Work Smooth operation of an educational institution requires competent administrators. Education administrators provide direction, leader­ ship, and day-to-day management of educational activities in schools, colleges and universities, businesses, correctional institutions, muse­ ums, and job training and community service organizations. (College presidents and school superintendents are covered in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) Education ad­ ministrators set educational standards and goals and establish the policies and procedures to carry them out. They develop academic programs; monitor students' educational progress; train and motivate teachers and other staff; manage guidance and other student services; administer recordkeeping; prepare budgets; handle relations with parents, prospective and current students, employers, and the com­ munity; and perform many other duties. Education administrators also supervise managers, support staff, teachers, counselors, librarians, coaches, and others. In an organi­ zation such as a small daycare center, one administrator may handle all these functions. In universities or large school systems, respon­ sibilities are divided among many administrators, each with a spe­ cific function. Those who manage elementary and secondary schools are called principals. They set the academic tone, hire teachers and other staff, help them improve their skills, and evaluate them. Principals confer with staff—advising, explaining, or answering procedural questions. They visit classrooms, observe teaching methods, review instruc­ tional objectives, and examine learning materials. They actively  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 35 work with teachers to develop and maintain high curriculum stan­ dards, develop mission statements, and set performance goals and objectives. Principals must ensure they use clear, objective guide­ lines for teacher appraisals, since pay is often based on performance ratings. Principals also meet and interact with other administrators, stu­ dents, parents, and representatives of community organizations. De­ cision-making authority has shifted from school district central of­ fices to individual schools. Thus, parents, teachers, and other mem­ bers of the community play an important role in setting school poli­ cies and goals. Principals must pay attention to the concerns of these groups when making administrative decisions. Budgets and reports on various subjects, including finances and attendance, are prepared by principals, who also oversee the requisi­ tioning and allocation of supplies. As school budgets become tighter, many principals are more involved in public relations and fund rais­ ing to secure financial support for their schools from local businesses and the community. Principals must take an active role to ensure that students meet national academic standards. Many principals develop school/ busi­ ness partnerships and school-to-work transition programs for stu­ dents. Increasingly, principals must be sensitive to the needs of the rising number of non-English speaking and culturally diverse stu­ dents. Growing enrollments, which are leading to overcrowding at many existing schools, are also a cause for concern. When address­ ing problems of inadequate available resources, administrators serve as advocates to build new schools or repair existing ones. Schools continue to be involved with students' emotional welfare as well as their academic achievement. As a result, principals face responsibilities outside the academic realm. For example, in re­ sponse to the growing number of dual-income and single-parent families and teenage parents, schools have established before- and after-school child-care programs or family resource centers, which also may offer parenting classes and social service referrals. With the help of community organizations, some principals have established programs to combat the increase in crime, drug and alcohol abuse, and sexually transmitted disease among students. Assistant principals aid the principal in the overall administration of the school. Some assistant principals hold this position for several years to prepare for advancement to principal; others are career as­ sistant principals. Depending on the number of students, the number of assistant principals a school employs may vary. They are respon­ sible for programming student classes, ordering textbooks and sup­ plies, and coordinating transportation, custodial, cafeteria, and other support services. They usually handle discipline, attendance, social and recreational programs, and health and safety. They also may counsel students on personal, educational, or vocational matters. With site-based management, assistant principals play a greater role in developing curriculum, evaluating teachers, and school-community relations, responsibilities previously assumed solely by the principal. Administrators in school district central offices manage public schools under their jurisdiction. This group includes those who direct subject area programs such as English, music, vocational education, special education, and mathematics. They plan, evaluate, standard­ ize, and improve curriculums and teaching techniques, and help teachers improve their skills and learn about new methods and mate­ rials. They oversee career counseling programs, and testing which measures students' abilities and helps place them in appropriate classes. Central office administrators also include directors of pro­ grams such as guidance, school psychology, athletics, curriculum and instruction, and professional development. With site-based manage­ ment, principals and assistant principals, along with teachers and other staff, have primary responsibility for many of these programs in their individual schools. In colleges and universities, academic deans, deans of faculty, provosts, and university deans assist presidents and develop budgets and academic policies and programs. They direct and coordinate activities of deans of individual colleges and chairpersons of aca­ demic departments. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Education administrators provide day-to-day management of elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities. College or university department heads or chairpersons are in charge of departments such as English, biological science, or mathe­ matics. In addition to teaching, they coordinate schedules of classes and teaching assignments; propose budgets; recruit, interview, and hire applicants for teaching positions; evaluate faculty members; encourage faculty development; and perform other administrative duties. In overseeing their departments, chairpersons must consider and balance the concerns of faculty, administrators, and students. Higher education administrators also provide student services. Vice presidents of student affairs or student life, deans of students, and di­ rectors of student services may direct and coordinate admissions, for­ eign student services, health and counseling services, career services, financial aid, and housing and residential life, as well as social, recrea­ tional, and related programs. In small colleges, they may counsel stu­ dents. Registrars are custodians of students' records. They register students, prepare student transcripts, evaluate academic records, assess and collect tuition and fees, plan and implement commencement, over­ see the preparation of college catalogs and schedules of classes, and analyze enrollment and demographic statistics. Directors of admissions manage the process of recruiting, evaluating, and admitting students, and work closely with financial aid directors, who oversee scholarship, fellowship, and loan programs. Registrars and admissions officers must adapt to technological innovations in student information systems. For example, for those whose institutions present information—such as college catalogs and schedules—on the Internet, knowledge of on-line resources, imaging, and other computer skills is important. Directors of student activities plan and arrange social, cultural, and recreational activities, assist student-run organizations, and may orient new stu­ dents. Athletic directors plan and direct intramural and intercollegiate athletic activities, including publicity for athletic events, preparation of budgets, and supervision of coaches. Working Conditions Education administrators hold management positions with significant responsibility. Coordinating and interacting with faculty, parents, and students can be fast-paced and stimulating, but also stressful and demanding. Some jobs include travel. Principals and assistant prin­ cipals whose main duty often is discipline may find working with difficult students frustrating, but challenging. The number of schoolage children is rising, and some school systems have hired assistant principals when a school's population increased significantly. In other school systems, principals may manage larger student bodies, which can also be stressful. Most education administrators work more than 40 hours a week, including many nights and weekends when they oversee school ac­ tivities. Many administrators work 10 or 11 months a year while oth­ ers work year round.  36 Occupational Outlook Handbook Employment Education administrators held about 386,000 jobs in 1996. About 9 out of 10 were in educational services—in elementary, secondary, and technical schools and colleges and universities. The rest worked in child daycare centers, religious organizations, job training centers, State departments of education, and businesses and other organiza­ tions that provide training for their employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most education administrators begin their careers in related occupa­ tions, and prepare for a job in education administration by completing a master's or doctoral degree. Because of the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility, their educational backgrounds and experience vary considerably. Principals, assistant principals, central office administrators, and academic deans usually have held teaching posi­ tions before moving into administration. Some teachers move di­ rectly into principal positions; others first become assistant princi­ pals, or gain experience in other central office administrative jobs at either the school or district level in positions such as department head, curriculum specialist, or subject matter advisor. In some cases, administrators move up from related staff jobs such as recruiter, guidance counselor, librarian, residence hall director, or financial aid or admissions counselor. To be considered for education administrator positions, workers must first prove themselves in their current jobs. In evaluating can­ didates, supervisors look for determination, confidence, innovative­ ness, motivation, leadership, and managerial attributes, such as ability to make sound decisions and organize and coordinate work effi­ ciently. Since much of an administrator's job involves interacting with others, from students to parents to teachers, they must have strong interpersonal skills and be effective communicators and moti­ vators. Knowledge of management principles and practices, gained through work experience and formal education, is important. In most public schools, principals, assistant principals, and school administrators in central offices need a master's degree in education administration or educational supervision. Some principals and cen­ tral office administrators have a doctorate or specialized degree in education administration. Most States require principals to be li­ censed as school administrators. Requirements for licensure vary by State. National standards for school leaders, including principals and supervisors, were recently developed by the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium. States may use these national standards as guidelines for licensure requirements, or for activities such as mentoring, professional development, or accreditation of training programs. In private schools, which are not subject to State certifi­ cation requirements, some principals and assistant principals hold only a bachelor's degree; however, the majority have a master’s or doctoral degree. Academic deans and chairpersons usually have a doctorate in their specialty. Most have held a professorship in their department before advancing. Admissions, student affairs, and financial aid directors and registrars sometimes start in related staff jobs with bachelor's degrees—any field usually is acceptable—and obtain advanced degrees in college student affairs or higher education administration. A Ph.D. or Ed.D. usually is necessary for top stu­ dent affairs positions. Computer literacy and a background in mathematics or statistics may be assets in admissions, records, and financial work. Advanced degrees in higher education administration, educa­ tional supervision, and college student affairs are offered in many colleges and universities. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education accredits programs. Education administration degree programs include courses in school management, school law, school finance and budgeting, curriculum development and evalua­ tion, research design and data analysis, community relations, politics in education, counseling, and leadership. Educational supervision degree programs include courses in supervision of instruction and Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  curriculum, human relations, curriculum development, research, and advanced pedagogy courses. Education administrators advance by moving up an administra­ tive ladder or transferring to larger schools or systems. They also may become superintendent of a school system or president of an educational institution. Job Outlook Substantial competition is expected for prestigious jobs as higher education administrators. Many faculty and other staff meet the edu­ cation and experience requirements for these jobs, and seek promo­ tion. However, the number of openings is relatively small; only the most highly qualified are selected. Candidates who have the most formal education and who are willing to relocate should have the best job prospects. On the other hand, it is becoming more difficult to attract candi­ dates for principal, vice principal, and administration jobs at the ele­ mentary and secondary school level—competition for these jobs is declining. Many teachers no longer have an incentive to move into these positions since the pay is not significantly higher and does not compensate for the added workload and responsibility of the position. Also, site-based management has given teachers more decision­ making responsibility in recent years, possibly satisfying their desire to move into administration. Employment of education administrators is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations over the 1996-2006 period. However, most job openings will result from the need to replace administrators who retire or transfer to other occupations. School enrollments at the elementary, secondary, and postsecon­ dary level are all expected to grow over the projection period. Rather than opening new schools, many existing school populations will expand, spurring demand for assistant principals to help with the increased workload. Employment of education administrators will also grow as more services are provided to students and as efforts to improve the quality of education continue. However, budget constraints are expected to moderate growth in this profession. At the postsecondary level, some institutions have been reducing administrative staffs to contain costs. Some colleges are consolidating administrative jobs and contracting with other pro­ viders for some administrative functions. Earnings Salaries of education administrators vary according to position, level of responsibility and experience, and the size and location of the in­ stitution. Generally, principals employed in public schools earn higher salaries than those in private schools. According to a survey of public schools, conducted by the Educa­ tional Research Service, average salaries for principals and assistant principals in the 1996-97 school year were as follows: Principals: Elementary school.............................................................................$62,900 Junior high/middle school.................................................................. 66,900 Senior high school.............................................................................. 72,400 Assistant principals: Elementary school.............................................................................$52,300 Junior high/middle school................................................................. 56,500 Senior high school.............................................................................. 59,700 Directors, managers, coordinators, and supervisors of instructional services...............................................70,800  In 1995-96, according to the College and University Personnel Association, median annual salaries for selected administrators in higher education were as follows;  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 37 Academic deans: Medicine..........................................................................................$201,200 Law................................................................................................. 141,400 Engineering.................................................................................... 112,800 Arts and sciences............................................................................ 82,500 Business.......................................................................................... 81,700 Education......................................................................................... 80,000 Social sciences................................................................................ 61,800 Mathematics................................................................................... 59,900 Student services directors: Admissions and registrar..................................................................$50,700 Student financial aid....................................................................... 45,400 Student activities............................................................................ 34,500  Related Occupations Education administrators apply organizational and leadership skills to provide services to individuals. Workers in related occupations include health services administrators, social service agency administrators, recreation and park managers, museum directors, library directors, and professional and membership organization executives. Since principals and assistant principals generally have extensive teaching experience, their backgrounds are similar to those of teachers and many school counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information on elementary and secondary school principals, as­ sistant principals, and central office administrators, contact: »■ American Federation of School Administrators, 1729 21st St. NW., Washington, DC 20009. American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore St., Arlington, VA 22209.  For information on elementary school principals and assistant principals, contact: •" The National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1615 Duke St„ Alexandria, VA 22314-3483.  For information on secondary school principals and assistant prin­ cipals, contact: *■ The National Association of Secondary School Principals, Association Dr., Reston, VA 20191.  1904  For information on college student affairs administrators, contact: *“ National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 1875 Connecticut Ave. NW., Suite 418, Washington, DC 20009-5728.  For information on collegiate registrars and admissions officers, contact: *■ American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, One Dupont Circle NW., Suite 330, Washington, DC 20036­ 1171.  Employment Interviewers (D.O.T. 166.267-010)  Significant Points •  Sales ability is required to succeed in personnel supply services firms, where most employment interviewers are found.  •  Employment growth reflects expansion of personnel sup­ ply—particularly temporary help—firms.  Nature of the Work Whether you are looking for a job or trying to fill one, you could find yourself turning to an employment interviewer for help. Sometimes Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  called personnel consultants, human resources coordinators, personnel development specialists, or employment brokers, among other job ti­ tles, these workers help jobseekers find employment and help employ­ ers find qualified employees. Working largely in private personnel supply firms or State em­ ployment security offices (also known as job or employment service centers), employment interviewers act as brokers, putting together the best combination of applicant and job. To accomplish this, they ob­ tain information from employers as well as jobseekers. A private industry employment interviewer is a salesperson. Counselors pool together a group of qualified applicants and try to sell them to many different companies. Often a consultant will call a company that has never been a client (cold-calling) with the aim of filling their employment needs. Employers generally pay private (but not public) agencies to re­ cruit workers. The employer places a "job order" with the agency describing the opening and listing requirements such as education, licenses or credentials, and experience. Employment interviewers often contact the employer to determine their exact personnel needs. Jobseekers are asked to fill out forms or present resumes that detail their education, experience, and other qualifications. They may be interviewed or tested and have their background, references, and credentials checked. The employment interviewer then reviews the job requirements and the jobseeker qualifications to determine the best possible match of position and applicant. Although computers are increasingly used to keep records and match employers with job­ seekers, personal contact with an employment interviewer remains an essential part of an applicant's job search. Maintaining good relations with employers is an important part of the employment interviewer's job because this helps assure a steady flow of job orders. Being prepared to fill an opening quickly with a qualified applicant impresses employers most and keeps them as clients. Besides helping firms fill job openings, employment interview­ ers help individuals find jobs. The services they provide depend upon the company or type of agency they work for and the clientele it serves. Employment interviewers in personnel supply firms who place permanent employees are generally called counselors. They usu­ ally place job applicants who have the right qualifications but lack knowledge of the job market for their desired position. Counselors in these firms offer tips on personal appearance, suggestions on presenting a positive image of oneself, background on the company with which an interview is scheduled, and recommendations about interviewing techniques. Many firms specialize in placing appli­ cants in particular kinds of jobs—for example, secretarial, word processing, computer programming and computer systems analysis, engineering, accounting, law, or health. Counselors in such firms usually have 3 to 5 years of experience in the field into which they are placing applicants. Some employment interviewers work in temporary help services companies. These companies send out their own employees to firms that need temporary help. Employment interviewers take job orders from client firms and match their requests against a list of available workers. Employment interviewers select the best qualified workers available and assign them to the firms requiring assistance. Some­ times employees placed with companies as temporaries are later hired as permanent employees. Traditionally, firms that placed permanent employees usually dealt with highly skilled applicants, such as lawyers or accountants, and those placing temporary employees dealt with less skilled work­ ers, such as secretaries or data entry operators. However, temporary help services increasingly place workers with a wide range of educa­ tional backgrounds and work experience; businesses are turning to temporary employees to fill all types of positions—from clerical to managerial, professional, and technical—to reduce costs of pay and benefits associated with hiring permanent employees. Regular evaluation of employee job skills is an important part of the job for those interviewers working in temporary help services companies. Initially, interviewers evaluate or test new employees'  38 Occupational Outlook Handbook generally for employment placement firms or temporary help services companies. About 1 out of 5 worked for State or local government. Others were employed by organizations that provide various services, such as job training and vocational rehabilitation. Employees of career consulting or outplacement firms are not in­ cluded in these estimates. Workers in these firms help clients market themselves; they do not act as job brokers, nor do they match indi­ viduals with particular vacancies.  Employment interviewers need good interpersonal skills. skills to determine their abilities and weaknesses. The results, which are kept on file, are referred to when filling job orders. In some cases, the temporary help company will train employees to improve their skills. Periodically, the interviewer may reevaluate or retest employees to identify any new skills they may have developed. The duties of employment interviewers in job service centers dif­ fer somewhat because applicants may lack marketable skills. In these centers, jobseekers present resumes and fill out forms that ask about educational attainment, job history, skills, awards, certificates, and licenses. An employment interviewer reviews these forms and asks the applicant about the type of job sought and salary range desired. Applicants sometimes have exaggerated expectations. Employment interviewers must be tactful, but persuasive, if an applicant's job or salary requests are unreasonable. Applicants may need help identifying the kind of work for which they are best suited. The employment interviewer evaluates the applicant’s qualifications and either chooses an appropriate occupation or class of occupations, or refers the applicant for voca­ tional testing. After identifying an appropriate job type, the employment inter­ viewer searches the file of job orders seeking a possible job match, and refers the applicant to the employer if a match is found. If no match is found, the interviewer shows the applicant how to use list­ ings of available jobs. Some applicants are high school dropouts or have poor English language skills, a history of drug or alcohol dependency, or a prison record, among other problems. The amount and nature of special help for such applicants vary from State to State. In some States, it is the employment interviewer's responsibility to counsel hard-to-place applicants and refer them elsewhere for literacy or language instruc­ tion, vocational training, transportation assistance, child care, and other services. In other States, specially trained counselors perform this task. Working Conditions Employment interviewers usually work in comfortable, well-lighted offices, often using a computer to match information about employers and jobseekers. Some interviewers, however, may spend much of their time out of the office interviewing. The work can prove hectic, especially in temporary help service companies which supply clients with immediate help for short periods of time. Some overtime may be required, and temporary workers may need their own transporta­ tion to make employer visits. The private placement industry is com­ petitive, so counselors feel pressed to give their client companies the best service. Employment Employment interviewers held about 87,000 jobs in 1996. About 4 out of 5 worked in the private sector for personnel supply services, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although most public and private agencies prefer to hire college gradu­ ates for interviewer jobs, a degree is not always necessary. Hiring requirements in the private sector reflect a firm's management approach as well as the placements in which its interviewers specialize. Those that place highly trained individuals such as accountants, lawyers, en­ gineers, physicians, or managers generally have some training or expe­ rience in the field in which they are placing workers. Thus, a bache­ lor's, master's, or even a doctoral degree may be a prerequisite for some interviewers. Even with the right education, however, sales ability is still required to succeed in the private sector. Educational requirements play a lesser role for interviewers placing clerks or laborers—a high school diploma may be sufficient. In these positions, qualities such as energy level, telephone voice, and sales ability take precedence over educational attainment. Entry-level employment interviewer positions in the public sector are generally filled by college graduates, even though the positions do not always require a bachelor's degree. Some States allow substitution of suitable work experience for college education. Suitable work expe­ rience is generally defined as public contact work or time spent at other jobs (including clerical jobs) in a job service office. In States that per­ mit employment interviewers to engage in counseling, course work in counseling may be required. Most States and many large city and county governments use some form of merit system for hiring interviewers. Applicants may take a written exam, undergo a preliminary interview, or submit records of their education and experience for evaluation. Those who meet the standards are placed on a list from which the top-ranked candidates are selected for later interviews and possible hiring. Other desirable qualifications for employment interviewers include good communications skills, a desire to help people, office skills, and adaptability. A friendly, confidence-winning manner is an asset be­ cause personal interaction plays a large role in this occupation. In­ creasingly, employment interviewers use computers as a tool; thus, basic knowledge of computers is helpful. Advancement as an employment interviewer in the public sector is often based on a system providing regular promotions and salary in­ creases for those meeting established standards. Advancement to su­ pervisory positions is highly competitive. In personnel supply firms, advancement often depends on one's success in placing workers and generally takes the form of greater responsibility and higher income. Successful individuals may form their own businesses. Job Outlook Employment in this occupation is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. The majority of new jobs will arise in personnel supply firms, especially those special­ izing in temporary help. Job growth is not anticipated in State job service offices because of budgetary problems and the growing use of computerized job matching and information systems, and as States increasingly contract out employment services to private firms. Other openings will stem from the need to replace experienced interviewers who transfer to other occupations, retire, or stop working for other reasons. Rapid expansion of firms supplying temporary help will be respon­ sible for much of the growth in this occupation. Businesses of all types are turning to temporary help services companies for additional work­ ers for handling short-term assignments or one-time projects, for launching new programs, and to reduce costs of pay and benefits asso­ ciated with hiring permanent employees.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 39 Expansion of the personnel supply industry, in general, will also spur job growth. Job orders will increase as the economy expands and new businesses are formed; this is expected to heighten demand for employment interviewers. Firms that lack the time or resources to develop their own screening procedures will likely turn to personnel firms. Employment opportunities should be better in private placement firms than in State job service centers. Entry to this occupation is relatively easy for college graduates, or people who have had some college courses, except in those positions specializing in placement of workers with highly specialized training, such as lawyers, doctors, and engineers. Employment interviewers who place permanent workers may lose their jobs during recessions because employers reduce or eliminate hiring for permanent positions during downturns in the economy. State job service employment interviewers are less susceptible to layoffs than those who place permanent or temporary personnel in the private sector. Earnings Earnings in private firms vary, in part, because the basis for compensa­ tion varies. Workers in personnel supply firms tend to be paid on a commission basis; those in temporary help service companies receive a salary. When workers are paid on a commission basis (or salary plus com­ mission), total earnings depend on how much business they bring in. This is usually based on the type as well as the number of placements. Those who place more highly skilled or hard-to-find employees earn more. An interviewer or counselor working strictly on a commission basis often makes around 30 percent of what he or she bills the client, although this varies widely from firm to firm. Some work on a salaryplus-commission basis because they fill difficult or highly specialized positions requiring long periods of search. The salary, usually small by normal standards, guarantees these individuals security through slow times. The commission provides the incentive and opportunity for higher earnings. Some personnel supply firms employ new workers for a 2- to 3month probationary period during which they draw a regular salary. This gives new workers time to develop their skills and acquire some clients. At the end of the probationary period, the new em­ ployees are evaluated, and they are either let go or switched to a commission basis. Related Occupations Employment interviewers serve as intermediaries for jobseekers and employers. Workers in several other occupations do similar jobs. Personnel officers screen and help hire new employees, but they concern themselves mainly with the hiring needs of the firm; they never represent individual jobseekers. Personnel officers may also have additional duties in areas such as payroll or benefits management. Career counselors help students and alumni find jobs, but they primarily emphasize career counseling and decision making, not placement. Counselors in community organizations and vocational rehabilita­ tion facilities help clients find jobs, but they also assist with drug or alcohol dependencies, housing, transportation, child care, and other problems that stand in the way of finding and keeping a job. Sources of Additional Information For information on a career as an employment interviewer/counselor, contact: •" National Association of Personnel Services, 3133 Mt. Vernon Ave., Alexandria, VA 22305. » National Association of Temporary Staffing Services, 119 S. Saint Asaph St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Homepage:  For information on a career as an employment interviewer in State employment security offices, contact offices of the State government for which you are interested in working. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Engineering, Science, and Computer Systems Managers (D.O.T. 002.167-018; 003.167-034 and -070; 005.167-010 and -022; 007.167-014; 008.167-010; 010.161-010, -014, and .167-018; 011.161-010; 012.167-058 and -062; 018.167-022; 019.167-014; 022.161-010; 024.167-010; 029.167-014; 162.117-030; 169.167-030 and -082; and 189.117-014)  Significant Points •  The majority of growth in these managerial occupations is caused by the rapid expansion of employment in com­ puter-related occupations.  •  These managers need the specialized technical skills pos­ sessed by their staff to perform effectively.  Nature of the Work Engineering, science, and computer systems managers plan, coordinate, and direct research, development, design, production, and computerrelated activities. They supervise a staff which may include engineers, scientists, technicians, computer specialists, and information technol­ ogy workers, along with support personnel. Engineering, science, and computer systems managers determine scientific and technical goals within broad outlines provided by top management. These goals may include the redesigning of an aircraft, improvements in manufacturing processes, the development of a large computer program, or advances in scientific research. Manag­ ers make detailed plans for the accomplishment of these goals—for example, working with their staff, they may develop the overall con­ cepts of new products or identify problems standing in the way of project completion. They determine the cost of and equipment and personnel needed for projects and programs. They hire and assign scientists, engineers, technicians, computer specialists, information technology workers, and support personnel to carry out specific parts of the projects. The managers supervise these employees’ work, and review their designs, programs, and reports. They present ideas and projects to top management for approval or when seeking additional funds for development. Managers coordinate the activities of their unit with other units or organizations. They confer with higher levels of management; with financial, industrial production, marketing, and other managers; and with contractors and equipment and materials suppliers. They also establish working and administrative procedures and policies. Engineering managers supervise people who design and develop machinery, products, systems, and processes; or direct and coordinate production, operations, quality assurance, testing, or maintenance in industrial plants. Many are plant engineers, who direct and coordinate the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment and machinery in industrial plants. Others manage research and develop­ ment teams that produce new products and processes or improve ex­ isting ones. Science managers oversee activities in agricultural science, chemistry, biology, geology, meteorology, or physics. They manage research and development projects and direct and coordinate experi­ mentation, testing, quality control, and production in research insti­ tutes and industrial plants. Science managers are often involved in their own research in addition to managing the work of others. Computer systems managers direct and plan programming, com­ puter operations, and data processing, and coordinate the development of computer hardware, systems design, and software. Top-level man­ agers direct all computer-related activities in an organization. They analyze the computer and data information requirements of their or­ ganization and assign, schedule, and review the work of systems ana­ lysts, computer programmers, and computer operators. They determine personnel and computer hardware requirements, evaluate equipment options, and make purchasing decisions.  40 Occupational Outlook Handbook  I—If  Experience as an engineer, mathematician, scientist, or computer professional is the usual requirement for becoming an engineering, science, or computer systems manager. Some engineering, science, and computer systems managers head a section of scientists, engineers, or computer professionals and sup­ port staff. Above them are heads of divisions composed of a number of sections. A few are directors of research or of large laboratories. Working Conditions Engineering, science, and computer systems managers spend most of their time in an office. Some managers, however, may also work in laboratories or industrial plants, where they are normally exposed to the same conditions as research scientists and may occasionally be exposed to the same conditions as production workers. Most managers work at least 40 hours a week and may work much longer on occasion if meet­ ing project deadlines. Some may experience considerable pressure in meeting technical or scientific goals within a short time or a tight budget. Employment Engineering, science, and computer systems managers held about 343,000 jobs in 1996. Although these managers are found in almost all industries, about 38 percent are employed in manufacturing, espe­ cially in the industrial machinery and equipment, electrical and elec­ tronic equipment, instruments, chemicals, and transportation equip­ ment industries. However, the two industries employing the greatest number of these managers were engineering and architectural serv­ ices and computer and data processing services; each employed about 1 in 10 in 1996. The majority are most likely engineering managers, often managing industrial research, development, and design projects. Others work for government agencies, research and testing services, communications and utilities companies, financial and insurance firms, and management and public relations services companies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement It is essential that engineering, science, and computer systems man­ agers have a base of technical knowledge that allows them to under­ stand and guide the work of their subordinates and to explain the work in non-technical terms to senior management and potential customers. Therefore, experience as an engineer, mathematician, scientist, or computer professional is usually required to become an engineering, science, or computer systems manager. Educational Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  requirements are consequently similar to those for scientists, engi­ neers, and computer professionals. Engineering managers first start as engineers. A bachelor's degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is acceptable for beginning engineering jobs, but many engineers increase their chances for promotion to a managerial position by obtaining a mas­ ter's degree in engineering, engineering management, or business administration. A degree in business administration or engineering management is especially useful for becoming a general manager, because these degree programs teach engineers about managing per­ sonnel and technical and financial resources. Science managers usually start as a chemist, physicist, biologist, or other natural scientist. Most scientists engaged in basic research have a Ph.D. degree. Some in applied research and other activities may have lesser degrees. First-level science managers are usually specialists in the work they supervise. For example, the manager of a group of physicists doing optical research is almost always a physi­ cist who is an expert in optics. Many scientific research firms are started and managed by scientists who obtain funding to build a staff and purchase technology to pursue their research agenda, with the goal of eventually developing a commercially successful product. Most computer systems managers have been systems analysts, although some may have experience as computer engineers, pro­ grammers, operators, or other computer specialties. There is no uni­ versally accepted way of preparing for a job as a systems analyst. Many have degrees in computer or information science, computer information systems, or data processing and have experience as com­ puter programmers. A bachelor's degree is usually required and a graduate degree is often preferred by employers. However, a few computer systems managers have associate degrees. A typical career advancement progression in a large organization would be from pro­ grammer to programmer/analyst, to systems analyst, and then to proj­ ect leader or senior analyst. The first real managerial position might be as project manager, programming supervisor, systems supervisor, or software manager. In addition to educational requirements, scientists, engineers, or computer specialists must demonstrate above-average technical skills to be considered for a promotion to manager. Superiors also look for leadership and communication skills, as well as managerial attributes such as the ability to make rational decisions, to manage time well, organize and coordinate work effectively, establish good working and personal relationships, and motivate others. Also, a successful manager must have the desire to perform management functions. Many scien­ tists, engineers, and computer specialists want to be promoted but actu­ ally prefer doing technical work. Some scientists and engineers become managers in marketing, personnel, purchasing, or other areas, or become general managers. Job Outlook Employment of engineering, science, and computer systems man­ agers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Underlying much of the growth of managers in science and engineering are competitive pressures and advancing technologies which force companies to update and improve products more frequently. Research and investment in plants and equipment to expand output of goods and services and to raise productivity will also add to employment requirements for science and engineering managers involved in research and devel­ opment, design, and the operation and maintenance of production facilities. Employment of computer systems managers will increase rapidly due to the fast-paced expansion of the computer and data processing services industry and the increased employment of computer systems analysts. Large computer centers are consolidating or closing as small computers become more powerful, resulting in fewer opportunities for computer systems managers at these centers. As the economy expands and as advances in technology lead to broader applications for comput­ ers, however, opportunities will increase and employment should grow rapidly.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 41 Opportunities for those who wish to become engineering, science, and computer systems managers should be closely related to the growth of the occupations they supervise and the industries in which they are found. (See the statements on natural scientists, engineers, computer programmers, and computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Because many engineers, natural scientists, and computer specialists are eligible for management and seek promotion, there may be substantial competi­ tion for these openings. Many of the industries which employ engineers and scientists de­ rive a large portion of their business from defense contracts. Because defense expenditures are being reduced, employment has declined and the job outlook for managers is not as favorable in these indus­ tries, compared to less defense-oriented industries. Earnings Earnings for engineering, science, and computer systems managers vary by specialty and level of management. According to 1996 data, science and engineering managers had average salaries that ranged from $41,000 to well over $100,000 for the most senior managers in large organizations. According to Robert Half International, com­ puter systems managers earned salaries ranging from $33,000 to well over $100,000, depending on establishment size. Managers often earn about 15 to 25 percent more than those they directly supervise, although there are cases in which some employees are paid more than the manager who supervises them. This is especially true in research fields. According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, lower-level engineering managers had median annual earnings of $84,200 in 1995, with the middle half earning between $76,300 and $92,800. The highest-level engineering managers had median annual earnings of $117,000, with the middle half earning between $104,000 and $133,000. Beginning systems analysts managers had median annual earnings of $60,900, with the middle half earning between $55,100 and $67,000. The most senior systems analysts managers had median annual earnings of $84,200, with the middle half earning between $76,200 and $92,000. In addition, engineering, science, and computer systems manag­ ers, especially those at higher levels, often are provided with more benefits (such as expense accounts, stock option plans, and bonuses) than non-managerial workers in their organizations. Related Occupations The work of engineering, science, and computer systems managers is closely related to that of engineers, natural scientists, computer per­ sonnel, and mathematicians. It is also related to the work of other managers, especially general managers and top executives. Sources of Additional Information For information about a career as an engineering, science, or com­ puter systems manager, contact the sources of additional information for engineers, natural scientists, and computer occupations that are listed in statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.  Farmers and Farm Managers (D.O.T. 180.117, .161, and .167-018, -026 through -046, -058, and -066; 401.161; 402.161; 403.161; 404.161; 405.161; 407.161; 410.161; 411 161; 412.161; 413.161; 421.161; and 446.161)  Significant Points Modern farming requires work experience, sometimes acquired through growing up on a farm, and formal edu­ cation, preferably a bachelor's degree in agriculture or in business with a concentration in agriculture. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  Overall employment is projected to decline due to in­ creasing productivity and consolidation in the highly effi­ cient agricultural production industry.  Nature of the Work American farmers and farm managers direct the activities of one of the world's largest and most productive agricultural sectors. They produce enough food and fiber to meet the neei,^of our Nation, and to export huge quantities to countries around the world. Farmers may be farmer-owners or tenant farmers, who rent the use of land. Their specific tasks are determined by the type of farm they operate. On crop farms—farms growing grain, cotton and other fibers, fruit, and vegetables—farmers are responsible for planning, tilling, planting, fertilizing, cultivating, spraying, and harvesting. After the harvest, they make sure the crops are properly packaged, stored or marketed. On livestock, dairy, and poultry farms, farmers must feed, and plan and care for the animals and keep barns, pens, coops, and other farm buildings clean and in good condition. They also oversee breeding and marketing activities. On horticultural spe­ cialty farms, farmers oversee the production of ornamental plants, nursery products—such as flowers, bulbs, shrubbery, and sod—and fruits and vegetables grown in greenhouses. On aquaculture farms, farmers raise fish and shellfish in marine, brackish, or fresh water, usually in ponds, floating net pens, raceways, or recirculating sys­ tems. They stock, feed, protect, and otherwise manage aquatic life sold for consumption or used for recreational fishing. Farmers must make many managerial decisions. Their farm out­ put is strongly influenced by the weather, disease, fluctuations in prices of domestic and foreign farm products, and Federal farm pro­ grams. In a crop operation, farmers usually determine the best time to plant seed, apply fertilizer and chemicals, harvest, and market. They carefully plan the combination of crops they grow so if the price of one crop drops, they will have sufficient income from an­ other to make up for the loss. Crop and livestock prices change fre­ quently from one month to another. Farmers who plan ahead may be able to store their crops or keep their livestock to take advantage of better prices later in the year. Those who participate in the futures market—where contracts and options on futures contracts on com­ modities are traded through stock brokers—try to anticipate or track changes in the supply of and demand for agricultural commodities, and thus changes in the prices of farm products. By buying or selling futures contracts, or by pricing their products in advance of future sales, they attempt to either limit their risk or reap greater profits than would normally be realized. They may have to secure loans from credit agencies to finance the purchase of machinery, fertilizer, live­ stock, and feed. Farming operations have become more complex in recent years, so many farmers use computers to keep their extensive financial and inventory records. They also use computer databases and spreadsheets to manage breeding, dairy, and other farm opera­ tions. Farmers perform tasks ranging from caring for livestock, to oper­ ating machinery and maintaining equipment and facilities. The size of the farm often determines which of these tasks farmers will handle themselves. Operators of large farms have employees who do rqpch of the physical work that small-farm operators do themselves. Farm­ ers are responsible for training workers in the use of equipment, and supervising them in the performance of their work. Although em­ ployment on most farms is limited to the farmer and one or two fam­ ily workers or hired employees, some large farms have 100 or more full-time and seasonal workers. Some of these employees are in non­ farm occupations, working as truckdrivers, sales representatives, bookkeepers, and computer specialists. Farm managers guide and assist fanners and ranchers in maximiz­ ing the financial returns to their land by managing the day-to-day ac­ tivities. Their duties and responsibilities vary widely. For example, the owner of a very large livestock farm may employ a farm manager to oversee a single activity, such as feeding livestock. When managing a small crop farm for an absentee owner, on the other hand, a farm man­ ager may assume responsibility for all functions, from selecting the  42 Occupational Outlook Handbook and other grains are most efficiently grown on large farms on level land where large, complex machinery can be used. Thus, these crops are prevalent on the prairies and plains of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Nebraska, Ohio, Kansas, and southern Minnesota and Wisconsin. Crops requiring longer growing seasons, such as cotton, tobacco, and peanuts, are grown chiefly in the South. Most of the country's fruits and vegetables come from California, Texas, and Florida. Many dairy herds are found in the areas with good pasture land, such as Wisconsin, New York, and Minnesota. However, in recent years dairy farming has expanded rapidly in California, Arizona, and Texas.  Modern farming requires increasingly complex scientific, business, and financial decisions. crops to participating in planting and harvesting. Farm management firms and corporations involved in agriculture employ highly trained professional farm managers who may manage farm operations or over­ see tenant operators of several farms. In these cases, farm managers may establish output goals; determine financial constraints; monitor production and marketing; hire, assign, and supervise workers; deter­ mine crop transportation and storage requirements; and oversee main­ tenance of the property and equipment. Working Conditions The work of farmers and farm managers is often strenuous, their work hours are frequently long, and their days off are sometimes infrequent. Of those who work full time, more than half work 60 or more hours a week. Nevertheless, to those who enter farming, these disadvantages are outweighed by the opportunities for living in a rural area, working outdoors, being self-employed, and making a living working the land. Farmers and farm managers on crop farms usually work from sun­ rise to sunset during the planting and harvesting seasons. During the rest of the year they plan next season's crops, market their output, and repair machinery; some may earn additional income by working a second job off the farm. On livestock producing farms, work goes on throughout the year. Animals must be fed and watered every day, unless they are grazing, and dairy cows must be milked two or three times a day. Farmers rarely get the chance to get away unless they hire an assistant or ar­ range for a temporary substitute. Farm work can be hazardous. The proper operation of equipment and handling of chemicals is required to ensure a safe working envi­ ronment. On very large farms, farmers spend substantial time meeting with farm managers or farm supervisors in charge of various activities. Professional farm managers overseeing several farms may divide their time between traveling to meet farmers or landowners and plan­ ning the farm operations in their offices. As farming practices and agricultural technology become more sophisticated, farmers and farm managers are spending more time in offices and at computers, where they electronically manage many aspects of the business. Employment Farmers and farm managers held nearly 1.3 million jobs in 1996. About 85 percent were self-employed farmers. Most managed crop production activities while others managed livestock and dairy pro­ duction. A relatively small number were involved in agricultural services, such as contract harvesting and farm labor contracting. The soil, topography of the land, and the climate of an area gener­ ally determine the type of farming done. For example, wheat, com, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Growing up on a family farm and participating in agricultural pro­ grams for young people sponsored by the National Future Farmers of America Organization or the 4-H youth educational programs are important sources of training for those interested in pursuing agri­ culture as a career. However, modem farming requires increasingly complex scientific, business, and financial decisions. Therefore, even people who were raised on farms must acquire the appropriate edu­ cation. High school training should include courses in mathematics and the sciences. Completion of a 2-year and preferably a 4-year bachelor's degree program in a college of agriculture is becoming increasingly important. Not all future farm managers grow up on farms. For these people, a bachelor's degree in business with a concentration in agriculture is important. In addition to formal education, they will need several years' work experience in the different aspects of farm operations in order to qualify for a farm manager position. Students should select the college most appropriate to their spe­ cific interests and location. In the United States, all State university systems have one land-grant university with a school of agriculture. Common programs of study include agronomy, dairy science, agri­ cultural economics and business, horticulture, crop and fruit science, and animal science. For students interested in aquaculture, formal programs are available, and include coursework in fisheries biology, fish culture, hatchery management and maintenance, and hydrology. Whatever one's interest, the college curriculum should include courses in agricultural production, finance, and economics. Professional status can be enhanced through voluntary certifica­ tion as an Accredited Farm Manager (AFM) by the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers. Certification requires sev­ eral years of farm management experience and the appropriate aca­ demic background—a bachelor's degree or preferably a master's de­ gree in a field of agricultural science—and passing courses and ex­ aminations relating to business, financial, and legal aspects of farm management. Farmers and farm managers need to keep abreast of continuing advances in farming methods both in the United States and abroad. They should be willing to try new processes and adapt to constantly changing technologies to produce their crops or raise their livestock more efficiently. Farmers must also have enough technical knowl­ edge of crops, growing conditions, and plant and animal diseases to make decisions ensuring the successful operation of their farms. Knowledge of the relationship between farm operations—for exam­ ple, the use of pesticides—and environmental conditions is essential. Mechanical aptitude and the ability to work with tools of all kinds are also valuable skills for the operator of a small farm, who often main­ tains and repairs machinery or farm structures. Farmers and farm managers must have the managerial skills nec­ essary to organize and operate a business. A basic knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping can be helpful in keeping financial rec­ ords, and a knowledge of credit sources is essential. They must also be familiar with complex safety regulations and requirements of gov­ ernment agricultural support programs. Computer skills are increas­ ingly important, especially on large farms, where computers are widely used for recordkeeping and business analysis. For example, some farmers use personal computers to get the latest information on prices of farm products and other agricultural news.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 43  Aquaculture production more than doubled between 1983 and 1994. Pounds of fish (thousands) 700 r  greenhouses generally produce the highest income; fruit, nut, com, and peanut farms produce more moderate income; and beef and hog farms generate relatively low income. Generally, large farms gener­ ate more income than small farms. Exceptions include some low volume specialty farms producing high value horticultural and fruit products. Full-time, salaried farm managers, with the exception of horticul­ tural managers, had median earnings of $485 a week in 1996. The middle half earned between $325 and $650 a week. The highest paid 10 percent earned about $760 a week in 1996, while the lowest paid 10 percent made less than $205 a week. Horticultural specialty farm managers generally earn considerably more. Farmers and self-employed farm managers make their own provi­ sions for benefits. As members of farm organizations, they may de­ rive benefits such as group discounts on health and life insurance premiums. Salaried farm managers may receive housing and usual organizational benefits.  80URCE U.9 D«portn«nt of Commerce  Job Outlook Employment of farmers and farm managers is expected to continue to decline through the year 2006. The expanding world population is increasing the demand for food and fiber. In particular, improving economies and increasing personal income in developing nations have resulted in better diets and stronger demand for beef, poultry, pork, and feed grain. However, increasing productivity in the highly efficient agricultural production industry is expected to meet domestic and ex­ port requirements with fewer farmers and farm managers. The over­ whelming majority of job openings will result from the need to replace farmers who retire or leave the occupation for economic or other rea­ sons. The long-term trend toward fewer and larger farms is expected to continue during the 1996-2006 period, as consolidation takes place in response to market pressures, further reducing the number of jobs for farmers and farm managers. Some farmers acquire farms by inheri­ tance; however, purchasing a farm or additional land is expensive and requires substantial capital. In addition, sufficient funds are required to withstand the adverse effects of climate and price fluctuations upon farm output and income and to cover operating costs—livestock, feed, seed, and fuel. Also, the complexity of modem farming and keen com­ petition among farmers leave little room for the marginally successful farmer. Despite the projected decline in overall employment of farmers and farm managers, aquaculture should continue to provide new em­ ployment opportunities over the 1996-2006 period. Overfishing has resulted in reduced ocean catch, and the growing demand for certain seafood items—such as shrimp, salmon, and catfish—has spurred the growth of aquaculture farms. Aquaculture output increased strongly between 1983 and the mid-1990s, as indicated by the accompanying chart. Efforts to produce more farm-raised fish and shellfish should continue in response to demand. Earnings Farmers' incomes vary greatly from year to year, because prices of farm products fluctuate depending upon weather conditions and other factors that influence the amount and quality of farm output and the demand for those products. A farm that shows a large profit in one year may show a loss in the following year. Under the 1996 Farm Act, Federal Government subsidy payments, which have traditionally shielded some grain producers from the ups and downs of the market, are fixed regardless of yields or prices. Consequently, these farmers may experience more income variability from year to year than in the past. The Act also phases out price supports for dairy farmers, and may result in lower incomes for dairy producers. Many farmers— primarily operators of small farms—have income from off-farm busi­ ness activities, often greater than that of their farm income. Farm income also varies greatly depending upon the type and size of farm. For example, vegetable and cotton farms, and nurseries and Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Farmers and farm managers strive to improve the quality of agricul­ tural products and the efficiency of farms. Workers with similar functions include agricultural engineers, animal breeders, animal scientists, county agricultural agents, dairy scientists, extension serv­ ice specialists, feed and farm management advisors, horticulturists, plant breeders, and poultry scientists. Sources of Additional Information For general information about farming and agricultural occupations, contact; American Farm Bureau Federation, 225 Touhy Ave., Park Ridge, IL 60068. Homepage:  For information about certification as an accredited farm manager, contact: »■ American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers, 950 South Cherry St., Suite 508, Denver, CO 80222. Homepage:  For general information about farm occupations, opportunities, and 4-H activities, contact your local county extension service of­ fice.  Financial Managers (D.O.T. 160.167-058; 161.117-018; 169.167-086; 186.117-066, -070, -078, -086; .167-054, -086; 189.117-038)* •  Significant Points •  A bachelor's degree in finance or a related field is the minimum academic preparation, but many employers in­ creasingly seek graduates with a master's degree and a strong analytical background.  •  The need for skilled financial management will spur aver­ age employment growth; however, the number of appli­ cants is expected to exceed the number of openings, re­ sulting in competition for jobs.  Nature of the Work Practically every firm has one or more financial managers. Among them are chief financial officers, vice presidents of finance, treasur­ ers, controllers, credit managers, and cash managers; they prepare the financial reports required by the firm to conduct its operations and to ensure that the firm satisfies tax and regulatory requirements. Finan­ cial managers also oversee the flow of cash and financial instruments, monitor the extension of credit, assess the risk of transactions, raise capital, analyze investments, develop information to assess the pres­ ent and future financial status of the firm, and communicate with stock holders and other investors.  44 Occupational Outlook Handbook In small firms, chief financial officers usually handle all financial management functions. In large firms, these officers oversee finan­ cial management departments and help top managers develop finan­ cial and economic policy, establish procedures, delegate authority, and oversee the implementation of these policies. Highly trained and experienced financial managers head each finan­ cial department. Controllers direct the preparation of all financial re­ ports—income statements, balance sheets, and special reports, such as depreciation schedules. They oversee the accounting, audit, or budget departments. Cash and credit managers monitor and control the flow of cash receipts and disbursements to meet the business and investment needs of the firm. For example, cash flow projections are needed to determine whether loans must be obtained to meet cash requirements, or whether surplus cash may be invested in interest-bearing instru­ ments. Risk and insurance managers oversee programs to minimize risks and losses that may arise from financial transactions and business operations undertaken by the institution. Credit operations managers establish credit rating criteria, determine credit ceilings, and monitor their institution's extension of credit. Reserve officers review their institution's financial statements and direct the purchase and sale of bonds and other securities to maintain the asset-liability ratio required by law. Managers specializing in international finance develop finan­ cial and accounting systems for the banking transactions of multina­ tional organizations. A working knowledge of the financial systems of foreign countries is essential. Financial institutions—such as banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, personal credit institutions, and finance companies—may serve as depositories for cash and financial instruments and offer loans, investment counseling, consumer credit, trust management, and other financial services. Some specialize in specific financial services. Fi­ nancial managers in financial institutions include vice presidents, bank branch managers, savings and loan association managers, consumer credit managers, and credit union managers. These managers make decisions in accordance with policy set by the institution’s board of directors and Federal and State laws and regulations. Due to changing regulations and increased government scrutiny, fi­ nancial managers in financial institutions must place greater emphasis on accurate reporting of financial data. They must have detailed knowl­ edge of industries allied to banking—such as insurance, real estate, and  Financial manager positions usually require substantial experience. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  securities—and a broad knowledge of business and industrial activities. With growing domestic and foreign competition, financial managers must keep abreast of an expanding and increasingly complex variety of financial products and services. Besides supervising financial services, financial managers in banks and other financial institutions may advise individuals and businesses on financial planning. Working Conditions Financial managers are provided with comfortable offices, often close to top managers and to departments which develop the financial data these managers need. Financial managers typically work 40 hours a week, but many work longer hours. They are often required to attend meetings of financial and economic associations, and may travel to visit subsidiary firms or meet customers. Employment Financial managers held about 800,000 jobs in 1996. Although these managers are found in virtually every industry, more than a third were employed by services industries, including business, health, social, and management services. Nearly 3 out of 10 were employed by financial institutions—banks, savings institutions, finance companies, credit unions, insurance companies, securities dealers, and real estate firms, for example. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in finance, accounting, economics, or business administration is the minimum academic preparation for financial managers. However, many employers increasingly seek graduates with a master's degree, preferably in business administration, eco­ nomics, finance, or risk management. These academic programs develop analytical skills, and provide knowledge of the latest finan­ cial analysis methods and information and technology management techniques, widely used in this field. Experience may be more important than formal education for some financial manager positions—notably branch managers in banks. Banks typically fill branch manager positions by promoting experi­ enced loan officers and other professionals who excel at their jobs. Continuing education is vital for financial managers, reflecting the growing complexity of global trade, shifting Federal and State laws and regulations, and a proliferation of new, complex financial in­ struments. Firms often provide opportunities for workers to broaden their knowledge and skills, and encourage employees to take graduate courses at colleges and universities or attend conferences relating to their specialty. Financial management, banking, and credit union associations, often in cooperation with colleges and universities, sponsor numerous national or local training programs. Persons en­ rolled prepare extensively at home, then attend sessions on subjects such as accounting management, budget management, corporate cash management, financial analysis, international banking, and informa­ tion systems. Many firms pay all or part of the costs for those who successfully complete courses. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be ac­ celerated by this type of special study. In some cases, financial managers may also broaden their skills and exhibit their competency in specialized fields by attaining profes­ sional certification. For example, the Association for Investment Management and Research confers the Chartered Financial Analyst designation to investment professionals who have a bachelor's de­ gree, pass three test levels, and meet work experience requirements. The National Association of Credit Management administers a threepart certification program for business credit professionals. Through a combination of experience and examinations, these financial man­ agers pass through the level of Credit Business Associate, to Credit Business Fellow, to Certified Credit Executive. The Treasury Man­ agement Association confers the Certified Cash Manager credential on those who have 2 years of relevant experience and pass an exam, and the Certified Treasury Executive designation on those more sen­ ior in treasury management who meet experience and continuing education requirements.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 45 Persons interested in becoming financial managers should enjoy working independently, dealing with people, and analyzing detailed account information. The ability to communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, is also important. They also need tact, good judgment, and the ability to establish effective personal relationships to oversee staff. Because financial management is critical for efficient business operations, well-trained, experienced financial managers who display a strong grasp of the operations of various departments within their organization are prime candidates for promotion to top management positions. Some financial managers transfer to closely related posi­ tions in other industries. Those with extensive experience and access to sufficient capital may start their own consulting firms. Job Outlook Like other managerial occupations, the number of applicants for fi­ nancial management positions is expected to exceed the number of openings, resulting in competition for jobs. Those with lending expe­ rience, and familiarity with the latest lending regulations and finan­ cial products and services, should enjoy the best opportunities for branch management jobs in banks. Those with a graduate degree, a strong analytical background, and knowledge of various aspects of financial management, such as asset management and information and technology management, should enjoy the best opportunities for other financial management positions. Developing expertise in a rapidly growing industry, such as health care, could also be an ad­ vantage in the job market. Employment of financial managers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. The need for skilled financial management will increase due to the de­ mands of global trade, the proliferation of complex financial instru­ ments, and changing Federal and State laws and regulations. Many firms have reduced the ranks of middle managers in an effort to be more efficient and competitive, but much of the downsizing and re­ structuring is complete. The banking industry, on the other hand, is still undergoing mergers and consolidation, and may eliminate some financial management positions as a result. Earnings The median annual salary of financial managers was $40,700 in 1996. The lowest 10 percent earned $21,800 or less, while the top 10 percent earned over $81,100. According to a 1997 survey by Robert Half International, a staff­ ing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, salaries of assistant controllers range from $41,000 in the smallest firms, to $81,000 in the largest firms; controllers, $47,000 to $138,000; and chief financial officers/treasurers, $62,000 to $307,000. The results of the Treasury Management Association’s 1997 com­ pensation survey are presented in table 1. The earnings listed in the table represent total compensation, including bonuses. The survey also found that financial managers with a master’s degree in business ad­ ministration average $10,900 more than managers with a bachelor’s degree.  Salary level depends upon the manager's experience and the size and location of the organization, and is likely to be higher in larger organizations and cities. Many financial managers in private industry receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses, which also vary substantially by the size of the firm. Related Occupations Financial managers combine formal education with experience in one or more areas of finance, such as asset management, lending, credit operations, securities investment, or insurance risk and loss control. Workers in other occupations requiring similar training and ability include accountants and auditors, budget officers, credit analysts, loan officers, insurance consultants, portfolio managers, pension consultants, real estate advisors, securities analysts and underwriters. Sources of Additional Information For information about financial management careers, contact: "" American Bankers Association, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW Washington ’ DC 20036. » Financial Management Association. International, College of Business Administration, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5500.  For information about financial careers in business credit man­ agement; the Credit Business Associate, Credit Business Fellow, and Certified Credit Executive programs; and institutions offering gradu­ ate courses in credit and financial management, contact: «- National Association of Credit Management (NACM), Credit Research Foundation, 8815 Centre Park Dr., Columbia, MD 21045-2117. E-mail address: Homepage:  For information about careers in treasury management from entry level to chief financial officer, and the Certified Cash Manager and Certified Treasury Executive programs, contact: "" Treasury Management Association, 7315 Wisconsin Ave., Suite 600 West Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information about the Chartered Financial Analyst program, contact: "" Association for Investment Management and Research, 5 Boar's Head Lane, P.O. Box 3668, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Homepage: For information about financial management careers in the health care industry, contact: Healthcare Financial Management Association, Two Westbrook Corporate Center, Suite 700. Westchester, IL 60154.  State bankers' associations can furnish specific information about job opportunities in their respective States, or write directly to a par­ ticular bank to inquire about job openings. For the names and ad­ dresses of banks and savings and related institutions, as well as the names of their principal officers, consult the following directories. *■ T/n? American Financial Directory (Norcross, Ga„ McFadden Business Publications). «- The U.S. Savings and Loan Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). *" Rand McNally Credit Union Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). *■ Polk's World Bank Directory (Nashville, R.L. Polk & Co.).  Funeral Directors (D.O.T. 187.167-030)  Table 1. Annual earnings for selected financial managers, 1997 Chief financial officer..........................................................................$142,900 Vice president of finance..................................................................... 138,000 Treasurer...........................................................................................I 122,500 Assistant treasurer............................................................................... gg 4qq Controller................................................................................ g5 jqq Treasury manager................................................................................ 66^900 Assistant controller.......................................................................... 55 200  ZZIZ'  Senior analyst.................................................................. 55^600 Cash manager....................................................................................... 51,600  Ana'yst.............................................................................................  40,500  Assistant cash manager........................................................................  3 gt80o  Significant Points •  Job opportunities should be excellent because the number of mortuary science graduates is expected to be insuffi­ cient to meet demand.  •  Funeral directors must be licensed by the States who set the education and training requirements needed for entry.  Nature of the Work SOURCE: Treasury Management Association Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Since the earliest of times, most peoples have held funeral ceremo­ nies. The dead have ritually been interred in pyramids, cremated on  46 Occupational Outlook Handbook burning pyres, and sunk beneath the oceans' waves. Even today, funeral practices and rites vary greatly among various cultures and religions. Among the many diverse groups in the United States, fu­ neral practices generally share some common elements: Removal of the remains of the deceased to a mortuary, preparation of the remains, performance of a ceremony that honors the deceased and addresses the spiritual needs of the living as well as the dead, and the burial or destruction of the remains. To unburden themselves of arranging and directing these tasks, grieving families turn to funeral directors. Funeral directors are also called morticians or undertakers. Al­ though this career does not appeal to everyone, the men and women who work as funeral directors take great pride in their ability to pro­ vide efficient and appropriate services that give comfort to their cus­ tomers. Funeral directors interview the family to learn what they desire with regard to the nature of the funeral, the clergy members or other persons who will officiate, and the final disposition of the remains; sometimes the deceased leave detailed instructions for their own funerals. Together with the family, directors establish the location, dates, and times of wakes, memorial services, and burials. They also send a hearse to carry the body to the funeral home or mortuary. Burial in a casket is the most common method of disposing of re­ mains in this country, although entombments also occur. Cremation, which is the burning of the body in a special furnace, is increasingly selected because it can be more convenient and less costly. Crema­ tions are appealing because the remains can be shipped easily, kept at home, buried, or scattered. Memorials can be held anywhere, and at any time, sometimes months later when all relatives and friends can get together. Even when remains are cremated, many people still want a funeral service. A funeral service followed by cremation need not be any different from a funeral service followed by a burial. Usually cremated re­ mains are placed in some type of permanent receptacle, referred to as an urn, before being committed to a final resting place. The urn may be buried, placed in an indoor or outdoor mausoleum or columbar­ ium, or interred in a special urn garden that many cemeteries provide for cremated remains. Directors arrange the details and handle the logistics of funerals. They prepare obituary notices and have them placed in newspapers, arrange for pallbearers and clergy, schedule with the cemetery the opening and closing of a grave, decorate and prepare the sites of all services, and provide for the transportation of the remains, mourners, and flowers between sites. They also direct preparation and shipment of remains for out-of-State burial. Funeral services may take place in the home, a house of worship, or the funeral home and at the grave site or crematory. Services may be nonreligious, but often they reflect the religion of the family, so funeral directors must be familiar with the funeral and burial customs of many faiths, ethnic groups, and fraternal organizations. For exam­ ple, members of some religions seldom have the bodies of the de­ ceased embalmed or cremated. Funeral directors also prearrange funerals. They are increasingly arranging funerals in advance of need to provide a peace of mind that the clients wishes will be taken care of in a way that is satisfying to the person and to those who will survive. Most funeral directors are also trained, licensed, and practicing embalmers. Embalming is a sanitary, cosmetic, and preservative process through which the body is prepared for interment. If more than 24 hours or so elapses between death and interment, State laws usually require that remains be refrigerated or embalmed. The embalmer washes the body with germicidal soap and replaces the blood with embalming fluid to preserve the body. Embalmers may reshape and reconstruct disfigured or maimed bodies using materials, such as clay, cotton, plaster of Paris, and wax. They also may apply cosmetics to provide a natural appearance, and then dress the body and place it in a casket. Embalmers maintain records such as embalming reports, and itemized lists of clothing or valuables delivered with the body. In large funeral homes, an embalming staff of two or more embalmers, plus apprentices, may be employed. Digitizedseveral for FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Funeral directors arrange the details offunerals and handle the lo­ gistics. Funeral directors also handle the paper work involved with the person’s death. They may help family members apply for veterans' burial benefits, notify the Social Security Administration of the death, apply on behalf of survivors for the transfer of any pensions, insur­ ance policies, or annuities, and submit papers to State authorities so that a formal certificate of death may be issued and copies distributed to heirs. Funeral directors are also responsible for the success and the prof­ itability of their businesses. Directors keep records on expenses, pur­ chases, and services rendered; prepare and send invoices for services; prepare and submit reports for unemployment insurance; prepare Fed­ eral, State, and local tax forms; and prepare itemized bills for custom­ ers. Directors also strive to foster a cooperative spirit and friendly attitude among employees and a compassionate demeanor toward the families. A growing number of funeral directors are also involved in helping individuals adapt to changes in their lives following a death through post-death counseling and support group activities. Most funeral homes have a chapel, one or more viewing rooms, a casket-selection room, and a preparation room. An increasing num­ ber also have a crematory on the premises. Equipment may include a hearse, a flower car, limousines, and sometimes an ambulance. They usually stock a selection of caskets and urns for families to purchase or rent. Working Conditions Funeral directors often work long, irregular hours. Shift work is some­ times necessary because funeral home hours include evenings and weekends. In smaller funeral homes, working hours vary, but in larger homes employees generally work 8 hours a day, 5 or 6 days a week. Funeral directors occasionally come into contact with the remains of persons who had contagious diseases, but the possibility of infec­ tion is remote if strict health regulations are followed. To show proper respect and consideration for the families and the dead, funeral directors must dress appropriately. The profession usually requires short, neat hair cuts and trim beards if any, for men. Suits, ties, and dresses are customary for a conservative look. Employment Funeral directors held about 33,000 jobs in 1996. Almost 1 in 4 were self-employed. Nearly all worked in the funeral service and crematory industry, but a few worked for the Federal Government. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Funeral directors must be licensed in all but one State, Colorado. Licensing laws vary from State to State, but most require applicants to be 21 years old, have a high school diploma, complete some col­ lege training in mortuary science, and serve an apprenticeship. After passing a State board licensing examination, new funeral directors  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 47 may join the staff of a funeral home. Embalmers are required to be licensed in all States, and some States issue a single license for both funeral directors and embalmers. In States that have separate licens­ ing and apprenticeship requirements for the two positions, most peo­ ple in the field obtain both licenses. Persons interested in a career as a funeral director should contact their state board for specific state requirements. College programs in mortuary science usually last from 2 to 4 years, depending on the school. There were 47 mortuary science programs accredited by the American Board of Funeral Service Edu­ cation in 1996. Two-year programs are offered by a small number of community and junior colleges, and a few colleges and universities offer both 2- and 4-year programs. Mortuary science programs in­ clude courses in anatomy, physiology, embalming techniques, re­ storative art, business management, accounting and use of computers in funeral home management, and client services. They also include courses in the social sciences and legal, ethical, and regulatory sub­ jects, such as psychology, grief counseling, oral and written commu­ nication, funeral service law, business law, and ethics. The National Funeral Directors Association Educational Founda­ tion offers a continuing education program designed for active prac­ titioners in the field. It is a 3-week program in communications, counseling, and management. Over 25 States have continuing edu­ cation requirements that funeral directors must meet before a license can be renewed. Apprenticeships must be completed under an experienced and li­ censed funeral director or embalmer. Depending on State regula­ tions, apprenticeships last from 1 to 2 years and may be served be­ fore, during, or after mortuary school. They provide practical experi­ ence in all facets of the funeral service from embalming to transport­ ing remains. State board licensing examinations vary, but they usually consist of written and oral parts and include a demonstration of practical skills. Persons who want to work in another State may have to pass the examination for that State, although many States will grant li­ censes to funeral directors from another State without further exami­ nation. High school students can start preparing for a career as a funeral director by taking courses in biology and chemistry and participating in public speaking or debating clubs. Part-time or summer jobs in funeral homes consist mostly of maintenance and clean-up tasks, such as washing and polishing limousines and hearses, but these tasks can help students become familiar with the operation of funeral homes. Important personal traits for funeral directors are composure, tact, and the ability to communicate easily with the public. They also should have the desire and ability to comfort people in their time of sorrow. Advancement opportunities are best in large funeral homes at which directors may earn promotions to higher paying positions such as branch manager or general manager. Some directors eventually acquire enough money and experience to establish their own funeral businesses. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for funeral directors are expected to be excellent, because the number of graduates in mortuary science is likely to continue to be lower than the number of job openings in the field. Although funeral directors are highly attached to their jobs, more openings will occur because more funeral directors are 55 years old and over compared to workers in other areas. Employment of funeral directors is expected to increase slower than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Demand for funeral services will rise as the population grows, and with it the number of deaths. The population is projected to become older be­ cause the number of persons age 55 and over is expected to increase significantly faster than the population as a whole. However, em­ ployment growth will be slowed by the number of people going into the field; this type of work is not attractive to many people. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Median weekly earnings of full-time salaried funeral directors were $590 in 1996. The middle 50 percent earned between $447 and $849. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $356 and the top 10 percent more than $1,072. Salaries of funeral directors depend on the number of years of ex­ perience in funeral services, the number of services performed, the number of facilities operated, the area of the country, the size of the community, and the formal education of the funeral director. A 1995 survey conducted by the National Funeral Directors Association found that the median salary, including bonus, for funeral directors ranged from a low of $21,775 annually for those with less than 5 years in the funeral service business and who performed fewer than 100 services a year to a high of $106,200 for an owner/manager who operated more than three facilities. Those funeral directors who had bachelor degrees tended to earn more than those with just a high school education. Those who were located in large cities earned more than those in small towns and rural areas. Salaries were higher in New England than in the South. Related Occupations The job of a funeral director requires tact, discretion, and compassion when dealing with grieving people. Others who need these qualities include members of the clergy, social workers, psychologists, psy­ chiatrists, and other health care professionals. Sources of Additional Information For a list of accredited mortuary science programs and information on the funeral service profession, write to: The National Funeral Directors Association, 11121 West Oklahoma Ave Milwaukee, WI 53227-4096.  For information about college programs in mortuary science, scholarships, and funeral service as a career, contact: "■ The American Board of Funeral Service Education, P.O. Box 1305 Brunswick, ME 04011.  For information on continuing education programs in funeral service, contact: «- The National Funeral Directors Association Educational Foundation, 11121 W. Oklahoma Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53227-4096.  For information on programs, publications, and statistics on cre­ mations write to: » The Cremation Association of North America, 401 N. Michigan, Chicago,  General Managers and Top Executives (List of D.O.T. codes available upon request. See p. 496.)* •  Significant Points •  This group is among the highest paid workers in the Na­ tion, but long hours and substantial travel often are re­ quired.  •  Competition for top managerial jobs will be keen because of the large number of qualified applicants seeking jobs.  Nature of the Work Chief executive officer, president, executive vice president, owner, partner, brokerage office manager, school superintendent, and police chief—each is a general manager or top executive—the individual who formulates the policies and directs the operations of businesses and corporations, nonprofit institutions, and government agencies. (The chief executives who formulate policy in government are dis­ cussed in detail in the Handbook statement on government chief ex­ ecutives and legislators.)  48 Occupational Outlook Handbook Substantial travel often is required of managers and executives, who may travel between national, regional, and local offices, or overseas, to monitor operations and meet with customers, staff, and other execu­ tives. Many managers and executives attend meetings and conferences sponsored by associations. The conferences provide an opportunity to meet with prospective donors, customers, or government officials and contractors, and allow managers and executives to keep abreast of technological and managerial innovations. In large organizations, frequent job transfers between local offices or subsidiaries are common. General managers and top executives are under intense pressure to earn ever higher profits, provide better service, or attain fundraising and charitable goals. Executives in charge of poorly performing organizations or departments generally find their jobs in jeopardy. Employment General managers and top executives held over 3.2 million jobs in 1996. They are found in every industry, but wholesale, retail, and services industries employ over 8 out of 10. Top executives are generally provided with spacious offices and sup­ port staff. The fundamental objective of private for-profit companies is to make a profit for their owners, or in corporations, to increase share­ holder value. Nonprofit organizations and government agencies im­ plement programs that further their policies within budgetary con­ straints. General managers and top executives set strategies and try to ensure that their organizations’ objectives are met. A corporation's general goals and policies are established by the chief executive officer in collaboration with other top executives, who are overseen by a board of directors. In a large corporation, the chief executive officer meets frequently with subordinate executives to en­ sure that operations are being carried out in accordance with these poli­ cies. Although the chief executive officer of a corporation retains overall accountability, a chief operating officer may be delegated the authority to oversee the executives who direct the activities of various departments and are responsible for implementing the organization's policies on a day-to-day basis. In publicly-held corporations, it is the board of directors that is ultimately accountable for the success or fail­ ure of the enterprise; the chief executive officer reports to the board. In nonprofit corporations, the board of trustees or board of directors ful­ fills the same role. The scope of other high level executive's responsibilities depends upon the size of the organization. In large organizations, their duties are highly specialized. Managers of cost and profit centers are responsible for the overall performance of one aspect of the organization, such as manufacturing, marketing, sales, purchasing, finance, personnel, train­ ing, administrative services, electronic data processing, property man­ agement, transportation, or the legal services department. (Some of these and other managerial occupations are discussed elsewhere in this section of the Handbook.) In smaller firms, the chief executive or gen­ eral manager might be responsible for all or a number of these functions. Middle managers, in turn, direct their individual departments' ac­ tivities within the framework of the organization's overall plan with the help of first-line managers and their staffs. First-line managers oversee and motivate the workers to achieve the departments' goals as rapidly and economically as possible. In smaller organizations, such as independent retail stores or small manufacturers, a partner, owner, or general manager may be responsible for all purchasing, hiring, training, quality control, and other day-to-day supervisory duties. (See the Handbook statement on retail managers.) Working Conditions Top executives are generally provided with spacious offices and sec­ retarial and support staff. General managers in large firms or non­ profit organizations are usually provided with comfortable offices close to the top executives to whom they report. Long hours, in­ cluding evenings and weekends, are the rule for most top executives and general managers, though their schedules may be flexible. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The educational background of managers and top executives varies as widely as the nature of their responsibilities. Many general managers and top executives have a bachelor's degree or higher in liberal arts or business administration. Their major often is related to the depart­ ments they direct—for example, accounting for a manager of finance or computer science for a manager of information systems. Graduate and professional degrees are common. Many managers in adminis­ trative, marketing, financial, and manufacturing activities have a master's degree in business administration. Managers in highly tech­ nical manufacturing and research activities often have a master's degree in engineering or a doctoral degree in a scientific discipline. A law degree is mandatory for managers of legal departments; hos­ pital administrators generally have a master's degree in health serv­ ices administration or business administration. (For additional in­ formation, see the Handbook statement on health services managers.) College presidents and school superintendents generally have an advanced degree, the former, a doctorate in the field they originally taught, and the latter, often a masters degree in education administra­ tion. (See the Handbook statement on education administrators.) On the other hand, in industries such as retail trade or transportation, it is possible for individuals without a college degree to work their way up within the company and become managers. In the public sector, many managers have liberal arts degrees in public administration or one of the social sciences. Park superinten­ dents, for example, often have liberal arts degrees, while police chiefs are generally graduates of law enforcement academies and hold de­ grees in criminal justice or a related field. Since many general manager and top executive positions are filled by promoting experienced, lower level managers when an opening occurs, many are promoted from within the organization. Some companies prefer that their top executives have specialized back­ grounds and hire individuals who are managers in other organiza­ tions. Qualities critical for success include leadership, self­ confidence, motivation, decisiveness, flexibility, the ability to com­ municate effectively, sound business judgment, and stamina. Advancement may be accelerated by participation in company training programs to gain a broader knowledge of company policy and operations. Through attendance at national or local training pro­ grams sponsored by various industry and trade associations and by continuing their education, normally at company expense, managers can become familiar with the latest developments in management techniques and improve their chances of promotion. Every year, thousands of senior managers, who often have experience in a par­ ticular field, such as accounting or engineering, attend executive development programs to facilitate their promotion to general man­ agers. Participation in conferences and seminars can expand knowl­ edge of national and international issues influencing the organization and can help develop a network of useful contacts.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 49 General managers and top executives must have highly developed personal skills. An analytical mind able to quickly assess large amounts of information and data is very important, as is the ability to consider and evaluate the interrelationships of numerous factors; they must also be able to communicate clearly and persuasively, and need highly developed interpersonal skills. General managers may advance to top executive positions, such as executive vice president, in their own firm or they may take a corre­ sponding position in another firm. They may even advance to peak corporate positions such as chief operating officer or chief executive officer. Chief executive officers often become members of the board of directors of one or more firms, typically as a director of their own firm and often as chair of its board of directors. Some general man­ agers and top executives go on to establish their own firms or become independent consultants. Job Outlook Employment of general managers and top executives is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Because this is a large occupation, many openings will occur each year as executives transfer to other positions, start their own businesses, or retire. Nonetheless, competition for top managerial jobs will be keen. Many executives who leave their jobs transfer to other executive or managerial positions, limiting openings for new entrants. Projected employment growth of general managers and top execu­ tives varies widely among industries. For example, employment growth is expected to be faster than average in all services industries combined, but only about as fast as average in all finance, insurance, and real estate industry subgroups. Employment of general managers and top execu­ tives is projected to decline in manufacturing industries overall. Experienced managers whose accomplishments reflect strong leadership qualities and the ability to improve the efficiency or com­ petitive position of an organization will have the best opportunities. In an increasingly global economy, certain types of experience, such as international economics, marketing, information systems, and knowledge of several languages, may also help. Earnings General managers and top executives are among the highest paid workers in the Nation. However, salary levels vary substantially depending upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of service, and type, size, and location of the firm. At the highest level, chief executive officers (CEOs) of medium and large corporations are extremely well paid. Salaries often are related to the size of the corporation—a top manager in a very large corporation can earn significantly more than a counterpart in a small firm. Total compensation often includes stock options, dividends, and other performance bonuses, in addition to salaries. Salaries also vary substantially by type and level of responsibilities and by industry. According to a salary survey by Robert Half Interna­ tional, senior vice presidents/heads of lending in banks with $1 billion or more in assets earned about $200,000 to $215,000 in 1997. Execu­ tive Compensation Reports, a division of Harcourt Brace & Company, reports that the median salary for CEOs of public companies from the fiscal year 1995 Fortune 500 list was approximately $714,000, with three-quarters making less than about $900,000. In the nonprofit sec­ tor, three quarters of the CEOs make under $135,000 in 1996, accord­ ing to a survey by Abbott, Langer, & Associates. Company-paid insurance premiums and physical examinations, the use of executive dining rooms and company cars, and expense allowances are among benefits commonly enjoyed by general man­ agers and top executives in private industry. CEOs often enjoy com­ pany-paid club memberships, a limousine with driver, and other amenities. CEOs of very large corporations may have the use of private aircraft. Related Occupations General managers and top executives plan, organize, direct, control, and coordinate the operations of an organization and its major depart­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ments or programs. The members of the board of directors and super­ visory managers are also involved in these activities. Related occupa­ tions in government with similar functions are President, governor, mayor, commissioner, and legislator. Sources of Additional Information For a wide variety of information on general managers and top ex­ ecutives, including educational programs and job listings, contact: American Management Association. 1601 Broadway New York NY 10019-7420. *" National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439.  Government Chief Executives and Legislators* • Significant Points •  Over 8 out of 10 government chief executives and legis­ lators work in local government, while the rest work pri­ marily in State governments.  •  Many jobs at the local and even State level are part time and pay little.  •  Few long-term career opportunities are available.  Nature of the Work Chief executives and legislators at the Federal, State, and local level di­ rect government activities and pass laws that affect each of us. Chief executives tun the governmental bodies that formulate and enforce laws. These officials include the President and Vice President of the United States, State governors and lieutenant governors, county executives, town and township officials, mayors, and city, county, town, township, and special district managers. All except appointed government managers are elected by their constituents. Non-elected managers are hired by a local government council or commission. Government chief executives, like their counterparts in the private sector, have overall responsibility for the performance of their or­ ganizations. Working in conjunction with legislators, they set goals and then organize programs to attain them. They appoint department heads who oversee the work of the civil servants who carry out pro­ grams and enforce laws enacted by their legislative bodies. They oversee budgets specifying how government resources will be used, and insure that resources are used properly and programs are carried out as planned. Chief executives meet with legislators and constituents to discuss proposed programs and determine their level of support. They frequently confer with leaders of other governments to solve mutual problems. Chief executives nominate citizens to boards and commissions, solicit bids from and select contractors to do work for the government, encour­ age business investment and economic development in their jurisdictions, and seek Federal or State funds. Chief executives of large jurisdictions rely on a staff of aides and assistants, but those in small jurisdictions often must do much of the work themselves. Legislators are the elected officials who pass or amend laws. They include U.S. Senators and Representatives, State senators and representa­ tives, county legislators, and city and town council members. Legislators may introduce bills in the legislative body and exam­ ine and vote on bills introduced by other legislators. In preparing legislation, they read staff reports and may work with constituents, representatives of interest groups, members of boards and commis­ sions, the chief executive and department heads, and others with an interest in the legislation. They generally must approve budgets and the appointments of department heads and commission members submitted by the chief executive. In some jurisdictions, the legisla­ tive body appoints a city, town, or county manager. Many legisla-  50 Occupational Outlook Handbook Tm—Ilf- -1 '■ iTH■■=■■■'■  mammm gf*®  mmm  Government chief executives have overall responsibility for the per­ formance of their organizations. tors, especially at the State and Federal levels, have a staff to perform research, prepare legislation, and help resolve constituents' problems. Both chief executives and legislators perform many ceremonial duties such as opening new buildings, making proclamations, wel­ coming visitors, and leading celebrations. Working Conditions The working conditions of chief executives and legislators vary with the size and budget of the governmental unit. Time spent at work ranges from meeting once a month for a local council member to 60 or more hours per week for a U.S. Senator. U.S. Senators and Repre­ sentatives, governors and lieutenant governors, and chief executives and legislators in large local jurisdictions usually work full time year round, as do county and city managers. Many State legislators work full time while legislatures are in session (usually for 2 to 6 months a year), and part time the rest of the year. Local elected officials in many jurisdictions work a schedule that is officially designated part time, but actually is the equivalent of a full-time schedule when un­ paid duties are taken into account. In addition to their regular sched­ ules, chief executives are on call at all hours to handle emergencies. Some jobs require occasional out-of-town travel, but others involve long periods away from home to attend sessions of the legislature. Employment Chief executives and legislators held about 93,000 jobs in 1996. About 8 out of 10 worked in local government, while the rest worked primarily in State governments. Chief executives and legislators in the Federal Government include the 535 Senators and Representa­ tives and the President and Vice President. State governors, legisla­ tors and other managers, as well as executives, managers, and council members for local governments made up the remainder. Chief executives and legislators who do not hold full-time, yearround positions often work in a second occupation as well. This is commonly the one they held before being elected. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Voters seek to elect the individual believed to be most qualified from among a number of candidates who meet the minimum age, residency, and citizenship requirements. Successful candidates usually have a strong record of accomplishment in paid and unpaid work in their dis­ trict. Some have business, teaching, or legal experience, but others Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  come from a wide variety of occupations. In addition, many have expe­ rience as members of boards or commissions. Some candidates become well-known for their work with charities, political action groups, politi­ cal campaigns, or with religious, fraternal, and social organizations. Management-level work experience and public service help de­ velop the planning, organizing, negotiating, motivating, fundraising, budgeting, public speaking, and problem-solving skills needed to run an effective political campaign. Candidates must make decisions quickly, sometimes on the basis of limited or contradictory informa­ tion. They must inspire and motivate their constituents and their staff. They should appear sincere and candid, presenting their views thoughtfully and convincingly. Additionally, they must know how to hammer out compromises and satisfy the demands of constituents. National and Statewide campaigns require massive amounts of en­ ergy and stamina, as well as superior fund raising skills. Town, city, and county managers are generally hired by a council or commission. Managers come from a variety of educational back­ grounds. A master's degree in public administration, including courses such as public financial management and legal issues in pub­ lic administration, is widely recommended. Virtually all town, city, and county managers have at least a bachelor's degree and the major­ ity hold a master's degree. Working in management support positions in government is a prime source of the experience and personal con­ tacts required in eventually securing a manager position. Generally, a town, city, or county manager in a smaller jurisdic­ tion is required to have expertise in a wide variety of areas. Those who work for larger jurisdictions specialize in financial, administra­ tive, and personnel matters. For all managers, communication skills and the ability to get along with others are essential. Advancement opportunities for elected public officials are not clearly defined. Because elected positions normally require a period of residency and local public support is critical, officials can usually advance to other offices only in the jurisdictions where they live. For example, council members may run for mayor or for a position in the State government, and State legislators may run for governor or for Congress. Many offi­ cials are not politically ambitious, however, and do not seek advance­ ment. Others lose their bids for reelection or voluntarily leave the occu­ pation. A lifetime career as a government chief executive or legislator is rare except for those who reach the national level. Town, city, and county managers have a better defined career path. They generally obtain a master’s degree in public administration, then gain experience as management analysts or assistants in government departments working for committees, councils or chief executives. They learn about planning, budgeting, civil engineering, and other aspects of running a government. With sufficient experience, they may be hired to manage a small government and often move on to manage progressively larger governments over time. Job Outlook Little, if any, growth is expected in the number of State or Federal Government chief executives and legislators through the year 2006. Few new governments at any level are likely to form, and the number of chief executives and legislators in existing governments rarely changes. Some increase will occur at the local level as counties, cities, and towns take on new responsibilities. New positions will develop as cities and counties turn to professional management to deal with growth, Federal regulations, and long-range planning, and volunteer positions are converted to paid positions. Elections give newcomers the chance to unseat incumbents or to fill vacated positions. In many elections, there is substantial competition, although the level of competition varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and from year to year. Generally, there is less competition in small jurisdictions, which have part-time positions offering relatively low salaries and little or no staff to help with routine work, than in large jurisdictions, which have full-time positions offering higher salaries, more staff, and greater status. Earnings Earnings of public administrators vary widely, depending on the size of the government unit and on whether the job is part time, full time  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 51 and year round, or full time for only a few months a year. Salaries range from little or nothing for a small town council member to $200,000 a year for the President of the United States. According to the International City/County Management Asso­ ciation, the average annual salary of chief elected county officials in 1996 was $25,600, while chief elected city officials was about $ 12,200. ICM A data indicate that the average salary for city manag­ ers was about $70,600 in 1996, while that of county managers was about $86,700. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, the salary for legislators in the 40 States that paid an annual salary ranged from about $10,000 to $47,000 per year. In 6 States, legislators re­ ceived a daily salary plus an allowance for expenses while legisla­ tures were in session. Two States paid no expenses and only nominal daily salaries, while 2 States paid no salary at all but did pay a daily expense allowance. Salaries and the expense allowance were gener­ ally higher in the larger States. Data from Book of the States, 1996-97 indicate that gubernatorial annual salaries ranged from $60,000 in Arkansas to $130,000 in New York. In addition to a salary, most governors received perquisites such as transportation and an official residence. In 1997, U.S. Senators and Representatives earned $133,600, the Senate and House Majority and Minority leaders $148,400, and the Vice President $171,500. Related Occupations Related occupations include managerial positions that require a broad range of skills in addition to administrative expertise, such as corporate chief executives and board members, and high ranking officers in the military. Sources of Additional Information Information on appointed officials in local government can be ob­ tained from: <**• International City/County Management Association, 777 North Capitol St. NE„ Suite 500, Washington, DC 20002.  Health Services Managers (D.O.T. 072.117-010; 074.167-010, 075.117-014, -022, -026, -030 and -034 .167-010 and -014; 076.117-010; 077.117-010; 078.131-010, .161-010 and -014, .162-010; 079.117-010, .131-010, .151-010, and .167-014; 187 117-010 -058, -062, and .167-034, and -090; 188.117-082  Significant points •  Earnings of health services managers are high, but long weekly work hours are common.  •  Most are employed by hospitals, but the fastest employ­ ment growth will be in home health care agencies, long­ term care facilities, and practitioners’ offices and clinics.  Nature of the Work Health care is a business, albeit a special one. Like every other busi­ ness, it needs good management to keep it running smoothly, espe­ cially during times of change. The term "health services manager" encompasses individuals in many different positions who plan, or­ ganize, coordinate, and supervise the delivery of health care. Health services managers include both generalists—administrators who manage or help to manage an entire facility or system—and health specialists—managers in charge of specific clinical departments or services found only in the health industry. The structure and financing of health care is changing rapidly. Future health services managers must be prepared to deal with evolving integrated health care delivery systems, restructuring of work, technological innovations, and an increased focus on preven­ tive care. They will be called upon to improve efficiency in all health care facilities, while continually improving quality of the health care Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  provided. Increasingly, health services managers work in organiza­ tions in which they must optimize efficiency of a variety of interre­ lated services, ranging from inpatient care to outpatient follow-up care, for example. The top administrator or chief executive officer (CEO) and the as­ sistant administrators without specific titles are health care general­ ists, who set the overall direction of the organization. They concen­ trate on such areas as community outreach, planning, marketing, human resources, finance, and complying with government regula­ tions. Their range of knowledge is broad, including developments in the clinical departments as well as in the business arena. They often speak before civic groups, promote public participation in health programs, and coordinate the activities of the organization with those of government or community agencies. CEO's make long-term in­ stitutional plans by assessing the need for services, personnel, facili­ ties, and equipment and recommending changes such as opening a home health service. CEO's need leadership ability, as well as tech­ nical skills, to provide quality health care while satisfying demand for financial viability, cost containment, and public and professional accountability. Larger facilities typically have several assistant administrators to aid the top administrator and to handle day-to-day decisions. They may direct activities in clinical areas such as nursing, surgery, ther­ apy, food service, and medical records; or the activities in nonhealth areas such as finance, housekeeping, human resources, and informa­ tion management. (Because the nonhealth departments are not di­ rectly related to health care, these managers are not included in this statement. For information about them, see the statements on mana­ gerial occupations elsewhere in the Handbook). In smaller facilities, top administrators may handle more of the details of day-to-day op­ erations. For example, many nursing home administrators directly manage personnel, finance, operations, admissions, and have a larger role in resident care. Clinical managers have more narrowly defined responsibilities than generalists, and have training and/or experience in a specific clinical area. For example, directors of physical therapy are experi­ enced physical therapists, and most health information administra­ tors have a bachelor's degree in health information administration. These managers establish and implement policies, objectives, and procedures for their departments; evaluate personnel and work; develop reports and budgets; and coordinate activities with other managers. In group practices, managers work closely with the physician owners. While an office manager may handle business affairs in small medical groups, leaving policy decisions to the physicians themselves, larger groups generally employ a full-time administrator to advise on business strategies and coordinate day-to-day business.  To make effective decisions, health services managers must be open to different opinions and good at analyzing contradictory information.  52 Occupational Outlook Handbook A small group of 10 or 15 physicians might employ a single ad­ ministrator to oversee personnel matters, billing and collection, budg­ eting, planning, equipment outlays, and patient flow. A large practice of 40 or 50 physicians may have a chief administrator and several assistants, each responsible for different areas. Health services managers in health maintenance organizations (HMO's) and other managed care settings perform functions similar to those in large group practices, except their staffs may be larger. Also, they may do more work in the areas of community outreach and preventive care than managers of a group practice. The size of the administrative staff in HMO's varies according to the size and type of HMO. Some health services managers oversee the activities of a number of facilities in multifacility health organizations. Working Conditions Most health services managers work long hours. Facilities such as nursing homes and hospitals operate around the clock, and administra­ tors and managers may be called at all hours to deal with problems. They may also travel to attend meetings or inspect satellite facilities. Employment Health services managers held about 329,000 jobs in 1996. Over one-half of all jobs were in hospitals. About 1 in 4 were in nursing and personal care facilities or offices and clinics of physicians. The remainder worked in home health agencies, medical and dental labo­ ratories, offices of dentists and other practitioners, and other health and allied services. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Health services managers must be familiar with management princi­ ples and practices. Some learn from work experience. However, formal education is usually necessary for advancement. Most CEO positions require a graduate degree in health services administration, nursing administration, public health, or business administration. For some generalist positions, employers seek applicants with clinical experience (as nurses or therapists, for example) as well as academic preparation in business or health services administration. Bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degree programs in health ad­ ministration are offered by colleges, universities, and schools of public health, medicine, allied health, public administration, and business administration. There are also some certificate or diploma programs, generally lasting less than 1 year, in health services administration and in medical office management. A master's degree—in health services administration, long term care administration, health sciences, public health, public administration, or business administration—is the stan­ dard credential for most generalist positions in this field. However, a bachelor's degree is adequate for some entry-level positions in smaller operations. A bachelor's degree is required to work in some settings, such as nursing homes, and for entry level positions at the departmen­ tal level within health care organizations. Physicians' offices and some other facilities may substitute on-the-job experience for formal education. For clinical department heads, a degree in the appropriate field and work experience may be sufficient, but a master's degree in health services administration usually is required to advance. In 1997, 67 schools had accredited programs leading to the mas­ ter's degree in health services administration, according to the Accred­ iting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration. Some graduate programs seek students with undergraduate de­ grees in business or health administration; however, many programs prefer students with a liberal arts or health professions background. Competition for entry to these programs is keen, and applicants need above-average grades to gain admission. The programs generally last between 2 and 3 years. They may include up to 1 year of supervised administrative experience, and course work in areas such as hospital organization and management, marketing, accounting and budgeting, human resources administration, strategic planning, health econom­ ics, and health information systems. Some programs allow students to specialize in one type of facility—hospitals; nursing homes; men­ tal health facilities; HMO's; or outpatient care facilities, including Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  medical groups. Other programs encourage a generalist approach to health administration education. New graduates with master's degrees in health services admini­ stration may start as department managers or in staff positions. The level of the starting position varies with the experience of the appli­ cant and size of the organization. Postgraduate residencies and fel­ lowships are offered by hospitals and other health facilities; these are usually staff positions. Graduates from master's degree programs also take jobs in HMO's, large group medical practices, clinics, men­ tal health facilities, and multifacility nursing home corporations. Graduates with bachelor's degrees in health administration usually begin as administrative assistants or assistant department heads in larger hospitals, or as department heads or assistant administrators in small hospitals or nursing homes. A Ph.D. degree may be required to teach, consult, or do research. Nursing service administrators are usually chosen from among super­ visory registered nurses with administrative abilities and a graduate degree in nursing or health services administration. Most States and the District of Columbia require nursing home administrators to have a bachelor's degree, pass a licensing examina­ tion, complete a State-approved training program, and pursue con­ tinuing education. A license is not required in other areas of health services management. Health services managers are often responsible for millions of dollars of facilities and equipment and hundreds of employees. To make effective decisions, they need to be open to different opinions and good at analyzing contradictory information. They must under­ stand finance and information systems, and be able to interpret data. Motivating others to implement their decisions requires strong lead­ ership abilities. Tact, diplomacy, flexibility, and communication skills are essential because health services managers spend much of their time interacting with others. Health services managers advance by moving into more responsi­ ble and higher paying positions, such as assistant or associate admin­ istrator, or by moving to larger facilities. Job Outlook Employment of health services managers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2006 as health services continue to expand and diversify. Opportunities for health services managers should be closely related to growth in the industry in which they are employed. Opportunities will be good in home health care, long-term care and nontraditional health organizations such as managed care operations, particularly for health services managers with work experience in the health care field and strong business and management skills. Hospitals will continue to employ the most managers, although the number of jobs will grow slowly compared to other areas. As hospitals continue to consolidate, centralize, and diversify functions, competition will increase at all job levels. Employment will grow the fastest in home health agencies, offices of physicians and other health practitioners, and nursing and personal care facilities due to an increased number of elderly individuals who will need care. In addition, many services previously provided in hos­ pitals will be shifted to these sectors, especially as medical technologies improve. Demand in medical group practice management will grow as medical group practices become larger and more complex. Health services managers will need to deal with the pressures of cost contain­ ment and financial accountability, as well as the increased focus on preventive and primary care. They will have more responsibility for improving the health of populations and communities. Health services managers will also be employed by health care management companies who provide management services to hospi­ tals and other organizations, as well as specific departments such as emergency, information management systems, managed care contract negotiations, and physician recruiting. Earnings Earnings of health services managers vary by type and size of the facility, as well as by level of responsibility. For example, the Medi­  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 53 cal Group Management Association reported that the median salary for administrators in small group practices—with fewer than 7 physi­ cians -was about $56,000 in 1996; for those in larger group practices —with more than 7 physicians—$77,000. According to a 1997 survey by Modem Healthcare magazine, half of all hospital CEO's earned total compensation of $190,500 or more. Salaries varied according to size of facility and geographic region. Clinical department heads’ salaries varied also. Median total com­ pensation in 1997 for heads of the following clinical departments were: Respiratory therapy, $54,500; home health care, $62,000; clinical laboratory, $63,700; radiology, $64,000; physical therapy, $64,900; ambulatory/outpatient services, $68,500, rehabilitation services, $70,400; and nursing services, $97,000. According to the Buck Survey conducted by the American Health Care Association in 1996, nursing home administrators had median annual compensation of about $49,500. The middle 50 percent earned between $42,100 and $57,300. Assistant administrators earned about $32,000, with the middle 50 percent earning between $26,200 and $40,000. Executives often receive bonuses based on performance outcomes such as cost-containment, quality assurance, and patient satisfaction. Related Occupations Health services managers have training or experience in both health and management. Other occupations requiring knowledge of both fields are public health directors, social welfare administrators, directors of volun­ tary health agencies and health professional associations, and underwrit­ ers in health insurance companies. Sources of Additional Information General information about health administration is available from:  make available meeting rooms and various equipment, including slide projectors and fax machines. Hotel managers are responsible for the efficient and profitable op­ eration of their establishments. In a small hotel, motel, or inn with a limited staff, a single manager may direct all aspects of operations. However, large hotels may employ hundreds of workers, and the gen­ eral manager may be aided by a number of assistant managers assigned to the various departments of the operation. Assistant managers must ensure that the day-to-day operations of their departments meet the standards set by the generi manager. Computers are used extensively by hotel managers and their as­ sistants, to keep track of the guest's bill, reservations, room assign­ ments, meetings, and special events; order food, beverages, and housekeeping and other supplies; and prepare reports for hotel own­ ers and top-level managers. Managers work with computer special­ ists to ensure that the hotel's computer system functions properly. Should the hotel’s computer system fail, managers must ensure that guests' needs continue to be met. The general manager has overall responsibility for the operation of the hotel. Within guidelines established by the owners of the hotel or executives of the hotel chain, the general manager sets room rates, allocates funds to departments, approves expenditures, and establishes standards for service to guests, decor, housekeeping, food quality, and banquet operations. Managers who work for chains also may be as­ signed to organize and staff a newly built hotel, refurbish an older ho­ tel, or reorganize a hotel or motel that is not operating successfully. In order to fill some low-paying service and clerical jobs in hotels, some managers attend career fairs. (For more information, see the statement on general managers and top executives elsewhere in the Handbook.)  American College of Healthcare Executives, One North Franklin St., Suite 1700, Chicago, 1L 60606. Homepage:  Information about undergraduate and graduate academic programs in this field is available from: *" Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 1911 North Fort Myer Dr., Suite 503, Arlington, VA 22209. Homepage:  For a list of accredited graduate programs in health services ad­ ministration, contact: <**■ Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration, 1911 North Fort Myer Dr., Suite 503, Arlington, VA 22209.  For information about career opportunities in long term care ad­ ministration, contact: *■ American College of Health Care Administrators, 325 S. Patrick St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information about career opportunities in medical group prac­ tices and ambulatory care management, contact: *" Medical Group Management Association, 104 Inverness Terrace East, Englewood, CO 80112.  Hotel Managers and Assistants (D.O.T. 187.117-038, .137-018; .167-046, -078, -106, -122; and 320)  Significant Points •  Long hours and the stress of dealing with hotel patrons result in high turnover.  •  College graduates with degrees in hotel or restaurant management should have good job opportunities.  Nature of the Work A comfortable room, good food, and a helpful hotel staff can make being away from home an enjoyable experience for both vacationing families and business travelers. Hotel managers and assistant manag­ ers strive to ensure their guests will have a pleasant stay by providing many of the comforts of home, including cable television, fitness equipment, and voice mail. For business travelers, hotel managers Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Hotel managers plan business, social, and recreational events.  54 Occupational Outlook Handbook Resident managers live in hotels and are on call 24 hours a day to resolve problems or emergencies. However, they typically work an 8hour day, while overseeing the day-to-day operations of the hotel. In many hotels, the general manager also serves as the resident manager. Executive housekeepers are responsible for ensuring guest rooms, meeting and banquet rooms, and public areas are clean, orderly, and well maintained. They train, schedule, and supervise the work of housekeepers; inspect rooms; and order cleaning supplies. Front office managers coordinate reservations and room assign­ ments as well as train and direct the hotel's front desk staff. They ensure guests are treated courteously, complaints and problems are resolved, and requests for special services are carried out. Front of­ fice managers often have authorization to adjust charges posted on a customer's bill. Food and beverage managers direct the food service operations of hotels. They oversee the hotels' restaurants, cocktail lounges, and banquet facilities. They supervise and schedule food and beverage preparation and service workers, plan menus, estimate costs, and deal with food suppliers. (For more information, see the statement on restaurant and food service managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Convention services managers coordinate the activities of large hotels' various departments for meetings, conventions, and special events. They meet with representatives of groups or organizations to plan the number of rooms to reserve, the desired configuration of hotel meeting space, and any banquet services needed. During the meeting or event, they resolve unexpected problems and monitor activities to check that hotel operations conform to the expectations of the group. Other assistant managers are responsible for personnel, accounting and office administration, marketing and sales, purchasing, security, maintenance, and recreational facilities. (For more information, see the Handbook statements on personnel, training, and labor relations spe­ cialists and managers; financial managers; and marketing, advertising, and public relations managers.) Working Conditions Because hotels are open around the clock, night and weekend work is common. Many hotel managers work considerably more than 40 hours per week. Managers who live in the hotel usually have regular work schedules, but they may be called to work at any time. Some employees of resort hotels are managers during the busy season and have other duties during the rest of the year. Hotel managers sometimes experience the pressures of coordi­ nating a wide range of functions. Conventions and large groups of tourists may present unusual problems. Dealing with irate patrons can be stressful. The job can be particularly hectic for front office managers around check-in and check-out time. Computer failures can further complicate an already busy time. Employment Hotel managers and assistant managers held about 175,000 jobs in 1996. A significant number of these jobs were held by self-employed managers—primarily owners of small hotels and motels. Some man­ agers were employed by companies that manage hotels and motels under contract. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Postsecondary training in hotel or restaurant management is preferred for most hotel management positions, although a college liberal arts degree may be sufficient when coupled with related hotel experience. In the past, many managers were promoted from the ranks of front desk clerks, housekeepers, waiters and chefs, and hotel sales workers. Although some employees still advance to hotel management posi­ tions without the benefit of education or training beyond high school, postsecondary education is preferred. Restaurant management training or experience is also a good background for entering hotel management because the success of a hotel's food service and beverage operations is often of great impor­ tance to the profitability of the entire establishment. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Internships or part-time or summer work while in school is an as­ set to anyone seeking a career in hotel management. The experience gained and the contacts made with employers can greatly benefit students when they seek full-time employment after graduation. Most bachelor's degree programs include work-study opportunities. A bachelor's degree in hotel and restaurant administration provides particularly strong preparation for a career in hotel management. In 1996, over 160 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s and graduate programs in this field. Over 800 community and junior colleges, technical institutes, vocational and trade schools, and other academic institutions also have programs leading to an associate degree or other formal recognition in hotel or restaurant management. For example, many colleges and universities have certification pro­ grams in executive housekeeping; these programs typically cover a wide variety of topics, including environmental and workplace safety as well as Federal, State, and local safety requirements. Graduates of hotel or restaurant management programs usually start as trainee assistant managers, or at least advance to such positions more quickly. Hotel management programs include instruction in hotel admini­ stration, accounting, economics, marketing, housekeeping, food service management and catering, and hotel maintenance engineer­ ing. Computer training is an integral part of hotel management training due to the widespread use of computers in reservations, bill­ ing, and housekeeping management. Hotel managers must be able to get along with all kinds of people, even in stressful situations. They must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. Initiative, self-discipline, the ability to or­ ganize and direct the work of others, and effective communication skills are essential for managers at all levels. Sometimes large hotels sponsor specialized on-the-job manage­ ment training programs which allow trainees to rotate among various departments and gain a thorough knowledge of the hotel's operation. Other hotels may help finance formal training in hotel management for outstanding employees. Most hotels promote employees who have proven their ability and completed formal education in hotel management. Newly built hotels, particularly those without well-established on-the-job training pro­ grams, often prefer experienced personnel for managerial positions. Large hotel and motel chains may offer better opportunities for ad­ vancement than small, independently owned establishments, but relo­ cation every several years often is necessary for advancement. The large chains have more extensive career ladder programs and offer managers the opportunity to transfer to another hotel or motel in the chain or to the central office if an opening occurs. Career advancement can be accelerated by completion of certification programs offered by the associations listed below. These programs generally require a combination of course work, examinations, and experience. Job Outlook Employment of hotel managers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. However, long hours and stressful working conditions result in high turnover in this field, with most job openings expected to occur as experienced manag­ ers transfer to other occupations, retire, or stop working for other rea­ sons. Job opportunities in hotel management are expected to be good for persons with college degrees in hotel or restaurant management. Business travel will continue to grow, and increased domestic and foreign tourism will also create demand for additional hotels and mo­ tels. However, manager jobs are not expected to grow as rapidly as the hotel industry due to consolidation, with chains and franchises acquir­ ing independently owned establishments. In addition, front desk clerks are increasingly assuming some responsibilities previously reserved for managers. Also, to accommodate bargain-conscious guests, hotel chains are increasing the number of economy-class rooms. Economy hotels offer clean, comfortable rooms and front desk services without costly extras like restaurants and room service. Because there are not as many departments in each hotel, fewer managers are needed. Econ­ omy-class hotels have a general manager, and regional offices of the  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 55 hotel management company employ department managers, such as executive housekeepers, to oversee several hotels. Demand may also increase for suite hotels as some guests, espe­ cially business customers, are willing to pay higher prices for rooms with kitchens and suites that provide the space needed to conduct meetings. In addition to job growth in suite hotels and economy-class hotels, large full-service hotels—offering restaurants, fitness centers, large meeting rooms, and play areas for children, among other ameni­ ties—will continue to offer many trainee and managerial opportunities. Earnings Salaries of hotel managers vary greatly according to their responsi­ bilities and the segment of the hotel industry in which they are em­ ployed. In 1996, annual salaries of assistant hotel managers averaged around $40,000, based on a hospitality industry survey conducted by Roth Young Personnel of Oklahoma City. Salaries of assistant man­ agers also varied because of differences in duties and responsibilities. For example, food and beverage directors averaged $43,000, whereas front office managers averaged $28,000. The manager's level of experience is also an important factor. In 1996, salaries of general managers averaged nearly $54,000, according to the Roth Young survey. Their salaries ranged from $39,000 to $81,000, depending on the size and type of establishment. Based on limited information, managers may earn bonuses up to 25 percent of their basic salary in some hotels. In addition, managers and their families may be furnished with lodging, meals, parking, laundry, and other services. In addition to typical benefits, some hotels offer profit-sharing plans and educational assistance to their employees. Related Occupations Hotel managers and assistants are not the only workers concerned with organizing and directing a business where customer service is the cornerstone of their success. Other occupations sharing similar responsibilities include restaurant managers, apartment building managers, retail store managers, and office managers. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers and scholarships in hotel management, contact: «• The American Hotel and Motel Association (AH&MA), Information Center, 1201 New York Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20005-3931.  For information on educational programs, including correspon­ dence courses, in hotel and restaurant management, write to: Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036-3097.  Information on careers in housekeeping management may be ob­ tained from: «• National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc., 1001 Eastwind Dr., Suite 301, Westerville, OH 43081. Phone: (800) 200-6342.  General career information and a directory of accredited private trade and technical schools offering programs in hotel-motel man­ agement may be obtained from: *■ Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technology, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 302, Arlington, VA 22201.  Human Resources Specialists and Managers 02.O.T. 079.127; 099.167-010; 166.067, .117, .167 except -046, .257, .267-014 through -046; 169.107, .167-062, .207; 188.117-010, -086, .217)* •  Significant Points •  Employers generally seek college graduates for entry level jobs. Depending on the job duties, a strong back­ ground in human resources, business, technical, or liberal arts subjects is preferred. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  The job market is likely to remain competitive in view of the abundant supply of qualified college graduates and experienced workers.  Nature of the Work Attracting the most qualified employees available and matching them to the jobs for which they are best suited is important for the success of any organization. However, many enterprises are too large to permit close contact between top management and employees. Hu­ man resources specialists and managers provide this link. These individuals recruit and interview employees, and advise on hiring decisions in accordance with policies and requirements that have been established in conjunction with top management. In an effort to improve morale and productivity and limit job turnover, they also help their firms effectively use employees' skills, provide training opportunities to enhance those skills, and boost employees' satisfac­ tion with their jobs and working conditions. Although some jobs in the human resources field require only limited contact with people outside the office, most involve frequent contact. Dealing with peo­ ple is an essential part of the job. In a small organization, a human resources generalist may handle many, or all, aspects of human resources work, requiring a broad range of knowledge. The responsibilities of human resources generalists can vary widely, depending on their employer's needs. In a large corpora­ tion, the top human resources executive usually develops and coordi­ nates personnel programs and policies. (Executives are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) These policies are usually implemented by a director or manager of human resources and, in some cases, a director of industrial relations. The director of human resources may oversee several depart­ ments, each headed by an experienced manager, who most likely specializes in one personnel activity such as employment, compensa­ tion, benefits, training and development, or employee relations. Employment and placement managers oversee the hiring and separation of employees and supervise various workers, including equal employment opportunity specialists and recruitment specialists. Recruiters maintain contacts within the community and may travel extensively, often to college campuses, to search for promising job applicants. Recruiters screen, interview, and test applicants. They may also check references and extend offers of employment to quali­ fied candidates. These workers must be thoroughly familiar with the organization and its personnel policies to discuss wages, working conditions, and promotional opportunities with prospective employ­ ees. They must also keep informed about equal employment oppor­ tunity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines and laws, such as the Americans With Disabilities Act. EEO representatives or affirmative action coordinators handle this area in large organizations. They investigate and resolve EEO griev­ ances, examine corporate practices for possible violations, and compile and submit EEO statistical reports. Employer relations representatives—who usually work in gov­ ernment agencies—-maintain working relationships with local em­ ployers and promote the use of public employment programs and services. Similarly, employment interviewers—whose many job titles include personnel consultants, personnel development special­ ists, and human resources coordinators—help match jobseekers with employers. (For more information, see the statement on employment interviewers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job analysts, sometimes called position classifiers, perform very exacting work. They collect and examine detailed information about job duties to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills each job requires. Whenever a large or­ ganization introduces a new job or reviews existing jobs, it calls upon the expert knowledge of the job analyst. Occupational analysts conduct research, generally in large firms. They are concerned with occupational classification systems and study the effects of industry and occupational trends upon worker relationships. They may serve as technical liaison between the firm and industry, government, and labor unions.  56 Occupational Outlook Handbook Establishing and maintaining a firm’s pay system is the principal job of the compensation manager. Assisted by staff specialists, com­ pensation managers devise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates. They may conduct surveys to see how their rates compare with others and to see that the firm's pay scale complies with changing laws and regulations. In addition, compensation managers often oversee their firm's performance evaluation system, and they may design reward systems such as pay-for-performance plans. Employee benefits managers handle the company's employee benefits program, notably its health insurance and pension plans. Expertise in designing and administering benefits programs continues to gain importance as employer-provided benefits account for a growing proportion of overall compensation costs, and as benefit plans increase in number and complexity. For example, pension benefits might include savings and thrift, profit-sharing, and stock ownership plans; health benefits may include long-term catastrophic illness insurance and dental insurance. Familiarity with health bene­ fits is a top priority at present, as more firms struggle to cope with the rising cost of health care for employees and retirees. In addition to health insurance and pension coverage, some firms offer their em­ ployees life and accidental death and dismemberment insurance, disability insurance, and relatively new benefits designed to meet the needs of a changing work force, such as parental leave, child care and elder care, long-term nursing home care insurance, employee assis­ tance and wellness programs, and flexible benefits plans. Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Federal and State regula­ tions and legislation that may affect employee benefits. Employee assistance plan managers—also called employee wel­ fare managers—are responsible for a wide array of programs cover­ ing occupational safety and health standards and practices; health promotion and physical fitness, medical examinations, and minor health treatment, such as first aid; plant security; publications; food service and recreation activities; car pooling; employee suggestion systems; child care and elder care; and counseling services. Child care and elder care are increasingly important due to growth in the number of dual-income households and the elderly population. Counseling may help employees deal with emotional disorders, alco­ holism, or marital, family, consumer, legal, and financial problems. Some employers offer career counseling as well. In large firms, some of these programs—such as security and safety—are in separate departments headed by other managers. Training is supervised by training and development managers. Increasingly, management recognizes that training offers a way of developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building loyalty to the firm. Training is widely accepted as a method of improving employee morale, but this is only one of the reasons for its growing importance. Other factors include the complexity of the work environment, the rapid pace of organizational and technological change, and the growing number of jobs in fields that constantly gen­ erate new knowledge. In addition, advances in learning theory have provided insights into how adults learn, and how training can be or­ ganized most effectively for them. Training specialists plan, organize, and direct a wide range of train­ ing activities. Trainers conduct orientation sessions and arrange on-thejob training for new employees. They help rank-and-file workers maintain and improve their job skills, and possibly prepare for jobs re­ quiring greater skill. They help supervisors improve their interpersonal skills in order to deal effectively with employees. They may set up individualized training plans to strengthen an employee's existing skills or to teach new ones. Training specialists in some companies set up programs to develop executive potential among employees in lowerlevel positions. In government-supported training programs, training specialists function as case managers. They first assess the training needs of clients, then guide them through the most appropriate training method. After training, clients may either be referred to employer rela­ tions representatives or receive job placement assistance. Planning and program development is an important part of the training specialist's job. In order to identify and assess training needs within the firm, trainers may confer with managers and supervisors or Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  An interdisciplinary background is valuable for jobs in the human resources field. conduct surveys. They also periodically evaluate training effective­ ness. Depending on the size, goals, and nature of the organization, trainers may differ considerably in their responsibilities and in the methods they use. Training methods include on-the-job training; schools in which shop conditions are duplicated for trainees prior to putting them on the shop floor; apprenticeship training; classroom training; programmed instruction, which may involve interactive videos, videodiscs, and other computer-aided instructional technolo­ gies; simulators; conferences; and workshops. The director of industrial relations forms labor policy, oversees industrial labor relations, negotiates collective bargaining agree­ ments, and coordinates grievance procedures to handle complaints resulting from disputes under the contract for firms with unionized employees. The director of industrial relations also advises and collaborates with the director of human resources, other managers, and members of their staff, because all aspects of personnel pol­ icy—such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work practices—may be involved in drawing up a new or revised contract. Industrial labor relations programs are implemented by labor relations managers and their staff. When a collective bargaining agreement is up for negotiation, labor relations specialists prepare information for management to use during negotiation, which requires familiarity with economic and wage data as well as ex­ tensive knowledge of labor law and collective bargaining trends. The labor relations staff interprets and administers the contract with respect to grievances, wages and salaries, employee welfare, health care, pensions, union and management practices, and other contractual stipulations. As union membership is continuing to decline in most industries, industrial relations personnel are working more with employees who are not members of a labor union. Dispute resolution—attaining tacit or contractual agreements— has become increasingly important as parties to a dispute attempt to avoid costly litigation, strikes, or other disruptions. Dispute resolu­ tion also has become more complex, involving employees, manage­ ment, unions, other firms, and government agencies. Specialists involved in dispute resolution must be highly knowledgeable and experienced, and often report to the director of industrial relations. Conciliators, or mediators, advise and counsel labor and management to prevent and, when necessary, resolve disputes over labor agree­ ments or other labor relations issues. Arbitrators, sometimes called umpires or referees, decide disputes that bind both labor and man­ agement to specific terms and conditions of labor contracts. Labor relations specialists who work for unions perform many of the same functions on behalf of the union and its members.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 57 Other emerging specialists include international human re­ sources managers, who handle human resources issues related to a company's foreign operations, and human resources information system specialists, who develop and apply computer programs to process personnel information, match jobseekers with job open­ ings, and handle other personnel matters. Working Conditions Personnel work generally takes place in clean, pleasant, and comfort­ able office settings. Arbitrators and mediators may work out of their homes. Many human resources specialists and managers work a standard 35- to 40-hour week. However, longer hours might be nec­ essary for some workers—for example, labor relations specialists and managers, arbitrators, and mediators—when contract agreements are being prepared and negotiated. Although most human resources specialists and managers work in the office, some travel extensively. For example, recruiters regularly attend professional meetings and visit college campuses to interview prospective employees; arbitrators and mediators often must travel to the site chosen for negotiations. Employment Human resources specialists and managers held about 544,000 jobs in 1996. They were employed in virtually every industry. Specialists accounted for 3 out of 5 positions; managers, 2 out of 5. About 15,000 specialists were self-employed, working as consultants to public and private employers. The private sector accounted for about 86 percent of salaried jobs. Among these salaried jobs, services industries—including business, health, social, management, and educational services—accounted for 4 out of 10 jobs; labor organizations, the largest employer among specific industries, accounted for 1 out of 10. Manufacturing indus­ tries accounted for 2 out of 10 jobs, while finance, insurance, and real estate firms accounted for about 1 out of 10. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 14 percent of salaried human resources specialists and managers. They handled the recruitment, interviewing, job classification, training, salary ad­ ministration, benefits, employee relations, and related matters of the Nation's public employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of duties and level of responsibility, the edu­ cational backgrounds of human resources specialists and managers vary considerably. In filling entry-level jobs, employers generally seek college graduates. Some employers prefer applicants who have majored in human resources, personnel administration, or industrial and labor relations; others look for college graduates with a technical or business background; and still others feel that a well-rounded lib­ eral arts education is best. Many colleges and universities have programs leading to a degree in personnel, human resources, or labor relations. Some offer degree programs in personnel administration or human resources manage­ ment, training and development, or compensation and benefits. De­ pending on the school, courses leading to a career in human resources management may be found in departments of business administra­ tion, education, instructional technology, organizational develop­ ment, human services, communication, or public administration, or within a separate human resources institution or department. Because an interdisciplinary background is appropriate in this field, a combination of courses in the social sciences, business, and behavioral sciences is useful. Some jobs may require a more techni­ cal or specialized background in engineering, science, finance, or law, for example. Most prospective human resources specialists should take courses in compensation, recruitment, training and devel­ opment, and performance appraisal, as well as courses in principles of management, organizational structure, and industrial psychology. Other relevant courses include business administration, public ad­ ministration, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and statistics. Courses in labor law, collective bargaining, labor eco­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  nomics, labor history, and industrial psychology also provide a valu­ able background for the prospective labor relations specialist. As in many other fields, knowledge of computers and information systems is useful. An advanced degree is increasingly important for some jobs. Many labor relations jobs require graduate study in industrial or labor relations. A strong background in industrial relations and law is highly desirable for contract negotiators, mediators, and arbitrators; in fact, many people in these specialties are lawyers. A background in law is also desirable for employee benefits managers and others who must interpret the growing number of laws and regulations. A master's degree in human resources, or labor relations, or in business administration with a concentration in human resources management is highly recommended for those seeking general and top manage­ ment positions. For many specialized jobs in the human resources field, previous experience is an asset; for more advanced positions including manag­ ers as well as arbitrators and mediators, it is essential. Many employ­ ers prefer entry-level workers who have gained some experience through an internship or work-study program while in school. Per­ sonnel administration and human resources development require the ability to work with individuals as well as a commitment to organ­ izational goals. This field also demands other skills people may de­ velop elsewhere—using computers, selling, teaching, supervising, and volunteering, among others. This field offers clerical workers opportunities for advancement to professional positions. Responsible positions are sometimes filled by experienced individuals from other fields, including business, government, education, social services administration, and the military. The human resources field demands a range of personal qualities and skills. Human resources specialists and managers must speak and write effectively; work with or supervise people having various cultural backgrounds, levels of education, and experience; cope with conflicting points of view, and the unexpected and unusual; function under pressure; and demonstrate integrity, fair-mindedness, and a persuasive, congenial personality. Entry-level workers often enter formal or on-the-job training pro­ grams in which they learn how to classify jobs, interview applicants, or administer employee benefits. They then are assigned to specific areas in the personnel department to gain experience. Later, they may advance to a managerial position, overseeing a major elerpefif of the personnel program—compensation or training, for example. Exceptional human resources workers may be promoted to direc­ tor of personnel or industrial relations, which can eventually lead to a top managerial or executive position. Others may join a consulting firm or open their own business. A Ph.D. is an asset for teaching, writing, or consulting work. Most organizations specializing in human resources offer classes intended to enhance the marketable skills of their members. Some organizations offer certification programs, which are signs of com­ petence and can enhance one's advancement opportunities. For ex­ ample, the International Foundation of Employee Benefits Plans con­ fers the Certified Employee Benefits Specialist certification to per­ sons who complete a series of college-level courses and pass exams covering employee benefit plans. The Society for Human Resources Management has two levels of certification—Professional in Human Resources, and Senior Professional in Human Resources—both of which require experience and a comprehensive exam. Job Outlook The job market for human resources specialists and managers is likely to remain competitive through 2006, due to an abundant supply of qualified college graduates and experienced workers, despite large numbers of annual job openings that will stem from the need to re­ place workers who transfer to other jobs, retire, or stop working for other reasons coupled with projected average employment growth. New jobs will stem from increasing efforts throughout industry to recruit and retain quality employees; employers are expected to de­ vote greater resources to job-specific training programs in response to the increasing complexity of many jobs, the aging of the work force,  58 Occupational Outlook Handbook and technological advances that can leave employees with obsolete skills. In addition, legislation and court rulings setting standards in occupational safety and health, equal employment opportunity, wages, and health, pension, family leave, and other benefits, will increase demand for experts in these areas. Rising health care costs, in particular, should spur demand for specialists to develop creative compensation and benefits packages that firms can offer prospective employees. Employment of labor relations staff, including arbitrators and mediators, should grow as firms become more involved in labor relations, and attempt to resolve potentially costly labor-management disputes out of court. Additional job growth may stem from increas­ ing demand for specialists in international human resources manage­ ment and human resources information systems. Employment demand should be strong among firms involved in management, consulting, and personnel supply, as businesses in­ creasingly contract out personnel functions or hire personnel special­ ists on a temporary basis to meet the increasing cost and complexity of training and development programs. Demand should also increase in firms that develop and administer complex employee benefits and compensation packages for other organizations. Demand for human resources specialists and managers is also governed by the staffing needs of the firms for which they work. A rapidly expanding business is likely to hire additional human re­ sources workers—either as permanent employees or consultants— while a business that has experienced a merger or a reduction in its work force will require fewer human resources workers. Also, as human resources management becomes increasingly important to the success of an organization, some small and medium-size businesses that do not have a human resources department may assign employees various human resources duties together with other unrelated responsibilities. In any particular firm, the size and the job duties of the human resources staff are determined by a variety of factors, including the firm's organizational philosophy and goals, the skills of its work force, the pace of technological change, government regulations, collective bargaining agreements, standards of professional practice, and labor market conditions. Job growth could be limited by the widespread use of computer­ ized human resources information systems that make workers more productive. Similar to other workers, employment of human re­ sources specialists and managers, particularly in larger firms, may be adversely affected by corporate downsizing and restructuring. Earnings According to a salary survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor's degree candidates majoring in human resources, including labor relations, received starting offers averaging $25,300 a year in 1996; master's degree candidates, $39,900. According to a 1996 survey of compensation in the human re­ sources field, conducted by Abbott, Langer, and Associates of Crete, Illinois, the median total cash compensation for selected personnel and labor relations occupations were; Industrial/labor relations directors........................................................$106,100 Divisional human resources directors.................................................. 91,300 Compensation and benefits directors................................................... 90,500 Employee/community relations directors............................................ 87,500 Training and organizational directors.................................................. 86,600 Benefits directors.................................................................................. 80,500 Plant/location human resources managers........................................... 64,400 Recruitment and interviewing managers.............................................. 63,800 Compensation supervisors................................................................... 53,400 Training generalists.............................................................................. 49,900 Employment interviewing supervisors................................................ 42,800 Safety specialists.................................................................................. 42,500 Job evaluation specialists..................................................................... 39,600 Employee assistance/employee counseling specialists....................... 39,000 Human resources information systems specialists............................... 38,800 Benefits specialists............................................................................... 38,300 E.E.O./affirmative action specialists.................................................... 38,200 Training material development specialists........................................... 37,200 Employee services/employee recreation specialists............................. 35,000 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, per­ sonnel specialists with limited experience had median earnings of $25,700 a year in 1995, the middle half earned between $23,700 and $28,500 a year. Personnel supervisors/managers with limited experience had median earnings of $59,000 a year. The middle half earned between $54,000 and $65,200 a year. In the Federal Government in 1997, persons with a bachelor's de­ gree or 3 years' general experience in the personnel field generally started at $19,500 a year. Those with a superior academic record or an additional year of specialized experience started at $24,200 a year. Those with a master's degree may start at $29,600, and those with a doctorate in a personnel field may start at $35,800. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. There are no formal entry-level requirements for managerial positions. Applicants must possess a suitable combination of educa­ tional attainment, experience, and record of accomplishment. Personnel specialists in the Federal Government averaged $52,900 a year in 1997; personnel managers, $55,400. Related Occupations All human resources occupations are closely related. Other workers with skills and expertise in interpersonal relations include employ­ ment, rehabilitation, and college career planning and placement coun­ selors; lawyers; psychologists; sociologists; social workers; public relations specialists; and teachers. These occupations are described elsewhere in the Handbook. Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in employee training and development, contact: American Society for Training and Development, 1640 King St., Box 1443, Alexandria, VA 22313.  For information about careers and certification in employee com­ pensation and benefits, contact: *■ American Compensation Association, 14040 Northsight Blvd., Scottsdale, AZ 85260.  Information about careers and certification in employee benefits is available from: *■ International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, Bluemound Rd„ Brookfield, WI 53045.  18700 W.  For information about careers in arbitration and other aspects of dispute resolution, contact: <•“ American Arbitration Association, 140 West 51st St., New York, NY 10020. Phone:(800)778-7879  For information about academic programs in industrial relations, write to: »• Industrial Relations Research Association, University of Wisconsin, 7226 Social Science Bldg., 1180 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI 53706.  Information about personnel careers in the health care industry is available from: «■ American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration, One North Franklin, 31 st Floor, Chicago, IL 60606.  Industrial Production Managers (D.O.T. 180.167-054; 181.117-010; 182.167-022; 183.117-010, -014, .161-014, .167-010, -014, -018, -022, -026, -034, -038; 188.167-094; 189.117-042, .167-042, -046)  Significant Points •  The projected decline in employment reflects growing productivity and organizational restructuring.  •  Applicants with college degrees in industrial engineering or business administration, and particularly those with MBA's and undergraduate engineering degrees, have the best job prospects.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 59 Nature of the Work Industrial production managers coordinate the resources and activi­ ties required to produce millions of goods every year in the United States. Although their duties vary from plant to plant, industrial pro­ duction managers share many of the same major functions. These functions include responsibility for production scheduling, staffing, equipment, quality control, inventory control, and the coordination of production activities with those of other departments. The primary mission of industrial production managers is plan­ ning the production schedule within budgetary limitations and time constraints. This entails analyzing the plant's personnel and capital resources to select the best way of meeting the production quota. Industrial production managers determine which machines will be used, whether overtime or extra shifts are necessary, and the se­ quence of production. They also monitor the production run to make sure that it stays on schedule and correct any problems that may arise. Industrial production managers must also monitor product stan­ dards. When quality drops below the established standard, they must determine why standards aren't being maintained and how to improve the product. If the problem is poor work, the manager may imple­ ment better training programs, reorganize the manufacturing process, or institute employee suggestion or involvement programs. If the cause is substandard materials, the manager works with the purchas­ ing department to improve the quality of the product's components. Because the work of many departments is interrelated, managers work closely with heads of other departments such as sales, purchasing, and traffic to plan and implement company goals, policies, and proce­ dures. For example, the production manager works with the purchas­ ing department to ensure that plant inventories are maintained at their optimal level. This is vital to a firm's operation because maintaining the inventory of materials necessary for production ties up the firm's financial resources, yet insufficient quantities cause delays in produc­ tion. A breakdown in communications between the production man­ ager and the purchasing department can cause slowdowns and a failure to meet production schedules. Computers are coming to play a more important role not only in this coordination, but also in providing up-todate data on inventory, work-in-progress, and quality standards. Production managers usually report to the plant manager or the vice president for manufacturing, and may act as liaison between executives and first-line supervisors. (Information about these work­ ers can be found in the statements on general managers and top ex­ ecutives, and blue-collar worker supervisors, elsewhere in the Hand­ book). In many plants, one production manager is responsible for all aspects of production. In large plants with several operations—air­ craft assembly, for example—there are managers in charge of each operation, such as machining, assembly, or finishing. Working Conditions Most industrial production managers divide their time between the shop floor and their offices. While on the floor, they must follow established health and safety practices and wear the required protec­ tive clothing and equipment. The time in the office, which is often located on or near the production floor, is usually spent meeting with subordinates or other department managers, analyzing production data, and writing and reviewing reports. Most industrial production managers work more than 40 hours a week, especially when production deadlines must be met. In facili­ ties that operate around the clock, managers often work late shifts and may be called at any hour to deal with emergencies. This could mean going to the plant to resolve the problem, regardless of the hour, and staying until the situation is under control. Dealing with production workers as well as superiors when working under the pressure of production deadlines or emergency situation's can be stressful. This stress has been compounded by restructuring that has eliminated levels of management and support staff, shifting more responsibilities to production managers. Employment Industrial production managers held about 207,000 jobs in 1996. Al­ though employed throughout the manufacturing sector, about one half Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  r .v-:' ,  Many industrial production managers have assumed additional re­ sponsibilities in recent years. are employed in firms that produce industrial machinery and equip­ ment, transportation equipment, electronic and electrical equipment, fabricated metal products, instruments and related products, and food products. Production managers work in all parts of the country, but jobs are most plentiful in areas where manufacturing is concentrated. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of manufacturing operations and job re­ quirements, there is no standard preparation for this occupation. Many industrial production managers have a college degree in busi­ ness administration or industrial engineering. Some have a master’s degree in business administration (MBA). Others are former produc­ tion line supervisors who have been promoted. Although many em­ ployers prefer candidates to have a degree in business or engineering, some companies hire liberal arts graduates. As production operations become more sophisticated, an increas­ ing number of employers are looking for candidates with MBA’s. Combined with an undergraduate degree in engineering, this is con­ sidered particularly good preparation. Companies also are placing greater importance on a candidate's personality. Because the job requires the ability to compromise, persuade, and negotiate, success­ ful production managers must be well-rounded and have excellent communication skills. The few who enter the field directly from college or graduate school often are unfamiliar with the firm's production process. As a result, they may spend their first few months on the job in the com­ pany's training program. These programs familiarize trainees with the production line, company policies, and the requirements of the job. In larger companies, they may also include assignments to other departments, such as purchasing and accounting. A number of com­ panies hire college graduates as blue-collar worker supervisors and later promote them. Some industrial production managers have worked their way up the ranks, perhaps after having worked as blue-collar worker supervi­ sors. These workers already have an intimate knowledge of the pro­ duction process and the firm's organization. To be selected for pro­ motion, they must have demonstrated leadership qualities and usually have taken company-sponsored courses in management skills and communication techniques. In addition to formal training, industrial production managers must closely follow new production technologies and management  60 Occupational Outlook Handbook practices. To do this, they belong to professional organizations and attend trade shows where new equipment is displayed; they also at­ tend industry conferences and conventions where changes in produc­ tion methods and technological advances are discussed. Industrial production managers with a proven record of superior performance may advance to plant manager or vice president for manufacturing. Others transfer to jobs at larger firms with more re­ sponsibilities. Opportunities also exist as consultants. (For more information, see the statement on management analysts and consult­ ants elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Employment of industrial production managers is expected to de­ cline slightly through the year 2006. However, a number of job openings will stem from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Applicants with college degrees in industrial engineering or business administration, and particularly those with MBA's and undergraduate engineering de­ grees, will be in the best position to fill these openings. Employers also are likely to seek candidates who have excellent communication skills, and who are personable, flexible, and eager to participate in ongoing training. Although manufacturing output is projected to rise, growing pro­ ductivity among production managers and organizational restructur­ ing will limit the demand for these workers. Productivity gains will result from the widening use of computers for scheduling, planning, and coordination. In addition, just-in-time manufacturing eases scheduling demands, and a growing emphasis on building quality inspection into the production process has redistributed some of the production manager's oversight responsibilities. Because production managers are so integral to the efficient operation of a plant, they have not been greatly affected by recent efforts to flatten manage­ ment structures. Nevertheless, this trend has led production manag­ ers to assume more responsibilities and has discouraged the creation of more employment opportunities. Earnings Salaries of industrial production managers vary significantly by indus­ try and plant size. According to Abbott, Langer, and Associates, the average salary for all production managers was $60,000 in 1996. In addition to salary, industrial production managers may receive bonuses based on job performance. Related Occupations Industrial production managers oversee production staff and equip­ ment, insure that production goals and quality standards are being met, and implement company policies. Individuals with similar functions include materials, operations, purchasing, and traffic managers. Other occupations requiring similar training and skills are sales engineer, manufacturer’s sales representative, and industrial engineer. Sources of Additional Information Information on industrial production management can be obtained from: National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439. «■ American Management Association, 1601 Broadway, New York, NY 10019.  Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction (List of D.O.T. codes available upon request. See p. 496.)* •  Significant Points •  Over 80 percent of the jobs are in Federal, State, and local government agencies that inspect and enforce rules on matters such as health, safety, food, licensing, or finance. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  Because responsibilities vary, ranging from those of avia­ tion safety inspectors to food inspectors, for example, training requirements and working conditions vary greatly.  Nature of the Work Inspectors and compliance officers enforce a wide range of laws, regulations, policies, or procedures. They inspect and enforce rules on matters such as health, safety, food, licensing, or finance. In­ spectors’ and compliance officers' duties vary widely. Agricultural commodity graders apply quality standards to aid the buying and selling of commodities, and to insure that retailers and consumers know the quality of the products they purchase. Although this grading is not required by law, buyers may not be willing to pur­ chase ungraded commodities. Graders usually specialize in an area such as eggs, meat, poultry, processed or fresh fruits and vegetables, grain, tobacco, cotton, or dairy products. They examine product samples to determine quality and grade, and issue official grading certificates. To maintain sanitation standards, graders may inspect the plant and equipment used in processing. Attendance officers investigate continued absences of pupils from public schools. Aviation safety inspectors ensure that Federal Aviation Admini­ stration (FAA) regulations that govern the quality, performance, and safety of aircraft equipment, aircraft operations, and personnel are adhered to. Aviation safety inspectors may inspect aircraft and equipment manufacturing, maintenance and repair, or flight proce­ dures. They may work in the areas of flight operations, maintenance, or avionics, and usually specialize in either commercial or general aviation aircraft. They also examine and certify aircraft pilots, pilot examiners, flight instructors, repair stations, schools, and instruc­ tional materials. Bank examiners investigate financial institutions to enforce Fed­ eral or State laws and regulations governing the institution's opera­ tions and solvency. Examiners schedule audits, determine actions protecting the institution's solvency and the interests of shareholders and depositors, and recommend acceptance or rejection of applica­ tions for mergers, acquisitions, or establishment of a new institution. Consumer safety inspectors and officers inspect food, feeds, pesti­ cides, weights and measures, biological products, cosmetics, drugs, medical equipment, and radiation emitting products. Some are profi­ cient in several areas. Working individually or in teams under a senior inspector, they check on firms that produce, handle, store, or market the products they regulate. They ensure that standards are maintained and respond to consumer complaints by questioning em­ ployees, vendors, and others to obtain evidence. Inspectors look for inaccurate product labeling, and for decomposition or chemical or bacteriological contamination that could result in a product becoming harmful to health. They may use portable scales, cameras, ultraviolet lights, thermometers, chemical testing kits, radiation monitors, or other equipment to find violations. They may send product samples, collected as part of their examinations, to laboratories for analysis. After completing their inspection, inspectors discuss their obser­ vations with plant managers or officials, and point out areas where corrective measures are needed. They write reports of their findings and, when necessary, compile evidence for use in court if legal action must be taken. Customs inspectors enforce laws governing imports and exports. Stationed in the United States and overseas at airports, seaports, and border crossing points, they examine, count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sample commercial and noncommercial cargoes entering and leaving the United States, to determine admissibility and the amount of duties that must be paid. They insure that all cargo is properly described on accompanying importers' declarations to determine the proper duty and interdict contraband. They inspect baggage and articles carried by passengers and crew members to insure that all merchandise is declared, proper duties are paid, and contraband is not present. They also ensure that people, ships, planes, and anything used to import or export cargo comply with all appropriate entrance and clearance requirements.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 61 Dealer compliance representatives inspect franchised establish­ ments, such as motels and fast food restaurants, to ensure compliance with the franchiser's policies and procedures. They may suggest changes in financial or other operations which, if not followed, can result in loss of the franchise. Environmental health inspectors, who work primarily for State and local governments, ensure that food, water, and air meet govern­ ment standards. They check the cleanliness and safety of food and beverages produced in dairies and processing plants, or served in restaurants, hospitals, and other institutions. They often examine the handling, processing, and serving of food for compliance with sani­ tation rules and regulations, and oversee the treatment and disposal of sewage, refuse, and garbage. In addition, inspectors may visit pollu­ tion sources and test for pollutants by collecting air, water, or waste samples for analysis. They try to determine the nature and cause of pollution and initiate action to stop it. In large local and State health or agriculture departments, envi­ ronmental health inspectors may specialize in the areas of milk and dairy products, food sanitation, waste control, air pollution, water pollution, institutional sanitation, or occupational health. In rural areas and small towns, they may be responsible for a wide range of environmental health activities. Equal opportunity representatives ascertain and correct unfair employment practices through consultation with and mediation be­ tween employers and minority groups. Federal and State laws require food inspectors to inspect meat, poultry, their byproducts, and egg products to ensure they are safe for public consumption. Working onsite, frequently as part of a team, they inspect meat and poultry slaughtering, processing, and packag­ ing operations, as well as egg products operations. They also check for correct product labeling and proper sanitation. Immigration inspectors interview and examine people seeking en­ trance to the United States and its territories. They inspect passports to determine whether people are legally eligible to enter and verify their citizenship status and identity. Immigration inspectors also prepare reports, maintain records, and process applications and petitions for immigration or temporary residence in the United States. Logging operations inspectors review contract logging operations. They prepare reports and issue remedial instructions for violations of contractual agreements and of fire and safety regulations. Mine safety and health inspectors work to ensure the health and safety of miners. They visit mines and related facilities to obtain information on health and safety conditions and to enforce safety laws and regulations. They discuss their findings with the manage­ ment of the mine and issue citations describing violations and hazards that must be corrected. Mine inspectors also investigate and report on mine accidents and may direct rescue and fire fighting operations when fires or explosions occur.  **•'!' Wmm  Inspectors and compliance officers work in a variety of settings and meet all kinds ofpeople. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Motor vehicle inspectors verify the compliance of automobiles and trucks with State requirements for safe operation and emissions. They inspect tmck cargoes to assure compliance with legal limita­ tions on gross weight and hazardous cargoes. Occupational safety and health inspectors visit places of em­ ployment to detect unsafe machinery and equipment, or unhealthy working conditions. They discuss their findings with the employer or plant manager and order that violations be promptly corrected in accordance with Federal, State, or local government safety standards and regulations. They interview supervisors and employees in re­ sponse to complaints or accidents, and may order suspension of ac­ tivity posing threats to workers. Park rangers enforce laws and regulations in State and national parks. Their duties range from registering vehicles and visitors, col­ lecting fees, and providing information regarding park use and points of interest, to patrolling areas to prevent fire, participating in first aid and rescue activities, and training and supervising other park work­ ers. Some rangers specialize in snow safety and avalanche control. With increasing numbers of visitors to our national parks, some rang­ ers specialize as law enforcement officers. Postal inspectors observe the functioning of the postal system and enforce laws and regulations. As law enforcement agents, postal inspectors have statutory powers of arrest and the authority to carry firearms. They investigate criminal activities such as theft and mis­ use of the mail. In instances of suspected mismanagement or fraud, inspectors conduct management or financial audits. They also col­ laborate with other government agencies, such as the Internal Reve­ nue Service, as members of special task forces. Railroad inspectors verify the compliance of railroad systems and equipment with Federal safety regulations. They investigate acci­ dents and review railroads' operating practices. Revenue officers investigate and collect delinquent tax returns from individuals or businesses. They investigate leads from various sources. They attempt to resolve tax problems with taxpayers and recommend penalties, collection actions, and recommend criminal prosecutions when necessary. Securities compliance examiners implement regulations concerning securities and real estate transactions. They investigate applications for registration of securities sales and complaints of irregular securities transactions, and recommend legal action when necessary. Travel accommodations raters inspect hotels, motels, restaurants, campgrounds, and vacation resorts. They evaluate travel and tourist accommodations for travel guide publishers and organizations such as tourism promoters and automobile clubs. Other inspectors and compliance officers include coroners, code inspectors, mortician investigators, and dealer-compliance represen­ tatives. Closely related work is done by construction and building inspectors. (Construction and building inspectors are discussed else­ where in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Inspectors and compliance officers meet all kinds of people and work in a variety of environments. Their jobs often involve con­ siderable field work, and some inspectors travel frequently. They are generally furnished with an automobile or are reimbursed for travel expenses. Inspectors may experience unpleasant, stressful, and dangerous working conditions. For example, mine safety and health inspectors are exposed to the same hazards as miners. Some food inspectors examine and inspect the livestock slaughtering process in slaughter­ houses and frequently come in contact with unpleasant conditions. Postal inspectors have to put up with the stress inherent in all law enforcement work, in addition to the danger inherent in making occa­ sional arrests. Park rangers often work outdoors—in many cases, on rugged terrain—in very hot or bitterly cold weather for extended periods. Many inspectors work long and often irregular hours. Even those inspectors not engaged in some form of law enforcement may find themselves in adversarial roles when the organization or individual being inspected objects to the inspection.  62 Occupational Outlook Handbook Employment Inspectors and compliance officers held about 163,000 jobs in 1996. State governments employed 34 percent, the Federal Government— chiefly the Departments of Defense, Labor, Treasury, and Agriculture —employed 31 percent, and local governments employed 18 percent. The remaining 17 percent were employed throughout the private sector—primarily in education, hospitals, insurance companies, labor unions, and manufacturing firms. Some consumer safety inspectors work for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but the majority of these inspectors work for State governments. Most food inspectors and agricultural commodity graders are employed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Many health inspectors work for State and local governments. Compliance inspectors are employed primarily by the Treasury and Labor de­ partments on the Federal level, as well as by State and local govern­ ments. The Department of Defense employs the most quality assur­ ance inspectors. The States and the Treasury Department employ internal revenue officers. Aviation safety inspectors work for the Federal Aviation Administration. The Environmental Protection Agency employs inspectors to verify compliance with pollution con­ trol and other laws. The U.S. Department of Labor and many State governments employ occupational safety and health inspectors, equal-opportunity officers, and mine safety and health inspectors. The U.S. Department of Interior employs park rangers. Department of the Treasury customs inspectors work in the United States and overseas at airports, seaports, and border crossing points. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of the functions they perform, qualifications for inspector and compliance officer jobs differ greatly. Requirements include a combination of education, experience, and often a passing grade on a written examination. Employers may require college train­ ing, including courses related to the job. The following examples il­ lustrate the range of qualifications for various inspector jobs. Postal inspectors must have a bachelor's degree and 1 year's work experience. It is desirable that they have one of several professional certifications, such as that of certified public accountant. They also must pass a background suitability investigation, meet certain health requirements, undergo a drug screening test, possess a valid State driver's license, and be a U.S. citizen between 21 and 36 years of age when hired. Aviation safety inspectors working in operations must be pilots with varying certificates, ratings, and numbers of flight hours to their credit. In addition, FAA medical certificates are required. Some also are re­ quired to have an FAA flight instructor rating. Maintenance and avi­ onics inspectors must have considerable experience in aviation mainte­ nance and knowledge of industry standards and relevant Federal laws. Many aviation safety inspectors have had flight and maintenance training in the Armed Forces. No written examination is required. Applicants for positions as mine safety and health inspectors gen­ erally must have experience in mine safety, management, or supervi­ sion. Some may possess a skill such as that of an electrician (for mine electrical inspectors). Applicants must meet strict medical re­ quirements and be physically able to perform arduous duties effi­ ciently. Many mine safety inspectors are former miners. Applicants for internal revenue officer jobs must be a U.S. citizen and have a bachelor's degree or 3 years of experience in business, legal, financial, or investigative practices. Park rangers need at least 2 years of college with at least 12 cred­ its in science and criminal justice, although some start as part-time, seasonal workers with the U.S. Forest Service. Most positions re­ quire a bachelor's degree. Environmental health inspectors, called sanitarians in many States, sometimes must have a bachelor's degree in environmental health or in the physical or biological sciences. In most States, they are licensed by examining boards. All inspectors and compliance officers are trained in the applica­ ble laws or inspection procedures through some combination of class­ room and on-the-job training. In general, people who want to enter Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  this occupation should be responsible and like detailed work. In­ spectors and compliance officers should be neat and personable, and able to communicate well orally and in writing. Federal Government inspectors and compliance officers whose job performance is satisfactory advance through their career ladder to a specified full performance level. For positions above this level (usually supervisory positions), advancement is competitive, based on agency needs and individual merit. Advancement opportunities in State and local governments and the private sector are often similar to those in the Federal Government. Some civil service specifications, including those for mine inspec­ tors, aviation safety inspectors, and agricultural commodity graders, rate applicants solely on their experience and education. Others require a written examination. Job Outlook Slower than average growth in employment of inspectors and com­ pliance officers is expected through the year 2006, reflecting a bal­ ance of continuing public demand for a safe environment and quality products against the desire for smaller government and fewer regula­ tions. Job openings will arise primarily from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons. In private industry, employment growth will reflect industry growth, due to continuing self-enforcement of gov­ ernment and company regulations and policies, particularly among franchise operations in various industries. Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is seldom af­ fected by general economic fluctuations. Federal, State, and local governments—which employ most inspectors—provide workers with considerable job security. Earnings The median weekly salary of inspectors and compliance officers, except construction, was about $695 in 1996. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $381; the highest 10 percent earned over $1,215. In the Federal Government, the annual starting salaries for inspectors varied from $24,200 to $29,600 depending upon the nature of the inspection or compliance activity. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The following tabulation presents 1997 average salaries for selected inspectors and compliance officers in the Federal Govern­ ment in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions. Air safety investigators........................................................................... $66,110 Highway safety inspectors...................................................................... 64,190 Mine safety and health inspectors.......................................................... 58,000 Railroad safety inspectors...................................................................... 55,910 Internal revenue agent............................................................................ 55,730 Equal employment opportunity officials............................................... 54,180 Environmental protection specialists..................................................... 52,940 Safety and occupational health managers.............................................. 50,070 Import specialists................................................................................... 49,370 Quality assurance inspectors.................................................................. 47,020 Customs inspectors................................................................................. 40,020 Securities compliance examiners............................................................ 39,490 Agricultural commodity graders............................................................. 39,080 Immigration inspectors........................................................................... 35,010 Consumer safety inspectors.................................................................... 34,360 Food inspectors...................................................................................... 32,870 Environmental protection assistants....................................................... 29,090  Most inspectors and compliance officers work for Federal, State, and local governments and in large private firms, all of which gen­ erally offer more generous benefits than do smaller firms. Related Occupations Inspectors and compliance officers are responsible for seeing that laws and regulations are obeyed. Construction and building inspec­ tors, fire marshals, Federal, State, and local law enforcement profes­ sionals, corrections officers, and fish and game wardens also enforce laws and regulations.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 63 Sources of Additional Information Information on obtaining a job with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a tele­ phone based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD (912) 744-2299). The number is not toll free and charges may result. In­ formation also is available from their internet site: http:// For information on a career as a specific type of Federal inspector or compliance officer, a Federal department or agency that employs them may also be contacted directly. Information about State and local government jobs is available from State civil service commissions, usually located in each State capital, or from local government offices. Information about jobs in private industry is available from the State Employment Service, which is listed under "lob Service" or "Employment" in the State government section of local telephone directories.  t......  .  Insurance underwriters use computer software to evaluate a client’s risk.  Insurance Underwriters (D.O.T. 169.267-046)* •  Significant Points •  Most large insurance companies prefer college graduates who have a degree in business administration or finance, with courses or experience in accounting.  •  Employment is projected to grow more slowly than aver­ age as insurance companies use "smart" underwriting software systems that automatically analyze and rate in­ surance applications, and as more businesses self-insure.  Nature of the Work Insurance companies protect individuals and organizations from fi­ nancial loss by assuming billions of dollars in risks each year. Un­ derwriters identify and analyze the risk of loss from their policyhold­ ers, establish appropriate premium rates, and write policies that cover that risk. An insurance company may lose business to competitors if the underwriter appraises risks too conservatively, or it may have to pay more claims if the underwriting actions are too liberal. Technology plays an increasingly important role in an under­ writer's job. Underwriters use computer applications called “smart systems” to manage risks more efficiently and accurately. They enter into the computer various information relating to a person or organi­ zation whose application for insurance is pending. These systems automatically analyze and rate insurance applications, then recom­ mend acceptance or denial of the risk, or they adjust the premium rate in accordance with the risk. Underwriters are then better equipped to make sound decisions in an effort to avoid excessive losses in the future. With the aid of computers, underwriters analyze information in insurance applications, reports from loss control consultants, medical reports, and actuarial studies—reports that describe the probability of insured loss. They then decide whether to issue a policy and outline the terms of the contract, including the amount of the premium. Un­ derwriters sometimes correspond with policyholders, agents, and managers about policy cancellations or other matters. On rare occa­ sions, they accompany sales representatives on appointments with prospective clients. (Life insurance agents and brokers are increas­ ingly called "life underwriters;" they are included in the section on insurance agents and brokers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most underwriters specialize in one of three major categories of in­ surance—life, property and casualty, or health. They further specialize in group or individual policies. Property and casualty underwriters often specialize by type of risk insured, such as fire, homeowners, automobile, marine, property, liability, or workers' compensation. In Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  cases where casualty companies insure in a single "package" policy, covering various types of risks, the underwriter must be familiar with different lines of insurance. Some underwriters, called commercial account underwriters, handle business insurance exclusively. They often evaluate a firm's entire operation in appraising its application for insurance. An increasing proportion of insurance sales, particularly in life and health insurance, are being made through group contracts. A standard group policy insures everyone in a specified group through a single contract at a standard premium rate. The group underwriter analyzes the overall composition of the group to assure that the total risk is not excessive. Another type of group policy provides members of a group—a labor union, for example—with individual policies reflecting their needs. These generally are casualty policies, such as those cov­ ering automobiles. The casualty underwriter analyzes the application of each group member and makes individual appraisals. Some group underwriters meet with union or employer representatives to discuss the types of policies available to their group. Working Conditions Underwriters have desk jobs that require no unusual physical activity. Their offices generally are comfortable and pleasant. Although overtime may be required, underwriters generally work from 35 to 40 hours a week. They occasionally attend meetings away from home for several days. Construction and marine underwriters often travel to inspect work sites and assess risks. Employment Insurance underwriters held about 95,000 jobs in 1996. The follow­ ing tabulation shows the percent distribution of employment by in­ dustry in 1996. Fire, marine, and casualty insurance carriers.................................................37 Insurance agents, brokers, and service........................................................... 33 Life insurance carriers..................................................................................... 15 Pension funds and miscellaneous insurance carriers....................................... 4 Medical service and health insurance carriers..................................................4 Other industries................................................................................................. 7  Most underwriters worked for insurance companies, often called "carriers.” Most of the remaining underwriters worked in independ­ ent insurance agencies (firms which represent one or more insurance companies) and brokers (firms which may deal with any insurance company and represent the interests of the buyers of insurance, known as "insureds.") A small number of underwriters worked in agencies owned and operated by banks, mortgage companies, and real estate firms.  64 Occupational Outlook Handbook Office underwriters in the life insurance industry are most likely to work in an insurance company's home office. In some large gen­ eral agencies, underwriters help life insurance agents, or "producers," determine if the risk will be accepted or rejected by the home office. However, most local life insurance offices deal predominantly with sales, not underwriting. Property and casualty underwriters also work in home offices, but more work for agencies or regional branch offices, where they have the authority to'underwrite risks and deter­ mine an appropriate rating without consulting the home office. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For beginning underwriting jobs, most large insurance companies prefer college graduates who have a degree in business administra­ tion or finance, with courses or experience in accounting. However, a bachelor’s degree in almost any field—plus courses in business law and accounting—provides a good general background and may be sufficient to qualify. Computer knowledge is essential. Beginners typically start as underwriter trainees or assistant un­ derwriters. They may help collect information on applicants and evaluate routine applications under the supervision of an experienced risk analyst. Property and casualty trainees may study claim files to become familiar with factors associated with certain types of losses. Many larger insurers offer a training program, lasting from a few months to a year, that combines study with work. As trainees gain experience, they are assigned policy applications that are more com­ plex and cover greater risks. These require the use of computers for more efficient analysis and processing. Continuing education is necessary for advancement. Insurance companies generally pay tuition for underwriting courses that their trainees successfully complete; some also offer salary incentives. In­ dependent study programs for experienced property and casualty un­ derwriters are also available. The Insurance Institute of America offers a program called “Introduction to Underwriting” for beginning under­ writers, and the specialty designation, AU, or Associate Underwriting, the second formal step in developing a career in underwriting. To earn the AU designation, underwriters complete a series of courses and examinations; it usually takes about 2 years to earn the AU designation. The American Institute for Chartered Property Casualty Underwriters awards the designation, CPCU, or Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriter, the third and final stage of development for an under­ writer. Earning the more advanced CPCU designation generally takes about 5 years, and requires passing 10 examinations covering personal and commercial insurance, risk management, business and insurance law, accounting, finance, management, economics, and ethics. Al­ though CPCU’s may be underwriters, the CPCU is intended for every­ one working in all aspects of property and casualty insurance. The American Society of Chartered Life Underwriters provides the Char­ tered Life Underwriter (CLU) designation, intended for underwriters working in life insurance. Underwriting can be a satisfying career for people who enjoy working with detail and analyzing information. In addition, underwrit­ ers must possess good judgment in order to make sound decisions. They must also be imaginative and aggressive, especially when they have to obtain information from many outside sources. Experienced underwriters who complete courses of study may ad­ vance to senior underwriter or underwriting manager positions. Some underwriting managers are promoted to senior managerial jobs. Others are attracted to the earnings potential of sales and obtain State licensing to sell insurance and insurance products as agents or bro­ kers. Job Outlook Employment of underwriters is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Most job openings are expected to result from the need to replace underwriters who transfer to other occupations or stop working altogether. A number of factors underlie the continuing need for underwrit­ ers. As people acquire assets and take on family responsibilities, the need for life, health, and property and casualty insurance grows. For Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  example, concerns for financial security and liability contribute to demands for more insurance protection for homes, automobiles, pleasure craft, and other valuables. Expanding long-term healthcare and pension benefits for retirees—who are an increasing proportion of the population—also will increase underwriting opportunities. And, new or expanding businesses will need protection for new fac­ tories and equipment, and product liability, workers' compensation, and employee benefits insurance. Employment of underwriters, however, is not expected to keep pace with growth in demand for insurance. Increased use of under­ writing software systems will slow the demand for new underwriters. As more businesses self-insure—by setting a rate for their own com­ pany and paying premiums into a contingency fund—demand for some property and casualty underwriters will decline. Additionally, many property and casualty companies are foregoing personal lines of insurance—especially automobile and homeowners—and are con­ centrating on commercial lines of business. Underwriters specializing in certain lines of insurance may find it difficult to transfer to another type of insurance if their jobs are threatened by corporate downsizing. Because insurance is usually regarded as a necessity, regardless of economic conditions, under­ writers are unlikely to be laid off because of a recession. Earnings Median annual earnings of full-time wage and salary underwriters were about $31,400 in 1996. The middle 50 percent earned between $24,000 and $41,000 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $18,400; the top 10 percent, more than $52,400. In addition to typical benefits, almost all insurance companies provide employer-financed group life, health, and retirement plans. Related Occupations Underwriters make decisions on the basis of financial data. Other workers with the same type of responsibility include auditors, budget analysts, financial advisers, loan officers, credit managers, real estate appraisers, and risk managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about a career as an insurance underwriter is available from the home offices of many life insurance and propertyliability insurance companies. Information about the insurance busi­ ness in general and the underwriting function in particular also may be obtained from: The American Institute for Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters, and the Insurance Institute of America, 720 Providence Rd., P.O. Box 3016, Malvern, PA 19355-0716.  Loan Officers and Counselors (D.O.T. 186.167-078, .267-018, -022, -026)•  Significant Points •  Loan officer positions generally require a bachelor's de­ gree in finance, economics, or a related field; for com­ mercial or mortgage loan officers, training or experience in sales is advantageous.  •  Faster than average employment growth will stem from increases in the number and complexity of loans and in the importance of loan officers to the success of banks and other lending institutions.  Nature of the Work Banks and other financial institutions need up-to-date information on companies and individuals applying for loans and credit. Customers and clients provide this information to the financial institution's loan officers, generally the first employees to be seen by them. Loan offi-  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 65 cers prepare, analyze, and verify loan applications, make decisions regarding the extension of credit, and help borrowers fill out loan applications. Loan counselors, also called loan collection officers, contact borrowers who have delinquent accounts and help them find a method of repayment to avoid a default on the loan. Loan officers usually specialize in commercial, consumer, or mortgage loans. Commercial or business loans help companies pay for new equipment or expand operations. Consumer loans include home equity, automobile, and personal loans. Mortgage loans are made to purchase real estate or to refinance an existing mortgage. Consumer loan officers attempt to lower their firm's risk by re­ ceiving collateral—property pledged as security for the payment of a loan. For example, when lending money for a college education, the bank may insist that the borrower offer his or her home as collateral. If the borrower were ever unable to repay the loan, the borrower would have to sell the home to raise the necessary money. Commercial and mortgage loan officers behave as sales people who actively seek out potential customers. Commercial loan officers contact firms that may or may not have accounts with their bank. They find out if their potential client is planning any projects for which they may need a loan; if so, loan officers try to establish a relationship with the firm so that the firm will contact them when the loan is needed. Similarly, mortgage loan officers try to develop rela­ tionships with commercial or residential real estate agencies; when an individual or firm buys a property, the real estate agent might rec­ ommend contacting that loan officer for financing. Banks and other lenders are offering a growing variety of loans. Loan officers must keep abreast of new types of loans and other finan­ cial products and services so they can meet their customers' needs. Loan officers meet with customers to gather basic information about the loan request, and explain the different types of loans that are avail­ able to the applicant. Often customers will not fully understand the information requested, and will call the loan officer for clarification. Once the customer completes the financial forms, the loan officer be­ gins to process them. The loan officer verifies that the customer has correctly identified the type and purpose of the loan. The loan officer then requests a credit report from one or more of the major credit re­ porting agencies. This information, along with comments from the loan officer, is included in a loan file, and is compared to the lending institution's requirements. Banks and other lenders have established requirements for the maximum percentage of income that can safely go to repay loans. At this point, the loan officer, in consultation with his or her manager, decides whether or not to grant the loan. A loan that would otherwise be denied may be approved if the customer can pro­ vide the lender appropriate collateral. The loan officer also informs the borrower if the loan is approved or denied.  Loan officers play a key role in the success of banks and other lend­ ing institutions. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Loan counselors contact holders of delinquent accounts in an ef­ fort to develop a repayment plan. If a repayment plan cannot be de­ veloped, the loan counselor initiates collateral liquidation, in which case the collateral used to secure the loan—a home or car, for exam­ ple—is seized by the lender and sold to repay the loan. Working Conditions Commercial and mortgage loan officers frequently work away from their offices, relying on laptop computers, cellular phones, and pagers to keep in contact with their offices and clients. Mortgage loan officers frequently work out of their home or car, often visiting offices or homes of clients while completing the loan application. Commercial loan officers may travel to other cities to prepare complex loan agree­ ments. Consumer loan officers and loan counselors are likely to spend most of their time in an office. Most loan officers and counselors work a standard 40-hour week, but may work longer, particularly mortgage loan officers who are free to take on as many customers as they choose. Loan officers usually carry a heavy caseload and sometimes cannot accept new clients until they complete current cases. They are especially busy when interest rates are low, triggering a surge in loan applications. Employment Loan officers and counselors held about 209,000 jobs in 1996. About 3 out of 5 are employed by commercial banks, savings institutions, and credit unions. Others are employed by nonbank financial institutions, such as mortgage brokerage firms and personal predit firms. Loan officers are concentrated in urban and suburban'areas. In rural areas, the loan application process is often handled by the branch or assistant manager. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Loan officer positions generally require a bachelor's degree in finance, economics, or a related field. Most employers also prefer applicants who are familiar with computers and their applications in banking. For commercial or mortgage loan officer jobs, training or experience in sales is highly valued by potential employers. A small number of loan officers advance through the ranks in an organization, acquiring several years of work experience in various other occupations, such as teller or customer service representative. Persons planning a career as a loan officer or counselor should be capable of developing effective working relationships with others, confident in their abilities, and highly motivated. Loan officers must be willing to attend community events as a representative of their employer. The American Institute of Banking, which is affiliated with the American Bankers Association, offers courses through correspon­ dence and in some colleges and universities for students and others interested in lending, as well as for experienced loan officers. Com­ pletion of these courses and programs enhances one's employment and advancement opportunities. Capable loan officers and counselors may advance to larger branches of the firm or to a managerial position, while less capable workers and those having inadequate academic preparation may be assigned to smaller branches and find promotion difficult. Advance­ ment from a loan officer position usually includes becoming a super­ visor over other loan officers and clerical staff. Job Outlook While employment in banks—where most loan officers and counsel­ ors are found—is projected to decline, employment of loan officers and counselors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. As the population and economy grow, applications for commercial, consumer, and mortgage loans will increase, spurring demand for loan officers and counselors. Growth in the variety and complexity of loans, and the importance of loan officers to the success of banks and other lending institutions, also should assure employment growth. Although increased demand will generate many new jobs, most openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or retire. College  66 Occupational Outlook Handbook graduates and those with banking, lending, or sales experience should have the best job prospects. Loan officers and counselors are less likely to lose their jobs than other workers in banks and other lending institutions during economic downturns. Because loans are the major source of income for banks, loan officers are fundamental to the success of their organizations. Also, many loan officers are compensated in part on a commission basis. Loan counselors are likely to see an increase in the number of delinquent loans during difficult economic times. Earnings The form of compensation for loan officers varies, depending on the lending institution. Some banks offer salary plus commission as an incentive to increase the number of loans processed, while others pay only salaries. According to a salary survey conducted by Robert Half Interna­ tional, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, residential real estate mortgage loan officers earned between $30,600 and $45,000 in 1997; commercial real estate mortgage loan officers, between $45,100 and $73,000; consumer loan officers, between $28,900 and $48,000; and commercial lenders, between $37,400 and $85,000. Smaller banks generally paid 15 percent less than larger banks. Loan officers who are paid on a commission basis generally earn more than those on salary only. Banks and other lenders sometimes offer their loan officers free checking privileges and somewhat lower interest rates on personal loans. Related Occupations Loan officers help the public manage financial assets and secure loans. Occupations that involve similar functions include securities and financial services sales representatives, financial aid officers, real estate agents and brokers, and insurance agents and brokers. Sources of Additional Information Information about a career as a loan officer or counselor may be ob­ tained from: *• American Bankers Association, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  State bankers' associations can furnish specific information about job opportunities in their State. Or, contact individual banks to in­ quire about job openings, and for more details about the activities, responsibilities, and preferred qualifications of their loan officers. For the names and addresses of banks and savings and related insti­ tutions, as well as the names of their principal officers, consult one of the following directories.  Nature of the Work Management analysts and consultants analyze and suggest solutions to management problems. For example, a rapidly growing small company may need help in designing a better system of control over inventories and expenses and decides to engage a consultant who is an expert in just-in-time inventory management. In another case, a large company which realizes its corporate structure must be reor­ ganized after acquiring a new division brings in management experts to restructure the company and eliminate duplicate and non-essential managerial positions. These are just some of the many organizational problems that management analysts, as they are called in government agencies, and consultants, as business firms refer to them, help solve. The work of management analysts and consultants varies with each client or employer and from project to project. For example, some projects require a team of consultants, each specializing in one area; at other times, consultants work independently with the organi­ zation’s managers. In general, analysts and consultants first collect, review, and analyze information. They then make recommendations to management and may assist in the implementation of their pro­ posal. Both public and private organizations use consultants for a variety of reasons. Some don't have the internal resources needed to handle a project, while others need a consultant's expertise to determine what resources will be required, and what problems may be encountered, if they pursue a particular opportunity. Firms providing consulting services range in size from a single practitioner to large international organizations employing many thou­ sands of consultants. Some analysts and consultants specialize in a specific industry while others specialize by type of business function, such as human resources or information systems. In government, man­ agement analysts tend to specialize by type of agency. Consulting services often are provided on a contract basis. To engage a consultant, a company first solicits proposals from a number of consulting firms specializing in the area in which it needs assistance. These proposals include the estimated cost and scope of the project, staffing require­ ments, references from a number of previous clients, and a completion deadline. The company then selects the best proposal for its needs. Upon getting an assignment or contract, consultants or manage­ ment analysts define the nature and extent of the problem. During this phase of the job, they analyze pertinent data such as annual reve-  «■ The American Financial Directory (Norcross, Ga., McFadden Business Publications). Polk's World Bank Directory (Nashville, R.L. Polk & Co.). Rand McNally Bankers Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). The U.S. Savings and Loan Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). »• Rand McNally Credit Union Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.).  Management Analysts and Consultants (D.O.T. 100.117-014; 161.117-014, .167-010, -014, -018, and -022, .267 except -014 and -030; 169.167-074; 184.267; and 310.267-010)* •  Significant Points •  About 45 percent of these workers were self-employed, almost three times the average for other executive, ad­ ministrative, and managerial occupations.  •  A master's degree and at least five years’ specialized ex­ perience generally are required for jobs in the private sector. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  l§ gf &  Management analysts and consultants advise managers on many types of issues.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 67 nues, employment, or expenditures and interview managers and em­ ployees while observing their operations. The analyst or consultant develops solutions to the problem. In the course of preparing their recommendations, they take into account the nature of the organization, the relationship it has with others in that industry, and its internal organization and culture. Insight into the problem may be gained by building and solving mathematical models. Once they have decided on a course of action, consultants report their findings and recommendations to the client, often in writing. In addition, they generally make oral presentations regarding their findings. For some projects, this is all that is required. For others, consultants assist in the implementation of their suggestions. Management analysts in government agencies use the same skills as their private-sector colleagues to advise managers on many types of issues, most of which are similar to the problems faced by private firms. For example, if an agency is planning to purchase personal computers, it must first determine which type to buy, given its budget and data processing needs. Management analysts would assess the various types of machines available by price range and determine which best meets their department's needs. Working Conditions Management analysts and consultants usually divide their time be­ tween their offices and their client's site. Although much of their time is spent indoors in clean, well-lighted offices, they may experi­ ence a great deal of stress as a result of trying to meet a client's de­ mands, often on a tight schedule. Typically, analysts and consultants work at least 40 hours a week. Uncompensated overtime is common, especially when project dead­ lines are near. Since they must spend a significant portion of their time with clients, they travel frequently. Self-employed consultants can set their workload and hours and work at home. On the other hand, their livelihood depends on their ability to maintain and expand their client base. Salaried consultants also must impress potential clients to get and keep clients for their company. Employment Management analysts and consultants held about 244,000 jobs in 1996. Around 45 percent of these workers were self-employed. Most of the rest worked in financial and management consulting firms and for Federal, State, and local governments. The majority of those working for the Federal Government were found in the De­ partment of Defense. Management analysts and consultants are found throughout the country, but employment is concentrated in large metropolitan areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational requirements for entry-level jobs in this field vary widely between private industry and government. Employers in private in­ dustry generally seek individuals with a master's degree in business administration or a related discipline and at least 5 years of experi­ ence in the field in which they hope to consult. Most government agencies hire people with a bachelor's degree and no work experience as entry-level management analysts. Many fields of study provide a suitable educational background for this occupation because of the wide range of problem areas ad­ dressed by management analysts and consultants. These include most areas of business and management, as well as computer and information sciences and engineering. Most entrants to this occupation have, in addition to the appropri­ ate formal education, years of experience in management, human resources, inventory control, or other specialties . The value of this experience enables many to land consultant positions, since most prospective clients now demand experience in the area where they feel they need help. Management analysts and consultants often work with little or no supervision, so they should be self-motivated and disciplined. Ana­ lytical skills, the ability to get along with a wide range of people, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  strong oral and written communication skills, good judgment, the ability to manage time well, and creativity in developing solutions to problems are other desirable qualities for prospective management analysts and consultants. Consulting teams are becoming more common. The team is re­ sponsible for the entire project and each consultant on the team is assigned to a particular area. As consultants gain experience, they often become solely respon­ sible for a specific project full-time, taking on more responsibility and managing their own hours. At the senior level, consultants may supervise lower-level workers and become increasingly involved in seeking out new business. Those with exceptional skills may eventu­ ally become a partner or principal in the firm. Others with entrepre­ neurial ambition may open their own firm. Analysts and consultants routinely attend conferences to keep abreast of current developments in their field. A high percentage of management consultants are self-employed, partly because business start-up costs are low. Self-employed consult­ ants also can share office space, administrative help, and other re­ sources with other self-employed consultants or small consulting firms—thus reducing overhead costs. Many such firms fail, however, because of an inability to acquire and maintain a profitable client base. The Institute of Management Consultants (a division of the Coun­ cil of Consulting Organizations, Inc.) offers the Certified Manage­ ment Consultant (CMC) designation to those who pass an examina­ tion and meet minimum levels of education and experience. Certifi­ cation is not mandatory for management consultants to practice, but it may give a job seeker a competitive advantage. Job Outlook Employment of management analysts and consultants is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2006 as industry and government increasingly rely on outside exper­ tise to improve the performance of their organizations. Growth is expected in very large consulting firms, but also in smaller niche consulting firms whose consultants specialize in specific areas of expertise. For example, some consultants specialize in biotechnol­ ogy, pharmacy, engineering, or telecommunications. Clients in­ creasingly demand a team approach, which enables examination of a variety of different areas within the organization; this development may hinder individual practitioners. Increased competition has forced American industry to take a closer look at its operations. As international and domestic markets become more competitive, firms must use resources more efficiently. Man­ agement consultants are being increasingly relied upon to help reduce costs, streamline operations, and develop marketing strategies. As businesses downsize, opportunities will be created for consultants to perform duties that were previously handled internally. Businesses attempting to expand, particularly into world markets, frequently need the skills of management consultants to help with organizational, ad­ ministrative, and other issues. Continuing changes in the business environment also are expected to lead the demand for consultants to incorporate new technologies, and to adapt to a changing labor force. As businesses rely more on technology, there are increasing roles for consultants with a technical background, such as engineering or bio­ technology, particularly when combined with an MBA. Federal, State, and local agencies also are expected to expand their use of management analysts. Analysts' skills at identifying problems and implementing cost reduction measures are expected to become increasingly important. Despite projected rapid employment growth, competition for jobs as management analysts and consultants is expected to be keen. Because management consultants can come from such diverse educational backgrounds, the pool of applicants from which employers can hire is quite large. Additionally, the independent and challenging nature of the work, combined with high earnings potential, make this occupation attractive to many. Job opportunities are expected to be best for those with a graduate degree, a talent for salesmanship and public relations, and industry expertise.  68 Occupational Outlook Handbook Because many small consulting firms fail each year for lack of managerial expertise and clients, those interested in opening their own firm must have good organizational and marketing skills and several years of consulting experience. Earnings Salaries for management analysts and consultants vary widely by experience, education, and employer. In 1996, those who were full­ time wage and salary workers had median annual earnings of about $39,500. The middle 50 percent earned between $30,200 and $61,300, and the top 10 percent earned more than $81,500. In 1996, according to the Association of Management Consulting Firms, earnings—including bonuses and/or profit sharing—for re­ search associates in member firms averaged $32,400; for entry level consultants, $35,200; for management consultants, $50,500; for sen­ ior consultants, $74,300; for junior partners, $91,100; and for senior partners, $167,100. The average annual salary for management analysts in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $55,240 in 1997. Typical benefits for salaried analysts and consultants include health and life insurance, a retirement plan, vacation and sick leave, profit sharing, and bonuses for outstanding work. In addition, all travel expenses usually are reimbursed by the employer. Selfemployed consultants have to maintain their own office and provide their own benefits. Related Occupations Management analysts and consultants collect, review, and analyze data; make recommendations; and assist in the implementation of their ideas. Others who use similar skills are managers, computer systems analysts, operations research analysts, economists, and fi­ nancial analysts. Researchers prepare data and reports for consultants to use in their recommendations. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities in management consulting is available from: *■ The Association of Management Consulting Firms, 521 Fifth Ave., 35th Floor, New York, NY 10175-3598.  For information about a career as a State or local government management analyst, contact your State or local employment service. Information on obtaining a management analyst position with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone based system. Consult your tele­ phone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). That number is not toll free and charges may result. Information also is available from their internet site: http://  Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations Managers (D.O.T. 096.161-010; 141.137-010; 159.167-022; 163.117-014, -018, -022, -026, .167-010, -014, -018, -022, .267-010; 164.117-010, -014, -018, .167-010; 165.117-010,-014; 185.157-014, .167-042; 187.167-162,-170; 189.117-018)  Significant Points •  Employment is projected to increase rapidly, but compe­ tition is expected to be intense.  •  Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers have high earnings, but substantial travel and long hours, including evenings and weekends, are common.  •  A college degree with almost any major is suitable for entering this occupation, but most people enter these jobs Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  after acquiring experience in related, less responsible po­ sitions.  i 1  . • • » ■**  Nature of the Work The objective of any firm is to market its products or services prof­ itably. In small firms, all marketing responsibilities may be assumed by the owner or chief executive officer. In large firms, which may offer numerous products and services nationally or even worldwide, experienced marketing, advertising, and public relations managers coordinate these and related activities. In large firms an executive vice president directs the overall mar­ keting policy—including market research, marketing strategy, sales, advertising, promotion, pricing, product development, and public rela­ tions activities. (This occupation is included in the Handbook state­ ment on general managers and top executives.) Middle and supervi­ sory managers oversee and supervise staffs of professionals and techni­ cians. Marketing managers develop the firm's detailed marketing strat­ egy. With the help of subordinates, including product development managers and market research managers, they determine the demand for products and services offered by the firm and its competitors and identify potential consumers—for example, business firms, wholesal­ ers, retailers, government, or the general public. Mass markets are further categorized according to various factors such as region, age, income, and lifestyle. Marketing managers develop pricing strategy with an eye towards maximizing the firm's share of the market and its profits while ensuring that the firm's customers are satisfied. In col­ laboration with sales, product development, and other managers, they monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services and oversee product development. Marketing managers work with advertising and promotion managers to best promote the firm's products and services and to attract potential users. Sales managers direct the firm's sales program. They assign sales territories and goals and establish training programs for their sales representatives. Managers advise their sales representatives on ways to improve their sales performance. In large, multiproduct firms, they oversee regional and local sales managers and their staffs. Sales managers maintain contact with dealers and distributors. They ana­ lyze sales statistics gathered by their staffs to determine sales poten­ tial and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of cus­ tomers. Such information is vital to develop products and maximize profits. Except in the largest firms, advertising and promotion staffs gen­ erally are small and serve as a liaison between the firm and the ad­ vertising or promotion agency to which many advertising or promo­ tional functions are contracted out. Advertising managers oversee the account services, creative services, and media services departments. The account services department is managed by account executives, who assess the need for advertising and, in advertising agencies, maintain the accounts of clients. The creative services department develops the subject matter and presentation of advertising. This department is supervised by a creative director, who oversees the copy chief and art director and their staffs. The media services de­ partment is supervised by the media director, who oversees planning groups that select the communication media—for example, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, or outdoor signs—to disseminate the advertising. Promotion managers supervise staffs of promotion specialists. They direct promotion programs combining advertising with purchase incentives to increase sales. In an effort to' establish closer contact with purchasers—dealers, distributors, or consumers—promotion programs may involve direct mail, telemarketing, television or radio advertising, catalogs, exhibits, inserts in newspapers, in-store displays and product endorsements, and special events. Purchase incentives may include discounts, samples, gifts, rebates, coupons, sweepstakes, and contests. Public relations managers supervise public relations specialists (see the Handbook statement on public relations specialists). These managers direct publicity programs to a targeted public. They use  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 69 Employment Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers held about 482,000 jobs in 1996. They are found in virtually every industry., Industries employing them in significant numbers include motor ve­ hicle dealers, printing and publishing, advertising, department stores, computer and data processing services, and management and public relations.  Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are common for marketing, advertising, and public relations managers. any necessary communication media in their effort to maintain the support of the specific group upon whom their organization's suc­ cess depends, such as consumers, stockholders, or the general pub­ lic. For example, public relations managers may clarify or justify the firm's point of view on health or environmental issues to com­ munity or special interest groups. They evaluate advertising and promotion programs for compatibility with public relations efforts, and, in effect, serve as the eyes and ears of top management. They observe social, economic, and political trends that might ultimately have an effect upon the firm, and make recommendations to enhance the firm's image based on those trends. Public relations managers may confer with labor relations managers to produce internal com­ pany communications—such as news about employee-management relations—and with financial managers to produce company reports. They assist company executives in drafting speeches, arranging interviews, and other forms of public contact; oversee company archives; and respond to information requests. In addition, some handle special events such as sponsorship of races, parties introduc­ ing new products, or other activities the firm supports in order to gain public attention through the press without advertising directly. Working Conditions Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers are provided with offices close to top managers. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are common. Almost 45 percent of marketing, adver­ tising, and public relations managers worked 50 hours or more a week, compared to 20 percent for all occupations. Working under pressure is unavoidable as schedules change, problems arise, and deadlines and goals must be met. Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers meet frequently with other managers; some meet with the public and government officials. Substantial travel may be involved. For example, attendance at meetings sponsored by associations or industries is often mandatory. Sales managers travel to national, regional, and local offices and to various dealers and distributors. Advertising and promotion managers may travel to meet with clients or representatives of communications media. At times, public relations managers travel to meet with special interest groups or government officials. Job transfers between head­ quarters and regional offices are common—particularly among sales managers—and can disrupt family life. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Advancement, and Other Qualifications A wide range of educational backgrounds are suitable for entry into marketing, advertising, and public relations managerial jobs, but many employers prefer a broad liberal arts background. A bachelor's degree in sociology, psychology, literature, or philosophy, among other subjects, is acceptable. However, requirements vary depending upon the particular job. For marketing, sales, and promotion management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s or master's degree in business admini­ stration with an emphasis on marketing. Courses in business law, economics, accounting, finance, mathematics, and statistics are also highly recommended. In highly technical industries, such as com­ puter and electronics manufacturing, a bachelor's degree in engi­ neering or science combined with a master's degree in business ad­ ministration is preferred. For advertising management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor's degree in advertising or journal­ ism. A course of study should include courses in marketing, con­ sumer behavior, market research, sales, communications methods and technology, and visual arts—for example, art history and photogra­ phy. For public relations management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor's or master's degree in public relations or journal­ ism. The individual's curriculum should include courses in advertis­ ing, business administration, public affairs, political science, and creative and technical writing. For all these specialties, courses in management and completion of an internship while in school are highly recommended. Familiarity with word processing and data base applications also are important for many marketing, advertising, and public relations management positions. Today interactive mar­ keting, product promotion, and advertising experience are increas­ ingly important, and computer skills are very important. Most marketing, advertising, and public relations management po­ sitions are filled by promoting experienced staff or related professional or technical personnel, for example, sales representatives, purchasing agents, buyers, product or brand specialists, advertising specialists, promotion specialists, and public relations specialists. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a manage­ ment position generally comes slowly. In large firms, promotion may occur more quickly. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement can be accelerated by participation in man­ agement training programs conducted by many large firms. Manyf firms also provide their employees with continuing education opportu- i nities, either in-house or at local colleges and universities, and encour­ age employee participation in seminars and conferences, often provided by professional societies. Often in collaboration with colleges andq universities, numerous marketing and related associations sponsor na- \ tional or local management training programs. Courses include brand and product management, international marketing, sales management evaluation, telemarketing and direct sales, promotion, marketing com­ munication, market research, organizational communication, and data processing systems procedures and management. Many firms pay all ) or part of the cost for those who successfully complete courses. Some associations (listed under sources of additional information) offer certification programs for marketing, advertising, and public relations managers. Certification is a sign of competence and achievement in this field that is particularly important in a competi­ tive job market. While relatively few marketing, advertising, and public relations managers currently are certified, the number of man­ agers who seek certification is expected to grow. For example, Sales and Marketing Executives International offers a management certifi­  70 Occupational Outlook Handbook cation program based on education and job performance. The Public Relations Society of America offers an accreditation program for public relations practitioners based on years of experience and an examination. The International Association of Business Communi­ cators offers an accreditation program for the manager or the person ready to move into communication management. The American Marketing Association is developing a certification program for mar­ keting managers. Persons interested in becoming marketing, advertising, and public relations managers should be mature, creative, highly motivated, resistant to stress, and flexible, yet decisive. The ability to communi­ cate persuasively, both orally and in writing, with other managers, staff, and the public is vital. Marketing, advertising, and public rela­ tions managers also need tact, good judgment, and exceptional ability to establish and maintain effective personal relationships with super­ visory and professional staff members and client firms. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, market­ ing, advertising, and public relations managers often are prime candi­ dates for advancement. Well-trained, experienced, successful manag­ ers may be promoted to higher positions in their own or other firms. Some become top executives. Managers with extensive experience and sufficient capital may open their own businesses. Job Outlook Marketing, advertising, and public relations manager jobs are highly coveted and will be sought by other managers or highly experienced professional and technical personnel, resulting in substantial job competition. College graduates with extensive experience, a high level of creativity, and strong communication skills should have the best job opportunities. Those who have new media and interactive marketing skills will be particularly sought after. Employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations man­ agers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupa­ tions through the year 2006. Increasingly intense domestic and global competition in products and services offered to consumers should require greater marketing, promotional, and public relations efforts by managers. Management and public relations firms may experience particularly rapid growth as businesses increasingly hire contractors for these services rather than support additional full-time staff. Projected employment growth varies by industry. For example, employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers is expected to grow much faster than average in most business serv­ ices industries, such as computer and data processing, and manage­ ment and public relations firms, while average growth is projected in manufacturing industries overall. Many companies that eliminated in-house marketing and advertising departments during downsizing in recent years are now relying on firms which specialize in promo­ tion, marketing, and advertising activities to provide these services. Earnings According to a National Association of Colleges and Employers sur­ vey, starting salaries for marketing majors graduating in 1997 aver­ aged about $29,000; advertising majors, about $27,000. The median annual salary of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers was $46,000 in 1996. The lowest 10 percent earned $23,000 or less, while the top 10 percent earned $97,000 or more. Many earn bonuses equal to 10 percent or more of their sala­ ries. Surveys show that salary levels vary substantially depending upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of service, educa­ tion, and the employer's size, location, and industry. For example, manufacturing firms generally pay marketing, advertising, and public relations managers higher salaries than nonmanufacturing firms. For sales managers, the size of their sales territory is another importantdeterminant of salary. According to a 1996 survey by Advertising Age Magazine, the av­ erage annual salary of a vice president brand manager was $79,000; vice president product manager, $105,000; vice president advertising, $130,000; and vice president marketing, $133,000. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  According to a 1996 survey by the Public Relations Society of America, senior public relations managers earned an average of $76,790. Related Occupations Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers direct the sale of products and services offered by their firms and the communica­ tion of information about their firms' activities. Other personnel in­ volved with marketing, advertising, and public relations include art directors, commercial and graphic artists, copy chiefs, copywriters, editors, lobbyists, marketing research analysts, public relations spe­ cialists, promotion specialists, sales representatives, and technical writers. (Some of these occupations are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.) Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in sales and marketing management, contact: «■ American Marketing Association, 250 S. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. »■ Sales and Marketing Executives International, 458 Statler Office Tower, Cleveland, OH 44115.  For information about careers in advertising management, contact: »■ American Advertising Federation, Education Services Department, 1101 Vermont Ave. NW„ Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005.  Information about careers in promotion management is available from: Association of Promotion and Marketing Agencies Worldwide (APMA), 750 Summer St., Stamford, CT 06901. »• Promotion Marketing Association of America, Inc., 322 Eighth Ave., Suite 1201, New York, NY 10001.  Information about careers in public relations management is avail­ able from: *■ Public Relations Society of America, 33 Irving Place, New York, NY 10003-2376.  Information on accreditation for business communicators is avail­ able from: »■ International Association of Business Communicators, One Hallidie Plaza, Suite 600, San Francisco, CA 94102.  Property Managers (D.O.T. 186.117-042, -046, -058, and -062, .167-018, -030, -038, -042, -046, -062, -066, and -090; 187.167-190; 191.117-046 and -050)  Significant Points •  Most persons enter the occupation as an on-site manager of an apartment complex, condominium, or community association, or as an assistant manager at a large property management company. Opportunities should be best for persons with college degrees in business administration and related fields.  •  About 40 percent were self-employed, over twice the av­ erage for other executive, administrative, and managerial occupations.  Nature of the Work Many people own real estate in the form of a home. To businesses and investors, however, properly managed real estate is a potential source of income and profits rather than simply a place for shelter. For this reason, property managers perform an important function in increasing and maintaining the value of real estate investments for investors. In general, property managers oversee the performance of income-producing commercial and residential properties or manage the communal property and services of condominium and community associations.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 71 Most property managers work in the field of property management. When owners of apartments, office buildings, retail, or industrial properties lack the time or expertise needed for the day-to-day man­ agement of their real estate investments, they often hire a property manager, either directly or by contracting with a property management company. Property managers handle the financial operations of the property, seeing to it that mortgages, taxes, insurance premiums, payroll, and maintenance bills are paid on time. They also supervise the prepara­ tion of financial statements and periodically report to the owners on the status of the property, occupancy rates, dates of lease expirations, and other matters. If necessary, property managers negotiate contracts for janitorial, security, groundskeeping, trash removal, and other services. When contracts are awarded competitively, managers must solicit bids from several contractors and recommend to the owners which bid to accept. They monitor the performance of the contractors, and investigate and resolve complaints from residents and tenants when services are not properly provided. Managers also purchase supplies and equipment needed for the property, and make arrangements with specialists for any repairs that cannot be handled by the regular property maintenance staff. On top of these duties, property managers must understand the provisions of legislation, such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Federal Fair Housing Amendment Act, as well as local fair housing laws, to be sure their renting and advertising practices are not discriminatory. On-site property managers are responsible for the day-to-day op­ erations for one piece of property, such as an office building, shop­ ping center, or apartment complex. To insure the property is safe and being maintained properly, on-site managers routinely inspect the grounds, facilities, and equipment to determine what repairs are needed. They meet not only with current residents (when handling requests for repairs or trying to resolve complaints, for example), but also show vacant apartments or office space to prospective residents or tenants and explain the occupancy terms. On-site managers are also responsible for enforcing the terms of the rental or lease agree­ ment, such as rent collection, parking and pet restrictions, and termination-of-lease procedures. Other important duties of on-site managers include keeping accu­ rate, up-to-date records of income and expenditures from property operations and the submission of regular expense reports to the prop­ erty manager or owners. The work of property managers who do not work on-site is similar to that of on-site managers, except that most of these managers are responsible for multiple properties and supervise on-site personnel. They act as a liaison between the on-site manager and the owner. They also market vacant space to prospective tenants through the use of a leasing agent, advertising, or by other means, and establish rental rates in accordance with prevailing local conditions. Some property managers, termed real estate asset managers, act as the property owners’ agent and adviser for the property. They plan and direct the purchase, development, and disposition of real estate on behalf of businesses and investors. These managers are involved in long-term strategic financial planning rather than the day-to-day operations of the property. When looking to acquire property, real estate asset managers take several factors into consideration, such as property values, taxes, zoning, population growth, and traffic volume and patterns. Once a site is selected, they negotiate contracts for the purchase or lease of the property, securing the most beneficial terms. Real estate asset managers periodically review their company's real estate holdings, identifying properties that are no longer com­ mercially attractive. They then negotiate the sale or termination of the lease of properties selected for disposal. The work of property managers employed by condominium and homeowner associations, often known as community association managers, is different than that of other property managers. Instead of renters, they interact on a daily basis with homeowners—members of the community association that employs the manager. Hired by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ili§!  Property managers sometimes must work long hours in order to meet with key personnel. the volunteer board of directors of the association, the community association manager administers daily affairs and oversees the main­ tenance of property and facilities that the homeowners own and use jointly through the association. Smaller community associations usually cannot afford professional management, but managers of larger condominiums or homeowner associations have many of the same responsibilities as the managers of large apartment complexes. Some homeowner associations encompass thousands of homes, and, in addition to administering the associations' financial records and budget, their managers are responsible for the operation of commu­ nity pools, golf courses, community centers, and the maintenance of landscaping, parking areas, and streets. Other responsibilities usually include meeting with the elected boards of directors to discuss and solve legal and environmental issues and aiding in resolving disputes between neighbors. Property managers who work for land development companies acquire land and plan the construction of shopping centers, houses and apartments, office buildings, or industrial parks. They negotiate with representatives of local government, other businesses, commu­ nity and public interest groups, and public utilities to eliminate obsta­ cles to the development of the land and gain support for the planned project. It sometimes takes years to win approval for a project, and in the process managers may have to modify the plans for the project many times. Once they are free to proceed with a project, managers negotiate short-term loans to finance the construction of the project, and later negotiate long-term permanent mortgage loans. They then contract with architectural firms to draw up detailed plans, and with construction companies to build the project.  72 Occupational Outlook Handbook Working Conditions Offices of most property managers are clean, modem, and welllighted. Many spend a major portion of their time away from their desks, however. On-site managers in particular may spend a large portion of their workday away from their office visiting the building engineer in the boiler room, showcasing apartments, checking on the janitorial and maintenance staff, or investigating problems reported by tenants. Property managers frequently visit the properties they oversee, sometimes on a daily basis when contractors are doing major repair or renovation work. Real estate asset managers may spend time away from home while traveling to company real estate holdings or searching for properties that might be acquired. Property managers often must attend meetings in the evening with residents, property owners, community association boards of directors, or civic groups. Not surprisingly, many property managers put in long work weeks. Some apartment managers are required to live in the apartment complexes where they work so they are available to handle any emer­ gency that occurs while they are off duty. They usually receive compen­ satory time off, however, for working at night or on weekends. Many apartment managers receive time off during the week so that they are available on weekends to show apartments to prospective residents. Employment Property managers held about 271,000 jobs in 1996. Most worked for real estate operators and lessors or for property management firms. Others worked for real estate development companies, government agencies that manage public buildings, and corporations with exten­ sive holdings of commercial properties. About 4 out of 10 property managers were self-employed, and over a quarter worked part time. Training, Other Qualifications and Advancement Most employers prefer to hire college graduates for property man­ agement positions. Degrees in business administration, finance, real estate, public administration, or related fields are preferred, but per­ sons with degrees in the liberal arts are often accepted. Good speak­ ing, writing, and financial skills, as well as an ability to deal tactfully with people, are essential in all areas of property management. Most persons enter property management as an on-site manager of an apartment complex, condominium, or community association, or as an assistant manager at a large property management company. As they acquire experience working under the direction of a property manager, they may advance to positions with greater responsibility at larger properties. Persons who excel as on-site managers often trans­ fer to assistant property manager positions where they can acquire experience handling a broader range of property management respon­ sibilities. Previous employment as a real estate agent may be an asset to on­ site managers because it provides experience useful in showing apartments or office space and dealing with people, as well as an understanding that an attractive, well-maintained property can com­ mand higher rental rates and result in lower turnover among tenants. In the past, many persons with backgrounds in building maintenance have advanced to on-site manager positions on the strength of their knowledge of building mechanical systems, but this is becoming less common as employers are placing greater emphasis on administra­ tive, financial, and communication abilities for managerial jobs. Although most persons who enter jobs as assistant property man­ agers do so on the strength of on-site management experience, em­ ployers are increasingly hiring inexperienced college graduates with bachelor's or master's degrees in business administration, finance, or real estate for these jobs. Assistants work closely with a property manager and acquire experience performing a variety of management tasks, such as preparing the budget, analyzing insurance coverage and risk options, marketing the property to prospective tenants, and col­ lecting overdue rent payments. In time, many assistants advance to property manager positions. The responsibilities and compensation of property managers in­ crease as they manage larger properties. Most property managers are responsible for several properties at a time, and as their careers ad­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  vance they are gradually entrusted with properties that are larger or whose management is more complex. Many specialize in the man­ agement of one type of property, such as apartments, office buildings, condominiums, cooperatives, homeowner associations, or retail prop­ erties. Managers who excel at marketing properties to tenants may specialize in managing new properties, while those who are particu­ larly knowledgeable about buildings and their mechanical systems might specialize in the management of older properties that require renovation or more frequent repairs. Some experienced property managers open their own property management firms. Persons most commonly enter real estate asset manager jobs by transferring from positions as property managers or real estate bro­ kers. Real estate asset managers must be good negotiators, adept at persuading and handling people, and good at analyzing data to assess the fair market value of property or its development potential. Re­ sourcefulness and creativity in arranging financing are essential for managers who specialize in land development. Attendance at short-term formal training programs conducted by various professional and trade associations active in the real estate field is often encouraged. Employers send managers to these pro­ grams to improve their management skills and expand their knowl­ edge of specialized subjects, such as the operation and maintenance of building mechanical systems, enhancing property values, insur­ ance and risk management, personnel management, business and real estate law, resident/tenant relations, communications, and accounting and financial concepts. Managers also participate in these programs to prepare themselves for positions of greater responsibility in prop­ erty management. Completion of these programs, together with meeting job experience standards and achieving a satisfactory score on a written examination, leads to certification, or the formal award of a professional designation, by the sponsoring association. In addi­ tion to these qualifications, some associations require their members to adhere to a specific code of ethics. Some of the organizations that offer such programs are listed at the end of this statement. Managers of public housing subsidized by the Federal Govern­ ment are required to be certified, but many property managers who work with all types of property choose to earn a professional desig­ nation voluntarily because it represents formal industry recognition of their achievements and status in the occupation. Job Outlook Employment of property managers is projected to increase as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. In addition to rising demand for these workers, many job openings are expected to occur as property managers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Opportunities should be best for persons with college degrees in business administration, real estate, and related fields, as well as those who attain professional designations. Growth in the demand for property managers will be evident in sev­ eral areas. In commercial real estate, the demand for managers is ex­ pected to coincide with the projected expansion in wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Some additional employment growth will come from adding on to existing buildings. An increase in the Nation's stock of apartments and houses also should require more property managers. Developments of new homes are increasingly being organized with community or homeowner asso­ ciations that provide community services and oversee jointly owned common areas, requiring professional management. To help proper­ ties become more profitable, more commercial and multi-unit residen­ tial property owners are expected to place their investments in the hands of professional managers. Growth in demand should also arise as a result of the changing demographic composition of the population. The number of older people will increase during the projection period, creating a need for various types of suitable housing, such as assisted living arrange­ ments and retirement communities. Accordingly, there will be a need for property managers to operate these facilities, especially those who have a background in the operation and administrative aspects of running a health unit.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 73 Earnings Median annual earnings of all property managers were $28,500 in 1996. The middle 50 percent earned between $19,000 and $39,800. Ten percent earned less than $12,000 and 10 percent earned more than $60,700 annually. Community association managers received compensation compa­ rable to on-site and property managers employed by other types of properties. Many resident apartment managers receive the use of an apartment as part of their compensation package. Property managers often are given the use of a company automobile, and managers em­ ployed in land development often receive a small percentage of own­ ership in projects they develop. Related Occupations Property managers plan, organize, staff, and manage the real estate operations of businesses. Workers who perform similar functions in other fields include restaurant and food service managers, hotel and resort managers, facilities managers, health services managers, edu­ cation administrators, and city managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about careers in property management and pro­ grams leading to the award of a professional designation in the field is available from: *" Institute of Real Estate Management, 430 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611. Homepage:  For information on careers and certification programs in commer­ cial property management, contact: *■ Building Owners and Managers Association International, 1201 New York Ave. NW., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005. Homepage: » Building Owners and Managers Institute (BOMI) International, 1521 Ritchie Hwy., Arnold, MD 21012. Homepage:  For information on careers and certification programs in residen­ tial property management, contact: *" Community Associations Institute, 1630 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Homepage: *■ National Apartment Association, Education Department, 201 N. Union St., Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314. National Association of Home Builders, 1201 15th St. NW., Washington, DC 20005. Homepage: *•" National Association of Residential Property Managers, 35 E. Wacker Dr„ Suite 500, Chicago, IL 60601.  Purchasers and Buyers (D.O.T. 162.117-014 and -018, .157-018, -022, -030, -034, and -038, 167 -022, and -030; 163.117-010; 169.167-054; 184.117-078; and 185.167-034)  Significant Points •  Computerization has reduced the demand for lower-level buyers.  •  About one-half were employed in wholesale or retail trade.  Nature of the Work Purchasers and buyers seek to obtain the highest quality merchandise at the lowest possible purchase cost for their employers. (In general, purchasers buy goods and services for the use of their company or organization whereas buyers buy items for resale.) They determine which commodities or services are best, choose the suppliers of the product or service, negotiate the lowest price, and award contracts that ensure the correct amount of the product or service is received at the appropriate time. In order to accomplish these tasks successfully, purchasers and buyers study sales records and inventory levels of current stock, identify foreign and domestic suppliers, and keep abreast of changes affecting both the supply of and demand for prod­ ucts and materials for which they are responsible. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Purchasers and buyers evaluate suppliers based upon price, qual­ ity, service support, availability, reliability, and selection. To assist them in their search, they review listings in catalogs, industry peri­ odicals, directories, and trade journals, research the reputation and history of the suppliers, and advertise anticipated purchase actions in order to solicit bids. Also, meetings, trade shows, conferences, and visits to suppliers' plants and distribution centers provide opportuni­ ties for purchasers and buyers to examine products, assess a supplier's production and distribution capabilities, as well as discuss other tech­ nical and business considerations that influence the purchasing deci­ sion. Once all the necessary information on suppliers is gathered, orders are placed and contracts are awarded to those suppliers who meet the purchasers’ needs. Other specific job duties and responsi­ bilities vary by employer and by the type of commodities or services to be purchased. Purchasing professionals employed by government agencies or manufacturing firms are usually called purchasing directors, manag­ ers, or agents; buyers or industrial buyers; or contract specialists. These workers acquire product materials, intermediate goods, ma­ chines, supplies, services, and other materials used in the production of a final product. Some purchasing managers specialize in negoti­ ating and supervising supply contracts and are called contract or sup­ ply managers. Purchasing agents and managers obtain items ranging from raw materials, fabricated parts, machinery, and office supplies to construction services and airline tickets. The flow of work—or even the entire production process—can be slowed or halted if the right materials, supplies, or equipment are not on hand when needed. In order to be effective, purchasers and buyers must have a working technical knowledge of the goods or services to be purchased. In large industrial organizations, a distinction often is drawn be­ tween the work of a buyer or purchasing agent and that of a purchas­ ing manager. Purchasing agents and buyers typically focus on rou­ tine purchasing tasks, often specializing in a commodity or group of related commodities—for example, steel, lumber, cotton, fabricated metal products, or petroleum products. This usually requires the purchaser to track such things as market conditions, price trends, or futures markets. Purchasing managers usually handle the more com­ plex or critical purchases and may supervise a group of purchasing agents handling other goods and services. Whether a person is titled purchasing agent, buyer, or manager depends more on specific in­ dustry and employer practices than on specific job duties. Changing business practices have altered the traditional roles of purchasing professionals in many industries. For example, manu­ facturing companies increasingly involve purchasing professionals at most stages of product development because of their ability to fore­ cast a part's or material's cost, availability, and suitability for its in­ tended purpose. Furthermore, potential problems with the supply of materials may be avoided by consulting the purchasing department in the early stages of product design. Another new practice is for businesses to enter into integrated supply contracts. These contracts increase the importance of supplier selection because agreements are larger in scope and longer in dura­ tion. A major responsibility of most purchasers is to work out prob­ lems that may occur with a supplier because the success of the rela­ tionship directly affects the buying firm's performance. Purchasing professionals often work closely with other employees in their own organization when deciding on purchases, an arrange­ ment sometimes called team buying. For example, they may discuss the design of custom-made products with company design engineers, quality problems in purchased goods with quality assurance engineers and production supervisors, or shipment problems with managers in the receiving department before submitting an order. Contract specialists and managers in various levels of government award contracts for an array of items, including office and building supplies, services for the public, and construction projects. They typi­ cally use sealed bids, but sometimes use negotiated agreements for complex items. Increasingly, purchasing professionals in government are placing solicitations for and accepting bids through the internet. Government purchasing agents and managers must follow strict laws and regulations in their work. These legal requirements occasionally  74 Occupational Outlook Handbook  .  Many employers prefer to hire purchasers and buyers who have a bachelor’s degree.  are changed, so agents and contract specialists must stay informed about the latest regulations and their applications. Other professionals, who buy finished goods for resale, are em­ ployed by wholesale and retail establishments where they commonly are referred to as "buyers" or "merchandise managers." Wholesale and retail buyers are an integral part of a complex system of distribu­ tion and merchandising that caters to the vast array of consumer needs and desires. Wholesale buyers purchase goods directly from manufacturers or from other wholesale firms for resale to retail firms, commercial establishments, institutions, and other organizations. In retail firms, buyers purchase goods from wholesale firms or directly from manufacturers for resale to the public. Buyers largely deter­ mine which products their establishment will sell. Therefore, it is essential that they have the ability to accurately predict what will appeal to consumers. They must constantly stay informed of the latest trends because failure to do so could jeopardize profits and the reputation of their company. Buyers also follow ads in newspapers and other media to check competitors' sales activities and watch gen­ eral economic conditions to anticipate consumer buying patterns. Buyers working for large and medium-sized firms usually specialize in acquiring one or two lines of merchandise, whereas buyers work­ ing for small stores may purchase their complete inventory. The use of private-label merchandise and the consolidation of buying departments have increased the responsibilities of retail buy­ ers. Private-label merchandise, produced for a particular retailer, requires buyers to work closely with vendors to develop and obtain the desired product. The downsizing and consolidation of buying departments is also increasing the demands placed on buyers because, although the amount of work remains unchanged, there are fewer people needed to accomplish it. The result is an increase in the workloads and levels of responsibility. Many merchandise managers assist in the planning and imple­ mentation of sales promotion programs. Working with merchandis­ ing executives, they determine the nature of the sale and purchase accordingly. They also work with advertising personnel to create the ad campaign. For example, they may determine the media in which the advertisement will be placed—newspapers, direct mail, televi­ sion, or some combination of these. In addition, merchandising man­ agers often visit the selling floor to ensure that the goods are properly Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  displayed. Often, assistant buyers are responsible for placing orders and checking shipments. Computers are having a major effect on the jobs of purchasers and buyers. In manufacturing and service industries, computers handle most of the more routine tasks—enabling purchasing professionals to concentrate mainly on the analytical aspects of the job. Computers are used to obtain up-to-date product and price listings, to track in­ ventory levels, process routine orders, and help determine when to make purchases. Computers also maintain bidders' lists, record the history of supplier performance, and issue purchase orders. Computerized systems have dramatically simplified many of the routine buying functions and improved the efficiency of determining which products are selling. For example, cash registers connected to computers, known as point-of-sale terminals, allow organizations to maintain centralized, up-to-date sales and inventory records. This information can then be used to produce weekly sales reports that reflect the types of products in demand. Buyers also use computers to gain instant access to the specifications for thousands of commodities, inventory records, and their customers' purchase records. Some firms are linked with manufacturers or wholesalers by electronic purchasing systems. These systems speed selection and ordering and provide information on availability and shipment, allowing buyers to better concentrate on the selection of goods and suppliers. Working Conditions Most purchasers and buyers work in comfortable, well-lighted offices at stores, corporate headquarters, or production or service facilities. They frequently work more than a 40-hour week because of special sales, conferences, or production deadlines. Evening and weekend work is common. For those working in retail trade, this is especially true prior to holiday seasons. Consequently, many retail firms dis­ courage the use of vacation time from late November until early January. Buyers and merchandise managers often work under great pressure because wholesale and retail stores are so competitive; buyers need physical stamina to keep up with the fast-paced nature of their work. Many purchasers and buyers spend at least several days a month traveling. Purchasers for worldwide manufacturing companies and large retailers, and buyers of high fashion, may travel outside the United States. Employment Purchasers and buyers held about 639,000 jobs in 1996. Purchasing agents and purchasing managers each accounted for slightly more than one-third of the total, while buyers accounted for the remainder. About one-half of all purchasers and buyers worked in wholesale and retail trade establishments such as grocery or department stores, and another one-fourth worked in manufacturing. The remainder worked mostly in service establishments or different levels of gov­ ernment. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement. Qualified persons usually begin as trainees, purchasing clerks, expe­ diters, junior buyers, or assistant buyers, Retail and wholesale firms prefer to hire applicants who are familiar with the merchandise they sell as well as with wholesaling and retailing practices. Some retail firms promote qualified employees to assistant buyer positions; oth­ ers recruit and train college graduates as assistant buyers. Most em­ ployers use a combination of methods. Educational requirements tend to vary with the size of the organi­ zation. Large stores and distributors, especially those in wholesale and retail trade, prefer applicants who have completed a bachelor's degree program with a business emphasis. Many manufacturing firms prefer applicants with a bachelor's or master's degree in busi­ ness, economics, or technical training such as engineering or one of the applied sciences and tend to put a greater emphasis on formal training. Regardless of academic preparation, new employees must learn the specifics of their employers' business. Training periods vary in  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 75 length, with most lasting 1 to 5 years. In wholesale and retail estab­ lishments, most trainees begin by selling merchandise, supervising sales workers, checking invoices on material received, and keeping track of stock on hand, although widespread use of computers has simplified some of these tasks. As they progress, retail trainees are given more buying-related responsibilities. In manufacturing, new purchasing employees often are enrolled in company training pro­ grams and spend a considerable amount of time learning about com­ pany operations and purchasing practices. They work with experi­ enced purchasers to learn about commodities, prices, suppliers, and markets. In addition, they may be assigned to the production plan­ ning department to learn about the material requirements system and the inventory system the company uses to keep production and re­ plenishment functions working smoothly. Because the procurement process is becoming more automated, it is extremely important for purchasers and buyers to be computer literate, including knowing how to use word processing and spread­ sheet software. Other important qualities include the ability to ana­ lyze technical data in suppliers' proposals, good communicating, negotiating, and math skills, knowledge of supply chain management, and the ability to perform financial analyses. Persons who wish to become wholesale or retail buyers should be good at planning and decision making and have an interest in mer­ chandising. Anticipating consumer preferences and ensuring that goods are in stock when they are needed require resourcefulness, good judgment, and self-confidence. Buyers must be able to make decisions quickly and take risks. Marketing skills and the ability to identify products that will sell are also very important. Employers often look for leadership ability because buyers spend a large portion of their time supervising assistant buyers and dealing with manufac­ turers' representatives and store executives. Experienced buyers may advance by moving to a department that manages a larger volume or by becoming a merchandise manager. Others may go to work in sales for a manufacturer or wholesaler. An experienced purchasing agent or buyer may become an assistant purchasing manager in charge of a group of purchasing professionals before advancing to purchasing manager, supply manager, or director of materials management. At the top levels, duties may overlap into other management functions such as production, planning, and mar­ keting. Regardless of industry, continuing education is essential for ad­ vancement. Many purchasers participate in seminars offered by pro­ fessional societies and take college courses in purchasing. Although no national standard exists, professional certification is becoming increasingly important. In private industry, the recognized marks of experience and pro­ fessional competence are the designations Accredited Purchasing Practitioner (A.P.P.) and Certified Purchasing Manager (C.P.M.), conferred by the National Association of Purchasing Management, and Certified Purchasing Professional (CPP), conferred by the American Purchasing Society. In Federal, State, and local govern­ ment, the indications of professional competence are the designations Certified Professional Public Buyer (CPPB) and Certified Public Purchasing Officer (CPPO), conferred by the National Institute of Governmental Purchasing. As more materials purchasing is conducted on a long-term basis, both private and public purchasing professionals are specializing in the contractual aspects of purchasing. The National Contract Management Association confers the designations Simplified Acquisition Specialists (SAS), Certified Associate Contract Manager (CACM), and Certified Professional Contract Manager (CPCM). These designations primarily apply to contract managers in the Federal Government and its suppli­ ers. Most designations are awarded only after work-related experience and education requirements are met, and written or oral exams are completed successfully. Job Outlook Employment of purchasers and buyers is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Demand for these workers will not keep pace with the rising level of economic activity because the increasing use of computers has al­ lowed much of the paperwork typically involved in ordering and procuring supplies to be eliminated, reducing the demand for lowerlevel buyers who traditionally performed these duties. Also, limited sourcing and long-term contracting have allowed companies to nego­ tiate with fewer suppliers less frequently. Consequently, most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. In retail trade, mergers and acquisitions have forced the consolida­ tion of buying departments, eliminating jobs. In addition, larger retail stores are removing their buying departments from geographic markets and centralizing them at their headquarters, eliminating more jobs. The increased use of credit cards by some employees to purchase supplies without using the services of the procurement or purchasing office, combined with the growing number of buys being made elec­ tronically, will restrict demand of purchasing agents within govern­ ments and many manufacturing firms. Persons who have a bachelor's degree in business should have the best chance of obtaining a buyer job in wholesale or retail trade or within government. A bachelor's degree, combined with industry experience and/or knowledge of a technical field, will be an advantage for those interested in working for a manufacturing or industrial com­ pany. A master’s degree in business or public administration is usu­ ally required by government agencies and larger companies for toplevel purchasing positions. Earnings Median annual earnings of purchasers and buyers were $33,200 in 1996. The middle 50 percent earned between $23,300 and $45,900. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $18,400 while the top 10 per­ cent earned more than $63,000. Merchandise managers and pur­ chasing managers generally earned higher salaries than buyers or agents. As a general rule, those with the most education in their field have the highest incomes. The average annual salaries for purchasing agents and contract specialists in the Federal Government in early 1997 were about $28,700 and $51,110, respectively. Purchasers and buyers receive the same benefits package as their coworkers, frequently including vacations, sick leave, life and health insurance, and pension plans. In addition to standard benefits, retail buyers often earn cash bonuses based on their performance and may receive discounts on merchandise bought from the employer. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations who need a knowledge of marketing and the ability to assess demand are retail sales workers, sales managers, marketing and advertising managers, manufacturers' and wholesale sales representatives, insurance sales agents, services sales representatives, and procurement services, materials, and traffic managers. Sources of Additional Information Further information about education, training, and/or certification for purchasing careers is available from: «- American Purchasing Society, 30 W. Downer PI., Aurora, IL 60506. Homepage: *■ National Association of Purchasing Management, Customer Service, 2055 East Centennial Circle, P.O. Box 22160, Tempe, AZ 85285. Homepage: *- National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc., 11800 Sunrise Valley Dr., Suite 1050, Reston, VA 20191-5302. Homepage: «■ National Contract Management Association, 1912 Woodford Rd., Vienna, VA 22182. Homepage: "" Federal Acquisition Institute (MVI), Office of Acquisition Policy, General Services Administration, 18“' & F Streets NW„ Room 4019, Washington, DC 20405. Homepage: http://www.gsa.gOv/staff/v/mvi/key.htm  General information on buying careers in retail establishments is available from: *■ National Retail Federation, 325 7lh St. NW„ Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004. Homepage:  76 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Restaurant and Food Service Managers (D.O.T. 185.137; 187.161-010 and .167-026, -106, -126, -206, and -210; 319.137-014, -018, and-030)  Significant Points •  While many jobs are filled by promoting experienced food and beverage preparation and service workers, job opportunities are expected to be best for those with bachelor's or associate degrees in restaurant and institu­ tional food service management.  •  Employment of wage and salary managers is expected to increase more rapidly than self-employed managers, as restaurants increasingly affiliate with national chains rather than being independently owned. Restaurant and food service managers work long, irregular hours.  Nature of the Work Food is consumed outside the home in a variety of settings. Eating places range from institutional cafeterias and fast food to elegant din­ ing establishments. The cuisine, price, and setting where the meals are consumed vary, but managers of these dining facilities share many of the same responsibilities. Efficient and profitable operation of restau­ rants and institutional food service facilities requires managers and assistant managers to select and appropriately price menu items, use food and other supplies efficiently, and achieve consistent quality in food preparation and service. They also must attend to the various administrative aspects of the business, which includes recruiting, training, and supervising an adequate number of workers. In most restaurants and institutional food service facilities, the man­ ager is assisted by one or more assistant managers, depending on the size and operating hours of the establishment. In large establishments, as well as in many smaller ones, the management team consists of a general manager, one or more assistant managers, and an executive chef. The executive chef is responsible for the operation of the kitchen, while the assistant managers oversee service in the dining room and other areas of the operation. In smaller restaurants, the executive chef may be the general manager, and sometimes an owner. In fast-food restaurants and other food service facilities open for long hours, often 7 days a week, the manager is aided by several assistant managers, each of whom supervises a shift of workers. (For additional information, see the Handbook statements on general managers and top executives and chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers.) Many restaurants rarely change their menu, while others make frequent alterations. Institutional food service facilities and some restaurants offer a new menu every day. Managers or executive chefs select menu items, taking into account the likely number of custom­ ers, and the past popularity of dishes. Other issues taken into consid­ eration when planning a menu include unserved food left over from prior meals that should not be wasted, the need for variety, and the availability of foods due to seasonality and other factors. Managers or executive chefs analyze the recipes of the dishes to determine food, labor, overhead costs and to assign prices to the various dishes. Menus must be developed far enough in advance that supplies can be ordered and received in time. On a daily basis, managers estimate food consumption, place or­ ders with suppliers, and schedule the delivery of fresh food and bev­ erages. They receive and check the content of deliveries, evaluating the quality of meats, poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, and baked goods. Managers meet with the sales representatives from restaurant suppliers to place orders replenishing stocks of tableware, linens, paper, cleaning supplies, cooking utensils, and furniture and fixtures. They also arrange for equipment maintenance and repairs, and for a variety of services such as waste removal and pest control. Managers interview, hire, and, when necessary, fire employees. Many managers report difficulty in hiring experienced food and bev­ erage preparation and service workers. Managers may attend career Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  fairs or arrange for newspaper advertising to expand their pool of ap­ plicants. Managers explain the establishment's policies and practices to newly hired workers and oversee their training. Managers schedule the work hours of employees, making sure there are enough workers present to cover peak dining periods. If employees are unable to work, managers may have to fill in for them. Some managers regu­ larly help with cooking, clearing of tables, or other tasks. Restaurant and food service managers supervise the kitchen and the dining room. They oversee food preparation and cooking, exam­ ining the quality and portion sizes to ensure that dishes are prepared and garnished correctly and in a timely manner. They also investi­ gate and resolve customers' complaints about food quality or service. They direct the cleaning of the kitchen and dining areas and the washing of tableware, kitchen utensils, and equipment to maintain company and government sanitation standards. They monitor the actions of their employees and patrons on a continual basis to ensure the health and safety standards and local liquor regulations are obeyed. Managers have a variety of administrative responsibilities. In larger establishments, much of this work is delegated to a book­ keeper; in smaller establishments, including most fast-food restau­ rants, managers must keep records of the hours and wages of em­ ployees, prepare the payroll, and do paperwork to comply with li­ censing laws and reporting requirements of tax, wage and hour, un­ employment compensation, and Social Security laws. They also maintain the records of supplies and equipment purchased, and en­ sure that accounts with suppliers are paid on a regular basis. In addi­ tion, some managers record the number, type, and cost of items sold to exclude dishes that are unpopular or less profitable. Many managers are able to ease the burden of recordkeeping and paperwork through the use of computers. Point-of-service (POS) systems are used in many restaurants to increase employee produc­ tivity and allow managers to track the sales of specific menu items. Using a POS system, a server keys in the customer's order and the computer immediately sends the order to the kitchen so preparation can begin. The same system totals checks, acts as a cash register and credit card authorizer, and tracks daily sales. To minimize food costs and spoilage, many managers use inventory tracking software to compare the record of daily sales from the POS with a record of pres­ ent inventory. In some establishments, when supplies needed for the preparation of popular menu items run low, additional inventory can be ordered directly from the supplier using the computer. Computers also allow restaurant and food service managers to more efficiently keep track of employee schedules and pay. Managers are among the first to arrive and the last to leave. At the conclusion of each day, or sometimes each shift, managers tally the cash and charge receipts received and balance them against the record of sales. They are responsible for depositing the day's receipts  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 77 at the bank, or securing it in a safe place. Managers are also respon­ sible for locking up, checking that ovens, grills, and lights are off, and switching on alarm systems. Working Conditions Evenings and weekends are popular dining periods, making night and weekend work common. Many managers of institutional food service facilities work more conventional hours because factory and office cafeterias are generally open only on weekdays for breakfast and lunch. However, hours are unpredictable, as managers may have to fill in for absent workers on short notice. It is common for restaurant and food service managers to work 50 to 60 hours or more per week. Managers often experience the pressure of simultaneously coordi­ nating a wide range of activities. When problems occur, it is the re­ sponsibility of the manager to resolve them with minimal disruption to customers. The job can be hectic during peak dining hours, and dealing with irate customers or uncooperative employees can be stressful. Employment Restaurant and food service managers held about 493,000 jobs in 1996. Most managers were salaried workers, but many others were sell-employed. Most worked in restaurants or for contract institu­ tional food service companies, while a smaller number were em­ ployed by educational institutions, hospitals, nursing and personal care facilities, and civic, social, and fraternal organizations. Jobs are located throughout the country, with large cities and tourist areas providing more opportunities for more formal dining positions.  operations of a restaurant or institutional food service facility—food preparation, nutrition, sanitation, security, company policies and procedures, personnel management, recordkeeping, and preparation of reports. Training on use of the restaurant's computer system is increasingly important as well. Often, supplies are ordered electroni­ cally and many restaurants use computers to track the popularity of menu items. Usually after 6 months or a year, trainees receive their first permanent assignment as an assistant manager. A measure of professional achievement for restaurant and food service managers is to earn the designation of certified Foodservice Management Professional (FMP). Although not a requirement for employment or advancement in the occupation, voluntary certifica­ tion provides recognition of professional competence, particularly for managers who acquired their skills largely on the job. The Educa­ tional Foundation of the National Restaurant Association awards the FMP designation to managers who achieve a qualifying score on a written examination, complete a series of courses that cover a range of food service management topics, and who meet standards of work experience in the field. Willingness to relocate, usually to a big city, often is essential for ad­ vancement to positions with greater responsibility. Managers advance to larger establishments, or regional management positions within restaurant chains. Some eventually open their own eating and drinking establish­ ments. Others transfer to hotel management positions, because their restaurant management experience provides a good background for food and beverage manager jobs at hotels and resorts. Job Outlook Job opportunities are expected to be best for those with a bachelor's or associate degree in restaurant and institutional food service man­ agement. Employment of restaurant and food service managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. In addition to employment growth, the need to replace managers who transfer to other occupations or stop work­ ing will create many job openings. Projected employment growth varies by industry. Eating and drinking places will provide the most new jobs as the number of eat­ ing and drinking establishments increases and other industries con­ tinue to contract out their food services. Increases in population, personal incomes, and leisure time will continue to produce growth in the number of meals consumed outside the home. To meet the de­ mand for prepared food, more restaurants will be built, and more managers will be employed to supervise them. In addition, the num­ ber of manager jobs will increase in eating and drinking places as schools, hospitals, and other businesses contract out more of their food services to institutional food service companies within the eat­ ing and drinking industry. Employment of wage and salary managers in eating and drinking places is expected to increase more rapidly than self-employed managers. New restaurants are increasingly affiliated with national chains rather than being independently owned and operated. As this trend continues, fewer owners will manage restaurants themselves, and more restaurant managers will be employed to run the establishments. Food service manager jobs are expected to increase in other in­ dustries, but growth will be slowed as contracting out becomes more common. Growth in the elderly population should result in more food service manager jobs in nursing homes and other health-care institutions, and residential-care and assisted-living facilities. Employment in eating and drinking establishments is not very sensitive to changes in economic conditions, so restaurant and food service managers are rarely laid off during hard times. However, competition among restaurants is always intense, and many restau­ rants do not survive.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many restaurant and food service manager positions are filled by pro­ moting experienced food and beverage preparation and service workers. Waiters, waitresses, chefs, and fast-food workers demonstrating poten­ tial for handling increased responsibility sometimes advance to assistant manager or management trainee jobs when openings occur. Executive chefs need extensive experience working as a chef, and general manag­ ers need experience working as assistant manager. However, most food service management companies and national or regional restaurant chains also recruit management trainees from 2- and 4-year college hospitality management programs. Food service and restaurant chains prefer to hire people with degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management, but they often hire graduates with degrees in other fields who have demonstrated interest and aptitude. A bachelor s degree in restaurant and food service management provides a particularly strong preparation for a career in this occupa­ tion. In 1996, more than 160 colleges and universities offered 4-year programs in restaurant and hotel management or institutional food service management. For people not interested in pursing a 4-year degree, a good alternative are the more than 800 community and jun­ ior colleges, technical institutes, and other institutions that offer pro­ grams in these fields leading to an associate degree or other formal certification. Both 2- and 4-year programs provide instruction in sub­ jects such as nutrition and food planning and preparation, as well as accounting, business law and management, and computer science. Some programs combine classroom and laboratory study with intern­ ships that provide on-the-job experience. In addition, many educa­ tional institutions offer culinary programs that provide food prepara­ tion training which can lead to a career as a cook or chef and provide a foundation for advancement to an executive chef position. Most employers emphasize personal qualities. Restaurant and food service management can be demanding, so good health and stamina are important. Self-discipline, initiative, and leadership abil­ ity are essential. Managers must be able to solve problems and con­ centrate on details. They need good communication skills to deal with customers and suppliers, as well as to motivate and direct their subordinates. A neat and clean appearance is a must because they often are in close personal contact with the public.  Earnings  Most restaurant chains and food service management companies have rigorous training programs for their management positions. Through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training, trainees receive instruction and gain work experience in all aspects of the  Median earnings for restaurant and food service managers were about $460 a week in 1996. The middle 50 percent earned between about $320 and $630 a week. The lowest paid 10 percent earned $240 a week or less, while the highest paid 10 percent earned over $900 a week. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  78 Occupational Outlook Handbook Earnings of restaurant and food service managers vary greatly ac­ cording to their responsibilities and the type and size of establish­ ment. Based on a survey conducted by the National Restaurant As­ sociation, the median base salary of restaurant managers was about $30,000 in 1995; managers of the largest restaurants and institutional food service facilities often had annual salaries in excess of $50,000. Besides a salary, most managers received an annual bonus or incen­ tive payment based on their performance. In 1995, most bonuses ranged between $2,000 and $10,000. Executive chefs had a median base salary of $38,000 in 1995. Annual bonus or incentive payments for most executive chefs aver­ aged $3,000. The median base salary of assistant managers was $23,000 in 1995, but ranged from $21,000 in fast-food restaurants to $27,000 in some of the largest restaurants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive payments for most assistant managers ranged from $1,000 to $4,000. Manager trainees had a median base salary of $21,000 in 1995, but earned $30,000 in some of the largest restaurants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most trainees aver­ aged $900. In addition to typical benefits, most salaried restaurant and food service managers receive free meals and the opportunity for addi­ tional training depending on their length of service. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Restaurant and food service managers direct the activities of businesses which provide a service to customers. Other managers in serviceoriented businesses include hotel managers and assistants, health serv­ ices administrators, retail store managers, and bank managers. Sources of Additional Information Information about job opportunities may be obtained from local em­ ployers and local offices of the State employment service. Information about a career as a restaurant and food service man­ ager, 2- and 4-year college programs in restaurant and food service management, and certification as a Foodservice Management Profes­ sional is available from: m- The Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, Suite 1400,250 South Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.  General information on hospitality careers may be obtained from: m- Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036-3097.  For general career information and a directory of accredited pri­ vate trade and technical schools offering programs in restaurant and food service management, write to: m- Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technology, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 302, Arlington, VA 22201.  Professional and Technical Occupations Air Transportation Occupations Aircraft Pilots (D.O.T. 196, except .163 and .167-014 and 621.261-018)  Significant Points •  Competition is expected for jobs because aircraft pilots have very high earnings, especially those employed by airlines.  •  Pilots usually start with smaller commuter and regional airlines to acquire the experience needed to qualify for higher paying jobs with national airlines.  •  Most pilots have traditionally learned to fly in the mili­ tary, but growing numbers are entering from civilian FAA certified pilot training schools.  Nature of the Work Pilots are highly trained professionals who fly airplanes and heli­ copters to carry out a wide variety of tasks. Although most pilots transport passengers and cargo, others are involved in more unusual tasks, such as dusting crops, spreading seed for reforestation, test­ ing aircraft, directing fire fighting efforts, tracking criminals, monitoring traffic, and rescuing and evacuating injured persons. Except on small aircraft, two pilots usually make up the cockpit crew. Generally, the most experienced pilot, the captain, is in command and supervises all other crew members. The pilot and copilot split flying and other duties, such as communicating with air traffic controllers and monitoring the instruments. Some large aircraft still have a third pilot in the cockpit—the flight engineer— who assists the other pilots by monitoring and operating many of the instruments and systems, making minor inflight repairs, and watching for other aircraft. New technology can perform many flight tasks, however, and virtually all new aircraft now fly with only two pilots, who rely more heavily on computerized controls. Flight engineer jobs will be completely eliminated in the future. Before departure, pilots plan their flights carefully. They thor­ oughly check their aircraft to make sure that the engines, controls, instruments, and other systems are functioning properly. They also make sure that baggage or cargo has been loaded correctly. They confer with flight dispatchers and aviation weather forecasters to find out about weather conditions enroute and at their destination. Based on this information, they choose a route, altitude, and speed that should provide the fastest, safest, and smoothest flight. When flying under instrument flight rules—procedures governing the operation of the aircraft when there is poor visibility—the pilot in command, or the company dispatcher, normally files an instrument flight plan with air traffic control so that the flight can be coordi­ nated with other air traffic. Takeoff and landing are the most difficult parts of the flight and require close coordination between the pilot and first officer. For example, as the plane accelerates for takeoff, the pilot concentrates on the runway while the first officer scans the instrument panel. To calculate the speed they must attain to become airborne, pilots con­ sider the altitude of the airport, outside temperature, weight of the plane, and the speed and direction of the wind. The moment the plane reaches takeoff speed, the first officer informs the pilot, who then pulls back on the controls to raise the nose of the plane. Unless the weather is bad, the actual flight is relatively easy. Air­ plane pilots, with the assistance of autopilot and the flight management Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  computer, steer the plane along their planned route and are monitored by the air traffic control stations they pass along the way. They regu­ larly scan the instrument panel to check their fuel supply, the condition of their engines, and the air-conditioning, hydraulic, and other systems. Pilots may request a change in altitude or route if circumstances dictate. For example, if the ride is rougher than expected, they may ask air traffic control if pilots flying at other altitudes have reported better conditions. If so, they may request a change. This procedure also may be used to find a stronger tailwind or a weaker headwind to save fuel and increase speed. In contrast, helicopters are used for short trips at relatively low al­ titude, so pilots must be constantly on the lookout for trees, bridges, power lines, transmission towers, and other dangerous obstacles. Regardless of the type of aircraft, all pilots must monitor warning devices designed to help detect sudden shifts in wind conditions that can cause crashes. If visibility is poor, pilots must rely completely on their instru­ ments. Using the altimeter readings, they know how high above ground they are and whether or not they can fly safely over moun­ tains and other obstacles. Special navigation radios give pilots precise information which, with the help of special maps, tell them their exact position. Other very sophisticated equipment provides directions to a point just above the end of a runway and enables pilots to land completely "blind." Once on the ground, pilots must complete records on their flight for their organization and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The number of nonflying duties that pilots have depends on the employment setting. Airline pilots have the services of large support staffs, and consequently, perform few nonflying duties. Pilots em­ ployed by other organizations such as charter operators or businesses have many other duties. They may load the aircraft, handle all pas­ senger luggage to ensure a balanced load, and supervise refueling; other nonflying responsibilities include keeping records, scheduling flights, arranging for major maintenance, and performing minor air­ craft maintenance and repair work. Some pilots are instructors. They teach their students the princi­ ples of flight in ground-school classes and demonstrate how to operate aircraft in dual-controlled planes and helicopters. A few specially trained pilots are "examiners" or "check pilots." They peri­ odically fly with other pilots or pilot's license applicants to make sure that they are proficient. Working Conditions By law, airline pilots cannot fly more than 100 hours a month or more than 1,000 hours a year. Most airline pilots fly an average of 75 hours a month and work an additional 75 hours a month performing nonflying duties. Fifty percent of all pilots work more than 40 hours a week. Most spend a considerable amount of time away from home because the majority of flights involve overnight layovers. When pilots are away from home, the airlines provide hotel accommoda­ tions, transportation between the hotel and airport, and an allowance for meals and other expenses. Airlines operate flights at all hours of the day and night, so work schedules often are irregular. Flight as­ signments are based on seniority. Those pilots not employed by the airlines often have irregular schedules as well; they may fly 30 hours one month and 90 hours the next. Because these pilots frequently have many nonflying responsi­ bilities, they have much less free time than airline pilots. Except for business pilots, most do not remain away from home overnight. They may work odd hours. Flight instructors may have irregular and  79  80 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Before departure, aircraft pilots plan their flights carefully. seasonal work schedules depending on their students’ available time and the weather and often give lessons at night or on weekends. Airline pilots, especially those on international routes, often suffer jet lag—fatigue caused by many hours of flying through different time zones. The work of test pilots, who check the flight perform­ ance of new and experimental planes, may be dangerous. Pilots who are crop dusters may be exposed to toxic chemicals and seldom have the benefit of a regular landing strip. Helicopter pilots involved in police work may be subject to personal injury. Although flying does not involve much physical effort, the mental stress of being responsible for a safe flight, no matter what the weather, can be tiring. Particularly during takeoff and landing, pilots must be alert and quick to react if something goes wrong. Employment Civilian pilots held about 110,000 jobs in 1996. Three-fifths worked for airlines. Many others worked as flight instructors at local airports or for large businesses that fly company cargo and executives in their own airplanes or helicopters. Some pilots flew small planes for air taxi companies, usually to or from lightly traveled airports not served by the airlines. Others worked for a variety of businesses performing tasks such as crop dusting, inspecting pipelines, or conducting sight­ seeing trips. Federal, State, and local governments also employed pilots. A few pilots were self-employed. The employment of airplane pilots is not distributed like the population. Pilots are more concentrated in the States of California, Texas, Georgia, Washington, Nevada, Hawaii, and Alaska which have a higher amount of flying activity relative to their population. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All pilots who are paid to transport passengers or cargo must have a commercial pilot's license with an instrument rating issued by the FAA. Helicopter pilots must hold a commercial pilot's certificate with a helicopter rating. To qualify for these licenses, applicants must be at least 18 years old and have at least 250 hours of flight experience. The time can be reduced through participation in certain flight school curricula approved by the FAA. They also must pass a strict physical examination to make sure that they are in good health and have 20/20 vision with or without glasses, good hearing, and no physical handi­ caps that could impair their performance. Applicants must pass a written test that includes questions on the principles of safe flight, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  navigation techniques, and FAA regulations. They also must demon­ strate their flying ability to FAA or designated examiners. To fly in periods of low visibility, pilots must be rated by the FAA to fly by instruments. Pilots may qualify for this rating by having a total of 105 hours of flight experience, including 40 hours of experi­ ence in flying by instruments; they also must pass a written examination on procedures and FAA regulations covering instrument flying and demonstrate to an examiner their ability to fly by instru­ ments. Airline pilots must fulfill additional requirements. Those hired as flight engineers must pass FAA written and flight examinations to earn a flight engineer's license. Captains and first officers must have an airline transport pilot's license. Applicants for this license must be at least 23 years old and have a minimum of 1,500 hours of flying experience, including night and instrument flying. Usually they also have one or more advanced ratings, such as multi-engine aircraft or aircraft type ratings dependent upon the requirements of their par­ ticular flying jobs. Because pilots must be able to make quick decisions and accurate judgments under pressure, many airline com­ panies reject applicants who do not pass required psychological and aptitude tests. All licenses are valid as long as a pilot can pass the periodic physical examinations and tests of flying skills required by Govern­ ment and company regulations. The Armed Forces have always been an important source of trained pilots for civilian jobs. Military pilots gain valuable experi­ ence on jet aircraft and helicopters, and persons with this experience are generally preferred for civilian pilot jobs. This primarily reflects the extensive flying time military pilots receive. Persons without armed forces training also become pilots by attending flight schools. The FAA has certified about 600 civilian flying schools, including some colleges and universities that offer degree credit for pilot train­ ing. Over the projected period, Federal budget reductions are expected to reduce military pilot training. As a result, FAA certified schools will train a larger share of pilots than in the past. Although some small airlines will hire high school graduates, most airlines require at least 2 years of college and prefer to hire college graduates; almost 90 percent of all pilots have completed some college. In fact, most entrants to this occupation have a college degree. If the number of college educated applicants continues to increases, employers may make a college degree an educational re­ quirement. Depending on the type of aircraft in use, new airline pilots start as first officers or flight engineers. Although some airlines favor appli­ cants who already have a flight engineer's license, they may provide flight engineer training for those who have only the commercial li­ cense. Many pilots begin with smaller regional or commuter airlines where they obtain vital experience flying passengers on scheduled flights into busy airports in all weather conditions. These jobs are often a steppingstone to higher paying jobs with the bigger national airlines. Initial training for pilots includes a week of company indoctrina­ tion, 3 to 6 weeks of ground school and simulator training, and 25 hours of initial operating experience, including a check-ride with an FAA aviation safety inspector. Once trained and “on the line” pilots are required to attend recurrent training and simulator checks periodi­ cally throughout their employment. Recurrent training is required twice a year. Organizations other than airlines generally require less flying ex­ perience. However, a commercial pilot's license is a minimum requirement, and employers prefer applicants who have experience in the type of craft they will be flying. New employees usually start as first officers, or fly less sophisticated equipment. Test pilots often are required to have an engineering degree. Advancement for all pilots generally is limited to other flying jobs. Many pilots start as flight instructors, building up their flying hours while they earn money teaching. As they become more expe­ rienced, these pilots occasionally fly charter planes or perhaps get jobs with small air transportation firms, such as air taxi companies.  Professional and Technical Occupations 81 Some advance to business flying jobs. A small number get flight engineer jobs with the airlines. In the airlines, advancement usually depends on seniority provi­ sions of union contracts. After 1 to 5 years, flight engineers advance according to seniority to first officer and, after 5 to 15 years, to cap­ tain. Seniority also determines which pilots get the more desirable routes. In a nonairline job, a first officer may advance to pilot and, in large companies, to chief pilot or director of aviation in charge of aircraft scheduling, maintenance, and flight procedures. Job Outlook Pilots are expected to face considerable competition for jobs through the year 2006 because the number of applicants for new positions is expected to exceed the number of job openings. Competition will be especially keen early in the projection period due to a temporary increase in the pool of qualified pilots seeking jobs. Mergers and bankruptcies during the recent restructuring of the industry caused a large number of airline pilots to lose their jobs. Also, Federal budget reductions resulted in many pilots leaving the Armed Forces. These and other qualified pilots seek jobs in this occupation because it of­ fers very high earnings, glamour, prestige, and free or low cost travel benefits. As time passes, some pilots will fail to maintain their quali­ fications and the number of applicants competing for each opening should decline. Factors affecting demand, however, are not expected to ease that competition. Relatively few jobs will be created from rising demand for pilots as employment is expected to increase about as fast as average for all occupations through the year 2006. The expected growth in airline passenger and cargo traffic will create a need for more air­ liners, pilots, and flight instructors. However, computerized flight management systems on new aircraft will eliminate the need for flight engineers on those planes, thus restricting the growth of pilot employment. In addition, the trend toward using larger planes in the airline industry will increase pilot productivity. Future business travel could also be adversely affected by advances in teleconfer­ encing and facsimile mail and the elimination of many middle management positions in corporate downsizing. Employment of business pilots is expected to grow more slowly than in the past as more businesses opt to fly with regional and smaller airlines serv­ ing their area rather than buy and operate their own aircraft. On the other hand, helicopter pilots are expected to grow more rapidly as the demand expands for the type of services helicopters can offer. Job openings resulting from the need to replace pilots who retire or leave the occupation traditionally have been very low. Aircraft pilots understandably have an extremely strong attachment to their occupation because it requires a substantial investment in special­ ized training that is not transferable to other fields and it generally offers very high earnings. However, many of the pilots who were hired in the late 1960's during the last major industry boom are approaching the age for mandatory retirement, so during the pro­ jected period, retirements of pilots are expected to increase and generate several thousand job openings each year, Pilots who have logged the greatest number of flying hours in the more sophisticated equipment generally have the best prospects. This is the reason military pilots usually have an advantage over other applicants. Job seekers with the most FAA licenses will also have a competitive advantage. Opportunities for pilots in the re­ gional commuter airlines and international service are expected to be more favorable as these segments are expected to grow faster than other segments of the industry. Employment of pilots is sensitive to cyclical swings in the econ­ omy. During recessions, when a decline in the demand for air travel forces airlines to curtail the number of flights, airlines may temporarily furlough some pilots. Commercial and corporate flying, flight instruc­ tion, and testing of new aircraft also decline during recessions, adversely affecting pilots employed in those areas. Earnings Earnings of airline pilots are among the highest in the Nation. Ac­ cording to the Future Aviation Professionals of America (FAPA), the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1996 average starting salary for airline pilots ranged from about $15,000 at the smaller turboprop airlines to $26,2900 at the larger major airlines. Average earnings for experienced pilots with 6 years of experience ranged from $28,100 at the turboprop airlines to almost $76,8000 at the largest airlines. Some senior captains on the largest aircraft earned as much as $200,000 a year. Earnings depend on factors such as the type, size, and maximum speed of the plane, and the number of hours and miles flown. Extra pay may be given for night and international flights. Generally, pilots working outside the airlines earn lower salaries. Usually, pilots who fly jet aircraft earn higher salaries than non-jet pilots. Data from the Future Aviation Professionals of America for 1996 show that commercial helicopter pilots averaged from $33,700 to $ 59,900 a year. Average pay for corporate helicopter pilots ranged from $47,900 to $72,500. Some helicopter pilots earned over $100,000 a year. Airline pilots generally are eligible for life and health insurance plans financed by the airlines. They also receive retirement benefits and if they fail the FAA physical examination at some point in their careers, they get disability payments. In addition, pilots receive an expense allowance, or “per diem”, for every hour they are away from home. Per diem can represent up to $500 each month in addition to their salary. Some airlines also provide allowances to pilots for pur­ chasing and cleaning their uniforms. As an additional benefit, pilots and their immediate families usually are entitled to free or reduced fare transportation on their own and other airlines. Most airline pilots are members of unions. Most airline pilots are members of the Airline Pilots Association, International, but those employed by one major airline are members of the Allied Pilots Association. Some flight engineers are members of the Flight Engineers' International Association. Related Occupations Although they are not in the cockpit, air traffic controllers and dis­ patchers also play an important role in making sure flights are safe and on schedule, and participate in many of the decisions pilots must make. Sources of Additional Information Information about job opportunities, salaries for a particular airline and the qualifications required may be obtained by writing to the personnel manager of the airline. For information on airline pilots, contact: Airline Pilots Association, 1625 Massachusetts Ave. NW , Washington DC 20036. ’ » Air Transport Association of America, 1301 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Suite 1110, Washington, DC 20006.  For information on helicopter pilots, contact: *- Helicopter Association International, 1619 Duke St., Alexandria VA 22314.  For a copy of List of Certificated Pilot Schools, write to: *■ Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.  For information about job opportunities in companies other than airlines, consult the classified section of aviation trade magazines and apply to companies that operate aircraft at local airports.  Air Traffic Controllers (D.O.T. 193.162 except-022, .167-010)  Significant Points •  Nearly all air traffic controllers are employed and trained by the Federal Government.  •  Keen competition is expected for the small number of job openings in this occupation.  82 Occupational Outlook Handbook Nature of the Work The air traffic control system is a vast network of people and equip­ ment that ensures the safe operation of commercial and private aircraft. Air traffic controllers coordinate the movement of air traffic to make certain that planes stay a safe distance apart. Their immedi­ ate concern is safety, but controllers also must direct planes efficiently to minimize delays. Some regulate airport traffic; others regulate flights between airports. Although airport tower or terminal controllers watch over all planes traveling through the airport's airspace, their main responsibil­ ity is to organize the flow of aircraft in and out of the airport. Relying on radar and visual observation, they closely monitor each plane to ensure a safe distance between all aircraft and to guide pilots between the hangar or ramp and the end of the airport's airspace. In addition, controllers keep pilots informed about changes in weather conditions such as wind shear—a sudden change in the velocity or direction of the wind that can cause the pilot to lose control of the aircraft. During arrival or departure, several controllers handle each plane. As a plane approaches an airport, the pilot radios ahead to inform the terminal of its presence. The controller in the radar room just be­ neath the control tower has a copy of the plane's flight plan and already has observed the plane on radar. If the way is clear, the con­ troller directs the pilot to a runway; if the airport is busy, the plane is fitted into a traffic pattern with other aircraft waiting to land. As the plane nears the runway, the pilot is asked to contact the tower. There, another controller, who also is watching the plane on radar, monitors the aircraft the last mile or so to the runway, delaying any departures that would interfere with the plane's landing. Once the plane has landed, a ground controller in the tower directs it along the taxiways to its assigned gate. The ground controller usually works entirely by sight, but may use radar if visibility is very poor. The procedure is reversed for departures. The ground controller di­ rects the plane to the proper runway. The local controller then informs the pilot about conditions at the airport, such as the weather, speed and direction of wind, and visibility. The local controller also issues run­ way clearance for the pilot to take off. Once in the air, the plane is guided out of the airport's airspace by the departure controller. After each plane departs, airport tower controllers notify enroute controllers who will next take charge. There are 21 enroute control centers located around the country, each employing 300 to 700 con­ trollers, with more than 150 on duty during peak hours at the busier facilities. Airplanes generally fly along designated routes; each cen­ ter is assigned a certain airspace containing many different routes. Enroute controllers work in teams of up to three members, depending on how heavy traffic is; each team is responsible for a section of the center's airspace. A team, for example, might be responsible for all planes that are between 30 to 100 miles north of an airport and flying at an altitude between 6,000 and 18,000 feet. To prepare for planes about to enter the team's airspace, the radar associate controller organizes flight plans coming off a printer. If two planes are scheduled to enter the team's airspace at nearly the same time, location, and altitude, this controller may arrange with the preceding control unit for one plane to change its flight path. The previous unit may have been another team at the same or an adjacent center, or a departure controller at a neighboring terminal. As a plane approaches a team's airspace, the radar controller accepts responsi­ bility for the plane from the previous controlling unit. The controller also delegates responsibility for the plane to the next controlling unit when the plane leaves the team's airspace. The radar controller, who is the senior team member, observes the planes in the team’s airspace on radar and communicates with the pilots when necessary. Radar controllers warn pilots about nearby planes, bad weather conditions, and other potential hazards. Two planes on a collision course will be directed around each other. If a pilot wants to change altitude in search of better flying conditions, the controller will check to determine that no other planes will be along the proposed path. As the flight progresses, the team responsible for the aircraft notifies the next team in charge. Through team coordina­ tion, the plane arrives safely at its destination. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Both airport tower and enroute controllers usually control several planes at a time and often have to make quick decisions about com­ pletely different activities. For example, a controller might direct a plane on its landing approach and at the same time provide pilots entering the airport's airspace with information about conditions at the airport. While instructing these pilots, the controller also would observe other planes in the vicinity, such as those in a holding pattern waiting for permission to land, to ensure that they remain well sepa­ rated. Currently, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is in the midst of developing and implementing a new automated air traffic control system. As a result, more powerful computers will help con­ trollers deal with the demands of increased air traffic. Some traditional air traffic controller tasks-—like determining how far apart planes should be kept—will be done by computer. Present separation standards call for a 2,000 foot vertical spacing between two aircraft operating above 29,00 feet and flying the same ground track. With the aid of new technologies, the FAA will be able to reduce this ver­ tical separation standard to 1,000 feet. Improved communication between computers on airplanes and those on the ground also is making the controller's job a little easier. At present controllers sit at consoles with green-glowing screens that display radar images generated by a computer. In the future, controllers will work at a modem workstation computer that depicts air routes in full-color on a 20- by 20-inch screen. The controllers will select radio channels simply by touching on-screen buttons in­ stead of turning dials or switching switches. However, the new automated air traffic control system will not be fully operational until after the year 2000. The FAA is also moving toward implementing a system called “free flight” which would give pilots much more freedom in operat­ ing their aircraft. The change will require new concepts of shared responsibility between controllers and pilots. Air traffic controllers will still be central to the safe operation of the system, but their re­ sponsibilities will eventually shift from controlling to monitoring flights. At present, controllers assign routes, altitudes, and speeds. Under the new system, airlines and pilots would choose them. Con­ trollers would intervene only to ensure that aircraft remained at safe distances from one another, to prevent congestion in terminal areas, to prevent entry into closed airspace, or to otherwise ensure safety. Today’s practices often result in planes zigzagging from point to point along corridors rather than flying from city to city in a straight line. This results in lost time and fuel. In addition to airport towers and enroute centers, air traffic con­ trollers also work in flight service stations operated at over 100 locations. These flight service specialists provide pilots with infor­ mation on the station's particular area, including terrain, preflight and inflight weather information, suggested routes, and other information important to the safety of a flight. Flight service station specialists  jsagMi • MM  Air traffic controllers carefully monitor the movement of each plane.  Professional and Technical Occupations 83 help pilots in emergency situations and initiate and coordinate searches for missing or overdue aircraft. However, they are not in­ volved in actively managing air traffic. Working Conditions Controllers work a basic 40-hour week; however, they may work additional hours for which they receive overtime pay or equal time off. Because most control towers and centers operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, controllers rotate night and weekend shifts. During busy times, controllers must work rapidly and efficiently. This requires total concentration to keep track of several planes at the same time and make certain all pilots receive correct instructions. The mental stress of being responsible for the safety of several air­ craft and their passengers can be exhausting for some persons. Employment Air traffic controllers held about 22,000 jobs in 1996. They were employed by the Federal Government at airports—in towers and flight service stations—and in enroute traffic control centers. The overwhelming majority worked for the FAA. About 17,500 control­ lers were actively working controlling air traffic; 3,600 worked at flight service stations and another 750 worked in administrative staff positions. Some professional controllers conduct research at the FAA's national experimental center in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Others serve as instructors at the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. A small number of civilian controllers worked for the Department of Defense. In addition to controllers employed by the Federal Government, some worked for private air traffic control companies providing service to non-FAA towers. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Air traffic controller trainees are selected through the competitive Federal Civil Service system. Applicants must pass a written test that measures their ability to learn the controller's duties. Applicants with experience as a pilot, navigator, or military controller can improve their rating by scoring well on the occupational knowledge portion of the examination. Abstract reasoning and three-dimensional spatial visualization are among the aptitudes the exam measures. In addi­ tion, applicants generally must have 3 years of general work experience or 4 years of college, or a combination of both. Appli­ cants also must survive a week screening at the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City which includes aptitude tests using computer simu­ lators and physical and psychological examinations. Successful applicants receive drug screening tests. For airport tower and enroute center positions, applicants must be less than 31 years old. Those 31 years old and over are eligible for positions at flight service stations. Controllers must be articulate, because directions to pilots must be given quickly and clearly. Intelligence and a good memory also are important because controllers constantly receive information that they must immediately grasp, interpret, and remember. Decisiveness is also required because controllers often have to make quick deci­ sions. The ability to concentrate is crucial because controllers must make these decisions in the midst of noise and other distractions. Trainees learn their craft through a combination of formal and onthe-job training. They receive 7 months of intensive training at the FAA academy, where they learn the fundamentals of the airway sys­ tem, FAA regulations, controller equipment, aircraft performance characteristics, as well as more specialized tasks. To receive a job offer, trainees must successfully complete the training and pass a series of examinations, including a controller skills test that measures speed and accuracy in recognizing and correctly solving air traffic control problems. Based on aptitude and test scores, trainees are selected to work at either an enroute center or a tower. After graduation, it takes several years of progressively more re­ sponsible work experience, interspersed with considerable classroom instruction and independent study, to become a fully qualified con­ troller. This training includes instruction in the operation of the new, more automated air traffic control system—including the automated Microwave Landing System that enables pilots to receive instructions Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  over automated data links—that is being installed in control sites across the country. Controllers who fail to complete either the academy or the on-thejob portion of the training are usually dismissed. Controllers must pass a physical examination each year and a job performance exami­ nation twice each year. Failure to become certified in any position at a facility within a specified time may also result in dismissal. Con­ trollers also are subject to drug screening as a condition of continuing employment. At airports, new controllers begin by supplying pilots with basic flight data and airport information. They then advance to ground controller, then local controller, departure controller, and finally, arrival controller. At an enroute traffic control center, new control­ lers first deliver printed flight plans to teams, gradually advancing to radar associate controller and then radar controller. Controllers can transfer to jobs at different locations or advance to supervisory positions, including management or staff jobs in air traf­ fic control and top administrative jobs in the FAA. However, there are only limited opportunities for a controller to switch from a posi­ tion in an enroute center to a tower. Job Outlook Competition for air traffic controller jobs is expected to remain ex­ tremely keen because the occupation attracts many more qualified applicants than the small number of job openings stemming from growth of the occupation and replacement needs. Turnover is very low; because of the relatively high pay and liberal retirement benefits, controllers have a very strong attachment to the occupation. Most of the current work force was hired as a result of the controller's strike during the 1980’s, so the average age of current controllers is fairly young. Most controllers will not be eligible to retire until 2006 or later. Employment of air traffic controllers is expected to show little or no change through the year 2006. Employment growth is not expected to keep pace with growth in the number of aircraft flying because of the implementation of a new air traffic control system over the next 10 years. This computerized system will assist the controller by automati­ cally making many of the routine decisions. Automation will allow controllers to handle more traffic, thus increasing their productivity. Air traffic controllers who continue to meet the proficiency and medical requirements enjoy more job security than most workers. The demand for air travel and the workloads of air traffic controllers decline during recessions, but controllers seldom are laid off. Earnings Air traffic controllers who started with the FAA in 1997 earned about $29,500,000 a year. Controllers at higher Federal pay grade levels earned 5 percent more than other Federal workers in an equivalent grade. A controller's pay is determined by both the worker's job re­ sponsibilities and the complexity of the particular facility. Earnings are higher at facilities where traffic patterns are more complex. In 1997, controllers averaged about $46,000 0 a year. In 1997, the FAA is scheduled to implement a new more flexible pay classification. The system would feature 12 grade levels instead of the current 5 and pay would be based upon how many aircraft a controller works. The program will provide a 10 percent overall increase in base pay for about 2,200 personnel at seven of the FAA’s busiest air traffic control facilities. Depending on length of service, air traffic controllers receive 13 to 26 days of paid vacation and 13 days of paid sick leave each year, life insurance, and health benefits. In addition, controllers can retire at an earlier age and with fewer years of service than other Federal employees. Air traffic controllers are eligible to retire at age 50 with 20 years of service as an active air traffic controller or after 25 years of active service at any age. There is a mandatory retirement age of 56 for controllers who manage air traffic. Related Occupations Other occupations that involve the direction and control of traffic in air transportation are airline-radio operator and airplane dispatcher.  84 Occupational Outlook Handbook Sources of Additional Information Information on obtaining a job as an air traffic controller with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) through a telephone based system. Consult your  telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call 912-757-3000 (TDD 912-744-2299). That number is not toll free and charges may result. Information also is available from the OPM inter­ net site:  Engineers Significant Points •  A bachelor's degree in engineering is almost always re­ quired for beginning engineering jobs. Good employment opportunities are expected for new graduates.  •  Starting salaries are significantly higher than those of bachelor's degree graduates in other fields.  •  Knowledge of technological advances must be acquired through continued study and education.  Nature of the Work Engineers apply the theories and principles of science and mathe­ matics to research and develop economical solutions to practical technical problems. Their work is the link between scientific discov­ eries and commercial applications. Engineers design products, the machinery to build those products, the factories in which those prod­ ucts are made, and the systems that ensure the quality of the product and efficiency of the workforce and manufacturing process. They design, plan, and supervise the construction of buildings, highways, and transit systems. They develop and implement improved ways to extract, process, and use raw materials, such as petroleum and natural gas. They develop new materials that both improve the performance of products, and make implementing advances in technology possi­ ble. They harness the power of the sun, the earth, atoms, and electricity for use in supplying the Nation’s power needs, and create millions of products using power. Their knowledge is applied to improving many things, including the quality of health care, the safety of food products, and the efficient operation of financial sys­ tems. Engineers consider many factors when developing a new product. For example, in developing an industrial robot, they determine pre­ cisely what function it needs to perform; design and test components; fit them together in an integrated plan; and evaluate the design's overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety. This process ap­ plies to many different products, such as chemicals, computers, gas turbines, helicopters, and toys. In addition to design and development, many engineers work in testing, production, or maintenance. They supervise production in factories, determine the causes of breakdowns, and test manufactured products to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost to complete projects. Some work in engineering management or in sales, where an engineering background enables them to discuss the technical aspects of a product and assist in planning its installation or use. (See the statements on engineering, science, and computer systems manag­ ers and manufacturers' and wholesale sales representatives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most engineers specialize in a particular area. More than 25 ma­ jor specialties are recognized by professional societies, and within the major branches are numerous subdivisions. Structural, environ­ mental, and transportation engineering, for example, are subdivisions of civil engineering. Engineers may also specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one field of technology, such as jet en­ gines or ceramic materials. This section, which contains an overall discussion of engineering, is followed by separate sections on 10 engineering branches: Aero­ space; chemical; civil; electrical and electronics; industrial; mechanical; metallurgical, ceramic, and materials; mining; nuclear; and petroleum engineering. Some branches of engineering not cov­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ered in detail here, but for which there are established college programs, include architectural engineering—the design of a build­ ing's internal support structure; biomedical engineering—the application of engineering to medical and physiological problems; environmental engineering—a growing discipline involved with identifying, solving, and alleviating environmental problems; and marine engineering—the design and installation of ship machinery and propulsion systems. Engineers in each branch have a base of knowledge and training that can be applied in many fields. Electrical and electronics engi­ neers, for example, work in the medical, computer, missile guidance, and power distribution fields. Because there are many separate problems to solve in a large engineering project, engineers in one field often work closely with specialists in other scientific, engineer­ ing, and business occupations. Engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs; simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates; and generate blue­ prints for parts. Many engineers also use computers to monitor product quality and control process efficiency. They spend a great deal of time writing reports and consulting with other engineers, as complex projects often require an interdisciplinary team of engineers. Supervisory engi­ neers are responsible for major components or entire projects. Working Conditions Most engineers work in office buildings, laboratories, or industrial plants. Others spend a considerable amount of time outdoors at con­ struction sites, mines, and oil and gas exploration sites, where they monitor or direct operations or solve onsite problems. Some engi­ neers travel extensively to plants or worksites. Most engineers work a standard 40-hour week. At times, dead­ lines or design standards may bring extra pressure to a job. When this happens, engineers may work long hours and experience consid­ erable stress. Employment In 1996, engineers held 1,382,000 jobs. Chart 1 shows the employ­ ment of the engineering disciplines covered in this statement. Fortysix percent of all wage and salary engineering jobs were located in manufacturing industries such as electrical and electronic equipment,  Chart 1. Electrical engineers accounted for more than one-fourth of all engineers in 1996. Electrical Mechanical Civil Industrial Aeronautical Chemical Materials Nuclear Petroleum Mining All other engineers 150  200  250  &nployment (thousands)  300  350  400  Professional and Technical Occupations 85 industrial machinery, aircraft and parts, motor vehicles, chemicals, search and navigation equipment, fabricated metal products, and guided missiles and space vehicles. In 1996, 716,000 wage and sal­ ary jobs were in nonmanufacturing industries, primarily in engineering and architectural services, research and testing services, and business services, where firms designed construction projects or did other engineering work on a contract basis for organizations in other parts of the economy. Engineers also worked in the communi­ cations, utilities, and construction industries. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 178,000 wage and salary engineers in 1996. Over half of these were in the Federal Government, mainly in the Departments of Defense, Trans­ portation, Agriculture, Interior, and Energy, and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Most engineers in State and local government agencies worked in highway and public works de­ partments. In 1996, 46,000 engineers were self-employed, many as consultants. Engineers are employed in every State, in small and large cities, and in rural areas. Some branches of engineering are concentrated in particular industries and geographic areas, as discussed in statements later in this chapter. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in engineering is usually required for beginning engineering jobs. College graduates with a degree in a physical sci­ ence or mathematics may occasionally qualify for some engineering jobs, especially in engineering specialties in high demand. Most engineering degrees are granted in electrical, mechanical, or civil engineering. However, engineers trained in one branch may work in related branches; for example, many aerospace engineers have train­ ing in mechanical engineering. This flexibility allows employers to meet staffing needs in new technologies and specialties in which engineers are in short supply. It also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment prospects, or to ones that match their interests more closely. In addition to the standard engineering degree, many colleges offer degrees in engineering technology, which are offered as either 2- or 4year programs. These programs prepare students for practical design and production work rather than for jobs that require more theoretical, scientific and mathematical knowledge. Graduates of 4-year technol­ ogy programs may get jobs similar to those obtained by graduates with a bachelor's degree in engineering. Some employers regard them as having skills between those of a technician and an engineer. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions, but is not required for the majority of entry-level engineering jobs. Many engineers obtain graduate degrees in engineering or business administration to learn new technology, broaden their education, and enhance promotion opportunities. Many high-level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. About 320 colleges and universities offer bachelor's degree pro­ grams in engineering that are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and about 250 colleges offer accredited bachelor's degree programs in engineering technology. ABET accreditation is based on an examination of an engineering pro­ gram’s faculty, curricular content, facilities, and admissions standards. Although most institutions offer programs in the major branches of engineering, only a few offer some of the smaller specialties. Also, programs of the same title may vary in content. For example, some emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in industry, while others are more theoretical and are better for students preparing to take graduate work. Therefore, students should investigate curricula and check accreditations carefully before selecting a college. Admis­ sions requirements for undergraduate engineering schools include a solid background in mathematics (algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus), sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), and courses in English, social studies, humanities, and computers. Bachelor's degree programs in engineering are typically designed to last 4 years, but many students find that it takes between 4 and 5 years to complete their studies. In a typical 4-year college curricu­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  lum, the first 2 years are spent studying mathematics, basic sciences, introductory engineering, humanities, and social sciences. In the last 2 years, most courses are in engineering, usually with a concentration in one branch. For example, the last 2 years of an aerospace program might include courses such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer, applied aerodynamics, analytical mechanics, flight vehicle design, trajectory dynamics, and aerospace propulsion systems. Some programs offer a general engineering curriculum; students then specialize in graduate school or on the job. Some engineering schools and 2-year colleges have agreements whereby the 2-year college provides the initial engineering education and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, a few engineering schools have arrange­ ments whereby a student spends 3 years in a liberal arts college studying pre-engineering subjects and 2 years in the engineering school, and receives a bachelor's degree from each. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master's degree programs. Some 5- or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work, permitting students to gain valuable experience and finance part of their education. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require registration for engineers whose work may affect life, health, or property, or who offer their services to the public. Registration generally requires a degree from an ABET-accredited engineering program, 4 years of relevant work experience, and passing a State examination. Some States will not register people with degrees in engineering technol­ ogy. Engineers may be registered in several states. Engineers should be creative, inquisitive, analytical, and detailoriented. They should be able to work as part of a team and be able to communicate well, both orally and in writing. Beginning engineering graduates usually work under the supervi­ sion of experienced engineers and, in larger companies, may also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult projects with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may advance to become technical spe­ cialists or to supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some eventually become engineering managers or enter other mana­ gerial, management support, or sales jobs. (See the statements under executive, administrative, and managerial occupations; under sales occupations; and on computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Employment opportunities in engineering are expected to be good through the year 2006 because employment is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations while the number of degrees granted in engineering may not increase as rapidly as em­ ployment. Competitive pressures and advancing technology will force companies to improve and update product designs more frequently, and to work to optimize their manufacturing processes. Employers will rely on engineers to further increase productivity as they in­ crease investment in plant and equipment to expand output of goods and services. New computer systems have improved the design process, enabling engineers to produce and analyze design variations much more rapidly; these systems are increasingly used to monitor and control processes. Despite this widespread applica­ tion, computer technology is not expected to limit employment opportunities. Finally, more engineers will be needed to improve or build new roads, bridges, water and pollution control systems, and other public facilities. Many of the jobs in engineering are related to developing tech­ nologies used in national defense. Because defense expenditures, particularly expenditures for the purchase of aircraft, missiles, and other weapons systems, are expected to continue at low levels (com­ pared with the cold war years), employment growth and job outlook for engineers working for defense contractors may not be strong through 2006.  86 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Chart 2. The number of bachelor's degrees In engineering has remained fairly constant in the 1990s. 80 r  2 60 £ 50  2 30 2  10 i-  8  cu  O)  «•>  Q)  a>  5  y>  o>  in  (7)  o>  <p  <7}  u>  Source: Engineering Workplace Commiseian  The number of bachelor's degrees awarded in engineering began declining in 1987, as shown in chart 2, and has stayed at about the same level in the 1990’s. Although it is difficult to project engineer­ ing enrollments, the total number of students enrolled in colleges is expected to increase over the projection period, and it is likely that engineering enrollments and number of degrees awarded will follow. However, some engineering schools have restricted enrollments, especially in defense-related fields such as aerospace engineering, to accommodate the reduced opportunities in defense-related industries. Only a relatively small proportion of engineers leave the profes­ sion each year. Despite this, most job openings will arise from replacement needs. A greater proportion of replacement openings is created by engineers who transfer to management, sales, or other professional specialty occupations than by those who leave the labor force. Most industries are less likely to lay off engineers than other work­ ers. Many engineers work on long-term research and development projects or in other activities which may continue even during reces­ sions. In industries such as electronics and aerospace, however, large cutbacks in defense procurement expenditures, government research and development funds, and the increasing trend of contracting out engineering work to engineering services firms have resulted in sig­ nificant layoffs for engineers. It is important for engineers, like those working in other technical occupations, to continue their education throughout their careers be­ cause much of their value to their employer depends on their knowledge of the latest technology. Although the pace of technologi­ cal change varies by engineering specialty and industry, advances in technology have affected every engineering discipline significantly. Engineers in high-technology areas, such as advanced electronics, may find that technical knowledge can become obsolete rapidly. Even those who continue their education are vulnerable if the particular technology or product in which they have specialized becomes obso­ lete. By keeping current in their field, engineers are able to deliver the best solutions and greatest value to their employers. Engineers who have not kept current in their field may find themselves passed over for promotions or vulnerable to layoffs, should they occur. On the other hand, it is often these high-technology areas that offer the great­ est challenges, the most interesting work, and the highest salaries. Therefore, the choice of engineering specialty and employer involves an assessment not only of the potential rewards but also of the risk of technological obsolescence. Earnings Starting salaries for engineers with the bachelor's degree are signifi­ cantly higher than starting salaries of bachelor's degree graduates in other fields. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, engineering graduates with a bachelor's degree averaged about $38,500 a year in private industry in 1997; those with a mas­ ter's degree and no experience, $45,400 a year; and those with a Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Ph.D., $59,200. Starting salaries for those with the bachelor's degree vary by branch, as shown in the following tabulation. Aerospace..................................................... •........................................ $37,957 Chemical................................................................................................ 42,817 Civil....................................................................................................... 33,119 Electrical................................................................................................ 39,513 Industrial................................................................................................ 38,026 Mechanical............................................................................................. 38,113 Metallurgical......................................................................................... 38,550 Mining................................................................................................... 36,724 Nuclear................................................................................................... 37,194 Petroleum.............................................................................................. 43,674  A survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas reported that beginning engineers had median annual earnings of about $34,400 in 1995, with the middle half earning between about $30,900 and $38,116 a year. Experienced midlevel engineers with no supervisory responsibilities had median annual earnings of about $59,100, with the middle half earning between about $54,000 and $65,000 a year. Median annual earnings for engineers at senior managerial levels were about $99,200. Median annual earnings for these and other levels of engineers are shown in the following tabulation. Engineer I................................................................................................$34,400 Engineer II............................................................................................ 41,000 Engineer III............................................................................................ 48,500 Engineer IV........................................................................................... 59,100 Engineer V............................................................................................ 71,400 Engineer VI........................................................................................... 84,200 Engineer VII.......................................................................................... 99,200 Engineer VIII........................................................................................ 117,000  The median annual salary for all engineers who worked full time was about $49,200 in 1996. Those with a bachelor's degree had me­ dian annual earnings of $49,800; master's degree, $56,700; and PhD, $64,700. Median annual salaries for some engineering specialties were; Aerospace................................................................................................$57,000 Chemical................................................................................................ 52,600 Civil....................................................................................................... 46,000 Electrical................................................................................................ 51,700 Industrial................................................................................................ 43,700 Mechanical............................................................................................. 49,700 Engineers, nec....................................................................................... 49,700  The average annual salary for engineers in the Federal Govern­ ment in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $61,950 in 1997. Related Occupations Engineers apply the principles of physical science and mathematics in their work. Other workers who use scientific and mathematical principles include engineering, science, and computer systems man­ agers; physical, life, and computer scientists; mathematicians; engineering and science technicians; and architects. Sources of Additional Information High school students interested in obtaining general information on a variety of engineering disciplines should contact the Junior Engi­ neering Technical Society by sending a self-addressed business-size envelope with 6 first-class stamps affixed, to: <»■ JETS-Guidance, at 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314-2794. Homepage:  High school students interested in obtaining information on ABET accredited engineering programs should contact: «■ The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc., at 111 Market Place, Suite 1050, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Homepage:  Professional and Technical Occupations 87 Non-high school students and those wanting more detailed infor­ mation should contact societies representing the individual branches of engineering. Each can provide information about careers in the particular branch. Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering, send $3 to: «* American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Suite 500, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4344.  Chemical Engineering «■ American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017-2395. American Chemical Society, Department of Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Civil Engineering American Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400.  Electrical and Electronics Engineering *■ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1828 L St. NW., Suite 1202, Washington, DC 20036.  Industrial Engineering Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc., 25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, GA 30092. Homepage:  Prospective aerospace engineers are likely to face competition be­ cause the number ofjob opportunities is expected to be fewer than the pool of graduates.  Mechanical Engineering The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017. <*■ American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle NE., Atlanta, GA 30329. Homepage://  Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Materials Engineering *■ The Minerals, Metals, & Materials Society, 420 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15086-7514. Homepage: »" ASM International, Student Outreach Program, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002.  Mining Engineering The Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., P.O. Box 625002, Littleton, CO 80162-5002.  Nuclear Engineering American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Ave„ LaGrange Park, IL 60525.  Petroleum Engineering *■ Society of Petroleum Engineers, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836.  Aerospace Engineers  California, Washington, Texas, and Florida—States with large aerospace manufacturers—have the most aerospace engineers. Job Outlook Those seeking employment as aerospace engineers are likely to face competition. The decline in Defense Department expenditures for military aircraft, missiles, and other aerospace systems has caused mergers and acquisitions among defense contractors. Federal Gov­ ernment funding for research and development of new systems has also declined. Growth in the civilian sector is projected to increase due to orders from domestic and foreign airlines that need more air­ craft to accommodate increasing passenger traffic, and to replace the present fleet of airliners with quieter and more fuel-efficient aircraft. Consequently, employment of aerospace engineers is expected to grow more slowly than the average through the year 2006. Future growth of employment in this field could be moderate because a higher proportion of engineers in aerospace manufacturing may come from the materials, mechanical, or electrical engineering fields. Most job openings will result from the need to replace aerospace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. (See introductory section of this chapter for information on train­ ing requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  (DOT. 002.061 and. 167)  Nature of the Work Aerospace engineers design, develop, and test missile, spacecraft, and commercial and military aircraft, and supervise manufacturing of these products. They develop new technologies for use in commer­ cial aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas like structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, or production methods. They also may specialize in a particular type of aerospace product, such as commercial transports, helicopters, spacecraft, or rockets. Aerospace engineers may be experts in aerodynamics, propulsion, thermodynamics, structures, celestial mechanics, acoustics, or guid­ ance and control systems. Employment Aerospace engineers held about 53,000 jobs in 1996. More than twofifths worked in the aircraft and parts and guided missile and space vehicle manufacturing industries. Federal Government agencies, primarily the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, provided more than 1 out of 7 jobs. Busi­ ness services, engineering and architectural services, research and testing services, and electrical and electronics manufacturing firms accounted for most of the remaining jobs. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chemical Engineers (D.O.T. 008.061)  Nature of the Work Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry and engineering to solve problems involving the production or use of chemicals. They design equipment and develop processes for large scale chemi­ cal manufacturing, plan and test methods of manufacturing the products and treating the by-products, and supervise production. Chemical engineers also work in industries other than chemical manufacturing such as electronics or photographic equipment. Be­ cause the knowledge and duties of chemical engineers cut across many fields, they apply principles of chemistry, physics, mathemat­ ics, and mechanical and electrical engineering in their work. They frequently specialize in a particular operation such as oxidation or polymerization. Others specialize in a particular area such as pollu­ tion control or the production of specific products such as automotive plastics or chlorine bleach. Chemical engineers are increasingly us­ ing computer technology to optimize all phases of production, and therefore need to understand how to apply computer skills to process analysis, computer control systems, and statistical quality control.  88 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Civil Engineers (D.O.T. 005.061 except-042, .167-014 and -018; and 019.167-018)  Nature of the Work Civil engineers work in the oldest branch of engineering, designing and supervising the construction of roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, bridges, and water supply and sewage systems. Major specialties within civil engineering are structural, water resources, environ­ mental, construction, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, ranging from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Oth­ ers may work in design, construction, research, and teaching. Employment Civil engineers held about 196,000 jobs in 1996. Almost 47 percent were in firms providing engineering consulting services, primarily developing designs for new construction projects. Another 39 per­ cent of the jobs were in Federal, State, and local government agencies. The construction industry, public utilities, transportation, and manufacturing industries accounted for most of the rest. About 13,000 civil engineers were self-employed, many as consultants. Civil engineers usually work near major industrial and commer­ cial centers, often at construction sites. Some projects are situated in remote areas or in foreign countries. In some jobs, civil engineers move from place to place to work on different projects.  Two-thirds of chemical engineers are employed in the chemical, pe­ troleum refining, paper, and other manufacturing industries. Employment Chemical engineers held over 49,000 jobs in 1996. Manufacturing industries employed two-thirds of all employees, primarily in the chemical, petroleum refining, paper, and related industries. Most of the rest worked for engineering services, research and testing serv­ ices, or consulting firms that design chemical plants. Still others worked on a contract basis, for government agencies or as independ­ ent consultants. Job Outlook Although employment in the chemical manufacturing industry is projected to grow slowly through 2006, employment of chemical engineers should increase about as fast as the average for all oc­ cupations as chemical companies research and develop new chemicals and more efficient processes to increase output of ex­ isting chemicals. Much of the projected growth in employment, however, will be in nonmanufacturing industries, especially service industries. Chemical engineering graduates may face competition for jobs as the number of openings is projected to be lower than the number of graduates. Areas relating to the produc­ tion of specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics materials may provide better opportunities than other portions of the chemical industry. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.) Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of civil engineers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Graduates of civil engineering programs should find favorable opportunities. Spurred by general population growth and an expanding economy, more civil engineers will be needed to design and construct higher capacity transportation, water supply, and pollution control systems; large buildings and building complexes; and to repair or replace ex­ isting roads, bridges, and other public structures. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace civil engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Because construction and related industries—including those pro­ viding design services—employ many civil engineers, employment opportunities will vary by geographic area and may decrease during economic slowdowns, when construction is often curtailed. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  mmmm m mm  m:':  r sin  MM  Civil engineer makes a presentation on proposed highway routes.  Professional and Technical Occupations 89  Electrical and Electronics Engineers (D.O.T. 003.061, .167 except -034 and -070, and .187)  Nature of the Work Electrical and electronics engineers design, develop, test, and super­ vise the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment. Electrical equipment includes power generating and transmission equipment used by electric utilities, and electric motors, machinery controls, and lighting and wiring in buildings, automobiles, and air­ craft. Electronic equipment includes radar, computer hardware, and communications and video equipment. The specialties of electrical and electronics engineers include sev­ eral major areas—such as power generation, transmission, and distribution; communications; computer electronics; and electrical equipment manufacturing—or a subdivision of these areas—industrial robot control systems or aviation electronics, for example. Electrical and electronics engineers design new products, write performance re­ quirements, and develop maintenance schedules. They also test equipment, solve operating problems, and estimate the time and cost of engineering projects. (See the statement on computer scientists, com­ puter engineers, and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Employment Electrical and electronics engineers held about 367,000 jobs in 1996, making it the largest branch of engineering. Most jobs were in engi­ neering and business consulting firms, manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment, industrial machinery manufacturers, pro­ fessional and scientific instruments, and government agencies. Communications and utilities firms, manufacturers of aircraft and guided missiles, and computer and data processing services firms accounted for most of the remaining jobs. Job Outlook Job openings resulting from job growth and the need to replace electrical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force should be sufficient to absorb the number of new gradu­ ates and other entrants, making for good employment opportunities through 2006. Employment of electrical and electronics engineers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations.  The need for electronics manufacturers to invest heavily in research and development to remain competitive, will provide openings for graduates who have learned the latest technologies. Increased de­ mand by businesses and government for improved computers and communications equipment is expected to account for much of the projected employment growth. Consumer demand for electrical and electronic goods should create additional jobs. Job growth is expected to be fastest in non-manufacturing industries, however, because firms are increasingly getting electronic engineering ex­ pertise from consulting and service companies. Engineers who fail to keep up with the rapid changes in technol­ ogy in some specialties risk technological obsolescence, which makes them more susceptible to layoffs or, at a minimum, more likely to be passed over for advancement. Opportunities for electronics engineers in defense-related firms may improve as the trend shifts to upgrading existing aircraft and weapons systems with improved navigation, control, guidance, and targeting systems. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Industrial Engineers (D.O.T. 005.167-026; 012.061 -018, .067, .167 except -022, -026, -034, -058, and -062, and .187)  Nature of the Work Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways for an organiza­ tion to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, materials, information, and energy—to make or process a product or produce a service. They are the bridge between management goals and operational performance. They are more concerned with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organization, and technology than are engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes. To solve organizational, production, and related problems most ef­ ficiently, industrial engineers carefully study the product and its requirements, use mathematical methods such as operations research to meet those requirements, and design manufacturing and information systems. They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and control product quality, and design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services. Industrial engineers determine which plant location has the best combi­ nation of raw materials availability, transportation, and costs. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evalua­ tion programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related. Employment Industrial engineers held about 115,000 jobs in 1996. About 73 percent of these jobs were in manufacturing industries. Because their skills can be used in almost any type of organization, industrial engineers are more widely distributed among manufacturing industries than other engineers. Their skills can be readily applied outside manufacturing as well. Some work in engineering and management services, utilities, and busi­ ness services; others work for government agencies or as independent consultants.  Electrical and electronics engineers comprise the largest branch of engineering. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of industrial engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006, making for favorable opportunities. Industrial growth, more complex business operations, and the greater use of automation in factories and in of­ fices underlie the projected employment growth. Because the main function of an industrial engineer is to make a higher quality product as efficiently as possible, their services should be in demand in the  90 Occupational Outlook Handbook  jBBf  , Tr Graduates of mechanical engineering programs should have favor­ able job opportunities. neers may work in production operations, maintenance, or technical sales; many are administrators or managers.  Industrial engineer conducts a time study in an apparel plant. manufacturing sector as firms seek to reduce costs and increase pro­ ductivity through scientific management and safety engineering. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace industrial engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. (See introductory part of this section for information on training re­ quirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Mechanical Engineers (D.O.T. 007.061, .161-022, -034, and -038, and .267-010)  Nature of the Work Mechanical engineers plan and design tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical equipment. They design and develop powerproducing machines such as internal combustion engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet and rocket engines. They also design and de­ velop power-using machines such as refrigeration and air­ conditioning equipment, robots, machine tools, materials handling systems, and industrial production equipment. The work of mechanical engineers varies by industry and func­ tion. Specialties include, among others, applied mechanics, design, energy systems, pressure vessels and piping, and heating, refrigera­ tion, and air conditioning systems. Mechanical engineers design tools needed by other engineers for their work. Mechanical engineering is the broadest engineering discipline, extending across many interdependent specialties. Mechanical engi Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Mechanical engineers held about 228,000 jobs in 1996. Almost 6 out of 10 jobs were in manufacturing—of these, most were in the ma­ chinery, transportation equipment, electrical equipment, instruments, and fabricated metal products industries. Business and engineering consulting services and Federal government agencies provided most of the remaining jobs. Job Outlook Employment of mechanical engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Gradu­ ates of mechanical engineering programs should have favorable job opportunities. Most of the expected job openings, resulting from both employment growth and the need to replace those who will leave the occupation, should be sufficient to absorb the supply of new graduates and other entrants. Although overall employment in manufacturing is expected to de­ cline, employment of mechanical engineers in manufacturing should increase as the demand for improved machinery and machine tools grows and industrial machinery and processes become increasingly complex. Employment of mechanical engineers in business and en­ gineering services firms is expected to grow faster than average as other industries in the economy increasingly contract out to these firms to solve engineering problems. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Materials Engineers (D.O.T. 006.061; 011.061; and 019.061-014)  Nature of the Work Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers develop new types of metal alloys, ceramics, plastics, composites, and other materials, and  Professional and Technical Occupations 91 adapt existing materials to new uses. Engineers manipulate the atomic and molecular structure of materials in controlled manufac­ turing environments, selecting materials with desirable mechanical, electrical, magnetic, chemical, and heat-transfer properties which meet special performance requirements. Examples are graphite golf club shafts that are light but stiff, ceramic tiles on the space shuttle that protect it from burning up during reentry into the atmosphere, and the alloy turbine blades in a jet engine. Most metallurgical engineers work in one of the three main branches of metallurgy—extractive or chemical, physical, and me­ chanical or process. Extractive metallurgists are concerned with removing metals from ores and refining and alloying them to obtain useful metal. Physical metallurgists study the nature, structure, and physical properties of metals and their alloys, and methods of proc­ essing them into final products. Mechanical metallurgists develop and improve metalworking processes such as casting, forging, roll­ ing, and drawing. Ceramic engineers develop new ceramic materials and methods for making ceramic materials into useful products. Ceramics include all nonmetallic, inorganic materials which require high temperatures in their processing. Ceramic engineers work on products as diverse as glassware, semiconductors, automobile and aircraft engine- compo­ nents, fiber-optic phone lines, tile, and electric power line insulators. Materials engineers evaluate technical requirements and material specifications to develop materials that can be used, for example, to reduce the weight, but not the strength of an object. Materials engi­ neers also test and evaluate materials and develop new materials, such as the composite materials now being used in "stealth" aircraft.  Employment Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers held about 18,000 jobs in 1996. One-fourth worked in metal-producing and processing industries. They also worked in aircraft manufacturing; research and testing services; Federal Government agencies; industries that manu­ facture machinery and electrical equipment; stone, clay, and glass products manufacturing; and engineering consulting firms. Job Outlook Individuals seeking employment as metallurgical, ceramic, and mate­ rials engineers should find good opportunities as the number of anticipated job openings should be sufficient to absorb the low number of new graduates relative to those in other engineering disciplines. Employment of metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Many of the industries in which these engineers are concentrated, such as stone, clay, and glass products; primary metals; fabricated metal products; and transportation equipment industries, are expected to experience little if any employment growth through the year 2006. Anticipated employment growth in service industries, such as re­ search and testing services and engineering and architectural services, however, should provide significant job openings as these firms are hired to develop improved materials for their industrial customers. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Mining Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -018)  Nature of the Work Mining engineers find, extract, and prepare coal, metals, and minerals for use by manufacturing industries and utilities. They design open pit and underground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations, and devise methods for trans­ porting minerals to processing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe, economical, and environmentally sound operation of mines. Some mining engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral processing operations to separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materi­ als with which they are mixed. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral or metal, such as coal or gold. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many min­ ing engineers work to solve problems related to land reclamation and water and air pollution. Employment Mining engineers held about 3,100 jobs in 1996. While two-thirds worked in the mining industry, other mining engineers worked in government agencies, manufacturing industries, or engineering con­ sulting firms. Mining engineers are usually employed at the location of mineral deposits, often near small communities, and sometimes outside the United States. Those in research and development, management, consulting, or sales, however, are often located in metropolitan areas.  Materials engineer measures the expansion characteristics of a mate­ rial. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook The mining industry traditionally has few openings. In fact, em­ ployment in the mining industry and of mining engineers is expected to decline through the year 2006. Therefore, graduates in mining engineering will face competition despite their low number. Opportunities in the mining industry are closely related to the price of the metals and minerals they produce. If the price of these products is high, it makes it worthwhile for a mining company to invest the millions of dollars in material moving equipment and ore processing technology necessary to operate a mine. Although prices  92 Occupational Outlook Handbook  igtiKKib '  imfr'Am  Mining engineers design open pit as well as underground mines.  Nuclear engineer checks a control panel at a nuclear plant.  for mined products have been unstable, the increasing activity of auto manufacturing and expanded development and repair of the Nation's roadways will help provide demand for metals and minerals. The long-term business environment for mining is generally per­ ceived to be favorable, but because a mine takes years of research, planning, and development to become fully operational, it may not contribute to expansion in employment opportunities for mining en­ gineers. Also, because mining operations around the world recruit graduates of U.S. mining engineering programs, opportunities may be better worldwide than within the United States. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Job Outlook Employment of nuclear engineers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Because this is a small occupation, it will translate into few growth-related opportunities. Most openings will arise as nuclear engineers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. However, good opportunities for nuclear engineers should still exist since the small number of nuclear engineering graduates is likely to be in balance with the number of job openings. Due to public concerns over the cost and safety of nuclear power, there are only a small number of nuclear power plants under construction in the United States, and it is possible some older plants will shut down. Nevertheless, nuclear engineers will be needed to operate existing plants. In addition, nuclear engi­ neers will be needed to work in defense-related areas, to develop nuclear medical technology, and to improve and enforce waste management and safety standards. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, eamings, and sources of additional information.)  Nuclear Engineers (D.O.T. 005.061-042; 015.061, .067, .137, and .167)  Nature of the Work Nuclear engineers research and develop the processes, instruments, and systems used to derive benefits from nuclear energy and radia­ tion. They design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear power plants used to generate electricity and power Navy ships. They may work on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by nuclear energy—or on fusion energy. Some specialize in the development of nuclear power sources for spacecraft; others develop industrial and medical uses for radioactive materials, such as equipment to diagnose and treat medical problems. Employment Nuclear engineers held about 14,000 jobs in 1996. About 20 percent each were in utilities, the Federal Government, and engineering con­ sulting firms. Another 12 percent were in research and testing services. More than half of all federally employed nuclear engineers were civilian employees of the Navy, and most of the rest worked for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy, or the Tennessee Valley Authority. Most nonfederally employed nu­ clear engineers worked for public utilities or engineering consulting companies. Some worked for defense manufacturers or manufactur­ ers of nuclear power equipment. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Petroleum Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -014 and -026, .161-010, and .167-010 and -014)  Nature of the Work Petroleum engineers search the world for underground reservoirs containing oil or natural gas. When one is discovered, petroleum engineers work with geologists and other specialists to understand the geologic formation and properties of the rock containing the reser­ voir, determine the drilling methods to be used, and monitor drilling and production operations. They design equipment and processes to achieve the maximum profitable recovery of oil and gas, sometimes using computer models to simulate reservoir performance using dif­ ferent recovery techniques. Because only a small proportion of the oil and gas in a reservoir will flow out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods. These include injecting water, chemicals, gases, or steam into an oil reservoir to force more of the oil out, and computer-controlled drilling or fracturing to con­ nect a larger area of a reservoir to a single well. Since even the best  Professional and Technical Occupations 93 duction, and service companies. Engineering consulting firms, government agencies, oil field services, and equipment suppliers also employ petroleum engineers. Others work as independent consultants. Most petroleum engineers work where oil and gas are found. Large numbers are employed in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Colo­ rado, and California, including offshore sites. Many American petroleum engineers also work overseas in oil-producing countries. Because petroleum engineers specialize in the discovery and produc­ tion of oil and gas, relatively few are employed in the refining, transportation, and retail sectors of the oil and gas industry.  ,rl"  <  Petroleum engineer oversees drilling problems.  techniques in use today recover only a portion of the oil and gas in a reservoir, petroleum engineers research and develop technology and methods to increase this proportion and lower the cost of drilling and production operations. Employment Petroleum engineers held over 13,000 jobs in 1996, mostly in the pe­ troleum industry and closely allied fields. Employers include major oil companies and hundreds of smaller, independent oil exploration, pro­  Job Outlook Employment of petroleum engineers is expected to decline through the year 2006 unless oil and gas prices unexpectedly rise enough to encourage increased exploration for oil in this country. In spite of this, employment opportunities for petroleum engineers should be favorable because the number of degrees granted in petroleum engi­ neering has traditionally been low. Therefore, new graduates are not likely to significantly exceed the number of job openings arising as petroleum engineers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Also, petroleum engineers work around the globe, and many employers seek U.S.-trained petroleum engineers for jobs in other countries. The price of oil has a major effect on the level of employment opportunities for petroleum engineers in the United States. A high price of oil and gas makes it profitable for oil exploration and pro­ duction firms to seek oil and gas reservoirs, and they will hire petroleum engineers to do so. With low oil prices, however, it is cheaper to purchase needed oil from other countries, such as Saudi Arabia, which have vast oil reserves. Also, the best exploration opportunities are in other countries because many of the most likely petroleum-producing areas in the United States have already been explored. However, the implementation of new technologies that expand drilling possibilities and improve the performance of reser­ voirs in the U.S. and the Gulf of Mexico may create new opportunities. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Engineering Technicians (D.O.T. 002.261-014, .262-010; 003.161, .261-010, .362; 005.261; 006.261; 007.161-026 and -030, .167-010, .181 and .267-014; 008.261; 010.261-010 and -026; 011.261-010, -014, -018, and -022, .281, .361; 012.261-014, .267; 013.161; 017.261-010; 017.684; 019.161-014, .261-018, -022, -026, and -034, .267, .281; 194.381, .382-010; 199.261-014; 726.261-010 and -014; 806.281 -014; 761.281 -014; 828.261 -018; and 869.261 -026)  Significant Points •  About 43 percent of all engineering technicians employed in 1996 were electrical and electronic engineering techni­ cians.  •  Most employers prefer those with an associate’s degree in engineering technology.  Nature of the Work Engineering technicians use the principles and theories of science, engineering, and mathematics to solve technical problems in research and development, manufacturing, sales, construction, inspection, and maintenance. Their work is more limited in scope and more practi­ cally oriented than that of scientists and engineers. Many engineering technicians assist engineers and scientists, especially in research and development. Others work in quality control—inspect­ ing products and processes, conducting tests, or collecting data. In manufacturing, they may assist in product design and development, process design, or production. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Engineering technicians who work in research and development, build or set up equipment, prepare and conduct experiments, calcu­ late or record the results, and help engineers in other ways. Some make prototype versions of newly designed equipment. They also assist in design work, often using computer-aided design equipment. Engineering technicians who work in manufacturing support the work of engineers. They may prepare specifications for materials, devise and run tests to ensure product quality, or study ways to im­ prove manufacturing efficiency. They may also supervise production workers to make sure they follow prescribed procedures. Most engineering technicians specialize in certain areas, learning skills and working in the same disciplines as engineers. Occupational titles, therefore, tend to follow the same structure as engineers. Chemical engineering technicians are usually employed in industries producing pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and petroleum products, among others. They work in laboratories as well as processing plants. They help develop new chemical products and processes, test processing equipment and instrumentation, monitor quality, and op­ erate chemical manufacturing facilities. Civil engineering technicians help civil engineers plan and build highways, buildings, bridges, dams, wastewater treatment systems, and other stmetures, and perform related surveys and studies. Some inspect water and wastewater treatment systems to ensure pollution control requirements are met. Others estimate construction costs and specify materials to be used. Some may even prepare drawings or  94 Occupational Outlook Handbook perform land surveying duties. (Separate statements on cost estima­ tors, drafters, and surveyors can be found elsewhere in the Handbook.) Electrical and electronics engineering technicians help design, develop, test, and manufacture electrical and electronic equipment such as radios, radar, sonar, television, industrial and medical meas­ uring or control devices, navigational equipment, and computers. They may work in product evaluation and testing, using measuring and diagnostic devices to adjust, test, and repair equipment. Workers who only repair electrical and electronic equipment are discussed in several other statements on mechanics, installers, and repairers found elsewhere in the Handbook. Many of these repairers are often re­ ferred to as electronics technicians. Electrical and electronic engineering technology is also applied to a wide variety of systems such as communications and process controls. Electromechanical engineering technicians combine fundamental prin­ ciples of mechanical engineering technology with knowledge of electrical and electronic circuits to design, develop, test, and manufac­ ture electrical and computer controlled mechanical systems. Industrial engineering technicians study the efficient use of per­ sonnel, materials, and machines in factories, stores, repair shops, and offices. They prepare layouts of machinery and equipment, plan the flow of work, make statistical studies, and analyze production costs. Mechanical engineering technicians help engineers design, de­ velop, test, and manufacture industrial machinery, mechanical parts, and other equipment. They may assist in the testing of a guided mis­ sile, or in the planning and design of an electric power generation plant. They make sketches and rough layouts, record data, make computations, analyze results, and write reports. When planning production, mechanical engineering technicians prepare layouts and drawings of the assembly process and of parts to be manufactured. They estimate labor costs, equipment life, and plant space. Some test and inspect machines and equipment in manufacturing departments or work with engineers to eliminate production problems. Working Conditions Most engineering technicians work 40 hours a week in a laboratory, office, manufacturing or industrial plant, or on a construction site. Some may be exposed to hazards from equipment, chemicals, or toxic materials.  Iflliilg  V.  .if  Engineering technicians use computers to perform calculations and record the results of tests and experiments. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Engineering technicians held about 698,000 jobs in 1996. Almost 298,000 of these were electrical and electronics engineering techni­ cians. About 33 of all engineering technicians worked in durable goods manufacturing, mainly in the electrical and electronic ma­ chinery and equipment, industrial machinery and equipment, instruments and related products, and transportation equipment industries. Another 25 percent worked in service industries, mostly in engineering or business services companies that do engineering work on contract for government, manufacturing, or other organi­ zations. In 1996, the Federal Government employed about 42,000 engi­ neering technicians. The major employer was the Department of Defense, followed by the Departments of Transportation, Agriculture, and the Interior, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. State governments employed about 37,000 and local governments about 27,000. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although it is possible to qualify for some engineering technician jobs with no formal training, most employers prefer to hire someone with at least a 2-year degree in engineering technology. Training is available at technical institutes, junior and community colleges, ex­ tension divisions of colleges and universities, public and private vocational-technical schools, and through some technical training programs in the Armed Forces. Persons with college courses in sci­ ence, engineering, and mathematics may also qualify for some positions but may need additional specialized training and experi­ ence. Prospective engineering technicians should take as many high school science and math courses as possible to prepare for post­ secondary programs in engineering technology. Most 2-year associate programs accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engi­ neering and Technology (ABET) require, at a minimum, college algebra and trigonometry, and one or two basic science courses. More math or science may be required depending on the area of specialty. The type of technical courses required also varies de­ pending on the area of specialty. For example, prospective mechanical engineering technicians may take courses in fluid me­ chanics, thermodynamics, and mechanical design; electrical engineering technicians may take classes in electric circuits, micro­ processors, and digital electronics; and those preparing to work in environmental engineering technology need courses in environ­ mental regulations and safe handling of hazardous materials. Because many engineering technicians may become involved in design work, creativity is desirable. Good communication skills and the ability to work well with others is also important since they are often part of a team of engineers and other technicians. Engineering technicians usually begin by performing routine duties under the close supervision of an experienced technician, technologist, engineer, or scientist. As they gain experience, they are given more difficult assignments with only general supervision. Some engineering technicians eventually become supervisors. Many publicly and privately operated schools provide technical training; the type and quality of programs vary considerably. There­ fore, prospective students should be careful in selecting a program. They should contact prospective employers regarding their prefer­ ences and ask schools to provide information about the kinds of jobs obtained by graduates, instructional facilities and equipment, and faculty qualifications. Graduates of ABET-accredited programs are generally recognized to have achieved an acceptable level of compe­ tence in the mathematics, science, and technical courses required for this occupation. Technical institutes offer intensive technical training, but less the­ ory and general education than junior and community colleges. Many offer 2-year associate degree programs, and are similar to or part of a community college or State university system. Other tech­ nical institutes are run by private, often for-profit, organizations, sometimes called proprietary schools. Their programs vary consid­  Professional and Technical Occupations 95 erably in length and types of courses offered, although some are 2year associate degree programs. Junior and community colleges offer curriculums similar to those in technical institutes but may include more theory and liberal arts. Often there may be little or no difference between technical institute and community college programs, as both offer associate degrees. After completing the 2-year program, some graduates get jobs as engineering technicians, while others continue their education at 4-year colleges. However, there is a difference between an associate degree in pre­ engineering and one in engineering technology. Students who enroll in a 2-year pre-engineering program may find it very difficult to find work as an engineering technician should they decide not to enter a 4-year engineering program, because pre-engineering programs usually focus less on hands-on applications and more on academic preparatory work. Conversely, graduates of 2-year engineering technology programs may not receive credit for many of the courses they have taken if they choose to transfer to a 4-year engineering program. Colleges with these 4-year programs usually do not offer engineering technician training, but college courses in science, engineering, and mathematics are useful for obtaining a job as an engineering technician. Many 4year colleges offer bachelor's degrees in engineering technology, but graduates of these programs are often hired to work as technologists or applied engineers, not technicians. Area vocational-technical schools include postsecondary public institutions that serve local students and emphasize training needed by local employers. Most require a high school diploma or its equivalent for admission. Other training in technical areas may be obtained in the Armed Forces. Many military technical training programs are highly re­ garded by employers. However, skills acquired in military programs often are narrowly focused, so they are not necessarily transferable to civilian industry, which often requires broader training. Therefore, some additional training may be needed, depending on the acquired skills and the kind of job. The National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technolo­ gies (N1CET) has established a voluntary certification program for engineering technicians. Although engineering technicians are not generally required to be certified by employers, certification may provide job seekers a competitive advantage. Certification is avail­ able at various levels, each level combining a written examination in one of over 30 specialty fields with a certain amount of job related experience.  openings will be created to replace technicians who retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. As production of technical products continues to grow, competi­ tive pressures will force companies to improve and update manufacturing facilities and product designs more rapidly than in the past. Like engineers, employment of engineering technicians is in­ fluenced by local and national economic conditions. As a result, the employment outlook varies with area of specialization and industry. Employment of some types of engineering technicians, such as civil engineering and aeronautical engineering technicians, experience greater cyclical fluctuations than others. Technicians whose jobs are defense-related may experience fewer opportunities because of recent defense cutbacks. On the other hand, employment of the largest spe­ cialty group—electrical and electronics engineering technicians—is expected to grow slightly faster than the overall rate for all engineer­ ing technicians. Increasing demand for more sophisticated electrical and electronic products, as well as the expansion of these products and systems into all areas of industry and manufacturing processes, will contribute to stronger employment growth in this specialty area.  Job Outlook Overall, employment of engineering technicians is expected to in­ crease as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. However, the growing availability and use of advanced tech­ nologies, such as computer-aided design and drafting and computer simulation, will continue to increase productivity and impact em­ ployment growth. Opportunities should be best for individuals who have completed a 2-year program in engineering technology. As technology becomes more sophisticated, employers continue to look for technicians who are skilled in new technology and require a minimum of additional job training. In addition to growth, many job  Sources of Additional Information For a small fee, information on a variety of engineering technician and technology careers is available from:  Earnings According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, engi­ neering technicians at the most junior level had median earnings of about $20,200 in 1995, with the middle half earning between $17,700 and $22,800 a year. Engineering technicians with more experience and the ability to work with little supervision had median earnings of about $32,700, and those in supervisory or most senior level positions earned about $54,800. In the Federal Government, engineering technicians started at about $15,500, $17,400, or $19,500 in early 1997, depending on their education and experience. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas of the country where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The average annual salary for engineering technicians in supervisory, nonsupervisory, and management positions in the Fed­ eral Government in 1997 was $42,710; for electronics technicians, $46,040; and for industrial engineering technicians, $43,510. Related Occupations Engineering technicians apply scientific and engineering principles usually acquired in postsecondary programs below the baccalaureate level. Similar occupations include science technicians, drafters, sur­ veyors, broadcast technicians, and health technologists and technicians.  *■ The Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS), at 1420 King St„ Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314-2794. Enclose $3.50 to obtain a full package of guidance materials and information. Brochures are available free on JETS homepage:  Information on ABET-accredited engineering technology pro­ grams is available from: *■ Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. Ill Market Place, Suite 1050, Baltimore, MD 21202. Homepage: htp://  Architects, Surveyors, and Drafters •  Licensure requirements include a professional degree in architecture, a period of practical training or internship, and passage of all sections of the Architect Registration Examination.  •  Prospective architects may face competition, especially for jobs in the most prestigious firms; those who complete at least one summer internship while in school and know computer-aided design and drafting technology may have a distinct advantage in the job market.  Architects______ (D.O.T. 001.061-010 and .167-010)  Significant Points •  Nearly 30 percent—over three times the proportion for all professionals—are self-employed, practicing as partners in architecture firms or on their own. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  96 Occupational Outlook Handbook Nature of the Work Architects design buildings and other structures. The design of a building involves far more than its appearance. Buildings must also be functional, safe, and economical, and must suit the needs of the people who use them. Architects take all these things into considera­ tion when they design buildings and other structures. Architects provide a wide variety of professional services to indi­ viduals and organizations planning a construction project. They may be involved in all phases of development, from the initial discussion of general ideas with the client through the entire life of the facility. Their duties require a number of skills—design, engineering, mana­ gerial, communication, and supervisory. The architect and client first discuss the purposes, requirements, and budget of a project. In some cases, architects provide various predesign services—conducting feasibility and environmental impact studies, selecting a site, or specifying the requirements the design must meet. For example, they may determine space requirements by researching the number and type of potential users of a building. The architect then prepares drawings and a report presenting ideas for the client to review. After the initial proposals are discussed and accepted, architects develop final construction plans. These plans show the building's appearance and details for its construction. Accompanying these are drawings of the structural system; air-conditioning, heating, and ven­ tilating systems; electrical systems; plumbing; and possibly site and landscape plans. They also specify the building materials and, in some cases, the interior furnishings. In developing designs, architects follow building codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other ordi­ nances, such as those requiring easy access by disabled persons. Throughout the planning stage, they make necessary changes. Al­ though they have traditionally used pencil and paper to produce design and construction drawings, architects are increasingly turning to computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) technology for these important tasks. Architects may also assist the client in obtaining construction bids, selecting a contractor, and negotiating the construction contract. As construction proceeds, they may visit the building site to ensure the contractor is following the design, adhering to the schedule, using the specified materials, and meeting quality work standards. The job  ■  Architects must be licensed before they may contract to provide ar­ chitectural services. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  is not complete until all construction is finished, required tests are made, and construction costs are paid. Sometimes, architects also provide postconstruction services, such as facilities management. They advise on energy efficiency measures, evaluate how well the building design adapts to the needs of occupants, and make necessary improvements. Architects design a wide variety of buildings, such as office and apartment buildings, schools, churches, factories, hospitals, houses, and airport terminals. They also design multibuilding complexes such as urban centers, college campuses, industrial parks, and entire communities. In addition to designing buildings, they may advise on the selection of building sites, prepare cost analysis and land-use studies, and do long-range planning for land development. Architects sometimes specialize in one phase of work. Some spe­ cialize in the design of one type of building—for example, hospitals, schools, or housing. Others focus on planning and predesign services or construction management, and do little design work. They often work with engineers, urban planners, interior designers, landscape architects, and others. During a training period leading up to licensure as architects, en­ try-level workers are called intem-architects. This training period gives them practical work experience while they prepare for the Ar­ chitect Registration Examination (ARE). Typical duties may include preparing construction drawings on CADD, or assisting in the design of one part of a project. Working Conditions Architects generally work in a comfortable environment. Most of their time is spent in offices advising clients, developing reports and drawings, and working with other architects and engineers. How­ ever, they often visit construction sites to review the progress of projects. Architects may occasionally be under great stress, working nights and weekends to meet deadlines. In 1996, about 2 out of 5 architects worked more than 40 hours a week, in contrast to 1 in 4 workers in all occupations combined. Employment Architects held about 94,000 jobs in 1996. The majority of jobs were in architecture firms—most of which employ fewer than 5 workers. A few worked for builders, real estate developers, and for govern­ ment agencies responsible for housing, planning, or community development, such as the U.S. Departments of Defense and Interior, and the General Services Administration. Nearly 3 in 10 architects is self-employed, practicing as partners in architecture firms or on their own. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require individuals to be li­ censed (registered) before they may call themselves architects or contract to provide architectural services. Many architecture school graduates work in the field even though they are not licensed. How­ ever, a licensed architect is required to take legal responsibility for all work. Licensure requirements include a professional degree in ar­ chitecture, a period of practical training or internship, and passage of all sections of the ARE. In many States, the professional degree in architecture must be from one of the 105 schools of architecture with programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). However, State architectural registration boards set their own standards, so graduation from a non NAAB-accredited program may meet the edu­ cation requirement for licensure in some States. There are several types of professional degrees in architecture. The majority of all architecture degrees are from 5-year Bachelor of Architecture pro­ grams, intended for students entering from high school or with no previous architecture training. Some schools offer a 2-year Master of Architecture program for students with a preprofessional undergradu­ ate degree in architecture or a related area, or a 3- or 4-year Master of Architecture program for students with a degree in another discipline.  Professional and Technical Occupations 97 In addition, there are many combinations and variations of these de­ gree programs. The choice of degree type depends upon each individual’s prefer­ ence and educational background. Prospective architecture students should carefully consider the available options before committing to a program. For example, although the 5-year Bachelor of Architec­ ture program offers the fastest route to the professional degree, courses are specialized and, if the student does not complete the pro­ gram, moving to a nonarchitecture program may be difficult. A typical program includes courses in architectural history and theory, building design, professional practice, math, physical sciences, and liberal arts. Central to most architecture programs is the design stu­ dio, where students put into practice the skills and concepts learned in the classroom. During the final semester of many programs, students devote their studio time to creating an architectural project from be­ ginning to end, culminating in a 3-dimensional model of their design. Many architecture schools also offer graduate education for those who already have a bachelor's or master's degree in architecture or other areas. Although graduate education beyond the professional degree is not required for practicing architects, it is normally required for research, teaching, and certain specialties. Architects must be able to visually communicate their ideas to cli­ ents. Artistic and drawing ability is very helpful in doing this, but not essential. More important is a visual orientation and the ability to conceptualize and understand spatial relationships. Good communi­ cation skills, the ability to work independently or as part of a team, and creativity are important qualities for anyone interested in be­ coming an architect. Computer literacy is also required as most firms use computers for specifications writing, 2- and 3-dimensional draft­ ing, and financial management. A knowledge of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is helpful and will become more impor­ tant as architecture firms continue to adopt this technology. All State architectural registration boards require a training period before candidates may sit for the ARE and become licensed. Many States have adopted the training standards established by the Intern Development Program, a branch of the American Institute of Archi­ tects and the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. These standards stipulate broad and diversified training under the supervision of a licensed architect over a 3-year period. New gradu­ ates usually begin as intern-architects in architecture firms, where they assist in preparing architectural documents or drawings. They may also do research on building codes and materials, or write speci­ fications for building materials, installation criteria, the quality of finishes, and other related details. Graduates with degrees in archi­ tecture also enter related fields such as graphic, interior, or industrial design; urban planning; real estate development; civil engineering; or construction management. In such cases, an architectural license, and thus the internship period, is not required. After completing the internship period, intern-architects are eligi­ ble to sit for the ARE. The examination tests candidates on a broad body of architectural knowledge, and is given in sections throughout the year. Candidates who pass the ARE and meet all standards es­ tablished by their State board are licensed to practice in that State. After becoming licensed and gaining experience, architects take on increasingly responsible duties, eventually managing entire proj­ ects. In large firms, architects may advance to supervisory or managerial positions. Some architects become partners in established firms; others set up their own practice, Several States require continuing education to maintain licensure, and many more States are expected to adopt mandatory continuing education. Requirements vary by State, but usually involve the com­ pletion of a certain number of credits every year or two through seminars, workshops, formal university classes, conferences, self­ study courses, or other sources. Job Outlook Despite projected average employment growth coupled with job openings stemming from the need to replace architects who retire or leave the labor force for other reasons, prospective architects may Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  face competition, especially if the number of architecture degrees awarded remain at, or above, current levels. Many individuals are attracted to this occupation, and the number of applicants often ex­ ceeds the number of available jobs, especially in the most prestigious firms. Prospective architects who complete at least one summer in­ ternship—either paid or unpaid—while in school and know CADD technology, may have a distinct advantage in getting an internarchitect position after graduation. Because construction—particularly office and retail—is sensi­ tive to cyclical changes in the economy, architects will face particularly strong competition for jobs or clients during recessions, and layoffs may occur. Those involved in the design of institu­ tional buildings such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, and correctional facilities, will be less affected by fluctuations in the economy. Even in times of overall good job opportunities, however, there may be areas of the country with poor opportunities. Architects who are licensed to practice in one State must meet the licensing requirements of other States before practicing elsewhere. These requirements are becoming more standardized, however, facilitat­ ing movement to other States. Employment of architects is strongly tied to the level of local con­ struction, particularly nonresidential structures such as office buildings, shopping centers, schools, and healthcare facilities. The boom in nonresidential constmction during the 1980s resulted in high vacancy rates and a slowdown in this type of constmction during the first half of the 1990s. Although this sector of the constmction in­ dustry is beginning to recover, slower labor force growth, rapid increases in telecommuting and flexiplace work, and the earlier over­ building are expected to continue to suppress demand for new office space between 1996 and 2006. Nevertheless, employment of archi­ tects is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations during this period. As the stock of buildings ages, demand for remodeling and repair work should grow considerably. The needed renovation and reha­ bilitation of old buildings, particularly in urban areas where space for new buildings is becoming limited, is expected to provide many job opportunities for architects. In addition, demographic trends and changes in health care delivery are influencing the demaqd for certain institutional structures, and should also provide more jobs for archi­ tects in the future. For example, increases in the school-age population will result in new school constmction and additions to existing schools. And, growth is expected in the number of adult care centers, assisted-living facilities, and community health clinics, all of which are preferable, less costly alternatives to hospitals and nursing homes. Earnings According to The American Institute of Architects, the median com­ pensation, including bonuses, for intern-architects in architecture firms was $27,000 in 1996. Licensed architects with 3 to 5 of years experience had median earnings of $33,000; licensed architects with 8 to 10 years of experience, but who were not managers or principals of a firm, earned $45,000. Principals or partners of firms earned $75­ 100,000 in 1996, although partners in some large practices earned considerably more. Similar to other industries, small architecture firms (fewer than 5 employees) are less likely than larger firms to provide employee benefits. Earnings of partners in established architecture firms may fluctu­ ate due to changing business conditions. Some architects may have difficulty establishing their own practices, and may go through a period when their expenses are greater than their income, requiring substantial financial resources. Related Occupations Architects design and construct buildings and related structures. Others who engage in similar work are landscape architects, building contractors, civil engineers, urban planners, interior designers, indus­ trial designers, and graphic designers.  98 Occupational Outlook Handbook Sources of Additional Information Information about education and careers in architecture can be ob­ tained from: * Careers in Architecture Program, The American Institute of Architects, 1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20006. Homepage: Society of American Registered Architects, Nathan Kolodny Consultants, Suite 2A, 100 Pinewood Rd., Hartsdale, NY 10530.  Drafters (D.O.T. 001.261; 002.261; 003.131, .261 except -010, .281; 005.281; 007.161-010, -014, and -018, .261, and .281; 010.281 except -022; 014.281; 017 except .261-010 and .684; 019.161-010, .261-014; and 726.364-014)  Significant Points •  Demand for particular drafting specializations varies geo­ graphically, depending on the needs of local industry.  •  Little change in employment is expected through the year  2006. •  Opportunities should be best for individuals who have at least 2 years of training in a technically strong drafting program and who have considerable skill and experience using computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems.  Nature of the Work Drafters prepare technical drawings and plans used by production and construction workers to build everything from manufactured products such as spacecraft or industrial machinery to structures such as office buildings or oil and gas pipelines. Their drawings provide visual guidelines, showing the technical details of the products and struc­ tures, specifying dimensions, materials to be used, and procedures and processes to be followed. Drafters fill in technical details, using drawings, rough sketches, specifications, codes, and calculations pre­ viously made by engineers, surveyors, architects, or scientists. For example, they use their knowledge of standardized building tech­ niques to draw in the details of a structure. Some drafters employ a knowledge of engineering and manufacturing theory and standards to draw the parts of a machine in order to determine design elements such as the number and kind of fasteners needed to assemble it. To do this, they use technical handbooks, tables, calculators, and computers. Traditionally, drafters sat at drawing boards and used compasses, dividers, protractors, triangles, and other drafting devices to prepare a drawing manually. Most drafters now use computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems to prepare drawings. These systems employ com­ puter work stations which create a drawing on a video screen. The drawings are stored electronically so that revisions and/or duplica­ tions can be made easily. These systems also permit drafters to easily and quickly prepare variations of a design. Although this equipment has become easier to operate, CAD is only a tool. Persons who pro­ duce technical drawings using CAD still function as a drafter, and need most of the knowledge of traditional drafters—relating to drafting skills and standards—as well as CAD skills. As CAD technology advances and the cost of the systems contin­ ues to fall, it is likely that almost all drafters will use CAD systems regularly in the future. However, manual drafting may still be used in certain applications, especially in specialty firms that produce many one-of-a-kind drawings with little repetition. Drafting work has many specializations and titles may denote a particular discipline of design or drafting. Architectural drafters draw architectural and structural features of buildings and other structures. They may specialize by the type of structure, such as residential or commercial, or by material used, such as reinforced concrete, masonry, steel, or timber. Aeronautical drafters prepare engineering drawings detailing plans and specifications used for the manufacture of aircraft, missiles, and parts. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Electrical drafters prepare wiring and layout diagrams used by workers who erect, install, and repair electrical equipment and wiring in communication centers, powerplants, electrical distribution sys­ tems, and buildings. Electronic drafters draw wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, schematics, and layout drawings used in the manufacture, installation, and repair of electronic devices and components. Civil drafters prepare drawings and topographical and relief maps used in major construction or civil engineering projects such as highways, bridges, pipelines, flood control projects, and water and sewage systems. Mechanical drafters prepare detail and assembly drawings of a wide variety of machinery and mechanical devices, indicating dimen­ sions, fastening methods, and other requirements. Process piping or pipeline drafters prepare drawings used for lay­ out, construction, and operation of oil and gas fields, refineries, chemical plants, and process piping systems. Working Conditions Drafters usually work in comfortable offices furnished to accommo­ date their tasks. They may sit at adjustable drawing boards or drafting tables when doing manual drawings, although most drafters work at computer terminals much of the time. Like other workers who spend long periods of time in front of a computer terminals do­ ing detailed work, drafters may be susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems.  Though most work is done using computer-aided drafting systems, drafters may still prepare manual drawings using T-squares and triangles.  Professional and Technical Occupations 99 Employment Drafters held about 310,000 jobs in 1996. Over 32 percent of all drafters worked in engineering and architectural services firms that design construction projects or do other engineering work on a con­ tract basis for organizations in other parts of the economy. Another 29 percent worked in durable goods manufacturing industries, such as machinery, electrical equipment, and fabricated metals. The remain­ der were mostly employed in the construction, communications, utilities, and personnel supply services industries. About 5,000 were self-employed in 1996. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers prefer applicants for drafting positions who have com­ pleted post-high school training in drafting, which is offered by technical institutes, junior and community colleges, and some col­ leges and universities. Employers are most interested in applicants who have well-developed drafting and mechanical drawing skills; a knowledge of standards, mathematics, science, and engineering tech­ nology; and a solid background in computer-aided drafting and design techniques. In addition, communication and problem-solving skills are required. Individuals planning careers in drafting should take courses in math, science, computer technology, design or computer graphics, and any high school drafting courses available. Mechanical and vis­ ual aptitude are also important. Prospective drafters should be able to draw freehand, three-dimensional objects and do detailed work accu­ rately and neatly. Artistic ability is helpful in some specialized fields, as is knowledge of manufacturing and construction methods. In addition, prospective drafters should have good interpersonal skills because they work closely with engineers, surveyors, architects, and other professionals. Entry level or junior drafters usually do routine work under close supervision. After gaining experience, intermediate level drafters progress to more difficult work with less supervision. They may be required to exercise more judgment and perform calculations when preparing and modifying drawings. Drafters may eventually advance to senior drafter, designer, or supervisor. Many employers pay for continuing education, and with appropriate college degrees, drafters may go on to become engineering technicians, engineers, or archi­ tects. Many types of publicly and privately operated schools provide some form of drafting training. The kind and quality of programs can vary considerably. Therefore, prospective students should be careful in selecting a program. They should contact prospective employers regarding their preferences and ask schools to provide information about the kinds of jobs obtained by graduates, type and condition of instructional facilities and equipment, and faculty quali­ fications. Technical institutes offer intensive technical training but less of the general education than do junior and community colleges. Some award certificates or diplomas based on completion of a certain num­ ber of course hours. Many offer 2-year associate degree programs, which are similar to or part of the programs offered by community colleges or State university systems. Other technical institutes are run by private, often for-profit, organizations, sometimes called pro­ prietary schools. Their programs vary considerably in both length and type of courses offered. Junior and community colleges offer curriculums similar to those in technical institutes but include more courses on theory and liberal arts. Often there is little or no difference between technical institute and community college programs. However, courses taken at junior or community colleges are more likely to be accepted for credit at 4year colleges than those at technical institutes. After completing a 2year associate degree program, graduates may obtain jobs as drafters or continue their education in a related field at 4-year colleges. Fouryear colleges usually do not offer drafting training, but college courses in engineering, architecture, and mathematics are useful for obtaining a job as a drafter. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Area vocational-technical schools are postsecondary public insti­ tutions that serve local students and emphasize training needed by local employers. Many offer introductory drafting instruction. Most require a high school diploma or its equivalent for admission. Technical training obtained in the Armed Forces can also be ap­ plied in civilian drafting jobs. Some additional training may be necessary, depending on the technical area or military specialty, but often this can be gained on the job. The American Design Drafting Association (ADDA) has estab­ lished a certification program for drafters. Although drafters are not generally required to be certified by employers, certification demon­ strates that nationally recognized standards have been met. Individuals who wish to become certified must pass the Drafter Certi­ fication Test, which is administered periodically at ADDA-authorized test sites. Applicants are tested on their knowledge and understanding of basic drafting concepts such as geometric construction, working drawings, and architectural terms and standards. Job Outlook Employment of drafters is expected to change little through the year 2006. Although industrial growth and increasingly complex design problems associated with new products and manufacturing will in­ crease the demand for drafting services, greater use of CAD equipment by architects and engineers, as well as drafters, should offset this growth in demand. Many job openings, however, are expected to arise as drafters move to other occupations or leave the labor force. Opportunities should be best for individuals who have at least 2 years of training in a technically strong drafting program and who have considerable skill and experience using CAD systems. CAD has become a powerful tool, simplifying many traditional drafting tasks. It has increased the complexity of drafting applications while enhancing the productivity of drafters. As technology continues to advance, employers will look for drafters who can combine a strong background in fundamental drafting principles with a higher level of technical sophistication and an ability to apply this knowledge to a broader range of responsibilities. Demand for particular drafting specializations varies throughout the country because employment is generally contingent upon the needs of local industry. Employment of drafters remains highly con­ centrated in industries that are sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy, such as engineering and architectural services and durable goods manufacturing. During recessions, drafters may be laid off. A growing number of drafters should continue to be employed on a temporary or contract basis, as more companies turn to the personnel supply services industry to meet their changing needs. Earnings Median annual earnings of drafters who worked year round, full time were about $31,250 in 1996; the middle 50 percent earned between $23,400 and $41,500 annually. The top 10 percent earned more than $50,750, while the bottom 10 percent earned less than $19,000. According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, beginning drafters had median annual earnings of about $20,700 a year in 1995, with the middle half earning between about $18,600 and $22,400 a year. The most experienced drafters had median earnings of about $40,900 a year in 1996, with the middle half earn­ ing between about $36,100 and $45,800 a year. Related Occupations Other workers who prepare or analyze detailed drawings and make precise calculations and measurements include architects, landscape architects, designers, engineers, engineering technicians, science technicians, cartographers, and surveyors. Sources of Additional Information Information on schools offering programs in drafting and related areas is available from: Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technology, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 302, Arlington, VA 22201.  100 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Landscape Architects (D O T. 001.061-018)  Significant Points •  Nearly 30 percent—over three times the proportion for all professionals—are self-employed .  •  A bachelor's degree in landscape architecture is the mini­ mum requirement for entry-level jobs; many employers prefer to hire landscape architects who have completed at least one internship.  •  Because many landscape architects work for small firms or are self-employed, benefits tend to be less generous than those provided to workers in large organizations.  m.i  Nature of the Work Everyone enjoys attractively designed residential areas, public parks and playgrounds, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, parkways, and industrial parks. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional but beautiful and compatible with the natural environment as well. They may plan the location of  buildings, roads, and walkways and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees. Historic preservation and natural resource conser­ vation and reclamation are other important objectives to which landscape architects may apply their knowledge of the environment as well as their design and artistic talents. Many types of organizations—from real estate development firms starting new projects to municipalities constructing airports or parks—hire landscape architects, who are often involved with the development of a site from its conception. Working with architects, surveyors, and engineers, landscape architects help determine the best arrangement of roads and buildings. They also collaborate with envi­ ronmental scientists, foresters, and other professionals to find the best way to conserve or restore natural resources. Once these decisions are made, landscape architects create detailed plans indicating new topography, vegetation, walkways, and other landscaping details, such as fountains and decorative features. In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the nature and purpose of the project and the funds available. They analyze the natural elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation; observe where sunlight falls on the site at different times of the day and examine the site from various angles; and assess the effect of existing buildings, roads, walkways, and utilities on the project. After studying and analyzing the site, they prepare a preliminary design. To account for the needs of the client as well as the condi­ tions at the site, they may have to make many changes before a final design is approved. They must also take into account any local, State, or Federal regulations such as those protecting wetlands or historic resources. Computer-aided design (CAD) has become an essential tool for most landscape architects in preparing designs. Many landscape architects also use video simulation to help clients envision the proposed ideas and plans. For larger scale site planning, landscape architects also use geographic information systems tech­ nology, a computer mapping system. Throughout all phases of the planning and design, landscape ar­ chitects consult with other professionals involved in the project. Once the design is complete, they prepare a proposal for the client. They produce detailed plans of the site, including written reports, sketches, models, photographs, land-use studies, and cost estimates, and submit them for approval by the client and by regulatory agen­ cies. If the plans are approved, landscape architects prepare working drawings showing all existing and proposed features. They also out­ line in detail the methods of construction and draw up a list of necessary materials. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  '  ■ • :  Two landscape architects discuss proposed changes to a client's plans. Although many landscape architects supervise the installation of their design, some are involved in the construction of the site. How­ ever, this usually is done by the developer or landscape contractor. Some landscape architects work on a wide variety of projects. Others specialize in a particular area, such as residential develop­ ment, historic landscape restoration, waterfront improvement projects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in regional planning and resource management; feasibility, environmental impact, and cost studies; or site construction. Although most landscape architects do at least some residential work, relatively few limit their practice to landscape design for indi­ vidual homeowners because most residential landscape design projects are too small to provide suitable income compared with larger commercial or multiunit residential projects. Some nurseries offer residential landscape design services, but these services often are performed by lesser qualified landscape designers or others with training and experience in related areas. Landscape architects who work for government agencies do site and landscape design for government buildings, parks, and other public lands, as well as park and recreation planning in national parks and forests. In addition, they may prepare environmental impact statements and studies on environmental issues such as public landuse planning. Some are involved in efforts to restore degraded land, such as mines or landfills,  Working Conditions Landscape architects spend most of their time in offices creating plans and designs, preparing models and cost estimates, doing re­ search, or attending meetings with clients and other professionals  Professional and Technical Occupations 101 involved in a design or planning project. The remainder of their time is spent at the site. During the design and planning stage, landscape architects visit and analyze the site to verify that the design can be incorporated into the landscape. After the plans and specifications are completed, they may spend additional time at the site observing or supervising the construction. Those who work in large firms may spend considerably more time out of the office because of travel to sites outside the local area. Salaried employees in both government and landscape architec­ tural firms usually work regular hours; however, they may work overtime, sometimes 60 or more hours a week, to meet a project deadline. Hours of self-employed landscape architects may vary. Employment Landscape architects held about 17,000 jobs in 1996. About 2 out of 5 worked for firms that provide landscape architecture services. Most of the rest were employed by architectural firms. The Federal Government also employs these workers, primarily in the U.S. De­ partments of Agriculture, Defense, and Interior. About 3 of every 10 landscape architects was self-employed. Employment of landscape architects is concentrated in urban and suburban areas throughout the country. Some landscape architects work in rural areas, particularly those in the Federal Government who plan and design parks and recreation areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's or master's degree in landscape architecture is usually necessary for entry into the profession. The bachelor's degree in land­ scape architecture takes 4 or 5 years to complete. There are two types of accredited master's degree programs. The master's degree as a first professional degree is a 3-year program designed for students with an undergraduate degree in another discipline; this is the most common type. The master's degree as the second professional degree is a 2year program for students who have a bachelor's degree in landscape architecture and wish to teach or specialize in some aspect of land­ scape architecture, such as regional planning or golf course design. In 1996, 54 colleges and universities offered 70 undergraduate and graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accredited by the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board of the American Society of Landscape Architects. College courses required in this field usually include technical subjects such as surveying, landscape design and construction, land­ scape ecology, site design, and urban and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape architecture, plant and soil sci­ ence, geology, professional practice, and general management. Many landscape architecture programs are adding courses which address environmental issues. In addition, most students at the undergraduate level take a year of prerequisite courses such as English, mathematics, and social and physical science. The design studio is an important aspect of many landscape architecture curriculums. Whenever possi­ ble, students are assigned real projects, providing them with valuable hands-on experience. While working on these projects, students may become more proficient in the use of technologies such as computeraided design, geographic information systems, and video simulation. In 1996, 45 States required landscape architects to be licensed or registered. Licensing is based on the Landscape Architect Registra­ tion Examination (L.A.R.E.), sponsored by the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards and administered over a 3-day period. Admission to the exam usually requires a degree from an accredited school plus 1 to 4 years of work experience, although standards vary from State to State. Currently, 18 States require the passage of a State examination in addition to the L.A.R.E. to satisfy registration requirements. State examinations, which are usually 1 hour in length and completed at the end of the L.A.R.E., focus on laws, environmental regulations, plants, soils, climate, and any other characteristics unique to the State. Because State requirements for licensure are not uniform, land­ scape architects may not find it easy to transfer their registration from one State to another. However, those who meet the national stan­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  dards of graduating from an accredited program, serving 3 years of internship under the supervision of a registered landscape architect, and passing the L.A.R.E. can satisfy requirements in most States. In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions should have a bachelor's or master's degree in landscape architecture. The Federal Government does not require its landscape architects to be licensed. Persons planning a career in landscape architecture should appreci­ ate nature and enjoy working with their hands. Creative vision and artistic talent are desirable qualities, but they are not essential to suc­ cess as a landscape architect. Good oral communication skills are important, because these workers must be able to convey their ideas to other professionals and clients and to make presentations before large groups. Strong writing skills are also valuable, as is knowledge of computer applications of all kinds, including word processing, desktop publishing, and spreadsheets. Landscape architects use these tools to develop presentations, proposals, reports, and land impact studies for clients, colleagues, and superiors. The ability to draft and design us­ ing CAD software is essential. Many employers recommend that prospective landscape architects complete at least one summer intern­ ship with a landscape architecture firm in order to gain an understanding of the day-to-day operations of a small business, in­ cluding how to win clients, generate fees, and work within a budget. In States where licensure is required, new hires may be called ap­ prentices or intern landscape architects until they become licensed. Their duties vary depending on the type and size of employing firm. They may do project research or prepare working drawings, construc­ tion documents, or base maps of the area to be landscaped. Some are allowed to participate in the actual design of a project. However, in­ terns must perform all work under the supervision of a licensed landscape architect. Additionally, all drawings and specifications must be signed and sealed by the licensed landscape architect, who takes legal responsibility for the work. After gaining experience and be­ coming licensed, landscape architects usually can carry a design through all stages of development. After several years, they may be­ come project managers, taking on the responsibility for meeting schedules and budgets, in addition to overseeing the project design; and later, associates or partners, with a proprietary interest in the business. Many landscape architects are self-employed because start-up costs, after an initial investment in CAD software, are relatively low. Self-discipline, business acumen, and good marketing skills are im­ portant qualities for those who choose to open their own business. Even with these qualities, however, some may struggle while build­ ing a client base. Those with landscape architecture training also qualify for jobs closely related to landscape architecture, and may, after gaining some experience, become construction supervisors, land or environmental planners, or landscape consultants. Job Outlook Employment of landscape architects is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. The level of new construction plays an important role in determining demand for landscape architects. Overall, anticipated growth in construction is expected to increase demand for landscape architectural services over the long run. However, opportunities will vary from year to year and by geographic region, depending on local economic condi­ tions. During a recession, when real estate sales and construction slow down, landscape architects may face layoffs and greater compe­ tition for jobs. The need to replace landscape architects who retire or leave the labor force for other reasons is expected to produce nearly as many job openings as new openings stemming from job growth. An increasing proportion of office and other commercial and in­ dustrial development will occur outside cities. These projects are typically located on larger sites with more surrounding land which needs to be designed, in contrast to urban development, which often includes little or no surrounding land. Also, as the cost of land rises, the importance of good site planning and landscape design grows. Increasingly, new development is contingent upon compliance with  102 Occupational Outlook Handbook environmental regulations and land use zoning, spurring demand for landscape architects to help plan sites and integrate man-made struc­ tures with the natural environment in the least disruptive way. Increased development of open space into recreation areas, wild­ life refuges, and parks will also require the skills of landscape architects. However, budget tightening in the Federal Government may restrict funding for such initiatives in the Forest Service and the National Park Service, agencies which traditionally employ many landscape architects. In addition to the work related to new development and construc­ tion, landscape architects are expected to be involved in historic preservation, land reclamation, and refurbishment of existing sites, although these activities are expected to account for only a small proportion of new jobs. New graduates can expect to face competition for jobs in the larg­ est and most prestigious landscape architecture firms. The number of professional degrees awarded in landscape architecture has remained steady over the years, even during times of fluctuating demand due to economic conditions. Opportunities will be best for landscape archi­ tects who develop strong technical and communication skills and a knowledge of environmental codes and regulations. Those with ad­ ditional training or experience in urban planning increase their opportunities for employment in landscape architecture firms that specialize in site planning as well as landscape design. Many em­ ployers prefer to hire entry-level landscape architects who have internship experience, which significantly reduces training time. Earnings Median annual earnings for all architects, including landscape archi­ tects, were about $39,500 in 1996. The middle 50 percent earned between $30,200 and $53,900; 10 percent earned less than $23,900; and 10 percent earned over $65,800. In 1997, the average annual salary for all landscape architects in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was about $53,300. Because many landscape architects work for small firms or are self-employed, benefits tend to be less generous than those provided to workers in large organizations. Related Occupations Landscape architects use their knowledge of design, construction, land-use planning, and environmental issues to develop a landscape project. Others whose work requires similar skills are architects, surveyors, civil engineers, soil conservationists, and urban and re­ gional planners. Landscape architects also know how to grow and use plants in the landscape. Botanists, who study plants in general, and horticulturists, who study ornamental plants as well as fruit, vegetable, greenhouse, and nursery crops, do similar work. Sources of Additional Information Additional information, including a list of colleges and universities offering accredited programs in landscape architecture, is available from: » American Society of Landscape Architects, Career Information, 4401 Connecticut Ave. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20008.  General information on registration or licensing requirements is available from: *■ Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, 12700 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 110, Fairfax, VA 22033. FAX (703) 818-1309. E-mail address:  Surveyors and Mapping Scientists (D.O.T. 018 except .167-022, and 024.061-014)  Significant Points •  One of the few professional occupations in which em­ ployment is expected to decline. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  More than 8 out of 10 are employed in engineering serv­ ices and government.  •  Skill in the use of new technologies enhances employment opportunities.  Nature of the Work Measuring and mapping the earth's surface is the responsibility of several different types of workers. Traditional land surveyors estab­ lish official land, air space, and water boundaries. They write descriptions of land for deeds, leases, and other legal documents; define air space for airports; and measure construction and mineral sites. Other surveyors provide data relevant to the shape, contour, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features. Survey technicians assist land surveyors by operating survey instruments and collecting information. Mapping scientists compile geographic in­ formation and prepare maps of large areas. Land surveyors manage survey parties that measure distances, di­ rections, and angles between points and elevations of points, lines, and contours on the earth's surface. They plan the fieldwork, select known survey reference points, and determine the precise location of important features in the survey area. Surveyors research legal rec­ ords and look for evidence of previous boundaries. They record the results of the survey, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare plots, maps, and reports. Surveyors who establish boundaries must be li­ censed by the State in which they work. The information needed by the land surveyor is gathered by a sur­ vey party. A typical survey party is made up of a party chief and several survey technicians and helpers. The party chief, who may be either a land surveyor or a senior survey technician, leads the day-to­ day work activities. The party chief is assisted by survey technicians, who adjust and operate surveying instruments, such as the theodolite (used to measure horizontal and vertical angles) and electronic dis­ tance-measuring equipment. Survey technicians or assistants position and hold the vertical rods or targets that the theodolite operator sights on to measure angles, distances, or elevations. They may also hold measuring tapes, if electronic distance-measuring equipment is not used. Survey technicians compile notes, make sketches, and enter the data obtained from these instmments into computers. Survey parties may include laborers or helpers who perform less skilled duties, such as clearing brush from sight lines, driving stakes, or carrying equip­ ment. New technology is changing the nature of the work of surveyors and survey technicians. For larger projects, surveyors are increas­ ingly using the Global Positioning System (GPS), a satellite system that precisely locates points on the earth using radio signals trans­ mitted by satellites. To use this system, a surveyor places a satellite signal receiver—a small instrument mounted on a tripod—on a de­ sired point. The receiver simultaneously collects information from several satellites to locate a precise position. The receiver can also be placed in a vehicle for uses such as tracing out road systems. Since receivers now come in different sizes and shapes and the cost of the receivers has fallen, much more surveying work is being done by GPS. Mapping scientists measure, map, and chart the earth's surface, which involves everything from geographical research and data com­ pilation to actual map production. They collect, analyze, and interpret both spatial data—such as latitude, longitude, elevation, and distance—and nonspatial data—such as population density, land use patterns, annual precipitation levels, and demographic characteristics. Cartographers prepare maps in both digital or graphic form, using information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data. Photogrammetrists prepare detailed maps and draw­ ings from aerial photographs, usually of areas that are inaccessible or difficult to survey by other methods. Map editors develop and verify map contents from aerial photographs and other reference sources. Some surveyors perform specialized functions which are closer to those of a mapping scientist than a traditional surveyor. For example, geodetic surveyors use high-accuracy techniques, including satellite  Professional and Technical Occupations 103 observations, to measure large areas of the earth's surface. Geophysi­ cal prospecting surveyors mark sites for subsurface exploration, usually petroleum related. Marine surveyors survey harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water to determine shorelines, topography of the bottom, water depth, and other features. The work of surveyors and mapping scientists is changing due to advancements in technology. These advancements include not only the GPS, but also new earth resources data satellites, improved aerial photography, and geographic information systems (GIS)—which are computerized data banks of spatial data. From the older specialties of photogrammetrist and cartographer, a new type of mapping scientist is emerging. The geographic information specialist combines the functions of mapping science and surveying into a broader field con­ cerned with the collection and analysis of geographic information. Working Conditions Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day, 5 days a week, and may spend a lot of time outdoors. Sometimes they work longer hours during the summer, when weather and light conditions are most suitable for fieldwork. Land surveyors and technicians do active and sometimes strenu­ ous work. They often stand for long periods, walk considerable distances, and climb hills with heavy packs of instruments and other equipment. They can also be exposed to all types of weather. Occa­ sionally, they may commute long distances, stay overnight, or temporarily relocate near a survey site. Although surveyors can spend considerable time inside, planning surveys, analyzing data, and preparing reports and maps, mapping scientists, on the other hand, spend virtually all their time in offices and seldom visit the sites they are mapping. Employment Surveyors and mapping scientists held about 101,000 jobs in 1996. Engineering and architectural services firms employed about threefifths of these workers. Federal, State, and local governmental agen­ cies employed an additional quarter. Major Federal Governmental employers are the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Man­ agement, the Army Corps of Engineers, the Forest Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), formerly the Defense Map­ ping Agency. Most surveyors in State and local government work for highway departments and urban planning and redevelopment agen­ Construction firms, mining and oil and gas extraction cies. companies, and public utilities also employ surveyors and mapping scientists. About 8,000 were self-employed in 1996. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most people prepare for a career as a licensed surveyor by combining postsecondary school courses in surveying with extensive on-the-job training. However, as technology advances, a 4-year degree is be­ coming more of a prerequisite. About 25 universities now offer 4-year programs leading to a B.S. degree in surveying. Junior and commu­ nity colleges, technical institutes, and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-, and 3-year programs in both surveying and surveying technology. All 50 States license land surveyors. For licensure, most State li­ censing boards require that individuals pass two written examinations, one prepared by the State and one given by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. In addition, they must meet varying standards of formal education and work experience in the field. In the past, many individuals started as members of survey crews and worked their way up to become licensed surveyors with little formal training in surveying. However, due to advancing tech­ nology and an increase in licensing standards, formal education requirements are increasing. At present, most States require some formal post-high school education coursework and 10 to 12 years of surveying experience to gain licensure. However, requirements vary among States. Generally, the quickest route to licensure is a combi­ nation of 4 years of college, 2 to 4 years of experience, and passing the licensing examinations. An increasing number of States require a Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  >1  Members of a survey party take measurements and record the in­ formation obtained from surveying instruments. bachelor's degree in surveying or in a closely related field, such as civil engineering or forestry (with courses in surveying) regardless of the number of years of experience. High school students interested in surveying should take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing, and computer science. High school graduates with no formal training in surveying usually start as an apprentice. Beginners with post­ secondary school training in surveying can generally start as technicians or assistants. With on-the-job experience and formal training in surveying—either in an institutional program or from a correspondence school—workers may advance to senior survey tech­ nician, then to party chief, and in some cases, to licensed surveyor (depending on State licensing requirements). The American Congress on Surveying and Mapping has a volun­ tary certification program for survey technicians. Technicians are certified at four levels requiring progressive amounts of experience, in addition to passing written examinations. Although not required for State licensure, many employers require certification for promo­ tion to positions with greater responsibilities. Surveyors should have the ability to visualize objects, distances, sizes, and abstract forms. They must work with precision and accu­ racy because mistakes can be costly. Members of a survey party must be in good physical condition, because they work outdoors and often carry equipment over difficult terrain. They need good eye­ sight, coordination, and hearing to communicate verbally and via hand signals. Surveying is a cooperative process, so good interper­ sonal skills and the ability to work as part of a team are important. Leadership qualities are important for party chief and other supervi­ sory positions. Mapping scientists, such as cartographers and photogrammetrists, usually have a bachelor's degree in a field such as engineering, for­ estry, geography, or a physical science. Although it is possible to enter these positions through previous experience as a photogrammetric or cartographic technician, most cartographic and photogrammetric technicians now have had some specialized postsecondary school training. With the development of Geographic Information Systems, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and other mapping scientists need additional education and stronger technical skills, including more experience with computers than in the past.  104 Occupational Outlook Handbook The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing has voluntary certification programs for photogrammetrists and map­ ping scientists. To qualify for these professional distinctions, individuals must meet work experience standards and pass an oral or written examination. Job Outlook Employment of surveyors and mapping scientists is expected to de­ cline slightly through the year 2006, as the widespread availability and use of advanced technologies, such as the Global Positioning System, Geographic Information Systems, and remote sensing, are increasing both the accuracy and productivity of survey and mapping work. Job openings, however, will continue to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force altogether. As technologies become more complex, opportunities will be best for surveyors and mapping scientists who have at least a bachelor’s degree and strong technical skills. Increasing demand for geographic data, as opposed to traditional surveying services, will mean better opportunities for mapping scientists involved in the development and use of geographic and land information systems. New technologies, such as GPS and GIS may also enhance employment opportunities for surveyors and survey technicians who have the educational background enabling them to use these systems, but upgraded licensing require­ ments will continue to limit opportunities for those with less education. Even as demand is increasing in nontraditional areas such as ur­ ban planning and natural resource exploration and mapping, opportunities for surveyors and mapping scientists should remain concentrated in engineering, architectural, and surveying services firms. Growth in construction through the year 2006 should require surveyors to lay out streets, shopping centers, housing developments, factories, office buildings, and recreation areas. However, employ­ ment may fluctuate from year to year along with construction activity. In addition, employment of mapping scientists and survey­ ors by private firms and the Federal Government will continue to be affected by budget cutbacks and technological efficiency. Earnings The median weekly earnings for surveyors and mapping scientists were about $694 a week in 1996. The middle 50 percent earned be­  tween $547 and $849 a week; 10 percent earned less than $446 a week; 10 percent earned more than $1000 a week. The median weekly earnings for survey technicians were about $461 a week in 1996. The middle 50 percent earned between $378 and $725 a week; 10 percent earned less than $294 a week; 10 per­ cent earned more than $942 a week. In 1997, the Federal Government hired high school graduates with little or no training or experience at salaries of about $14,240 annu­ ally for entry level jobs on survey crews. Those with 1 year of related postsecondary training earned about $15,540 a year. Those with an associate degree that included coursework in surveying gen­ erally started as instrument assistants with an annual salary of about $17,450. In 1997, entry level land surveyors or cartographers with the Federal Government earned about $19,520, $24,180 or $29,580 a year, depending on their qualifications. The average annual salary for Federal land surveyors in early 1997 was about $47,850; for car­ tographers, about $52,500; and for geodesists, about $62,760. The average annual salary for Federal surveying technicians was about $28,600; for cartographic technicians, about $34,840; and for geo­ detic technicians, about $45,050. Related Occupations Surveying is related to the work of civil engineers and architects, since an accurate survey is the first step in land development and construction projects. Mapping science and geodetic surveying are related to the work of geologists and geophysicists, who study the earth's internal composition, surface, and atmosphere. Mapping sci­ ence is also related to the work of geographers and urban planners, who study and decide how the earth's surface is used. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, licensure requirements, and the survey technician certification program is available from: *■ American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 100, Bethesda, MD 20814-2122.  General information on careers in photogrammetry is available from; *" American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 210, Bethesda, MD 20814.  Computer, Mathematical, and Operations Research Occupations Actuaries (D.O.T. 020.167-010)  Significant Points •  A strong background in mathematics is essential for per­ sons interested in a career as an actuary.  •  Competition for jobs is expected due to relatively high earnings, the small size of the occupation, and downsizing and merger activity in the insurance industry.  Nature of the Work Actuaries answer questions about future risk, make pricing decisions, and formulate investment strategies. Some design insurance, finan­ cial, and pension plans and ensure that these plans are maintained on a sound financial basis. Most actuaries specialize in life, health, or property and casualty insurance; others specialize in pension plans. Actuaries assemble and analyze data to estimate probabilities of death, sickness, injury, disability, retirement income level, property loss, or return on investment. They use this information to estimate Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  how much an insurance company will have to pay out in claims, or to make other business decisions. For example, actuaries may calculate the expected amount of claims due to automobile accidents, which can vary depending on the insured’s age, sex, driving history, type of car, and other factors. Actuaries ensure that the price charged for such insurance, or premium, will enable the company to cover claims and expenses as they incur. Finally, this premium charged must be profitable and yet be competitive with other insurance companies. The actuary calculates premium rates and determines policy contract provisions for each type of insurance offered. To perform their duties effectively, actuaries must keep informed about general economic and social trends and legislation, as well as developments in health, business, finance, and economics that may affect insurance or investment practices. Using their broad knowl­ edge of business and mathematics, actuaries may work in investment, risk classification, or pension planning. Actuaries in executive positions help determine company policy. In that role, they may be called upon to explain complex technical matters to other company executives, government officials, share­ holders, policyholders, and the public in general. They may testify before public agencies on proposed legislation affecting their busi­ nesses or explain changes in contract provisions to customers. They  Professional and Technical Occupations 105 also may help companies develop plans to enter new lines of busi­ ness. A small but growing group of actuaries work in the financial services industry, where they manage credit, prepayment, and other risks, and help price corporate securities offerings. Consulting actuaries provide advice to various clients on a fee ba­ sis. Their clients include insurance companies, corporations, hospitals and other health care providers, labor unions, government agencies, and attorneys. Some consulting actuaries design pension and welfare plans, calculate future benefits, and determine the amount of employer contributions. Others provide advice to health care plans or financial services firms. Consultants may be called upon to testify in court regarding the value of potential lifetime earnings lost by a person who has been disabled or killed in an acci­ dent, the current value of future pension benefits in divorce cases, or the calculation of insurance rates. Pension actuaries enrolled under the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) evaluate the pension plans covered by that act and report on their financial soundness to plan members, sponsors, and Federal regulators. Working Conditions Actuaries have desk jobs that require little physical activity, and their offices are generally comfortable and pleasant. They usually work at least 40 hours a week. Some actuaries, particularly consulting actu­ aries, often travel to meet with clients. Consulting actuaries may also be expected to work more than 40 hours per week. Employment Actuaries held about 16,000 jobs in 1996. Some were self-employed. In addition, some actuaries held faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Almost one-half of the actuaries who were wage and salary work­ ers were employed in the insurance industry. Most worked for life insurance companies; others worked for property, casualty, and health insurance companies, pension funds, and insurance agents and brokers. Most of the remaining actuaries worked for firms providing services, especially management and public relations, and actuarial  fililli  SSiS  Using their broad knowledge of business and mathematics, actu­ aries may work in investment, risk classification, or pension planning. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  consulting services. A relatively small number of actuaries worked for security and commodity brokers or government agencies. Some are employed developing computer software for actuarial calcula­ tions. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A good educational background for a beginning job in a large life or casualty company is a bachelor's degree in mathematics, actuarial science, or statistics, or a business-related discipline, such as eco­ nomics, finance, or accounting. Some companies7 hire applicants without specifying a major, provided the applicant has a working knowledge of mathematics, including calculus, probability, and sta­ tistics, and who has demonstrated this ability by passing at least the beginning actuarial exams required for professional designation. Courses in economics, accounting, computer science, and insurance are also useful. Companies increasingly prefer well-rounded indi­ viduals who, in addition to a strong technical background, have some training in liberal arts and business. Good communication and inter­ personal skills are important, particularly for prospective consulting actuaries. About 55 colleges and universities offer an actuarial sci­ ence program, and most colleges and universities offer a degree in mathematics or statistics. A strong background in mathematics is essential for persons inter­ ested in a career as an actuary. It is an advantage to pass, while still in school, two or more of the examinations offered by professional actuarial societies. Two professional societies sponsor programs leading to full professional status in their specialty. The Society of Actuaries (SOA) administers a series of actuarial examinations for life and health insurance, pension, and finance and investment fields. The Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) gives a series of examinations for the property and casualty field, which include fire, accident, medical malpractice, workers compensation, and personal injury liability. Because the first parts of the examination series of each society are jointly sponsored and cover the same material, students need not commit themselves to a specialty until they have taken the initial examinations. These examinations test an individual's compe­ tence in subjects such as linear algebra, probability, calculus, statistics, risk theory, and actuarial mathematics. The first few ex­ aminations help students evaluate their potential as actuaries. Those who pass one or more examination have better opportunities for em­ ployment and higher starting salaries than those who do not. Actuaries are encouraged to complete the entire series of exami­ nations as soon as possible, advancing first to the Associate level, and then to the Fellowship level. Completion of the examination process generally takes from 5 to 10 years. Examinations are given twice each year, in May and November. Although many companies allot time to their employees for study, extensive home study is required to pass the examinations; many actuaries study for months to prepare for each examination. Most reach Associateship within 4 to 6 years. Fellowship candidates usually have several years of experience. Most actuaries complete the Fellowship exams a few years after reaching Associateship. Both levels of examinations are extremely difficult. Pension actuaries who verify the financial status of defined bene­ fit pension plans to the Federal Government must be enrolled by the ioint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries. To qualify for enroll­ ment, applicants must meet certain experience and examination requirements, as stipulated by the Joint Board. Beginning actuaries often rotate between jobs to learn various actuarial operations and phases of insurance work, such as marketing, underwriting, or product development. At first, they prepare data for actuarial projects or perform other simple tasks. As they gain experi­ ence, actuaries may supervise clerks, prepare correspondence and reports, and do research. They may move from one company to an­ other in their early careers, as they move up to progressively more responsible positions. Advancement depends largely on job performance and the number of actuarial examinations passed. Actuaries with a broad knowledge of the insurance, pension, investment, or employee benefits fields can  106 Occupational Outlook Handbook advance to administrative and executive positions in their companies. Actuaries with supervisory ability may advance to management posi­ tions in other areas, such as underwriting, accounting, data processing, marketing, or advertising. Job Outlook Prospective actuaries who have passed the beginning actuarial exams will face competition for jobs, since the number of openings each year is limited by the relatively small size of the occupation. Employment of actuaries is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2006, due to ex­ pected slower growth in the insurance industry. Anticipated downsizing and merger activity in the insurance industry is likely to have the greatest negative effect on those actuaries with the least experience. The expected growth in managed health plans in the health services industry should provide better prospects for actuaries, however. Employment growth of consulting actuaries is expected to be faster than employment growth of actuaries in insurance carriers— traditionally the leading employer of actuaries. As many companies seek to boost profitability by streamlining operations, actuarial em­ ployment may be cut back by insurance carriers. Investment firms and large corporations may increasingly turn to consultants to pro­ vide actuarial services formerly performed in-house. The liability of companies for damage resulting from their prod­ ucts has received much attention in recent years. Casualty actuaries will continue to be involved in the development of product liability insurance, medical malpractice and workers' compensation coverage, and self-insurance, which may involve internal reserve funds estab­ lished by some large corporations. The growing need to evaluate catastrophic risks such as earthquakes and calculate prices for insur­ ing facilities against such risks, which may involve huge losses, will be an increasing source of demand for property and casualty actuar­ ies. So is planning for the systematic financing of environmental risks, such as toxic waste clean-up. Earnings In 1996, starting salaries for actuaries averaged about $37,600 for those with a bachelor's degree, according to the National Association of Colleges and Employers. New college graduates entering the ac­ tuarial field without having passed any actuarial exams averaged slightly lower salaries. Insurance companies and consulting firms give merit increases to actuaries as they gain experience and pass examinations. Some com­ panies also offer cash bonuses for each professional designation achieved. A 1996 salary survey of insurance and financial services companies, conducted by the Life Office Management Association, Inc., indicated that the average base salary for an entry-level actuary was about $36,500. Associate Actuaries, who direct and provide leadership in the design and pricing of products received a salary of about $78,600. Actuaries with additional experience earned an aver­ age of $93,500. Actuaries typically receive other benefits including vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans. Related Occupations Actuaries determine the probability of income or loss from various risk factors. Other workers whose jobs involve related skills include accountants, economists, financial analysts, mathematicians, and stat­ isticians. Sources of Additional Information For facts about actuarial careers, contact: *“ American Academy of Actuaries, 1100 17th St. NW„ 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20036.  For information about actuarial careers in life and health insur­ ance, employee benefits and pensions, and finance and investments, contact: *■ Society of Actuaries, 475 N. Martingale Rd., Suite 800, Schaumburg, IL 60173-2226. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For information about actuarial careers in property and casualty insurance, contact: «• Casualty Actuarial Society, 1100 N. Glebe Rd., Suite 600, Arlington, VA 22201.  Homepage: Career information on actuaries specializing in pensions is avail­ able from: *■ American Society of Pension Actuaries, 4350 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 820, Arlington, VA 22203.  Computer Programmers (D.O.T. 030.162-010, -018, -022, and .167-010)  Significant Points •  The level of education and quality of training required by employers has been rising due to the increasing complexity of programming tasks.  •  A growing number of computer programmers are em­ ployed on a temporary or contract basis.  Nature of the Work Computer programmers write, test, and maintain the detailed instruc­ tions—called "programs" or "software"—that list in a logical order the steps computers must execute to perform their functions. Program­ mers often are categorized as technicians, distinct from the higher level of theoretical expertise characteristic of computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts. However, many technical innovations in programming—advanced computing technologies and sophisticated new languages and programming tools—have redefined the role of a programmer and elevated much of the programming work done today. It is becoming much more difficult to distinguish differ­ ent computer specialists—including programmers—since job titles shift so rapidly, reflecting new areas of specialization or changes in technology. Job titles and descriptions also may vary depending on the organization. In this statement, “computer programmer” refers to individuals whose main job function is programming; this group has a wide range of responsibilities and educational backgrounds. Computer programs tell the computer what to do, such as which information to identify and access, how to process it, and what equipment to use. Programs vary widely depending upon the type of information to be accessed or generated. For example, the instruc­ tions involved in updating financial records are very different from those required to duplicate conditions on board an aircraft for pilots training in a flight simulator. Although simple programs can be written in a few hours, programs that use complex mathematical for­ mulas, whose solutions can only be approximated, or that draw data from many existing systems, require more than a year of work. In most cases, several programmers work together as a team under a senior programmer's supervision. Programmers write specific programs by breaking down each step into a logical series of instructions the computer can follow. They then code these instructions in a conventional programming lan­ guage, such as C and FORTRAN; an artificial intelligence language, such as LISP or Prolog; or one of the more advanced functionoriented or object-oriented languages, such as UML, Java, C++, Vis­ ual Basic, or Ada. Programmers usually know more than one programming language and since many languages are alike, they can often learn new languages relatively easily. In practice, programmers are often referred to by the language they know or the type of envi­ ronment they generally work in such as mainframe programmer, object-oriented programmer, or Internet or World Wide Web pro­ grammer. In many large organizations, programmers follow descriptions that have been prepared by software engineers or sys­ tems analysts. These descriptions list the input required, the steps the  Professional and Technical Occupations 107 the other hand, maintain and control the use of computer systems software. These workers make changes in the sets of instructions that determine how the network, workstations, and central processing unit of the system handles the various jobs they have been given and how they communicate with peripheral equipment, such as terminals, printers, and disk drives. Because of their knowledge of the entire computer system, systems programmers often help applications pro­ grammers determine the source of problems that may occur with their programs. In some organizations, particularly smaller ones, workers more commonly referred to as programmer-analysts are responsible for both the systems analysis and the actual programming work. (A more detailed description of the work of programmer-analysts is presented in the statement on computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Advanced program­ ming languages and new object-oriented programming capabilities are increasing the efficiency and productivity of both programmers and users. The transition from a mainframe environment to a pri­ marily PC-based environment has blurred the once rigid distinction between the programmer and the user. Increasingly, adept users are taking over many of the tasks previously performed by programmers. For example, the growing use of packaged software, like spreadsheet and data base management software packages, allows users to write simple programs to access data and perform calculations. Programmers in software development companies may work di­ rectly with experts from various fields to create software—either programs designed for specific clients or packaged software for gen­ eral use—ranging from games and educational software to programs for desktop publishing, financial planning, and spreadsheets. Much of this type of programming is in the preparation of packaged soft­ ware, which comprises one of the most rapidly growing segments of the computer services industry.  A programmer tests a program to ensure that the instructions are correct and it produces the desired information. computer must follow to process data, and the desired arrangement of the output. Many programmers are involved in updating, repairing, modify­ ing and expanding existing programs. When making changes to a section of code, called a "routine,” programmers need to make other users aware of the task the routine is to perform. They do this by inserting comments in the coded instructions so others can under­ stand the program. Innovations such as Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools enable a programmer to concentrate on writing the unique parts of the program because the tools automate various pieces of the program being built. CASE tools generate whole sections of code automatically, rather than line by line. This also yields more reliable and consistent programs and increases pro­ grammers' productivity by eliminating some of the routine steps. Programmers test a program by running it to ensure the instruc­ tions are correct and it produces the desired information. If errors do occur, the programmer must make the appropriate change and re­ check the program until it produces the correct results, a process called "debugging." Programmers working in a mainframe environ­ ment may still prepare instructions for a computer operator who will run the program. (The work of computer operators is described in the statement on computer operators elsewhere in the Handbook.) They may also contribute to a user's manual for the program. Programmers often are grouped into two broad types: Applications programmers and systems programmers. Applications programmers usually are oriented toward business, engineering, or science. They write software to handle specific jobs within an organization, such as a program used in an inventory control system. They may also work alone to revise existing packaged software. Systems programmers, on Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Programmers generally work in offices in comfortable surroundings. Although they usually work about 40 hours a week, programmers may work longer hours or weekends in order to meet deadlines or fix critical problems that occur during off hours. Given the technology available, telecommuting is becoming more common for a wider range of computer professionals—including computer programmers. Programmers can access a system directly, but from remote locations, to make corrections or fix problems. Like other workers who spend long periods of time in front of a computer terminal typing at a keyboard, they are susceptible to eye­ strain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome or cumulative trauma disorder. Employment Computer programmers held about 568,000 jobs in 1996. Program­ mers are employed in almost every industry, but the largest concentration is in the computer and data processing services indus­ try which includes firms that write and sell software. Large numbers of programmers can also be found working for firms that provide engineering and management services, manufacturers of computer and office equipment, financial institutions, insurance carriers, edu­ cational institutions, and government agencies. A growing number of computer programmers are employed on a temporary or contract basis or work as independent consultants as companies demand expertise with newer programming languages or more specialized areas of application. Rather than hiring program­ mers as permanent employees and then laying them off after a job is completed, employers can contract with temporary help agencies, consulting firms, or directly with programmers themselves. A mar­ keting firm, for example, may only require the services of several programmers to write and "debug" the software necessary to get a new database management system running. This practice also en­ ables companies to bring in people with a specific set of skills, usually in one of the latest technologies as it applies to their business needs. Bringing in an independent contractor or consultant with a  108 Occupational Outlook Handbook certain level of experience in a new or advanced programming lan­ guage, for example, enables an establishment to complete a particular job without having to retrain existing workers. Such jobs may last anywhere from several weeks to a year or longer. There were 20,000 self-employed computer programmers in 1996 and this number is expected to increase. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement While there are many training paths available for programmers, mainly because employers' needs are so varied, the level of education and quality of training employers seek have been rising due to the growth in the number of qualified applicants and the increasing com­ plexity of some programming tasks. Bachelor's degrees are now commonly required, although some programmers qualify with 2-year degrees or certificates. College graduates who are interested in changing careers or developing an area of expertise also may return to a two-year community college or technical school for additional training. In the absence of a degree, substantial specialized experi­ ence or expertise may be needed. Even with a degree, employers appear to be placing more emphasis on previous experience for all types of programmers.  Table 1. Percent distribution of highest level of school completed or de­ gree received, computer programmers, 1996 Percent High school graduate or equivalent or less............................................ Some college, no degree......................................................................... Associate’s degree.................................................................................. Bachelor's degree................................................................................... Graduate degree.....................................................................................  10.0 20.9 9.6 45.2 14.2  The majority of computer programmers—almost 60 percent—had a bachelor’s degree or higher in 1996. (See table 1.) Of these, some hold a B.A. or B.S. in computer science, mathematics, or information systems while others have taken special courses in computer pro­ gramming to supplement their study in fields such as accounting, inventory control, or other business areas. As the level of education and training required by employers continues to rise, this percentage should increase in the future. Skills needed vary from job to job and the demand for various skills is generally driven by changes in technology. Employers using computers for scientific or engineering applications generally prefer college graduates who have degrees in computer or information sci­ ence, mathematics, engineering, or the physical sciences. Graduate degrees in related fields may be required for some jobs. Employers who use computers for business applications prefer to hire people who have had college courses in management information systems (MIS) and business, and who possess strong programming skills. Although knowledge of traditional languages such as FORTRAN, COBOL, or C is still important, increasing emphasis is placed on more advanced object-oriented languages and tools such as CASE tools, C++, Visual C++, Ada, Smalltalk, Visual Basic, PowerBuilder, and Java as well as 4"' and 5'h generation languages, graphic user in­ terface (GUI) and systems programming. General business skills and experience related to the operations of the firm are preferred by em­ ployers as well. Most systems programmers hold a 4-year degree in computer sci­ ence. Extensive knowledge of a variety of operating systems is essential. This includes being able to configure the operating system to work with different types of hardware, and adapting the operating system to best meet the needs of the particular organization. They must also be able to work with database systems such as DB2, Ora­ cle, or Sybase, for example. When hiring programmers, employers look for people with the necessary programming skills who can think logically and pay close attention to detail. The job calls for patience, persistence, and the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ability to work on exacting analytical work, especially under pres­ sure. Ingenuity and imagination are also particularly important when programmers design solutions and test their work for potential fail­ ures. The ability to work with abstract concepts and do technical analysis is especially important for systems programmers because they work with the software that controls the computer's operation. Since programmers are expected to work in teams and interact di­ rectly with users, employers want programmers who are able to communicate with non-technical personnel. Beginning programmers may work alone on simple assignments after some initial instruction, or on a team with more experienced programmers. Either way, beginning programmers generally must work under close supervision. Because technology changes so rap­ idly, programmers must continuously update their training by taking courses sponsored by their employer or software vendors. For skilled workers who keep up to date with the latest technology, the prospects for advancement are good. In large organizations, they may be promoted to lead programmer and be given supervisory respon­ sibilities. Some applications programmers may move into systems programming after they gain experience and take courses in systems software. With general business experience, programmers may be­ come programmer-analysts or systems analysts, or be promoted to a managerial position. Other programmers, with specialized knowledge and experience with a language or operating system, may work in re­ search and development areas such as multimedia or Internet technology. As employers increasingly contract out programming jobs, more opportunities should arise for experienced programmers with expertise in a specific area to work as consultants. Technical or professional certification is becoming more common as a way for employers to ensure a level of competency or quality in all areas. Many product vendors offer certification or may even re­ quire certification of technicians and professionals who work with their products. The number of voluntary certificate or certification programs is also growing and this type of certification is available through organizations such as the Institute for Certification of Com­ puting Professionals (ICCP). ICCP confers the designation Certified Computing Professional (CCP) to those who have at least 4 years of experience or 2 years of experience and a college degree. To qualify, individuals must pass a core examination plus exams in two specialty areas, or an exam in one specialty area and two computing languages. Those with little or no experience may be tested for certification as an Associate Computer Professional (ACP). Certification is not man­ datory, but it may give a job-seeker a competitive advantage. Job Outlook Employment of programmers is expected to grow faster than the average through the year 2006. Jobs for both systems and applica­ tions programmers should be plentiful in data processing service firms, software houses, and computer consulting businesses. These types of establishments are part of computer and data processing services, which is projected to be the fastest growing industry. As companies attempt to control costs and keep up with changing tech­ nology, they will maintain a need for programmers to assist in conversions to new languages and from one system to the next. In addition, numerous job openings for programmers will result from the need to replace programmers who move to other occupations or leave the labor force. Most programmers who leave transfer to other occupations, such as manager or systems analyst. Despite numerous openings, however, the consolidation and cen­ tralization of systems and applications should continue to moderate growth, as will developments in packaged software, advanced pro­ gramming languages and tools, and the growing ability of users to design, write, and implement more of their own programs to meet their changing needs. As the level of technological innovation and sophistication increases, programmers should continue to face in­ creasing competition from programming businesses overseas where more of the routine work can be outsourced at a lower cost. As programming tasks become more complex and increasingly sophisticated skills and experience are demanded by employers.  Professional and Technical Occupations 109 graduates of 2-year programs, and people with less than a 2-year degree or its equivalent in work experience, should face stronger competition for programming jobs. Competition for entry-level po­ sitions, however, can even affect applicants with a bachelor's degree. Although demand fluctuates as employer’s needs change with tech­ nology, prospects should be best for college graduates with knowledge of and experience working with a variety of programming languages and tools, particularly C++ and other object oriented lan­ guages—such as Smalltalk, Visual Basic, Ada, and Java—as well as newer, domain-specific languages that apply to computer networking, data base management, and Internet applications. In order to remain competitive, college graduates should keep up to date with the latest skills and technologies. Many employers prefer to hire applicants with previous experience in the field. Employers are increasingly interested in programmers who can combine areas of technical expertise or who are adaptable and able to learn and incorporate new skills. Therefore, individuals who want to become programmers can enhance their chances of doing so by combining the appropriate formal training with practical work experience. Students should try to gain experience by participating in a college work-study program, or undertaking an internship. Students also can greatly improve their employment prospects by taking courses such as accounting, management, engineering, or science— allied fields in which applications programmers are in demand. With the expansion of client/server environments, employers will continue to look for programmers with strong technical skills who understand their business and its programming needs. Busi­ nesses also look for programmers who develop a technical specialization in areas such as client/server programming, multime­ dia technology, graphic user interface (GUI), and 4th and 5th generation programming tools. Programmers will be creating and maintaining expert systems and embedding these technologies in more and more products. Other areas of progress include data communications and the business application of Internet technolo­ gies. Networking computers so they can communicate with each other is necessary to achieve the greater efficiency organizations require to remain competitive. Demand for programmers with strong object-oriented programming capabilities and experience should arise from the expansion of Intranets, extranets and World Wide Web applications. Earnings Median earnings of programmers who worked full time in 1996 were about $40,100 a year. The middle 50 percent earned between about $30,700 and $52,000 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,700; the highest 10 percent earned more than $65,200. Starting salary offersfor graduates with a bachelor's degree in the area of computer programming averaged about $35,167 a year in private industry in 1997, according to the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Programmers working in the West and Northeast earned somewhat more than those working in the South and Midwest. On average, systems programmers earn more than applications pro­ grammers. A survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas reported that be­ ginning programmers had median annual earnings of about $27,000 in 1995. Experienced mid-level programmers with some supervisory responsibilities had median annual earnings of about $40,000. Median annual earnings for programmers at the supervisory or team leader level were about $55,000. According to Robert Half International Inc., starting salaries ranged from $32,500 to $39,000 for programmers and $47,500 to $60,000 for systems programmers in large establishments in 1997. Starting salaries for programmers in small establishments ranged from $28,000 to $37,000.  In the Federal Government, the entrance salary for programmers with a college degree or qualifying experience was about $19,520 a year in early 1997; for those with a superior academic record $24,180. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Programmers must pay great attention to detail as they write and "de­ bug" programs. Other professional workers who must be detailoriented include computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts, statisticians, mathematicians, engineers, financial analysts, accountants, auditors, actuaries, and operations research analysts. Sources of Additional Information State employment service offices can provide information about job openings for computer programmers. Also check with your city's chamber of commerce for information on the area's largest employers. For information about certification as a computing professional, contact: *" Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP), 2200 East Devon Ave., Suite 268, Des Plaines, IL 60018. Homepage:  Further information about computer careers is available from: *■ The Association for Computing (ACM), 1515 Broadway, New York NY 10036. *" IEEE Computer Society, Headquarters Office, 1730 Massachusetts Ave NW„ Washington, DC 20036-1992.  Computer Scientists, Computer Engineers, and Systems Analysts (D.O.T. 030.062-010, .162-014, .167-014; 031; 032; 033; 039; and 109.067-010)  Significant Points •  Expected to be the top 3 fastest growing occupations and among the top 20 in the number of new jobs as computer applications continue to expand throughout the economy.  •  A bachelor’s degree is virtually a prerequisite for most employers. Relevant work experience also is very impor­ tant. For some of the more complex jobs, persons with graduate degrees are preferred.  Nature of the Work The rapid spread of computers has generated a need for highly trained workers to design and develop new hardware and software systems and to incorporate technological advances into new or ex­ isting systems. The Handbook refers to this group of professionals as computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts, but in reality this group includes a wide range of professional com­ puter-related occupations. Job titles used to describe this broad category of workers evolve rapidly, reflecting new areas of spe­ cialization or changes in technology as well as the preferences and practices of employers. Although many narrow specializations exist, the professional specialty group is commonly referred to as computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts. The title computer scientist can be applied to a wide range com­ puter professionals who generally design computers and the software that runs them, develop information technologies, and develop and adapt principles for applying computers to new uses. Computer scientists perform many of the same duties as other com­ puter professionals throughout a normal workday, but their jobs are distinguished by the higher level of theoretical expertise and inno­ vation they apply to complex problems and the creation or application of new technology. Computer scientists can work as theorists, researchers, or in­ ventors. Those employed by academic institutions work in areas ranging from complexity theory, to hardware, to programming lan­ guage design. Some work on multi-discipline projects, such as developing and advancing uses of virtual reality in robotics. Their counterparts in private industry work in areas such as applying theory, developing specialized languages or information technolo-  110 Occupational Outlook Handbook gies, or designing programming tools, knowledge-based systems, or even computer games. Computer engineers also work with the hardware and software aspects of systems design and development. Whereas computer sci­ entists emphasize the application of theory, computer engineers emphasize the building of prototypes, although there is much cross­ over. Computer engineers generally apply the theories and principles of science and mathematics to the design of hardware, software, net­ works, and processes to solve technical problems. They often work as part of a team that designs new computing devices or computerrelated equipment, systems, or software. Computer hardware engi­ neers generally design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of computer hardware—for example, chips or device controllers. Software engineers, on the other hand, are involved in the design and development of software systems for control and automation of manufacturing, business, and management processes. Software engi­ neers or software developers also may design and develop both packaged and systems software or be involved in creating custom software applications for clients. These professionals also possess strong programming skills, but they are more concerned with ana­ lyzing and solving programming problems than with simply writing the code for the programs. Far more numerous, systems analysts use their knowledge and skills to solve computer problems and enable computer technology to meet the individual needs of an organization. They study busi­ ness, scientific, or engineering data processing problems and design new solutions using computers. This process may include planning and developing new computer systems or devising ways to apply existing systems’ resources to additional operations. Systems ana­ lysts may design entirely new systems, including both hardware and software, or add a single new software application to harness more of the computer's power. They work to help an organization realize the maximum benefit from its investment in equipment, personnel, and business processes. Most systems analysts generally work with a specific type of system depending on the type of or­ ganization they work for—for example, business, accounting or financial systems, or scientific and engineering systems. Compa­ nies generally seek business systems analysts who specialize in the type of systems they use. Analysts begin an assignment by discussing the systems problem with managers and users to determine its exact nature. Much time is devoted to clearly defining the goals of the system and understanding the individual steps used to achieve them so that the problem can be broken down into separate programmable procedures. Analysts then use techniques such as structured analysis, data modeling, informa­ tion engineering, mathematical model building, sampling, and cost accounting to plan the system. Analysts must specify the inputs to be accessed by the system, design the processing steps, and format the output to meet the users' needs. Once the design has been developed, systems analysts prepare charts and diagrams that describe it in terms that managers and other users can understand. They may prepare cost-benefit and retum-on-investment analyses to help management decide whether implementing the proposed system will be financially feasible. When a system is accepted, analysts determine what computer hardware and software will be needed to set it up. They coordinate tests and observe initial use of the system to ensure it performs as planned. They prepare specifications, work diagrams, and structure charts for computer programmers to follow and then work with them to "debug," or eliminate errors from the system. In some organizations a single worker called a programmeranalyst is responsible for both systems analysis and programming. (The work of computer programmers is described elsewhere in the Handbook.) As this becomes more commonplace, these analysts will increasingly work with Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools and object-oriented programming languages, as well as client/server applications development, and multimedia and Internet technology. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  One obstacle associated with expanding computer use is the in­ ability of different computer systems to communicate with each other. Because maintaining up-to-date information—accounting records, sales figures, or budget projections, for example—is impor­ tant in modern organizations, systems analysts may be instructed to make the computer systems in each department compatible so that information can be shared. Many systems analysts are involved with “networking” or connecting all the computers in an individual office, department, or establishment. A primary goal of networking is to allow users to retrieve data from a mainframe computer or a server and use it on their machine. This connection also allows data to be entered into the mainframe from a personal computer. Analysts must design the hardware and software to allow free exchange of data, custom applications, and the computer power to process it all. They study the seemingly incompatible pieces and create ways to link them so users can access information from any part of the system. Net­ works come in many variations and network systems and data communications analysts design, test, and evaluate systems such as Local Area Networks (LAN), Wide Area Networks (WAN), Internet, and Intranet and other data communications systems. These analysts perform network modeling, analysis and planning, and even research and recommend necessary hardware and software. Other computer professionals include database administrators and computer support specialists. Database administrators work with database management systems software, coordinating changes to, testing, and implementing computer databases. Since they also may be responsible for design implementation and system security, data­ base administrators plan and coordinate security measures. Computer support specialists provide assistance and advice to users. They inter­ pret problems and provide technical support for hardware, software, and systems. Support specialists may work within an organization or directly for a computer or software vendor. Increasingly, these techni­ cal professionals work for help-desk or support services firms, providing customer support on a contract basis to clients as more of this type of work is outsourced. Many others specialize in analysis, application, or design of a particular system or piece of the system. Network or systems ad­ ministrators, for example, may install, configure, and support an organizations systems or portion of a system. Telecommunications specialists generally are involved with the interfacing of computer and communications equipment. Computer security specialists are responsible for planning, coordinating, and implementing an organi­ zations’ information security measures. These and other growing specialty occupations reflect the increasing emphasis on client-server applications, the growth of the Internet, the expansion of World Wide Web applications and Intranets, and the demand for more end-user support. An example of this is the growing number of job titles re­ lating to the Internet and World Wide Web such as Internet and Web developers, or Webmasters. Working Conditions Computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts nor­ mally work in offices or laboratories in comfortable surroundings. They usually work about 40 hours a week—the same as many other professional or office workers. However, evening or weekend work may be necessary to meet deadlines or solve specific problems. Given the technology available today, telecommuting is becoming more common for computer professionals. More work, including technical support, can be done from remote locations using modems, laptops, electronic mail, and even through the Internet. It is now possible for technical personnel, such as computer support specialists, to tap into a customer’s computer remotely to identify and fix prob­ lems.  Like other workers who spend long periods of time in front of a computer terminal typing on a keyboard, computer scientists, engi­ neers, and systems analysts are susceptible to eye strain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel syn­ drome or cumulative trauma disorder.  Professional and Technical Occupations 111  Systems analysts must specify the inputs to be accessed by the system, design the processing steps, and format the output to meet the user's needs. Employment Computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts held about 933,000 jobs in 1996, including about 58,000 who were selfemployed. About 216,000 were computer engineers, about 506,000 were computer systems analysts, and about 212,000 were database administrators, computer support specialists, and all other computer scientists. Although they are employed in most industries, the greatest con­ centration is in the computer and data processing services industry. This industry includes firms providing nearly every service related to commercial computer use on a contract basis. Services include cus­ tomized computer programming services and applications and systems software design; the design, development, and production of prepackaged computer software; systems integration, networking, and reengineering services; data processing and preparation services; information retrieval services including on-line data bases and Inter­ net services; on-site computer facilities management; the development and management of data bases; and a variety of spe­ cialized consulting services. Many others work for government agencies, manufacturers of computer and related electronic equip­ ment, insurance companies, financial institutions, and universities. A growing number of computer professionals are employed on a temporary or contract basis—many of whom are self-employed, working independently as contractors or self-employed consultants. For example, a company installing a new computer system may need the services of several systems analysts just to get the system run­ ning. Because not all of them would be needed once the system is functioning, the company might contract directly with the systems analysts themselves or with a temporary help agency or consulting firm. Such jobs may last from several months up to 2 years or more. This growing practice enables companies to bring in people with the exact skills they need to complete a particular project, rather than having to spend time or money training or retraining existing work­ ers. Often, experienced consultants then train a company’s in-house staff as a project develops. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement While there is no universally accepted way to prepare for a job as a computer professional because employers' preferences depend on the work to be done, a bachelor’s degree is virtually a prerequisite for most employers. Relevant work experience also is very important. For some of the more complex jobs, persons with graduate degrees are preferred. Computer hardware engineers generally require a bachelor's de­ gree in computer engineering or electrical engineering, whereas software engineers are more likely to need a degree in computer sci­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ence. For systems analyst or even database administrator positions, many employers seek applicants who have a bachelor's degree in computer science, information science, computer information sys­ tems, or data processing. Computer support specialists may also need a bachelor's degree in a computer-related field, as well as significant experience working with computers, including programming skills. Generally, a Ph.D., or at least a master’s degree in computer science or engineering, is required for computer scientist jobs in research laboratories or academic institutions. Many people develop advanced computer skills in other occupa­ tions in which they work extensively with computers, and then transfer into computer occupations. For example, an accountant may become a systems analyst or computer support specialist specializing in accounting systems development, or an individual may move into a systems analyst job after working as a computer programmer. Regardless of college major, employers generally look for people who are familiar with programming languages and have broad knowledge of and experience with computer systems and technolo­ gies, strong problem-solving and analysis skills, and good interpersonal skills. Courses in computer programming or systems design offer good preparation for a job in this field. For jobs in a business environment, employers usually want systems analysts to have a background in business management or a closely related field, while a background in the physical sciences, applied mathematics, or engineering is preferred for work in scientifically oriented organiza­ tions. Since employers generally look for experience, entry-level employees enhance their employment opportunities by participating in internship or co-op programs offered through their schools. A related background in the industry in which the job is located, such as financial services, banking, or accounting, can also give an applicant an edge. Computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts must be able to think logically and have good communication skills. They often deal with a number of tasks simultaneously; the ability to concentrate and pay close attention to detail is important. Although many computer specialists sometimes work independently, they often work in teams on large projects. They must be able to communicate effectively with computer personnel, such as programmers and man­ agers, as well as with users or other staff who may have no technical computer background.  Systems analysts may be promoted to senior or lead systems ana­ lysts with experience. Those who show leadership ability also can advance to management positions, such as manager of information systems or chief information officer. Computer engineers and scientists employed in industry may eventually advance into managerial or project leadership positions. Those employed in academic institutions can become heads of re­ search departments or published authorities in their field. Computer professionals with several years of experience and considerable ex­ pertise in a particular subject area or application may find lucrative opportunities as independent consultants or choose to start their own computer consulting firms. Technological advances come so rapidly in the computer field that continuous study is necessary to keep skills up to date. Continuing education is usually offered by employers, hardware and software ven­ dors, colleges and universities, or private training institutions. Additional training may come from professional development seminars offered by professional computing societies. As technology becomes more sophisticated and complex, a higher level of skill and expertise is demanded by employers in all areas. Technical or professional certification is becoming a more common way to ensure employers of a level of competency or quality in a pro­ spective employee. Many product vendors offer and may even require professionals who work with their products to be certified. Voluntary certification is also available through organizations such as the Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP). ICCP offers the designation Certified Computing Professional (CCP) to those who have at least 4 years of work experience as a computer professional, or at least 2 years experience and a college degree. Candidates must pass a  112 Occupational Outlook Handbook core examination testing general knowledge, plus exams in two spe­ cialty areas, or in one specialty area and two computer programming languages. The Quality Assurance Institute (QAI) awards the designa­ tion Certified Quality Analyst (CQA) to those who meet education and experience requirements, pass an exam, and endorse a code of ethics. Neither designation is mandatory, but professional certification may provide a job seeker a competitive advantage. Job Outlook Computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts are expected to be the three fastest growing occupations through the year 2006. Employment of computing professionals is expected to in­ crease much faster than average as technology becomes more sophisticated and organizations continue to adopt and integrate these technologies, making for plentiful job openings. Growth will be driven by very rapid growth in computer and data processing serv­ ices, which is projected to be the fastest growing industry. In addition, thousands of job openings will result annually from the need to replace workers who move into managerial positions or other occupations or who leave the labor force. Computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts will need to continually upgrade their technical expertise and improve their ability to interact with users as the sophistication and complexity of technology advances. As more computing power is made available to the individual user and users develop more sophisticated knowledge of computers, they become more aware of the machine's potential and better able to suggest how computers could be used to increase their own productivity and that of the organization. Increasingly, users are able to design and implement more of their own applications and pro­ grams. The result is a growing demand for computer support specialists, help desk personnel, and technical consultants. The demand for "networking" to facilitate the sharing of informa­ tion, the expansion of client/server environments, and the need for specialists to use their knowledge and skills in a problem solving ca­ pacity will be a major factor in the rising demand for systems analysts. Falling prices of computer hardware and software should continue to induce more businesses to expand computerized operations and inte­ grate new technologies. In order to maintain a competitive edge and operate more cost effectively, firms will continue to demand computer professionals who are knowledgeable about the latest technologies and able to apply them to meet the needs of businesses. New growth areas generally arise from the development of new technologies. Therefore, it is important for computer professionals at all levels to keep their skills up to date. The expanding integration of Internet technologies by businesses, for example, has resulted in a ris­ ing demand for a variety of skilled professionals who can develop and support Internet, Intranet, and World Wide Web applications. Growth in these areas is also expected to create demand for computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts knowledgeable about net­ work, data and communications security. Since employers look for the most qualified applicants possessing a high level of technical expertise, individuals with an advanced degree in computer science, management information systems (MIS), com­ puter engineering, or an MBA with a concentration in information systems should enjoy very favorable employment prospects. College graduates with a bachelor's degree in computer science, computer engi­ neering, information science, or information systems should also enjoy very favorable prospects, particularly if they have supplemented their formal education with some level of practical experience. College graduates with non-computer science majors who have had courses in computer programming, systems analysis, and other data processing areas, as well as training or experience in an applied field, should also be able to find jobs as computer professionals. Those who are familiar with client/server environments, CASE tools and object-oriented pro­ gramming, Internet, Intranet, and multimedia technology will have an even greater advantage, as will individuals with significant networking, database, and systems experience. Employers will continue to seek computer professionals who can combine strong programming and Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  traditional systems analysis skills with good interpersonal and business skills. Earnings Median annual earnings of computer systems analysts and scientists who worked full time in 1996 were about $46,300. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,000 and $59,900. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $24,800 and the highest tenth, more than $76,200. Computer scientists with advanced degrees generally earn more than systems analysts. Starting salaries for computer scientists or computer engineers with a bachelor's degree can be significantly higher than starting salaries of bachelor's degree graduates in many other fields. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, starting salary offers for graduates with a bachelor's degree in computer engineering aver­ aged about $39,722 a year in 1997; those with a master's degree, $44,734 a year; and those with a Ph.D., $63,367. Starting offers for graduates with a bachelor's degree in computer science averaged about $36,597 a year; in information sciences, about $35,407 a year; and in systems analysis, about $43,800 a year in 1997. Offers for those with the bachelor's degree vary by functional area for all types of employers, as shown in the following tabulation. Computer programming......................................................................... $35,167 Information systems.............................................................................. 34,689 Systems analysis and design.................................................................. 36,261 Software design and development......................................................... 39,190 Hardware design and development........................................................ 41,237  Offers for graduates with a master's degree in computer science in 1997 averaged $45,853 a year; and those with a Ph.D. in computer and information sciences, $61,306. According to Robert Half International Inc., starting salaries in 1997 for systems analysts employed by large establishments em­ ploying more than 50 staff members ranged from $46,000 to $57,500. Salaries for those employed in small establishments ranged from $38,000 to $48,000. Salaries for programmer-analysts ranged from $39,000 to $50,000 in large establishments and $33,500 to $43,000 in small establishments. Starting salaries ranged from $54,000 to $67,500 for data base administrators, from $36,000 to $55,000 for network administrators, from $25,000 to $36,500 for help desk sup­ port technicians, and from $49,000 to $67,500 for software development specialists. ' In the Federal Government, the entrance salary for systems ana­ lysts who are recent college graduates with a bachelor's degree was about $19,520 a year in early 1997; for those with a superior aca­ demic record, $24,180. The average annual salary for computer engineers in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $62,900 in early 1997. Related Occupations Other workers who use research, logic, and creativity to solve busi­ ness problems are computer programmers, financial analysts, urban planners, engineers, mathematicians, statisticians, operations research analysts, management analysts, and actuaries. Sources of Additional Information Further information about computer careers is available from: w Association for Computing (ACM), 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036. •• IEEE Computer Society, Headquarters Office, 1730 Massachusetts Ave., NW„ Washington, DC 20036-1992.  Information about the designation Certified Computing Profes­ sional is available from: Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP), 2200 East Devon Ave., Suite 268, Des Plaines, IL 60018. Homepage:  Information about the designation Certified Quality Analyst is available from: Quality Assurance Institute, 7575 Dr. Phillips Blvd., Suite 350, Orlando, FL 32819.  Professional and Technical Occupations 113  Mathematicians  ■■mg  (D.O.T. 020.067-014, .167-030; 199.267-014)  Significant Points •  Employment is expected to grow more slowly than the average as civilian and defense related research activities face limited expansion.  •  Bachelor’s degree holders with a strong background in computer science, electrical or mechanical engineering, or operations research should have good opportunities in re­ lated occupations.  Nature of the Work Mathematics is one of the oldest and most fundamental sciences. Mathematicians create new mathematical theories and techniques involving the latest technology and solve economic, scientific, engi­ neering, and business problems using mathematical knowledge and computational tools. Mathematics falls into two broad classes: theoretical (pure) mathematics and applied mathematics. However, these classes are not sharply defined and often overlap. Theoretical mathematicians advance mathematical knowledge by developing new principles and recognizing previously unknown rela­ tionships between existing principles of mathematics. Although they seek to increase basic knowledge without necessarily considering its practical use, such pure and abstract knowledge has been instrumen­ tal in producing or furthering many scientific and engineering achievements. Applied mathematicians use theories and techniques, such as mathematical modeling and computational methods, to formulate and solve practical problems in business, government, engineer­ ing, and the physical, life, and social sciences. For example, they may analyze the most efficient way to schedule airline routes between cities, the effects of new drugs on disease, the aerody­ namic characteristics of an experimental aircraft, or the distribution costs or manufacturing processes of businesses. Ap­ plied mathematicians working in industrial research and development may develop or enhance mathematical methods when confronted with difficult problems. Some mathematicians, called cryptanalysts, analyze and decipher encryption systems designed to transmit military, political, financial, or law enforce­ ment-related information. Mathematicians use computers extensively to analyze relation­ ships among variables, solve complex problems, develop models, and process large amounts of data. Much work in applied mathematics, however, is carried on by persons with titles other than mathematician. In fact, because mathematics is the foundation upon which so many other academic disciplines are built, the number of workers using mathematical tech­ niques is many times greater than the number actually designated as mathematicians. Engineers, computer scientists, physicists, and economists are among those who use mathematics extensively but have job titles other than mathematician. Some workers, such as statisticians, actuaries, and operations research analysts, actually are specialists in a particular branch of mathematics. (See statements on actuaries, operations research analysts, and statisticians elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Mathematicians working for government agencies or private firms usually have structured work schedules. They generally work as an integral part of a interdisciplinary team that may include engi­ neers, computer scientists, physicists, technicians, and others. Deadlines, overtime work, special rush requests for information or analysis, and prolonged travel to attend seminars or confer­ ences may be part of their jobs. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Mathematicians generally work as an integral part of a interdisci­ plinary team. Employment Mathematicians held about 16,000 jobs in 1996. In addition, about 20,000 persons held mathematics faculty positions in colleges and universities in 1995, according to the American Mathematical Soci­ ety. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Many nonfaculty mathematicians work for either Federal or State governments. The Department of Defense is the primary Federal employer of mathematicians, employing almost three-fourths of the mathematicians employed by the Federal Government. In the private sector, major employers include research and testing services, educa­ tional services, security and commodity exchanges, and management and public relations services. Within manufacturing, the drug indus­ try is the key employer. Some mathematicians also work for banks, insurance companies, and public utilities. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in mathematics is the minimum education needed for prospective mathematicians. In the Federal Govern­ ment, entry-level job candidates usually must have a 4-year degree with a major in mathematics or a 4-year degree with the equivalent of a mathematics major—24 semester hours of mathematics courses. In private industry, job candidates generally need a master's or a Ph.D. degree to obtain jobs as mathematicians. Most of the positions designated for mathematicians are in research and development labo­ ratories as part of technical teams. These research scientists engage in either pure mathematical, or basic, research; or in applied research focusing on developing or improving specific products or processes. The majority of those with a bachelor's or master's degree in mathe­ matics who work in private industry do so not as mathematicians, but in related fields such as computer science, where they have titles such as computer programmers, systems analysts, or systems engineers. A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is offered by most colleges and universities. Mathematics courses usually required for this degree are calculus, differential equations, and linear and abstract algebra. Additional courses might include probability theory and statistics, mathematical analysis, numerical analysis, topology, discrete mathematics, and mathematical logic. Many colleges and universities urge or even require students majoring in mathematics  114 Occupational Outlook Handbook to take several courses in a field that uses or is closely related to mathematics, such as computer science, engineering, operations research, a physical science, statistics, or economics. A double major in mathematics and another discipline such as computer sci­ ence, economics, or one of the sciences is particularly desirable to many employers. A prospective college mathematics major should take as many mathematics courses as possible while in high school. In 1996, about 240 colleges and universities offered a master's de­ gree as the highest degree in either pure or applied mathematics; 195 offered a Ph.D. in pure or applied mathematics. In graduate school, students conduct research and take advanced courses, usually spe­ cializing in a subfield of mathematics. Some areas of concentration are algebra, number theory, real or complex analysis, geometry, to­ pology, logic, and applied mathematics. For work in applied mathematics, training in the field in which the mathematics will be used is very important. Fields in which applied mathematics is used extensively include physics, actuarial science, engineering, and operations research; of increasing importance are computer and information science, business and industrial manage­ ment, economics, statistics, chemistry, geology life sciences, and the behavioral sciences. Mathematicians should have substantial knowledge of computer programming because most complex mathematical computation and much mathematical modeling is done by computer. Mathematicians need good reasoning ability and persistence in order to identify, analyze, and apply basic principles to technical problems. Communication skills are also important, as mathemati­ cians must be able to interact with others, including nonmathematicians, and discuss proposed solutions to problems. Job Outlook Employment of mathematicians is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. The number of jobs available for workers whose educational background is solely mathematics is not expected to increase significantly. Many firms en­ gaged in civilian research and development that use mathematicians are not planning to expand their research departments much, and, in some cases, may reduce them. Expected reductions in defense-related re­ search and development will also affect mathematicians' employment, especially in the Federal Government. Those whose educational back­ ground includes the study of a related discipline will have better job opportunities. However, as advancements in technology lead to ex­ panding applications of mathematics, more workers with a knowledge of mathematics will be required. Many of these workers have job titles which reflect the end product of their work rather than the discipline of mathematics used in that work. Bachelor's degree holders in mathematics are usually not qualified for most jobs as mathematicians. However, those with a strong background in computer science, electrical or mechanical engineer­ ing, or operations research should have good opportunities in industry. Bachelor's degree holders who meet State certification requirements may become high school mathematics teachers. (For additional information, see the statement on kindergarten, elemen­ tary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Holders of a master's degree in mathematics will face very strong competition for jobs in theoretical research. However, job opportu­ nities in applied mathematics and related areas such as computer programming, operations research, and engineering design in indus­ try and government will be more numerous. Earnings According to a 1997 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, starting salary offers for mathematics graduates with a bachelor's degree averaged about $31,800 a year and for those with a master's degree, $38,300. In the Federal Government in 1997, the average annual salary for mathematicians in supervisory, nonsupervisory, and managerial posi­ tions was $62,000; for mathematical statisticians, $65,660; and for cryptanalysts, $56,160. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Benefits for mathematicians tend to be similar to those offered to most professionals who work in office settings; Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a retirement plan, among others. Related Occupations Other occupations that require a degree in or extensive knowledge of mathematics include actuary, statistician, computer programmer, sys­ tems analyst, systems engineer, and operations research analyst. In addition, a strong background in mathematics facilitates employment in fields such as engineering, economics, finance, and physics. Sources of Additional Information For more information about the field of mathematics, including ca­ reer opportunities and professional training, contact: »• American Mathematical Society, Department of Professional Programs and Services, P.O. Box 6248, Providence, RI02940-6248. »■ Mathematical Association of America, 1529 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For a 1996 resource guide on careers in mathematical sciences contact: Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, 1529 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For specific information on careers in applied mathematics, con­ tact: «■ Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 3600 University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2688.  Information on obtaining a mathematician position with the Fed­ eral Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone based system. Consult your tele­ phone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). That number is not toll free and charges may result. Information also is available from their internet site: http://  Operations Research Analysts (D O T. 020.067-018)  Significant Points •  Individuals with a master's or Ph.D. degree in management science or operations research should find good job pros­ pects through the year 2006, despite projected slower than average employment growth.  •  Skills acquired by operations research analysts are useful for higher-level management jobs.  Nature of the Work Efficiently running a complex organization such as a manufacturing plant or an airline requires the precise coordination of materials, equipment, and people. Operations research analysts help organiza­ tions coordinate and operate in the most efficient manner by applying mathematical principles to organizational problems. Managers then evaluate alternatives and choose the course of action that best meets their goals. Operations research analysts tackle a whole host of problems facing large business and government organizations, including strat­ egy, forecasting, resource allocation, facilities layout, inventory control, personnel schedules, and distribution systems. Their meth­ ods generally use a mathematical model consisting of a set of equations that describe how things happen within the organization. Use of models enables the analyst to break down problems into their component parts, assign numerical values to different components, and determine the mathematical relationships between them. These values can be altered to examine what will happen to the system un­ der different circumstances. The situation under consideration determines the mathematical method used. Some of the methods  Professional and Technical Occupations 115 available include simulation, linear optimization, networks, waiting lines, and game theory. Operations research analysts use computers extensively in their work. They are typically highly proficient in database collection and management, programming, and in the development and use of so­ phisticated software programs. Many of the models employed in operations research are so complicated that only a computer can solve them efficiently. The type of problem they handle varies by industry. For example, a civilian analyst for the Armed Forces may coordinate flight and maintenance schedules to produce an optimal schedule for the safe deployment of troops and material. An analyst employed by a hos­ pital concentrates on a different set of factors, such as scheduling admissions, managing patient flow, assigning shifts, monitoring use of pharmacy and laboratory services, and forecasting demand for hospital services. The duties of the operations research analyst vary according to the structure and management philosophy of the employer or client. Some firms centralize operations research in one department, while others use operations research in all divisions. Firms may contract out operations research services to a consulting firm. Some opera­ tions research analysts specialize in one type of application, whereas others are generalists, especially at the beginning of their careers. In addition, economists, systems analysts, mathematicians, industrial engineers, and others may also apply operations research techniques to address problem areas within their respective fields. The degree of supervision varies by organizational structure and experience. In some organizations, analysts have a great deal of pro­ fessional autonomy, while in others, analysts are more closely supervised. Operations research analysts work closely with senior managers, who have a wide variety of support needs. Analysts must adapt their work to reflect these requirements. Regardless of the industry or structure of the organization, opera­ tions research entails a similar set of procedures. Managers begin the process by describing the symptoms of a problem to the analyst, who then formally defines the problem. For example, an operations re­ search analyst for an auto manufacturer may be asked to determine the best inventory level for each of the materials for a new production line or, more specifically, to determine how many windshields should be kept in inventory. Analysts study the problem, then break it into its component parts. Then they gather information about each of these parts. Usually this involves consulting a wide variety of sources of information. To determine the most efficient amount of inventory to be kept on hand, for example, operations research analysts might talk with engineers about production levels, discuss purchasing arrangements with buy­ ers, and examine data on storage costs provided by the accounting department. With this information in hand, the analyst is ready to select the most appropriate analytical technique. There may be several tech­ niques that could be used, but all techniques involve the construction of a mathematical model that explains the system and solves the problem. In almost all cases, the computer program used to solve the model must be modified repeatedly to reflect different solutions. A model for airline flight scheduling, for example, might include variables for the cities to be connected, amount of fuel required to fly the routes, projected levels of passenger demand, varying ticket and fuel prices, pilot scheduling, and maintenance costs. The analyst then chooses values for these variables, enters them into a computer which is then programmed to solve the calculations, and runs the program to produce the best flight schedule consistent with various sets of as­ sumptions. At this point, the operations research analyst presents the final work to management along with recommendations based on the re­ sults of the analysis. Additional computer runs based on different assumptions may be needed to help in making the final decision be­ tween various options. Once a decision has been reached by management, the analyst may work with others in the organization to ensure the plan's successful implementation. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Operations research is performed by analysts who may hold a va­ riety ofjob titles. Working Conditions Operations research analysts generally work regular hours in an office environment. Because they work on projects that are of immediate interest to management, analysts often are under pressure to meet deadlines and often work more than a 40-hour week. Employment Operations research analysts held about 50,000 jobs in 1996. They are employed in most industries. Major employers include telecom­ munication companies, air carriers, computer and data processing services, financial institutions, insurance carriers, engineering and management services firms, and the Federal Government. About 1 out of 5 analysts work for management, research, public relations, and testing agencies that do operations research consulting. Most operations research analysts in the Federal Government work for the Armed Forces. In addition, many operations research analysts in private industry work directly or indirectly on national defense. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers generally prefer applicants with at least a master's degree in operations research, industrial engineering, or management science, coupled with a bachelor’s degree in computer science or one of the quantitative disciplines like economics, mathematics or statistics. Employers often sponsor skills-improvement training for experi­ enced workers, helping them keep up with new developments in operations research techniques as well as advances in computer sci­ ence. Some analysts attend advanced university classes on these subjects at their employer's expense. Operations research analysts must be able to think logically and work well with people, so employers prefer workers with good oral and written communication skills. The computer is the most impor­ tant tool for quantitative analysis, and both training and experience in programming is a must. Beginning analysts usually do routine work under the supervision of more experienced analysts. As they gain knowledge and experi­ ence, they are assigned more complex tasks, with greater autonomy to design models and solve problems. Operations research analysts advance by assuming positions as technical specialists or supervisors. The skills acquired by operations research analysts are useful for higher-level management jobs, and experienced analysts may leave  116 Occupational Outlook Handbook the field to assume nontechnical managerial or administrative posi­ tions. Job Outlook Individuals seeking employment as operations research or manage­ ment science analysts who hold master's or Ph.D. degrees in management science or operations research should find good oppor­ tunities through the year 2006 because the number of openings generated each year as a result of the slower than average employ­ ment growth expected and the need to replace those leaving the occupation is expected to exceed the number of persons graduating with these credentials. Graduates with only a bachelors degrees in operations research or management science should find opportunities as research assistants in a variety of related fields which allow them to use their quantitative abilities. Organizations are expected to use operations research and management science techniques to improve productivity and quality and to reduce costs. This reflects an accep­ tance of a systematic approach to decision making by top managers. This should result in a steady demand for workers knowledgeable in operations research techniques in the years ahead. The importance of quantitative analysis in decision making en­ sures that training in operations research will continue to be valuable in obtaining employment. Employment opportunities will occur in the transportation, manufacturing, finance, and services sectors, where the use of quantitative analysis can achieve dramatic im­ provements in operating efficiency and profitability.  Nature of the Work Statistics is a science, applying mathematical tools, involved with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data. Many applications—including predicting population growth or economic conditions, providing quality control tests for manufactured products, and helping business managers and government officials make decisions—benefit from statistical techniques. Statisticians are the individuals who design surveys and experiments, collect data, and interpret the results. In doing so, they often apply their knowledge of statistical methods to a particular subject area, such as biology, eco­ nomics, engineering, medicine, or psychology. Some statisticians develop new statistical methods. Statisticians typically work with professionals in other fields to solve practical problems. For example, biostatisticians involved in clinical research have developed sequential procedures that minimize patients' exposure to harmful treatment and make beneficial treat­ ments more rapidly accessible. Often statisticians are able to obtain information about a group of people or things by surveying a small portion, called a sample, of the group. For example, to determine the size of the total audience for particular programs, television rating services ask only a few thou­ sand families, rather than all viewers, which programs they watch. Statisticians decide where and how to gather the data, determine the type and size of the sample group, and develop the survey question­ naire or reporting form. They also prepare instructions for workers who will collect and tabulate the data. Finally, statisticians analyze,  Earnings In 1996, the median salary of operations and systems researchers and analysts was about $42,400 a year. The middle 50 percent earned between about $33,100 and $55,500; the lowest 10 percent were paid less than $24,300, while the highest 10 percent earned over $65,500 a year. The average annual salary for operations research analysts in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $66,760 in 1997. Related Occupations Operations research analysts apply mathematical principles to large, complicated problems. Workers in other occupations that stress quan­ titative analysis include computer scientists, engineers, mathematicians, statisticians, and economists. Because its goal is improved organiza­ tional efficiency, operations research is closely allied to managerial occupations. Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities for operations research analysts is available from: »■ The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, 901 Elkridge Landing Rd„ Suite 400, Linthicum, MD 21090.  For information on careers in the Armed Forces and Department of Defense, contact: »• Military Operations Research Society, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 202, Alexandria, VA 22304.  Statisticians (D.O.T. 020.067-022, .167-026)* •  Significant Points •  Many with bachelors and master’s degrees in statistics enter jobs in which they do not have the title of statistician.  •  In private industry and colleges and universities, many positions require a graduate degree, often a doctorate, in statistics. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Good communications skills are important for prospective statisti­ cians.  Professional and Technical Occupations 117 interpret, and summarize the data, usually using sophisticated statisti­ cal computer software. In manufacturing industries, statisticians play an important role in the area of quality improvement. For example, a statistician in an automobile manufacturing company might design experiments using statistical models to estimate the failure time of an engine exposed to extreme weather conditions and to identify factors that can lead to improved performance. In chemical companies, statisticians might design experiments to determine what combination of chemicals would produce the best product for a specific purpose. Because statistics are used in so many areas, specialists in other fields who use statistics often have other designations. For example, a person using statistical methods on economic data may have the title of econometrician. (See the statement on economists and mar­ keting research analysts elsewhere in the Handbook). Working Conditions Statisticians usually work regular hours in offices. Some statisticians travel to provide advice on research projects, supervise or set up sur­ veys, or to gather statistical data. Some may have fairly repetitive tasks, while others may have a variety of tasks, such as designing experiments. Employment Statisticians held about 14,000 jobs in 1996. Over one-fourth of these jobs were in the Federal Government, where statisticians were concentrated in the Departments of Commerce, Agriculture, and Health and Human Services. Most of the remaining jobs were in private industry, especially in the biopharmaceutical industry. In addition, many statisticians work in academia. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree with a major in statistics or mathematics is the minimum educational requirement for some beginning jobs in statis­ tics. The training required for employment as an entry level statistician in the Federal Government is a college degree including at least 15 semester hours of statistics—or a combination of 15 hours of mathematics and statistics if at least 6 semester hours are in statistics. An additional 9 semester hours in another academic discipline, such as economics, physical or biological science, medicine, education, engi­ neering, or social science, are also required. To qualify as a mathematical statistician in the Federal Government requires 24 se­ mester hours of mathematics and statistics with a minimum of 6 semester hours in statistics and 12 semester hours in advanced mathematics, such as calculus, differential equations, or vector analy­ sis. Research positions in institutions of higher education and many positions in private industry require a graduate degree, often a doctor­ ate, in statistics. About 80 colleges and universities offered bachelor's degrees in statistics in 1996. Many other schools also offered degrees in mathematics, operations research, and other fields which included a sufficient number of courses in statistics to qualify graduates for some beginning positions, particularly in the Federal Government. Required subjects for statistics majors include differential and inte­ gral calculus, statistical methods, mathematical modeling, and probability theory. Additional courses that undergraduates should take include linear algebra, design and analysis of experiments, ap­ plied multivariate analysis, and mathematical statistics. Because computers are used extensively for statistical applications, a strong background in computer science is highly recommended. For posi­ tions involving quality and productivity improvement, training in engineering or physical science is useful. A background in biologi­ cal, chemical, or health science is important for positions involving the preparation and testing of pharmaceutical or agricultural products. For many jobs in market research, business analysis, and forecasting, courses in economics and business administration are helpful. In 1996, approximately 110 universities offered a master's degree program in statistics, and 58 had statistics departments which offered Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  a doctoral degree program. Many other schools also offered gradu­ ate-level courses in applied statistics for students majoring in biology, business, economics, education, engineering, psychology, and other fields. Acceptance into graduate statistics programs does not require an undergraduate degree in statistics although a good mathematics background is essential. Good communications skills are important for prospective stat­ isticians, not only for those who plan to teach, but also to qualify for many positions in industry, where the need to explain technical processes to those who are not statisticians is common. A solid understanding of business and the economy is important for those who plan to work in private industry. Beginning statisticians who have only the bachelor's degree of­ ten spend much of their time doing routine work supervised by an experienced statistician. With experience, they may advance to positions of greater technical and supervisory responsibility. How­ ever, opportunities for promotion are best for those with advanced degrees. Master's and Ph.D. degree holders enjoy greater inde­ pendence in their work and are qualified to engage in research, to develop statistical methods, or, after a number of years of experi­ ence in a particular area, to become statistical consultants. Job Outlook Although employment of statisticians is expected to grow little through the year 2006, job opportunities should remain favorable for individuals with statistical training. Many individuals at the bachelor's degree level, and some at the master's degree level, will find positions in which they do not have the title of statistician. This is especially true for those involved in analyzing and inter­ preting data from other disciplines such as economics, biological science, psychology, or engineering. Among graduates with a bachelor's degree in statistics, those with a strong background in mathematics, engineering, or computer sci­ ence should have the best prospects of finding jobs related to their field of study. Federal Government agencies will need statisticians in fields such as demography, agriculture, consumer and producer sur­ veys, Social Security, health care, education, energy conservation, and environmental quality. However, competition for entry level positions in the Federal Government is expected to be strong for those just meeting the minimum qualification standards for statisti­ cians. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school statistics teachers, a newly emerging field. (For addi­ tional information, see the statement on kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Private industry will continue to require statisticians, especially at the master's and Ph.D. degree levels, to monitor and improve productivity and quality in the manufacture of various products including pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, chemicals, and food products. For example, pharmaceutical firms will need statisticians to assess the safety and effectiveness of the rapidly expanding number of drugs. To counter stiff competition, motor vehicle manufacturers will need statisticians to improve the quality of automobiles, trucks, and their components by developing and test­ ing new designs. Some statisticians with a knowledge of engineering and the physical sciences will find jobs in research and development, working with teams of scientists and engineers to help improve design and production processes in order to ensure consistent quality of newly developed products. Business firms will rely more heavily on workers with a background in statistics to forecast sales, analyze business conditions, and help solve man­ agement problems. In addition, sophisticated statistical services will increasingly be contracted out to consulting firms. Earnings The average annual salary for statisticians in the Federal Govern­ ment in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $61,030 in 1997; mathematical statisticians averaged $65,660. Statisticians who hold advanced degrees generally earn higher starting salaries.  118 Occupational Outlook Handbook Benefits for statisticians tend to resemble those offered most professionals: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a retirement plan, among others. Related Occupations People in numerous occupations work with statistics. Among them are actuaries, mathematicians, operations research analysts, computer programmers, computer systems analysts, engineers, economists, financial analysts, information scientists, life scientists, physical sci­ entists, and social scientists.  Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in statistics, contact: American Statistical Association, 1429 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Information on obtaining a statistian position with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Manage­ ment through a telephone based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). That number is not toll free and charges may result. Information also is available from their internet site: http://  Life Scientists Agricultural Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, and -058; 041.061-014, -018, -046, and -082; and 041.081)* •  Significant Points •  A large proportion, about 30 percent, work for Federal, State, and local governments.  •  A bachelor's degree in agricultural science is sufficient for some jobs in applied research; a master's or doctoral de­ gree is required for basic research.  •  Those with advanced degrees have the best prospects; however, competition may be keen for some basic re­ search jobs if Federal and State funding for these positions is cut.  Nature of the Work The work agricultural scientists do plays an important part in maintaining and increasing the Nation's agricultural productivity. Agricultural scientists study farm crops and animals and develop ways of improving their quantity and quality. They look for ways to improve crop yield and quality with less labor, control pests and weeds more safely and effectively, and conserve soil and water. They research methods of converting raw agricultural commodities into attractive and healthy food products for con­ sumers. Agricultural science is closely related to biological science, and agricultural scientists use the principles of biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and other sciences to solve problems in agri­ culture. They often work with biological scientists on basic biological research and in applying to agriculture the advances in knowledge brought about by biotechnology. Many agricultural scientists work in basic or applied research and development. Others manage or administer research and develop­ ment programs or manage marketing or production operations in companies that produce food products or agricultural chemicals, sup­ plies, and machinery. Some agricultural scientists are consultants to business firms, private clients, or to government. Depending on the agricultural scientist’s area of specialization, the nature of the work performed varies. Food science. Food scientists or technologists are usually employed in the food processing industry, universities, or the Federal Govern­ ment, and help meet consumer demand for food products that are healthful, safe, palatable, and convenient. To do this, they use their knowledge of chemistry, microbiology, and other sciences to develop new or better ways of preserving, processing, packaging, storing, and delivering foods. Some engage in basic research, discovering new food sources; analyzing food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, or protein; or searching for substitutes for harmful or unde­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  sirable additives, such as nitrites. Many food technologists work in product development. Others enforce government regulations, in­ specting food processing areas and ensuring that sanitation, safety, quality, and waste management standards are met. Plant science. Agronomy, crop science, entomology, and plant breeding are included in plant science. Scientists in these disciplines study plants and their growth in soils, helping producers of food, feed, and fiber crops to continue to feed a growing population while conserving natural resources and maintaining the environment. Agronomists and crop scientists not only help increase productivity, but also study ways to improve the nutritional value of crops and the quality of seed. Some crop scientists study the breeding, physiology, and management of crops and use genetic engineering to develop crops resistant to pests and drought. Entomologists conduct research to develop new technologies to control or eliminate pests in infested areas and prevent the spread of harmful pests to new areas, and which are compatible with the environment. They also do research or en­ gage in oversight activities aimed at halting the spread of insectborne disease. Soil science. These workers study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. They study the responses of various soil types to fertilizers, tillage practices, and crop rotation. Many soil scientists who work for the Federal Government conduct soil surveys, classifying and mapping soils. They provide information and recommendations to farmers and other landowners regarding the best use of land and how to avoid or correct problems such as erosion. They may also consult with engineers and other technical personnel working on construction projects about the effects of, and solutions to, soil problems. Since soil science is closely related to environmental science, persons trained in soil science also apply their knowledge to ensure environ­ mental quality and effective land use. Animal science. Developing better, more efficient ways of produc­ ing and processing meat, poultry, eggs, and milk is the work of animal scientists. Dairy scientists, poultry scientists, animal breeders, and other related scientists study the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals. Some animal scientists inspect and grade livestock food products, purchase live­ stock, or work in technical sales or marketing. As extension agents or consultants, animal scientists advise agricultural producers on how to upgrade animal housing facilities properly, lower mortality rates, or increase production of animal products, such as milk or eggs. Working Conditions Agricultural scientists involved in management or basic research tend to work regular hours in offices and laboratories. The working envi­ ronment for those engaged in applied research or product development varies, depending on the discipline of agricultural sci­ ence and the type of employer. For example, food scientists in private industry may work in test kitchens while investigating new processing techniques. Animal scientists working for Federal, State,  Professional and Technical Occupations 119 tion to a wide variety of technical agricultural science courses. For prospective animal scientists, these technical agricultural science courses might include animal breeding, reproductive physiology, nu­ trition, and meats and muscle biology; students preparing as food scientists take courses such as food chemistry, food analysis, food microbiology, and food processing operations; and those preparing as crop or soil scientists take courses in plant pathology, soil chemistry, entomology, plant physiology, and biochemistry, among others. Ad­ vanced degree programs include classroom and fieldwork, laboratory research, and a thesis or dissertation based on independent research. Agricultural scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Most agricultural scientists also need an under­ standing of basic business principles. The American Society of Agronomy offers certification in agron­ omy, crop science, soil science, soil classification, horticulture, plant pathology, and weed science. To become certified, -applicants must meet certain examination, education, and professional work experi­ ence standards. Agricultural scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may advance to jobs such as supervisors of research programs or managers of other agri­ culture-related activities.  A soil scientist records the growth of grains in an agricultural re­ search test plot. or university research stations may spend part of their time at dairies, farrowing houses, feedlots, farm animal facilities, or outdoors con­ ducting research associated with livestock. Soil and crop scientists also spend time outdoors conducting research on farms agricultural research stations. Entomologists work in laboratories, insectories, or agricultural research stations, and may also spend time outdoors studying or collecting insects in their natural habitat. Employment Agricultural scientists held about 24,000 jobs in 1996. In addition, several thousand persons held agricultural science faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and univer­ sity faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About 30 percent of all nonfaculty agricultural scientists work for Federal, State, or local governments. Nearly 1 out of 5 worked for the Federal Government in 1996, mostly in the Department of Agri­ culture. In addition, large numbers worked for State governments at State agricultural colleges or agricultural research stations. Some worked for agricultural service companies; others worked for com­ mercial research and development laboratories, seed companies, pharmaceutical companies, wholesale distributors, and food products companies. About 2,000 agricultural scientists were self-employed in 1996, mainly as consultants. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements for agricultural scientists depend on their spe­ cialty and the type of work they perform. A bachelor's degree in agricultural science is sufficient for some jobs in applied research or for assisting in basic research, but a master's or doctoral degree is required for basic research. A Ph.D. degree in agricultural science is usually needed for college teaching and for advancement to adminis­ trative research positions. Degrees in related sciences such as biology, chemistry, or physics or in related engineering specialties also may qualify persons for some agricultural science jobs. All States have a land-grant college which offers agricultural sci­ ence degrees. Many other colleges and universities also offer agricultural science degrees or some agricultural science courses. However, not every school offers all specialties. A typical under­ graduate agricultural science curriculum includes communications, economics, business, and physical and life sciences courses, in addi­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of agricultural scientists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Addi­ tionally, the need to replace agricultural scientists who retire or otherwise leave the occupation permanently will account for many more job openings than projected growth. Past agricultural research has resulted in the development of higher-yielding crops, crops with better resistance to pests and plant pathogens, and chemically-based fertilizers and pesticides. Further research is necessary as insects and diseases continue to adapt to pesticides, and as soil fertility and water quality deteriorate. Agri­ cultural scientists will be needed to balance increased agricultural output with protection and preservation of the soil, water, and eco­ systems. They will practice “sustainable agriculture” by developing and implementing plans to manage pests, crops, soil fertility and erosion, and animal waste in ways that reduce the use of harmful chemicals and do little damage to the natural environment. Products developed using biotechnology methods will assist in these chal­ lenges. Also, an expanding population and a public increasingly focused on diet, health, and food safety, will result in growing op­ portunities for agricultural scientists to work in food science and technology. Generally speaking, those with advanced degrees will be in the best position to enter jobs as agricultural scientists. However, com­ petition may be keen for teaching positions in colleges or universities and for some basic research jobs, even for doctoral holders. Federal and State budget cuts may limit funding for these positions through the year 2006. Bachelor's degree holders can work in some applied research and product development positions, but usually only in certain subfields, such as food science and technology. Also, the Federal Government hires bachelor's degree holders to work as soil scientists. Despite the more limited opportunities for those with only a bachelor's degree to obtain jobs as agricultural scientists, a bachelor's degree in agricul­ tural science is useful for managerial jobs in businesses that deal with ranchers and farmers, such as feed, fertilizer, seed, and farm equip­ ment manufacturers; retailers or wholesalers; and farm credit institutions. Four-year degrees may also help persons enter occupa­ tions such as farmer or farm or ranch manager, cooperative extension service agent, agricultural products inspector, or purchasing or sales agent for agricultural commodity or farm supply companies. Earnings According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, beginning salary offers in 1997 for graduates with a bachelor's degree  120 Occupational Outlook Handbook in animal science averaged about $24,900 a year, and for graduates in plant science, $24,000. The median salary for full-time food scientists or technologists was $55,200, according to a 1995 salary survey by the Institute of Food Technologists. Average Federal salaries for employees in nonsupervisory, super­ visory, and managerial positions in certain agricultural science specialties in 1997 were as follows: Animal science, $65,500; agron­ omy, $52,000; soil science, $49,400; horticulture, $50,400; and entomology, $62,200. Related Occupations The work of agricultural scientists is closely related to that of biolo­ gists and other natural scientists such as chemists, foresters, and conservation scientists. It is also related to agricultural production occupations such as farmer and farm manager and cooperative exten­ sion service agent. Certain specialties of agricultural science are also related to other occupations. For example, the work of animal scien­ tists is related to that of veterinarians; horticulturists, to landscape architects; and soil scientists, to soil conservationists. Sources of Additional Information Information on careers in agricultural science is available from: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711-1086. *" Food and Agricultural Careers for Tomorrow, Purdue University, 1140 Agricultural Administration Bldg., West Lafayette, IN 47907-1140.  For information on careers in food technology, write to: Institute of Food Technologists, Suite 300, 221 N. LaSalle St., Chicago IL 60601.  For information on careers in entomology, contact: »■ Entomological Society of America, 9301 Annapolis Rd., Lanham, MD 20706, Attn: Public Relations Coordinator.  Information on acquiring a job as an agricultural scientist with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone-based system. Consult your tele­ phone directory under U.S. Government for a local number, or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912-744-2299). That number is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site:  Biological and Medical Scientists (D.O.T. 022.081-010; 041.061, except -014, -018, -046, and -082; 041.067-010; 041.261-010)* •  Significant Points •  • •  For biological scientists, a Ph.D. degree is generally re­ quired for independent research; a master's degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research or product de­ velopment; a bachelor's degree is adequate for some nonresearch jobs. For medical scientists, the Ph.D. degree in a biological science is required; some need a medical degree. Doctoral degree holders face considerable competition for independent research positions; those with a bachelor’s or master’s degree in biological science can expect better opportunities for nonresearch positions.  Nature of the Work Biological and medical scientists study living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Most specialize in some area of biology such as zoology (the study of animals) or microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms). Many biological scientists and virtually all medical scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  advance knowledge of living organisms, including viruses, bacteria, and other infectious agents. Past research has resulted in the devel­ opment of vaccines, medicines, and treatments for cancer and other diseases. Basic biological and medical research continues to provide the building blocks necessary to develop solutions to human health problems and to preserve and repair the natural environment. Bio­ logical and medical scientists may work independently in private industry, university, or government laboratories, often exploring new areas of research or expanding on specialized research started in graduate school. Those who are not wage and salary workers in pri­ vate industry typically submit grant proposals to obtain funding for their projects. Colleges and universities, private industry, and Fed­ eral Government agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation, contribute to the support of scientists whose research proposals are determined to be financially feasible and have the potential to advance new ideas or processes. Biological and medical scientists who work in applied research or product development use knowledge provided by basic research to develop new drugs and medical treatments, increase crop yields, and protect and clean up the environment. They usually have less auton­ omy than basic researchers to choose the emphasis of their research, relying instead on market-driven directions based on the firm’s prod­ ucts and goals. Biological and medical scientists doing applied research and product development in private industry may be re­ quired to express their research plans or results to nonscientists who are in a position to veto or approve their ideas, and they must under­ stand the business impact of their work. Scientists are increasingly working as part of teams, interacting with engineers, scientists of other disciplines, business managers, and technicians. They may also work with customers or suppliers, and manage budgets. Biological and medical scientists who conduct research usually work in laboratories and use electron microscopes, computers, ther­ mal cyclers, or a wide variety of other equipment. Some conduct experiments using laboratory animals or greenhouse plants. For some biological scientists, a good deal of research is performed out­ side of laboratories. For example, a botanist may do research in tropical rain forests to see what plants grow there, or an ecologist may study how a forest area recovers after a fire. Some biological and medical scientists work in managerial or ad­ ministrative positions, usually after spending some time doing research and learning about the firm, agency, or project. They may plan and administer programs for testing foods and drugs, for exam­ ple, or direct activities at zoos or botanical gardens. Some biological scientists work as consultants to business firms or to government, while others test and inspect foods, drugs, and other products. In the 1980s, swift advances in basic biological knowledge related to genetics and molecules spurred growth in the field of biotechnol­ ogy. Biological and medical scientists using this technology manipulate the genetic material of animals or plants, attempting to make organisms more productive or resistant to disease. Research using biotechnology techniques, such as recombining DNA, has led to the discovery of important drugs, including human insulin and growth hormone. Many other substances not previously available in large quantities are starting to be produced by biotechnological means; some may be useful in treating cancer and other diseases. Today, many biological and medical scientists are involved in bio­ technology, including those who work on the Human Genome project, isolating, identifying, and sequencing human genes. This work continues to lead to the discovery of the genes associated with specific diseases and inherited traits, such as certain types of cancer or obesity. These advances in biotechnology have opened up re­ search opportunities in almost all areas of biology, including commercial applications in agriculture, environmental remediation, and the food and chemical industries. Most biological scientists who come under the broad category of biologist are further classified by the type of organism they study or by the specific activity they perform, although recent advances in the understanding of basic life processes at the molecular and cellular levels have blurred some traditional classifications.  Professional and Technical Occupations 121 Aquatic biologists study plants and animals living in water. Ma­ rine biologists study salt water organisms and limnologists study fresh water organisms. Marine biologists are sometimes erroneously called oceanographers, but oceanography is the study of the physical characteristics of oceans and the ocean floor. (See the statement on geologists and geophysicists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biochemists study the chemical composition of living things. They try to understand the complex chemical combinations and reac­ tions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. Much of the work in biotechnology is done by biochemists and mo­ lecular biologists because this technology involves understanding the complex chemistry of life. Botanists study plants and their environment. Some study all as­ pects of plant life; others specialize in areas such as identification and classification of plants, the structure and function of plant parts, the biochemistry of plant processes, the causes and cures of plant dis­ eases, and the geological record of plants. Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of mi­ croscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Medical microbiologists study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effect of antibiotics on microorganisms. Other microbiologists may specialize in environmental, food, agricultural, or industrial microbiology, virology (the study of viruses), or immunology (the study of mechanisms that fight infections). Many microbiologists use biotechnology to advance knowledge of cell reproduction and human disease.  Physiologists study life functions of plants and animals, both in the whole organism and at the cellular or molecular level, under nor­ mal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists may specialize in functions such as growth, reproduction, photosynthesis, respiration, or movement, or in the physiology of a certain area or system of the organism. Zoologists study animals—their origin, behavior, diseases, and life processes. Some experiment with live animals in controlled or natural surroundings while others dissect dead animals to study their structure. Zoologists are usually identified by the animal group studied—orni­ thologists (birds), mammalogists (mammals), herpetologists (reptiles), and ichthyologists (fish). Ecologists study the relationship among organisms and between organisms and their environments and the effects of influences such as population size, pollutants, rainfall, temperature, and altitude. Agricultural scientists, who may also be classified as biological scientists, are included in a separate statement elsewhere in the Handbook. Biological scientists who do biomedical research are usually called medical scientists. Medical scientists working on basic re­ search into normal biological systems often do so to understand the causes of and to discover treatment for disease and other health problems. Medical scientists may try to identify the kinds of changes in a cell, chromosome, or even gene that signal the development of medical problems, such as different types of cancer. After identify­ ing structures of or changes in organisms that provide clues to health problems, medical scientists may then work on the treatment of problems. For example, a medical scientist involved in cancer re­ search might try to formulate a combination of drugs which will lessen the effects of the disease. Medical scientists who have a medical degree might then administer the drugs to patients in clini­ cal trials, monitor their reactions, and observe the results. (Medical scientists who do not have a medical degree normally collaborate with a medical doctor who deals directly with patients.) The medi­ cal scientist might then return to the laboratory to examine the results and, if necessary, adjust the dosage levels to reduce negative side effects or to try to induce even better results. In addition to using basic research to develop treatments for health problems, medical scientists attempt to discover ways to prevent health prob­ lems from developing, such as affirming the link between smoking and increased risk of lung cancer, or alcoholism and liver disease. Working Conditions Biological and medical scientists generally work regular hours in offices or laboratories and usually are not exposed to unsafe or un­ healthy conditions. Those who work with dangerous organisms or toxic substances in the laboratory must follow strict safety procedures to avoid contamination. Medical scientists also spend time working in clinics and hospitals administering dmgs and treatments to patients in clinical trials. Many biological scientists such as botanists, ecolo­ gists, and zoologists take field trips which involve strenuous physical activity and primitive living conditions. Biological and medical scientists who depend on grant money to support their research may be under pressure to meet deadlines and conform to rigid grant-writing specifications when preparing propos­ als to seek new or extended funding.  Many biological scientists and virtually all medical scientists work in research and development. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Biological and medical scientists held about 118,000 jobs in 1996. Almost 1 in 4 biological scientists were employed by Federal, State, and local governments. Federal biological scientists worked mainly in the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, the Interior, and Defense, and in the National Institutes of Health. Most of the rest worked in the drug industry, which includes pharmaceutical and biotechnology establishments; hospitals; or research and testing laboratories. About 1 in 5 medical scientists worked in State government, with most of the remainder found in research and testing laboratories, educational institutions, the drug industry, and hospitals.  122 Occupational Outlook Handbook In addition, many biological and medical scientists held biology faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For biological scientists, the Ph.D. degree generally is required for independent research and for advancement to administrative posi­ tions. A master's degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research or product development and for jobs in management, in­ spection, sales, and service. The bachelor's degree is adequate for some nonresearch jobs. Some graduates with a bachelor's degree start as biological scientists in testing and inspection, or get jobs re­ lated to biological science such as technical sales or service representatives. In some cases, graduates with a bachelor's degree are able to work in a laboratory environment on their own projects, but this is unusual. Some may work as research assistants. Others become biological technicians, medical laboratory technologists or, with courses in education, high school biology teachers. (See the statements on clinical laboratory technologists and technicians; sci­ ence technicians; and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Many with a bachelor's degree in biology enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Some enter a wide range of occupations with little or no connection to biology. Most colleges and universities offer bachelor's degrees in biologi­ cal science and many offer advanced degrees. Curriculums for advanced degrees often emphasize a subfield such as microbiology or botany, but not all universities offer all curriculums. Advanced de­ gree programs include classroom and field work, laboratory research, and a thesis or dissertation. Biological scientists who have advanced degrees often take temporary postdoctoral research positions which provide specialized research experience. In private industry, some may become managers or administrators within biology; others leave biology for nontechnical managerial, administrative, or sales jobs. Biological scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Those in private industry, especially those who aspire to management or administrative positions, should possess strong business and communication skills and be familiar with regu­ latory issues and marketing and management techniques. Those doing field research in remote areas must have physical stamina. The Ph.D. degree in a biological science is the minimum educa­ tion required for prospective medical scientists because the work of medical scientists is almost entirely research oriented. A Ph.D. de­ gree qualifies one to do research on basic life processes or on particular medical problems or diseases, and to analyze and interpret the results of experiments on patients. Medical scientists who ad­ minister drug or gene therapy to human patients, or who otherwise interact medically with patients—such as drawing blood, excising tissue, or performing other invasive procedures—must have a medi­ cal degree. It is particularly helpful for medical scientists to earn both Ph.D. and medical degrees. In addition to the formal education, medical scientists are usually expected to spend several years in a postdoctoral position before they are offered permanent jobs. Postdoctoral work provides valuable laboratory experience, including experience in specific processes and techniques, such as gene splicing, which are transferable to other research projects. In some institutions, the postdoctoral position can lead to a permanent position. Job Outlook Despite prospects of faster-than-average job growth over the 1996­ 2006 period, biological and medical scientists can expect to face considerable competition for coveted basic research positions. Much research and development, including many areas of medical research, is funded by the Federal Government. Recent budget tightening has led to smaller increases in research and development expenditures, further limiting the dollar amount of each grant and slowing the growth of the number of grants awarded to researchers. At the same Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  time, the number of newly trained scientists has continued to increase at a steady rate, so both new and established scientists have experi­ enced greater difficulty winning and renewing research grants. If the number of advanced degrees awarded continues to grow unabated, this competitive scenario is likely to persist. Additionally, applied research positions in private industry may become more difficult if more scientists seek jobs in private industry than in the past due to the competitive job market for college and university faculty. Opportunities for those with a bachelor’s or master’s degree in biological science are expected to be better. The number of sciencerelated jobs in sales, marketing, and research management, for which non-Ph.D.'s generally qualify, are expected to be more plentiful than independent research positions. They may also fill positions as sci­ ence or engineering technicians or health technologists and technicians. Some become high school biology teachers, while those with a doc­ torate in biological science may become college and university faculty. (See statements on science and engineering technicians, health technologists and technicians, secondary school teachers, and college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biological and medical scientists enjoyed very rapid gains in em­ ployment between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s, in part reflecting increased staffing requirements in new biotechnology companies. Employment growth should slow as increases in the number of new biotechnology firms slows and existing firms merge or are absorbed into larger ones. However, much of the basic biological research done in recent years has resulted in new knowledge, including the isolation and identification of new genes. Biological and medical scientists will be needed to take this knowledge to the next stage, which is the understanding of how certain genes function within an entire organism so that gene therapies can be developed to treat dis­ eases. Even pharmaceutical and other firms not solely engaged in biotechnology are expected to increasingly use biotechnology tech­ niques, spurring employment increases for biological and medical scientists. In addition, efforts to discover new and improved ways to clean up and preserve the environment will continue to add to growth. More biological scientists will be needed to determine the environmental impact of industry and government actions and to prevent or correct environmental problems. Expected expansion in research related to health issues, such as AIDS, cancer, and Alz­ heimer’s disease , should also result in growth. Biological and medical scientists are less likely to lose their jobs during recessions than those in many other occupations because many are employed on long-term research projects. However, a re­ cession could further influence the amount of money allocated to new research and development efforts, particularly in areas of risky or innovative research. A recession could also limit the possibility of extension or renewal of existing projects. Earnings According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, beginning salary offers in private industry in 1997 averaged $25,400 a year for bachelor's degree recipients in biological science; about $26,900 for master's degree recipients; and about $52,400 for doc­ toral degree recipients. Median annual earnings for biological and life scientists were about $36,300 in 1996; the middle 50 percent earned between $28,400 and $50,900. Ten percent earned less than $22,000, and 10 percent earned over $66,000. For medical scientists, median annual earnings were about $34,300; the middle 50 percent earned between $25,200 and $52,200. Ten percent earned less than $18,700, and 10 percent earned over $74,000. In the Federal Government in 1997, general biological scientists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions earned an average salary of $52,100; microbiologists, $58,700; ecologists, $52,700; physi­ ologists, $65,900; and geneticists, $62,700. Related Occupations Many other occupations deal with living organisms and require a level of training similar to that of biological and medical scientists. These include  Professional and Technical Occupations 123 the conservation occupations of forester, range manager, and soil conser­ vationist; animal breeders, horticulturists, soil scientists, and most other agricultural scientists. Many health occupations are also related to those in the biological sciences, such as medical doctors, dentists, and veteri­ narians. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers in the biological sciences, contact: »• American Institute of Biological Sciences, Suite 200, 1444 I St. NW., Washington, DC 20005. Homepage:  For information on careers in physiology, contact: «• American Physiological Society, Education Office, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814. Homepage:  For information on careers in biotechnology, contact: •" Biotechnology Industry Organization, 1625 K St. NW., Suite 1100, Washington, DC 20006.  For information on careers in biochemistry, contact: »■ American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in biophysics, contact: *■ Biophysical Society, 9650 Rockville Pike, Room 0512, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in botany, contact: Botanical Society of America, Business Office, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1293. Homepage:  For information on careers in microbiology, contact: » American Society for Microbiology, Office of Education and Training— Career Information, 1325 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20005. Homepage:  Information on acquiring a job as a biological or medical scientist with the Federal government may be obtained from the Office of Person­ nel Management through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). That number is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site:  Foresters and Conservation Scientists____________________ (D.O.T. 040.061-030, -046, -050, -054, and -062; .167-010; 049.127)* •  Significant Points •  About 2 out of 3 work for Federal, State, or local govern­ ments.  •  A bachelor's degree in forestry, range management, or a related field is generally the minimum educational re­ quirement.  •  Projected average employment growth will stem from continuing emphasis on environmental protection and responsible land management.  Nature of the Work Forests and rangelands serve a variety of needs: They supply wood products, livestock forage, minerals, and water; serve as sites for recreational activities; and provide habitats for wildlife. Foresters and conservation scientists manage, develop, use, and help protect these and other natural resources. Foresters manage forested lands for a variety of purposes. Those working in private industry may procure timber from private land­ owners. To do this, foresters contact local forest owners and gain permission to take inventory of the type, amount, and location of all standing timber on the property, a process known as timber cmising. Foresters then appraise the timber's worth, negotiate the purchase of timber, and draw up a contract for procurement. Next, they subcon­ tract with loggers or pulpwood cutters for tree removal, aid in road layout, and maintain close contact with the subcontractor's workers Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and the landowner to ensure that the work meets the landowner’s requirements, as well as Federal, State, and local environmental specifications. Forestry consultants often act as agents for the forest owner, performing the above duties and negotiating timber sales with industrial procurement foresters. Throughout the process, foresters consider the economics of the purchase as well as the environmental impact on natural resources, a function which has taken on added importance in recent years. To do this, they determine how best to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability and how best to comply with environmental regulations. Foresters must balance the desire to con­ serve forested ecosystems for future generations with the need to use forest resources for recreational or economic purposes. Through a process called regeneration, foresters also supervise the planting and growing of new trees. They choose and prepare the site, using controlled burning, bulldozers, or herbicides to clear weeds, brush, and logging debris. They advise on the type, number, and placement of trees to be planted. Foresters then monitor the seedlings to ensure healthy growth and to determine the best time for harvest­ ing. If they detect signs of disease or harmful insects, they decide on the best course of treatment to prevent contamination or infestation of healthy trees. Foresters who work for State and Federal governments manage public forests and parks and also work with private landowners to protect and manage forest land outside of the public domain. They may also design campgrounds and recreation areas. Foresters use a number of tools to perform their jobs: Clinome­ ters measure the heights, diameter tapes measure the diameter, and increment borers and bark gauges measure the growth of trees so that timber volumes can be computed and future growth estimated. Photogrammetry and remote sensing (aerial photographs and other imagery taken from airplanes and satellites) often are used for map­ ping large forest areas and for detecting widespread trends of forest and land use. Computers are used extensively, both in the office and in the field, for the storage, retrieval, and analysis of information required to manage the forest land and its resources. Range managers, also called range conservationists, range ecolo­ gists, or range scientists, manage, improve, and protect rangelands to maximize their use without damaging the environment. Rangelands cover about 1 billion acres of the United States, mostly in the western States and Alaska. They contain many natural resources, including grass and shrubs for animal grazing, wildlife habitats, water from vast watersheds, recreation facilities, and valuable mineral and energy resources. Range managers help ranchers attain optimum livestock production by determining the number and kind of animals to graze, the grazing system to use, and the best season for grazing. At the same time, however, they maintain soil stability and vegetation for other uses such as wildlife habitats and outdoor recreation. They also plan and implement revegetation of disturbed sites. Soil conservationists provide technical assistance to farmers, ranch­ ers, State and local governments, and others concerned with the conservation of soil, water, and related natural resources. They develop programs designed to get the most productive use of land without dam­ aging it. Conservationists visit areas with erosion problems, find the source of the problem, and help landowners and managers develop management practices to combat it. Foresters and conservation scientists often specialize in one area such as forest resource management, urban forestry, wood technol­ ogy, or forest economics. Working Conditions Working conditions vary considerably. Although some of the work is solitary, foresters and conservation scientists also deal regularly with landowners, loggers, forestry technicians and aides, farmers, ranchers, government officials, special interest groups, and the public in general. Some work regular hours in offices or labs. Others may split their time between field work and office work, while some— especially independent consultants or less experienced workers— spend the majority of their time outdoors overseeing or participating in hands-on work.  124 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Some foresters and conservation scientists split their time between field work and office work. The work can be physically demanding. Foresters and conserva­ tion scientists who work outdoors do so in all kinds of weather, sometimes in isolated areas. Some foresters may need to walk long distances through densely wooded land to carry out their work. For­ esters also may work long hours fighting fires. Conservation scientists often are called in to prevent erosion after a forest fire, and they pro­ vide emergency help after floods, mudslides, and tropical storms. Employment Foresters and conservation scientists held about 37,000 jobs in 1996. Nearly 3 out of 10 salaried workers were in the Federal Government, mostly in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Foresters were concentrated in the USDA’s Forest Service; soil conservation­ ists in the USDA’s Natural Resource Conservation Service. Most range managers worked in the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management or in the USDA’s Natural Resource Conservation Service. Nearly another 3 out of 10 foresters and conservation scien­ tists worked for State governments, and nearly 1 out of 10 worked for local governments. The remainder worked in private industry, mainly in the forestry industry, logging and lumber companies and sawmills, and research and testing services. Some were selfemployed as consultants for private landowners, State and Federal governments, and forestry-related businesses. Although foresters and conservation scientists work in every State, employment of foresters is concentrated in the western and southeastern States, where many national and private forests and parks, and most of the lumber and pulpwood-producing forests, are located. Range managers work almost entirely in the western States, where most of the rangeland is located. Soil conservationists, on the other hand, are employed in almost every county in the country. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in forestry is the minimum educational require­ ment for professional careers in forestry. In the Federal Government, a combination of experience and appropriate education occasionally may substitute for a 4-year forestry degree, but job competition makes this difficult. Fifteen States have mandatory licensing or voluntary registration requirements which a forester must meet in order to acquire the title "professional forester" and practice forestry in the State. Licensing Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  or registration requirements vary by State, but usually entail com­ pleting a 4-year degree in forestry, a minimum period of training time, and passing an exam. Foresters who wish to perform specialized research or teach should have an advanced degree, preferably a Ph.D. Most land-grant colleges and universities offer bachelor's or higher degrees in forestry; 48 of these programs are accredited by the Society of American Foresters. Curriculums stress science, mathe­ matics, communications skills, and computer science, as well as technical forestry subjects. Courses in forest economics and business administration supplement the student's scientific and technical knowledge. Forestry curricula increasingly include courses on best management practices, wetlands analysis, water and soil quality, and wildlife conservation, in response to the growing focus on protecting forested lands during timber harvesting operations. Prospective for­ esters should have a strong grasp on policy issues and on the increasingly numerous and complex environmental regulations which affect many forestry-related activities. Many colleges require stu­ dents to complete a field session either in a camp operated by the college or in a cooperative work-study program with a Federal or State agency or private industry. All schools encourage students to take summer jobs that provide experience in forestry or conservation work. A bachelor's degree in range management or range science is the usual minimum educational requirement for range managers; gradu­ ate degrees generally are required for teaching and research positions. In 1996, about 30 colleges and universities offered degrees in range management or range science or in a closely related discipline with a range management or range science option. A number of other schools offered some courses in range management or range science. Specialized range management courses combine plant, animal, and soil sciences with principles of ecology and resource management. Desirable electives include economics, forestry, hydrology, agron­ omy, wildlife, animal husbandry, computer science, and recreation. Very few colleges and universities offer degrees in soil conserva­ tion. Most soil conservationists have degrees in environmental studies, agronomy, general agriculture, hydrology, or crop or soil science; a few have degrees in related fields such as wildlife biology, forestry, and range management. Programs of study generally in­ clude 30 semester hours in natural resources or agriculture, including at least 3 hours in soil science. The Soil and Water Conservation Society sponsors a certification program based on education, experi­ ence, and testing. Upon completion of the program, individuals are designated as Certified Professional Erosion and Sediment Control specialist. In addition to meeting the demands of forestry and conservation research and analysis, foresters and conservation scientists generally must enjoy working outdoors, be physically hardy, and be willing to move to where the jobs are. They must also work well with people and have good communications skills. Recent forestry and range management graduates usually work under the supervision of experienced foresters or range managers. After gaining experience, they may advance to more responsible positions. In the Federal Government, most entry-level foresters work in forest resource management. An experienced Federal for­ ester may supervise a ranger district, and may advance to forest supervisor, regional forester, or to a top administrative position in the national headquarters. In private industry, foresters start by learning the practical and administrative aspects of the business and acquiring comprehensive technical training. They are then introduced to con­ tract writing, timber harvesting, and decision making. Some foresters work their way up to top managerial positions within their compa­ nies. Foresters in management usually leave the field work behind, spending more of their time in an office, working with teams to de­ velop management plans and supervising others. After gaining several years of experience, some foresters may become consulting foresters, working alone or with one or several partners. They con­ tract with State or local governments, private landowners, private industry, or other forestry consulting groups.  Professional and Technical Occupations 125 Soil conservationists usually begin working within one county or conservation district and with experience may advance to the area, State, regional, or national level. Also, soil conservationists can trans­ fer to related occupations such as farm or ranch management advisor or land appraiser. Job Outlook Employment of foresters and conservation scientists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Growth should be strongest in State and local governments, where demand will be spurred by a continuing emphasis on environ­ mental protection and responsible land management. For example, the nationwide Stewardship Incentive Program, funded by the Fed­ eral Government, provides money to the States to encourage landowners to practice multiple-use forest management. Foresters will continue to be needed to help landowners manage their forested property. However, job opportunities are expected to be best for soil conservationists as government regulations, such as those regarding the management of stormwater and coastlines, has created demand for persons knowledgeable about erosion on farms and in cities and suburbs. Soil and water quality experts will also be needed as States attempt to improve water quality by preventing pollution by agricul­ tural producers and industrial plants. Fewer opportunities for foresters and conservation scientists are expected in the Federal Government, partly due to budgetary con­ straints. Also, Federal land management agencies, such as the Forest Service, are de-emphasizing their timber programs and increasingly focusing on wildlife, recreation, and sustaining ecosystems, thereby increasing demand for other life and social scientists relative to for­ esters. However, a large number of foresters is expected to retire or leave the Government for other reasons, resulting in some job open­ ings between 1996 and 2006. In addition, the need for range and soil conservationists to provide technical assistance, through the Natural Resource Conservation Service, to owners of grazing land may lead to a small number of new jobs. The recent reductions in timber harvesting on public lands, most of which are located in the Northwest and California, also will dampen job growth for private industry foresters in these regions. Opportunities will be better for foresters in the Southeast, where much forested land is privately owned. Rising demand for timber on private lands will increase the need for forest management plans which maximize production while sustaining the environment for future growth. Salaried foresters working for private industry—such as paper companies, sawmills, and pulp wood mills—and consulting foresters will be needed to provide technical assistance and manage­ ment plans to landowners. Research and testing firms have increased their hiring of foresters and conservation scientists in recent years in response to demand for professionals to prepare environmental impact statements and erosion and sediment control plans, monitor water quality near logging sites, and advise on tree harvesting practices required by Federal, State, or local regulations. Hiring in these firms should continue during the 1996-2006 period, though at a slower rate.  Earnings In 1997, most graduates entering the Federal Government as forest­ ers, range managers, or soil conservationists with a bachelor's degree started at $19,500 or $24,200 a year, depending on academic achievement. Those with a master’s degree could start at $24,200 or $29,600. Holders of doctorates could start at $35,800 or, in research positions, at $42,900. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. In 1997, the average Federal salary for foresters in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $47,600; for soil conser­ vationists, $45,200; for rangeland managers, $43,100, and for forest products technologists, $62,000. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employ­ ers, graduates with a bachelor’s degree in natural resources received an average starting salary offer of $24,800 in 1997. In private industry, starting salaries for students with a bachelor's degree were comparable to starting salaries in the Federal Government, but starting salaries in State and local governments were generally lower. Foresters and conservation scientists who work for Federal, State, and local governments and large private firms generally receive more generous benefits than those working for smaller firms. Related Occupations Foresters and conservation scientists manage, develop, and protect natural resources. They are aided by range, soil conservation, and forestry technicians. Other workers with similar responsibilities in­ clude agricultural scientists, agricultural engineers, biological scientists, environmental scientists and engineers, farm and ranch managers, soil scientists, and wildlife managers. Sources of Additional Information For information about the forestry profession and lists of schools of­ fering education in forestry, send a self-addressed, stamped business envelope to: *■ Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Ln., Bethesda, MD 20814. Homepage:  For information about career opportunities in forestry in the Fed­ eral Government, contact: *■ Chief, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 96090, SW„ Washington, DC 20090-6090.  For information about a career in State forestry organizations, contact: National Association of State Foresters, 444 N. Capitol St. NW, Suite 540, Washington, DC 20001.  Information about a career as a range manager as well as a list of schools offering training is available from: Society for Range Management, 1839 York St., Denver, CO 80206.  Information about a career in conservation science is available from: «■ Soil and Water Conservation Society, 7515 Northeast Ankeny Rd., RR #1, Ankeny, 1A 50021-9764.  Physical Scientists •  Chemists_________ (D.O.T. 022.061-010, -014, and .137-010)* •  Significant Points •  A bachelor's degree in chemistry or a related discipline is usually the minimum educational requirement; however, many research jobs require a Ph.D. degree. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job growth will be concentrated in drug manufacturing and research, development, and testing services firms.  Nature of the Work Everything in our physical environment, whether naturally occurring or of human design, is composed of chemicals. Chemists search for and put to practical use new knowledge about chemicals. Chemical research has led to the discovery and development of new and im­ proved synthetic fibers, paints, adhesives, drugs, cosmetics, electronic components, lubricants, and thousands of other products. Chemists also develop processes which save energy and reduce pol­  126 Occupational Outlook Handbook lution, such as improved oil refining and petrochemical processing methods. Research on the chemistry of living things spurs advances in medicine, agriculture, food processing, and other fields. Chemists can apply their knowledge of chemistry to various pur­ poses. Many work in research and development (R&D). In basic research, chemists investigate the properties, composition, and struc­ ture of matter and the laws that govern the combination of elements and reactions of substances. In applied research and development, they create new products and processes or improve existing ones, often using knowledge gained from basic research. For example, synthetic rubber and plastics resulted from research on small mole­ cules uniting to form large ones, a process called polymerization. R&D chemists use computers and a wide variety of sophisticated laboratory instrumentation. They also spend time documenting and analyzing the results of their work and writing formal reports. Chemists also work in production and quality control in chemical manufacturing plants. They prepare instructions for plant workers which specify ingredients, mixing times, and temperatures for each stage in the process. They also monitor automated processes to en­ sure proper product yield, and they test samples of raw materials or finished products to ensure they meet industry and government stan­ dards, including the regulations governing pollution. Chemists also record and report on test results, and improve existing or develop new test methods. Chemists often specialize in a subfield. Analytical chemists de­ termine the structure, composition, and nature of substances by examining and identifying the various elements or compounds that make up a substance. They study the relations and interactions of the parts and develop analytical techniques. They also identify the pres­ ence and concentration of chemical pollutants in air, water, and soil. Organic chemists study the chemistry of the vast number of carbon compounds which make up all living things. Many commercial products, such as drags, plastics, and elastomers (elastic substances similar to rubber), have been developed by organic chemists who synthesize elements or simple compounds to create new compounds or substances that have different properties and applications. Inor­ ganic chemists study compounds consisting mainly of elements other than carbon, such as those in electronic components. Physi­ cal chemists study the physical characteristics of atoms and molecules and investigate how chemical reactions work. Their research may result in new and better energy sources. Biochemists, whose work encompasses both biology and chem­ istry, are included under biological scientists elsewhere in the Handbook.  Chemical research and development continues to lead to new and improved consumer goods. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Chemists usually work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Research chemists spend much time in laboratories, but also work in offices when they do theoretical research or plan, record, and report on their lab research. Although some laboratories are small, others are large and may incorporate prototype chemical manufac­ turing facilities as well as advanced equipment. Chemists may also do some of their work in a chemical plant or outdoors—while gath­ ering water samples to test for pollutants, for example. Some chemists are exposed to health or safety hazards when handling certain chemicals, but there is little risk if proper procedures are followed. Employment Chemists held about 91,000 jobs in 1996. Nearly half of chemists are employed in manufacturing firms—mostly in the chemical manufacturing industry, which includes firms that produce plastics and synthetic materials, drags, soaps and cleaners, paints, industrial organic chemicals, and other miscellaneous chemical products. Chemists also work for State and local governments, and for Fed­ eral agencies. Health and Human Services, which includes the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the Center for Disease Control, is the major Federal employer of chemists. The Departments of Defense and Agriculture, and the Environmental Protection Agency, also employ chemists. Other chemists work for research, development, and testing services. In addition, thousands of persons held chemistry faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and univer­ sity faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Chemists are employed in all parts of the country, but they are mainly concentrated in large industrial areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in chemistry or a related discipline is usually the minimum educational requirement for entry-level chemist jobs. However, many research jobs require a Ph.D. degree. Many colleges and universities offer a bachelor's degree program in chemistry, about 620 of which are approved by the American Chemical Society (ACS). Several hundred colleges and universities also offer advanced degree programs in chemistry; around 320 mas­ ter’s programs, and about 190 doctoral programs are ACS-approved. Students planning careers as chemists should enjoy studying sci­ ence and mathematics, and should like working with their hands building scientific apparatus and performing experiments. Persever­ ance, curiosity, and the ability to concentrate on detail and to work independently are essential. In addition to required courses in ana­ lytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry, undergraduate chemistry majors usually study biological sciences, mathematics, and physics. Those who are interested in the environmental field should take courses in environmental studies and become familiar with cur­ rent legislation and regulations. Computer courses are essential, as employers increasingly prefer job applicants who are able to apply computer skills to modeling and simulation tasks and operate com­ puterized laboratory equipment. Because research and development chemists are increasingly ex­ pected to work on interdisciplinary teams, some understanding of other disciplines, including business and marketing or economics, is desirable, along with leadership ability and good oral and written communication skills. Experience, either in academic laboratories or through internships or co-op programs in industry, also is useful. Some employers of research chemists, particularly in the pharmaceu­ tical industry, prefer to hire individuals with several years of postdoctoral experience. Graduate students typically specialize in a subfield of chemistry, such as analytical chemistry or polymer chemistry, depending on their interests and the kind of work they wish to do. For example, those interested in doing drag research in the pharmaceutical industry usually develop a strong background in synthetic organic chemistry.  Professional and Technical Occupations 127 However, students normally need not specialize at the undergraduate level. In fact, undergraduates who are broadly trained have more flexibility when job hunting or changing jobs than if they narrowly define their interests. Most employers provide new bachelor's degree chemists with additional training or education. In government or industry, beginning chemists with a bachelor's degree work in quality control, analytical testing, or assist senior chemists in research and development laboratories. Many employers prefer chemists with a Ph.D. or at least a master’s degree to lead basic and applied research. A Ph.D. is also often preferred for advancement to many administrative positions. Job Outlook Employment of chemists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Job growth will be concentrated in drug manufacturing and research, development, and testing services firms. The chemical industry, the major em­ ployer of chemists, should face continued demand for goods such as new and better pharmaceuticals and personal care products, as well as more specialty chemicals designed to address specific problems or applications. To meet these demands, chemical firms will continue to devote money to research and development—through in-house teams or outside contractors—spurring employment growth of chemists. Within the chemical industry, job opportunities are expected to be most plentiful in pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms. Stronger competition among drug companies and an aging population are contributing to the need for innovative and improved drugs discov­ ered through scientific research. Chemical firms that develop and manufacture personal products such as toiletries and cosmetics also must continually innovate and develop new and better products to remain competitive. Additionally, as the population grows and be­ comes better informed, the demand for different or improved grooming products—including vegetable-based products, products with milder formulas, treatments for aging skin, and products that have been developed using more benign chemical processes than in the past—will remain strong, spurring the need for chemists. In the remaining segments of the chemical industry, employment growth is expected to be much slower than in drug manufacturing, and in some cases, may decline as companies downsize and turn to outside contractors to provide specialized services. Nevertheless, some job openings will result from the need to replace chemists who retire or otherwise leave the labor force. Quality control will con­ tinue to be an important issue in the chemical and other industries that use chemicals in their manufacturing processes. Chemists will also be needed to develop and improve the technologies and proc­ esses used to produce chemicals for all purposes, and to monitor and measure air and water pollutants to ensure compliance with local, State, and Federal environmental regulations. Outside the chemical industry, firms that provide research, devel­ opment, and testing services are expected to be the source of numerous job opportunities between 1996 and 2006. Chemical com­ panies, including drug manufacturers, are increasingly turning to these services to perform specialized research and other work for­ merly done by in-house chemists. Chemists will also be needed to work in research and testing firms that focus on environmental testing and cleanup. During periods of economic recession, layoffs of chemists may occur—especially in the industrial chemicals industry. This industry provides many of the raw materials to the auto manufacturing and construction industries, both of which are vulnerable to temporary slowdowns during recessions. Earnings A survey by the American Chemical Society reports that the median salary of all their members with a bachelor's degree was $49,400 a year in 1997; with a master's degree, $56,200; and with a Ph.D., $71,000. Median salaries were highest for those working in private industry; those in academia earned the least. According to an ACS Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  survey of recent graduates, inexperienced chemistry graduates with a bachelor’s degree earned a median starting salary of $25,000 in 1996; with a master’s degree, $31,100; and with a Ph.D., $45,000. Among bachelor's degree graduates, those who had completed internships or had other work experience while in school commanded the highest starting salaries. In 1997, chemists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial po­ sitions in the Federal Government earned an average salary of $60,000. Related Occupations The work of chemical engineers, agricultural scientists, biological scientists, and chemical technicians is closely related to the work done by chemists. The work of other physical and life science occu­ pations, such as physicists and medical scientists, may also be similar to that of chemists. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities and earnings for chemists is available from: »• American Chemical Society, Education Division, 1155 16th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036.  Information on acquiring a job as a chemist with the Federal Gov­ ernment may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number, or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912-744-2299). That number is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site: http://www.usajobs  Geologists and Geophysicists (D.O.T. 024.061 except -014, and .161)* •  Significant Points •  Work at remote field sites is common.  •  A bachelor's degree in geology or geophysics is adequate for entry-level jobs; better jobs with good advancement potential usually require at least a master’s degree; and a Ph.D. degree is required for most research positions in colleges and universities, and for some research jobs in government. Job opportunities are expected to be good in the petro­ leum and related industries, reflecting increasing demand for energy coupled with fewer degrees awarded in geol­ ogy in recent years.  •  Nature of the Work Geologists and geophysicists, also known as geological scientists or geoscientists, study the physical aspects and history of the Earth. They identify and examine rocks, study information collected by remote sensing instruments in satellites, conduct geological surveys, construct field maps, and use instruments to measure the Earth's gravity and magnetic field. They also analyze information collected through seismic studies, which involves bouncing energy waves off buried rock layers. Many geologists and geophysicists search for oil, natural gas, minerals, and groundwater. Other geological scientists play an important role in preserving and cleaning up the environment. Their activities include designing and monitoring waste disposal sites, preserving water supplies, and reclaiming contaminated land and water to comply with Federal envi­ ronmental regulations. They also help locate safe sites for hazardous waste facilities and landfills. Geologists and geophysicists examine chemical and physical prop­ erties of specimens in laboratories. They study fossil remains of animal  128 Occupational Outlook Handbook and plant life, or experiment with the flow of water and oil through rocks. Some geoscientists use two- or three-dimensional computer modeling to portray water layers and the flow of water or other fluids through rock cracks and porous materials. They use a variety of so­ phisticated laboratory instruments, including x-ray diffractometers, which determine the crystal structure of minerals, and petrographic microscopes, for the study of rock and sediment samples. Geoscientists also use seismographs, instruments which measure energy waves re­ sulting from movements in the Earth's crust, to determine the locations and intensities of earthquakes. Geoscientists working in metal mining or the oil and gas industry sometimes process and interpret the maps produced by remote sens­ ing satellites to help identify potential new mineral, oil, or gas deposits. Seismic technology is also an important exploration tool. Seismic waves are used to develop three-dimensional computer mod­ els of underground or underwater rock formations. Seismic reflection technology may also reveal unusual underground features which sometimes indicate accumulations of natural gas or petroleum, fa­ cilitating exploration and reducing the risks associated with drilling in previously unexplored areas. Geologists and geophysicists also apply geological knowledge to engineering problems in constructing large buildings, dams, tunnels, and highways. Some administer and manage research and explora­ tion programs; others become general managers in petroleum and mining companies. Geology and geophysics are closely related fields, but there are major differences. Geologists study the composition, structure, and history of the Earth's crust. They try to find out how rocks were formed and what has happened to them since formation. Geophysi­ cists use the principles of physics, mathematics, and chemistry to study not only the Earth's surface, but its internal composition, ground and surface waters, atmosphere, oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Both, however, commonly apply their skills and knowledge to the search for natural resources and to solve environmental problems. There are numerous subdisciplines or specialties falling under the two major disciplines of geology and geophysics which further dif­ ferentiate the type of work geoscientists do. For example, petroleum geologists explore for oil and gas deposits by studying and mapping the subsurface of the ocean or land. They use sophisticated geo­ physical instrumentation, well log data, and computers to collect information. Mineralogists analyze and classify minerals and pre­ cious stones according to composition and structure. Paleontologists study fossils found in geological formations to trace the evolution of plant and animal life and the geologic history of the Earth. Stratigraphers help to locate minerals by studying the distribution and arrangement of sedimentary rock layers and by examining the fossil and mineral content of such layers. Those who study marine geology are usually called oceanographers or marine geologists. They study and map the ocean floor, and collect information using remote sens­ ing devices aboard surface ships or underwater research craft. Geophysicists may specialize in areas such as geodesy, seismol­ ogy, or marine geophysics, also known as physical oceanography. Geodesists study the size and shape of the Earth, its gravitational field, tides, polar motion, and rotation. Seismologists interpret data from seismographs and other geophysical instruments to detect earthquakes and locate earthquake-related faults. Volcanologists, geochemists, and petrologists study the chemical and physical evolution of rocks and minerals, particularly igneous and metamorphic rocks. Geomagnetists measure the Earth’s magnetic field and use measurements taken over the past few centuries to devise theo­ retical models to explain its origin. Paleomagnetists interpret fossil magnetization in rocks and sediments from the continents and oceans, which record the spreading of the sea floor, the wandering of the continents, and the many reversals of polarity that the Earth’s magnetic field has undergone through time. Physical oceanogra­ phers study the physical aspects of oceans such as currents and the interaction of the surface of the sea with the atmosphere. Other Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Some geologists study fossil remains ofplant and animal life to better understand the Earth's history. geophysicists study atmospheric sciences and space physics. (See the statements on meteorologists and physicists and astronomers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Hydrology is a discipline closely related to geology and geo­ physics. Hydrologists study the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters. They study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the Earth, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere. The work they do is particularly important in environmental preservation and remediation. Working Conditions Some geoscientists spend the majority of their time in an office, but many others divide their time between fieldwork and office or labo­ ratory work. Geologists often travel to remote field sites by helicopter or four-wheel drive vehicles, and cover large areas on foot. Exploration geologists and geophysicists often work overseas or in isolated areas, leading to job relocation. Many exploration geologists travel to meet with prospective clients or investors. Marine geolo­ gists and oceanographers may spend considerable time at sea on academic research ships. Geoscientists in positions funded by Federal Government agen­ cies may be under pressure to design programs and write grant proposals in order to continue their data collection and research. Geoscientists in consulting jobs may face similar pressures to market their skills and write proposals to maintain steady work.  Professional and Technical Occupations 129 Employment Geologists and geophysicists held about 47,000 jobs in 1996. Many more individuals held geology, geophysics, and oceanography faculty positions in colleges and universities, but they are considered college and university faculty. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Among salaried geologists and geophysicists, nearly 4 in 10 were employed in engineering and management services, and 2 in 10 worked for oil and gas extraction companies or metal mining compa­ nies. About 1 geoscientist in 7 was self-employed; most were consultants to industry or government. The Federal Government employed about 5,800 geologists, geo­ physicists, oceanographers, and hydrologists in 1996. Over half worked for the Department of the Interior, mostly within the U.S. Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.). Others worked for the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, Commerce, and Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Over 3,000 worked for State agencies such as State geological surveys and State departments of conservation. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in geology or geophysics is adequate for entrylevel jobs, but better jobs with good advancement potential usually require at least a master's degree in geology or geophysics. Persons with degrees in physics, chemistry, mathematics, or computer science may also qualify for some geophysics or geology jobs if their coursework included study in geology. A Ph.D. degree is required for most research positions in colleges and universities, and is also important for work in Federal agencies and some State geological surveys involving basic research. Hundreds of colleges and universities offer a bachelor's degree in geology; fewer schools offer programs in geophysics, oceanography, or other geosciences. Other programs offering related training for beginning geological scientists include geophysical technology, geo­ physical engineering, geophysical prospecting, engineering geology, petroleum geology, hydrology, and geochemistry. In addition, sev­ eral hundred more universities award advanced degrees in geology or geophysics. Traditional geoscience courses emphasizing classical geologic methods and topics (such as mineralogy, paleontology, stratigraphy, and structural geology) are important for all geoscientists. Those students interested in working in the environmental or regulatory fields, either in environmental consulting firms or Federal or State Government, should take courses in hydrology, hazardous waste management, environmental legislation, chemistry, fluid mechanics, and geologic logging. An understanding of environmental regula­ tions and government permit issues is also valuable for those planning to work in mining and oil and gas extraction. Computer skills are becoming essential for prospective geoscientists; students who have some experience with computer modeling, data analysis and integration, digital mapping, remote sensing, and geographic information systems (GIS) will be the most prepared entering the job market. A knowledge of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is very helpful. Some employers seek applicants with field experience, so a summer internship may be beneficial to prospective geoscien­ tists. Geologists and geophysicists must be able to work as part of a team. Strong oral and written communication skills are important, as well as the ability to think independently and creatively. Those in­ volved in fieldwork must have physical stamina. Geologists and geophysicists often begin their careers in field ex­ ploration or as research assistants in laboratories or offices. They are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Eventu­ ally, they may be promoted to project leader, program manager, or another management and research position. Job Outlook Many jobs for geologists and geophysicists are in or related to the petroleum industry, especially the exploration for oil and gas. This Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  industry is subject to cyclical fluctuations. During the 1980s and the early 1990s, low oil prices, higher production costs, improvements in energy efficiency, shrinking oil reserves, and restrictions on potential drilling sites caused exploration activities to be curtailed in the United States; this limited the number of job openings for geoscien­ tists in the petroleum and related industries. As a result of generally poor job prospects, the number of graduates in geology and geo­ physics, especially in petroleum geology, dropped considerably during the last decade. Recently, a growing worldwide demand for oil and gas, and new exploration and recovery techniques, have returned stability to the petroleum industry and increased the demand for geologists and geo­ physicists. Growing populations, stronger economies in the United States and abroad, and continuing industrialization of developing countries are driving the need for more energy. At the same time, the oil and gas and related industries—such as petroleum engineering services—are taking advantage of new technologies that lower costs and facilitate exploration and recovery of natural gas and oil, par­ ticularly in deep water and other previously inaccessible sites. Because of the lower number of degrees awarded in geology recently and the significant number of geoscientists who left the industry during earlier periods of downsizing, job opportunities in the petro­ leum and related industries are expected to be good. Employment prospects will be best for jobseekers who hold a master's degree and are familiar with advanced technologies, such as computer modeling and GPS, which are increasingly used to locate new oil and gas fields or pinpoint hidden deposits in existing fields. Because of the cyclical nature of the oil and gas industry, hiring on a contractual basis is common. Employment of geologists and geophysicists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006, due in part to the generally improved outlook in the oil and gas in­ dustry. Geologists and geophysicists will also continue to be needed to work in areas of environmental protection and reclamation. Some will help clean up contaminated sites in the United States, and others will help private companies and government comply with numerous and complex environmental regulations. However, job opportunities in State and Federal Government and in environmental consulting firms are expected to be fewer in number than in the previous decade and, in some cases, may be limited to replacing retirees or those who leave geoscience jobs for other reasons. The U.S.G.S., the primary employer of geologists in the Federal Government, has recently faced cutbacks. Hiring should continue to be very limited in the U.S.G.S. and other agencies, as the Federal Government attempts to balance its budget during the 1996-2006 projection period. Oceanographers, whose work is often research-oriented and dependent on grants from Federal agencies, are expected to face strong competition. Budget constraints are expected to continue to limit hiring in State govern­ ment as well. Earnings Surveys by the National Association of Colleges and Employers indi­ cate that graduates with bachelor's degrees in geology and the geological sciences received an average starting salary offer of about $30,900 a year in 1997. However, starting salaries can vary widely depending on the employing industry. For example, according to a 1996 American Association of Petroleum Geologists survey, the average salary in the oil and gas industry for geoscientists with less than 2 years of experience was about $48,400. The petroleum, mineral, and mining industries offer higher sala­ ries, but less job security, than other industries. These industries are vulnerable to recessions and changes in oil and gas prices, among other factors, and usually release workers when exploration and drilling slow down. In 1997, the Federal Government's average salary for geologists in managerial, supervisory, and nonsupervisory positions was $59,700; for geophysicists, $67,100; for hydrologists, $54,800; and for ocean­ ographers, $62,700.  130 Occupational Outlook Handbook Related Occupations Many geologists and geophysicists work in the petroleum and natural gas industry. This industry also employs many other workers in the scientific and technical aspects of petroleum and natural gas explora­ tion and extraction, including engineering technicians, science technicians, petroleum engineers, and surveyors. Also, some life scientists, physicists, chemists, and meteorologists—as well as mathematicians, computer scientists, soil scientists, and mapping scientists—perform related work in both petroleum and natural gas exploration and extraction, and in environment-related activities. Sources of Additional Information Information on training and career opportunities for geologists is available from: *■ American Geological Institute, 4220 King St., Alexandria, VA 22302­ 1502. Homepage: *■ Geological Society of America, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301-9140. Homepage: *■ American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Communications Department, P.O. Box 979, Tulsa, OK 74101.  Information on training and career opportunities for geophysicists is available from: »■ American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20009.  A list of education and training programs in oceanography and related fields is available from: *■ Marine Technology Society, 1828 L St. NW., Suite 906, Washington, DC 20036.  Information on acquiring a job as a geologist, geophysicist, hydrolo­ gist, or oceanographer with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). That num­ ber is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site:  velocity, and apply physical and mathematical relationships to make short- and long-range weather forecasts. Their data come from weather satellites, weather radar, and remote sensors and observers in many parts of the world. Meteorologists use sophisticated computer models of the world's atmosphere to make long-term, short-term, and local-area forecasts. These forecasts inform not only the general public, but also those who need accurate weather information for both economic and safety reasons, as in the shipping, air transporta­ tion, agriculture, fishing, and utilities industries. The use of weather balloons, launched several times a day, to measure wind, temperature, and humidity in the upper atmosphere, is currently supplemented by sophisticated weather equipment that transmits data as frequently as every few minutes. Doppler radar, for example, can detect air flow patterns in violent storm systems—al­ lowing forecasters to better predict tornadoes and other hazardous winds, as well as monitoring the storm’s direction and intensity. Combined radar and satellite observations allow meteorologists to predict flash floods. Some meteorologists work in research. Physical meteorologists, for example, study the atmosphere's chemical and physical properties; the transmission of light, sound, and radio waves; and the transfer of energy in the atmosphere. They also study factors affecting the for­ mation of clouds, rain, snow, and other weather phenomena, such as severe storms. Synoptic meteorologists develop new tools for weather forecasting using computers and sophisticated mathematical models. Climatologists collect, analyze, and interpret past records of wind, rainfall, sunshine, and temperature in specific areas or regions. Their  -TT -  *  %  Meteorologists (D.O.T. 025.062-010)  Significant Points •  The Federal Government employs about 4 out of 10 mete­ orologists and is the largest employer of these workers.  •  A bachelor's degree in meteorology, or in a closely related field with courses in meteorology, is the minimum educa­ tional requirement; a master's or Ph.D. degree is required for research positions.  •  With slower-than-average employment growth expected through the year 2006, applicants may face competition if the number of degrees awarded in atmospheric science and meteorology remain near current levels.  Nature of the Work . Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere—the blanket of air cov­ ering the Earth. Meteorologists study the atmosphere's physical characteristics, motions, and processes, and the way it affects the rest of our environment. The best known application of this knowledge is in forecasting the weather. However, weather information and mete­ orological research are also applied in air-pollution control, agriculture, air and sea transportation, defense, and the study of trends in Earth's climate such as global warming or ozone depletion. Meteorologists who forecast the weather, known professionally as operational meteorologists, are the largest group of specialists. They study information on air pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ;  A meteorologist studies weather maps showing air pressure, tem­ perature, and humidity of a specific region.  Professional and Technical Occupations 131 studies are used to design buildings, plan heating and cooling systems, and aid in effective land use and in agricultural production. Other research meteorologists examine the most effective ways to control or diminish air pollution. Working Conditions Most weather stations operate around the clock 7 days a week. Jobs in such facilities often involve night, weekend, and holiday work with rotating shifts. During times of weather emergencies, such as hurri­ canes, operational meteorologists may work overtime. Operational meteorologists are also often under pressure to meet forecast dead­ lines. Weather stations are found all over the country—at airports, in or near cities, and in isolated and remote areas. Some meteorologists also spend time observing weather conditions and collecting data from aircraft. Weather forecasters who work for radio or television stations broadcast their reports from station studios, and may work evenings and weekends. Meteorologists in smaller weather offices often work alone; in larger ones, they work as part of a team. Mete­ orologists not involved in forecasting work regular hours, usually in offices. Those who work for private consulting firms or for compa­ nies analyzing and monitoring emissions to improve air quality usually work with other scientists or engineers. Employment Meteorologists held about 7,300 jobs in 1996. The Federal Govern­ ment is the largest employer of civilian meteorologists. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) employed about 2,700 meteorologists; nearly 90 percent worked in the National Weather Service at stations throughout the Nation. The remainder of NOAA's meteorologists worked mainly in research or management. The Department of Defense employed about 280 civilian meteorolo­ gists. Others worked for private weather consulting services, research and testing services, and computer and data processing services. Although hundreds of people teach meteorology and related courses in college and university departments of meteorology or at­ mospheric science, physics, earth science, and geophysics, these individuals are classified as college or university faculty, rather than meteorologists. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) In addition to civilian meteorologists, hundreds of members of the Armed Forces are involved in forecasting and other meteorological work. (See the statement on job opportunities in the Armed Forces elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree with a major in meteorology, or in a closely re­ lated field with courses in meteorology, is generally the minimum educational requirement for a beginning job as a meteorologist. The preferred educational requirement for entry-level meteorolo­ gists in the Federal Government is a bachelor's degree—not necessarily in meteorology—with at least 24 semester hours of mete­ orology courses, including 6 hours in the analysis and prediction of weather systems and 2 hours of remote sensing of the atmosphere or instrumentation. Other required courses include differential and inte­ gral calculus, differential equations, 6 hours of college physics, and at least 9 hours of courses appropriate for a physical science major— such as statistics, computer science, chemistry, physical oceanography, or physical climatology. Sometimes, a combination of experience and education may be substituted for a degree. Although positions in operational meteorology are available for those with only a bachelor's degree, obtaining a graduate degree en­ hances advancement potential. A master's degree is usually necessary for conducting research and development, and a Ph.D. is required for most basic research positions. Students who plan a ca­ reer in research and development need not necessarily major in meteorology as an undergraduate. In fact, a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, physics, or engineering provides excellent preparation for graduate study in meteorology. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Because meteorology is a small field, relatively few colleges and universities offer degrees in meteorology or atmospheric science, although many departments of physics, earth science, geography, and geophysics offer atmospheric science and related courses. Prospec­ tive students should make certain that courses required by the National Weather Service and other employers are offered at the college they are considering. Computer science courses, additional meteorology courses, a strong background in mathematics and phys­ ics, and good communication skills are important to prospective employers. Many programs combine the study of meteorology with another field, such as agriculture, engineering, or physics. For exam­ ple, hydrometeorology is the blending of hydrology (the science of Earth's water) and meteorology, and is the field concerned with the effect of precipitation on the hydrologic cycle and the environment. Students who wish to become broadcast meteorologists for radio or television stations should develop excellent communication skills through courses in speech, journalism, and related fields. Those in­ terested in air quality work should supplement their technical training with coursework in policy or government affairs. Beginning meteorologists often do routine data collection, com­ putation, or analysis, and some basic forecasting. Entry-level operational meteorologists in the Federal Government are usually placed in intern positions for training and experience. During this period, they learn about the Weather Service’s forecasting equipment and procedures, and rotate to different offices to learn about various weather systems. After completing the training period, they are as­ signed a permanent duty station. Experienced meteorologists may advance to supervisory or administrative jobs, or may handle more complex forecasting jobs. After several years of experience, some meteorologists establish their own weather consulting services. The American Meteorological Society offers professional certifi­ cation of consulting meteorologists, administered by a Board of Certified Consulting Meteorologists. Applicants must meet formal education requirements (though not necessarily a college degree), pass an examination to demonstrate thorough meteorological knowl­ edge, have a minimum of 5 years of experience or a combination of experience plus an advanced degree, and provide character references from fellow professionals. Job Outlook Prospective meteorologists may face competition if the number of degrees awarded in atmospheric science and meteorology remain near current levels, coupled with projected slower-than-average em­ ployment growth through the year 2006. The National Weather Service (NWS) recently completed an extensive modernization of its weather forecasting equipment and all hiring of meteorologists needed to staff the upgraded stations. The NWS has no plans to in­ crease the number of weather stations or the number of meteorologists in existing stations for many years. Employment of meteorologists in other Federal agencies is expected to decline slightly as the Federal Government attempts to balance its budget. On the other hand, private industry is expected to create a small number of new jobs for meteorologists over the 1996-2006 period. As research leads to continuing improvements in weather forecasting, the demand may grow for private weather consulting firms to provide more detailed information than has formerly been available, espe­ cially to weather-sensitive industries. Farmers, commodity investors, radio and television stations, and utilities, transportation, and con­ struction firms can greatly benefit from additional weather information more closely targeted to their needs than the general information provided by the National Weather Service. Additionally, if research on seasonal and other long-range forecasting yields posi­ tive results, more meteorologists may be needed to interpret these forecasts and advise weather-sensitive industries. However, because many customers for private weather services are in industries sensi­ tive to fluctuations in the economy, the sales and growth of private weather services depend on the health of the economy.  132 Occupational Outlook Handbook There will continue to be demand for meteorologists to analyze and monitor the dispersion of pollutants into the air to ensure compli­ ance with Federal environmental regulations outlined in the Clean Air Act of 1990, but employment increases are expected to be small. Earnings The average salary for meteorologists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions employed by the Federal Government was about $57,000 in 1997. Meteorologists in the Federal Government with a bachelor's degree and no experience received a starting salary of $19,500 or $24,200 a year, depending on their college grades. Those with a master's degree could start at $24,200 or $29,600; those with the Ph.D. degree, at $35,800 or $42,900. Beginning salaries for all degree levels are slightly higher in selected areas of the country where the prevailing local pay level is higher. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations concerned with the physical environment include oceanographers, geologists and geophysicists, hydrologists, physicists, mathematicians, and civil, chemical, and environmental engineers. Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in meteorology is available from: »• American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA 02108. Homepage:  Information on acquiring a job as a meteorologist with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Manage­ ment through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). That number is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site:  Physicists and Astronomers D.O.T. 015.021-010; 021.067-010; 023.061-010, -014, and .067; 079.021-014)* •  Significant Points •  A doctoral degree is the usual educational requirement because most jobs are in basic research and development; a master's degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied re­ search and development; a bachelor's degree is adequate for some nonresearch jobs.  •  Ph.D.'s face competition for jobs as funding for research declines, and as the large pool of postdoctoral workers add to the supply of new graduates.  Nature of the Work Physicists explore and identify basic principles governing the struc­ ture and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interaction of matter and energy. Some physicists use these principles in theoretical areas, such as the nature of time and the ori­ gin of the universe; others apply their physics knowledge to practical areas such as the development of advanced materials, electronic and optical devices, and medical equipment. Physicists design and perform experiments with lasers, cyclotrons, telescopes, mass spectrometers, and other equipment. Based on ob­ servations and analysis, they attempt to discover laws describing the forces of nature, such as gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear in­ teractions. They also find ways to apply physical laws and theories to problems in nuclear energy, electronics, optics, materials, commu­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  nications, aerospace technology, navigation equipment, and medical instrumentation. Astronomy is sometimes considered a subfield of physics. As­ tronomers use the principles of physics and mathematics to learn about the fundamental nature of the universe, including the sun, moon, planets, stars, and galaxies. They also apply their knowledge to problems in navigation and space flight, and to develop the instru­ mentation and techniques used to observe and collect astronomical data. Most physicists work in research and development. Some do basic research to increase scientific knowledge. Physicists who conduct applied research build upon the discoveries made through basic re­ search, and work to develop new devices, products, and processes. For instance, basic research in solid-state physics led to the development of transistors and then to the integrated circuits used in computers. Physicists also design research equipment. This equipment often has additional unanticipated uses. For example, lasers are used in surgery; microwave devices are used for ovens; and measuring in­ struments can analyze blood or the chemical content of foods. A small number work in inspection, testing, quality control, and other production-related jobs in industry. Much physics research is done in small or medium-size laborato­ ries. However, experiments in plasma, nuclear, high energy, and some other areas of physics require extremely large, expensive equipment such as particle accelerators. Physicists in these subfields often work in large teams. Although physics research may require extensive experimentation in laboratories, research physicists still spend time in offices planning, recording, analyzing, and reporting on research. Almost all astronomers do research. Some are theoreticians, working on the laws governing the structure and evolution of astro­ nomical objects. Others analyze large quantities of data gathered by observatories and satellites, and write scientific papers or reports on their findings. Astronomers may spend only a few weeks each year making observations with optical telescopes, radio telescopes, and other instruments. For many years, satellites and other space-based instruments have provided tremendous amounts of astronomical data. New technology resulting in improvements in analytical techniques and instruments, such as computers and optical telescopes and mounts, is leading to a resurgence in ground-based research. A small number of astronomers work in museums housing planetariums. These astronomers develop and revise the programs presented to the public, and may also direct operations. Physicists generally specialize in one of many subfields—ele­ mentary particle physics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; physics of condensed matter (solid-state physics); optics; acoustics; space physics; plasma physics; or the physics of fluids. Some specialize in a subdivision of one of these subfields; for exam­ ple, within condensed matter physics, specialties include superconductivity, crystallography, and semiconductors. However, all physics involves the same fundamental principles, so specialties may overlap, and physicists may switch from one subfield to another. Also, growing numbers of physicists work in combined fields such as biophysics, chemical physics, and geophysics. Working Conditions Physicists often work regular hours in laboratories and offices. At times, however, those who are deeply involved in research may work long or irregular hours. Most do not encounter unusual hazards in their work. Some physicists temporarily work away from home at national or international facilities with unique equipment such as particle accelerators. Astronomers who make observations may spend long periods of time in observatories; this work usually in­ volves travel to remote locations. Long hours, including routine night work, may create temporarily stressful conditions. Physicists and astronomers whose work is dependent on grant money are often under pressure to write grant proposals to keep their work funded.  Professional and Technical Occupations 133  A large majority of physicists and astronomers have advanced degrees. Employment Physicists and astronomers held nearly 18,000 jobs in 1996. About 3 in 10 nonfaculty physicists and astronomers worked for commercial or noncommercial research, development, and testing laboratories. The Federal Government employed almost 2 in 10, mostly in the Department of Defense, but also in the Departments of Commerce, Health and Human Services, and Energy, and the National Aeronau­ tics and Space Administration. Others worked in colleges and universities in nonfaculty positions, and for State governments, drug companies, and electronic equipment manufacturers. Besides the jobs described above, many physicists held faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Although physicists and astronomers are employed in all parts of the country, most work in areas in which universities, large research and development laboratories, or observatories are located. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree is the usual educational requirement for physicists and astronomers, because most jobs are in basic research and devel­ opment. Additional experience and training in a postdoctoral research assignment, although not required, is helpful in preparing physicists and astronomers for permanent research positions. Many physics and astronomy Ph.D. holders ultimately teach at the college or university level. Master’s degree holders usually do not qualify for basic research positions, but do qualify for many kinds of jobs requiring a physics background, including positions in applied research and develop­ ment, and manufacturing. Physics departments in some colleges and universities are creating professional master’s degree programs to specifically prepare students for physics-related research which does not require a Ph.D. degree in private industry. A master’s degree may suffice for teaching jobs in 2-year colleges. Those having bachelor's degrees in physics are rarely qualified to fill positions as research or teaching physicists. They are, however, usually qualified to work in an engineering-related area or other scientific fields, to work as technicians, or to assist in setting up laboratories. Some may qualify for applied research jobs in private industry or nonresearch positions in the Federal Government. Some become science teachers Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  in secondary schools. Astronomy bachelor's or master’s degree hold­ ers often enter a field unrelated to astronomy, but they are also qualified to work in planetariums running science shows or to assist astronomers doing research. (See the statements on engineers, ge­ ologists and geophysicists, computer programmers, and computer scientists and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Over 500 colleges and universities offer a bachelor's degree in physics. The undergraduate program provides a broad background in the natural sciences and mathematics. Typical physics courses in­ clude mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, thermodynamics, atomic physics, and quantum mechanics. About 180 colleges and universities have departments offering Ph.D. degrees in physics. Graduate students usually concentrate in a subfield of physics, such as elementary particles or condensed matter. Many begin studying for their doctorate immediately after receiving their bachelor's degree. About 80 universities offer the master's or Ph.D. degree in astron­ omy, either through an astronomy, a physics, or combined physics/astronomy department. Applicants to astronomy doctoral programs face keen competition for available slots. Those planning a career in astronomy should have a very strong physics background. In fact, an undergraduate degree in either physics or astronomy is excellent preparation, followed by a Ph.D. in astronomy. Mathematical ability, computer skills, an inquisitive mind, imagi­ nation, and the ability to work independently are important traits for anyone planning a career in physics or astronomy. Prospective physicists who hope to work in industrial laboratories applying physics knowledge to practical problems should broaden their educa­ tional background to include courses outside of physics, such as economics, computer technology, and business management. Good oral and written communication skills are also important because many physicists work as part of a team or have contact with clients or customers with non-physics backgrounds. Most physics and astronomy Ph.D.'s begin their careers in a post­ doctoral research position, where they may work with experienced physicists as they continue to learn about their specialty and develop ideas and results to be used in later work. The initial work may be under the close supervision of senior scientists. After some experi­ ence, they perform increasingly complex tasks and work more independently. Physicists who develop new products or processes sometimes form their own companies or join new firms to exploit their own ideas. Job Outlook Historically, many physicists and astronomers have been employed on research projects—often defense-related. Further reductions in defense-related research and a continued slowdown in the growth of civilian physics-related research will result in a small decline in em­ ployment of physicists and astronomers through the year 2006. The need to replace physicists and astronomers who retire will account for almost all expected job openings. Proposed employment cutbacks and overall budget tightening in the Federal Government will also affect employment of physicists, especially those dependent on Fed­ eral research grants. The Federal Government funds numerous noncommercial research and development facilities; the Govern­ ment’s plan to balance the Federal budget may limit funding and, consequently, the scope of research in these facilities. The number of doctorates granted in physics has been much greater than the number of openings for physicists for several years, resulting in keen competition, particularly for research positions in colleges and universities and research and development centers. Competitive conditions may ease slightly when the number of de­ grees awarded begins to drop midway between 1996 and 2006, following recent declines in enrollment. However, job applicants should still expect to face competition from the large pool of post­ doctoral workers who will add to the supply of new graduates. Also, more prospective researchers will likely compete for less grant money.  134 Occupational Outlook Handbook Although research and development budgets in private industry will continue to grow, many research laboratories in private industry are expected to reduce basic research, which includes much physics research, in favor of applied or manufacturing research and product and software development. Although many physicists and astrono­ mers will be eligible for retirement over the next decade, it is possible not all of them will be replaced when they retire. Opportunities may be more numerous for those with a master’s de­ gree, particularly graduates from programs preparing students for applied research and development, product design, and manufacturing positions in industry. Many of these positions, however, will have titles other than physicist, such as engineer or computer scientist. Persons with only a bachelor's degree in physics or astronomy are not qualified to enter most physicist or astronomer jobs, but may qualify for a wide range of positions in engineering, technician, mathematics, and computer- and environment-related occupations. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school physics teachers, an occupation reportedly in strong demand in many school districts. (See the statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.) Despite strong competition for tradi­ tional physics and astronomy research jobs, individuals with a physics degree at any level will find their skills useful for entry to many other occupations. Earnings According to a 1997 National Association of Colleges and Employers survey, the average starting salary offer to physics doctoral degree candidates was $34,700.  The American Institute of Physics reported a median salary of $65,000 in 1996 for its members with Ph.D.'s; with master's degrees, $55,000; and with bachelor's degrees, $50,000. Those working in temporary postdoctoral positions earned significantly less. Average earnings for physicists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions in the Federal Government in 1997 were about $71,800 a year, and for astronomy and space scientists, $77,400. Related Occupations The work of physicists and astronomers relates closely to that of engineers, chemists, meteorologists, geophysicists, computer sci­ entists, computer programmers, and mathematicians. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities in physics is avail­ able from: American Institute of Physics, Career Planning and Placement, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3843. Homepage: The American Physical Society, Education Department, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3844. Homepage:  For a pamphlet containing information on careers in astron­ omy, send your request to: *■ American Astronomical Society, Education Office, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, 1300 S. Lake Shore Dr., Chicago IL 60605. Homepage:  Science Technicians (List of D.O.T. codes available on request. See p. 496.)  Significant Points •  Science technicians in production jobs often work in 8 hour shifts around the clock.  •  Job opportunities are expected to be very good for quali­ fied graduates of science technician training programs or applied science technology programs who are well-trained on equipment used in laboratories and production facilities,  Nature of the Work Science technicians use the principles and theories of science and mathematics to solve problems in research and development and to help invent and improve products and processes. However, their jobs are more practically oriented than those of scientists. Technicians set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments, monitor experi­ ments, make observations, calculate and record results, and often develop conclusions. Those who work in production monitor manu­ facturing processes and may be involved in quality control, testing products for proper proportions of ingredients, purity, or for strength and durability. As laboratory instrumentation and procedures have become more complex in recent years, the role of science technicians in research and development has expanded. In addition to performing routine tasks, many technicians also develop and adapt laboratory procedures to achieve the best results, interpret data, and devise solutions to problems, under the direction of scientists. The in­ creasing use of robotics to perform many routine tasks has freed technicians to operate more sophisticated laboratory equipment. Science technicians make extensive use of computers, computerinterfaced equipment, robotics, and high-technology industrial ap­ plications such as biological engineering. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Most science technicians specialize, learning skills and working in the same disciplines as scientists. Occupational titles, therefore, tend to follow the same structure as scientists. Agricultural technicians work with agricultural scientists in food, fiber, and animal research, production, and processing. Some conduct tests and experiments to improve the yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease, insects, or other hazards. Other agri­ cultural technicians do animal breeding and nutrition work. Biological technicians work with biologists studying living or­ ganisms. They may assist scientists who conduct medical research, helping to find a cure for cancer or AIDS, for example. Those who work in pharmaceutical companies help develop and manufacture medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. Those working in the field of microbiology generally work as lab assistants, studying living organisms and infectious agents. Biological technicians also analyze organic substances such as blood, food, and drugs, and some examine evidence in criminal investigations. Biological technicians working in biotechnology labs use the knowledge and techniques gained from basic research by scientists, including gene splicing and recombinant DNA, and apply these techniques in product development. Chemical technicians work with chemists and chemical engineers, developing and using chemicals and related products and equipment. Most do research and development, testing, or other laboratory work. For example, they might test packaging for design, integrity of materi­ als, and environmental acceptability; assemble and operate new equipment to develop new products; monitor product quality; or de­ velop new production techniques. Some chemical technicians collect and analyze samples of air and water to monitor pollution levels. Those who focus on basic research might produce compounds through complex organic synthesis. Chemical technicians within chemical plants are also referred to as process technicians. They may operate equipment, monitor plant processes and analyze plant materials. Environmental technicians may perform laboratory and field tests to monitor environmental resources and determine the contaminants and sources of pollution. They may collect samples for testing or be  Professional and Technical Occupations 135 involved in abating, controlling, or remediating sources of environ­ mental pollutants. They may be responsible for waste management operations, control and management of hazardous materials inven­ tory, or general activities involving regulatory compliance. There is a growing emphasis on pollution prevention activities. Nuclear technicians operate nuclear test and research equipment, monitor radiation, and assist nuclear engineers and physicists in re­ search. Some also operate remote control equipment to manipulate radioactive materials or materials to be exposed to radioactivity. Petroleum technicians measure and record physical and geologic conditions in oil or gas wells using instruments lowered into wells or by analysis of the mud from wells. In oil and gas exploration, they collect and examine geological data or test geological samples to determine petroleum and mineral content. Some petroleum techni­ cians, called scouts, collect information about oil and gas well drilling operations, geological and geophysical prospecting, and land or lease contracts. Other science technicians collect weather information or assist oceanographers. Working Conditions Science technicians work under a wide variety of conditions. Most work indoors, usually in laboratories, and have regular hours. Some occasionally work irregular hours to monitor experiments that can't be completed during regular working hours. Production technicians often work in 8 hour shifts around the clock. Others, such as agri­ cultural, petroleum, and environmental technicians, perform much of their work outdoors, sometimes in remote locations. Some science technicians may be exposed to hazards from equip­ ment, chemicals, or toxic materials. Chemical technicians sometimes work with toxic chemicals or radioactive isotopes; nuclear technicians may be exposed to radiation; and biological technicians sometimes work with disease-causing organisms or radioactive agents. However, there is little risk if proper safety procedures are followed. Employment Science technicians held about 228,000 jobs in 1996. Over 35 per­ cent worked in manufacturing, mostly in the chemical industry, but  Job duties of science technicians include collecting and analyzing samples. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  also in the food processing industry. About 16 percent worked in education services and another 15 percent worked in research and testing services. In 1996, the Federal Government employed about 16,000 science technicians, mostly in the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, and Interior. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There are several ways to qualify for a job as a science technician. Most employers prefer applicants who have at least 2 years of spe­ cialized training or an associate degree in applied science or science related technology. Because employer’s preferences vary, however, many science technicians may actually have a bachelor's degree in chemistry or biology, or have taken several science and math courses at 4-year colleges. Many technical and community colleges offer associate degrees in a specific technology or a more general education in science and mathematics. A number of 2-year associate degree programs are designed to provide easy transfer to a 4-year college or university if desired. Technical institutes generally offer technician training, but provide less theory and general education than technical or commu­ nity colleges. The length of programs at technical institutes varies, although 1-year certificate programs and 2-year associate degree programs are common. Some schools offer cooperative-education or internship programs, allowing students the opportunity to work at a local company or other workplace while attending classes in alternate terms. Participation in such programs can significantly enhance a student’s employment prospects. Persons interested in careers as science technicians should take as many high school science and math courses as possible. Science courses taken beyond high school, in an associate's or bachelor's pro­ gram, should be laboratory oriented, with an emphasis on "bench" skills. Because computers and computer-interfaced equipment are often used in research and development laboratories, technicians should have strong computer skills. Communication skills are also important; technicians are often required to report their findings both verbally and in writing. Technicians should also be able to work well with others because teamwork is common. Prospective science technicians may acquire good career prepara­ tion through 2-year formal training programs that combine the teaching of scientific principles and theory with practical hands-on application in a laboratory setting with up-to-date equipment. Gradu­ ates of 4-year bachelor's degree programs in science who have considerable experience in laboratory-based courses, have completed internships, or held summer jobs in laboratories, are also wellqualified for science technician positions and are preferred by some employers. However, those with a bachelor’s degree who accept technician jobs generally cannot find employment that utilizes their advanced academic education. Technicians usually begin work as trainees in routine positions under the direct supervision of a scientist or a more experienced technician. Job candidates whose training or educational background encompasses extensive hands-on experience with a variety of labo­ ratory equipment, including computers and related equipment, usually require a much shorter period of on-the-job training. As they gain experience, technicians take on more responsibility and carry out assignments under only general supervision, and some eventually become supervisors. Job Outlook Employment of science technicians is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Con­ tinued growth of scientific and medical research, and development and the production of technical products should stimulate demand for science technicians in all areas. In particular, the growing number of agricultural and medicinal products developed using biotechnology techniques will increase the need for biological technicians. Em­ ployment growth will also be fueled by demand for technicians to help regulate waste products, collect air, water, and soil samples to  136 Occupational Outlook Handbook measure levels of pollutants, monitor compliance with environmental regulations, and clean up contaminated sites. However, growth will be moderated somewhat by an expected slowdown in overall em­ ployment in the chemical industry. Job opportunities are expected to be very good for qualified graduates of science technician training programs or applied science technology programs who are well-trained on equipment used in industrial and government laboratories and production facilities. As the instrumentation and techniques used in industrial research, devel­ opment, and production become more complex, employers are seeking well trained individuals with highly developed technical and communication skills. In addition to opportunities created by growth, many job openings should arise from the need to replace technicians who retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Earnings Median annual earnings of science technicians were about $27,000 in 1996; the middle 50 percent earned between $19,800 and $37,100. Ten percent earned less than $15,500, and 10 percent earned over $49,500. Median annual earnings were about $31,100 for chemical technicians and about $25,200 for biological technicians in 1996.  In the Federal Government in 1997, science technicians started at $15,500, $17,400, or $19,500, depending on education and experi­ ence. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas of the country where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The average annual salary for biological science technicians in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions employed by the Federal Gov­ ernment in early 1997 was $28,500; for mathematical technicians, $34,870; for physical science technicians, $35,890; for geodetic tech­ nicians, $45,050; for hydrologic technicians, $33,230; and for meteorologic technicians, $41,460. Related Occupations Other technicians who apply scientific principles at a level usually taught in 2-year associate degree programs include engineering tech­ nicians, broadcast technicians, drafters, and health technologists and technicians. Some of the work of agricultural and biological techni­ cians is related to that in agriculture and forestry occupations. Sources of Additional Information For information about a career as a chemical technician, contact: *" American Chemical Society, Education Division, Career Publications, 1155 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036. Homepage:  Legal Occupations Lawyers and Judges (D.O.T. 110; 111; 119.107, .117, .167-010, .267-014; 169.267-010)  Significant Points •  Formal educational requirements usually include a 4-year college degree, followed by 3 years in law school. After that, all States require applicants for admission to the bar to pass a written bar examination.  •  Competition for admission to many law schools is in­ tense, as the number of applicants greatly exceeds the number that may be admitted.  •  Aspiring lawyers or judges should encounter keen com­ petition for jobs.  Nature of the Work Lawyers. Lawyers, also called attorneys, act as both advocates and advisors in our society. As advocates, they represent one of the parties in criminal and civil trials by presenting evidence in court supporting their client. As advisors, lawyers counsel their clients as to their legal rights and obligations, and suggest particular courses of action in business and personal matters. Whether acting as advocates or advi­ sors, all attorneys interpret the law and apply it to specific situations. Lawyers research the purposes behind laws and judicial decisions that have been applied to circumstances similar to those faced by their client. While all lawyers continue to use law libraries to prepare cases, some supplement their search of conventional printed sources with computer sources. Software can be used to search legal litera­ ture automatically, and to identify legal texts relevant to a specific case. In litigation involving many supporting documents, lawyers may use computers to organize and index material. Tax lawyers use computers for making tax computations and exploring alternative tax strategies for clients. Lawyers increasingly use the Internet for research and to advertise their services. Ethical standards for advertising on the Internet are still evolving. Lawyers also use electronic filing, videoconferencing, and voice-recognition technology. Electronic filing promotes the sharing of information by providing all parties in a case access to a database Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  with all official filings, briefs, and other court documents; these tech­ nologies also save time and reduce legal costs. Lawyers communicate the information obtained through research to others. They advise clients and draw up legal documents, such as wills and contracts. Lawyers may not disclose matters discussed in confidence with clients. They hold positions of great responsibility, and are obligated to adhere to a strict code of ethics. The more detailed aspects of a lawyer's job depend upon his or her field of specialization and position. While all lawyers are licensed to represent parties in court, some appear in court more frequently than others; some lawyers specialize in trial work. Their ability to think quickly and speak with ease and authority as well as their familiarity with courtroom rules and strategy are particularly important in trial work. However, trial lawyers still spend most of their time outside the courtroom conducting research, interviewing clients and witnesses, and handling other details in preparation for trial. Besides trials, lawyers may specialize in other areas, such as bankruptcy, probate, or international law. Environmental lawyers, for example, may represent public interest groups, waste disposal companies, or construction firms in their dealings with the Environ­ mental Protection Agency (EPA) and other State and Federal agencies. They help clients prepare and file for licenses and applica­ tions for approval before certain activities may occur. They also represent clients’ interests in administrative adjudications. Some lawyers concentrate in the growing field of intellectual property. These lawyers help protect clients' claims to copyrights, art work under contract, product designs, and computer programs. Still other lawyers advise insurance companies about the legality of insur­ ance transactions. They write insurance policies to conform with the law and to protect companies from unwarranted claims. They review claims filed against insurance companies and represent the companies in court. The majority of lawyers are in private practice, where they con­ centrate on criminal or civil law. In criminal law, lawyers represent individuals who have been charged with crimes and argue their cases in courts of law. In civil law, attorneys assist clients with litigation, wills, trusts, contracts, mortgages, titles, and leases. Others handle only public interest cases—civil or criminal—which may have a potential impact extending well beyond the individual client. Lawyers are sometimes employed full time by a single client. If the client is a corporation, the lawyer is known as "house counsel,"  Professional and Technical Occupations 137 and usually advises the company concerning legal issues related to its business activities. These issues might involve patents, government regulations, contracts with other companies, property interests, or collective bargaining agreements with unions. A significant number of attorneys are employed at the various levels of government. Lawyers who work for State attorneys general, prosecutors, public defenders, and courts play a key role in the crimi­ nal justice system. At the Federal level, attorneys investigate cases for the Department of Justice or other agencies. Government lawyers also help develop programs, draft and interpret laws and legislation, establish enforcement procedures, and argue civil and criminal cases on behalf of the government. Other lawyers work for legal aid societies—private, nonprofit or­ ganizations established to serve disadvantaged people. These lawyers generally handle civil, rather than criminal cases. A relatively small number of trained attorneys work in law schools. Most are faculty members who specialize in one or more subjects, and others serve as administrators.' Some work full time in nonacademic settings and teach part time. (For additional informa­ tion, see the Handbook section on college and university faculty.) Some lawyers become judges. Judges. Judges apply the law and oversee the legal process in courts according to local, State, and Federal statutes. They preside over cases concerning every aspect of society, from traffic offenses to disputes over management of professional sports, or from the rights of huge corporations to questions of disconnecting life support equipment for terminally ill persons. They must ensure trials and hearings are conducted fairly, and the court administers justice in a manner safeguarding the legal rights of all parties involved. Judges preside over trials or hearings and listen as attorneys repre­ senting the parties present and argue their cases. They rule on the admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testimony, and settle disputes between the opposing attorneys. They ensure rules and procedures are followed, and if unusual circumstances arise for which standard procedures have not been established, judges direct how the trial will proceed based on their knowledge of the law. Judges often hold pretrial hearings for cases. They listen to alle­ gations and, based on the evidence presented, determine whether there is enough merit for a trial to be held. In criminal cases, judges may decide that persons charged with crimes should be held in jail pending their trial, or may set conditions for release through the trial. In civil cases, judges may impose restrictions upon the parties until a trial is held. When trials are held, juries are often selected to decide cases, in­ cluding guilt or innocence in criminal cases, and the liability and the amount of compensation in civil cases. In these cases, judges instruct juries on applicable laws, direct them to deduce the facts from the evidence presented, and hear their verdict. However, judges decide cases when the law does not require a jury trial, or when the parties waive their right to a jury. In the absence of a jury, the judge deter­ mines guilt and imposes sentences in a criminal case; in civil cases, the judge rewards relief—such as compensation for damages—to the parties in the lawsuit (also called litigants). Judges also work outside the courtroom "in chambers." In their private offices, judges read documents on pleadings and motions, research legal issues, write opinions, and oversee the court's opera­ tions. Running a court is like running a small business, and judges also manage their courts' administrative and clerical staff. Judges' duties vary according to the extent of their jurisdictions and powers. General trial court judges of the Federal and State court systems have jurisdiction over any case in their system. They gener­ ally try civil cases transcending the jurisdiction of lower courts, and all cases involving felony offenses. Federal and State appellate court judges, although few in number, have the power to overrule decisions made by trial court or administrative law judges if they determine that legal errors were made in a case, or if legal precedent does not support the judgment of the lower court. They rule on fewer cases and rarely have direct contacts with litigants. Instead, they usually Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  mm.  Lawyers represent their clients in criminal and civil trials by pre­ senting evidence in court. base their decisions on lower court records and written and oral ar­ guments by lawyers. Many State court judges preside in courts in which jurisdiction is limited by law to certain types of cases. A variety of titles are as­ signed to these judges, but among the most common are municipal court judge, county court judge, magistrate, or justice of the peace. Traffic violations, misdemeanors, small claims cases, and pretrial hearings constitute the bulk of the work of these judges, but some States allow them to handle cases involving domestic relations, pro­ bate, contracts, and other selected areas of the law. Administrative law judges, formerly called hearing officers, are employed by government agencies to make determinations for ad­ ministrative agencies. They make decisions on a person's eligibility for various Social Security benefits or worker's compensation, pro­ tection of the environment, enforcement of health and safety regulations, employment discrimination, and compliance with eco­ nomic regulatory requirements. Working Conditions Lawyers and judges do most of their work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms. Lawyers sometimes meet in clients' homes or places of business and, when necessary, in hospitals or prisons. They may travel to attend meetings, gather evidence, and appear before courts, legislative bodies, and other authorities. Salaried lawyers generally have stmctured work schedules. Law­ yers in private practice may work irregular hours while conducting research, conferring with clients, or preparing briefs during nonoffice hours. Lawyers often work long hours, and about half regularly work 50 hours or more per week. They are under particularly heavy pres­ sure, for example, when a case is being tried. Preparation for court includes keeping abreast of the latest laws and judicial decisions. Although work is not generally seasonal, the work of tax lawyers and other specialists may be an exception. Because lawyers in pri­ vate practice can often determine their own workload and when they will retire, many stay in practice well beyond the usual retirement age. Many judges work a standard 40-hour week, but a third of all judges work over 50 hours per week. Some judges with limited ju­ risdiction are employed part time and divide their time between their judicial responsibilities and other careers. Employment Lawyers held about 622,000 jobs in 1996; judges, about 78,000. About 7 out of 10 lawyers practiced privately, either in law firms or in solo practices. Most of the remaining lawyers held positions in government, the greatest number at the local level. In the Federal  138 Occupational Outlook Handbook Government, lawyers work for many different agencies but are con­ centrated in the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and Defense. Other lawyers are employed as house counsel by public utilities, banks, insurance companies, real estate agencies, manufacturing firms, welfare and religious organizations, and other business firms and nonprofit organizations. Some salaried lawyers also have part­ time independent practices; others work as lawyers part time while working full time in another occupation. All judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers were employed by Federal, State, or local governments, with about 4 out of 10 hold­ ing positions in the Federal Government. Law professors also hold law degrees, as well as other profession­ als such as politicians, managers, and administrators. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Lawyers. To practice law in the courts of any State or other juris­ diction, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the jurisdiction's highest court. All require that appli­ cants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examination; most jurisdictions also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics examination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one jurisdiction may occasionally be admitted to the bar in another with­ out taking an examination if they meet that jurisdiction's standards of good moral character, and have a specified period of legal experi­ ence. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must usually obtain a college degree and graduate from a law school accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. (ABA accreditation signifies that the law school— particularly its library and faculty—meets certain standards developed to promote quality legal education.) ABA currently accredits 179 law schools. Others are approved by State authorities only. With certain exceptions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA are restricted to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. In 1997, seven States accepted the study of law in a law office or in combination with study in a law school; only California accepts the study of law by correspondence as qualifying for taking the bar examination. Several States require registration and approval of students by the State Board of Law Examiners, either before they enter law school or during the early years of legal study. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 47 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of the bar examination; the MBE is not required in Indiana, Louisiana, Washington, and Puerto Rico. The MBE covers issues of broad interest, and is sometimes given in addition to a locally pre­ pared State bar examination. The 3-hour Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is used as part of the State bar examination in a few States. States vary in their use of MBE and MEE scores. Performance examinations to test practical skills of beginning law­ yers are required by eight states. This program has been well received and more States are expected to require performance testing in the future. Requirements vary by State, although the test usually is taken at the same time as the bar exam, and is a one-time requirement. The required college and law school education usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school—4 years of undergraduate study followed by 3 years in law school. Although some law schools accept a very small number of students after 3 years of college, most require applicants to have a bachelor's degree. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions which usually require 4 years of study; about 1 in 10 graduates from ABA-approved schools attends part time. Although there is no recommended "prelaw" major, prospective lawyers should develop proficiency in writing and speaking, reading, researching, analyzing, and thinking logically—skills needed to suc­ ceed both in law school and in the profession. Whatever the major, a Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  multidisciplinary background is recommended. Courses in English, foreign language, public speaking, government, philosophy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful. For example, prospective patent lawyers need a strong background in engineering or science, and future tax lawyers must have extensive knowledge of accounting. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant's ability to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through good undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant's undergraduate school, any prior work expe­ rience, and sometimes a personal interview. However, law schools vary in the weight they place on each of these and other factors. All law schools approved by the ABA, except for those in Puerto Rico, require applicants to take the LSAT. Nearly all law schools require applicants to have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Data Assembly Service, which then sends applicants' LSAT scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. Both this service and the LSAT are administered by the Law School Admission Council. Competition for admission to many law schools is intense. En­ rollments in these schools rose very rapidly during the 1970s, with applicants far outnumbering available seats. The number of appli­ cants decreased markedly in the 1990s, easing competition slightly; however, the number of applicants to most law schools still greatly exceeds the number that can be admitted. Competition for admission to the more prestigious law schools is always keen. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students generally study fundamental courses such as constitutional law, con­ tracts, property law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may elect specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporation law. Law students often acquire practical experience by participation in school sponsored legal clinic activities, in the school's moot court competitions in which students conduct appellate arguments, in practice trials under the supervision of expe­ rienced lawyers and judges, and through research and writing on legal issues for the school's law journal. In 1997, law students in 48 States were required to pass the Multi­ state Professional Responsibility Examination (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. A number of law schools have clinical programs in which students gain legal experience through practice trials and law school projects under the supervision of practicing lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid clinics, for example, or on the staff of legislative committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corporate legal departments also provide valuable experience. Such training can provide references or lead directly to a job after graduation, and can help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Clerkships may also be an important source of financial aid. Graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.) as the first pro­ fessional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desirable for those planning to specialize, do research, or teach. Some law students pur­ sue joint degree programs, which generally require an additional semester or year. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including law and business administration or public admini­ stration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practice. Currently, 37 States and jurisdictions mandate Continuing Legal Education (CLE). Many law schools and State and local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent develop­ ments. Some States allow CLE credits to be obtained through participation in seminars on the Internet.  Professional and Technical Occupations 139 The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Indi­ viduals planning careers in law should like to work with people, and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the public. Perseverance and reasoning ability are essential to analyze complex cases and reach sound conclusions. Lawyers also need creativity when handling new and unique legal problems. Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired salaried attorneys usually start as associates and work with more expe­ rienced lawyers or judges. After several years of progressively more responsible salaried employment, some lawyers are admitted to part­ nership in their firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some lawyers, after several years of practice, become full-time law school faculty or administrators; a growing number have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some attorneys use their legal training in administrative or mana­ gerial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation's legal department to another department often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management. Judges. Most judges have first been lawyers. Federal and State judges are generally required to be lawyers. About 40 States allow nonlawyers to hold limited jurisdiction judgeships, but opportunities are better with law experience. Federal administrative law judges must be lawyers and pass a competitive examination administered by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Some State administra­ tive law judges and other hearing officials are not required to be lawyers, but law degrees are preferred for most positions. Federal judges are appointed for life by the President, with the consent of the Senate. Federal administrative law judges are ap­ pointed by the various Federal agencies with virtually lifetime tenure. About half of all State judges are appointed, while the remainder are elected in partisan or nonpartisan State elections. Many State and local judges serve fixed renewable terms, which range from 4 or 6 years for some trial court judgeships, to as long as 14 years or life for other trial or appellate court judges. Judicial nominating commis­ sions, composed of members of the bar and the public, are used to screen candidates for judgeships in many States, as well as for some Federal judgeships. All States have some type of orientation for newly elected or ap­ pointed judges. The Federal Judicial Center, ABA, National Judicial College, and National Center for State Courts provide judicial educa­ tion and training for judges and other judicial branch personnel. General and continuing education courses usually run from a couple of days to 3 weeks in length. Over half of the States, including Puerto Rico, require judges to enroll in continuing education courses while serving on the bench. Job Outlook Individuals interested in pursuing careers as lawyers or judges should encounter keen competition through the year 2006. The number of law school graduates is expected to continue to strain the economy’s capacity to absorb them. As for judges, the prestige associated with serving on the bench should insure continued, intense competition for openings. Lawyers. Employment of lawyers grew very rapidly from the early 1970s through the early 1990s, but has started to level off in the last several years. Employment is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Continuing de­ mand for lawyers will result from growth in the population and the general level of business activities. Demand will also be spurred by growth of legal action in such areas as health care, intellectual prop­ erty, international law, elder law, sexual harassment, and the environment. The wider availability and affordability of legal clinics and prepaid legal service programs should result in increased use of legal services by middle-income people. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment growth should be slower than in the past. In an ef­ fort to reduce the money spent on legal fees, many businesses are turning to large accounting firms to provide employee benefit coun­ seling, process documents, and handle other services previously performed by law firms. Also, mediation and dispute resolution are increasingly used as alternatives to litigation. Competition for job openings should continue to be keen because of the large numbers graduating from law school each year. During the 1970s, the annual number of law school graduates more than doubled, outpacing the rapid growth of jobs. Growth in the yearly number of law school graduates slowed during the early to mid1980s, but increased again in the late 1980s to early 1990s. Although graduates with superior academic records from well-regarded law schools will have more job opportunities, most graduates will en­ counter stiff competition for jobs. As in the past, some graduates may have to accept positions in areas outside their field of interest or for which they feel overqualified. They may choose to enter jobs for which legal training is an asset, but not normally a requirement—for example, administrative, managerial, and business positions in banks, insurance firms, real estate companies, government agencies, and other organizations. Some recent law school graduates who are unable to find perma­ nent positions are turning to the growing number of legal temporary staffing firms, which place attorneys in short-term jobs until they are able to secure full-time positions. This service allows companies to hire lawyers on an “as needed” basis and allows beginning lawyers to develop practical skills while looking for permanent positions. Due to the competition for jobs, a law graduate's geographic mo­ bility and work experience assume greater importance. The willingness to relocate may be an advantage in getting a job, but to be licensed in a new State, a lawyer may have to take an additional State bar examination. In addition, employers increasingly seek graduates who have advanced law degrees and experience in a specialty such as tax, patent, or admiralty law. Employment growth for lawyers will continue to be concentrated in salaried jobs, as businesses and all levels of government employ a growing number of staff attorneys, and as employment in the legal services industry grows in larger law firms. Most salaried positions are in urban areas where government agencies, law firms, and big corporations are concentrated. The number of self-employed lawyers is expected to increase slowly, reflecting the difficulty of establishing a profitable new practice in the face of competition from larger, es­ tablished law firms. Also, the growing complexity of law, which encourages specialization, along with the cost of maintaining up-todate legal research materials, favor larger firms. For lawyers who wish to work independently, establishing a new practice will probably be easiest in small towns and expanding sub­ urban areas, as long as an active market for legal services exists. In such communities, competition from larger established law firms is likely to be less than in big cities, and new lawyers may find it easier to become known to potential clients. Some lawyers are adversely affected by cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions, the demand declines for some discre­ tionary legal services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions. Also, corporations are less likely to litigate cases when declining sales and profits result in budgetary restrictions. Some corporations and law firms will not hire new attor­ neys until business improves or may cut staff to contain costs. Several factors, however, mitigate the overall impact of recessions on lawyers. During recessions, individuals and corporations face other legal problems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and divorces re­ quiring legal action.  Judges. Employment of judges is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations. Contradictory social forces affect the demand for judges. Growing public concerns about crime, safety, and efficient administration of justice should spur demand; on the other hand, tight public funding should slow job growth.  140 Occupational Outlook Handbook Competition for judgeships should remain keen. Most job open­ ings will arise as judges retire. Traditionally, many judges have held their positions until late in life. Now, early retirement is becoming more common, creating more job openings. However, becoming a judge will still be difficult. Besides competing with other qualified people, judicial candidates must gain political support in order to be elected or appointed. Earnings Median salaries of lawyers 6 months after graduation from law school in 1996 varied by type of work, as indicated by table 1. Salaries of experienced attorneys also vary widely according to the type, size, and location of their employer. The median annual salary of all lawyers was about $60,000 in 1996. General attorneys in the Federal Government averaged around $72,700 a year in 1997; the relatively small number of patent attorneys in the Federal Govern­ ment averaged around $81,600.  »■ Law School Admission Council, P.O. Box 40, Newtown, PA 18940. Homepage:  Information on acquiring a job as a lawyer with the Federal Gov­ ernment may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). That number is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site: The specific requirements for admission to the bar in a particular State or other jurisdiction may also be obtained at the State capital from the clerk of the Supreme Court or the administrator of the State Board of Bar Examiners.  Paralegals (D.O.T. 119.267-022 and -026)  Table 1. Median salaries of lawyers 6 months after graduation, 1996  Significant Points  All graduates.................................................................................... $40,000  •  Paralegals is expected to rank among the 20 fastest grow­ ing occupations in the economy as employers recognize that paralegals perform many legal tasks for lower salaries than lawyers.  •  Competition for jobs should continue as the growing num­ ber of graduates from paralegal education programs keeps pace with employment growth.  Type of work Private practice........................................................................................ Business/industry.................................................................................... Academe................................................................................................. Judicial clerkship..................................................................................... Government............................................................................................. Public interest..........................................................................................  50,000 45,000 35,000 35,000 34,500 30,000  SOURCE: National Association for Law Placement  Lawyers who practice alone usually earn less than those who are partners in law firms. Lawyers starting their own practice may need to work part time in other occupations to supplement their income until their practice is well-established. According to the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, Fed­ eral district court judges had salaries of $133,600 in 1997, as did judges in the Court of Federal Claims; circuit court judges earned $141,700 a year. Federal judges with limited jurisdiction, such as magistrates and bankruptcy court judges, had salaries of $122,900. Full-time Federal administrative law judges had average salaries of $94,800. The Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court earned $171,500, and the Associate Justices earned $164,100. According to a survey by the National Center for State Courts, annual salaries of associate justices of States' highest courts averaged $101,800 in 1997, and ranged from about $68,900 to $133,600. Sala­ ries of State intermediate appellate court judges averaged $91,000, and ranged from $79,400 to $124,200. Salaries of State judges with limited jurisdiction vary widely; some salaries are set locally. Most salaried lawyers and judges are provided health and life in­ surance, and contributions are made on their behalf to retirement plans. Lawyers who practice independently are only covered if they arrange and pay for such benefits themselves. Related Occupations Legal training is useful in many other occupations. Some of these are arbitrator, mediator, journalist, patent agent, title examiner, legisla­ tive assistant, lobbyist, FBI special agent, political office holder, and corporate executive. Sources of Additional Information Information on law schools and law as a career may be obtained from: *■ American Bar Association, 750 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  Information on the LSAT, the Law School Data Assembly Service, applying to law school, and financial aid for law students may be ob­ tained from: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nature of the Work Not all legal work requires a law degree. Lawyers are often assisted in their work by paralegals or legal assistants. Paralegals perform many of the same tasks as lawyers, except for those considered to be the practice of law. Paralegals work for lawyers. Although the lawyers assume respon­ sibility for the legal work, they often delegate many of their tasks to paralegals. Paralegals are prohibited from setting legal fees, giving legal advice, and presenting cases in court. Paralegals generally do the preparatory work for lawyers involved in closings, hearings, trials, and corporate meetings. Paralegals investi­ gate the facts of cases, ensuring all relevant information is uncovered. They conduct legal research to identify the appropriate laws, judicial decisions, legal articles, and other materials that are relevant to as­ signed cases. After organizing and analyzing the information, paralegals may prepare written reports that attorneys use in determining how cases should be handled. Should attorneys decide to file lawsuits on behalf of clients, paralegals may help prepare the legal arguments, draft pleadings and motions to be filed with the court, obtain affidavits, and assist attorneys during trials. Paralegals also organize and track files of all documents and correspondence important to cases, and make them available to attorneys. Paralegals may work in all areas of the law, including litigation, bankruptcy, corporate law, criminal law, employee benefits, patent and copyright law, and real estate. They help draft contracts, mortgages, separation agreements, and trust instruments. They may also help pre­ pare tax returns and plan estates. Some paralegals coordinate the activities of other law office employees, and keep the financial records for the office. Paralegals who work for corporations help attorneys with employee contracts, shareholder agreements, stock option plans, and employee benefit plans. They may help prepare and file annual financial reports, maintain corporate minute books and resolutions, and help secure loans for the corporation. Paralegals may also review government regula­ tions to ensure the corporation operates within the law. The duties of paralegals who work in government vary depending on the agency in which they are employed. Generally, paralegals in government analyze legal material for internal use, maintain reference  Professional and Technical Occupations 141 files, conduct research for attorneys, collect and analyze evidence for agency hearings, and prepare informative or explanatory material on the law, agency regulations, and agency policy for general use by the agency and the public. Paralegals employed in community legal service projects help the poor, the aged, and others in need of legal assistance. They file forms, conduct research, and prepare documents. When authorized by law, they may represent clients at administrative hearings. ^ Some paralegals, usually those in small and medium-sized law firms, perform a variety of duties that require a general knowledge of the law. For example, they may research judicial decisions on im­ proper police arrests or help prepare a mortgage contract. Some paralegals employed by large law firms, government agen­ cies, and corporations specialize in one aspect of the law, including real estate, estate planning, family law, labor law, litigation, and corporate law. Within specialties, functions often are broken down further so paralegals may deal with a specific area. For example, paralegals spe­ cializing in labor law may deal exclusively with employee benefits. A growing number of paralegals use computers in their work. Computer software packages and on-line legal research are increasingly used to search legal literature stored in computer databases and on CDROM. The Internet is also used extensively for legal research. In liti­ gation involving many supporting documents, paralegals may use computer databases to organize, index, and retrieve the material. Im­ aging software allows paralegals to scan documents directly into a database. Paralegals sometimes use billing programs to track hours billed to clients. They may also use computer software packages to perform tax computations and explore the consequences of possible tax strategies for clients. Working Conditions Paralegals do most of their work at desks in offices and law libraries. Occasionally, they travel to gather information and perform other duties. Paralegals employed by corporations and government usually work a standard 40-hour week. Although most paralegals work year round, some are temporarily employed during busy times of the year, then released when the workload diminishes. Paralegals who work for law firms sometimes work very long hours when they are under  Paralegals conduct research to identify the appropriate laws and judicial decisions that are relevant to assigned cases. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  pressure to meet deadlines. Some law firms reward such loyalty with bonuses and additional time off. Paralegals handle many routine assignments, particularly when they are inexperienced. Paralegals usually assume more responsible and varied tasks as they gain experience. Furthermore, as new laws and judicial interpretations emerge, paralegals are exposed to new legal problems that make their work more interesting and challeng­ ing. Employment Paralegals held about 113,000 jobs in 1996. Private law firms em­ ployed the vast majority; most of the remainder worked for the various levels of government. Within the Federal Government, the Department of Justice is the largest employer, followed by the De­ partments of Treasury and Defense, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Other employers include State and local gov­ ernments, publicly funded legal service projects, banks, real estate development companies, and insurance companies. A small number of paralegals own their own businesses; as freelance legal assistants, they contract their services to attorneys or corporate legal depart­ ments. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There are several ways to become a paralegal. Employers generally require formal paralegal training obtained through associate or bachelor’s degree programs, or certificate programs. Increasingly employers prefer graduates of 4-year paralegal programs, or college graduates who have completed short-term paralegal certificate pro­ grams. However, the majority of paralegals hold associate degrees. Some employers prefer to train paralegals on the job, promoting ex­ perienced legal secretaries or hiring college graduates with no legal experience. Other entrants have experience in a technical field that is useful to law firms, such as a background in tax preparation for tax and estate practice or nursing or health administration for personal injury practice. Over 800 formal paralegal training programs are offered by 4-year colleges and universities, law schools, community and junior colleges, business schools, and proprietary schools. There are currently 214 programs approved by the American Bar Association (ABA). Al­ though this approval is neither required nor sought by many programs, graduation from an ABA-approved program can enhance one's em­ ployment opportunities. The requirements for admission to formal training programs vary widely. Some require some college courses or a bachelor's degree; others accept high school graduates or those with legal experience; and a few schools require standardized tests and per­ sonal interviews. Paralegal programs include 2-year associate's degree programs, 4year bachelor's degree programs, or certificate programs that take only a few months to complete. Many certificate programs only require a high school diploma or GED for admission. Programs typically in­ clude general courses on the law and legal research techniques, in addition to courses covering specialized areas of the law, such as real estate, estate planning and probate, litigation, family law, contracts, and criminal law. Many employers prefer applicants with specialized training. Programs increasingly include courses introducing students to the legal applications of computers. Many paralegal training programs include an internship in which students gain practical experience by working for several months in a law office, corporate legal department, or government agency. Experience gained in internships is an asset when seeking a job after graduation. The quality of paralegal training programs varies; the better pro­ grams generally emphasize job placement. Prospective students should examine the experiences of recent graduates of programs in which they are considering enrolling.  Paralegals need not be certified, but the National Association of Le­ gal Assistants has established standards for voluntary certification requiring various combinations of education and experience. Parale­ gals who meet these standards are eligible to take a 2-day examination,  142 Occupational Outlook Handbook given 3 times each year at several regional testing centers. Those who pass this examination may use the designation Certified Legal Assistant (CLA). This designation is a sign of competence in the field and may enhance employment and advancement opportunities. The Paralegal Advanced Competency Exam, established in 1996 and administered through the National Federation of Paralegal Associations, offers pro­ fessional recognition to paralegals with a bachelor’s degree and at least 2 years of experience. Those who pass this examination may use the designation Registered Paralegal (RP). Paralegals must be able to handle legal problems logically and communicate, both orally and in writing, their findings and opinions to their supervising attorney. They must understand legal terminology and have good research and investigative skills. Familiarity with the operation and applications of computers in legal research and litigation support is increasingly important. Paralegals must always stay abreast of new developments in the law that affect their area of practice. Para­ legals can participate in continuing legal education seminars to maintain their legal knowledge. Because paralegals often deal with the public, they must be courte­ ous and uphold the high ethical standards of the legal profession. The National Association of Legal Assistants, the National Federation of Paralegal Associations, and a few States have established ethical guidelines paralegals must follow. Paralegals are usually given more responsibilities and less supervi­ sion as they gain more work experience. In large law firms, corporate legal departments, and government agencies, experienced paralegals may supervise other paralegals and clerical staff, and delegate work assigned by the attorneys. Advancement opportunities include promo­ tion to managerial and other law-related positions within the firm or corporate legal department. However, some paralegals find it easier to move to another law firm when seeking increased responsibility or advancement. Job Outlook Competition for jobs should continue as the growing number of gradu­ ates from paralegal education programs keeps pace with employment growth. Employment of paralegals is expected to grow much faster than average—ranking among the fastest growing occupations in the economy through the year 2006—as law firms and other employers with legal staffs increasingly hire paralegals to lower the cost, and in­ crease the availability and efficiency, of legal services. While new jobs created by rapid employment growth will create most of the job open­ ings for paralegals in the future, other job openings will arise as people leave the occupation. Private law firms will continue to be the largest employers of para­ legals as a growing population requires additional legal services, especially in areas such as intellectual property, health care law, inter­ national law, elder law, sexual harassment, and the environment. The growth of prepaid legal plans should also contribute to the demand for the services of law firms. A growing array of other organizations, such as corporate legal departments, insurance companies, real estate and title insurance firms, and banks will also hire paralegals. Job opportunities for paralegals will expand even in the public sec­ tor. Community legal service programs—which provide assistance to the poor, aged, minorities, and middle-income families—operate on limited budgets. They will seek to employ additional paralegals in order to minimize expenses and serve the most people. Federal, State, and local government agencies, consumer organizations, and the courts should continue to hire paralegals in increasing numbers. To a limited extent, paralegal jobs are affected by the business cy­ cle. During recessions, demand declines for some discretionary legal Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions. Corporations are less inclined to initiate litigation when falling sales and profits lead to fiscal belt tightening. As a result, full-time paralegals employed in offices adversely affected by a reces­ sion may be laid off or have their work hours reduced. On the other hand, during recessions, corporations and individuals are more likely to face other legal problems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and di­ vorces, that require legal assistance. Paralegals, who provide many of the same legal services at a lower cost, may fare better than lawyers. Earnings Earnings of paralegals vary greatly. Salaries depend on education, training, experience, the type and size of employer, and the geographic location of the job. Generally, paralegals who work for large law firms or in large metropolitan areas earn more than those who work for smaller firms or in less populated regions. According to the National Federation of Paralegal Associations, paralegals had an average annual salary of $32,900 in 1995. Starting salaries of paralegals with 1 year or less experience averaged $29,300. In addition to a salary, many paralegals received an annual bonus, which averaged about $1,900 in 1995. The average annual salary of paralegal specialists who work for the Federal Government was about $44,400 in 1997. Related Occupations Several other occupations call for a specialized understanding of the law and the legal system, but do not require the extensive training of a lawyer. Some of these are abstractors, claim examiners, compli­ ance and enforcement inspectors, occupational safety and health workers, patent agents, police officers, and title examiners. Sources of Additional Information General information on a career as a paralegal can be obtained from: <r Standing Committee on Legal Assistants, American Bar Association, 750 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  For information on certification of paralegals, schools that offer training programs in a specific State, and standards and guidelines for paralegals, contact: m- National Association of Legal Assistants, Inc., 1516 South Boston St., Suite 200, Tulsa, OK 74119. Homepage:  Information on a career as a paralegal, schools that offer training programs, the Paralegal Advanced Competency Exam, and local paralegal associations can be obtained from: m- National Federation of Paralegal Associations, P.O. Box 33108, Kansas City, MO 64114.  Information on careers, training programs, and job postings for paralegals are available at the following Internet site: Information on paralegal training programs, including the pam­ phlet "How to Choose a Paralegal Education Program," may be obtained from: American Association for Paralegal Education, P.O. Box 40244, Overland Park, KS 66204.  Information on acquiring a job as a paralegal specialist with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone-based system. Consult your tele­ phone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). That number is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site:  Professional and Technical Occupations 143  Social Scientists Nature of the Work Social scientists study all aspects of human society—from the opti­ mal distribution of goods and services to human behavior and relationships between groups. Their research provides insights that help us understand the different ways in which individuals and groups make decisions, exercise power, and respond to change. Through their studies and analyses, social scientists suggest solutions to social, business, personal, governmental, and environmental prob­ lems. Research is a basic activity for many social scientists. They use various methods to assemble facts and construct theories. Applied research usually is designed to produce information that will enable people to make better decisions or manage their affairs more effec­ tively. Interviews and surveys are widely used to collect facts, opinions, or other information. Information collection takes many forms, however, including living and working among the population being studied; field investigations, including the analysis of historical records and documents; experiments with human or animal subjects in a laboratory; the administration of standardized tests and question­ naires; and the preparation and interpretation of maps and computer graphics. The following paragraphs discuss the major specialties in social science. Specialists in one field, however, often find that their re­ search overlaps work being conducted in another discipline. Anthropologists study the origin and the physical, social, and cultural development and behavior of humans. They may study the way of life, archaeological remains, language, or physical character­ istics of people in various parts of the world. Some compare the customs, values, and social patterns of different cultures. Anthro­ pologists generally concentrate in sociocultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, or biological-physical anthropology. So­ ciocultural anthropologists study the customs, cultures, and social lives of groups in settings that vary from nonindustrialized societies to modem urban centers. Archaeologists recover and examine mate­ rial evidence, such as tools and pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations. Linguistic anthropologists study the role of language in various cultures. Biological-physical anthropologists study the evolution of the human body, look for the earliest evidences of human life, and analyze how culture and biology influence one another. Most anthropologists specialize in one particular region of the world. Economists study the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Most economists are concerned with the practi­ cal applications of economic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agriculture, transportation, energy, or health. Others develop theories to explain economic phenomena such as unemploy­ ment or inflation. Marketing research analysts study local, regional, national, or world market conditions to determine potential sales of a product or service. They analyze data on past sales and trends to develop forecasts, and conduct extensive market surveys to test their conclusions. Geographers analyze distributions of physical and cultural phe­ nomena on local, regional, continental, and global scales. Economic geographers study the distribution of resources and economic activi­ ties. Political geographers are concerned with the relationship of geography to political phenomena, while cultural geographers study the geography of cultural phenomena. Physical geographers study the variations in climates, vegetation, soil, and land forms, and their implications for human activity. Urban and transportation geogra­ phers study cities and metropolitan areas, while regional geographers study the physical, economic, political, and cultural characteristics of regions, ranging in size from a congressional district to entire conti­ nents. Medical geographers study health care delivery systems, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  epidemiology (the study of the causes and control of epidemics), and the effect of the environment on health. (Some occupational classifi­ cation systems include geographers under physical scientists rather than social scientists.) Historians research, analyze, and interpret the past. They use many sources of information in their research, including government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photo­ graphs, interviews, films, and unpublished manuscripts such as personal diaries and letters. Historians usually specialize in a specific country or region; in a particular time period; or in a particular field, such as social, intellectual, political, or diplomatic history. Biogra­ phers collect detailed information on individuals. Genealogists trace family histories. Other historians help study and preserve archival materials, artifacts, and historic buildings and sites. Political scientists study the origin, development, and operation of political systems and public policy. They conduct research on a wide range of subjects such as relations between the United States and other countries, the institutions and political life of nations, the poli­ tics of small towns or a major metropolis, or the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. Studying topics such as public opinion, political decisionmaking, ideology, and public policy, they analyze the struc­ ture and operation of governments as well as various political entities. Depending on the topic under study, a political scientist might conduct a public opinion survey, analyze election results, ana­ lyze public documents, or interview public officials. Psychologists study human behavior and counsel or advise indi­ viduals or groups. Their research also assists business advertisers, politicians, and others interested in influencing or motivating people. While clinical psychology is the largest specialty, psychologists spe­ cialize in many other fields such as counseling, experimental, social, and industrial psychology. Sociologists study human society and social behavior by examin­ ing the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. They also study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individ­ ual members. They are concerned with the characteristics of social groups, organizations, and institutions; the ways individuals are af­ fected by each other and by the groups to which they belong; and the effect of social traits such as sex, age, or race on a person's daily life. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, ad­ ministrators, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy. Most sociologists work in one or more specialties, such as social organization, stratification, and mobility; racial and ethnic relations; education; family; social psychology; urban, rural, political, and comparative sociology; sex roles and relations; demography; geron­ tology; criminology; or sociological practice. Urban and regional planners develop comprehensive plans and programs for the use of land. Planners prepare for situations that are likely to develop as a result of population growth or social and eco­ nomic change. Working Conditions Most social scientists have regular hours. Generally working behind a desk, either alone or in collaboration with other social scientists, they read and write research reports. Many experience the pressures of writing and publishing articles, deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes they must work overtime, for which they generally are not reimbursed. Social scientists often work as an integral part of a re­ search team, where good communications skills are important. Travel may be necessary to collect information or attend meetings. Social scientists on foreign assignment must adjust to unfamiliar cultures, climates, and languages.  144 Occupational Outlook Handbook Some social scientists do fieldwork. For example, anthropologists, archaeologists, and geographers often travel to remote areas, live among the people they study, learn their languages, and stay for long periods at the site of their investigations. They may work under rugged conditions, and their work may involve strenuous physical exertion. Social scientists employed by colleges and universities generally have flexible work schedules, often dividing their time among teaching, research and writing, consulting, or administrative responsibilities. Employment Social scientists held about 263,000 jobs in 1996. Over half of these social scientists are psychologists. Over one-quarter of all social scientists—overwhelmingly psychologists—are self-employed, in­ volved in counseling, consulting, or research. Salaried social scientists worked as researchers, administrators, and counselors for a wide range of employers, including Federal, State, and local governments, educational institutions, hospitals, re­ search and testing services, and management and public relations firms. Other employers include social service agencies, international organizations, associations, museums, historical societies, and com­ puter and data processing firms. In addition, many individuals with training in a social science dis­ cipline teach in colleges and universities, and in secondary and elementary schools. (For more information, see the Handbook state­ ments on college and university faculty, and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers.) The proportion of social scientists who teach varies by occupation—for example, the academic world generally is a more important source of jobs for graduates in history than for graduates in psychology. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational attainment of social scientists is among the highest of all occupations. The Ph.D. or equivalent degree is a minimum require­ ment for most positions in colleges and universities and is important for advancement to many top level nonacademic research and ad­ ministrative posts. Graduates with master's degrees in applied specialties generally have better professional opportunities outside of colleges and universities, although the situation varies by field. For example, job prospects for master's degree holders in urban or re­ gional planning are brighter than for master's degree holders in history. Graduates with a master's degree in a social science qualify for teaching positions in junior colleges. Bachelor’s degree holders have limited opportunities and in most social science occupations do not qualify for "professional" positions. The bachelor's degree does, however, provide a suitable background for many different kinds of entry-level jobs, such as research assistant, administrative aide, or management or sales trainee. With the addition of sufficient educa­ tion courses, social science graduates also can qualify for teaching positions in secondary and elementary schools. Training in statistics and mathematics is essential for many social scientists. Mathematical and quantitative research methods are in­ creasingly used in economics, geography, political science, experimental psychology, and other fields. The ability to use comput­ ers for research purposes is mandatory in most disciplines. Depending on their jobs, social scientists may need a wide range of personal characteristics. Because they constantly seek new infor­ mation about people, things, and ideas, intellectual curiosity and creativity are fundamental personal traits. The ability to think logi­ cally and methodically is important to a political scientist comparing, for example, the merits of various forms of government. Similarly, the ability to analyze large amounts of data is important to an econo­ mist studying proposals to reduce Federal budget deficits. Objectivity, open-mindedness, and systematic work habits are im­ portant in all kinds of social science research. Perseverance is essential for an anthropologist, who might spend years accumulating artifacts from an ancient civilization. Emotional stability and sensi­ tivity are vital to a psychologist working with mental patients. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Excellent written and oral communication skills are essential for all these professionals. Job Outlook Candidates seeking positions as social scientists can expect to en­ counter keen competition in many areas of social science. Many social science graduates, however, will find good employment op­ portunities in areas outside social science, often in jobs that are related to social science where their research, communication, and quantitative skills can be put to good use. Prospects are best for those with advanced degrees, and generally are better in disciplines such as economics and psychology, which offer more opportunities in nonacademic settings. Government agen­ cies, health and social service organizations, marketing, research and consulting firms, and a wide range of businesses seek social science graduates, although often in jobs with titles unrelated to their aca­ demic discipline. Social scientists will face stiff competition for academic positions. However, the growing importance and popular­ ity of social science subjects in secondary schools is strengthening the demand for social science teachers at this level. Overall employment of social scientists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. The largest social science occupation, psychologists, is expected to grow more slowly than the average, although some growth is ex­ pected due to public concern for the development of human resources, including the growing elderly population and children in school. Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2006. Opportunities for economists should be best in private industry, especially in research, testing, and consulting firms, as more companies contract out for economic research. De­ mand for marketing research analysts should be strong due to an increasingly competitive global economy. Employment of urban and regional planners is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2006 because many work for local governments that will experience tight budget constraints in the years to come. Other social scientists, including sociologists, anthro­ pologists, geographers, historians, and political scientists should experience slower than average growth. Earnings Median annual earnings of all social scientists were about $35,000 in 1996. The middle 50 percent earned between $24,400 and $47,800 annually. The lowest 10 percent earned under $18,000, while the highest 10 percent earned over $67,700. According to a 1997 survey by the National Association of Col­ leges and Employers, people with a bachelor's degree in a social science field received starting offers averaging about $25,000 a year. In the Federal Government, social scientists with a bachelor's de­ gree and no experience could start at $19,500 or $24,200 a year in 1997, depending on their college records. Those with a master’s de­ gree could start at $29,600, and those having a Ph.D. degree could begin at $35,800, while some individuals with experience and an advanced degree could start at $42,900. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas of the country where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The average salary of social scientists working for the Federal Government was $48,190 in early 1997; in geography was $47,850; in history was $55,750; in sociology was $64,720; and in archeology was $43,450. Related Occupations A number of fields that require training and personal qualities similar to those of the various social science fields are covered elsewhere in the Handbook. These include lawyers; statisticians; mathematicians; computer programmers; computer scientists, computer engineers, and systems analysts; reporters and correspondents; social workers; col­ lege and university faculty; and counselors.  Professional and Technical Occupations 145 Sources of Additional Information More detailed information about economists and marketing research analysts, psychologists, and urban and regional planners is presented in the Handbook statements that follow this introductory statement. Anthropology For information about careers in anthropology, contact: "" The American Anthropological Association, 4350 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 640, Arlington, VA 22203.  Archaeology For information about careers in archaeology, contact: *■ Society for American Archaeology, 900 2nd St. NE„ Suite 12, Washington DC 20002. ’ "" Archaeological Institute of America, 656 Beacon St„ Boston, MA 02215.  Geography For information about careers in geography, contact: *■ Association of American Geographers, 1710 16th St. NW„ Washington DC 20009. ’  History Information on careers for historians is available from: "■ American Historical Association, 400 A St. SE„ Washington, DC 20003. Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington IN 47408. ’ *- American Association for State and Local History, 530 Church St 6th Floor, Nashville, TN 37219.  Political Science For information about careers in political science, contact: American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036. ** National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, 1120 G St. NW., Suite 730, Washington, DC 20005.  Sociology Information about careers in sociology is available from: "" American Sociological Association, 1722 N St. NW., Washington DC 20036-2981.  For information about careers in demography, contact: *■ Population Association of America, 721 Ellsworth Dr., Suite 303 Silver Spring, MD 20910.  Economists and Marketing Research Analysts (D.O.T. 050.067)  Economists devise methods and procedures for obtaining the data they need. For example, sampling techniques may be used to conduct a survey, and various mathematical modeling techniques may be used to develop forecasts. Preparing reports on the results of their research is an important part of the economist's job. Rele­ vant data must be reviewed and analyzed, applicable tables and charts prepared, and the results presented in clear, concise language that can be understood by non-economists. Presenting economic and statistical concepts in a meaningful way is particularly impor­ tant for economists whose research is directed toward making policies for an organization. Economists who work for government agencies may assess eco­ nomic conditions in the United States or abroad, in order to estimate the economic effects of specific changes in legislation or public policy. They may study areas such as how the dollar's fluc­ tuation against foreign currencies affects import and export levels. The majority of government economists work in the area of agri­ culture, labor, or quantitative analysis; some economists work in almost every area of government. For example, some economists in the U.S. Department of Commerce study production, distribu­ tion, and consumption of commodities produced overseas, while economists employed with the Bureau of Labor Statistics analyze data on the domestic economy such as prices, wages, employment, productivity, and safety and health. An economist working in State or local government might analyze data on the growth of schoolaged populations, prison growth, and employment and unemploy­ ment rates, in order to project spending needs for future years. Marketing Research Analysts. Marketing research analysts are concerned with the potential sales of a product or service. They analyze statistical data on past sales to predict future sales. They gather data on competitors and analyze prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution. Like economists, marketing research analysts devise methods and procedures for obtaining the data they need. They often design telephone, personal, or mail interview sur­ veys to assess consumer preferences. The surveys are usually conducted by trained interviewers under the marketing research ana­ lyst's direction. Once the data are compiled, marketing research analysts evaluate it. They then make recommendations to their client  . Significant Points  •  Demand for qualified marketing research analysts should be strong.  •  Candidates who hold a master's degree in economics have much better employment prospects than bachelor's degree holders.  Nature of the Work Economists. Economists study the ways society distributes scarce resources such as land, labor, raw materials, and machinery to pro­ duce goods and services. They conduct research, collect and analyze data, monitor economic trends, and develop forecasts. They research issues such as energy costs, inflation, interest rates, imports, or em­ ployment levels. Most economists are concerned with practical applications of eco­ nomic policy in a particular area. They use their understanding of economic relationships to advise businesses and other organizations, including insurance companies, banks, securities firms, industry and trade associations, labor unions, and government agencies. Econo­ mists use mathematical models to develop programs predicting answers to questions such as the nature and length of business cycles, the effects of a specific rate of inflation on the economy, or the ef­ fects of tax legislation on unemployment levels. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is concentrated in large cities.  146 Occupational Outlook Handbook or employer based upon their findings. They provide a company's management with information needed to make decisions on the pro­ motion, distribution, design, and pricing of company products or services, or to determine the advisability of adding new lines of mer­ chandise, opening new branches, or otherwise diversifying the company's operations. Analysts may conduct opinion research to determine public attitudes on various issues. This can help political or business leaders and others assess public support for their electoral prospects or advertising policies. Working Conditions Economists and marketing research analysts have structured work schedules. They often work alone, writing reports, preparing statistical charts, and using computers, but they may also be an integral part of a research team. Most work under pressure of deadlines and tight sched­ ules, and sometimes must work overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by special requests for data, as well as by the need to attend meetings or conferenc