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Occupational s3 Outlook Handbook U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics May 1992 Bulletin 2400   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Things Worth Noting • Pointers on interpreting the information presented in the Handbook are found in the chapter Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook, page 1. • Additional career-oriented materials, available from private and public organizations, are described in the chapter Leads To More Information, page 4. • An overview of the job outlook for the year 2005 is given in Tomorrow’s Jobs, page 8. • For some 80 occupations not covered in detail in the Hand­ book, brief descriptions of the nature of the work, number of jobs in 1990, and the projected 1990-2005 change in employ­ ment are presented in a section beginning on page 433. • The assumptions and methods used in preparing BLS employment projections are described briefly on page 440. • Occupational Projections and Training Data and the Occupa­ tional Outlook Quarterly are publications that supplement or complement material presented in the Handbook. See page 474 and the inside back cover for information about these publications. • The Bureau has added another publication to its career infor­ mation series. Titled Career Guide to Industries, it presents information useful to individuals planning their careers or job seekers who wish to look at particular industries, such as health services, aerospace manufacturing, or the Federal Government. See page 475 for information about this new publication. • Sources of State and local job outlook information can be found on pages 441 -43. Information also can be obtained from any of the following Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices: Atlanta — Suite 540, Peachtree St. NE., Atlanta, GA 30367. Phone (404) 347-4416.  Boston — 10th Floor. 1 Congress St., Boston, MA 02114. Phone (617) 565-2327.  Chicago — 9th Floor, Federal Office Bldg., 230 South Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60604. Phone (312) 353-1880.  Dallas — Room 221, Federal Bldg., 525 Griffin St., Dallas TX 75202. Phone (214) 767-6970.  Kansas City — 15th Floor, 911 Walnut St., Kansas City, MO 64106. Phone (816) 426-2481.  New York — Room 808, 201 VarickSt., New York, NY 10014. Phone (212) 337-2400.  Philadelphia — 3535 Market St., P.O. Box 13309, Philadelphia, PA 19101. Phone (215) 596-1154.  San Francisco —71 Stevenson St., P.O. Box 193766, San Fran­ cisco, CA 94119. Phone (415) 744-6600.  l  2. 3jqi'tix-'te  Occupational Outlook Handbook  1992-93  Edition  U.S. Department of Labor Lynn Martin, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics William G. Barron, Jr., Deputy Commissioner May 1992 Bulletin 2400   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  U.S.  r(\g\ W v 1st  LsJ  J,  Ji >Sss£\m^\ ites   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Message From the Secretary  B uilding a quality work force will be the key to success for American workers as well as the Nation’s economy. Preparation for tomorrow’s jobs and the challenges posed by global competitiveness, chang­ ing technology, and demographic trends will require an efficient match between workplace requirements and worker skills. The Occupational Outlook Handbook, the Govern­ ment’s premier publication on career guidance, pro­ vides essential information about prospective changes in the world of work and the qualifications that will be needed by tomorrow’s workers.  LYNN MARTIN   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Acknowledgments The Handbook was produced in the Bureau of Labor Statis­ tics under the general guidance and direction of Neal H. Rosenthal, Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, and Ronald E. Kutscher, Associate Commissioner for Employ­ ment Projections. Mike Pilot, Manager, Occupational Out­ look Program, was responsible for planning and day-to-day direction. Project leaders supervising the research and preparation of material were Douglas J. Braddock, Daniel E. Hecker, Chester C. Levine, Jon Q. Sargent, and Darrel Patrick Wash. Occupational analysts who contributed material were Thomas A. Amirault, Jay M. Berman, Verada P. Bluford, Theresa Cosca, Conley Hall Dillon, Jr., Erik N. Dohlman, Shelley Davis Franklin, Ana Gustave-Schmidt, Steven Maguire, Elizabeth McGregor, Ludmilla K. Murphy, Janet E. Pfleeger, Douglas S. Shapiro, Kristina Shelley, Stephen G. Tise, Brenda S. Wallace, and Anne E. Weston. Word processing support was handled by Beverly A. Williams.  Note A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial organizations, and government agencies provide career information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organiza­ tions are listed at the end of each occupational statement. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has neither authority nor facilities for investi­ gating the organizations or the information or publications that may be sent in response to a request and cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information. The listing of an organization, therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorsement or rec­ ommendation by the Bureau either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue. The occupational information contained in the Handbook pre­ sents a general, composite description of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Nor should earnings data in the Handbook be used to compute future loss of earnings in adjudication proceedings involving work injuries or acciden­ tal deaths. Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Com­ ments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome. Please address them to Chief, Divi­ sion of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212.  IV   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Photo Credits The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to express its appreci­ ation for the cooperation and assistance of the many govern­ ment and private sources—listed below—that either con­ tributed photographs or made their facilities available to photographers working under contract to the U.S. Depart­ ment of Labor. Photographs may not be free of every possi­ ble safety or health hazard. Depiction of company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of Labor. ADAPSO; Harrison E. Allen; The American Film Institute— The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts; Ameri­ can Textile Manufacturers Institute; American University; Artmor Plastics Corporation; Baltimore Gas and Electric Company; Baltimore Specialty Steels Corporation; Barnsley Elementary School, Rockville, Md.; R.E. Barrett; Bethesda Jewish Congregation; Biomedical Laboratories; BlakesleeLane, Inc.; Boquel Paperhanging; D.L. Boyd Ceiling and Wall Company; Theophus Brooks Upholstery; Burke & Her­ bert Bank & Trust Co.; CBS News; Julio Calemine Shoe Repair; Capitol Hill Travel, Inc.; Dr. Nathan Castleman; Central Delivery Services; Community for Creative Non Violence; Crossing Place; Cumberland Opticians, Inc.; Cum­ berland Regional Airport; Louise Davis—Grace United Church of Christ; District of Columbia Department of Recre­ ation; Electric Razor of Northern Virginia; William Erbe; Fabrication Technology Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology; Failure Analysis Associates; Fain-Padgett Insulation, Inc.; Ferris, Baker, Watts, Inc.; Paul Fetters; Fontana Lithograph, Inc.; Bill Foskett, Environmen­ tal Protection Agency; Franklin Barn Childrens Center; Georgetown University Hospital; Georgetown Veterinary Clinic; Giant Food, Inc.; Gulf Oil Corporation, Lois M. Weissflog; Herb Gordon Dodge; Hill Cleaners; Hour Eyes; Iron City Brewing Company; James River Corporation— Wauna Mill, Clatskanie, Oregon; Jelles Brothers—Mechani­ cal Contractors; Dr. Gerald Lipps & Associates; Loyola Col­ lege, Baltimore, Md.; Eric Margry Jewelry; Media General Cable, Fairfax, Va.; Microlog Corporation; Montgomery County Library—Silver Spring, Md. Branch; National Reha­ bilitation Hospital; Northern Virginia Community College; Nutter’s Tri-State Motorcycles, Inc.; Old Ebbitt Grill; Penn­ sylvania Avenue Development Corporation, (D.C.); Ply­ mouth Luthier; Radisson Mark Plaza & Executive Confer­ ence Center, Alexandria, Va.; Congressman Thomas J. Ridge (21st PA); Ritz Camera Center; Jeffry A. Rostas, D.D.S.; The Schwab Company; Shannon & Luchs Realtors; Ira Silverstien; Software Productions; Studio 12 Hair Salon; Kristen Theiss; Thomas Jefferson High School, Fairfax, Va.; Univer­ sity of Maryland; U.S. Elevator; U.S. Department of Agri­ culture; U.S. Department of Defense; U.S. Postal Service— Brookland Station, Washington, D.C.; Video Action Fund; W. Lawrence Wallace; Western Maryland Glass and Glazing, Inc.; Working Images Photographs—Martha Tabor; and Frank L. Wright Co. v  Contents Electrical and electronics engineers.............................................. Industrial engineers................................ Mechanical engineers................................................................... Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers.......................... Mining engineers.......................................................................... Nuclear engineers....................................................... ................. Petroleum engineers......................................................................  68 69 69 70 70 71 71  Architects and surveyors Architects...................................................................................... Landscape architects..................................................................... Surveyors......................................................................................  73 74 76  Computer, mathematical, and operations research occupations Actuaries....................................................................................... Computer systems analysts........................................................... Mathematicians............................................................................. Operations research analysts......................................................... Statisticians...................................................................................  79 80 82 84 85  Index ...................................................................................464  Life scientists Agricultural scientists................................................................... Biological scientists................................................................. Foresters and conservation scientists............................................  88 89 91  Occupational Coverage  Physical scientists Chemists....................................................................................... Geologists and geophysicists........................................................ Meteorologists.............................................................................. Physicists and astronomers...........................................................  94 95 97 98  Special Features Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook.........  1  Leads To More Information ............................................  4  Tomorrow’s Jobs ..............................................................  8  Summary Data for Occupations Not Studied in Detail................................................................................433 Assumptions and Methods Used in Preparing Employment Projections ............................................... 440 Sources of State and Local Job Outlook Information ... 441 Dictionary of Occupational Titles Coverage................... 444 Reprints............................................................................ 461  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and auditors................................................ Administrative services managers.................................. Budget analysts............................................................... Construction and building inspectors............................. Construction contractors and managers.......................... Cost estimators................................................................ Education administrators................................................ Employment interviewers............................................... Engineering, science, and data processing managers..... Financial managers......................................................... General managers and top executives............................. Government chief executives and legislators................. Health services managers............................................... Hotel managers and assistants........................................ Industrial production managers...................................... Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction Management analysts and consultants............................ Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers... Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers.............................................................. Property and real estate managers.................................. Purchasing agents and managers.................................... Restaurant and food service managers........................... Underwriters................................................................... Wholesale and retail buyers and merchandise managers  15 17 19  27 29 31 32 34 36 38 40 42 43 46 48 50  53 56  58 60 62  Lawyers and judges ................................................................... 101 Social scientists and urban planners........................................ Economists and marketing research analysts............................... Psychologists................................................................................ Sociologists................................................................................... Urban and regional planners.........................................................  106 108 110 113 115  Social and recreation workers Human services workers............................................................... 118 Social workers............................................. 119 Recreation workers....................................................................... 121 Religious workers Protestant ministers....................................................................... 124 Rabbis........................................................................................... 125 Roman Catholic priests................................................................. 126 Teachers, librarians, and counselors Adult education teachers............................................................... Archivists and curators................................................................. College and university faculty...................................................... Counselors.................................................................................... Kindergarten and elementary school teachers.............................. Librarians...................................................................................... Secondary school teachers............................................................  128 129 131 133 135 137 138  Health diagnosing practitioners Chiropractors................................................................................ Dentists......................................................................................... Optometrists.................................................................................. Physicians.....................................................................................  141 142 144 145  Professional Specialty Occupations Engineers............................................................................  Aerospace engineers.............................................................. Chemical engineers................................................................ Civil engineers...................................................................... VI   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  64 66 67 67  Podiatrists..................................................................................... 147 Veterinarians................................................................................. 149 Health assessment and treating occupations Dietitians and nutritionists............................................................ Occupational therapists................................................................. Pharmacists................................................................................... Physical therapists........................................................................ Physician assistants....................................................................... Recreational therapists.................................................................. Registered nurses.......................................................................... Respiratory therapists................................................................... Speech-language pathologists and audiologists............................ Communications occupations Public relations specialists............................................................ Radio and television announcers and newscasters....................... Reporters and correspondents....................................................... Writers and editors........................................................................  151 152 153 155 157 158 159 162 163  166 167 169 171  Visual arts occupations Designers.............. 173 Photographers and camera operators............................................ 175 Visual artists.................................................................................. 177 Performing arts occupations Actors, directors, and producers................................................... 180 Dancers and choreographers......................................................... 181 Musicians...................................................................................... 183  Technicians and Related Support Occupations Health technologists and technicians Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians........................ Dental hygienists.......................................................................... Dispensing opticians..................................................................... EEG technologists........................................................................ EKG technicians........................................................................... Emergency medical technicians................................................... Licensed practical nurses.............................................................. Medical record technicians........................................................... Nuclear medicine technologists.................................................... Radiologic technologists............................................................... Surgical technicians......................................................................  185 187 188 190 191 192 194 195 196 198 200  Technologists, except health Aircraft pilots................................................................................ Air traffic controllers.................................................................... Broadcast technicians................................................................... Computer programmers................................................................ Drafters......................................................................................... Engineering technicians................................................................ Library technicians....................................................................... Paralegals...................................................................................... Science technicians....................................................................... Tool programmers, numerical control..........................................  202 204 206 207 209 210 212 213 215 217  Marketing and Sales Occupations Cashiers......................................................................................... Counter and rental clerks.............................................................. Insurance agents and brokers........................................................ Manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives.................... Real estate agents, brokers, and appraisers................................... Retail sales workers...................................................................... Securities and financial services sales representatives................. Services sales representatives....................................................... Travel agents.................................................................................  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  219 220 221 223 225 228 229 232 234  Administrative Support Occupations, Including Clerical Adjusters, investigators, and collectors........................................ Bank tellers................................................................................... Clerical supervisors and managers............................................... Computer and peripheral equipment operators............................. Credit clerks and authorizers........................................................ General office clerks..................................................................... Information clerks......................................................................... Hotel and motel clerks.............................................................. Interviewing and new accounts clerks...................................... Receptionists............................................................................. Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks.................................................................... Mail clerks and messengers.......................................................... Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing occupations..................................................... Dispatchers............................................................................... Stock clerks............................................................................... Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks..................................... Postal clerks and mail carriers...................................................... Record clerks................................................................................ Billing clerks........................ Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks......................... Brokerage clerks and statement clerks..................................... File clerks.................................................................................. Library assistants and bookmobile drivers............................... Order clerks.............................................................................. Payroll and timekeeping clerks................................................. Personnel clerks........................................................................ Secretaries..................................................................................... Stenographers and court reporters................................................ Teacher aides................................................................................ Telephone, telegraph, and teletype operators............................... Typists, word processors, and data entry keyers...........................  236 240 242 243 245 246 247 248 249 250 250 251 253 255 256 257 258 260 261 262 263 263 264 265 266 267 267 269 271 272 273  Service Occupations Protective service occupations Correction officers........................................................................ Firefighting occupations............................................................... Guards........................................................................................... Police, detectives, and special agents...........................................  276 277 279 281  Food and beverage preparation and service occupations Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers...................................... 285 Food and beverage service occupations....................................... 287 Health service occupations Dental assistants............................................................................ 290 Medical assistants......................................................................... 291 Nursing aides and psychiatric aides.............................................. 292 Personal service and building and grounds service occupations Animal caretakers, except farm.................................................... 295 Barbers and cosmetologists.......................................................... 296 Flight attendants............................................................................ 298 Gardeners and groundskeepers..................................................... 300 Homemaker-home health aides.................................................... 301 Janitors and cleaners..................................................................... 303 Preschool workers......................................................................... 304 Private household workers............................................................ 306  Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations Farm operators and managers...................................................... 308 Fishers, hunters, and trappers....................................................... 310 Timber cutting and logging workers............................................. 313  Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Aircraft mechanics and engine specialists.................................... 316 vii  Automotive body repairers........................................................... Automotive mechanics................................................................. Diesel mechanics.......................................................................... Electronic equipment repairers..................................................... Commercial and industrial electronic equipment repairers...... Communications equipment mechanics................................... Computer and office machine repairers.................................... Electronic home entertainment equipment repairers................ Telephone installers and repairers............................................ Elevator installers and repairers.................................................... Farm equipment mechanics.......................................................... General maintenance mechanics................................................... Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration technicians.............. Home appliance and power tool repairers.................................... Industrial machinery repairers...................................................... Line installers and cable splicers.................................................. Millwrights................................................................................... Mobile heavy equipment mechanics............................................ Motorcycle, boat, and small-engine mechanics............................ Musical instrument repairers and tuners....................................... Vending machine servicers and repairers.....................................  317 319 321 323 325 326 326 327 328 328 330 332 333 335 336 338 339 341 343 344 346  Construction Trades and Extractive Occupations Bricklayers and stonemasons........................................................ Carpenters..................................................................................... Carpet installers............................................................................ Concrete masons and terrazzo workers........................................ Dry wall workers and lathers......................................................... Electricians................................................................................... Glaziers......................................................................................... Insulation workers........................................................................ Painters and paperhangers............................................................ Plasterers....................................................................................... Plumbers and pipefitters............................................................... Roofers.......................................................................................... Roustabouts................................................................................... Sheet-metal workers..................................................................... Structural and reinforcing ironworkers......................................... Tilesetters......................................................................................  348 349 351 352 353 355 357 358 360 361 363 365 366 367 369 370  Production Occupations  Metalworking and plastics-working occupations Boilermakers................................................................................. Jewelers......................................................................................... Machinists..................................................................................... Metalworking and plastics-working machine operators............... Numerical-control machine-tool operators................................... Tool and die makers...................................................................... Welders, cutters, and welding machine operators.........................  377 378 380 381 384 385 387  Plant and systems operators Electric power generating plant operators and power distributors and dispatchers..................................... 389 Stationary engineers...................................................................... 390 Water and wastewater treatment plant operators.......................... 391 Printing occupations Prepress workers........................................................................... 394 Printing press operators................................................................ 396 Bindery workers............................................................................ 398 Textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations Apparel workers............................................................................ Shoe and leather workers and repairers........................................ Textile machinery operators......................................................... Upholsterers..................................................................................  400 402 403 405  Woodworking occupations........................................................ 406 Miscellaneous production occupations Dental laboratory technicians....................................................... Ophthalmic laboratory technicians............................................... Painting and coating machine operators....................................... Photographic process workers......................................................  408 410 411 413  Transportation and Material Moving Occupations Busdrivers..................................................................................... Material moving equipment operators.......................................... Rail transportation occupation...................................................... Truckdrivers.................................................................................. Water transportation occupations..................................................  415 417 419 421 424  Assemblers Precision assemblers...................................................................... 372 Blue-collar worker supervisors ................................................ 373 Food processing occupations Butchers and meat, poultry, and fish cutters................................. 375 Inspectors, testers, and graders................................................ 376  viii   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers, and Laborers............................................................................ 426 Job Opportunities in the Armed Forces...........................428  Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook The Occupational Outlook Handbook describes about 250 occupa­ tions in detail—covering about 107 million jobs, or 87 percent of all jobs in the Nation. Occupations that require lengthy education or training are given more attention. In addition, summary information on 80 occupations—accounting for another 4 percent of all jobs—is presented in the chapter beginning on page 433. The remaining 9 per­ cent of all jobs are mainly residual categories—such as all other man­ agement support workers—for which little meaningful information could be developed. The Handbook is best used as a reference; it is not meant to be read from cover to cover. Instead, start by exploring the table of contents, where related occupations are grouped in clusters, or look in the alphabetical index at the end of the Handbook for specific occupa­ tions that interest you or sound familiar. This introductory chapter explains how the occupational descriptions, or statements, are orga­ nized. The next two chapters, Leads to More Information and Tomor­ row’s Jobs, tell you where to go for more information and discuss the forces that are likely to affect employment opportunities in industries and occupations through the year 2005. For any occupation that sounds interesting to you, use the Hand­ book to find out what the work is like; what education and training you need; what the advancement possibilities, earnings, and job out­ look are; and what related occupations you might consider. Each occupational statement in the Handbook follows a standard format, making it easier for you to compare occupations. What follows is a description of each section of a Handbook statement, plus some hints to interpret the information provided. About Those Numbers at the Beginning of Each Statement The numbers in parentheses that appear just below the title of most occupational statements are the Fourth Edition Dictionary of Occupational Titles (D.O.T.), 1977, and its 1986 Supplement— U.S. Department of Labor publications. Each number classifies the occupation by the type of work, required training, physical demands, and working conditions. D.O.T. numbers are used pri­ marily by State employment service offices to classify applicants and job openings. They are included in the Handbook because some career information centers and libraries use them for filing occupational information. A Revised Fourth Edition of the D.O.T. was published in late-1991—too late for information contained in it to be incorporated in the occupational statements. An index at the back of this book beginning on page 444 oross-references the Revised Fourth Edition D.O.T. numbers to occupations covered in the Handbook. Nature of the Work This section explains what workers typically do on the job, what tools or equipment they use, how closely they are supervised, the end prod­ uct of their efforts, and how much variety there is in their daily rou­ tine. Technological innovations that are changing what workers do or how they do it, as well as emerging specialties also are described here. Responsibilities of workers in the same occupation usually vary by employer, industry, and size of firm. In small organizations, for exam­ ple, workers generally perform a wider range of duties because the resources for specialization simply do not exist. In addition, most occupations have several levels of skill and responsibility. Beginners or those with little formal training may start as trainees, performing  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  routine tasks under close supervision. Experienced workers perform more difficult duties, with greater independence, while the most skilled and senior workers perform the most difficult and responsible jobs. Working Conditions This section describes work hours, the physical environment, work­ ers’ susceptibility to injury and illness, and protective clothing and safety equipment that commonly are worn. In many occupations, people usually work regular business hours—40 hours a week, morn­ ings and afternoons, Monday through Friday. Others may work nights or weekends, or more than 40 hours—periodically or on a regular basis. Some workers have a degree of freedom in determining their hours—in occupations that lend themselves to temporary work or self-employment, for example. Many jobs are performed in pleasant surroundings, while others are in dirty, noisy, dangerous, or stressful ones. Workers may move around a lot or work in a confined space, with varying degrees of physical exertion. Some jobs require outdoor work or extensive travel. A growing number of employers require drug testing. Employment This section reports how many jobs this occupation provided in 1990, and in what industries they were found. Where significant, it also dis­ cusses the geographic distribution of jobs, the proportion of workers in the occupation who worked part time (fewer than 35 hours a week), and the proportion who were self-employed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement You can be trained for jobs in high schools, colleges, postsecondary vocational schools (both public and private), home study courses, government training programs, the Armed Forces, apprenticeships and other formal training programs offered by employers, or infor­ mally on the job. In most occupations, there are various ways to get training. This section identifies the different ways, and indicates the most common or the type generally preferred by employers. It lists high school and college courses considered useful preparation for a job, discusses the nature and length of the training or education pro­ gram, and reveals if continuing education is required to maintain the position. Remember, the amount of training you have often deter­ mines the level at which you enter an occupation and how quickly you may advance. For entry level jobs in many occupations covered in the Handbook, employers do not require specific formal training but instead look for other qualifications. They hire people with good general skills and the proven ability to learn, then give them the specific training need­ ed to do the job. Employers want people who read, write, and speak well; compute accurately; get along with others; and have good work habits. They may require a high school diploma or college degree as evidence of good general skills. Handbook statements also list other desirable aptitudes and personal characteristics—for example, mechanical aptitude, manual dexterity, patience, accuracy, and ability to work as part of a team or without close supervision. This section also indicates whether a certificate, examination, or license is required for entry into the field or for independent practice, and if it is helpful for advancement. It also describes typical paths of advancement within the occupation and patterns of movement or advancement to other occupations. Job Outlook This section identifies the factors that will affect employment in the occupation through the year 2005. How will defense spending, tech­ 1  2  Occupational Outlook Handbook  nological advances, changing business practices, or shifting popula­ tion patterns affect the demand for workers? The projections of job outlook presented in the Handbook are based on a reasonable set of assumptions about how the economy is likely to change between 1990 and 2005. After studying economic trends, how industries currently operate, and the directions in which they are moving, the number, distribution, and composition of jobs in 2005 were projected. Of course, no one can predict with certainty all the economic, political, social, and technological forces that will ulti­ mately affect employment growth and job prospects in the future. A summary of the assumptions and methods used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in making employment projections is presented on page 440. A detailed description is presented in Outlook: 1990-2005, BLS Bulletin 2402. If an occupation grows rapidly, it obviously will provide more openings than if it grows slowly. Moreover, the strong demand for talent in a rapidly growing occupation generally improves chances for advancement and mobility. Keep in mind that slow-growing occu­ pations, if large, also provide many job openings. The need to replace workers who transfer occupations or leave the labor force creates most job openings in many occupations, regardless of the rate of growth. Large occupations generally have more replacement open­ ings than small ones. Those with low pay and status, few training requirements, and a high proportion of young, old, or part-time work­ ers generally have more turnover than ones with high pay and status, lengthy training requirements, and many prime-working-age, full­ time workers. Besides describing projected employment change, this section also may discuss the degree of competition for jobs that applicants are likely to encounter. How easy or hard will it be to get a job in this field? Does the occupation attract many more jobseekers than there are openings to be filled? Do opportunities vary by industry, size of firm, or geographic location? The accompanying figure explains what key phrases used to describe projected employment change mean. It also explains the terms used to describe the relationship between the number of job openings and the number of jobseekers.  Understandably, individuals might want to enter an occupation or specialty or locate in a geographic area that has fewer qualified work­ ers than jobs because under these shortage conditions, jobseekers generally can choose from more job offers, expect higher salaries, and advance faster. Keep in mind, however, that even in occupations with a rough balance of jobseekers and openings, almost all qualified applicants can usually find jobs. On the other hand, when there are surpluses of workers, applicants may have to search for a longer time, accept a less desirable offer, find a job in another occupation, or face extended unemployment. But since job openings do exist even in overcrowded fields, good students or well-qualified individuals should not be deterred from undertaking training or seeking entry. Some statements discuss job security—workers in some occupa­ tions are more likely than workers in other occupations to keep or lose their jobs during recessions or government budget cuts, or when new technologies are introduced. Finally, it is possible that opportunities in your community or State are better or worse than those described in the Handbook, which dis­ cusses opportunities in the Nation as a whole. Therefore, it is impor­ tant to check with local sources. (See the chapter on Leads to More Information beginning on page 4, and the list of State and local agen­ cies, beginning on page 441.) Earnings This section indicates how much workers in the occupation generally earn. Earnings are based on several types of pay plans. Some workers are paid a straight annual salary. Some receive an hourly wage for the hours they work, commissions based on a percentage of what they sell, or a piece rate for each item they produce. Others receive tips for services to customers. Workers also may be paid a combination of a salary or hourly wage, plus bonus, piecework, or tips. Most workers also receive employer-paid benefits such as paid vacations and holidays, life and health insurance, and pensions. Some also get stock options, profit-sharing plans, savings plans, tuition assistance, and bonuses. Workers in many occupations also may receive discounts on merchandise, meals and housing, reduced travel  Jobs within occupations differ in complexity and pay varies accordingly.  Key Phrases in the Handbook Changing employment between 1990 and 2005 If the statement reads...  Employment is projected to...  Grow much faster than the average Grow faster than the average Grow about as fast as the average Grow more slowly than the average Show little change  Increase 35 percent or more  Decline  3rd quartile  $100,000  Increase 25 to 34 percent  $90,000  Increase 14 to 24 percent  $80,000  Increase 5 to 13 percent  $70,000  Increase or decrease 4 percent or less Decrease 5 percent or more  $60,000  Opportunities and competition for jobs If the statement reads...  Job openings compared to jobseekers may be...  Excellent opportunities Very good opportunities Good or favorable opportunities May face competition May face keen competition  Much more numerous More numerous About the same   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Range of annual salaries for middle 50 percent of employees in each level, March 1990  Fewer Much fewer  Median 1st quartile  $50,000 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 I II III IV V VIVIIVIII Engineers Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  I II III IV V Engineering technicians  I II III IV V Drafters  Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook  Half of all pharmacists earned between Percent distribution of full-time salaried pharmacists, 1990. Median A $41,300  3rd quartile $46,700 1st quartile $35,200  9th decile $52,400  1st decile $25,200  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  fares, business expense accounts, use of a company car, or assistance with childcare. About 13 percent of all workers were self-employed in 1990. Their earnings vary more than those of workers on wages or salaries and, unlike most wage and salary workers, they pay for their own benefits. Within every occupation, earnings of workers vary depending on experience, level of responsibility, performance, industry, amount of unionization, and geographic area. Earnings generally are higher in cities than in rural areas, and vary by geographic region. Keep in mind that the geographic areas where earnings are higher often are those in which living costs also are higher.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3  The level of responsibility that goes with a job affects earnings, too. The accompanying bar chart shows annual salaries for eight lev­ els of engineers, five levels of engineering technicians, and five lev­ els of drafters. These reflect different work levels, starting with entry level jobs and continuing up the career ladder to more complex and responsible supervisory positions. Therefore, it is not always accurate to say that all people in one occupation earn more than those in another. We can say that the average is higher or that the middle range of earnings is higher, but there is usually some overlap. Many Handbook statements cite Current Population Survey (CPS) data. They show the median earnings of full-time salaried (but not self-employed) workers in 1990. (The median is the midpoint—half earned more than this and half earned less.) They generally also give the range of earnings of the middle 50 percent of workers, and earn­ ings of the lowest and highest 10 percent. The accompanying chart, based on CPS data, shows the earnings distribution of pharmacists in 1990. The shaded area under the curve indicates that the median was $41,300, with one-half earning between $35,200 and $46,700. The lowest 10 percent earned under $25,500, while the highest 10 per­ cent earned more than $52,400. You can compare CPS earnings data between occupations or to the average for all occupations. The medi­ an for all full-time wage and salary workers in 1990 was $21,600; the middle 50 percent earned between $14,700 and $31,800; the highest 10 percent earned $45,200 or more, the lowest 10 percent, $10,600 or less. Some statements include earnings data from sources other than the CPS. The characteristics of these data vary, making it difficult to compare earnings precisely among occupations. Related Occupations When you find an occupation that appeals to you, also explore the jobs listed in this section. These occupations usually involve similar aptitudes, interests, and education and training. Sources of Additional Information This section lists names and addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that provide useful informa­ tion on the occupation. For some occupations, this section also refers you to free or relatively inexpensive publications that offer more information. These publications also may be available in libraries, school career centers, or guidance offices. (For additional sources of information, read the next chapter, Leads to More Information.)  Leads To More Information This chapter describes many other ways to find information about occupations, counseling, education and training, financial aid, and finding a job. Also, look at the end of each occupational statement in the Handbook, under Sources of Additional Information, for organi­ zations you can contact to obtain information about that particular occupation. Career Information A good place to start collecting information you need is from the peo­ ple closest to you, your family and friends. These personal contacts are often overlooked, but can be extremely helpful. They may be able to answer your questions directly or, more importantly, put you in touch with someone else who can. This “networking” can lead to an “informational interview,” where you can meet with someone who is willing to answer your questions about a career or a company, and who can provide inside information on related fields and other help­ ful hints. This is a highly effective way to learn the recommended type of training for certain positions, how someone in that position entered and advanced, and what he or she likes and dislikes about the work. While developing your network of contacts, you may want to begin exploring other avenues. Public libraries, career centers, and guidance offices have a great deal of career material. To begin your library search, look in the card catalog or at the computer listings under “vocations” or “careers” and then under specific fields. Also, leaf through the file of pamphlets that describe employment in different organizations. Check the periodicals section, where you will find trade and profes­ sional magazines and journals about specific occupations and indus­ tries. Familiarize yourself with the concerns and activities of potential employers by skimming their annual reports and other information they distribute to the public. You can also find occupational information on video cassettes, in kits, and through computerized information systems. Check career centers for programs such as individual counseling, group discus­ sions, guest speakers, field trips, and career days. Always assess career guidance materials carefully. Information should be current. Beware of materials produced by schools for recruitment purposes that seem to glamorize the occupation, overstate the earnings, or exaggerate the demand for workers. You may wish to seek help from a counselor. Counselors are trained to help you discover your strengths and weaknesses, guide you through an evaluation of your goals and values, and help you determine what you want in a career. The counselor will not tell you what to do, but will administer interest inventories and aptitude tests, interpret the results, and help you explore your options. Counselors also may be able to discuss local job markets, and the entry require­ ments and costs of the schools, colleges, or training programs offer­ ing preparation for the kind of work that interests you. You can find counselors in: — high school guidance offices, — college career planning and placement offices, — placement offices in private vocational/technical schools and institutions, — vocational rehabilitation agencies, — counseling services offered by community organizations, — private counseling agencies and private practices, — State employment service offices affiliated with the U.S. Employment Service. Before employing the services of a private counselor or agency, seek recommendations and check their credentials. The International Association of Counseling Services (IACS) accredits counseling ser­ vices throughout the country. To receive the listing of accredited ser­ 4   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  vices for your region, send a self-addressed, stamped, business-size envelope to IACS, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 211, Alexandria, VA 22304. The Directory of Counseling Services, an IACS publication providing employment counseling and other assistance, may be avail­ able in your library or school career counseling center. For a list of certified career counselors by State, contact the National Board of Certified Counselors, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27435. Phone: (919) 547-0607. Professional societies, trade associations, labor unions, business firms, and educational institutions provide a variety of free or inex­ pensive career material. Many of these are identified in the Sources of Additional Information section of each Handbook statement. For information on occupations not covered in the Handbook, consult directories in your library’s reference section for the names of poten­ tial sources. You may need to start with The Guide to American Directories or The Directory of Directories. Another useful resource is The Encyclopedia of Associations, an annual multivolume publica­ tion listing trade associations, professional societies, labor unions, and fraternal and patriotic organizations. The National Audiovisual Center, a central source for all audiovi­ sual material produced by the U.S. Government, rents and sells mate­ rial on jobs and careers. For a catalog, contact the National Audiovisual Center, 8700 Edgeworth Dr., Capitol Heights, MD 20743. Phone: (301) 763-1896. For first-hand experience in an occupation, you may wish to intern, or take a summer or part-time job. Some internships offer academic credit or pay a stipend. Check with guidance offices, college career resource centers, or directly with employers. State and Local Information The Handbook provides information for the Nation as a whole. For help in locating State or local area information, contact your State occupational information coordinating committee (SOICC). These committees may provide the information directly, or refer you to other sources. Refer to the chapter beginning on page 000 for addresses and telephone numbers of the SOICC’s. Most States have career information delivery systems (CIDS). Look for these systems in secondary schools, postsecondary institutions, libraries, job training sites, vocational rehabilitation centers, and employment service offices. Jobseekers can use the systems’ comput­ ers, printed material, microfiche, and toll-free hotlines to obtain infor­ mation on occupations, educational opportunities, student financial aid, apprenticeships, and military careers. Ask counselors and SOICC’s for specific locations. State employment security agencies develop detailed information about local labor markets, such as current and projected employment by occupation and industry, characteristics of the work force, and changes in State and local area economic activity. Addresses and tele­ phone numbers of the directors of research and analysis in these agencies are listed in the chapter beginning on page 000. Education and Training Information Check with professional and trade associations for lists of schools that offer career preparation in a particular field. The Sources of Additional Information section of many Handbook statements directs you to organizations that can provide training information. Refer to various directories, such as those that follow, for descrip­ tions of courses of study, admissions requirements, expenses, and stu­ dent financial aid information for colleges, universities, and other training institutions. Guidance offices, libraries, and large bookstores usually carry copies. Be sure to use the most recent edition because these directories are revised frequently. Guidance offices and libraries also have collections of college catalogs that list their specific pro­ grams, requirements, and expenses.  Leads To More Information  The Directory of Educational Institutions, published annually, lists schools accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Independent Colleges and Schools of the Career College Association. Most of these institutions are business schools, offering programs such as sec­ retarial science, business administration, accounting, data processing, court reporting, paralegal studies, fashion merchandising, travel and tourism, culinary arts, drafting, and electronics. The Career College Association also distributes the Handbook of Accredited Private Trade and Technical Schools, which lists schools accredited by the Accrediting Commision for Trade and Technical Schools. For copies of these directories, write to the Career College Association, 750 1st St. NE„ Washington, DC 20002. Phone: (202) 659-2460. Information about home study programs appears in the Directory of Accredited Home Study Schools, published by the National Home Study Council. Send requests for the Directory, as well as a list of other publications, to the National Home Study Council, 1601 18th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20009. Phone: (202) 234-5100. Local labor unions, school guidance counselors, and State employ­ ment offices provide information about apprenticeships. Copies of The National Apprenticeship Program and Apprenticeship Informa­ tion are available from the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 535-0545. Financial Aid Information Information about financial aid is available from a variety of sources. Contact your high school guidance counselor and college financial aid officer for information concerning scholarships, fellowships, grants, loans, and work-study programs. In addition, every State administers financial aid programs; contact State Departments of Education for information. Banks and credit unions can provide information about student loans. You also may want to study the directories and guides to sources of student financial aid available in guidance offices and public libraries. The Federal Government provides grants, loans, work-study pro­ grams, and other benefits to students. Information about programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education is presented in The Student Guide to Federal Financial Aid Programs, updated annually. To get a copy, write to Federal Student Aid Programs, P.O. Box 84, Washington, DC 20044, or phone, toll-free, 1-800-433-3243. Meeting College Costs, an annual publication of the College Board, explains how student financial aid works and how to apply for it. The current edition is available to high school students through guidance counselors. Need a Lift?, an annual publication of the American Legion, con­ tains career and scholarship information. Single copies may be obtained without charge by calling (317) 635-8411. Multiple copies cost $2 each, prepaid (including postage), and can be obtained from the American Legion, Attn: National Emblem Sales, 700 N. Pennsyl­ vania St., P.O. Box 1055, Indianapolis, IN 46204. Some student aid programs are designed to assist specific groups— Hispanics, blacks, native Americans, or women, for example. Higher Education Opportunities for Minorities and Women, published by the U.S. Department of Education, is a guide to organizations offering assistance. This publication can be found in libraries and guidance offices, or may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information. The Armed Forces have several educational assistance programs. These include the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC), the New G.I. bill, and tuition assistance. Information can be obtained from military recruiting centers, located in most cities. Information on Finding a Job It takes some people a great deal of time and effort to find a job they enjoy. Others may walk right into an ideal employment situation. Don’t be discouraged if you have to pursue many leads. Friends, neighbors, teachers, and counselors may know of available jobs in your field of interest. Read the want ads. Consult State employment  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  5  service offices and private or nonprofit employment agencies or con­ tact employers directly. Where To Learn About Job Openings • State employment service offices • Civil service announcements (Federal, State, local) • Classified ads —Local and out-of-town newspapers —Professional journals —Trade magazines • Labor unions • Professional associations (State and local chapters) • Libraries and community centers • Women’s counseling and employment programs • Youth programs • School or college placement services • Employment agencies and career consultants • Employers • Parents, friends, and neighbors Tips for Finding the Right Job, a U.S. Department of Labor pam­ phlet, offers advice on determining your job skills, organizing your job search, writing a resume, and making the most of an interview. Check with your State employment service office, or order a copy from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information. Getting Back to Work, another Department of Labor publication, is designed to assist laid off workers, in particular. It also provides information on searching for and landing a job, in addition to detailed information on 250 occupations that are most likely to require the skills of displaced workers. This booklet is available in most State employment service offices, or may be obtained, free of charge, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Employment Projections, 600 E St. NW., Room 9216, Washington, DC 20212. Phone: (202) 272-5381. Informal job search methods. It is possible to apply directly to employers without a referral. You may locate a potential employer in the Yellow Pages, in directories of local chambers of commerce, and in other directories that provide information about employers. When you find an employer you are interested in, you can file an applica­ tion even if you don’t know for certain that an opening exists. Want ads. The “Help Wanted” ads in newspapers list hundreds of jobs. Realize, however, that many job openings are not listed there. Also, be aware that the classified ads sometimes do not give some important information. Many offer little or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some ads do not identify the employer. They may simply give a post office box for sending your resume. This makes followup inquiries very difficult. Furthermore, some ads offer out-of-town jobs; others advertise employment agencies rather than employment. Keep the following in mind if you are using want ads: — Do not rely solely on the classifieds to find a job; follow other leads as well. — Answer ads promptly, since openings may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops appearing in the paper. — Follow the ads diligently. Check them every day, as early as possible, to give yourself an advantage. — Beware of “no experience necessary” ads. These ads often signal low wages, poor working conditions, or straight commission work. — Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded. Public employment service. The State employment service, some­ times called the Job Service, operates in coordination with the Labor Department’s U.S. Employment Service. About 1,700 local offices,  6  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Job Interview Tips Preparation: • Learn about the organization. • Have a specific job or jobs in mind. • Review your qualifications for the job. • Prepare answers to broad questions about yourself. • Review your resume. • Practice an interview with a friend or relative. • Arrive before the scheduled time of your interview. Personal Appearance: • Be well groomed. • Dress appropriately. • Do not chew gum or smoke. The Interview: • Answer each question concisely. • Respond promptly. • Use good manners. Learn the name of your interviewer and shake hands as you meet. • Use proper English and avoid slang. • Be cooperative and enthusiastic. • Ask questions about the position and the organization. • Thank the interviewer, and follow up with a letter. Test (if employer gives one): • Listen closely to instructions. • Read each question carefully. • Write legibly and clearly. • Budget your time wisely and don’t dwell on one question.  than 100 centers throughout the United States, helps young people learn skills or obtain education. Service centers also refer applicants to opportunities available under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982. JTPA pre­ pares economically disadvantaged persons and those facing barriers to employment for jobs. Call the Federal Job Information Center, operated by the Office of Personnel Management, for information about employment with the U.S. Government. The phone number is (202) 606-2700, or write to Federal Job Information Center, 1900 E St. NW., Room 1416, Wash­ ington, DC 20415. Private employment agencies. These agencies can be very help­ ful, but don’t forget that they are in business to make money. Most agencies operate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon a successful match. You or the hiring company will have to pay a fee for the matching service. Find out the exact cost and who is responsi­ ble for paying it before using the service. While employment agencies can help you save time and contact employers who otherwise may be difficult to locate, in some cases, your costs may outweigh the benefits. Consider any guarantee they offer when figuring the cost. What Goes Into a Resume A resume summarizes your qualifications and employment histo­ ry. It usually is required when applying for managerial, adminis­ trative, professional, or technical positions. Although there is no set format, it should contain the following information:  Information To Bring to an Interview: • Social Security number. • Driver’s license number. • Resume. Although not all employers require applicants to bring a resume, you should be able to furnish the interviewer with information about your education, training, and previous employment. • Usually an employer requires three references. Get permission from people before using their names, and make sure they will give you a good reference. Try to avoid using relatives. For each reference, provide the following information: Name, address, telephone number, and job title.  • Name, address, and telephone number. • Employment objective. State the type of work or specific job you are seeking. • Education, including school name and address, dates of atten­ dance, curriculum, and highest grade completed or degree awarded. • Experience, paid or volunteer. Include the following for each job: Job title, name and address of employer, and dates of employment. Describe your job duties. • Special skills, knowledge of machinery, proficiency in foreign languages, honors received, awards, or membership in organi­ zations. • Note on your resume that “references are available upon request.” On a separate sheet, list the name, address, telephone number, and job title of three references.  also known as employment service centers, help jobseekers locate employment and help employers find qualified workers at no cost to themselves. To find the office nearest you, look in the State govern­ ment telephone listings under “Job Service” or “Employment.” Job matching and referral. At a State employment service office, an interviewer will determine if you are “job ready” or if counseling and testing services would be helpful before you begin your job search. After you are “job ready,” you may examine the Job Bank, a computerized listing of public- and private-sector job openings that is updated daily. Select openings that interest you, then get more details from a staff member who can describe the job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers. Counseling and testing. Centers can test for occupational aptitudes and interests and then help you choose and prepare for a career. Services for special groups. By law, veterans are entitled to priority at State employment service centers. Veterans’ employment represen­ tatives can inform you of available assistance and help you deal with any problems. Summer Youth Programs provide summer jobs in city, county, and State government agencies for low-income youth. Students, school dropouts, or graduates entering the labor market who are between 16 and 21 years of age are eligible. In addition, the Job Corps, with more  College career planning and placement offices. College place­ ment offices facilitate matching job openings with suitable jobseek­ ers. You can set up schedules and use available facilities for interviews with recruiters or scan lists of part-time, temporary, and summer jobs maintained in many of these offices. You also can get counseling, testing, and job search advice and take advantage of their career resource library. Here you also will be able to identify and evaluate your interests, work values, and skills; attend workshops on such topics as job search strategy, resume writing, letter writing, and effective interviewing; critique drafts of resumes and videotapes of mock interviews; explore files of resumes and references; and attend job fairs conducted by the office. Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations offer coun­ seling, career development, and job placement services, generally tar­ geted to a particular group, such as women, youth, minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers. Many communities have career counseling, training, placement, and support services for employment. These programs are sponsored by a variety of organizations, including churches and synagogues, nonprofit organizations, social service agencies, the State employ­ ment service, and vocational rehabilitation agencies. Many cities have commissions that provide services for these special groups.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Leads To More Information  Organizations for Specific Groups The organizations listed below provide information on career plan­ ning, training, or public policy support for specific groups. Disabled: President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, 1331 F St. NW., 3rd Floor, Washington, DC 20004. Phone: (202) 376-6200. The blind: Job Opportunities for the Blind Program, National Fed­ eration for the Blind, 1800 Johnson St., Baltimore, MD 21230. Phone: toll-free, 1-800-638-7518. Minorities: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 4805 Mount Hope Dr., Baltimore, MD 21215­ 3297. Phone: (212) 358-8900. National Urban League, Employment Department, 500 E. 62nd St., New York, NY 10021. Phone: (301) 310-9000. National Urban League, Washington Operations, 1111 14th St. NW., 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 898-1604. Older workers: National Association of Older Workers Employ­ ment Services, c/o National Council on the Aging, 409 3rd St. SW., Suite 2000, Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202) 479-1200. American Association of Retired Persons, Worker Equity, 601 E St. NW., Floor A5, Washington, DC 20049. Phone: (202) 434-2040. Asociacion Nacional Por Personas Mayores (National Association for Hispanic Elderly), 2727 W. 6th St., Suite 270, Los Angeles, CA 90057. Phone: (213) 487-1922. This organization specifically serves low-income, minority older persons. National Caucus/Center on Black Aged, Inc., 1424 K St. NW.,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  7  Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 637-8400. Veterans: Contact the nearest regional office of the Veterans Administration. Women: U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, 200 Consti­ tution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 523-6652. Catalyst, 250 Park Ave. South, 5th floor, New York, NY 10003. Phone: (212) 777-8900. (Ask for the free referral pamphlet called Career Development Resources.) Wider Opportunities for Women, 1325 G St. NW., Lower Level, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 638-3143. Federal laws, executive orders, and selected Federal grant pro­ grams bar discrimination in employment based on race, color, reli­ gion, sex, national origin, age, and handicap. Information on how to file a charge of discrimination is available from U.S. Equal Employ­ ment Opportunity Commission offices around the country, Their addresses and telephone numbers are listed in telephone directories under U.S. Government, EEOC, or are available from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1801 L St. NW., Washington, DC 20507. Phone: (202) 663-4264. Information on Federal laws concerning fair labor standards such as the minimum wage and equal employment opportunity can be obtained from the Office of Information and Consumer Affairs, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room C-4331, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 523-8743.  Tomorrow’s Jobs Every 2 years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics develops projections of the labor force, economic growth, industry output and employment, and occupational employment under three sets of alternative assump­ tions. These projections usually cover a 10- to 15-year period and pro­ vide a framework for the discussion of job outlook in each occupational statement in the Handbook. All of the approximately 250 statements in this edition of the Handbook identify the principal factors affecting job prospects and indicate how these factors are expected to affect the occupation in the future. This chapter uses the moderate alternative of each projection to provide a framework for the individual job outlook discussions. Population Trends Population trends affect employment opportunities in a number of ways. First of all, changes in the size and composition of the popula­ tion influence the demand for goods and services—for example, the population aged 85 and over will grow more than three times as fast as the total population between 1990 and 2005, increasing the demand for health services. Equally important, population changes produce corre­ sponding changes in the size and characteristics of the labor force. The U.S. civilian noninstitutional population, aged 16 and over, is expected to grow more slowly over the next 15 years than it did during the previous 15-year period, increasing from about 188 million to 218 million. However, even slower population growth will increase the demand for goods and services, as well as the demand for workers in many occupations and industries. The age structure will shift toward relatively fewer children and youth and a growing proportion of middle-aged and older people well into the 21st century. The decline in the proportion of children and youth reflects the lower birth rates that prevailed during the 1970’s and 1980’s; the impending large increase in the middle-aged population reflects the aging of the “baby boom’ generation bom after World War II; and the very rapid growth in the number of old people is attributable to high birth rates prior to the Great Depression of the 1930’s, together with improvements in medical technology that have made it possible for most Americans to survive into old age. Minorities and immigrants will constitute a larger share of the U.S. population in 2005 than they do today. Substantial increases in the number of Hispanics, Asians, and blacks are anticipated, reflecting net immigration, and higher birth rates among blacks and Hispanics. Sub­ stantial inflows of immigrants, both documented and undocumented, are expected to continue. The arrival of immigrants from every comer of the world has significant implications for the labor force, because immigrants tend to be of working age but of different educational and occupational backgrounds than the U.S. population as a whole. Population growth varies greatly among geographic regions, affect­ ing the demand for goods and services and, in turn, workers in various occupations and industries. Between 1980 and 1990, the population of the Midwest and the Northeast grew by only 1.4 percent and 3.4 per­ cent, respectively, compared with 13.4 percent in the South and 22.2 percent in the West. These differences reflect the movement of people seeking new jobs or retiring, as well as higher birth rates in some areas than in others. Projections by the Bureau of the Census indicate that the West will continue to be the fastest growing region, increasing about 19 percent between 1990 and 2005. In the South, the population is expected to increase about 15 percent. The number of people in the Northeast is projected to increase slightly, by about 4 percent, while the Midwest population is expected to remain about the same. Geographic shifts in the population alter the demand for and the supply of workers in local job markets. Moreover, in areas dominated by one or two industries, local job markets may be extremely sensitive to the economic fortunes of those industries. For these and other rea­ sons, local employment opportunities may differ substantially from the 8   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  projections for the Nation as a whole presented in the Handbook. Sources of information on State and local employment prospects are identified on page 441. Labor Force Trends Population is the single most important factor governing the size and composition of the labor force, which includes people who are work­ ing, or looking for work. The civilian labor force totaled 125 million in 1990 and is expected to reach 151 million by 2005. This projected increase—21 percent—represents a slowdown in both the number added to the labor force and the rate of labor force growth, largely due to slower population growth (chart 1). America’s workers will be an increasingly diverse group as we approach the year 2005. White non-Hispanic men will make up a smaller share of the labor force, and women and minority group mem­ bers will comprise a larger share than in 1990. White non-Hispanics have historically been the largest component of the labor force, but their share has been dropping and is expected to fall from 79 percent in 1990, to 73 percent by 2005. Whites are projected to grow more slowly than blacks, Asians, and others, but will experience the largest numeri­ cal increase. Hispanics will add about 7 million workers to the labor force from 1990 to 2005, increasing by 75 percent. Despite this dra­ matic growth, Hispanics’ share of the labor force will only increase from 8 percent to 11 percent, as shown in chart 2. Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian and other racial groups will account for roughly 35 percent of all labor force entrants between 1990 and 2005. Women will continue to join the labor force in growing numbers. The number of women in the labor force will increase faster than the total labor force, but more slowly than between 1975 and 1990. In the late 1980’s, the labor force participation of women under age 40 began to increase more slowly than in the past, in part because of the increas-  Chart 1.  Labor force will slow in the future due to slowing population growth.  Percent change in labor force  1975-1990 1990-2005  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Tomorrow’s Jobs Chart 2.  Distribution of the labor force by race and Hispanic origin.  Asian and other 100  percent  Hispanic  8  percent  Black  11  1990  11 percent  12  percent  79 percent  percent  /  percent  White, non-Hispanic  73 percent  2005  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  es in births that have occurred in recent years. Nevertheless, women were only 40 percent of the labor force in 1975; by 2005, they are expected to constitute 47 percent. The changing age structure of the population will directly affect tomorrow’s labor force. As the proportion of young workers declines, the pool of experienced workers will increase (chart 3). In 1990, the median age of the labor force was 36.6 years; by 2005, it will be 40.6 years. Between 1975 and 1990, the youth labor force (16 to 24 years of age) dropped by 1.4 million, a 6-percent decline. In contrast, the num­ ber of youths in the labor force will increase by 2.8 million over the 1990-2005 period, reflecting an increase of 13 percent, still growing more slowly than the total labor force. As a result, young people are expected to comprise a slightly smaller percentage of the labor force in 2005 than in 1990. Among youths, the teenage labor force (16 to 19 years of age) will increase by 18 percent over the 1990-2005 period, a numerical increase of 1.4 million. The labor force 20 to 24 years of age is projected to increase by 10 percent, also a numerical increase of 1.4 million. The total youth labor force accounted for 24 percent of the entire labor force in 1975, fell to 17 percent in 1990, and should decline further to 16 percent by 2005. The scenario should be different for prime-age workers (25 to 54 years of age). The baby boom generation will continue to add members to the labor force, but their share of the labor force peaked in 1985. These workers accounted for 61 percent of the labor force in 1975, and rose significantly to 71 percent in 1990, but should decline slightly to 69 percent by 2005. The growing proportion of workers between the ages of 45 and 54 is particularly striking. These workers should account for 24 percent of the labor force by the year 2005, up from 16 percent in 1990. Because workers in their mid-forties to mid-fifties usually have substantial work experience and tend to be more stable than younger workers, this could result in improved productivity and a larger pool of experienced applicants from which employers may choose. The number of older workers, aged 55 and above, is projected to grow about twice as fast as the total labor force between 1990 and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  9  2005, and about five times as fast as the number of workers aged 55 and above grew between 1975 and 1990. As the baby boomers grow older, the number of workers aged 55 to 64 will increase; they exhibit higher labor force participation than their older counterparts. By 2005, workers aged 55 and over will comprise 15 percent of the labor force, up from 12 percent in 1990. In recent years, the level of educational attainment of the labor force has risen dramatically. Between 1975 and 1990, the proportion of the labor force aged 25 to 64 with at least 1 year of college increased from 33 to 47 percent, while the proportion with 4 years of college or more increased from 18 to 26 percent (chart 4). Projected rates of employ­ ment growth are faster for occupations requiring higher levels of edu­ cation or training than for those requiring less. The emphasis on education will continue. Three out of the 4 fastest .growing occupational groups will be executive, administrative, and managerial; professional specialty; and technicians and related support occupations. These occupations generally require the highest levels of education and skill, and will make up an increasing proportion of new jobs. Office and factory automation, changes in consumer demand, and substitution of imports for domestic products are expected to cause employment to stagnate or decline in many occupations that require lit­ tle formal education—apparel workers and textile machinery opera­ tors, for example. Opportunities for high school dropouts will be increasingly limited, and workers who cannot read and follow direc­ tions may not even be considered for most jobs. Employed high school dropouts are more likely to have low paying jobs with little advancement potential, while workers in occupations requiring higher levels of education have higher incomes. In addition, many of the occupations projected to grow most rapidly between 1990 and 2005 are among those with higher earnings. Nevertheless, even slower growing occupations that have a large number of workers will provide many job openings resulting from the need to replace workers who leave the labor force or transfer to other occupations. Consequently, workers with all levels of education and training will continue to be in demand, although advancement opportu­ nities will be best for those with the most education and training.  Chart 3.  The age distribution of the labor force is changing. (percent)  55 years and over  35 to 54 years  25 to 34 years  16 to 24 years  1975 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  1990  2005  10  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Chart 4  The proportion of workers between 25 and 64 years with a college background has increased substatially since the mid 1970's.  ✓n to 3 4 years years of : college j of college or more J5 percent! 18 percent  4 years of high school or less 67 percent  filial 21 percent  6 percent  53 percent  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Employment Change Total employment is expected to increase from 122.6 million in 1990 to 147.2 million in 2005, or by 20 percent. Reflecting a slowdown in labor force growth, this is only slightly more than half the rate of increase recorded during the previous 15-year period. The 24.6 million jobs that will be added to the U.S. economy by 2005 will not be evenly distributed across major industrial and occu­ pational groups—causing some restructuring of employment. Contin­ ued faster than average employment growth among occupations that require relatively high levels of eduction or training is expected. The following two sections examine projected employment change from both industrial and occupational perspectives. The industrial profile is discussed in terms of wage and salary employment, except for agri­ culture, forestry, and fishing, which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers. The occupational profile is viewed in terms of total employment (wage and salary, self-employed, and unpaid family workers). Industrial Profile The long-term shift from goods-producing to service-producing employment is expected to continue (chart 5). For example, ser­ vice-producing industries—including transportation, commun­ ications, and utilities; retail and wholesale trade; services; government; and finance, insurance, and real estate—are expected to account for approximately 23 million of the 24.6 million new jobs created by the year 2005. In addition, the services division within this sector—which includes health, business, and education­ al services—contains 16 of the 20 fastest growing industries, and 12 of the 20 industries adding the most jobs. Expansion of service sector employment is linked to a number of factors, including changes in consumer tastes and preferences, legal and regulatory changes, advances in science and technology, and changes in the way businesses are organized and managed. Specific factors responsible for varying growth prospects in major industry divi­ sions are discussed below.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Service-Producing Industries Services. Services is both the largest and the fastest growing division within the service-producing sector (chart 6). This division provided 38 million jobs in 1990; employment is expected to rise 34.7 percent to 50.5 million by 2005, accounting for almost one-half of all new jobs. Jobs will be found in small firms and in large corporations, in State and local governments, and in industries as diverse as banking, hospi­ tals, data processing, and management consulting. The two largest industry groups in this division, health services and business services, are projected to continue to grow very fast. In addition, social, legal, and engineering and management services industries further illustrate this division’s strong growth. Health care will continue to be one of the fastest growing industries in the economy. Employment in the health services industries is pro­ jected to grow from 8.9 to 12.8 million. Improvements in medical tech­ nology, and a growing and aging population will increase the demand for health services. Employment in home health care services—the fastest growing industry in the economy—nursing homes, and offices and clinics of physicians and other health practitioners is projected to increase the most rapidly throughout this period. However, not all health industries will grow at the same rapid rate. For example, hospi­ tals, both public and private, will continue to be the largest, but slowest growing health care industry. Business services industries also will generate many jobs. Employ­ ment is expected to grow from 5.2 million in 1990 to 7.6 million in 2005. Personnel supply services, made up primarily of temporary help agencies, is the largest sector in this group and will continue to add many jobs. However, due to the slowdown in labor force participation by young women, and the proliferation of personnel supply firms in recent years, this industry will grow more slowly than during the 1975­ 90 period, although still faster than the average for all industries. Busi­ ness services also includes one of the fastest growing industries in the economy—computer and data processing services. This industry’s rapid growth stems from advances in technology, world wide trends toward office and factory automation, and increases in demand from business firms, government agencies, and individuals.  Chart 5.  Industries providing services will account for about four out of five jobs by the year 2005. 132.6 million 109.4 million  "sT  107.4 \  \ million million  \  84.4 million  54.1 million  Service-producing  22,6 million  25 0 25.2 million SBKSa? million  Goods-producing 1975  1990  Non-farm wage and salary employment Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  2005  ^  Tomorrow’s Jobs  Education, both private and public, is expected to add 2.3 million jobs to the 9.4 million in 1990. This increase reflects population growth and, in turn, rising enrollments projected for elementary, sec­ ondary, and postsecondary schools. The elementary school age popula­ tion (ages 5-13) will rise by 3.8 million between 1990 and 2005, the secondary school age (14-17) by 3.2 million, and the traditional post­ secondary school age (18-24) by 1.4 million. In addition, continued rising enrollments of older, foreign, and part-time students are expect­ ed to enhance employment in postsecondary education. Not all of the increase in employment in education, however, will be for teachers; teacher aides, counselors, and administrative staff also are projected to increase. Employment in social services is expected to increase by 1.1 mil­ lion, bringing the total to 2.9 million by 2005, reflecting the growing elderly population. For example, residential care institutions, which provide around-the-clock assistance to older persons and others who have limited ability for self-care, is projected to be one of the fastest growing industries in the U.S. economy. Other social services industries that are projected to grow rapidly include child daycare services and individual and miscellaneous social services, which includes elderly daycare and family social services. Retail and wholesale trade. Employment in retail and wholesale trade is expected to rise by 26 and 16 percent, respectively; from 19.7 to 24.8 million in retail trade and from 6.2 to 7.2 million in wholesale trade. Guided by higher levels of personal income and continued increases in women’s labor force participation, the fastest projected job growth in retail trade is in apparel and accessory stores and eating and drinking establishments, with the latter employing the most workers in this sector. Substantial numerical increases in retail employment are anticipated in food stores, automotive dealers and service stations, and general merchandise stores. Finance, insurance, and real estate. Employment is expected to increase by 21 percent—adding 1.4 million jobs to the 1990 level of 6.7 million. The demand for financial products and services is expected to continue unabated, but bank mergers, consolidations, and closings— resulting from overexpansion and competition from nonbank corpora­ tions that offer bank-like services—are expected to limit job growth. The fastest growing industry within this sector is expected to be nonde­ pository holding and investment offices, which includes businesses that compete with banks, such as finance companies and mortgage brokers. Transportation, communications, and public utilities. Overall employment will increase by 15 percent. Employment in the trans­ portation sector is expected to increase by 25 percent, from 3.6 to 4.4 million jobs. Truck transportation will account for 47 percent of all new jobs; air transportation will account for 32 percent. The projected gains in transportation jobs reflect the continued shift from rail to road freight transportation, rising personal incomes, and growth in foreign trade. In addition, deregulation in the transportation industry has increased personal and business travel options, spurring strong job growth in the passenger transportation arrangement industry, which includes travel agencies. Reflecting laborsaving technology and indus­ try competition, employment in communications is projected to decline by 13 percent. Employment in utilities, however, is expected to grow about as fast as the average, adding 160,000 new jobs, highlight­ ed by one of the fastest growing industries in the economy—water supply and sanitary services. Government. Between 1990 and 2005, government employment, excluding public education and public hospitals, is expected to increase 14 percent, from 9.5 million to 10.8 million jobs. This growth will occur in State and local government; employment in the Federal Government is expected to decline by 31,000 jobs. Goods-Producing Industries Employment in this sector peaked in the late 1970’s, and has not recovered from the recessionary period of the early 1980’s and the trade imbalances that began in the mid-1980’s. Although overall employment in goods-producing industries is expected to show little change, growth prospects within the sector vary considerably. Construction. Construction, the only goods-producing industry pro­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chart 6.  11  Some industries will grow more rapidly than others. Percentage change in employment, 1990-20051 Service-producing □  Goods-producing  Wm i 9 SB  1 Wage and salary employment, except for agriculture, forestry and fishing, which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  jected to grow, is expected to add 923,000 jobs between 1990 and 2005. Construction employment is expected to increase by 18 percent, from 5.1 to 6.1 million. Increases in road and bridge construction will offset the slowdown in demand for new housing, reflecting the slow­ down in population growth and the overexpansion of office building construction in recent years. Manufacturing. Manufacturing employment is expected to decline by 3 percent from the 1990 level of 19.1 million. The projected loss of manufacturing jobs reflects productivity gains achieved from increased investment in manufacturing technologies as well as a winnowing out of less efficient operations. The composition of manufacturing employment is expected to shift since most of the jobs that will disappear are production jobs. The number of professional, technical, and managerial positions in manu­ facturing firms will increase. Mining. Mining employment is expected to decline from 712,000 to 669,000—a 6-percent decline. Underlying this projection is the assumption that domestic oil production will drop and oil imports will rise sharply, reducing employment in the crude petroleum industry. However, the expected rise in oil prices should spark exploration and, consequently, a slight increase in employment in the oil field services industry. In addition, employment in coal mining should continue to decline sharply due to the expanded use of laborsaving machinery. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Overall employment in agricul­ ture, forestry, and fishing has been declining for many decades and this trend is expected to continue—the number of jobs is projected to decline by 6 percent, from 3.3 million to 3.1 million. The decline in agricultural, forestry, and fishing jobs reflects a decrease of 410,000 in the number of self-employed workers. Wage and salary positions are expected to increase by 214,000—with espe­ cially strong growth in the agricultural services industry, which includes landscape, horticultural, and farm management services. Occupational Profile Continued expansion of the service-producing sector conjures up an image of a work force dominated by cashiers, retail sales workers, and  12  Occupational Outlook Handbook  waiters. However, although service sector growth will generate mil­ lions of clerical, sales, and service jobs, it also will create jobs for financial managers, engineers, nurses, electrical and electronics techni­ cians, and many other managerial, professional, and technical workers. In fact, the fastest growing occupations will be those that require the most formal education and training. This section furnishes an overview of projected employment in 12 categories or “clusters” of occupations based on the Standard Occupa­ tional Classification (SOC). The SOC is used by all Federal agencies that collect occupational employment data, and is the organizational framework for grouping statements in the Handbook. In the discussion that follows, projected employment change is described as growing faster, slower, or the same as the average for all occupations. (These phrases are explained on page 2.) While occu­ pations that are growing fast generally offer good opportunities, the numerical change in employment also is important because large occupations, such as retail sales worker, may offer many more new jobs than a small, fast-growing occupation, such as paralegal (chart 7). Technicians and related support occupations. Workers in this group provide technical assistance to engineers, scientists, and other profes­ sional workers, as well as operate and program technical equipment. Employment in this cluster is expected to increase by 37 percent, from 4.2 to 5.8 million, making it the fastest growing occupational cluster in the economy (chart 8). It also contains one of the fastest growing occu­ pations—paralegals. Employment of paralegals is expected to increase much faster than average as utilization of these workers in the rapidly expanding legal services industry increases. Health technicians and technologists, such as radiologic and surgical technologists, and com­ puter programmers will add large numbers of jobs. Growth in other occupations, such as broadcast technicians, will be limited by labor­ saving technological advances. Professional specialty occupations. Workers in these occupations perform a wide variety of duties, and are employed in almost every industry. Employment in this cluster is expected to grow by 32 percent, from 15.8 to 20.9 million jobs, continuing to grow faster than average,  Chart 7  Even though an occupation is expected to grow rapidly, it may provide fewer openings than a slower growing larger occupation.  zz 85 percent  24 percent  Paralegals  Retail sales workers  Percent and absolute change in employment, 1990-2005 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chart 8.  Employment change will vary widely by broad occupational group. Percent change in employment, 1990-2005 Occupational group Total, all occupations  Technicians and related support occupations Professional specialty occupations Service occupations Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations Marketing and sales occupations Transportation and material moving occupations Construction trades and extractive occupations Mechanics, installers, and repairers Administrative support occupations, including clerical Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related occupations Production occupations Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  and significantly increasing its share of total employment by 2005. Much of this growth is a result of rising demand for computer special­ ists; social and recreation workers; lawyers; health diagnosing and treating occupations; and engineers. Service occupations. This group includes a wide range of workers in protective services, food and beverage preparation, health services, and cleaning and personal services. Employment in these occupations is expected to grow by 29 percent, faster than average, from 19.2 to 24.8 million. An expanding population and economy, combined with higher personal incomes and increased leisure time, will spur demand for many different types of services. For example, employment of flight attendants, homemaker-home health aides, and preschool workers should all grow much faster than average. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations. Workers in this cluster establish policies, make plans, determine staffing require­ ments, and direct the activities of businesses, government agencies, and other organizations. Those in management support occupations provide technical assistance to managers. Employment in this cluster is expected to increase by 27 percent, from 12.5 to 15.9 million, reflect­ ing faster than average growth. Growth will be spurred by the increas­ ing number and complexity of business operations and result in large employment gains, especially in the services industry division. Howev­ er, many businesses will streamline operations, reducing administrative costs and employing fewer managers, thus offsetting increases in employment. Employment in these occupations tends to be driven by industry growth. For example, employment of health services managers will grow much faster than average, while only average growth is expected for wholesale and retail buyers and merchandise managers. Hiring requirements in many managerial and administrative jobs are becoming more stringent. Work experience, specialized training, or graduate study will be increasingly necessary. Familiarity with com­ puters will continue to be important as a growing number of firms rely on computerized management information systems. Marketing and sales occupations. Workers in this cluster sell goods and services, purchase commodities and property for resale, and stimu­  Tomorrow’s Jobs  late consumer interest. Employment in this cluster is projected to increase by 24 percent, from 14.1 to 17.5 million jobs, about as fast as average. Demand for services sales representatives, travel agents, and securities and financial services sales workers is expected to grow much faster than average due to strong growth in the industries that employ them. Many part- and full-time job openings are expected for retail sales workers and cashiers due to the large size, high turnover, and faster than average employment growth in these occupations. Opportunities for higher paying sales jobs, however, will tend to be more competitive. Transportation and material moving occupations. Workers in this cluster operate the equipment used to move people and equipment. Employment in this group is expected to increase by 21 percent, from 4.7 to 5.7 million jobs. Faster than average growth is expected for busdrivers, while average growth is expected for truckdrivers, reflecting rising school enrollments and growing demand for transportation ser­ vices. Equipment improvements and automation should result in mate­ rials moving equipment operators increasing more slowly than the average. In addition, railroad transportation workers and water trans­ portation workers are projected to show little change in employment as technological advances increase productivity. Construction trades and extractive occupations. Workers in this group construct, alter, and maintain buildings and other structures, and operate drilling and mining equipment. Overall employment in this group is expected to rise from 4 to 4.8 million. Virtually all of the new jobs will be in construction. Spurred by new projects and alterations to existing structures, average employment growth is expected in con­ struction. On the other hand, increased automation, continued stagna­ tion in the oil and gas industries, and slow growth in demand for coal, metal, and other materials will result in little change in employment of extractive workers. Mechanics, installers, and repairers. These workers adjust, main­ tain, and repair automobiles, industrial equipment, computers, and many other types of equipment. Overall employment in these occupa­ tions is expected to grow by 16 percent—from 4.9 to 5.7 million—due to increased use of mechanical and electronic equipment. One of the fastest growing occupations in this group is expected to be computer and office machine repairers, reflecting the increased use of these types of machines. Communications equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers, and telephone installers and repairers, in sharp contrast, are expected to record a decline in employment due to laborsaving advances. Administrative support occupations, including clerical. Workers in this largest major occupational group perform the wide variety of administrative tasks necessary to keep organizations functioning smoothly. The group as a whole is expected to grow by 13 percent, from 22.0 to 24.8 million jobs, more slowly than average. Technologi­ cal advances are projected to slow employment growth for stenogra­ phers and typists, word processors, and data entry keyers. Others, such as receptionists and information clerks, will grow much faster than average, spurred by rapidly expanding industries such as business ser­ vices. Because of their large size and substantial turnover, clerical occupations will offer abundant opportunities for qualified jobseekers in the years ahead. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers. Workers in this group assist skilled workers and perform routine, unskilled tasks. Overall employment is expected to increase by only 8 percent, slower than average, from 4.9 to 5.3 million jobs as routine tasks are automat­ ed. Employment of construction laborers, however, is expected to increase about as fast as average, reflecting growth in the construction industry. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing occupations. Workers in these occupations cultivate plants, breed and raise animals, and catch fish. Although demand for food, fiber, and wood is expected to increase as the world’s population grows, the use of more productive farming and forestry methods and the consolidation of smaller farms are expected to result in only a 5-percent increase in employment, from 3.5 to 3.7 million jobs. Employment of farm operators and farm workers is expected to rapidly decline, reflecting greater productivity; the need  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  13  for skilled farm managers, on the other hand, should result in average employment growth in that occupation. Production occupations. Workers in these occupations set up, in­ stall, adjust, operate, and tend machinery and equipment and use handtools and hand-held power tools to fabricate and assemble products. Employment is expected to decline by 4 percent, from 12.8 to 12.3 million. Increases in imports, overseas production, and automation— including robotics and advanced computer techniques—will result in little change or slight declines in overall employment. Relative to other occupations, employment in many production occupations is more sen­ sitive to fluctuations in the business cycle and competition from imports. Replacement Needs Most jobs through the year 2005 will become available as a result of replacement needs. Thus, even occupations with little or no employ­ ment growth or slower than average employment growth may still offer many job openings. Replacement openings occur as people leave occupations. Some transfer to other occupations as a step up the career ladder or to change careers. Others stop working in order to return to school, to assume household responsibilities, or to retire. The number of replacement openings and the proportion of job openings made up by replacement needs varies by occupation. Occu­ pations with the most replacement openings generally are large, with low pay and status, low training requirements, and a high proportion of young and part-time workers. The occupations with relatively few replacement openings, on the other hand, are those with high pay and status, lengthy training requirements, and a high proportion of prime working age, full-time workers. Workers in these occupations general­ ly have spent several years acquiring education or training that often is not applicable to other occupations. For example, among professional specialty occupations, only 46 percent of total job opportunities result from replacement needs, as opposed to 69 percent among administra­ tive support occupations (chart 9).  Chart 9.  Job opportunities arise from both occupational replacement needs and occupational growth.  Millions  Growth (projected) percent  54  percent  69  percent Replacements 46 percent  Administrative support occupations Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Professional specialty occupations  14  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Interested in More Detail? Readers interested in more information about projections and detail on the labor force, economic growth, industry and occupational employ­ ment, or methods and assumptions should consult the November 1991 Monthly Labor Review or Outlook 1990-2005, BLS Bulletin 2402.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Information on the limitations inherent to economic projections also can be found in either of these two publications. For additional occupa­ tional data, as well as statistics on educational and training comple­ tions, see the 1992 edition of Occupational Projections and Training Data, BLS Bulletin 2401.  7  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and Auditors (D.O.T. 160 through .167-042, and .267-014)  Nature of the Work Managers must have up-to-date information in order to make impor­ tant decisions. Accountants and auditors prepare, analyze, and verify financial reports that furnish this information to managers in all busi­ ness, industrial, and government organizations. Four major fields of accounting are public, management, and gov­ ernment accounting and internal auditing. Public accountants have their own businesses or work for accounting firms. Management ac­ countants, also called industrial, corporate, or private accountants, record and summarize the financial information of their companies. Internal auditors verify the accuracy of their organization’s records and check for mismanagement, waste, or fraud. Government accoun­ tants and auditors maintain and examine the records of government agencies and audit private businesses and individuals whose activities are subject to government regulations or taxation. Within each field, accountants often concentrate on one phase of accounting. For example, many public accountants work primarily in auditing (examining a client’s financial records and reporting to in­ vestors and authorities that the records have been prepared and re­ ported correctly). Others concentrate on tax matters, such as preparing an individual’s income tax returns and advising companies of the tax advantages and disadvantages of certain business decisions. Still others concentrate on consulting and offer advice on matters such as the design of companies’ accounting and data processing sys­ tems and controls to safeguard assets. They might develop an ac­ counting system for a new business or help a small business owner obtain financing. Management accountants provide the financial information corpo­ rate executives need to make sound business decisions. They prepare financial reports according to the public disclosure requirements of various stock exchanges, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and other regulatory bodies. Within accounting departments, they may work in areas such as taxation, budgeting, costs, or investments. Internal auditing is rapidly growing in importance. As computer systems make information more timely and available, top manage­ ment can base its decisions on actual data rather than personal obser­ vation. Internal auditors examine and evaluate their firms’ financial and information systems, management procedures, and internal con­ trols to ensure that records are accurate and controls are adequate to protect against fraud and waste. They also review company opera­ tions—evaluating their efficiency, effectiveness, and compliance with corporate policies and procedures, laws, and government regulations. Accountants and auditors also work for Federal, State, and local governments. Government accountants see that revenues are received and expenditures are made in accordance with laws and regulations. Many persons with an accounting background work for the Federal Government as Internal Revenue Service agents or in financial man­ agement, financial institution examination, and budget administration. In addition, a small number of persons trained as accountants teach and conduct research at business and professional schools. Some work part time as accountants or consultants. Computers are widely used in accounting and auditing. With the aid of special computer software packages, accountants summarize transactions in standard formats for financial records, calculate pro­ jected financial ratios, or organize data in special formats for finan https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Computers greatly reduce the amount of tedious work associated with analyzing financial records. cial analysis. These accounting packages are easily learned and re­ quire few specialized computer skills, but greatly reduce the amount of tedious manual work associated with figures and records. Personal and portable computers enable accountants and auditors in all fields—even those who work independently—to use their clients’ computer system and to extract information from large mainframe computers. Internal auditors may recommend controls for their orga­ nization’s computer system to ensure the reliability of the system and the integrity of the data. A growing number of accountants and audi­ tors have extensive computer skills and specialize in correcting prob­ lems with software or developing software to meet unique data needs. Working Conditions Accountants and auditors work in offices, but public accountants may frequently visit the offices of clients while conducting audits. Selfemployed accountants may be able to do part of their work at home. Accountants and auditors employed by large firms and government agencies may travel frequently to perform audits at clients’ places of business, branches of their firm, or government facilities. The majority of accountants and auditors generally work a stan­ dard 40-hour week, but many work longer, particularly if they are self-employed and free to take on the work of as many clients as they choose. Tax specialists often work long hours during the tax season, v Employment Accountants and auditors held about 985,000 jobs in 1990. The vari­ ous States licensed over 400,000 as Certified Public Accountants (CPA’s) in 1990 and more than 19,000 as Public Accountants (PA’s) or Registered Public Accountants (RPA’s); the majority were unli­ censed management and government accountants and auditors. Many accountants and auditors voluntarily earn professional designations that certify their professional competence in fields of accounting and auditing that are not State regulated: About 17,000 were Certified In­ ternal Auditors, over 10,000 were Certified Management Accoun­ tants, about 7,000 were Certified Information Systems Auditors, and about 5,000 held certificates of accreditation in accounting or taxa­ tion awarded by the Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Tax­ ation. Most accountants and auditors work in urban areas where public accounting firms and central or regional offices of businesses are concentrated. About 10 percent of all accountants were self-em­ ployed and fewer than 10 percent worked part time. 15  16  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most public accounting and business firms require applicants for accountant and internal auditor positions to have at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field. Some employers prefer those with a master’s degree in accounting or a master’s degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting. Most employers also prefer applicants who are familiar with computers and their ap­ plications in accounting and internal auditing. For beginning accounting and auditing positions in the Federal Government, 4 years of college (including 24 semester hours in ac­ counting or auditing) or an equivalent combination of education and experience is required. Previous experience in accounting or auditing can help an appli­ cant get a job. Many colleges offer students an opportunity to gain experience through summer or part-time internship programs con­ ducted by public accounting or business firms. Such training is in­ valuable in gaining permanent employment in the field. Professional recognition through certification or licensure also is helpful. In the majority of States, CPA’s are the only accountants who are licensed and regulated. Anyone working as a CPA must have a certificate and a license issued by a State board of accountancy. The vast majority of States require CPA candidates to be college gradu­ ates, but a few States substitute a certain number of years of public accounting experience for the educational requirement. Based on rec­ ommendations made by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the National Association of State Boards of Ac­ countancy, 17 States presently require that CPA candidates complete 150 semester hours of college coursework. This 150-hour rule re­ quires an additional 30 hours of coursework beyond the usual 4-year bachelor’s degree in accounting—for example, a 5-year bachelor’s degree or a master’s degree in accounting. All States use the four-part Uniform CPA Examination prepared by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. The 2 1/2-day CPA examination is rigorous. Candidates are not required to pass all four parts at once, although most States require candidates to pass at  In recent years, more women than men have obtained a bachelor's degree in accounting. Degrees awarded (thousands)  J  / \  T\  Women  <gr nr <£" nr v or v ^ <&>  A? nr rv  Source: National Center for Educational Statistics   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  least two parts for partial credit. Many States require all sections of the test to be passed within a certain period of time. Most States also require applicants for a CPA certificate to have some accounting experience. The designations PA or RPA are also recognized by 38 States. With the dramatic growth in the number of CPA’s, the majority of States are phasing out the PA and RPA designations by not issuing any more new licenses. Accountants who hold PA or RPA designations have similar legal rights, duties, and obligations as CPA’s, but their qualifi­ cations for licensure are less stringent. The designation Accounting Practitioner is awarded by four States. It requires less formal training than a CPA license and covers a more limited scope of practice. Nearly all States require both CPA’s and PA’s to complete a certain number of hours of continuing professional education before their li­ censes can be renewed. The professional associations representing accountants sponsor numerous courses, seminars, group study pro­ grams, and other forms of continuing education. Professional societies bestow other forms of credentials on a vol­ untary basis. Voluntary certification can attest to professional compe­ tence in a specialized field of accounting and auditing. It also can certify that a recognized level of professional competence has been achieved by accountants and auditors who acquired some skills on the job, without the amount of formal education or public accounting work experience needed to meet the rigorous standards required to take the CPA examination. The Institute of Internal Auditors, Inc., confers the designation Certified Internal Auditor upon graduates from accredited colleges and universities who have completed 2 years’ experience in internal auditing and who have passed a 4-part examination. The EDP Audi­ tors Association confers the designation Certified Information Sys­ tems Auditor upon candidates who pass an examination and who have 5 years of experience in auditing electronic data processing sys­ tems. However, auditing or data processing experience and college education may be substituted for up to 3 years. The Insitute of Management Accountants (IMA), formerly the Na­ tional Association of Accountants, confers the Certified Management Accountant (CMA) designation upon candidates who pass a uniform examination and meet specific educational and professional stan­ dards. The CMA program is administered through an affiliate of the IMA, the Institute of Certified Management Accountants. The Ac­ creditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation of the National So­ ciety of Public Accountants awards a Certificate of Accreditation in Accountancy and a Certificate of Accreditation in Taxation to per­ sons who have passed comprehensive examinations; there are no edu­ cational requirements to take these tests. Persons planning a career in accounting should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures quickly, and make sound judgments based on this knowledge. They must be able to clearly communicate the results of their work, orally and in writing, to clients and management. Accountants and auditors must be good at working with people as well as with business systems and computers. Accuracy and the abili­ ty to handle responsibility with limited supervision are important. Perhaps most important, because millions of financial statement users rely on their services, accountants and auditors should have high standards of integrity. Capable accountants and auditors should advance rapidly; those having inadequate academic preparation may be assigned routine jobs and find promotion difficult. Many graduates of junior colleges and business and correspondence schools, as well as bookkeepers and ac­ counting clerks who meet the education and experience requirements set by their employers, can obtain junior accounting positions and ad­ vance to more responsible positions by demonstrating their account­ ing skills on the job. Beginning public accountants usually start by assisting with work for several clients. They may advance to positions with more respon­ sibility in 1 or 2 years and to senior positions within another few years. Those who excel may become supervisors, managers, or part­ ners, or transfer to executive positions in private firms. Some open their own public accounting firms.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Beginning management accountants often start as cost accountants, junior internal auditors, or as trainees for other accounting positions. As they rise through the organization, they may advance to account­ ing manager, chief cost accountant, budget director, or manager of in­ ternal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, financial vice presidents, or corporation presidents. Many senior corporation execu­ tives have a background in accounting, internal auditing, or finance. Job Outlook ,, Employment of accountants and auditors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, reflecting the key role these workers play in the management of all types of or­ ganizations. Although increased demand will generate many new jobs, most openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or retire. While accountants and auditors tend to leave the profession at a lower rate than members of most other occu­ pations, replacement needs will be higher than for most occupations because the occupation is quite large. As the economy grows, the number of business establishments in­ creases, requiring more accountants and auditors to set up their books, prepare their taxes, and provide management advice. As these businesses grow, the volume and complexity of information devel­ oped by accountants and auditors on costs, expenditures, and taxes will increase as well. More complex requirements for accountants and auditors also arise from changes in legislation related to taxes, fi­ nancial reporting standards, business investments, mergers, and other financial matters. Growing international competition is forcing many businesses to develop more cost information to help make their oper­ ations more efficient. Growth in demand for management advisory services may also contribute to growth for public accountants. Many employers prefer graduates who have a broad background of education and experience. Computers now perform many accounting functions, allowing accountants and auditors to incorporate and ana­ lyze more information. This increasingly complex work requires greater knowledge of more specialized areas such as international business, current legislation, and computer systems. Opportunities are expected to be favorable for college graduates seeking accounting and auditing jobs. While the demand for accoun­ tants and auditors is expected to continue to increase, the annual number of graduates with degrees in accounting has been virtually unchanged since the early 1980’s. CPA’s should have a wider range of job opportunities than other accountants. However, competition for jobs with prestigious accounting firms will remain keen; a master’s degree in accounting would be an asset. Opportunities for accoun­ tants without a college degree will occur mainly in small businesses and accounting and tax preparation firms. The increasing use of com­ puters in business should stimulate the demand for accountants and auditors familiar with their operation. Accountants rarely lose their jobs when other workers are laid off during hard economic times. Financial information must be devel­ oped and tax reports prepared regardless of the state of the economy. Earnings According to a 1991 College Placement Council Salary Survey, bach­ elor’s degree candidates in accounting received starting salary offers averaging $26,600 a year; inexperienced master’s degree candidates, $31,100. Beginning public accountants employed by public accounting firms averaged $25,300 a year in 1990. The middle 50 percent had starting salaries ranging from $23,900 to $26,700. Salaries of junior public accountants who were not owners or partners of their firms av­ eraged $31,100, but some had salaries of more than $45,600. Many owners and partners of firms earned considerably more. The starting salary of management accountants in private industry averaged $24,700 a year in 1990. The middle 50 percent had starting annual salaries ranging from $22,300 to $27,000. Salaries of nonsupervisory management accountants averaged $37,000 in 1990, and some of the most experienced had salaries of over $80,000. Chief management accountants who direct the accounting program of a  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  17  company or one of its establishments averaged $55,700 a year. Their salaries ranged from over $43,000 to more than $74,000, depending upon the scope of their authority and the size of their professional staff. Internal auditor trainees averaged $28,600 a year in 1990. Experi­ enced internal auditors averaged $36,800, but some of the most expe­ rienced had salaries of more than $53,000. In the Federal Government, the starting annual salary for junior ac­ countants and auditors was about $17,000 in 1991. Candidates who had a superior academic record could begin at about $21,000. Appli­ cants with a master’s degree or 2 years’ professional experience began at $25,700. Accountants and auditors employed by the Federal Government averaged about $40,000 a year in 1990. Related Occupations Accountants and auditors design internal control systems and analyze financial data. Others for whom training in accounting is invaluable include appraisers, budget officers, loan officers, financial analysts, bank officers, actuaries, underwriters, tax collectors and revenue agents, FBI special agents, securities sales workers, and purchasing agents. Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in certified public accounting and about CPA standards and examinations may be obtained from: »- American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036-8775.  Information on management and other specialized fields of ac­ counting and auditing and on the Certified Management Accountant program is available from: *' Institute of Management Accountants, 10 Paragon Dr., Montvale, NJ 07645. ®’ National Society of Public Accountants and the Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation, 1010 North Fairfax St., Alexandria, VA 22314. «■ The Institute of Internal Auditors, 249 Maitland Ave., Altamonte Springs FL 32701-4201. *" The EDP Auditors Association, 455 Kehoe Blvd., Suite 106, Carol Stream IL 60188-0180.  For information on accredited accounting programs and education­ al institutions offering a specialization in accounting or business management, contact: American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, 605 Old Balias Rd., Suite 220, St. Louis, MO 63141.  Administrative Services Managers (D.O.T. 162.117-014; 163.167-026; 169.167-034; 188.117-122, .167-106; 189.167-022,-030)  Nature of the Work Administrative services managers work throughout private industry and government. They coordinate and direct supportive services such as secretarial and correspondence; preparation of payrolls; conference planning and travel; information processing; mail; materials schedul­ ing and distribution; printing and reproduction; personal property procurement, supply, and disposal; data processing; library; food; and parking. They work within the same managerial hierarchy as other managers. Supervisory level administrative services managers report to their mid-level counterparts who, in turn, report to proprietors or top-level managers, such as the vice president or director of adminis­ tration—who are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives. Supervisory level managers directly oversee supervisors or staffs involved in supportive services. Mid-level administrative services managers develop overall plans, set goals and deadlines, develop pro­ cedures to direct and improve supportive services, define supervisory level managers’ responsibilities, and delegate authority. They are generally found in larger firms. Administrative services managers  18  Occupational Outlook Handbook  often are involved in the hiring and dismissal of employees but gen­ erally have no role in the formulation of personnel policy. In small firms, one administrative services manager may oversee all supportive services. As the size of the firm increases, however, ad­ ministrative services managers increasingly specialize in one or more of these activities. In some firms, supportive services may be directed by other managers and supervisors, some of whom are discussed in other Handbook statements. For example, administrative services managers may work as office managers, overseeing supervisors of large clerical staffs. In small firms, clerical supervisors—who are dis­ cussed in the Handbook statement on clerical supervisors and man­ agers—perform this function. Administrative services managers also work as contract administrators, who direct the preparation, analysis, negotiation, and review of contracts related to the purchase or sale of equipment, materials, supplies, products, or services. However, pro­ curement functions are generally directed by purchasing agents and managers, discussed in a separate Handbook statement. Property management is divided into the management and use of personal property such as office supplies, an administrative services management function, and real property management, a function of property and real estate managers—who are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook. Personal property managers acquire, distribute, and store supplies, and sometimes sell or dispose of surplus property. Some property managers are engaged solely in surplus property dis­ posal, the resale of unneeded supplies and machinery, which is an in­ creasingly important source of revenue for many organizations. In State governments, surplus property officers may acquire and then sell or dispose of Federal and State property. In small firms, the allocation, use, and security of building space also is an administrative services management function, but is often the responsibility of facilities managers in larger companies. Other administrative services managers oversee unclaimed property dispos­ al. In State government, this activity includes locating owners of un­ claimed liquid assets—such as stocks, bonds, savings accounts, and the contents of safe deposit boxes—and in local government, locating owners or auctioning off unclaimed personal property—such as motor vehicles. Working Conditions Administrative services managers generally work in comfortable of­ fices. However, in small firms, these managers may work alongside the supervisors and staffs they oversee, and the office area may be crowded and noisy. Since their duties involve a wide range of activi­ ties, they must maintain regular contact with personnel in other de­ partments. Their work can be stressful, as they attempt to schedule work to meet deadlines. Although the 40-hour week is standard, uncompensated overtime is often required to resolve problems. Man­ agers involved in contract administration, and personal property pro­ curement, utilization, and disposal may travel extensively between home offices, branch offices, vendors’ offices, and property sales sites. Employment Administrative services managers held about 221,000 jobs in 1990. Over two-fifths worked in services industries, including management, business, social, and health services organizations. Others were found in virtually every other industry. A few run their own management services firms. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many administrative services managers advance through the ranks in an organization, acquiring several years’ work experience in various administrative services before assuming supervisory duties. For ex­ ample, managers who oversee clerical supervisors should be familiar with office procedures and equipment and have a working knowledge of word processing, communications, data processing, and record­ keeping. Managers of personal property acquisition and disposal need experience in purchasing and sales and knowledge of a wide variety of supplies, machinery, and equipment. Managers concerned with supply, inventory, and distribution must be experienced in receiving,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  sttu, U Mu ***•<*  v  ' !  ,  Some administrative services managers need only a high school diploma, while others need a college degree. warehousing, packaging, shipping, transportation, and related opera­ tions. Contract administrators may have worked as contract special­ ists, cost analysts, or procurement specialists. Managers of unclaimed property often have experience in claims analysis and records man­ agement. Educational requirements vary widely. For supervisory level ad­ ministrative services managers of secretarial, mail room, and related administrative support activities, many employers prefer an associate of arts degree in business or management, although a high school diploma may suffice. For managers of audiovisual, graphics, and other more technical activities, postsecondary technical school train­ ing is preferred. For managers of highly complex services such as contract administration, a bachelor’s degree, preferably in business administration, is usually required. The curriculum should include courses in office technology, accounting, business mathematics, com­ puter applications, and business law. Whatever the administrative ser­ vices manager’s duties, a manager’s educational background must be accompanied by work experience reflecting demonstrated ability. Persons interested in becoming administrative services managers should be able to communicate and establish effective working rela­ tionships with many different people—managers, supervisors, profes­ sionals, clerks, and blue-collar workers. They should be analytical, detail-oriented, flexible, and decisive. The ability to coordinate sever­ al activities and to quickly analyze and resolve specific problems is important. Ability to work under stress and cope with deadlines is also important. Advancement is easier in large firms that employ several levels of administrative services managers. A bachelor’s degree enhances a su­ pervisory level manager’s opportunities to advance to a mid-level management position—such as director of administrative services— and eventually to a top-level management position—such as execu­ tive vice president for administrative services—in one’s own or a larger firm. Those with the required capital and experience can estab­ lish their own management consulting or management services firm. Job Outlook Employment of administrative services managers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition, many job openings should result from the need to replace administrative services managers who transfer to other jobs or stop working. An increase in demand for various administrative services should spur employment growth. Growth should occur in firms that employ administrative services managers to oversee the implementation and operation of sophisticated office systems, and in consulting firms to which administrative services are contracted out. Offsetting demand will be corporate attempts to reduce administrative costs by stream­ lining office and information handling procedures. The extent to which governments at all levels, particularly Federal, contract out for  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  goods and services could affect demand for contract administrators and personal property managers. As in other managerial jobs, the ample supply of competent, expe­ rienced workers seeking advancement should result in competition for administrative services management positions. Earnings According to a salary survey by the Administrative Management So­ ciety, the median annual salary of office/administrative services man­ agers was $33,000 a year in 1991. The lowest paid managers earned $23,000 or less, while the highest paid managers earned $50,000 or more. In the Federal Government, contract administrators averaged $39,200 a year in 1991; administrative officers, $38,100; industrial property managers, $36,800; property disposal officers, $34,300; and support services administrators, $29,600. Similar to other managers, administrative services managers typi­ cally receive a range of fringe benefits such as vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans, among others. Related Occupations Administrative services managers direct and coordinate supportive services and oversee the purchase, use, and disposal of personal prop­ erty. Occupations with similar functions include administrative assis­ tants, appraisers, buyers, clerical supervisors, contract specialists, cost estimators, procurement services managers, project directors, property and real estate managers, purchasing managers, marketing and sales managers, and personnel managers. Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in administrative and office services management is available from: *■ Administrative Management Society, 1101 14th St. NW., Suite 1100, Washington, DC 20005.  For information about careers in personal property utilization man­ agement, contact: «- National Property Management Association, 220 Patricia Ave., Dunedin FL 34698.  Information about careers in contract administration is available from: "■ National Contract Management Associaton, 1912 Woodford Rd., Vienna VA 22182. ‘ For information about careers in facilities management, contact: *■ International Facilities Management Association, 1 East Greenway Plaza, 11th Floor, Houston, TX 77046.  Budget Analysts (D.O.T. 161.117-010 and 161.267-030)  Nature of the Work Organizations develop budgets to plan, organize, and allocate limited resources efficiently among alternative uses. Budgets serve as a fi­ nancial plan for controlling future operations and as a means of ana­ lyzing the organization’s spending behavior. Budget analysis is an integral part of the decisionmaking process in most corporations and government agencies. Budget analysts play a primary role in the re­ search, analysis, development, and execution of budgets. Budget analysts work in both private industry and the public sec­ tor. In private industry, a budget analyst examines, analyzes, and seeks new ways to improve efficiency and increase profits. While an­ alysts working in government generally are not concerned with prof­ its, they too are interested in finding the most efficient distribution of funds and resources among various departments and programs. The major responsibility of budget analysts is to provide advice and technical assistance in the preparation of annual budgets. At the beginning of the budget cycle, managers and department heads sub­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  19  mit proposed operating and financial plans to budget analysts for re­ view. These plans outline expected programs—including proposed program increases or new initiatives, estimated costs and expenses, and capital expenditures needed to finance these programs. Analysts begin by examining the budget estimates for complete­ ness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures, regulations, and organizational objectives. They review financial requests by employ­ ing cost-benefit analysis, assessing program trade-offs, and exploring alternative funding methods. They also examine past and current bud­ gets, and research economic developments that affect the organiza­ tion’s spending. This process allows analysts to evaluate program proposals in terms of the organization’s priorities and financial re­ sources. After this review process, budget analysts consolidate the individu­ al department budgets into operating and financial budget summaries. The analyst submits preliminary budgets to senior management with comments and supporting statements to justify or deny funding re­ quests. By reviewing different departments’ operating plans, analysts gain insight into an organization’s overall operations. This generally proves very useful when they interpret and offer technical assistance to officials approving the budget. At this point in the budget process, budget analysts help the chief operating officer, agency head, or other top managers analyze the proposed plan and devise possible alterna­ tives if the projected results are unsatisfactory. The final decision to approve the budget, however, is usually made by the organization head. Throughout the rest of the year, analysts periodically monitor the operating budget by reviewing reports and accounting records to de­ termine if allocated funds have been spent as specified. If deviations appear between the approved budget and actual performance, budget analysts may write a report explaining the causes of the variations along with recommendations for new or revised budget procedures. They suggest reallocation of excess funds or recommend program cuts to alleviate deficits. They also inform program managers and others within their organization of the status and availability of funds in different budget accounts. Before any changes are made to an ex­ isting program or a new one is started, a budget analyst assesses its efficiency and effectiveness. Analysts also may project budget needs, which is necessary for long range planning. Because most organizations computerize their budgets, analysts can more easily enter and make use of data. Many calculations and formatting of reports are performed on the computer as well. This frees more time for the actual analysis of budget data. Analysts also assist in developing procedural guidelines and poli­ cies governing the development, formulation, and maintenance of the budget. If necessary, they conduct training sessions for company per­ sonnel on new budget procedures. Working Conditions Budget analysts work in a normal office setting and generally work 40 hours per week. However, during the initial development and mid­ year and final reviews of budgets, they often experience the pressure of deadlines and tight work schedules. The work during these periods can be extremely stressful, and analysts are usually required to work more than the routine 40 hours a week. Budget analysts spend the majority of their time working indepen­ dently, compiling and analyzing data and preparing budget proposals. However, their routine schedule can be interrupted by special budget requests, meetings, and training sessions. Others may travel to obtain budget details and explanantions of variances from coworkers. Employment Budget analysts held about 64,000 jobs throughout private industry and government in 1990. Federal, State, and local governments ac­ counted for 1 of every 3 budget analyst jobs. The Department of De­ fense employed 7 of every 10 budget analysts working for the Federal Government. Schools, hospitals, and manufacturers of trans­ portation equipment, chemicals and allied products, electrical and electronic machinery, and industrial machines are other major em­ ployers of budget analysts.  20  Occupational Outlook Handbook  —■—■■■  o  One out of every 3 budget analysts works for Federal, State, or local government agencies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most private firms and government agencies require candidates for budget analyst positions to have at least a bachelor’s degree in ac­ counting, finance, economics, or a field closely related to their indus­ try such as engineering or public administration. A growing number of employers prefer that candidates possess a master’s degree to en­ sure adequate analytical skills. However, financial experience can often be substituted for an advanced degree when applying for a bud­ get analyst position. Some companies prefer to promote from within; therefore, competent accounting or payroll clerks and other clerical staff who have worked closely with the budget process can often ad­ vance to entry level budget analyst positions even if they do not meet the educational requirements. Because developing a budget requires strong analytical skills, courses in mathematics, statistics, and computer science are highly recommended. Since most financial analysis performed by organiza­ tions is automated, a background in computers is particularly impor­ tant. Knowledge of programming and familiarity with the financial software packages used by most organizations in budget analysis is generally required by employers. In addition to analytical skills, those seeking a career as a budget analyst must also be able to work under strict time constraints. Ana­ lysts must also possess strong interpersonal skills because of the fre­ quent interaction with others in their organization. They must have strong oral and written communication skills to prepare and present budget proposals effectively. Entry level budget analysts may receive some formal training when they begin their jobs. However, most employers feel that the best training is obtained by working through one complete budget cycle. During the cycle, analysts become familiar with all the steps involved in the budgeting process. The Federal Government, on the other hand, offers extensive onthe-job and classroom training for entry level analysts. Some of the classes offered include budget execution, budget formulation, Federal budget process, and planning, programming, and budget systems. An­ alysts are encouraged to participate in the various classes offered throughout their careers. Beginning analysts usually work under close supervision. Capable entry level analysts can be promoted into intermediate level positions within 1 to 2 years, and then into senior positions within a few more  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  years. Progressing to a higher level means added budgeting responsi­ bility and an increasingly supervisory role. In the Federal Government, for example, beginning budget ana­ lysts compare projected costs with prior expenditures; consolidate and enter data prepared by others; and assist higher grade analysts by doing research on regulations concerning appropriate budget prac­ tices. As analysts progress, they begin to develop and formulate bud­ get estimates and justification statements; perform in-depth analyses of budget requests; write statements supporting funding requests; and advise program managers and others on the status and availability of funds in different budget activities. In many instances, analysts are able to capitalize on their close working relationships with top-level managers to advance into man­ agement positions within their organization. In addition, because fi­ nancial and analytical skills are vital in any organization, analysts often are able to transfer to a related field in other organizations. Job Outlook Employment of budget analysts is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job open­ ings, however, will result from the need tq replace experienced bud­ get analysts who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Expanding use of automation may make analysts more productive, allowing them to process more data in less time. These computerinduced productivity gains may be offset, however, by a greater de­ mand for information and analysis. Easier manipulation of and acces­ sibility to data provide management more considerations on which to base decisions. Also because of the growing complexity of business and the increasing specialization of functions within organizations, more attention is being given to planning and financial control. Many companies will continue to rely heavily on budget analysts to exam­ ine, analyze, and develop budgets to allocate labor, capital, and other resources efficiently among all parts of the organization. Managers will continue to use budgets as a vehicle to plan, coordinate, control, and evaluate activities within their organizations more effectively. Despite the increase in demand for budget analysts, competition for jobs should remain keen because of the increasing number of qualified applicants. Job opportunities are usually best for candidates with a college degree, particularly a master’s. In some cases, experi­ ence is more beneficial than a degree and can be used to offset a lack of education. People with backgrounds in finance and accounting generally are in a better position than those without these qualifica­ tions. A working knowledge of computer financial software packages can also enhance one’s employment prospects in this field. The financial work performed by budget analysts is an important function in every organization. Financial and budget reports must be completed even during periods of economic slowdowns. Therefore, employment of budget analysts generally is not adversely affected during economic slumps when other workers may be laid off. Earnings Salaries of budget analysts vary widely by experience, education, and employer. According to a 1990 survey of financial and data process­ ing fields conducted by Robert Half International Incorporated, aver­ age annual starting salaries of budget and other financial analysts ranged from $22,000 to $25,000 for those working in medium-size firms, and from $22,000 to $26,000 for those employed by larger or­ ganizations. Analysts with 1 to 3 years of experience earned from $25,000 to $32,000 a year in medium-size firms and from $27,000 to $35,000 in larger companies. Senior analysts earned from $30,000 to $38,000 in smaller firms and from $31,000 to $40,500 in larger firms. Earnings of managers in this field ranged from $37,000 to $43,500 in medium-size firms to $40,500 to $57,000 in large organizations. In the Federal Government, budget analysts generally started at $16,900 a year in 1991. Candidates with a master’s degree or 1 year of financial experience began at $21,000. The average salary of all budget analysts employed by the Federal Government was approxi­ mately $35,000 in 1990.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Related Occupations Budget analysts analyze, review, and interpret financial data; make recommendations for the future; and assist in the implementation of new ideas. Workers who use these skills in other occupations include accountants and auditors, credit analysts, economists, financial ana­ lysts, financial managers, and loan officers. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities as a budget analyst may be available from your State or local employment service. Persons interested in working as a budget analyst in the Federal Government can obtain information from *" U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Construction and Building Inspectors (D.O.T. 168.167-030, -034, -038, -046, and -050; .267-010, -102; 182.267; 850.387, .467)  Nature of the Work Construction and building inspectors examine the construction, alter­ ation, or repair of buildings, highways and streets, sewer and water systems, dams, bridges, and other structures to ensure compliance with building codes and ordinances, zoning regulations, and contract specifications. They make the initial inspections during the first phase of construction, and make followup inspections throughout the con­ struction period to monitor continuing compliance with regulations. In areas with severe natural hazards—such as earthquakes or hurri­ canes—inspectors monitor compliance with additional regulations. Inspectors generally specialize in one particular type of construction work. Building inspectors inspect the structural quality and general safety of buildings. Some may specialize—for example, in structural steel or reinforced concrete buildings. Before construction, plan examiners determine whether the plans for the building or other structure com­ ply with building code regulations and are suited to the engineering and environmental demands of the building site. They visit the work­ site before the foundation is poured to inspect the soil condition and positioning and depth of the footings. Then they inspect the founda­ tion after it has been completed. The size and type of structure and the rate of completion determine the number of other visits they must make. Upon completion of the project, they make a final comprehen­ sive inspection. In addition, inspectors may calculate fire insurance rates by assessing the type of construction, building contents, avail­ ability of fire protection equipment, and risks posed by adjoining buildings. Electrical inspectors inspect the installation of electrical systems and equipment to ensure that they function properly and comply with electrical codes and standards. They visit worksites to inspect new and existing wiring, lighting, sound and security systems, motors, and generating equipment. They also inspect the installation of the electri­ cal wiring for heating and air-conditioning systems, appliances, and other components. Elevator inspectors examine lifting and conveying devices such as elevators, escalators, moving sidewalks, personnel lifts and hoists, in­ clined railways, ski lifts, and amusement rides. Mechanical inspectors inspect the installation of the mechanical components of commercial kitchen appliances, heating and air-condi­ tioning equipment, gasoline and butane tanks, gas and oil piping, and gas-fired and oil-fired appliances. Some specialize in inspecting boil­ ers or ventilating equipment. Plumbing inspectors examine plumbing systems, including private disposal systems, water supply and distribution systems, plumbing fixtures and traps, and drain, waste, and vent lines. Public works inspectors ensure that Federal, State, and local gov­ ernment construction of water and sewer systems, highways, streets,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  21  bridges, and dams conforms to detailed contract specifications. They inspect excavation and fill operations, the placement of forms for concrete, concrete mixing and pouring, asphalt paving, and grading operations. They record the work and materials used so that contract payments can be calculated. Public works inspectors may specialize in highways, reinforced concrete, or ditches. Others specialize in dredging operations required for bridges and dams or for harbors. Home inspectors conduct inspections of newly built homes to as­ certain adherence to regulatory requirements. Some home inspectors are hired by prospective home buyers to inspect and report on the condition of the home’s major systems and components. Home in­ spectors typically are hired either immediately prior to a purchase offer or as a contingency to a sales contract. Construction and building inspectors increasingly use computers to help them monitor the status of construction inspection activities and the issuance of permits. Details about construction projects, building and occupancy permits, and other information can thus be stored and easily retrieved. Although inspections are primarily visual, inspectors often use tape measures, survey instruments, metering devices, and test equipment such as concrete strength measurers. They often keep a daily log of their work, take photographs, file reports, and, if necessary, act on their findings. For example, construction inspectors notify the con­ struction contractor, superintendent, or supervisor when they discover something that does not comply with the appropriate codes, ordi­ nances, contract specifications, or approved plans. If the deficiency is not corrected within a reasonable or specified period of time, govern­ ment inspectors have authority to issue a “stop-work” order.  i . ./'/■..Jfc-A... . '  Building inspectors monitor the installation ofpiping.  22  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Many inspectors also investigate construction or alterations being done without proper permits. Violators of permit laws are directed to obtain permits and submit to inspection.  Working Conditions Construction and building inspectors usually work alone. However, several may be assigned to a large, complex project. They may spend much of their time in a field office reviewing blueprints, answering letters or telephone calls, writing reports, and scheduling inspections. The rest of their time is spent inspecting construction and building sites. Inspection sites may be dirty and cluttered with tools, materials, or debris. Inspectors may have to climb ladders or many flights of stairs, or may have to crawl in tight places. Although the work is not consid­ ered hazardous, inspectors often wear “hard hats” for safety. Inspectors normally work regular hours. However, if an accident occurs at a construction site, inspectors must respond immediately and may work irregular hours to complete their report. Employment Construction and building inspectors held about 60,000 jobs in 1990. Nearly three-fifths worked for local governments, primarily munici­ pal or county building departments. Employment of local government inspectors is concentrated in cities and in suburban areas undergoing rapid growth. Local governments employ large inspection staffs, in­ cluding many inspectors who specialize in structural steel, reinforced concrete, boiler, electrical, and elevator inspection. One-fifth of all construction and building inspectors were em­ ployed at the Federal and State levels. Many construction inspectors employed by the Federal Government worked for the Department of Defense, primarily for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Other im­ portant Federal employers include the Departments of Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, and Interior, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Most of the remaining inspectors worked for firms in the engineer­ ing and architectural services, construction, and business services in­ dustries. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Construction or building inspectors need several years of experience as a construction contractor, supervisor, or craft worker before be­ coming inspectors. Most employers also require an applicant to have a high school diploma. High school courses in drafting, algebra, ge­ ometry, and English are also useful. Workers who want to become inspectors should have a thorough knowledge of construction materials and practices in either a general area like structural or heavy construction, or in a specialized area such as electrical or plumbing systems, reinforced concrete, or struc­ tural steel. Many construction and building inspectors have recent ex­ perience as carpenters, electricians, plumbers, or pipefitters. Employers prefer inspectors who have graduated from an appren­ ticeship program, have studied engineering or architecture for at least 2 years, or have a degree from a community or junior college, with courses in construction technology, blueprint reading, mathematics, and building inspection. Construction and building inspectors must be in good physical condition in order to walk and climb about construction sites. They also must have a driver’s license. In addition, Federal, State, and many local governments usually require that inspectors pass a civil service examination. Construction and building inspectors usually receive most of their training on the job. At first, working with an experienced inspector, they leam about inspection techniques; codes, ordinances, and regula­ tions; contract specifications; and recordkeeping and reporting duties. They begin by inspecting less complex types of construction such as residential buildings. They then progress to more complex assign­ ments. An engineering degree is frequently required to advance to su­ pervisory inspector. Since they advise builders and the general public on building codes, construction practices, and technical developments, construc­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tion and building inspectors must keep abreast of new building code developments. Many employers provide formal training programs to broaden inspectors’ knowledge of construction materials, practices, and inspection techniques. Inspectors who work for small agencies or firms that do not conduct training programs can broaden their know­ ledge and upgrade their skills by attending State-conducted training programs, by taking college or correspondence courses, or by attend­ ing seminars sponsored by the organizations listed under Sources of Additional Information below. Certification enhances construction inspectors— chances for high­ er paying, more responsible positions. Some States and cities require certification for employment. Inspectors with substantial experience and education can attain certification by passing stringent examina­ tions on construction techniques, materials, and code requirements. The organizations listed below offer many categories of certification for inspectors and plan examiners, including the designation “CBO,” Certified Building Official. Job Outlook Employment of construction and building inspectors is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Increases in the level of construction activity and a rising con­ cern for public safety and for improvements in the quality of con­ struction should spur demand for construction and building inspectors. A growing volume of real estate transactions and a greater awareness and emphasis on home inspections will add to employ­ ment requirements for home inspectors. The trend of government— particularly Federal and State—to contract out construction inspection functions should increase demand for inspectors in the pri­ vate sector. Most job openings will arise from the need to replace inspectors who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons. Because of the trend toward the establishment of professional standards for inspec­ tors, job prospects should be best for highly experienced craft work­ ers who have some college education or who are certified as inspectors. Employment of construction and building inspectors is not always directly affected by changes in the level of building activity. Unlike most construction occupations, inspectors—particularly those in gov­ ernment—seldom experience layoffs when construction activity de­ clines. During these periods, maintenance and renovation—which usually require more frequent inspection than new construction— generally continue, enabling inspectors to continue working full time year round. In an upturn, new jobs for inspectors increase but not to the same degree as construction activity. Earnings The median annual salary of construction and building inspectors was $30,100 in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned between $24,600 and $37,400. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $19,700 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $46,000 a year. Generally, build­ ing inspectors, including plan examiners, earn the highest salaries. Salaries in large metropolitan areas are substantially higher than those in small local jurisdictions. Related Occupations Construction and building inspectors combine a knowledge of con­ struction principles and law with the ability to coordinate data, diag­ nose problems, and communicate with people. Workers in other occupations with a similar combination of skills are drafters, estima­ tors, industrial engineering technicians, and surveyors. Sources of Additional Information Information about a career and certification as a construction or building inspector is available from the following model code organi­ zations: »■ International Conference of Building Officials, 5360 South Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, CA 90601. m- Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60478.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 900 Montclair Rd., Birmingham, AL 35213.  Information on careers and certification as a home inspector is available from: American Society of Home Inspectors, Inc., Seventh Floor, 3299 K St. NW.. Washington, DC 20007.  For information about a career as a State or local government con­ struction or building inspector, contact your State or local employ­ ment service. Persons interested in a career as a construction and building in­ spector with the Federal Government can obtain information from: U-S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington DC 20415.  Construction Contractors and Managers (D.O.T. 182.167 except -022)  Nature of the Work Construction contractors and managers assume various levels of re­ sponsibility and are known by a wide range of job titles that are often used interchangeably—for example, constructor, construction super­ intendent, general superintendent, production manager, project man­ ager, general construction manager, executive construction manager, general contractor, contractor, and subcontractor. Construction con­ tractors and managers may be owners or salaried employees of a con­ struction contracting firm or individuals under contract with the owner, developer, contractor, or management firm overseeing the construction project. This Handbook statement uses the term “construction manager” broadly to encompass all supervisory-level salaried and self-em­ ployed construction managers who oversee construction supervisors and workers. Supervisory level managers report to mid-level and toplevel construction managers, who are included in the Handbook state­ ment on general managers and top executives. Within the construction industry, the term “construction manager” is used more narrowly to denote the firm or individual involved in a special form of control to perform a construction management func­ tion. A construction manager (CM) frequently acts as the owner’s or developer’s consultant regarding the scheduling and coordination of all design and construction processes over the life of the project. On many small construction projects, such as remodeling a home, self-employed construction contractors directly oversee their employ­ ees in all phases of the work. However, large construction projects like an industrial complex are too complicated for one person to su­ pervise. These projects are divided into many segments: Site prepara­ tion, including land clearing and earth moving; sewage systems; landscaping and road construction; building construction, including excavation and laying foundations, erection of framework, floors, walls, and roofs; or building services, including carpentry, electrical, plumbing, air-conditioning, and heating. Construction managers may be in charge of one or more of these activities, and may have several subordinates, such as crew supervisors, reporting to them. Construction contractors and managers plan, budget, and direct the construction project. The planning, often in collaboration with design professionals, requires sophisticated scheduling techniques with flow charts, bar charts, and other graphic presentations. They often use computers to evaluate various construction methods and to determine the most cost-effective plan. They determine the appropriate con­ struction methods and schedule all required construction site activi­ ties into logical, specific steps, leading to an intermediate or final objective. They budget the time required to complete each step of the project according to established deadlines, determine labor require­ ments, and supervise or monitor the hiring and dismissal of workers. On the job, construction contractors and managers direct construc­ tion supervisors and monitor the progress of construction activities including the delivery and use of materials, supplies, tools, machin­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  23  ery, equipment, and vehicles. They are responsible for all necessary permits and licenses and, depending upon the contractual arrange­ ments, direct or monitor compliance with building and safety codes and other regulations. They regularly review engineering and architectural drawings and specifications and confer with design professionals to monitor progress and ensure compliance with plans and specifications. They meet with cost estimators in order to keep track of construction costs and to avoid cost overruns. Based upon direct observation and reports by subordinate supervisors, these managers may prepare daily reports of progress and requirements for labor, material, and machinery and equipment at the construction site. Construction managers meet regu­ larly with owners, other contractors and managers, and design profes­ sionals to monitor and coordinate all phases of the construction project. Working Conditions Construction contractors and managers work out of a main office from which the overall construction project is monitored or out of a field office at the construction site. Management decisions regarding daily construction activities are usually made at the job site. Man­ agers may have to travel when the construction site is in another State or when the manager is responsible for activities at two or more sites. Overseas projects usually entail temporary residence in another country. Construction contractors and managers are “on call” to deal with accidents, delays, or bad weather at the site. The standard 40-hour week is rare. Indeed, construction may proceed round-the-clock for days, even weeks to meet special project deadlines. Although the work generally is not considered dangerous, con-  tmffm i stmt}* m  *91 HU £3 t *t>'..**' ]  Construction contractors and managers ensure compliance with engineering and architectural plans.  24  Occupational Outlook Handbook  struction contractors and managers must be careful while touring construction sites, especially when machinery, equipment, and vehi­ cles are being operated. Because of the rapid pace of construction ac­ tivities, they must always be prepared to quickly answer questions, establish priorities, and assign duties. This requires the contractor or manager to observe job conditions and to be alert to potential prob­ lems and to ways to make the work go faster, easier, and safer. Due to the inherent dangers involved in construction, the manager in the field must be alert to and actively manage the safety aspects of jobsite operations. Employment Construction contractors and managers held about 183,000 jobs in 1990. Nine of every 10 were employed in the construction industry, primarily by special trade contractors—for example, plumbing, heat­ ing and air-conditioning, and electrical—and general building con­ tractors. Others were employed by local governments, educational institutions, real estate developers, and engineering, architectural, surveying, and construction management services firms. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A growing number of entrants into this occupation have a strong aca­ demic background. Completion of a bachelor’s degree program in construction science with emphasis on construction management can greatly enhance one’s opportunities. In 1990, over 125 colleges and universities offered 4-year degree programs. These programs include courses in project control and development, site planning, building design, construction methods, construction materials, value analysis, cost estimating, scheduling, contract administration, building codes and standards, inspection procedures, and electives in engineering and architectural sciences, mathematics, statistics, and computer sci­ ence. Recent graduates from 4-year degree programs in construction usually are hired as assistants to project managers, field engineers, schedulers, or cost estimators. A growing number of graduates in re­ lated fields—engineers, architects, and cost estimators—also enter construction management, often after having had substantial experi­ ence on construction projects. About 30 colleges and universities also offer a master’s degree program, and one, the University of Florida, offers a doctoral degree program in this field. Master’s degree recipients, especially those with experience, typically become construction managers in very large construction companies. Doctoral degree recipients generally become college teachers. Many contractors and managers have substantial experience as construction craft workers—for example, carpenters, masons, plumbers, or electricians—and proven supervisory ability. Many managers have worked as construction supervisors or as independent contractors overseeing workers in one or more construction trades— for example, structural steel, roofing, or excavation. Many have also attended training and educational programs sponsored by industry as­ sociations, usually in collaboration with postsecondary institutions. In 1990, over 200 2-year colleges offered construction management or construction technology programs. Persons interested in becoming a construction contractor or manag­ er should be adaptable and be able to work effectively in a fast-paced environment. They should be decisive and able to quickly select among alternative courses of action. The ability to coordinate several major activities at once, while being able to analyze and resolve spe­ cific problems is imperative, as is the ability to understand engineer­ ing, architectural, and other construction drawings. They must be able to establish a good working relationship with many different peo­ ple—entrepreneurs, other managers, construction professionals, su­ pervisors, and craft workers. Advancement depends upon the size of the construction company. In large companies, they may become mid-level and eventually toplevel managers. Highly experienced individuals may become consul­ tants; some serve as expert witnesses in court or as arbitrators in disputes. Those with the required capital may establish their own firms and offer construction management services. Others may estab­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  lish their own general contract construction firms that oversee con­ struction projects from start to finish—including project planning, de­ sign, and construction. Job Outlook Employment of construction contractors and managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the number of construction projects continues to grow. In ad­ dition, many openings should result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or retire. Prospects are expected to be par­ ticularly favorable—especially in rapidly growing construction man­ agement services firms—for experienced construction managers with a bachelor’s degree in construction science with emphasis on con­ struction management. Increased spending on the Nation’s infrastructure—highways, bridges, dams, schools, subways, airports, water and sewage systems, and electric power generation and transmission facilities—will be the primary stimulus to the demand for construction contractors and managers. Additional jobs will be created by growth in less rapidly expanding construction activities as well. The need to build more res­ idential housing, commercial and office buildings, and factories, as well as maintenance and repair of all kinds of existing structures will stimulate further demand for these workers. In addition to growth in the level of construction activity, the in­ creasing complexity of construction projects will lead to more jobs being created. Advances in building materials and construction meth­ ods and the growing number of multipurpose buildings, electronically operated “smart” buildings, and energy-efficient structures will re­ quire the expertise of more construction managers. In addition, the proliferation of laws setting standards for buildings and construction materials, worker safety, energy efficiency, and environmental pollu­ tion has further complicated the manager’s job and should increase demand for these workers. Employment of construction contractors and managers is sensitive to the short-term nature of many construction projects and cyclical fluctuations in construction activity. During periods of diminished construction activity—when many construction workers are laid off—many construction contractors and managers remain employed in their own or other firms planning, scheduling, or estimating costs of future construction projects. When these downturns occur, some self-employed contractors may merge operations or dissolve their business and seek salaried employment with other contractors. Earnings Earnings of salaried construction managers and incomes of self-em­ ployed contractors vary depending upon the size and nature of the construction project, its geographic location, and economic condi­ tions. Based on limited information, starting salaries of construction managers in 1990 were about $28,000; annual earnings of most expe­ rienced managers ranged from $35,000 to $100,000. Many salaried construction managers receive fringe benefits such as bonuses, liberal motor vehicle allowances, and per diem allowances. The income of self-employed contractors varies even more widely than that of salaried managers. The failure rate of small, newly formed construc­ tion firms is higher than that of other newly established small busi­ nesses. Related Occupations Construction contractors and managers participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and organize, schedule, and oversee its implementation. Occupations with similar functions in­ clude architects, civil engineers, construction supervisors, cost engi­ neers, cost estimators, developers, electrical engineers, industrial engineers, landscape architects, and mechanical engineers. Sources of Information For information about careers for construction managers contact: m- American Institute of Constructors, 9887 North Gandy Blvd., St. Suite 104, Petersburg, FL 33702.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations •" Associated Builders and Contractors, 729 15th St. NW., Washington, DC 20005. »■ Associated General Contractors of America, 1957 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20006. Construction Management Association of America, 1893 Preston White Dr„ Suite 130, Reston, VA 22091.  Information on construction science and management program ac­ creditation requirements is available from: American Council for Construction Education, 901 Hudson Lane, Monroe, LA 71201.  Cost Estimators (D.O.T. 160.267-018; 221.362-018, .367-014, .387-022, .482-014, .484-010)  Nature of the Work Being able to predict the cost of future projects is vital to the eco­ nomic survival of any business. Cost estimators develop this informa­ tion for owners or managers to use in making bids for contracts, in determining if a new product will be profitable, or in determining if the organization is getting good value for its money. Regardless of industry, estimators compile and analyze data on all the factors that can influence costs—materials, labor, location, and special machinery, including computer hardware and software. Actu­ al job duties vary widely depending upon the type and size of the pro­ ject. On a large construction project, for example, the estimating process begins with the decision to submit a bid. After reviewing the architect’s drawings, specifications, and other bidding documents, the estimator visits the site of the proposed construction project to gather information on access to the site and availability of electricity, water, and other services, as well as surface topography and drainage. If the project is a remodeling or renovation job, the estimator might consid­ er the need to control noise and dust and to perform work in such a way that occupants can continue to carry out their activities as nor­ mally as possible. The information developed during the site visit generally is recorded in a signed report that is made part of the pro­ ject estimate. After the site visit is completed, the estimator must determine the quantity of materials and labor that the firm will have to furnish. This process, called the quantity survey or “takeoff,” is completed by fill­ ing out standard estimating forms that provide spaces for the entry of dimensions, number of units, and other information. A cost estimator working for a general contractor, for example, will estimate the costs of the items the contractor must provide. Although subcontractors will estimate their costs as part of their own bidding process, the gen­ eral contractor’s cost estimator often analyzes bids made by subcon­ tractors as well. Allowances for the waste of materials, inclement weather, shipping delays, and other factors that may increase costs are made as the takeoff proceeds. In large construction organizations with several estimators, it is common practice for them to specialize. For instance, one person may estimate only electrical work, whereas another may concentrate on excavation, concrete, and forms. Also during the takeoff process, the estimator must make decisions con­ cerning equipment needs, sequence of operations, and crew size. On completion of the quantity surveys, a total project cost summa­ ry is prepared by the chief estimator that includes the cost of labor, equipment, materials, subcontracts, overhead, taxes, insurance, markup, and any other costs that may affect the project. The chief esti­ mator then prepares the bid proposal for submission to the developer. In manufacturing and other firms, cost estimators generally are as­ signed to the engineering or cost department. In manufacturing, their job may begin with a request by managers to estimate the costs asso­ ciated with a major redesign of an existing product or the develop­ ment of a new product or production process. For example, to develop a new product, the estimator, working with engineers, first reviews blueprints or conceptual drawings to determine the machin­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  25  ing operations, tools and gauges, and materials that would be required for the job. The estimator then must prepare a parts list and determine whether it is more efficient to produce or to purchase the parts. To do this, the estimator must initiate inquiries for price information from potential suppliers. The next step is to determine the cost of manufac­ turing each component of the product. Some high technology prod­ ucts require massive amounts of computer programming during the design phase. The cost of software is one of the fastest growing and most difficult activities to estimate. Some cost estimators now spe­ cialize in estimating computer-related costs. The cost estimator then prepares time-phase charts and learning curves. The former indicate the time required for tool design and fab­ rication, tool “debugging” (finding and correcting all problems), manufacturing of parts, assembly, and testing. Learning curves repre­ sent graphically the rate at which performance improves with prac­ tice. These curves are commonly called “problem-elimination” curves because many problems, such as engineering changes, rework, parts shortages, and lack of operator skills, diminish as the number of parts produced increases, resulting in lower unit costs. Using all this information, the estimator then calculates the stan­ dard labor hours necessary to produce a predetermined number of units. Standard labor hours are then converted to dollar values, to which are added factors for waste, overhead, and profit to yield the unit cost in dollars. Then the estimator compares the cost of purchas­ ing parts with the firm’s cost of manufacturing them to determine which is cheaper. Computers are widely used because cost estimating may involve complex mathematical techniques—parametric analysis, for example. Although computers cannot be used for the entire estimating process, they can relieve estimators of much of the drudgery associated with routine, repetitive, and time-consuming calculations. This leaves esti­ mators with more time to study and analyze projects and can lead to more accurate estimates. (Details on various cost estimating tech­ niques are available from the organizations listed under Sources of Additional Information below.) Working Conditions Estimators spend most of their time in an office. Nevertheless, con­ struction estimators must make frequent visits to work sites that are dirty and cluttered with debris. Likewise, estimators in manufacturing must spend time on the factory floor where it can be hot, noisy, and dirty. Cost estimators usually operate under pressure, especially when facing deadlines, because inaccurate estimating can cause a firm to lose out on a bid that would have been profitable or to take on a job that proves to be unprofitable. Although estimators usually work a 40-hour week, much overtime is often required. In some industries, frequent travel between the parent firm and its subsidiaries or subcon­ tractors is required. Government and other estimators often visit firms to substantiate bids or prices.  Cost estimators analyze data on allfactors that influence costs.  26  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment Cost estimators held about 173,000 jobs in 1990, primarily in con­ struction industries. Others worked for manufacturing industries. Some worked for engineering and architectural services firms, busi­ ness services firms, and a wide range of other industries. Construc­ tion analysts in the Department of Housing and Urban Development and operations research, production control, cost, and price analysts in the Departments of Defense and Energy may do significant amounts of cost estimating in the course of their regular duties. (For more information, see the statement on operations research analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Cost estimators work in all parts of the country, usually in or near major industrial, commercial, and government centers and in cities and suburban areas undergoing rapid change or development where large amounts of construction are taking place. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Entry requirements vary by industry. In construction, employers pre­ fer applicants with a thorough knowledge of construction materials, costs, and procedures in areas ranging from heavy construction to electrical work, plumbing systems, or masonry work. In fact, most construction estimators have experience as a construction craft work­ er or as a contractor. Persons who combine this experience with some postsecondary training in construction estimating or a bachelor’s or associate degree in civil engineering, architectural drafting, or build­ ing construction have the edge in landing jobs. Those with an aca­ demic background who lack work experience qualify for some jobs, but are at a distinct disadvantage when competing for jobs with expe­ rienced applicants. In manufacturing, employers prefer persons with a degree in engineering, science, operations research, mathematics, or statistics, or in accounting, finance, business, or a related subject. In high-technology industries, great emphasis is placed on experience involving quantitative techniques. Computer literacy and, in some cases, programming capability are required. Regardless of background, estimators receive much training on the job. Working with an experienced estimator, they become familiar with each step in the process. Those with no experience reading con­ struction specifications or blueprints first learn that aspect of the work. Then they may accompany an experienced estimator to the construction site or the shop floor where they observe the work being done, take measurements, or perform other routine tasks. As they be­ come more knowledgeable, they leam how to tabulate quantities and dimensions from drawings and how to select which material prices are to be used. Cost estimating is included as part of the civil engineering, indus­ trial engineering, and construction management or construction engi­ neering technology curriculums in many colleges and universities. In addition, many technical schools, junior colleges, and universities offer courses and programs in cost estimating techniques and proce­ dures. Master’s degree programs in cost analysis are offered by the Air Force Institute of Technology in Dayton, Ohio, and the Universi­ ty of Toledo. In addition, cost estimating is a significant part of the master’s degree program in constructiom management offered by many colleges and universities. Organizations that represent cost esti­ mators, such as the American Association of Cost Engineers, the American Society of Professional Estimators, the Society of Cost Es­ timating and Analysis, and the International Society of Parametric Analysts also sponsor educational programs. These programs help students, estimators-in-training, and experienced estimators stay abreast of changes affecting the profession. Professional recognition through certification is valuable, because it is a mark of the estimator’s competence and experience. In order to become certified, estimators generally must have between 3 and 7 years of estimating experience and must pass both a written and an oral examination. In addition, certification requirements may include publication of at least one article or paper in the field. Cost estimators should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to quickly analyze, compare, and interpret detailed and sometimes poorly defined information, and be able to make sound and accurate  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  judgments based on this knowledge. Assertiveness and self-confi­ dence in presenting and supporting their conclusions are important. For most estimators, advancement takes the form of higher pay and prestige. Some move into a management position, such as project manager for a construction firm or manager of the industrial engi­ neering department for a manufacturer. Others may go into business for themselves as consultants, providing estimating services for a fee to government or construction and manufacturing firms. Job Outlook Employment of cost estimators is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job open­ ings, however, will arise from the need to replace experienced estima­ tors who transfer to another occupation or leave the labor force. Employment of cost estimators is dependent primarily upon the level of construction and manufacturing activity. Growth of the construction industry, where most cost estimators are employed, will be the driving force behind the rising demand for these workers. The fastest growing sectors of the construction industry will be those associated with spend­ ing on the Nation’s infrastructure. Construction and repair of highways and streets, bridges, and construction of more subway systems, airports, water and sewage systems, and electric powerplants and transmission lines will stimulate demand for many more cost estimators. In addition, spending on hotels, office and other commercial buildings, and con­ struction of residential units, will add to the demand for cost estimators to predict the costs of these projects. Job prospects should be best for those workers who have substantial experience in various phases of construction or a specialty craft or those with a degree in construction management, engineering, or architectural drafting. Employment of cost estimators in manufacturing should expand as output increases and as more firms use the services of cost estimators to reduce their operating costs. In manufacturing, experienced persons with degrees in engineering, science, mathematics, business administra­ tion, or economics and who have computer expertise should have the best job prospects. Certification is an asset in all instances. Regardless of industry setting, employment growth is not expected to keep pace with the increase in output because of the growing use of im­ proved computer software packages that significantly increase cost esti­ mators’ efficiency. Earnngs Salaries for cost estimators vary widely by experience, education, size of firm, and industry. According to limited data available, most starting salaries in the construction industry for those with limited training ranged from $16,000 to $20,000 in 1990. College graduates in fields such as engineering or construction management that provide a strong background in cost estimating can start at $30,000 or more. Highly ex­ perienced individuals earned $75,000 or more. Starting salaries and an­ nual earnings in the manufacturing sector were somewhat higher, on the average. Related Occupations Other workers who quantitatively analyze information based upon rela­ tively imprecise data include appraisers, cost accountants, cost engi­ neers, economists, evaluators, financial analysts, loan officers, operations research analysts, underwriters, and value engineers. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, certification, schools, and con­ tinuing education programs in cost estimating in the construction indus­ try may be obtained from: American Society of Professional Estimators, Inc., 6911 Richmond Hwy., Suite 230, Alexandria, VA 22306. »■ American Association of Cost Engineers, P.O.Box 1557, Morgantown, WV 26507-1557.  Similar information about cost estimating in government and manu­ facturing and other industries is available from: <•" Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis, 101 S. Whiting St., Suite 313, Alexandria, VA 22304. »• International Society of Parametric Analysts, P.O. Box 1056, Germantown, MD 20874-1056.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Education Administrators (D.O.T. 075.117-010, -018; 090.117 except -034, .167; 091.107; 092.137­ 094.107, .117-010, -014, .167-010, 096.167-010, -014; 097.167; 099.117 ex­ cept -022; 169.267-022; 239.137-010)  Nature of the Work Smooth operation of an educational institution requires competent ad­ ministrators. Education administrators provide direction, leadership, and day-to-day management of educational activities in schools, col­ leges and universities, businesses, correctional institutions, museums, and job training and community service organizations. (College presi­ dents and school superintendents are covered in the Handbook state­ ment on general managers and top executives.) Education administrators set educational standards and goals and aid in estab­ lishing policies and procedures to carry them out. They develop aca­ demic programs; train and motivate teachers and other staff; manage guidance and other student services; administer recordkeeping; pre­ pare budgets; handle relations with parents, prospective students, em­ ployers, or others outside of education; and perform numerous other activities. They supervise subordinate managers, management support staff, teachers, counselors, librarians, coaches, and others. In an organiza­ tion such as a small daycare center, there may be one administrator who handles all functions. In a major university or large school sys­ tem, responsibilities are divided among many administrators, each with a specific function. Principals manage elementary and secondary schools. They set the academic tone—high-quality instruction is their main responsibility. Principals assign teachers and other staff, help them improve their skills, and evaluate them. They confer with them—advising, explain­ ing, or answering procedural questions. They visit classrooms, review instructional objectives, and examine learning materials. They also meet with other administrators, students, parents, and representatives of community organizations. They prepare budgets and reports on various subjects, including finances, health, and attendance, and over­ see the requisitioning and allocation of supplies. Assistant principals aid the principal in the overall administration of the school. Depending on the number of students, a school may have more than one assistant principal, or may not have any. They are responsible for programming student classes and coordinating trans­ portation, custodial, cafeteria, and other support services. They usual­ ly handle discipline, social and recreational programs, and health and safety. They may also counsel students on personal, educational, or vocational matters. Public schools are also managed by administrators in school dis­ trict central offices. This group includes those who direct subject area programs such as English, music, vocational education, special edu­ cation, and mathematics. They plan, evaluate, and improve curriculums and teaching techniques and help teachers improve their skills and learn about new methods and materials. The central office admin­ istrators also include directors of programs such as guidance, school psychology, athletics, curriculum and instruction, and professional development. In colleges and universities, academic deans, also known as deans of faculty, provosts, or university deans, assist presidents and develop budgets and academic policies and programs. They direct and coordi­ nate activities of deans and chairpersons of individual colleges and academic departments. College or university department heads or chairpersons are in charge of departments such as English, biological science, or mathe­ matics. They coordinate schedules of classes and teaching assign­ ments, propose budgets, recruit, interview, and hire applicants for teaching positions, evaluate faculty members, and perform other ad­ ministrative duties in addition to teaching. Higher education administrators also provide student services. Deans of students—also known as vice presidents of student affairs  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  27  or student life, or directors of student services—direct and coordinate admissions, foreign student services, and health and counseling ser­ vices, as well as social, recreation, and related programs. They set and enforce student affairs policies and administer discipline. In a small college, they may counsel students. Registrars are custodians of students’ education records. They register students, prepare student transcripts, evaluate academic records, oversee the preparation of col­ lege catalogs and schedules of classes, and analyze registration statis­ tics. Directors of admissions manage the process of admitting students, recruit students, and work closely with financial aid direc­ tors, who oversee scholarship, fellowship, and loan programs. Direc­ tors of student activities plan and arrange social, cultural, and recreational activities, assist student-run organizations, and orient new students. Athletic directors plan and direct intramural and inter­ collegiate athletic activities, including publicity for athletic events, preparation of budgets, and supervision of coaches. Working Conditions Education administrators hold management positions with significant responsibility. Coordinating and interacting with faculty, parents, and students can be fast-paced and stimulating, but also stressful and de­ manding. Some jobs include travel. Principals and assistant principals whose main duty is discipline may find working with difficult stu­ dents frustrating, but challenging. Most education administrators work more than 40 hours a week, including many nights and weekends when school activities take place. Unlike teachers, they usually work year round. Employment Education administrators held about 348,000 jobs in 1990. Almost 9 out of 10 were in educational services—in elementary, secondary, and technical schools and colleges and universities. The rest worked in child daycare centers, religious organizations, job training centers, State departments of education, and businesses and other organiza­ tions that provide training activities for their employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Education administrator is not usually an entry level job. Most educa­ tion administrators begin their careers in related occupations. Be­ cause of the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility, their  JBBb:  Education administrators set educational goals and evaluate teachers and other staff.  28  Occupational Outlook Handbook  educational backgrounds and experience vary considerably. Princi­ pals, assistant principals, central office administrators, and academic deans usually have taught or held another related job before moving into administration. Some teachers move directly into principalships; others first gain experience as an assistant principal or in a central of­ fice administrative job. In some cases, administrators move up from related staff jobs such as recruiter, residence hall director, or financial aid or admissions counselor. To be considered for education adminis­ trator positions, workers must first prove themselves in their current jobs. In evaluating candidates, supervisors look for determination, confidence, innovativeness, motivation, and managerial attributes such as ability to make sound decisions, to organize and coordinate work efficiently, and to establish good personal relationships with and motivate others. Knowledge of management principles and prac­ tices, gained through work experience and formal education, is im­ portant. In public schools, principals, assistant principals, and school admin­ istrators in central offices generally need a master’s degree in educa­ tion administration or educational supervision, and a State teaching certificate. Some principals and central office administrators have a doctorate in education administration. In private schools, they often have a master’s or doctoral degree, but may hold only a bachelor’s de­ gree since they are not subject to State certification requirements. Academic deans usually have a doctorate in their specialty. Admis­ sions, student affairs, and financial aid directors and registrars often start in related staff jobs with bachelor’s degrees—any field is usually acceptable—and get advanced degrees in college student affairs or higher education administration. A Ph.D. or Ed.D. is usually neces­ sary for top student affairs positions. Computer literacy is an asset in admissions, records, and financial work. Advanced degrees in higher education administration, educational supervision, and college student affairs are offered in many colleges and universities. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education accredits programs. Education administration degree pro­ grams include courses in school management, school law, school fi­ nance and budgeting, curriculum development and evaluation, research design and data analysis, community relations, politics in education, and leadership. Educational supervision degree programs include courses in supervision of instruction and curriculum, human relations, curriculum development, research, and advanced pedagogy courses. Education administrators advance by moving up an administrative ladder or transferring to larger schools or systems. They may also be­ come superintendent of a school system or president of an education­ al institution. Job Outlook Employment of education administrators is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings will result from the need to replace administrators who retire or transfer to other occupations. Employment of education administrators will grow as school en­ rollments increase; as more services are provided to students; as ef­ forts to improve the quality of education continue; and as institutions comply with government regulations, such as those regarding finan­ cial aid. The number of education administrators employed depends largely on State and local expenditures for education. Budgetary constraints could result in fewer administrators than anticipated; pressures to in­ crease spending to improve the quality of education could result in more. Substantial competition is expected for prestigious jobs as educa­ tion administrators. For example, many teachers and other staff meet the education and experience requirements for these jobs and seek promotion. However, the number of openings is relatively small, so generally only the most highly qualified are selected. Earnings Salaries of education administrators vary according to position, level  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  of responsibility and experience, and the size and location of the in­ stitution. According to the Educational Research Service, Inc., average salaries for principals and assistant principals in the school year 1990-91 were as follows; Principals: Elementary school............................................................ $51,500 Junior high/middle school................................................ 55,100 Senior high school............................................................ 59,100 Assistant principals: Elementary school............................................................ 43,500 Junior high/middle school................................................ 47,000 Senior high school............................................................ 49,000 In 1990-91, according to the College and University Personnel As­ sociation, median annual salaries for selected administrators in higher education were as follows: Academic deans: Medicine............................................................................$160,200 Law................................................................................... 120,300 Engineering....................................................................... 88,400 Arts and sciences.............................................................. 70,000 Business............................................................................ 70,000 Education.......................................................................... 68,300 Social sciences.................................................................. 53,300 Mathematics..................................................................... 52,200 Student services directors: Admissions and registrar.................................................. 45,900 Student financial aid......................................................... 38,300 Student activities.............................................................. 30,600 Related Occupations Education administrators apply organizational and leadership skills to provide services to individuals. Workers in related occupations in­ clude health services administrators, social service agency adminis­ trators, recreation and park managers, museum directors, library directors, and professional and membership organization executives. Since principals and assistant principals generally have extensive teaching experience, their backgrounds are similar to those of teach­ ers and many school counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information on elementary and secondary school principals, as­ sistant principals, and central office administrators, contact: <*■ American Federation of School Administrators, 853 Broadway, Suite 2109, New York, NY 10003. »■ American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore St., Arlington, VA 22209.  For information on elementary school principals and assistant prin­ cipals, contact: m- The National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1615 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3483.  For information on secondary school principals and assitant princi­ pals, contact: m- The National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1904 Associa­ tion Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  For information on higher education administrators, contact: •• American Association of University Administrators, George Washington University, 2121 Eye St. NW„ Rice Hall, 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20052.  For information on college student affairs administrators, contact: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 1875 Connecti­ cut Ave. NW., Suite 418, Washington, DC 20009-5728.  For information on collegiate registrars and admissions officers, contact: m- American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, One Dupont Circle NW., Suite 330, Washington, DC 20036-1171.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Employment Interviewers (D.O.T. 166.267-010)  Nature of the Work Whether you are looking for a job or trying to fill one, you could find yourself turning to an employment interviewer for help. Sometimes called personnel consultants, account representatives, coordinators, customer service representatives, manpower development specialists, employment brokers, or head hunters, employment interviewers have two principal duties: They help jobseekers find employment and help employers find qualified staff. Working largely in private personnel supply firms or State employ­ ment security offices (also known as Job or Employment Service cen­ ters), employment interviewers act as brokers, putting together the best combination of applicant and job. To accomplish this, they ob­ tain information from employers as well as jobseekers. Being a private industry employment interviewer is a sales job. Counselors pool together a group of qualified applicants and try to sell them to many different companies. Often a consultant will call a company that has never been a client (cold-calling) with the aim of filling their employment needs. Employers generally pay private (but not public) agencies for find­ ing them workers. The employer places a “job order” with the agency describing the opening and listing requirements such as education, li­ censes or credentials, and experience. Employment interviewers often contact the employer to determine their exact personnel needs. Job­ seekers are asked to fill out forms or present resumes that detail their education, experience, and other qualifications. They may be inter­ viewed or tested and have their background, references, and creden­ tials checked. The employment interviewer then reviews the job requirements and the jobseeker qualifications to determine the best possible match of employer and employee. This process is usually done with the aid of a computer data base. Maintaining good relations with employers is an important part of the employment interviewer’s job since this helps assure a steady flow of job orders; being prepared to fill an opening quickly with a qualified applicant is the best way to impress an employer and retain them as a client. Besides helping firms fill job openings, employment interviewers help individuals find jobs. The services they provide depend upon the company or type of agency they work for and the clientele it serves. Employment interviewers in personnel supply firms who place per­ manent employees are generally called counselors. They usually place job applicants who have the right qualifications but lack know­ ledge of the job market for their desired position. Counselors in these firms do, however, offer tips on personal appearance, suggestions on presenting a positive picture of oneself, background on the company with which an interview is scheduled, and recommendations about in­ terviewing techniques. Many firms specialize in placing applicants in particular kinds of jobs—secretarial, word processing, engineering, accounting, law, or health, for example. Counselors in such firms usually have 3 to 5 years of experience in the field into which they are placing applicants. Some employment interviewers work in temporary help services companies. These companies send out their own employees to firms that need temporary help. Employment interviewers take job orders from client firms and match their requests against a list of available workers. The employment interviewer selects the best qualified worker available and assigns him or her to the firm requiring assis­ tance. Regular evaluation of employee job skills is an important part of the job for those interviewers working in temporary help services companies. Initially, interviewers evaluate or test new employees’ skills to determine their abilities and weaknesses. The results, which are kept on file, are referred to when filling job orders. In some cases, the temporary help company will offer training to employees to im­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  29  prove their skills. Periodically, the interviewer may reevaluate or retest employees in an effort to identify any new skills they may have developed. The duties of employment interviewers in Job Service centers are somewhat different because applicants may lack marketable skills. In these centers, applicants present resumes and fill out forms that ask for educational attainment, job history, skills, awards, certificates, and licenses. An employment interviewer reviews these forms and asks the applicant about the type of job sought and salary range de­ sired. Applicants sometimes have exaggerated expectations. Employ­ ment interviewers must be tactful, but persuasive, if an applicant’s job or salary requests are unreasonable. Applicants may need help identifying the kind of work for which they are best suited. The employment interviewer evaluates the appli­ cant’s qualifications and either chooses an appropriate occupation or class of occupations, or refers the applicant for vocational testing. Once an appropriate type of job has been identified, the employ­ ment interviewer searches the file of job orders seeking a possible job match, and refers the applicant to the employer if a match is found. If no match is found, the interviewer shows the applicant how to use listings of available jobs. Some applicants are hindered by problems such as poor English language skills, no high school diploma, a history of drug or alcohol dependency, or a prison record. The amount and nature of special help for such applicants vary from State to State. In some States, it is the employment interviewer’s responsibility to counsel hard-to-place applicants and refer them elsewhere for literacy or language instruc­ tion, vocational training, transportation assistance, childcare, and other services. In other States, specially trained counselors perform this task. Working Conditions Employment interviewers usually work in comfortable, well-lighted offices. Some interviewers may spend much of their time out of their office interviewing clients. The work can be hectic, especially in tem­ porary help service companies which supply clients with immediate help for short periods of time. Some overtime may be required and use of personal transportation may be necessary to make employer visits. The private placement industry is competitive, so there is pres­ sure on counselors to give their client companies the best service. Employment Employment interviewers held about 83,000 jobs in 1990. Three out of 5 worked for employment firms or temporary help services compa­ nies in the private sector. Most of the rest worked for State employ­ ment security agencies. Employees of career consulting or outplacement firms are not in­ cluded in these estimates. Workers in these firms help clients market themselves; they do not act as job brokers, nor do they match individ­ uals with particular vacancies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although most public and private agencies prefer to hire college graduates for interviewer jobs, a degree is not always necessary. Hir­ ing requirements in the private sector reflect a firm’s management ap­ proach as well as the placements in which it specializes. Firms that place highly trained individuals such as accountants, lawyers, engi­ neers, physicians, or managers prefer their interviewers to have some training or experience in the field in which they are placing workers. Thus, a bachelor’s or even a master’s degree may be a prerequisite for interviewers in some firms. However, even with the right educa­ tion, sales ability is still required to succeed in the private sector. Firms placing secretaries, word processing operators, and other clerical personnel do not ordinarily stress educational background for their interviewers. In these positions, qualities such as energy level, telephone voice, and sales ability take precedence over educational attainment. Entry level employment interviewer positions in the public sector are generally filled by college graduates, even though a bachelor’s  30  Occupational Outlook Handbook  4*. •  *  growth. Job orders will increase as the economy expands and new businesses are formed; this is expected to heighten demand for em­ ployment interviewers. Firms that lack the time or resources to devel­ op their own screening procedures are likely to turn to personnel firms. While little job growth is foreseen in the State Job Service centers, employment opportunities in private placement firms should be good. Entry to this occupation is relatively easy for college graduates (or people who have had some college courses) except in those positions specializing in placement of lawyers, doctors, and engineers. A rela­ tively high turnover rate, due to job stress, will provide many oppor­ tunities in addition to those generated by very rapid growth in demand. Employment interviewers may lose their jobs during recessions be­ cause employers reduce or eliminate new hiring during downturns in the economy, greatly reducing the need for personnel supply services and thus for employment interviewers. Also, during periods of high unemployment, employers have fewer problems finding the type of workers they need, so they turn less to employment agencies for help. Those who place permanent or temporary personnel are more suscep­ tible to layoffs than State Job Service employment interviewers.  degree is not always a formal requirement. Some States allow substi­ tution of suitable work experience for college education. “Suitable work experience” is generally defined as public contact work or time spent at other jobs (including clerical jobs) in a Job Service office. In States that permit employment interviewers to engage in counseling, course work in counseling may be required. Most States and many large city and county governments use some form of merit system for hiring interviewers. Applicants may take a written exam, undergo a preliminary interview, or submit records of their education and experience for evaluation. Those who meet the standards are placed on a list from which the top-ranked candidates are selected for later interviews and possible hiring. Other desirable qualifications for employment interviewers include good communications skills, a desire to help people, office skills, and adaptability. A friendly, confidence-winning manner is an asset since personal interaction is a large part of this occupation. Because com­ puters are increasingly being used as a tool by employment inter­ viewers, knowledge of computers is helpful. Advancement as an employment interviewer in the public sector is often based on a system providing regular promotions and salary in­ creases for those meeting established standards. Advancement to su­ pervisory positions is highly competitive. Advancement in personnel supply firms generally takes the form of greater responsibility and higher income. Successful individuals may form their own businesses.  Earnings Earnings in private firms vary, in part because the basis for compen­ sation varies. Workers in personnel supply firms generally are paid on a commission basis while those in temporary help service companies receive a salary. When workers are paid on a commission basis (or salary plus com­ mission), total earnings depend on how much business they bring in. This is usually based on the type as well as the number of place­ ments. Those who place more highly skilled or hard-to-find employ­ ees earn more. An interviewer or counselor working strictly on a commission basis often makes around 30 percent of what he or she bills the client, although this varies widely from firm to firm. Some work on a salary-plus-commission basis because they fill difficult or highly specialized positions requiring long periods of search. The salary, usually small by normal standards, guarantees these individu­ als security through slow times while the commission provides the in­ centive and opportunity for higher earnings. Some personnel supply firms employ new workers for a 2- to 3month probationary period during which they draw a regular salary. This is intended to provide new workers time to develop their skills and acquire some clients. At the end of the probationary period, the new employees are evaluated, and are either let go or switched to a commission basis. According to the limited data available, average earnings of inter­ viewers or counselors in personnel supply and temporary help ser­ vices firms ranged from about $17,000 to $25,000 in 1991; some earned considerably more. Salaries for those placing professional workers are usually higher than those placing clerical workers. Starting salaries for employment interviewers in State Job Service centers vary from State to State and ranged from about $12,000 to $24,000 a year in 1991.  Job Outlook Employment in this occupation is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most new jobs will be in temporary help or personnel supply firms. Relatively little growth is anticipated in State Job Service offices because of bud­ getary problems and the increasing use of computerized job matching and information systems. Additional job openings will result from re­ placement needs, which are substantial because of the relatively high turnover in this field. Expansion of firms supplying temporary help will be responsible for much of the growth in this occupation. Businesses of all types are turning to temporary help services companies for additional workers during busy periods, for handling short-term assignments or one-time projects, and for launching new programs. Expansion of the personnel supply industry will also spur job  Related Occupations Employment interviewers serve as intermediaries for jobseekers and employers. Workers in several other occupations do similar jobs. Personnel officers screen and help hire new employees but their major concern is the hiring needs of the firm; they never represent in­ dividual jobseekers. Personnel officers may also have additional du­ ties in areas such as payroll or benefits management. College career counselors help students and alumni find jobs, but their primary emphasis is career counseling and decisionmaking, not placement. Counselors in community organizations and vocational rehabilita­ tion facilities help clients find jobs, but they also provide assistance with drug or alcohol dependencies, housing, transportation, childcare, and other problems that stand in the way of finding and keeping a job.  Employment interviewers must have strong interpersonal skills.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  31  Sources of Additional Information For information on a career as an employment interviewer/counselor, contact: w National Association of Personnel Consultants, 3133 Mt. Vernon Ave., Alexandria, VA 22305.  For information on a career as an employment interviewer in State employment security offices, contact: Interstate Conference of Employment Security Agencies, 444 North Capi­ tol St. NW., Suite 126, Washington, DC 20001.  Engineering, Science, and Data Processing Managers (D.O.T. 003.167-034 and -070; 005.167-010 and 022; 007.167-014; 008.167­ 010; 010.161-014 and -018; 011.161-010; 012.167-058 and -062; 018.167­ 022; 019.167-014; 022.161-010; 029.167-014; 162.117-030; 169.167-030; and 189.117-014)  Nature of the Work Engineering, science, and data processing managers plan, coordinate, and direct technical, scientific, and computer related activities. They supervise a staff of engineers, scientists, technicians, computer spe­ cialists, data processing workers, and support personnel. Engineering, science, and data processing managers determine sci­ entific and technical goals within broad outlines provided by top management. These goals may include the redesign of an industrial machine, improvements in manufacturing processes, the development of a large computer program, or advances in basic scientific research. Managers make detailed plans for the accomplishment of these goals—for example, they may develop the overall concepts of new products or identify problems standing in the way of project comple­ tion. They forecast costs and equipment and personnel needs for pro­ jects and programs. They hire and assign scientists, engineers, technicians, computer specialists, data processing workers, and sup­ port personnel to carry out specific parts of the projects, supervise their work, and review their designs, programs, and reports. Managers coordinate the activities of their unit with other units or organizations. They confer with higher levels of management; with financial, industrial production, marketing, and other managers; and with contractors and equipment suppliers. They also establish work­ ing and administrative procedures and policies. Engineering managers direct and coordinate production, opera­ tions, quality assurance, testing, or maintenance in industrial plants; or plan and coordinate the design and development of machinery, products, systems, and processes. Many are plant engineers, directing and coordinating the maintenance, operation, design, and installation of equipment and machinery in industrial plants. Others manage re­ search and development activities that produce new products and pro­ cesses or improve existing ones. Natural science managers oversee activities in agricultural science, chemistry, biology, geology, meteorology, or physics. They manage research and development projects and direct and coordinate testing, quality control, and production activities in industrial plants. Electronic data processing managers direct, plan, and coordinate data processing activities. Top level managers direct all computer-re­ lated activities in an organization. Others manage computer opera­ tions, software development, or data bases. They analyze the data processing requirements of their organization and assign, schedule, and review the work of systems analysts, computer programmers, and computer operators. Some engineering, science, and data processing managers head a section of perhaps 3 to 10 or more scientists, engineers, or computer professionals. Above them are heads of divisions composed of a number of sections, with as many as 15 to 50 scientists or engineers. A few are directors of large laboratories or directors of research.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Engineering managers oversee research and development activities. Working Conditions Engineering, science, and data processing managers spend most of their time in an office. Some managers, however, may also work in laboratories or industrial plants, where they normally are exposed to the same conditions as research scientists and may occasionally be exposed to the same conditions as production workers. Most work at least 40 hours a week and may work much longer on occasion to meet project deadlines. Some may experience considerable pressure to meet technical or scientific goals within a short time or within a tight budget. Employment Engineering, science, and data processing managers held about 315,000 jobs in 1990. Although these managers are found in almost all industries, almost half are employed in manufacturing, especially in the industrial machinery and equipment, electrical and electronic equipment, transportation equipment, and chemicals industries. They also work for engineering, management, and computer and data pro­ cessing services companies; as well as for government, colleges and universities, and nonprofit research organizations. The majority are engineering managers, often managing industrial research, develop­ ment, and design projects. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Experience as an engineer, mathematician, natural scientist, or com­ puter professional is the usual requirement for becoming an engineer­ ing, science, or data processing manager. Consequently, educational requirements are similar to those for scientists, engineers, and data processing professionals. Engineering managers start as engineers. A bachelor’s degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is acceptable for beginning engineering jobs, but many engineers increase their chances for promotion to manager by obtaining a master’s degree in engineering or business administration. A degree in business admin­ istration or engineering management is especially useful for becom­ ing a general manager. Natural science managers usually start as a chemist, physicist, biol­ ogist, or other natural scientist. A large proportion of natural scien­ tists have a Ph.D. degree, especially those engaged in basic research, although some in applied research and other activities have lesser de­ grees. First-level science managers are usually specialists in the work they supervise. For example, the manager of a group of physicists doing optical research is almost always a physicist who is an expert in optics. Most data processing managers have been systems analysts, al­ though some may have experience as programmers or in other com­ puter specialties. There is no universally accepted way of preparing for a job as a systems analyst, but a bachelor’s degree is usually re­ quired. A graduate degree often is preferred. Many systems analysts have degrees in computer or information science, computer informa­  32  Occupational Outlook Handbook  tion systems, or data processing and have experience as computer programmers. A typical career advancement progression in a large organization would be from programmer to programmer/analyst, to systems analyst, and then to project leader or senior analyst. The first real managerial position might be as project manager, programming supervisor, systems supervisor, or software manager. In addition to educational requirements, scientists, engineers, or computer specialists generally must have demonstrated above-aver­ age technical skills to be considered for promotion to manager. Supe­ riors also look for leadership and communication skills, as well as managerial attributes such as the ability to make rational decisions, to manage time well, to organize and coordinate work effectively, to es­ tablish good working and personal relationships, and to motivate oth­ ers. Also, a successful manager must have the desire to manage. Many scientists, engineers, and computer specialists want to be pro­ moted but actually prefer doing technical work. Some scientists and engineers become managers in marketing, per­ sonnel, purchasing, or other areas or become general managers. Job Outlook Employment of engineering and science managers is expected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Employment growth of each type of manager is expected to correspond closely with growth of the occupation they supervise. (See the statements on natural scientists, engineers, computer pro­ grammers, and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Underlying much of the growth of managers in science and engi­ neering is the expected continued growth of research and develop­ ment as companies update and improve products more frequently. Increased research and investment in plants to expand output of goods and services and to raise productivity also will add to employ­ ment requirements for science and engineering managers involved in research and development, design, and the operation and maintenance of production facilities. The development of new technologies in new areas such as superconductivity, medical diagnostics, and advanced materials also will help to develop newer, higher quality products. Employment of data processing managers will increase as the econo­ my expands and as advances in technology lead to broader applica­ tions for computers. Despite growth in employment, most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation. Because many engineers, natural scientists, and computer special­ ists are eligible for management and seek promotion, there usually is substantial competition for these jobs. Earnings Earnings for engineering, science, and data processing managers vary by specialty and level of management. Salaries in 1990 ranged from about $40,000 for first level data processing managers to well over $100,000 for the most senior managers in large organizations, accord­ ing to the limited data available. Managers often earn about 15 to 25 percent more than those they directly supervise, although there are cases where some employees are paid more than the manager who supervises them. In addition, engineering, science, and data processing managers, especially those at higher levels, often are provided more fringe bene­ fits than non-managerial workers in their organizations. Higher level managers often are provided with expense accounts, stock option plans, and bonuses. Related Occupations The work of engineering, science, and data processing managers is closely related to that of engineers, natural scientists, computer per­ sonnel, and mathematicians. It is also related to the work of other managers, especially general managers and top executives. Sources of Additional Information Contact the sources of additional information on engineers, natural scientists, and systems analysts that are listed in statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Financial Managers (D.O.T. 161.117-018; 186.117-014, -038, -066, -070, -078; .167-022, -026, -054; and 189.117-038)  Nature of the Work Practically every firm—whether in manufacturing, communications, finance, education, or health care—has one or more financial man­ agers—treasurer, controller, credit manager, cash manager, and oth­ ers—who prepare the financial reports required by the firm to conduct its operations and to satisfy tax and regulatory requirements. Financial managers also oversee the flow of cash and financial instru­ ments and develop information to assess the present and future finan­ cial status of the firm. In small firms, treasurers’ duties usually include all financial man­ agement functions. However, in large firms, treasurers or chief finan­ cial officers oversee all financial management departments. In these instances, treasurers help top managers develop financial and eco­ nomic policy and establish procedures, delegate authority, and over­ see the implementation of these policies. Highly trained and experienced financial managers head each fi­ nancial department. Controllers direct the preparation of all financial reports—for example, income statements, balance sheets, and special reports such as depreciation schedules. They oversee the accounting, audit, or budget departments. Cash and credit managers monitor and control the flow of cash receipts and disbursements and other finan­ cial instruments to meet the business and investment needs of the firm. For example, cash flow projections are needed to determine whether loans must be obtained to meet cash requirements, or whether surplus cash may be invested in interest-bearing instruments. Risk and insurance managers oversee programs to minimize risks and losses that may arise from financial transactions and business opera­ tions undertaken by the institution. Credit card operations managers establish credit rating criteria, determine credit ceilings, and monitor their institution’s extension of credit. Reserve officers review their in­ stitution’s financial statements and direct the purchase and sale of bonds and other securities to maintain the asset-liability ratio required by law. User representatives in international accounting develop inte­ grated international financial and accounting systems for the banking transactions of multinational organizations. A working knowledge of the financial systems of foreign countries is essential. Financial institutions—such as banks, savings and loan associa­ tions, credit unions, personal credit institutions, and finance compa­ nies—may serve as depositories for cash and financial instruments and offer loans, investment counseling, trust management, and other financial services. Some institutions specialize in specific financial services. Financial managers in these institutions include vice presi­ dents—who may head one or more financial departments—bank branch managers, savings and loan association managers, consumer credit managers, and credit union managers, for example. Financial managers in financial institutions make decisions in ac­ cordance with Federal and State laws and regulations and policy set by the institution’s board of directors. They must have detailed know­ ledge of industries allied to banking—such as insurance, real estate, and securities—and broad knowledge of business and industrial ac­ tivities. With growing domestic and foreign competition, promotion of an expanding and increasingly complex variety of financial ser­ vices is becoming a more important function of financial managers in banks and other financial institutions and in other corporations. Be­ sides supervising financial services, they may advise individuals and businesses on financial planning. Working Conditions Financial managers are provided with comfortable offices, often close to top managers and to departments which develop the financial data these managers need. Although overtime may sometimes be required, financial managers typically work a 40-hour week. Attendance at  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  33  work independently, deal with people, and analyze detailed account information. The ability to communicate, both orally and in writing, with top managers is increasingly important. They also need tact, good judgment, and the ability to establish effective personal rela­ tionships to oversee supervisory and professional staff members. Financial analysis and management have been revolutionized by technological improvements in personal computers and data process­ ing equipment. Knowledge of their applications is vital to upgrade managerial skills and to enhance advancement opportunities. Because financial management is critical for efficient business op­ erations, well-trained, experienced financial managers who display a strong grasp of the operations of various departments within their or­ ganization are prime candidates for promotion to top management positions. Some financial managers transfer to closely related posi­ tions in other industries. Those with extensive experience and access to sufficient capital may head their own consulting firms.  Many positions are filled by promoting experienced, technically skilled professional personnel. meetings of financial and economic associations and similar activities is often required. In very large corporations, some traveling to sub­ sidiary firms and to customer accounts may be necessary. Employment Financial managers held about 701,000 jobs in 1990. Although these managers are found in virtually every industry, about one-third were employed by financial institutions—banks, finance companies, credit unions, insurance companies, securities dealers, and real estate firms, for example. Another third were employed by services industries, in­ cluding business, health, social, and management services. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in accounting or finance, or in business adminis­ tration with an emphasis on accounting or finance, is suitable aca­ demic preparation for financial managers. A Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree in addition to a bachelor’s degree is increasingly valued by employers. Many financial management posi­ tions are filled by promoting experienced, technically skilled profes­ sional personnel—for example, accountants, budget analysts, credit analysts, insurance analysts, loan officers, and securities analysts—or accounting or related department supervisors in large institutions. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a financial management position may come slowly. In large firms, promotions may occur more quickly. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by special study. Firms often provide opportunities for workers to broaden their knowledge and skills and encourage employees to take courses at local colleges and universities or attend conferences sponsored by the company. In addition, financial management, banking, and credit union associa­ tions, often in cooperation with colleges and universities, sponsor nu­ merous national or local training programs. Their schools, located throughout the country, each deal with a different phase of financial management. Persons enrolled prepare extensively at home, then at­ tend sessions on subjects such as accounting management, budget management, corporate cash management, financial analysis, interna­ tional banking, and data processing and management information systems. Many firms pay all or part of the costs for those who suc­ cessfully complete courses. Persons interested in becoming financial managers should like to  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of financial managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The need for skilled financial managers, illustrated by the recent crisis among banks and savings and loan institutions, should be spurred by the increasing variety and complexity of services, including financial planning, offered by financial institutions; increased interstate and international banking; more domestic and foreign competition; changing laws regarding taxes and other financial matters; and greater emphasis on accurate reporting of financial data. At the same time, expanding automation—such as use of computers for electronic funds transmission and for data and information processing—makes finan­ cial managers more productive. Most job openings will result from the need to replace those who transfer to other fields, retire, or leave the occupation for other reasons. As in other management occupations, qualified applicants can ex­ pect to face competition for financial management positions. Famil­ iarity with a range of financial services—for example, banking, business credit, credit unions, insurance, real estate, and securities— and with data processing and management information systems may enhance one’s chances for employment. Developing expertise in a rapidly growing industry, such as health care, may also prove helpful. Financial managers generally are less subject to layoffs than many other workers because cyclical swings in the economy seem to have less immediate effect on financial management than on many other activities. Earnings The median annual salary of financial managers was $35,800 in 1990. The lowest 10 percent earned $18,300 or less, while the top 10 percent earned over $68,000. Some experienced financial managers earn substantially higher salaries. The salary level depends upon the size and location of the organization, and is likely to be higher in large organizations and cities. Many financial managers in private in­ dustry receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses, which also vary substantially by size of firm. Financial managers generally receive fringe benefits typically of­ fered other managers—vacations, sick leave, health and life insur­ ance, and pensions, for example. Related Occupations Financial managers combine formal education with experience in one or more areas of finance—such as asset management, lending, credit operations, securities investment, or insurance risk and loss control. Workers in other occupations which require similar training and abili­ ty include accountants and auditors, budget officers, credit analysts, loan officers, insurance consultants, pension consultants, real estate advisors, securities consultants, and underwriters. Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in consumer finance, contact: «*- American Financial Services Association, 919 18th St. NW., Washington DC 20006.  34  Occupational Outlook Handbook  For information about Financial management careers, contact: »■ Financial Executives Institute, Academic Relations Committee, RO, Box 1938, Morristown, NJ 07962-1938. National Corporate Cash Management Association, 7315 Wisconsin Ave., Suite 1250 W, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information about financial management careers in banking and related financial institutions, contact: »- American Bankers Association, Reference Librarian, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information about financial management careers in credit unions, contact: Credit Union Executives Society, P.O. Box 14167, Madison, WI53714.  For information about financial management careers in savings and loan associations and related financial institutions, contact: »■ Institute of Financial Education and Financial Managers Society, 111 E. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60601.  For information about financial careers in business credit manage­ ment, contact:  •• National Association of Credit Management (NACM), and Credit Research Foundation, the education and research affiliate of NACM, 8815 Centre Park Dr., Columbia, MD 21045-2117.  For information about financial management careers in the health care industry, contact: m- Healthcare Financial Management Association, Suite 700, Two Westbrook Corporate Center, Westchester, IL 60154.  Information about careers with the Federal Reserve System is available from: Board of Governors, The Federal Reserve System, Human Resources Man­ agement Division, Washington, DC 20551, or from the human resources de­ partment of the Federal Reserve bank serving each geographic area.  State bankers’ associations can furnish specific information about job opportunities in their State. Or write directly to a particular bank to inquire about job openings. For the names and addresses of banks and savings and related institutions, as well as the names of their principal officers, consult one of the following directories. The American Financial Directory (Norcross, Ga., McFadden Business Publications). «■ Folk's World Bank Directory (Nashville, R.L. Polk & Co.). *■ Rand McNally Credit Union Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). «■ The U.S. Savings and Loan Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.).  General Managers and Top Executives (List of D.O.T. codes available upon request. See p. 444.)  Nature of the Work Chief executive officer, executive vice president for marketing, de­ partment store manager, financial institution president, brokerage of­ fice manager, college president, school superintendent, and police chief—these are examples of general managers and top executives who, at the upper end of the management hierarchy, formulate the policies or direct the operations of the Nation’s private firms or gov­ ernment agencies. (Top executives who formulate policy in public ad­ ministration are discussed in detail in the Handbook statement on government chief executives and legislators.) The fundamental objective of private organizations is to maintain efficiency and profitability in the face of accelerating technological complexity, economic interdependence, and domestic and foreign competition. Government agencies must effectively implement pro­ grams subject to budgetary constraints and shifting public prefer­ ences. In response to these trends, successful organizations have broadened their activities, grown in size and complexity, and expand­ ed their management hierarchy. An organization’s general goals and policies are established by the chief executive officer in collaboration with other top executives, usually executive vice presidents, and with the board of directors. In a large corporation, a chief executive officer may frequently meet with top executives of other corporations, government, or foreign  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  countries to discuss matters affecting the organization’s policies. Al­ though the chief executive officer retains ultimate authority and re­ sponsibility, the chief operating officer may be delegated the authority to oversee executive vice presidents who direct the activi­ ties of various departments and are responsible for implementing the organization’s goals. The responsibilities of executive vice presidents depend greatly upon the size of the organization. In large corporations, their duties may be highly specialized. For example, they may oversee the activi­ ties of general managers of marketing, sales promotion, purchasing, finance, personnel, training, industrial relations, administrative ser­ vices, electronic data processing, property management, transporta­ tion, or legal services. (Some of these and other general managerial occupations are discussed elsewhere in this section of the Handbook.) In smaller firms, an executive vice president might be responsible for a number of these departments. General managers, in turn, direct their individual department’s ac­ tivities within the framework of the organization’s overall plan. With the help of supervisory managers and their staffs, general managers oversee and strive to motivate workers to achieve their department’s goals as rapidly and economically as possible. In smaller organiza­ tions, such as independent retail stores or small manufacturers, a gen­ eral manager may be responsible for purchasing, hiring, training, quality control, and all other day-to-day supervisory duties. Working Conditions General managers in large firms or government agencies are provided with offices close to the departments they direct and to the top execu­ tives to whom they report. Top executives may be provided with spa­ cious offices and often meet and negotiate with top executives from other corporations, government, or other countries. Long hours, in­ cluding evenings and weekends, are the rule for most top executives and general managers, and business discussions may occupy most of their time during social engagements. Substantial travel is often required. General managers may travel between national, regional, and local offices. Top executives may travel to meet with their counterparts in other corporations in the country or overseas. Perquisites such as reimbursement of an accom­ panying spouse’s travel expenses help executives cope with frequent or extended periods away from home. Meetings and conferences sponsored by industries and associations occur regularly and provide invaluable opportunities to meet with peers and keep abreast of tech­ nological and other developments. In large corporations, job transfers between the parent company and its local offices or subsidiaries, here or abroad, are common. With increasing domestic and international competition, general managers and top executives are under intense pressure to attain, for example, even higher production and marketing goals. In addition, they often find themselves in situations over which they have limited  |iPp?  General managers and top executives are among the highest paid workers.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  influence—for example, when meeting with government officials, private interest groups, or competitors, or negotiating with foreign governments. Employment General managers and top executives held about 3.1 million jobs in 1990. They are found in every industry—residential building con­ struction firms, grocery stores, data processing services firms, and au­ tomotive manufacturers, for example. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The educational background of managers and top executives varies as widely as the nature of their diverse responsibilities. Most general managers and top executives have a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts or business administration. Their major often is related to the depart­ ments they direct—for example, accounting for a general manager of finance or computer science for a general manager of data process­ ing. Graduate and professional degrees are common. Many managers in administrative, marketing, financial, and manufacturing activities have a master’s degree in business administration. Managers in high­ ly technical manufacturing and research activities often have a mas­ ter’s or doctoral degree in an engineering or scientific discipline. A law degree is mandatory for general managers of corporate legal de­ partments, and hospital administrators generally have a master’s de­ gree in health services administration or business administration. (For additional information, see the Handbook statement on health ser­ vices managers.) College presidents and school superintendents gen­ erally have a doctorate, often in education administration; some have a law degree. In some industries, such as retail trade, competent indi­ viduals without a college degree may become general managers. Most general managers in the public sector have a liberal arts de­ gree in public administration or in one of the social sciences such as economics, psychology, sociology, or urban studies. For others, expe­ rience is still the primary qualification. For park superintendents, a liberal arts degree also provides a suitable background. Police chiefs are graduates of police academies; in addition, a degree in police sci­ ence or a related field is increasingly important. Similarly, fire chiefs are graduates of fire academies; in addition, a degree in fire science is gaining in importance. For harbormasters, a high school education and experience as a harbor pilot are sufficient. In an effort to determine the physical and intellectual qualifications of applicants, many organizations now administer health, psychologi­ cal, and competency screening examinations to candidates for general manager and top executive positions. Most general manager and top executive positions are filled by promoting experienced, lower level managers who display the leader­ ship, self-confidence, motivation, decisiveness, and flexibility re­ quired by these demanding positions. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a higher management position may come slowly. In large firms, promotions may occur more quickly. Advancement may be accelerated by participation in company training programs to broaden knowledge of company policy and op­ erations. Attendance at national or local training programs sponsored by numerous industry and trade associations and continuing educa­ tion, normally at company expense, in colleges and universities can familiarize managers with the latest developments in management techniques. Every year, thousands of senior managers, who often have some experience in a particular field such as accounting, engi­ neering, or science, attend executive development programs to facili­ tate their promotion from functional specialists to general managers. In addition, participation in interdisciplinary conferences and semi­ nars can expand knowledge of national and international issues influ­ encing the manager’s firm. Persons interested in becoming general managers and top execu­ tives must have highly developed personal skills. A highly analytical mind able to quickly assess large amounts of information and data is very important. The ability to consider and evaluate the interrelation­ ships of numerous factors and to select the best course of action is  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  35  imperative. In the absence of sufficient information, sound intuitive judgment is crucial to reaching favorable decisions. General man­ agers and top executives also must be able to communicate clearly and persuasively with customers, subordinates, and other managers in their firm. General managers may advance to top executive positions, such as executive or administrative vice president, in their own firm or to a corresponding general manager position in a larger firm. Similarly, top-level managers may advance to peak corporate positions—chief operating officer and, finally, chief executive officer. Chief executive officers, upon retirement, may become members of the board of di­ rectors of one or more firms. Some general managers and top execu­ tives with sufficient capital establish their own firms. Job Outlook Employment of general managers and top executives is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as businesses grow in number, size, and complexity. How­ ever, in the face of intense competition, many firms are improving operating efficiency by establishing a leaner corporate structure, with fewer management positions—thus moderating employment growth. Because this is a large occupation, many job openings will occur each year as managers and executives transfer to other positions, start their own businesses, or retire. However, many of these highly covet­ ed jobs will be filled by other experienced managers and executives. Thus, lower level managers should expect keen competition for high paying, prestigious general manager and top executive positions. Out­ standing individuals whose accomplishments reflect strong leadership qualities and the ability to improve the efficiency or competitive posi­ tion of their organization will have the best job opportunities. Projected employment growth of general managers and top execu­ tives reflects projected industry growth. For example, rapid growth is expected in most services industries, such as health, business, and so­ cial services. On the other hand, more moderate employment growth is expected in wholesale and retail trade. Little or no change or even a decline in employment is projected in many manufacturing industries. Earnings General managers and top executives are among the highest paid workers in the Nation. However, salary levels vary substantially de­ pending upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of service, and type, size, and location of the firm. At the highest level, chief executive officers (CEO) are extremely well paid. According to a survey by Fortune magazine, CEO’s at 200 major companies averaged $2.4 million in 1990, including bonuses and stock awards, which are often tied to performance. Salaries of managers and executives are related to the size of the corporation. A top-level manager in a very large corporation can earn significantly more than a counterpart in a small firm. Salaries also vary substantially by industry and geographic loca­ tion. According to a survey sponsored by the Society for Human Re­ source Management, top international human resources managers earned about $96,000 in 1990. A survey by Network World Newsweekly revealed that computer networking managers earned $59,000 that year. Salaries in manufacturing and finance are general­ ly higher than those for corresponding positions in State and local governments. In addition, salaries in large metropolitan areas such as New York City are normally higher than those in small cities and towns. Company-paid insurance premiums, physical examinations, execu­ tive dining rooms, use of company cars, paid country club member­ ships, and expense allowances are among the benefits enjoyed by some general managers and top executives in private industry. Simi­ lar to their subordinates, general managers and top executives receive other benefits such as paid vacations, sick leave, and pensions. Related Occupations General managers and top executives plan, organize, direct, control, and coordinate the operations of an organization and its major depart­  36  Occupational Outlook Handbook  ments or programs. The members of the board of directors and super­ visory managers are also involved in these activities. Occupations in government with similar functions are governor, mayor, postmaster, commissioner, director, and office chief. Sources of Additional Information For information on educational programs for general managers and top executives, contact: American Management Association, Management Information Service, 135 West 50th St., New York, NY 10020. «■ National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439.  Information about general managers and top executives in specific industries may be obtained from organizations listed under a number of headings—for example, administration, administrators, directors, executives, management, managers, and superintendents—in various encyclopedias or directories of associations in public libraries.  Government Chief Executives and Legislators Nature of the Work Go to school. Pay your taxes. Register for the draft. Stop at the stop sign. It seems as though the Government is always telling us what to do. Who, then, tells the Government what to do? Chief executives and legislators at the Federal, State, and local level do the telling. They are elected or appointed officials who strive to meet the needs of their constituents with an effective and efficient government. Chief executives are officials in charge of units of government who carry out and enforce laws. They include the President and Vice Pres­ ident of the United States, State governors and lieutenant governors, county commissioners, township supervisors, mayors, and city man­ agers. All except city and county managers are elected; managers are appointed by the city council and the county commission. Government chief executives, like corporation presidents and other chief executives, have overall responsibility for the performance of their organizations. In coordination with legislators, they establish goals and objectives, then organize programs and formulate policies to attain these goals. They appoint people to head departments, such as highways, health, police, recreation, economic development, and finance. Through these department heads, chief executives oversee the work of civil servants, who carry out programs and enforce laws enacted by the legislative bodies. They prepare budgets, which speci­ fy how government resources will be used. They insure that resources are being used properly and that programs are carried out as planned by holding staff conferences, requiring work schedules and periodic performance reports, and by conducting personal inspections. Chief executives meet with legislators and constituents to solicit their ideas, discuss programs, and encourage their support, and confer with leaders of other governments to solve mutual problems. They encourage business investment and economic development in their jurisdictions and seek Federal or State funds. Chief executives nomi­ nate citizens for government boards and commissions—to oversee government activities or examine and help the government solve problems such as drug abuse, crime, deteriorating roads, or inade­ quate public education. They also solicit bids from and select contractors to do work for the government. Chief executives of large jurisdictions rely on a staff of aides and assistants, while those in small ones often do much of the work themselves. City and town managers, although appointed officials, may act as or share responsibility with chief executives. Legislators are the elected officials who make laws or amend exist­ ing ones in order to remedy problems or to promote certain activities. They include U.S. Senators and Representatives, State senators and representatives (called assemblymen or delegates in some States), county legislators, and city and town council members (called aider https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  men, selectmen, trustees, clerks, supervisors, magistrates, and com­ missioners, among other titles). Legislators introduce bills in the legislative body and examine and vote on bills introduced by other legislators. In preparing legislation, they read reports and work with constituents, representatives of inter­ est groups, members of boards and commissions, the chief executive and department heads, consultants, and legislators in other units of government. They also approve budgets and the appointments of de­ partment heads and commission members submitted by the chief ex­ ecutive. In some jurisdictions, the legislative body appoints a city or county manager. Many legislators, especially at the State and Federal levels, have a staff to help do research and prepare legislation and re­ solve constituents’ problems. In some units of government, the line between legislative and ex­ ecutive functions is not clear. For example, mayors and city managers may draft legislation and conduct council meetings, while council members may oversee the operation of departments. Both chief executives and legislators perform ceremonial duties— they open new structures and businesses; make proclamations, wel­ come visitors, and lead celebrations. Working Conditions Working conditions of chief executives and legislators vary depend­ ing on the size of the government unit. Hours range from meeting once a month for a local council member to 60 or more hours per week for a legislator. U.S. Senators and Representatives, governors and lieutenant governors, and chief executives and legislators in some large local jurisdictions work full time year round, as do almost all county and city managers. Some city and town managers work for several small jurisdictions. Most State legislators work full time while legislatures are in session—usually for a few months a year and part time the rest of the year. Local elected officials in most jurisdic­ tions usually work part time; however, in some cases, while the job is officially designated part time, incumbents actually work a full-time schedule. In addition to their regular schedules, chief executives are general­ ly on call at all hours to handle emergencies. Some jobs require only occasional out-of-town travel, while others involve more frequent travel—normally to attend sessions of the leg­ islature or to meet with officials of other units of government. Offi-  9 .mi  Most government chief executives and legislators are elected by the public.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  cials in districts covering a large area may drive long distances to per­ form their regular duties. Employment Chief executives and legislators held about 71,000 jobs in 1990. About 5 of 6 worked in local government; the rest worked in the Fed­ eral and State governments. The Federal Government had 535 Sena­ tors and Representatives. There were about 7,500 State legislators and, according to the International City Management Association (ICMA), about 11,000 city managers. Executives and council mem­ bers for local governments made up the remainder. Officials who do not hold full-time, year-round positions generally work in a second occupation as well—commonly the one they held before being elected—are retired from another occupation, or have household responsibilities. Business owner or manager, teacher, and lawyer are common second occupations, and there are many others as well. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because most chief executives and legislators are elected, the voters determine whether an individual who meets the minimum age, resi­ dency, and citizenship requirements of the position is fit to hold it. Therefore, the question is not “How does one become qualified” but “How does one get elected?” Successful candidates generally have a record of accomplishment in paid and unpaid work. Many have business, teaching, or legal ex­ perience, but others come from a wide variety of occupations. In ad­ dition, many have served as volunteers on school boards or zoning commissions; with charities, political action groups, and political campaigns; or with religious, fraternal, and similar organizations. Work experience and public service help develop the planning, or­ ganizing, negotiating, motivating, fundraising, budgeting, public speaking, and problem-solving skills needed to run a political cam­ paign. Candidates must be decisive, quickly making fair decisions with little or contradictory information. They must have confidence in themselves and their employees, being able to inspire and motivate their constituents and their staff. They must also be sincere and can­ did, presenting their views thoughtfully and convincingly. Addition­ ally, they must know how to negotiate and hammer out compromises with colleagues and constituents. National and statewide campaigns also require a good deal of energy, stamina, and fund raising skills. City and county managers are appointed by the council or commis­ sion. Managers come from a variety of educational backgrounds. A master’s degree in public administration—which would include courses such as public financial management and legal issues in pub­ lic administration—is widely recommended but not required. Virtual­ ly all city and county managers have at least a bachelor’s degree. Generally, a city or county manager in a smaller jurisdiction is re­ quired to have some expertise in a wider variety of areas, while those who work for larger jurisdictions concentrate on financial, adminis­ trative, or personnel matters. For all managers, communication skills and the ability to get along with others are essential. Advancement opportunities for most elected public officials are not clearly defined. Because elected positions generally require a pe­ riod of residency and because local public support is critical, officials can usually advance to other offices only in the jurisdictions where they live. For example, council members may run for mayor or for a position in the State government, and State legislators may run for governor or for Congress. Many officials are not politically ambi­ tious, however, and do not seek advancement. Others lose their bids for reelection or voluntarily leave the occupation. City managers have a more well-defined career path. They general­ ly obtain a master’s degree in public administration, then gain experi­ ence as management analysts or assistants in government departments working with councils and mayors and learning about planning, budgeting, civil engineering, and other aspects of runnning a city. After several years, they may be hired to manage a town or a small city and may eventually become manager of progressively larg­ er cities.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  37  Job outlook Little change in employment of government chief executives and leg­ islators is expected through the year 2005. Few, if any, new govern­ ments are likely to be formed, and the number of chief executives and legislators in existing governments rarely changes. Some small in­ crease may occur as growing communities—in the rapidly growing South and West, for example—become independent cities and towns and elect a chief executive and legislators and, perhaps, appoint a town manager. A few new positions may also develop as cities and counties without managers hire them and as unpaid offices—which are not counted as employment—are converted to paid positions. On the other hand, attempts by governments to cut costs and streamline operations could reduce the number of paid positions, particularly at the local level. The number of State legislators may increase or decline slightly when States, as required by law, complete their decennial redistrict­ ing. In addition, some States are considering a shift from a bicameral legislature—House of Representatives and Senate—to a unicameral legislature which, presumably, could reduce the number of legislators. Elections provide the opportunity for newcomers to unseat incum­ bents or to fill vacated positions. In many elections, there is substan­ tial competition, although the level of competition varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and from year to year. Generally, there is less competition in small jurisdictions, which have part-time posi­ tions offering relatively low salaries and little or no staff to help with tedious work, than in large jurisdictions, which have full-time posi­ tions offering higher salaries, more staff, and greater status. In some cases, usually in small jurisdictions, an incumbent is unopposed or an incumbent resigns and there is only one candidate. Earnings Earnings of public administrators vary widely, depending on the size of the government unit and on whether the job is part time, full time year round, or full time for only a few months a year. Salaries range from little or nothing for a small town council member to $200,000 a year for the President of the U.S. According to the International City Management Association, the average annual salary of mayors was about $9,400 in 1990. In cities with a population under 2,500, they averaged about $1,900; in cities with a population over 1 million, over $80,000. ICMA data also indicate that the average annual salary of city managers was over $57,000 in 1990. Salaries ranged from $33,000 in towns with fewer than 2,500 residents to $125,000 in cities with a population over 1 million. According to Book of The States, 1990-91, published by the Coun­ cil of State Governments, the average salary for legislators in the 40 States that paid an annual salary was about $21,000 in 1990. In 10 States, legislators just received a per diem while legislatures were in session. Salaries and per diem were generally higher in the larger States. Data from Book of the States, 1990-91 also indicate that gubernato­ rial annual salaries ranged from $35,000 in Arkansas to $130,000 in New York. In addition to a salary, most governors received perquisites such as transportation and an offical residence. Lieutenant governors averaged over $47,000 annually, according to a 1989 sur­ vey conducted by the National Conference of Lieutenant Governors. Related occupations Related occupations include managerial positions that require a broad range of skills in addition to administrative expertise. Sources of Additional Information For more information on careers in public administration, consult your elected representatives and local library. Information on State governments can be obtained from: »• Council of State Governments, P.O. Box 11910, Iron Works Pike, Lexing­ ton, KY 40578.  Information on county governments can be obtained from: The National Association of Counties, 440 First St. NW., Washington, DC 20001.  38  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Information on all local government appointed officials can be ob­ tained from: International City Management Association, 111 North Capitol St. NE., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20002.  •  Health Services Managers (D.O.T. 074.131-010; 075.117-014, -022, -026, and -030; 079.117-010, .131­ 010, .137-010, and .167-014; 187.117-010, -018, -058, -062, and .167-090; 188.117-082 and .167-058; and 195.167-042)  Nature of the Work Health care is a business, albeit a special one. Like every other busi­ ness, it needs good management to keep it running smoothly. Health services manager is an inclusive term for individuals in many different positions who plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise the delivery of health care. Health services managers include both gener­ alists—the administrators managing or helping to manage an entire facility—and health specialists—the managers in charge of specific clinical departments or services that are found only in the health industry. The top administrator or chief executive officer (CEO) and the as­ sistant administrators without specific titles are health care general­ ists. Although their titles may vary by type and size of institution, these managers set the overall direction of the facility. They also are concerned with community outreach, planning, policymaking, re­ sponse to government agencies and regulations, and negotiating. Their range of knowledge is necessarily broad, including develop­ ments in the clinical departments as well as in the business arena. They often speak before civic groups, promote public participation in health programs, and coordinate the activities of the organization with those of government or community agencies. CEO’s make long term institutional plans by assessing the need for services, personnel, facilities, and equipment and recommending changes such as opening a home health service. CEO’s need leadership ability as well as tech­ nical skills in order to respond effectively to the community’s re­ quirements for health care while, at the same time, satisfying demand for financial viability, cost containment, and public and professional accountability. CEO’s have to be ready for the extensive oversight and scrutiny to which health facilities are subjected. Both past performance and plans for the future are subject to review by a variety of groups and organi­ zations, including consumer groups, government agencies, profes­ sional oversight bodies, insurance companies and other third-party payers, business coalitions, and even the courts. Preparing for inspec­ tion visits by observers from regulatory and accrediting bodies and submitting appropriate records and documentation are generally time consuming as well as technically demanding. Some facilities may have one or more assistant administrators to aid the CEO and to handle day-to-day management decisions. There may be directors responsible for clinical areas such as nursing ser­ vices or medical affairs and for other nonhealth areas such as finance, personnel, and information management. (Because the nonhealth de­ partments are not directly related to health care, these managers are not included in this statement. For information about them, see the statements on managerial occupations elsewhere in the Handbook). Health specialists provide the day-to-day management of depart­ ments like surgery, rehabilitation therapy, nursing, medical records, and so on. These managers have more narrowly defined responsibili­ ties than the generalists to whom they report and have specific train­ ing and/or experience in the field. For example, a director of physical therapy must have experience as a staff physical therapist; a medical records administrator needs a bachelor’s degree regardless of the amount of experience he or she possesses. These managers establish and implement policies, goals, objectives, and procedures for their departments; evaluate personnel and work; develop reports and bud­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  gets; and coordinate activities with other department heads, the top administrator, and professional colleagues. Although there are many common elements involved in running a health facility, there are significant differences among settings that af­ fect job duties. For example, hospital and nursing home management differ in important aspects. The chief hospital administrator works with the governing board in establishing general policies and an oper­ ating philosophy and provides direction to assistant administrators and department heads who carry out those policies. Nursing home ad­ ministrators need many of the same management skills but are much more involved in detailed management decisions than hospital ad­ ministrators. Administrative staffs in nursing homes are typically much smaller than those in hospitals—nursing home administrators often have only one or two assistants, sometimes none. Nursing home administrators directly manage personnel, finance, operations, and admissions. They analyze data and make daily management decisions in all of these areas. Because many nursing home residents are long term—staying for months or even years—administrators must try to create an environment that nourishes residents’ psychological, social, and spiritual well-being, as well as tending to their health care needs. This long-term residency allows the nursing home administrator to have direct contact with the patients, something that few hospital ad­ ministrators are able to do unless a problem arises. In the growing field of group practice management, managers need to be able to work effectively with the physicians who own the prac­ tice. Specific job duties vary according to the size of the group. While an office manager handles business affairs in very small medical groups, leaving policy decisions to the physicians themselves, larger groups generally employ a full-time administrator to advise on busi­ ness strategies and coordinate the day-to-day management of the practice. A small group of 10 or 15 physicians might employ a single ad­ ministrator to oversee personnel matters, billing and collection, bud­ geting, planning, equipment outlays, advertising, and patient flow, whereas a large practice of 40 or 50 physicians requires a chief ad­ ministrator and several business assistants, each responsible for a dif­ ferent functional area of management. In addition to providing overall management direction, the chief administrator is responsible for assuring that the practice maintains or strengthens its competitive position. Assuring competitiveness might entail market research to analyze the services the practice currently offers and those it might offer; negotiating contracts with hospitals or other health care providers to gain access to specialized facilities and equipment; or entering joint ventures for the purchase of an expensive piece of med­ ical equipment such as a magnetic resonance imager. Health services managers in health maintenance organizations (HMO’s) perform all of the functions of those in large medical group practices. Some health services managers oversee the activities of several or many facilities in multi-facility health organizations. Working Conditions Health services managers often work long hours. Facilities such as nursing homes and hospitals operate around the clock, and adminis­ trators and managers may be called at all hours to deal with emergen­ cies. The job also may include travel to attend meetings or to inspect satellite health care facilities. Employment Health services managers held about 257,000 jobs in 1990. Nearly three-fifths of all jobs were in hospitals. About a quarter of health services managers worked in nursing and personal care facilities and in offices of physicians. The remainder worked in other health and al­ lied services, home health agencies, medical and dental laboratories, and offices of dentists and other practitioners. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Knowledge of management principles and practices is the essential requirement for a position in this field, and such knowledge often is gained through work experience. Nonetheless, formal educational preparation is important, especially for those who wish to advance in  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Employers may seek health services managers with clinical as well as administrative experience. the profession. For many chief administrative positions, a graduate degree in health services administration, nursing administration, or business administration is a decided asset. For all health specialist po­ sitions and some generalist positions, employers seek applicants who have had clinical experience (as nurses or therapists, for example) as well as academic preparation in business or health services adminis­ tration. Many hospitals are setting up separate ventures such as outpatient surgical centers, alcoholism treatment centers, and home health care services. To operate and manage these subsidiary companies, hospi­ tals look for managers with well-established skills in marketing and finance. Nonetheless, graduate education in health services adminis­ tration remains a prerequisite for many upper level administrative po­ sitions within hospitals and their subsidiaries. Academic programs in health administration, leading to a bache­ lor’s, master’s, or doctoral degree, are offered by colleges, universi­ ties, and schools of public health, medicine, allied health, public administration, and business administration. The various degree pro­ grams provide different levels of career preparation. The master’s de­ gree—in hospital administration, health administration, health sciences, public health, public administration, or business administra­ tion—is regarded as the standard credential for many positions in this field. Educational requirements vary with the size of the organization and the amount of responsibility involved. Generally, larger organiza­ tions require more specialized academic preparation than smaller ones do. In 1991, 29 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s degree programs in health services administration. Sixty schools had accred­ ited programs leading to the master’s degree in health services ad­ ministration, according to the Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration. To enter graduate programs, applicants must have a bachelor’s de­ gree. Some schools seek students with undergraduate degrees in busi­ ness or health administration; however, many programs prefer those students with a liberal arts or social science background. Competition for entry to these programs is keen, and applicants need above-aver­ age grades to gain admission. The programs generally last between 2 and 3 years. They include up to 1 year of supervised administrative experience, undertaken after completion of course work in such areas as hospital organization and management, accounting and budget control, personnel administration, strategic planning, and manage­ ment of health information systems. New graduates with master’s degrees in health or hospital adminis­ tration may be hired by hospitals as assistant administrators. Others may start as managers of nonhealth departments, like finance, and work up to top administrative positions. Postgraduate residencies and fellowships are offered by hospitals and other health facilities; these are normally staff jobs.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  39  Growing numbers of graduates from master’s degree programs are also taking jobs in HMO’s, large group medical practices, clinics, and multifacility nursing home corporations. Students should be aware, however, that mid-level job transfers from one setting to another may be difficult. Employers place a high value on experience in similar settings because some of the management skills are unique to each setting. New recipients of bachelor’s degrees in health administration usu­ ally begin as administrative assistants or assistant department heads in larger hospitals, or as department heads or assistant administrators in small hospitals or in nursing homes. The Ph.D. degree usually is required for positions in teaching, con­ sulting, or research. Nursing service administrators are usually cho­ sen from among supervisory registered nurses with administrative abilities and advanced education. Licensure is not required in most areas of health services manage­ ment, except for nursing home or long-term care administration. All States and the District of Columbia require nursing home administra­ tors to pass a licensing examination, complete a State-approved train­ ing program, and pursue continuing education. Most States have additional specific requirements, so persons interested in nursing home administration should contact the individual agencies of the State in which they wish to work for information. Health services managers are often responsible for millions of dol­ lars of facilities and equipment and hundreds of employees. To make effective decisions, they need to be open to different opinions and good at sifting through contradictory information. To motivate subor­ dinates to implement their decisions, they need strong leadership qualities. Interpersonal skills are important in all settings, but nowhere more so than in medical groups, where success depends on developing a good working relationship with the physician-owners. Tact, diplomacy, and communication skills are essential. Like their counterparts in other kinds of organizations, health ser­ vices managers need to be self-starters. In order to create an atmo­ sphere favorable to good patient care, they must like people, enjoy working with them, and be able to deal effectively with them. They also should be good at public speaking. Health services managers may advance by moving into more re­ sponsible and higher paying positions within their own institution; advancement occurs with promotion to successively more responsible jobs such as assistant or associate administrator and, finally, CEO. Health services managers sometimes begin their careers in small hos­ pitals in positions with broad responsibilities, such as assistant ad­ ministrator. Managers also advance by shifting to another health care facility or organization. Job Outlook Employment of health services managers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as health services continue to expand and diversify. Hospitals will con­ tinue to employ the greatest number of health services managers, al­ though the number of jobs will not be growing as fast as in other areas. Opportunities for managers in hospitals should be best in large hospitals with subsidiaries that provide such services as ambulatory surgery, alcohol and drug abuse rehabilitation, hospice facilities, or home health care. Employment in home health agency and nursing and long-term care facilities will be growing the fastest. This is due to an increased number of elderly who will need care. Demand in medical group practices will grow, too. As medical group practices become larger and more complex, more job opportunities for clinical department heads like director of nursing services should emerge. Moreover, the increased complexity of group practices should also increase the number of associate administrators. Health services managers in hospitals will face very keen competi­ tion for upper level management jobs, a reflection of the pyramidal management structure characteristic of most large and complex or­ ganizations. In nursing homes and other long-term care facilities, where a grad-  40  Occupational Outlook Handbook  uate degree in health administration is not ordinarily a requirement, job opportunities for individuals with strong business or management skills will continue to be good.  Earnings The type and size of the facility greatly affects the earnings of admin­ istrators. For example, the Medical Group Management Association reported that the median salary for administrators in group practices was $58,000 in 1990. The median salary for those in small group practices—with net revenues of $2 million or less—was $40,200; for those in very large group practices—with net revenues over $10 mil­ lion—$96,000. According to the American Hospital Association, half of all hospi­ tal CEO’s earned $121,500 or more in 1991. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $71,000; the top 10 percent earned $203,400 or more. Clinical department heads’ salaries varied too. According to a sur­ vey by Modern Healthcare magazine, average salaries in 1991 for heads of the following clinical departments were: Medical records, $41,700; imaging/radiology, $46,600; physical therapy, $47,100; re­ habilitation services, $51,000; and nursing services, $59,700. Management incentive bonuses based on job performance are in­ creasingly commonplace in executive compensation packages. Related Occupations Health services managers have training or experience in health and in management. Other occupations that require knowledge of both fields are public health directors, social welfare administrators, directors of voluntary health agencies and health professional associations, and underwriters in health insurance companies and HMO’s. Sources of Additional Information Information about health administration and academic programs in this field is available from: American College of Healthcare Executives, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611. <•" Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 1911 North Fort Myer Dr., Suite 503, Arlington, VA 22209.  For a list of accredited graduate programs in health services admin­ istration, contact; »" Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration, 1911 North Fort Myer Dr., Suite 503, Arlington, VA 22209.  Information about health administration and job opportunities in group medical practices is available from; »■ Medical Group Management Association, 104 Inverness Terrace East, En­ glewood, CO 80112-5306.  For information about career opportunities in long-term care, con­ tact: <*■ American College of Health Care Administrators, 325 S. Patrick St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  Hotel Managers and Assistants (D.O.T. 187.117-038, .167-046, -078, -106, -110, -122; and 320)  Nature of the Work Across the Nation, hotels and motels are a welcome haven for weary travelers. For vacationing families and persons whose jobs take them out of town, a comfortable room, good food, and a helpful hotel staff can make being away from home an enjoyable experience. They may be guests overnight at a roadside motel, spend several days at a tow­ ering downtown convention hotel, or a week at a large resort complex with tennis courts, a golf course, and a variety of other recreational facilities. At each, hotel managers and assistant managers work to in­ sure that guests’ visits are pleasant. Hotel managers are responsible for the efficient and profitable op­ eration of their establishments. In a small hotel, motel, or inn with a  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  limited staff, a single manager may direct all aspects of operations. However, large hotels may employ hundreds of workers, and the manager may be aided by a number of assistant managers assigned among departments responsible for various aspects of operations. The general manager has overall responsibility for the operation of the hotel. Within guidelines established by the owners of the hotel or ex­ ecutives of the hotel chain, the general manager sets room rates, allo­ cates funds to departments, approves expenditures, and establishes standards for service to guests, decor, housekeeping, food quality, and banquet operations. (For more information, see the statement on gen­ eral managers and top executives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Assis­ tant managers must insure that the day-to-day operations of their departments meet the general manager’s standards. Resident managers live in hotels and are on call 24 hours a day to resolve any problems or emergencies, although they normally work an 8-hour day. As the most senior assistant manager, they oversee the day-to-day operations of the hotel. In many hotels, the general man­ ager also serves as the resident manager. Executive housekeepers are responsible for insuring that guest rooms, meeting and banquet rooms, and public areas are clean, order­ ly, and well maintained. They train, schedule, and supervise the work of housekeepers, inspect rooms, and order cleaning supplies. Front office managers coordinate reservations and room assign­ ments and train and direct the hotel’s front desk staff that deals with the public. They insure that guests are handled courteously and effi­ ciently, complaints and problems are resolved, and requests for spe­ cial services are carried out. Food and beverage managers direct the food services of hotels. They oversee the operation of hotels’ restaurants, cocktail lounges, and banquet facilities. They supervise and schedule food and bever­ age preparation and service workers, plan menus, estimate costs, and deal with food suppliers. (For more information, see the statement on restaurant and food service managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Convention services managers coordinate the activities of large ho­ tels’ various departments for meetings, conventions, and other special events. They meet with representatives of groups or organizations to plan the number of rooms to reserve, the desired configuration of hotel meeting space, and any banquet services needed. During the meeting or event, they resolve unexpected problems and monitor ac­ tivities to check that hotel operations conform to the expectations of the group. Other assistant managers may be specialists responsible for activi­ ties such as personnel, accounting and office administration, market­ ing and sales, security, maintenance, and recreational facilities. (For more information, see the related statements on personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers; financial managers; and marketing, advertising, and public relations managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Managers who work for chains may be assigned to organize and staff a newly built hotel, refurbish an older hotel, or re­ organize a hotel or motel that is not operating successfully. Working Conditions Since hotels are open around the clock, night and weekend work is common. Many hotel managers work considerably more than 40 hours per week. Managers who live in the hotel usually have regular work schedules, but they may be called for work at any time. Some employees of resort hotels are managers during the busy season and have other duties the rest of the year. Hotel managers sometimes experience the pressures of coordinat­ ing a wide range of functions. Conventions and large groups of tourists may present unusual problems. Dealing with irate patrons can also be stressful. The job can be particularly hectic for front office managers around checkin and checkout time. Employment Hotel managers and assistant managers held about 102,000 wage and salary jobs in 1990. An additional number—primarily owners of small hotels and motels—were self-employed. Others were employed by companies that manage hotels and motels under contract.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  <■::  Front office managers train and direct the hotel’s front desk staff. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Postsecondary training in hotel or restaurant management is preferred for most hotel management positions, although a college liberal arts degree may be sufficient when coupled with related hotel experience. In the past, most managers were promoted from the ranks of front desk clerks, housekeepers, waiters and chefs, and hotel sales workers. While some persons still advance to hotel management positions without the benefit of education or training beyond high school, in­ creasingly, postsecondary education is preferred. Nevertheless, expe­ rience working in a hotel—even part time while in school—is an asset to all persons seeking to enter hotel management careers. Restaurant management training or experience is also a good back­ ground for entering hotel management because the success of a hotel’s food service and beverage operations is often of great impor­ tance to the profitability of the entire establishment. A bachelor’s degree in hotel and restaurant administration provides particularly strong preparation for a career in hotel management. In 1991, over 160 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s and grad­ uate programs in this field. Over 800 community and junior colleges, technical institutes, vocational and trade schools, and other academic institutions also have programs leading to an associate degree or other formal recognition in hotel or restaurant management. Gradu­ ates of hotel or restaurant management programs usually start as trainee assistant managers, or at least advance to such positions more quickly. Hotel management programs usually include instruction in hotel administration, accounting, economics, marketing, housekeeping, food service management and catering, hotel maintenance engineer­ ing, and data processing—reflecting the widespread use of computers in hotel operations such as reservations, accounting, and housekeep­ ing management. Programs encourage part-time or summer work in hotels and restaurants because the experience gained and the contacts made with employers may benefit students when they seek full-time employment after graduation. Hotel managers must be able to get along with all kinds of people, even in stressful situations. They need initiative, self-discipline, and the ability to organize and direct the work of others. They must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. Sometimes large hotels sponsor specialized on-the-job manage­ ment training programs which enable trainees to rotate among vari­ ous departments and gain a thorough knowledge of the hotel’s operation. Other hotels may help finance the necessary training in hotel management for outstanding employees. Most hotels promote employees who have proven their ability. Newly built hotels, particularly those without well-established onthe-job training programs, often prefer experienced personnel for managerial positions. Large hotel and motel chains may offer better opportunities for advancement than small, independently owned es­ tablishments, but relocation every several years often is necessary for  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  41  advancement. They have more extensive career ladder programs and offer managers the opportunity to transfer to another hotel or motel in the chain or to the central office if an opening occurs. Career ad­ vancement can be accelerated by completion of certification pro­ grams offered by the associations listed below. These programs generally require a combination of course work, examinations, and experience. Job Outlook Employment of salaried hotel managers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as more hotels and motels are built. Business travel will continue to grow, and increased domestic and foreign tourism will also create de­ mand for additional hotels and motels. Most openings are expected to occur as experienced managers transfer to other occupations, retire, or stop working for other reasons. Opportunities to enter hotel management are expected to be very good for persons who have college degrees in hotel or restaurant management. Earnings Salaries of hotel managers varied greatly according to their responsi­ bilities and the size of the hotel in which they worked. In early 1991, annual salaries of assistant hotel managers averaged nearly $31,000, based on a survey conducted for the American Hotel and Motel Asso­ ciation. Assistants employed in large hotels with over 350 rooms av­ eraged over $36,000 in 1991, while those in small hotels with no more than 150 rooms averaged less than $25,000. Salaries of assistant managers also varied because of differences in duties and responsibil­ ities. For example, food and beverage managers averaged $38,900, according to the same survey, whereas front office managers aver­ aged $25,000. The manager’s level of experience is also an important factor. In 1991, salaries of general managers averaged nearly $56,000, ranging from an average of about $42,300 in hotels and motels with no more than 150 rooms to an average of about $81,800 in large ho­ tels with over 350 rooms. Managers may earn bonuses ranging up to 15 percent of their basic salary in some hotels. In addition, they and their families may be furnished with lodging, meals, parking, laundry, and other services. Most managers and assistants receive 3 to 11 paid holidays a year, paid vacation, sick leave, life insurance, medical benefits, and pen­ sion plans. Some hotels offer profit-sharing plans, educational assis­ tance, and other benefits to their employees. Related Occupations Hotel managers and assistants are not the only workers concerned with organizing and directing a business in which pleasing people is very important. Others with similar responsibilities include restaurant managers, apartment building managers, department store managers, and office managers. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers and scholarships in hotel management, contact: The American Hotel and Motel Association (AH&MA), Informa­ tion Center, 1201 New York Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20005-3931. For information on educational programs, including correspon­ dence courses, in hotel and restaurant management, write to: «■ The Educational Institute of AH&MA, P.O. Box 1240, East Lansing, MI 48826.  Information on careers in housekeeping management may be ob­ tained from: *■ National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc., 1001 Eastwind Dr., Suite 301, Westerville, OH 43081.  For information on hospitality careers, as well as how to purchase a directory of colleges and other schools offering programs and courses in hotel and restaurant administration, write to: *■ Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036-3097.  42  Occupational Outlook Handbook  General career information and a directory of accredited private trade and technical schools offering programs in hotel-motel manage­ ment may be obtained from: » National Association of Trade and Technical Schools, P.O. Box 10429, Department BL, Rockville, MD 20850.  Industrial Production Managers A* 4* A  (D.O.T. 180.167-054; 181.117-010; 182.167-022; 183.117-010, -014, .161­ 014, .167-010, -014, -018, -022, -026, -034, and -038; and 189.117-042, .167­ 042, and -046)  Nature of the Work Industrial production managers coordinate activities related to pro­ duction of goods and direct the work of first-line supervisors. Due to the variety of goods produced, few factories are exactly alike, so managers’ duties may vary from plant to plant. However, industrial production managers generally have the same major functions regard­ less of industry. These include responsibility for production schedul­ ing, staffing, equipment, quality control, inventory control, and for the coordination of activities with other departments. Production managers usually report to the plant manager or the vice president for manufacturing. (Information about these workers can be found in the statement on general managers and top executives elsewhere in the Handbook). In many plants, one production manager is responsible for all production. In large plants with several opera­ tions—aircraft assembly, for example—there are managers in charge of each operation, such as machining, assembly, or finishing. Based on current and projected customer demand, management de­ termines what and how much will be produced. Working within bud­ getary limitations, industrial production managers plan the production schedule. This entails analyzing the plant’s personnel and capital re­ sources and selecting the best way to meet the production quota. They determine which machines will be used, whether overtime or extra shifts are necessary, the sequence of production, and related matters. They also monitor the production run to make sure that it stays on schedule, and, if problems arise, take action to solve them. Production managers need to work closely with those in upper management and their counterparts in other departments. For exam­ ple, production managers are increasingly involved in the long-term planning for their firms. In addition, because the work of many de­ partments is dependent upon others, they work closely with managers of other departments such as sales, purchasing, and traffic to plan and implement companies’ goals, policies, and procedures. Computers play an integral role in the coordination of the produc­ tion process by providing up-to-date data on such things as inventory, work-in-progress, and product standards. Industrial production man­ agers then analyze these data and, working with those from upper management and other departments, determine if adjustments need to be made. Industrial production managers also monitor product standards. When quality drops below the established standard, product man­ agers must determine why standards aren’t being maintained and how to improve the product. If the problem is poor workmanship, the manager may implement better training programs, reorganize the manufacturing process, or institute employee suggestion or involve­ ment programs. If the cause is substandard materials, the manager works with the purchasing department to improve the quality of the product’s components. Maintaining the inventory of materials necessary for production ties up the firm’s financial resources. Yet insufficient quantities of materials cause delays in production. Working with the purchasing department, the production manager insures that plant inventories are maintained at their optimal level. A breakdown in communications between departments can cause slowdowns and a failure to meet pro­ duction schedules.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Managers coordinate the many aspects of industrial production. Working Conditions Most industrial production managers divide their time between the shop floor and their office. While on the floor, they must follow es­ tablished health and safety practices and wear the required protective clothing and equipment. The time in the office—often located on or near the production floor—is usually spent meeting with subordinates or other department managers, analyzing production data, and writing and reviewing reports. Most industrial production managers work more than 40 hours a week, especially when production deadlines must be met. In facilities that operate around the clock, managers may have to work shifts or may be called at any hour to deal with emergencies that could result in production line downtime. Occasionally, this may mean going to the plant to resolve the problem, regardless of the hour, and staying until the situation is under control. Dealing with production workers as well as superiors when working under the pressure of production deadlines or emergency situations can be stressful. Employment Industrial production managers held about 210,000 jobs in 1990. Al­ though employed throughout manufacturing, about one-half are em­ ployed in five industries: Industrial machinery and equipment, transportation equipment, fabricated metal products, food products, and chemicals. Table 1 shows employment concentration of industrial production managers by major industry.  Table 1. Distribution of industrial production managers by indus­ try, 1990 Industry  Percent  Total........................................................................................  100  Industrial machinery and equipment.......................................... Electronic and other electrical equipment.................................. Transportation equipment....................................................... Food and kindred products......................................................... Fabricated metal products.......................................................... Printing and publishing.............................................................. Chemical and allied products.................................................. Instruments and related products................................................ Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.............................. Other industries..........................................................................  13 10 9 9 8 7 7 6 5 26  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Although production managers work in all parts of the country, jobs are most plentiful in areas where manufacturing is concentrated.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of manufacturing operations and job require­ ments, there is no standard preparation for this occupation. Many in­ dustrial production managers have a college degree in business administration or industrial engineering. Some have a master’s degree in business administration (MBA). Others are former production line supervisors who have been promoted. Increasingly, however, employ­ ers are looking for candidates with a college degree. Although many employers prefer candidates to have a degree in business or engineer­ ing, some companies hire liberal arts graduates. As production operations become more sophisticated, an increas­ ing number of employers are looking for candidates with MBA’s. This, combined with an undergraduate degree in engineering, is con­ sidered particularly good preparation. Those who enter the field directly from college or graduate school often are unfamiliar with the firm’s production process. As a result, they may spend their first few months on the job in the company’s training program. These programs familiarize trainees with the pro­ duction line, company policies and procedures, and the requirements of the job. In larger companies, they may also include assignments to other departments, such as purchasing and accounting. Blue-collar worker supervisors who advance to production manag­ er positions already have an intimate knowledge of the production process and the firm’s organization. To be selected for promotion, these workers must have demonstrated leadership ability and often take company-sponsored courses in management skills and commu­ nications techniques. Once in their job, industrial production managers must stay abreast of new production technologies and management practices. To do this, they belong to professional organizations and attend trade shows where new equipment is displayed or industry conferences and con­ ventions where changes in production methods and technological ad­ vances are discussed. Although certification in production management and inventory control is not required for most positions, it demonstrates an individ­ ual’s knowledge of the production process and related areas. Various certifications are available through the American Production and In­ ventory Control Society. To be certified in production and inventory management, candidates must pass a series of examinations that test their knowledge of inventory management, just-in-time systems, pro­ duction control, capacity management, and materials planning. Industrial production managers must be able to speak and write ef­ fectively and deal tactfully with both subordinates and superiors in pressure situations. Industrial production managers with a proven record of superior performance may advance to plant manager or vice president for manufacturing. Others transfer to jobs at larger firms with more re­ sponsibilities. Opportunities also exist as consultants. (For more in­ formation, see the statement on management analysts and consultants elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Employment of industrial production managers is expected to in­ crease as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Employment growth will be fueled by increasing demand for consumer and industrial products. In addition, many openings will occur as these managers advance, transfer to other occupations, or leave the labor force. To combat increasing domestic and foreign competition, firms are expected to continue to automate their facilities. Automation often reduces the number of production workers needed, although it is expected to have little impact on production managers. Even in a highly automated factory, production managers are needed to oversee the flow of materials, machinery, and quality control. However, be­ cause of the increasing sophistication of production technology, op­ portunities are expected to be best for those with college degrees in industrial engineering or business administration and MBA’s with undergraduate engineering degrees.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  43  Earnings Salaries of industrial production managers vary significantly by in­ dustry and plant size. According to Wyatt Data Services/ECS, 1990 median annual salaries ranged from $52,000 in the smallest establish­ ments to $82,000 in the largest. The median salary in average size es­ tablishments was $68,000 in 1990. In addition, industrial production managers usually receive bonuses based on job performance. Benefits for industrial production managers tend to be similar to those offered most workers: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and retirement plans. Related Occupations Industrial production managers oversee production staff and equip­ ment, insure that production goals and quality standards are being met, and implement company policies. Individuals with similar func­ tions include materials, operations, purchasing, and traffic managers. Other occupations requiring similar training and skills are sales en­ gineer, manufacturers’ sales representative, and industrial engineer. Sources of Additional Information Information on industrial production management can be obtained from: American Production and Inventory Control Society, 500 West Annandale Rd„ Falls Church, VA 22046-4274. Institute of Industrial Engineers, 25 Technology Park, Atlanta, GA 30092­ 2988.  Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction (List of D.O.T. codes available upon request. See p. 444.)  Nature of the Work Inspectors and compliance officers enforce adherence to a wide range of laws, regulations, policies, and procedures that protect the public on matters such as health, safety, food, immigration, licensing, inter­ state commerce, and international trade. Depending upon their em­ ployer, inspectors vary widely in title and responsibilities. Health Inspectors. Health inspectors work with engineers, chemists, microbiologists, health workers, and lawyers to insure compliance with public health and safety regulations governing food, drugs, cos­ metics, and other consumer products. They also administer regula­ tions that govern the quarantine of persons and products entering the United States from foreign countries. The major types of health in­ spectors are consumer safety, food, agricultural quarantine, and envi­ ronmental health inspectors. In addition, some inspectors work in a field closely related to food inspection-—agricultural commodity grading. Most consumer safety inspectors specialize in food, feeds and pes­ ticides, weights and measures, cosmetics, or drugs and medical equipment. Some are proficient in several areas. Working individual­ ly or in teams under a senior or supervisory inspector, they periodi­ cally check firms that produce, handle, store, and market food, drugs, and cosmetics. They look for inaccurate product labeling, and for de­ composition or chemical or bacteriological contamination that could result in a product becoming harmful to health. They use portable scales, cameras, ultraviolet lights, container sampling devices, ther­ mometers, chemical testing kits, radiation monitors, and other equip­ ment to ascertain violations. They send product samples collected as part of their examinations to laboratories for analysis. After completing their inspection, inspectors discuss their observa­ tions with plant managers or officials and point out areas where cor­ rective measures are needed. They write reports of their findings and, when necessary, compile evidence that may be used in court if legal action must be taken to enforce the law.  44  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Federal and State laws empower food inspectors to inspect meat, poultry, and their byproducts to insure that they are safe for public consumption. Working onsite as a team under a veterinarian, they in­ spect meat and poultry slaughtering, processing, and packaging oper­ ations. They also check for correct product labeling and proper sanitation. Agricultural quarantine inspectors protect American agriculture from the spread of foreign plant and animal pests and diseases. To safeguard crops, forests, gardens, and livestock, they inspect ships, aircraft, railroad cars, and motor vehicles entering the United States for restricted or prohibited plants, animals, insects, agricultural com­ modities, and animal by-products. Environmental health inspectors, or sanitarians, who work primari­ ly for State and local governments, insure that food, water, and air meet government standards. They check the cleanliness and safety of food and beverages produced in dairies and processing plants, or served in restaurants, hospitals, and other institutions. They often ex­ amine the handling, processing, and serving of food for compliance with sanitation rules and regulations and oversee the treatment and disposal of sewage, refuse, and garbage. In addition, inspectors ex­ amine places where pollution is a danger, test for pollutants, and col­ lect air, water, or waste samples for analysis. They determine the nature and cause of pollution and initiate action to stop it. In large local and State health or agriculture departments, environ­ mental health inspectors may specialize in milk and dairy products, food sanitation, waste control, air pollution, water pollution, institu­ tional sanitation, or occupational health. In rural areas and small cities, they may be responsible for a wide range of environmental health activities. Agricultural commodity graders apply quality standards to aid the buying and selling of commodities and to insure that retailers and consumers know the quality of the products they purchase. They gen­ erally specialize in an area such as eggs and egg products, meat, poul­ try, processed or fresh fruits and vegetables, grain, tobacco, cotton, or dairy products. They examine product samples to determine quality and grade, and issue official grading certificates. Graders also may inspect the plant and equipment to maintain sanitation standards. Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory inspectors insure compliance with laws and regulations that protect the public welfare. Important types of regulatory inspectors include immigration, customs, air safe­ ty, railroad, motor vehicle, occupational safety and health, mine, wage-hour compliance, and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors. Immigration inspectors interview and examine people seeking to enter the United States and its territories. They inspect passports to determine whether people are legally eligible to enter and to verify their citizenship status and identity. Immigration inspectors also pre­ pare reports, maintain records, and process applications and petitions for immigration or temporary residence in the United States. Customs inspectors enforce laws governing imports and exports. Stationed in the U.S. and overseas at airports, seaports, and border crossing points, they examine, count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sample commercial and non-commercial cargoes entering and leaving the United States to determine admissibility and the amount of tax that must be paid. They insure that all cargo is properly described on accompanying manifests to determine the proper duty. They inspect baggage and articles worn by passengers and crew members to insure that all merchandise is declared, proper duties are paid, and contra­ band is not present. They also ensure that people, ships, planes, and anything used to import or export cargo comply with all appropriate entrance and clearance requirements. Postal inspectors observe the functioning of the postal system and recommend improvements. They investigate criminal activities such as theft and misuse of the mail. In instances of suspected mismanage­ ment or fraud, inspectors conduct management or financial audits. They also collaborate with other government agencies, such as the In­ ternal Revenue Service, as members of special task forces. Aviation safety inspectors insure that Federal Aviation Administra­ tion (FAA) regulations which govern the quality and safety of aircraft  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  equipment and personnel are maintained. Aviation safety inspectors may inspect aircraft and equipment manufacturing, maintenance and repair, or flight operations procedures. They usually specialize in ei­ ther commercial or general aviation aircraft. They also examine and certify aircraft pilots, pilot examiners, flight instructors, schools, and instructional materials. Railroad inspectors verify the compliance of railroad systems and equipment with Federal safety regulations. They investigate accidents and review railroads’ operating practices. Motor vehicle inspectors verify the compliance of automobiles and trucks with State requirements for safe operation and emissions. They inspect truck cargoes to assure compliance with legal limitations on gross weight and hazardous cargoes. Traffic inspectors oversee the scheduled service of streetcar, bus, or railway systems and determine the need for additional vehicles, re­ vised schedules, or other changes to improve service. They also re­ port conditions hazardous to passengers and disruptive to service. Occupational safety and health inspectors visit places of employ­ ment to detect unsafe machinery and equipment or unhealthy work­ ing conditions. They discuss their findings with the employer or plant manager and urge that violations be promptly corrected in accordance with Federal, State, or local government safety standards and regula­ tions. Mine safety and health inspectors work to insure the health and safety of miners. They visit mines and related facilities to obtain in­ formation on health and safety conditions and to enforce safety laws and regulations. They discuss their findings with the management of the mine and issue citations describing violations and hazards that must be corrected. Mine inspectors also investigate and report on mine accidents and may direct rescue and fire-fighting operations when fires or explosions occur. Wage-hour compliance inspectors inspect employers’ time, pay­ roll, and personnel records to insure compliance with Federal laws on such matters as minimum wages, overtime, pay, and employment of minors. They often interview employees to verify the employer’s records and to check for complaints. Equal opportunity representatives ascertain and correct unfair em­ ployment practices through consultation with and mediation between employers and minority groups. Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors inspect distilleries, wineries, and breweries; cigar and cigarette manufacturing plants; wholesale liquor dealers and importers; firearms and explosives man­ ufacturers, dealers, and users; and other regulated facilities. They in­ sure compliance with revenue laws and other regulations on operating procedures, unfair competition, and trade practices, and de­ termine that appropriate taxes are paid. Securities compliance examiners implement regulations concern­ ing securities transactions. They investigate applications for registra­ tion of securities sales and complaints of irregular securities transactions, and recommend necessary legal action. Revenue officers investigate delinquent tax returns and liabilities. They attempt to resolve tax problems with taxpayers and recommend penalties, collection actions, and prosecution when necessary. Attendance officers investigate continued absences of pupils from public schools. Dealer compliance representatives inspect franchised establish­ ments to ascertain compliance with the franchiser’s policies and pro­ cedures. They may suggest changes in financial and other operations. Logging operations inspectors review contract logging operations. They prepare reports and issue remedial instructions for violations of contractual agreements and of fire and safety regulations. Travel accommodations raters inspect hotels, motels, restaurants, campgrounds, and vacation resorts. They evaluate travel and tourist accommodations for travel guide publishers and organizations such as tourism promoters and automobile clubs. Quality control inspectors and coordinators inspect products man­ ufactured or processed by private companies for government use to insure compliance with contract specifications. They may specialize in specific products such as lumber, machinery, petroleum products,  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  paper products, electronic equipment, or furniture. Others coordinate the activities of workers engaged in testing and evaluating pharma­ ceuticals in order to control quality of manufacture and insure com­ pliance with legal standards. Other inspectors and compliance officers include coroners, code inspectors, mortician investigators, and construction and building in­ spectors. (Construction and building inspectors are discussed else­ where in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Inspectors and compliance officers’ work may be active; they meet many people and work in a variety of environments. Their jobs often involve considerable field work, and some inspectors travel frequent­ ly. They are furnished with an automobile or are reimbursed for travel expenses. At times, inspectors have unfavorable working conditions. For ex­ ample, mine safety and health inspectors often are exposed to the same hazards as miners. Food inspectors may have to examine and inspect the livestock slaughtering process. Food and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors frequently come in contact with strong, un­ pleasant odors. Many inspectors work long and often irregular hours. Employment Inspectors and compliance officers held 156,000 jobs in 1990. State governments employed 32 percent, the Federal Government—chiefly the Departments of Defense, Treasury, Agriculture, and Justice—em­ ployed 30 percent, and local governments employed 20 percent. The remaining 18 percent were employed in the U.S. Postal Service and throughout the private sector—primarily in education, hospitals, in­ surance companies, labor unions, and manufacturing firms. The largest single employer of consumer safety inspectors is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but the majority work for State governments. Most food inspectors and agricultural commodity graders in processing plants are employed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as are agricultural quarantine inspectors. Most environ­ mental health inspectors work for State and local governments. Most Federal regulatory inspectors work in regional and district of­ fices throughout the United States. The Department of Defense em­ ploys the most quality control inspectors. The Treasury Department employs internal revenue officers, alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in-  Environmental health inspectors ensure that hazardous materials are properly stored.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  45  spectors, and customs inspectors. Aviation safety inspectors work for the Federal Aviation Administration. The Environmental Protection Agency employs inspectors to verify compliance with pollution con­ trol laws. The Department of Labor employs wage-hour compliance officers. Occupational safety and health inspectors and mine safety and health inspectors also work for the Department of Labor and for many State governments. Immigration inspectors are employed by the Department of Justice. Like agricultural quarantine inspectors, immigration and customs inspectors work at U.S. airports, seaports, and border crossing points, and at foreign airports. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of functions, qualifications for inspector and compliance officer jobs differ greatly. Requirements are a combina­ tion of education, experience, and often a passing grade on a written examination. Employers generally prefer applicants with college training, including courses related to the job. Food inspectors must have related experience and pass an exami­ nation based on specialized knowledge. Aviation safety inspectors must have considerable experience in aviation maintenance and operations and knowledge of the industry and relevant Federal laws. In addition, FAA mechanic or pilot and medical certificates are required. Some also are required to have an FAA flight instructor rating. Many aviation safety inspectors have had flight training and mechanical training in the Armed Forces. No written examination is required. Applicants for mine safety and health inspector positions generally must have experience in mine safety, management, or supervision, or possess a skill such as that of an electrician (for mine electrical in­ spectors). In some cases, a general aptitude test may be required. Most mine safety inspectors are former miners. Applicants for internal revenue officer jobs must have a bachelor’s degree or 3 years of business, legal, or investigative work experience that displays strong analytical ability. Environmental health inspectors, called sanitarians in many States, sometimes must have a bachelor’s degree in environmental health or in the physical or biological sciences. In most States, they are li­ censed by examining boards. All inspectors and compliance officers are trained in applicable laws and inspection procedures through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. In general, people who want to enter this oc­ cupation should be able to accept responsibility and like detailed work. Inspectors and compliance officers should be neat and person­ able and able to express themselves well orally and in writing. Federal Government inspectors and compliance officers whose job performance is satisfactory advance through their career ladder to a specified full performance level. For positions above this level (usu­ ally supervisory positions), advancement is competitive, based on agency needs and individual merit. Advancement opportunities in State and local governments and the private sector are often similar to those in the Federal Government. Some civil service examinations, including those for agricultural quarantine inspectors and agricultural commodity graders, rate appli­ cants solely on their experience and education and require no written examination. Job Outlook Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is expected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Employment growth, particularly in local government, will re­ flect the expansion of regulatory and compliance programs in solid and hazardous waste disposal and water pollution. In private industry, employment growth will reflect increasing self-enforcement of gov­ ernment and company regulations and policies, particularly among the rapidly growing number of franchise dealerships in various indus­ tries. Most job openings, however, will arise from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is seldom af­  46  Occupational Outlook Handbook  fected by general economic fluctuations. Most work in programs which enjoy wide public support. As a result, they are less likely to lose their jobs than many other workers when government programs are cut. Earnings The median annual salary of inspectors and compliance officers, ex­ cept construction, was $30,300 in 1990. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $17,700; the highest 10 percent earned at least $49,400. Most starting Federal salaries were around $17,000 a year in 1991. However, some inspectors and compliance officers—for example, aviation safety officers and postal inspectors—started at $25,700 a year. In the Federal Government, the average annual salary in 1990 var­ ied substantially—from $21,600 to $50,300—depending upon the na­ ture of the inspection or compliance activity. Table 1 presents average salaries for selected inspectors and compliance officers in the Federal Government in 1990.  Table 1. Average salaries of selected Federal inspectors and com­ pliance officers, 1990 Highway safety inspectors.................................................... $50,327 Air safety investigators........................................................... 48,304 Insurance examiners............................................................. 45,171 Mine safety and health inspectors........................................ 43,828 Railroad safety inspectors..................................................... 42,855 Equal opportunity compliance officials.................................. 42,049 Consumer safety inspectors.................................................. 41,703 Securities compliance examiners........................................... 41,207 Environmental protection specialists.................................... 39,678 Import specialists.................................................................. 37,305 Internal revenue officers....................................................... 36,318 Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors........................... 35,603 Quality assurance inspectors................................................ 34,436 Public health quarantine inspectors...................................... 33,142 Agricultural commodity warehouse examiners.................... 32,284 Customs inspectors............................................................... 31,537 Transportation rate and tariff examiners............................... 31,216 Agricultural commodity graders............................................. 29,225 Immigration inspectors............................................................ 27,970 Food inspectors....................................................................... 26,228 Consumer safety inspectors..................................................... 22,899 Environmental protection assistants..................................... 21,590 SOURCE:  U.S. Office of Personnel Management  Salaries of inspectors and compliance officers in State and local government and in private industry are generally lower than those of their Federal counterparts. Most inspectors and compliance officers work for Federal, State, and local government and in large private firms, all of which general­ ly offer more generous fringe benefits—for example, pension and retirement plans, health and life insurance plans, and paid vaca­ tions—than do smaller firms. Related Occupations Inspectors and compliance officers are responsible for seeing that laws and regulations are obeyed. Revenue agents, construction and building inspectors, fire marshals, State and local police officers, cus­ toms patrol officers, customs special agents, and fish and game war­ dens also enforce laws. Sources of Additional Information Information on Federal Government jobs is available from offices of the State employment service, area offices of the U.S. Office of Per­ sonnel Management, and Federal Job Information Centers in large cities throughout the country. For information on a career as a specif­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ic type of Federal inspector or compliance officer, the Federal depart­ ment or agency that employs them may also be contacted directly. Information about State and local government jobs is available from State civil service commissions, usually located in each State capital, or from local government offices. Information about jobs in private industry is available from the State Employment Service, which is listed under “Job Service” or “Employment” in the State government section of local telephone directories.  Management Analysts and Consultants (D.O.T. 100.117-014; 161.117-014, .167-010, .267 except -014 and -030; 169.167-074; and 375.267-026)  Nature of the Work A rapidly growing small company needs a better system of control over inventories and expenses. An established manufacturing compa­ ny decides to relocate to another State and needs assistance planning the move. After acquiring a new division, a large company realizes that its corporate structure must be reorganized. A division chief of a government agency wants to know why the division’s contracts are always going over budget. These are just a few of the many organiza­ tional problems that management analysts, as they are called in gov­ ernment agencies, and management consultants, as business firms refer to them, help solve. Although their job titles may differ, their job duties are essentially the same. The work of management analysts and consultants varies from em­ ployer to employer and from project to project. For example, some projects require several consultants to work together, each specializ­ ing in one area; at other times, they will work independently. In gen­ eral, analysts and consultants collect, review, and analyze information; make recommendations; and often assist in the imple­ mentation of their proposal. Both public and private organizations use consultants for a variety of reasons. Some don't have the internal resources needed to handle a project; others need a consultant’s expertise to determine what re­ sources will be required—or problems encountered—if they pursue a particular course of action; while others want to get outside advice on how to resolve organizational problems that have already been identi­ fied or to avoid troublesome problems that could arise. Firms providing consulting services range in size from solo practi­ tioners to large international organizations employing thousands of consultants. These services usually are provided on a contract basis— a company solicits proposals from consulting firms specializing in the area in which it needs assistance. These proposals include the es­ timated cost and scope of the project, staffing requirements, and the deadline. The company then selects the proposal which best meets its needs. Upon getting an assignment or contract, consultants define the na­ ture and extent of the problem. During this phase of the job, they may analyze data such as annual revenues, employment, or expenditures; interview employees; or observe the operations of the organizational unit. Next, they use their knowledge of management systems and their expertise in a particular area to develop solutions. In the course of preparing their recommendations, they must take into account the general nature of the business, the relationship the firm has with oth­ ers in that industry, and the firm’s internal organization, as well as in­ formation gained through data collection and analysis. Once they have decided on a course of action, consultants usually report their findings and recommendations to the client, often in writ­ ing. In addition, they often make oral presentations regarding their findings. For some projects, this is all that is required; for others, con­ sultants may assist in the implementation of their suggestions. Management analysts in government agencies use the same skills  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  as their private-sector colleagues to advise managers in government on many types of issues—most of which are similar to the problems faced by private firms. For example, if an agency is planning to pur­ chase several personal computers, it first must determine which type to buy, given its budget and data processing needs. Management ana­ lysts would assess the various types of machines available and deter­ mine which best meets their department’s needs. Working Conditions Management analysts and consultants usually divide their time be­ tween their offices and their client’s operation. Although much of their time is spent indoors in clean, well-lighted offices, they may have to visit a client’s production facility where conditions may not be so favorable. They must follow established safety procedures when making field visits to sites where they may encounter potential­ ly hazardous conditions. Typically, analysts and consultants work at least 40 hours a week. Overtime is common, especially when deadlines must be met. In ad­ dition, because they must spend a significant portion of their time with clients, they may travel frequently. Self-employed consultants can set their workload and hours and work at home. On the other hand, their livelihood depends on their ability to maintain and expand their client base, which can be difficult at times. Employment Management analysts and consultants held about 151,000 jobs in 1990. Almost half of these workers were self-employed. Most of the rest worked in management consulting firms and for Federal, State, and local governments. The majority of those working for the Federal Government were found in the Department of Defense. Management analysts and consultants are found throughout the country, but employment is concentrated in metropolitan areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There are no universal educational requirements for entry level jobs in this field. However, employers in private industry prefer to hire those with a master’s degree in business administration or a discipline related to the firms’ area of specialization. Those individuals hired straight out of school with only a bachelor’s degree are likely to work as research associates or junior consultants, rather than full-fledged management consultants. It is possible for research associates to ad­ vance up the career ladder if they demonstrate a strong aptitude for consulting, but, more often, they need to get an advanced degree to do so. Many entrants to this occupation have, in addition to the appropri­ ate formal education, several years of experience in management or in another occupation.  Management consultants review and analyze financial and technical information before recommending solutions to organizational problems.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  47  Most government agencies hire those with a bachelor’s degree and no work experience as entry level management analysts, and often provide formal classroom training in management analysis. Many fields of study provide a suitable formal educational back­ ground for this occupation because of the diversity of problem areas addressed by management analysts and consultants. These include most areas of business and management, as well as computer and in­ formation sciences and engineering. Management analysts and consultants who are hired directly from school sometimes participate in formal company training programs. These programs may include instruction on policies and procedures, computer systems and software, and management practices and prin­ ciples. Because of their previous industry experience, most who enter at middle levels do not participate in formal company training pro­ grams. However, regardless of background, analysts and consultants routinely attend conferences to keep abreast of current developments in their field. Additionally, some large firms offer in-house formal training programs for all levels of staff. Management analysts and consultants often work under little or no supervision, so they should be independent and self-motivated. Ana­ lytical skills, strong oral communication and written skills, good judgment, the ability to manage time well, and creativity in develop­ ing solutions to problems are other desirable qualities for prospective management analysts and consultants. In large consulting firms, beginners usually start as a member of a consulting team. The team is responsible for the entire project and each consultant is assigned to a particular area. As consultants gain experience, they may be assigned to work on one specific project full-time, taking on more responsibility and managing their own hours. At the senior level, consultants may supervise entry level workers and become increasingly involved in seeking out new busi­ ness. Those with exceptional skills may eventually become a partner or principal in the firm. Others with entrepreneurial ambition may open their own firm. The Institute of Management Consultants (a division of the Coun­ cil of Consulting Organizations) offers the Certified Management Consultant (CMC) designation to those who pass an examination and meet minimum levels of education and experience. Certification is not mandatory for management consultants to practice, but it may give a jobseeker a competitive advantage. Job Outlook Employment of management analysts and consultants is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as industry and government increasingly rely on outside expertise to improve the performance of their organizations. Growth is expected in large consulting firms, but also in small consulting firms whose consultants will fill specialized niches. Most job open­ ings, however, will result from the need to replace personnel who transfer to other fields or leave the labor force. Increased foreign competition has caused American industry to take a closer look at its operations. In a more competitive internation­ al market, firms cannot afford inefficiency and wasted resources or else they risk losing their share of the market. Management consul­ tants are being increasingly relied upon to help reduce costs, stream­ line operations, and develop marketing strategies. As businesses downsize and eliminate needed functions, consultants will be used to perform those functions on a contractual basis. On the other hand, businesses undergoing expansion will also need the skills of manage­ ment consultants to help with organizational, administrative, and other issues. Continuing changes in the business environment also are expected to lead to demand for management consultants: Firms will use consultants’ expertise to incorporate new technologies, to cope with more numerous and complex government regulations, and to adapt to a changing labor force. As businesses rely more on technolo­ gy, there are increasing roles for consultants with a technical back­ ground, such as engineering or biotechnology, particularly when combined with an MBA. Federal, State, and local agencies also are expected to expand their  48  Occupational Outlook Handbook  use of management analysts. In the era of budget deficits, analysts’ skills at identifying problems and implementing cost reduction mea­ sures are expected to become increasingly important. In the private sector, job opportunities are expected to be best for those with a graduate degree and some industry expertise, while op­ portunities for those with only a bachelor’s degree will be best in the Federal Government. Consultants with special knowledge or skills in the environmental field, in human resources administration, and in the health care field are expected to have better job prospects than others. Because many small consulting firms fail each year for lack of managerial expertise and clients, those interested in opening their own firm should have good organizational and marketing skills, plus several years of consulting experience. Despite projected rapid employment growth and higher than aver­ age turnover, competition for jobs as management consultants is ex­ pected to be keen in the private sector. Because management consultants can come from such diverse educational backgrounds, the pool of applicants from which employers hire is quite large. Addi­ tionally, the independent and challenging nature of the work com­ bined with high earnings potential make this occupation attractive to many. Earnings Salaries for management analysts and consultants vary widely by ex­ perience, education, and employer. In 1990, those who were wage and salary workers had median annual earnings of about $39,900. The middle 50 percent earned between $28,000 and $53,100. In 1989, according to the Association of Management Consulting Firms (ACME), earnings—including bonuses and/or profit sharing— for research associates in ACME member firms averaged $31,800; for entry level consultants, $40,900; for management consultants, $58,900; for senior consultants, $79,300; for junior partners, $110,600; and for senior partners, $183,800. In the Federal Government, the average salary for management an­ alysts in 1991 was $41,353. Typical benefits for salaried analysts and consultants include health and life insurance, a retirement plan, vacation and sick leave, profit sharing, and bonuses for outstanding work. In addition, all travel ex­ penses usually are reimbursed by their employer. Self-employed con­ sultants usually have to maintain an office and do not receive employer-provided benefits. Related Occupations Management analysts and consultants collect, review, and analyze data; make recommendations; and assist in the implementation of their ideas. Others who use similar skills are managers, computer sys­ tems analysts, operations research analysts, economists, and financial analysts. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities in management consulting is available from: w The Council of Consulting Organizations, Inc., 251 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10175.  For information about a career as a State or local government man­ agement analyst, contact your State or local employment service. Persons interested in a management analyst position in the Federal Government can obtain information from: *" U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations Managers (D.O.T. 141.137-010; 159.167-022; 163.117-014, -018, -022, -026, .167-010, -018,-022, .267-010; 164.117-010, -014, -018, .167-010; 185.117-014, .157­ 010,-014; 187.167-162; 189.117-018)  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nature of the Work The fundamental objective of any firm is to market its products or services profitably. In very small firms, all marketing responsibilities may be assumed by the owner or chief executive officer. In large firms, which may offer numerous products and services nationally or even worldwide, experienced marketing, advertising, and public rela­ tions managers coordinate these and related activities. In large firms, the executive vice president for marketing directs the overall marketing policy—including market research, marketing strategy, sales, advertising, promotion, pricing, product development, and public relations activities. (This occupation is included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) These activities are supervised by middle and supervisory managers who oversee staffs of professionals and technicians. Marketing managers develop the firm’s detailed marketing strate­ gy. With the help of subordinates, including product development managers and market research managers, they determine the demand for products and services offered by the firm and its competitors and identify potential consumers—for example, business firms, whole­ salers, retailers, government, or the general public. Mass markets are further categorized according to various factors such as region, age, income, and lifestyle. Marketing managers develop pricing strategy with an eye towards maximizing the firm’s share of the market and ultimately its profits. In collaboration with sales, product develop­ ment, and other managers, they monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services and oversee product development. Marketing managers work with advertising and promotion managers to best promote the firm’s products and services and to attract poten­ tial users. Sales managers direct the firm’s sales program. They assign sales territories and goals and establish training programs for their sales representatives. Managers advise their sales representatives on ways to improve their sales performance. In large, multiproduct firms, they oversee regional and local sales managers and their staffs. Sales man­ agers maintain contact with dealers and distributors. They analyze sales statistics gathered by their staffs to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers. Such information is vital to develop products and maximize profits. Except in the largest firms, advertising and promotion staffs are generally small and serve as a liaison between the firm and the adver­ tising or promotion agency to which many advertising or promotional functions are contracted out. Advertising managers oversee the ac­ count services, creative services, and media services departments. The account services department is managed by account executives, who assess the need for advertising and, in advertising agencies, maintain the accounts of clients. The creative services department— which develops the subject matter and presentation of advertising—is supervised by a creative director, who oversees the copy chief and art director and their staffs. The media services department is supervised by the media director, who oversees planning groups which select the communication media—for example, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, or outdoor signs—to disseminate the advertising. Promotion managers—who supervise staffs of promotion special­ ists—direct promotion programs, which combine advertising with purchase incentives to increase sales of products or services. In an ef­ fort to establish closer contact with purchasers—dealers, distributors, or consumers—promotion programs may involve direct mail, tele­ marketing, television or radio advertising, catalogs, exhibits, inserts in newspapers, in-store displays and product endorsements, and spe­ cial events. Purchase incentives may include discounts, samples, gifts, rebates, coupons, sweepstakes, and contests. Public relations managers supervise public relations specialists (see the Handbook statement on public relations specialists). Public relations managers direct publicity programs to a targeted public, using any necessary communication media, designed to maintain the support of the specific group upon whom their organization’s success depends, such as consumers, stockholders, or the general public. For example, public relations managers may clarify or justify the firm’s point of view on health or environmental issues to community or spe­  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  cial interest groups. They may evaluate advertising and promotion programs for compatibility with public relations efforts. Public rela­ tions managers in effect serve as the eyes and ears of top manage­ ment—observing social, economic, and political trends that might ultimately have an impact upon the firm, and making recommenda­ tions to enhance the firm’s public image in view of those trends. Pub­ lic relations managers may confer with labor relations managers to produce internal company communications—such as news about em­ ployee-management relations—and with financial managers to pro­ duce company reports. They may assist company executives in drafting speeches, arranging interviews, and other forms of public contact; oversee company archives; and respond to information re­ quests. In addition, public relations managers may handle special events such as sponsorship of races, parties introducing new prod­ ucts, or other activities by which the firm seeks public attention through the press without advertising directly. Working Conditions Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers are provided with offices close to top managers. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are not uncommon. Working under pressure is un­ avoidable as schedules change, problems arise, and deadlines and goals must be met. Marketing, advertising, and public relations man­ agers meet frequently with other managers; some meet with the pub­ lic and government officials. Substantial travel may be involved. For example, attendance at meetings sponsored by associations or industries is often mandatory. Sales managers travel to national, regional, and local offices and to  IJfV  ■PP l|u 1%  >  '  ' "■  Employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers is expected to grow much faster than average.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  49  various dealers and distributors. Advertising and promotion managers may travel to meet with clients or representatives of communications media. Public relations managers may travel to meet with special in­ terest groups or government officials. Job transfers between head­ quarters and regional offices are common—particularly among sales managers—and may disrupt family life. ) Employment Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers held about 427,000 jobs in 1990. These managers are found in virtually every in­ dustry. Industries employing them in significant numbers include motor vehicle dealers; printing and publishing firms; advertising agencies; department stores; computer and data processing services firms; and management and public relations firms. Training, Advancement, and Other Qualifications A wide range of educational backgrounds are suitable for entry into marketing, advertising, and public relations managerial jobs, but many employers prefer a broad liberal arts background. A bachelor’s degree in sociology, psychology, literature, or philosophy, among other subjects, is acceptable. However, requirements vary depending upon the particular job. For marketing, sales, and promotion management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in business adminis­ tration with an emphasis on marketing. Courses in business law, eco­ nomics, accounting, finance, mathematics, and statistics are also highly recommended. In highly technical industries, such as comput­ er and electronics manufacturing, a bachelor’s degree in engineering or science combined with a master’s degree in business administra­ tion may be preferred. For advertising management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s degree in advertising or journalism. The curriculum should include courses in marketing, consumer be­ havior, market research, sales, communications methods and technol­ ogy, and visual arts—for example, art history and photography. For public relations management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in public relations or journalism. The curriculum should include courses in advertising, business adminis­ tration, public affairs, political science, and creative and technical writing. For all specialties, courses in management and completion of an internship while in school are highly recommended. Familiarity with computerized word processing and data base applications also is important for many marketing, advertising, and public relations man­ agement positions. Most marketing, advertising, and public relations management po­ sitions are filled by promoting experienced staff or related profession­ al or technical personnel—for example, sales representatives, purchasing agents, buyers, product or brand specialists, advertising specialists, promotion specialists, and public relations specialists. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a management position may come slowly. In large firms, promotion may occur more quickly. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by participation in man­ agement training programs conducted by many large firms. Many firms also provide their employees with continuing education oppor­ tunities, either in-house or at local colleges and universities, and en­ courage employee participation in seminars and conferences, often provided by professional societies. In addition, numerous marketing and related associations, often in collaboration with colleges and uni­ versities, sponsor national or local management training programs. Courses in these schools include brand and product management, in­ ternational marketing, sales management evaluation, telemarketing and direct sales, promotion, marketing communication, market re­ search, organizational communication, and data processing systems procedures and management. Many firms pay all or part of the cost for those who successfully complete courses. Persons interested in becoming marketing, advertising, and public relations managers should be mature, creative, highly motivated, re­ sistant to stress, and flexible, yet decisive. The ability to commuoi-  50  Occupational Outlook Handbook  cate persuasively, both orally and in writing, with other managers, staff, and the public is vital. Marketing, advertising, and public rela­ tions managers also need tact, good judgment, and exceptional ability to establish and maintain effective personal relationships with super­ visory and professional staff members and client firms. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, market­ ing, advertising, and public relations managers are often prime candi­ dates for advancement. Well-trained, experienced, successful managers may be promoted to higher positions in their own or other firms. Some become top executives. Managers with extensive experi­ ence and sufficient capital may open their own businesses.  Sales and Marketing Executives, International, 458 Statler Office Tower, Cleveland, OH 44115.  Job Outlook Employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupa­ tions through the year 2005. Increasingly intense domestic and for­ eign competition in products and services offered consumers should require greater marketing, promotional, and public relations efforts. In addition to much faster than average growth, many job openings will occur each year to replace managers who move into top manage­ ment positions, transfer to other jobs, or leave the labor force. How­ ever, many of these highly coveted jobs will be sought by other managers or highly experienced professional and technical personnel, resulting in substantial job competition. College graduates with ex­ tensive experience, a high level of creativity, and strong communica­ tion skills should have the best job opportunities. Projected employment growth varies by industry. For example, employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers is expected to grow very rapidly in most services industries—such as computer and data processing firms, and management, public rela­ tions, and advertising firms—and in motor vehicle dealerships. More moderate growth is projected in manufacturing industries overall.  Information about careers in public relations management is avail­ able from:  Earnings The median annual salary of marketing, advertising, and public rela­ tions managers was $41,400 in 1990. The lowest 10 percent earned $20,300 or less, while the top 10 percent earned $78,500 or more. Many earn bonuses equal to 10 percent or more of their salaries. Sur­ veys show that salary levels vary substantially depending upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of service, education, and the employer’s size, location, and industry. For example, manufactur­ ing firms generally pay marketing, advertising, and public relations managers higher salaries than nonmanufacturing firms. For sales managers, the extent of their sales territory is another important factor. According to a 1990 survey by Abbot, Langer and Associates, of Crete, Illinois, median annual incomes ranged from $30,500 for a top sales promotion manager to $63,700 for a regional sales manager. The median annual income for a top advertising manager was $45,000; for a product/brand manager, $53,400. Like other managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations managers typically receive a range of fringe benefits that includes health and life insurance, vacation and sick leave, and a pension, among others. Related Occupations Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers direct the sale of products and services offered by their firms and the communica­ tion of information about their firms’ activities. Other personnel in­ volved with marketing, advertising, and public relations include art directors, commercial and graphic artists, copy chiefs, copywriters, editors, lobbyists, market research analysts, public relations special­ ists, promotion specialists, sales representatives, and technical writ­ ers. (Some of these occupations are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.) Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in sales and marketing management, contact: American Marketing Association, 250 S. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For information about careers in advertising management, contact: American Association of Advertising Agencies, 666 Third Ave., 13th Floor, New York, NY 10017. »• American Advertising Federation, Education Services Department, 1400 K St. NW„ Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20005.  Information about careers in promotion management is available from: »■ Council of Sales Promotion Agencies, 750 Summer St., Stamford, CT 06901. »• Promotion Marketing Association of America, Inc., 322 Eighth Ave., Suite 1201, New York, NY 10001.  Public Relations Society of America, 33 Irving Place, New York, NY 10003-2376.  Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists and Managers (D.O.T. 079.127; 099.167-010; 166.067, .117, .167 except -046, .257, .267­ 014 through -046; 169.107, .167-062, .207; 188.117-010, -086, .217)  Nature of the Work ' Attracting the most qualified employees available and matching them to the jobs they are best suited for is important for the success of any organization. However, many enterprises are too large to permit close contact between top management and employees. Instead, personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers, commonly known as human resource specialists and managers, provide this link. These specialists and managers recruit, interview, and hire employees based on policies and requirements that they have established in con­ junction with top management. In an effort to improve morale and productivity, they also help management make effective use of em­ ployees’ skills, and help employees find satisfaction in their jobs and working conditions. Although some jobs in this field require only limited contact with people outside the office, most involve frequent contact. Dealing with people is an essential part of the job. In a small organization, one person may handle many, if not all, as­ pects of personnel, training, and labor relations work. In contrast, in a large corporation, the top human resource executive usually develops and coordinates personnel programs and policies. (Executives are in­ cluded in the Handbook statement on general managers and top exec­ utives.) These policies are implemented by a director of human resources and, in some cases, a director of industrial relations. The director of human resources may oversee several departments, each headed by an experienced manager, who most likely specializes in one personnel activity such as employment, compensation, bene­ fits, training and development, or employee welfare. Employment and placement managers oversee the hiring and sepa­ ration of employees and supervise various workers including equal employment opportunity specialists and recruitment specialists. Recruiters maintain contacts within the community and may travel extensively—often to college campuses—to search for promising job applicants. Recruiters screen, interview, and, in some cases, test ap­ plicants, and recommend those who are qualified to fill vacancies. They may also check references before an offer is made. These work­ ers need to be thoroughly familiar with the organization and its per­ sonnel policies to discuss wages, working conditions, and promotional opportunities with prospective employees. They also need to keep informed about equal employment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines and laws. EEO representatives or affirmative action coordinators handle this area in large organizations. They investigate and resolve EEO grievances, examine corporate practices for possible violations, and compile and submit EEO statistical reports.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Employer relations representatives—who usually work in govern­ ment agencies—maintain working relationships with local employers and promote the use of public employment programs and services. Similarly, employment interviewers—sometimes called account rep­ resentatives or personnel consultants—help match jobseekers with employers. (For more information, see the statement on employment interviewers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job analysts, sometimes called position classifiers, perform very exacting work. They collect and examine detailed information about job duties to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills each job requires. Whenever a large orga­ nization introduces a new job or reviews existing ones, it calls upon the expert knowledge of the job analyst. Occupational analysts conduct research, generally in large firms. They are concerned with occupational classification systems and study the effects of industry and occupational trends upon worker re­ lationships. They may serve as technical liaison between the firm and industry, government, and labor unions. Establishing and maintaining a firm’s pay system is the principal job of the compensation manager. Assisted by staff specialists, com­ pensation managers devise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates. They may conduct surveys to see how their rates compare with others and to see that the firm’s pay scale complies with changing laws and regulations. In addition, compensation managers often over­ see their firm’s performance evaluation system, and may design re­ ward systems such as pay for performance plans. Employee benefits managers handle the company’s employee ben­ efits program, notably its health insurance and pension plans. Exper­ tise in designing and administering benefits programs continues to gain in importance as pension and benefit plans increase in number and complexity. Familiarity with health benefits is a top priority at present, as more and more firms search for ways to respond to the pressures posed by the rising cost of health insurance for employees and retirees. Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Feder­ al and State regulations affecting employee benefits. In many firms, the same person oversees employee compensation and benefits. In addition to health insurance and pension coverage, some firms offer their employees dental insurance, accidental death and dismem­ berment insurance, disability insurance, stock options, profit sharing, and thrift/savings plans. Benefits analysts and benefits administrators handle these programs. Training is supervised by training and development managers. In­ creasingly, management recognizes that training offers a way of de­ veloping skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building loyalty to the firm. Training is widely accepted as a method of improving employee morale, but this is only one of the reasons for its growing importance. Other factors include the complexity of the work environment, the rapid pace of organizational and technological change, and the growing number of jobs in fields where new know­ ledge is constantly generated. In addition, advances in learning theory have provided insights into how adults learn, and how training can be organized to be most effective for adults. Training specialists are responsible for planning, organizing, and directing a wide range of training activities. Trainers conduct orienta­ tion sessions and arrange on-the-job training for new employees. They help rank-and-file workers maintain and improve their job skills and possibly prepare for jobs requiring greater skill. They help super­ visors improve their interpersonal skills in order to deal effectively with employees. To help employees prepare for future responsibili­ ties, they may set up individualized training plans to strengthen exist­ ing skills or to teach new skills. Training specialists in some companies set up programs designed to develop executive potential among employees in lower echelon positions. Planning and program development is an important part of the training specialist’s job. In order to identify and assess training needs within the firm, trainers may confer with managers and supervisors or conduct surveys. They also periodically evaluate training effective­ ness. Depending on the size, goals, and nature of the organization, there  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  51  College graduates with various majors fill personnel, training, and labor relations jobs. may be considerable differences in trainers’ responsibilities and in the methods they use. Training methods include on-the-job training; schools in which shop conditions are duplicated for trainees prior to putting them on the shop floor; apprenticeship training; classroom training; programmed instruction, which may involve interactive videos, videodiscs, and other computer-aided instructional technolo­ gies; simulators; conferences; and workshops. Employee welfare managers—also called employee assistance plan managers—are responsible for a wide array of programs covering oc­ cupational safety and health standards and practices; health promo­ tion and physical fitness, medical examinations, and minor health treatment, such as first aid; plant security; publications; food service and recreation activities; van-pooling; employee suggestion systems; childcare; and counseling services—an area of rapidly growing im­ portance. Counseling—often provided through employee assistance programs—may help employees deal with emotional disorders, alco­ holism, or marital, family, consumer, legal, and financial problems. Career counseling and second career counseling for employees ap­ proaching retirement age may also be provided. In large firms, some of these programs—such as security and safety—are in separate de­ partments headed by other managers. The director of industrial relations formulates labor policy, over­ sees industrial labor relations, negotiates collective bargaining agree­ ments, and coordinates grievance procedures to handle complaints resulting from disputes under the contract for firms with unionized employees. The duties of the director of industrial relations include advising and collaborating with the director of human resources and other managers and members of their staff, since all aspects of per­ sonnel policy—such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work prac­ tices—may be involved in drawing up a new or revised contract. Industrial labor relations programs are implemented by labor rela­ tions managers and their staff. When a collective bargaining agree­ ment is up for negotiation, labor relations specialists prepare information for management to use during negotiation, which re­ quires familiarity with economic and wage data as well as extensive knowledge of labor law and collective bargaining trends. The labor relations staff interprets and administers the contract with respect to grievances, wages and salaries, employee welfare, health care, pensions, union and management practices, and other contractual stipulations. Dispute resolution—that is, attaining tacit or contractual agree-  52  Occupational Outlook Handbook  merits—has become increasingly important as disputants attempt to avoid costly litigation, strikes, or other disruptions. Dispute resolu­ tion has also become more complex, involving employees, manage­ ment, unions, other firms, and government agencies. Specialists involved in dispute resolution must be highly knowledgeable and ex­ perienced, and often report to the director of industrial relations. Con­ ciliators, or mediators, advise and counsel labor and management to prevent and, when necessary, resolve disputes over labor agreements or other labor relations issues. Arbitrators, sometimes known as um­ pires or referees, decide disputes and bind both labor and manage­ ment to specific terms and conditions of labor contracts. Labor relations specialists who work for unions perform many of the same functions on behalf of the union and its members. Other emerging specialists include international human resource managers, who handle human resource issues related to a company’s foreign operations, and human resource information system special­ ists, who develop and apply computer programs to process personnel information, match jobseekers with job openings, and other personnel matters. Working Conditions Personnel work is office work. Generally, the work setting is clean, pleasant, and comfortable. Many personnel, training, and labor rela­ tions specialists and managers work a standard 35- to 40-hour week. However, many work longer hours—for example, labor relations spe­ cialists and managers—when contract agreements are being prepared and negotiated. Although most personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers work in the office, some travel extensively. For exam­ ple, recruiters regularly attend professional meetings and visit college campuses to interview prospective employees. Employment Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers held about 456,000 jobs in 1990. They were employed in virtually every industry. Specialists accounted for 278,000 positions; managers, 178,000. About 12,000—mostly specialists—were self-employed, working as consultants to public and private employers. The private sector accounted for 85 percent of salaried jobs. Ser­ vices industries—including business, health, social, management, and educational services—accounted for nearly 4 out of 10 jobs; labor or­ ganizations—a services industry and the largest employer among spe­ cific industries—accounted for more than 1 out of 10. Manufacturing industries accounted for more than 2 out of 10 jobs, while finance, in­ surance, and real estate firms accounted for 1 out of 10. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 15 percent of salaried personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers. They handled recruitment, interviewing, job classification, training, salary administration, benefits, employee relations, media­ tion, and related matters for the Nation’s public employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of duties and level of responsibility, the edu­ cational backgrounds of personnel, training, and labor relations spe­ cialists and managers vary considerably. In filling entry level jobs, firms generally seek college graduates. Some employers prefer appli­ cants who have majored in human resources, personnel administra­ tion, or industrial and labor relations, while others look for college graduates with a technical or business background. Still others feel that a well-rounded liberal arts education is best. Many colleges and universities have programs leading to a degree in personnel, human resources, or labor relations. Some offer degree programs in personnel administration or human resource manage­ ment, training and development, or compensation and benefits. De­ pending on the school, courses leading to a career in human resource management may be found in departments of business administra­ tion, education, instructional technology, organizational development, human services, communication, or public administration, or within a separate human resources institution or department.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Because an interdisciplinary background is appropriate for work in this area, a combination of courses in the social sciences, business, and behavioral sciences is useful. Some jobs may require a back­ ground in engineering, science, finance, or law. Most prospective per­ sonnel specialists should take courses in compensation, recruitment, training and development, and performance appraisal, as well as courses in principles of management and organizational structure. Other relevant courses include business administration, public admin­ istration, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and statistics. Courses in labor law, collective bargaining, labor eco­ nomics, labor history, and industrial psychology also provide a valu­ able background for the prospective labor relations specialist. Knowledge of computers and information systems is important for some jobs. Graduate study in industrial or labor relations is increasingly im­ portant for those seeking work in labor relations. A law degree sel­ dom is required for entry level jobs, but many people responsible for contract negotiations are lawyers, and a combination of industrial re­ lations courses and law is highly desirable. A background in law is also desirable for employee benefits managers and others who must interpret the growing number of laws and regulations. A degree in dispute resolution provides an excellent background for mediators, arbitrators, and related personnel. A master’s degree in personnel, training, or labor relations, or in business administration with a con­ centration in human resource management, is desirable for those seeking general and top management positions. For many specialized jobs in this field, previous experience is an asset; for managerial positions, it is essential. Many employers prefer even entry level workers who have gained some experience through an internship or work-study program while in school. Personnel ad­ ministration and human resource development require the ability to work with individuals as well as having a commitment to organiza­ tional goals. They also demand skills that may be developed outside the field—computer usage, selling, teaching, supervising, and volun­ teering, among others. This field offers clerical workers opportunities for advancement to professional positions. However, more responsi­ ble positions may be filled by experienced individuals from other fields, including business, government, education, social services ad­ ministration, and the military. Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers should speak and write effectively and be able to work with or super­ vise people of all levels of education and experience as part of a team. They must be patient to cope with conflicting points of view and emotionally stable to deal with the unexpected and the unusual. The ability to function under pressure is essential. Integrity, fairmindedness, and a persuasive, congenial personality are important qualities. Entry level workers often enter formal or on-the-job training pro­ grams, where they learn how to classify jobs, interview applicants, or administer employee benefits. Next, they are assigned to specific areas in the personnel department to gain experience. Later, they may advance to a managerial position, overseeing a major element of the personnel program—compensation or training, for example. Exceptional personnel, training, and labor relations workers may be promoted to director of personnel or industrial relations, which can eventually lead to a top managerial or executive position. Others may join a consulting firm or open their own business. A Ph.D. is an asset for teaching, writing, or consulting work. Though not widespread, some organizations offer certification ex­ aminations to members who meet certain requirements. Certification is a sign of competence and can enhance one’s advancement opportu­ nities. (Several of these organizations are listed under sources of ad­ ditional information.) Job Outlook The number of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupa­ tions through the year 2005. In addition, many job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave this relatively large occupa­  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  tion. However, the job market is likely to remain competitive in view of the abundant supply of college graduates and experienced workers with suitable qualifications. Most growth will occur in the private sector as employers, con­ cerned about productivity and quality of work, devote greater re­ sources to job-specific training programs in response to the increasing complexity of many jobs, the aging of the work force, and technological advances that can leave employees with obsolete skills. Demand for personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers should also increase as legislation and court rulings setting standards in occupational safety and health, equal employment op­ portunity, benefits, and other related areas has substantially increased the amount of recordkeeping, analysis, and report writing in these areas. In addition, data gathering and analytical activities will in­ crease as employers continue to review and evaluate their personnel policies and programs, but few additional jobs are likely to be created because of offsetting productivity gains associated with the automa­ tion of personnel and payroll information. Employment demand could be particularly strong in management and consulting firms as well as personnel supply firms as businesses increasingly contract out personnel functions or hire personnel spe­ cialists on a contractual basis to meet the increasing cost and com­ plexity of training and development programs. Demand should also increase in firms that develop and administer the increasingly com­ plex employee benefits and compensation packages for other organi­ zations. Demand for personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers is also governed by the staffing needs of the firms where they work. A rapidly expanding business is likely to hire additional personnel workers—either as permanent employees or consultants— while a business that has experienced a merger or a reduction in its workforce will require fewer personnel workers. In any particular firm, the size and the job duties of the human resources staff are de­ termined by a variety of factors, including the firm’s organizational philosophy and goals, the labor intensity and skill profile of the in­ dustry, the pace of technological change, government regulations, collective bargaining agreements, standards of professional practice, and labor market conditions. Earnings The median annual salary of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists was about $30,000 in 1990. For managers, the median an­ nual salary was almost $36,000. However, salaries varied widely. The lowest 10 percent of specialists earned under $19,000, while the high­ est 10 percent of managers earned over $65,000. According to a 1990 survey of compensation in the human re­ sources field, conducted by Abbott, Langer, and Associates of Crete, Illinois, the median annual salaries for selected personnel and labor relations occupations were: Industrial/labor relations directors, $63,500; training directors, $50,300; safety specialists, $39,200; com­ pensation supervisors, $35,400; EEO/affirmative action specialists, $32,300; and personnel records specialists, $27,000. A 1991 survey of salaries in selected white-collar occupations in private industry also indicated that salaries in the personnel field var­ ied widely depending on the complexity of the job and level of re­ sponsibility. The median annual salary for personnel specialists ranged from $23,900 to $71,500; personnel supervisors/managers, $48,300 to $93,200; and directors of personnel, $44,800 to $99,900. In the Federal Government in 1991, persons with a bachelor’s de­ gree or 3 years’ general experience in the personnel field generally started at $17,000 a year. Those with a superior academic record or an additional year of specialized experience started at $21,000 a year. Holders of a master’s degree started at $25,700, and those with a doc­ torate in a personnel field started at $31,100. There are no formal entry level requirements for managerial positions. Applicants must possess a suitable combination of educational attainment, experience, and record of accomplishment. Labor relations specialists in the Federal Government averaged $45,900 a year in 1991; personnel managers, $43,500; equal employ­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  53  ment opportunity specialists, $43,100; position classification special­ ists, $41,000; and personnel staffing specialists, $38,500. Similar to other workers, personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers receive fringe benefits that typically include vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans, among others. Related Occupations All personnel, training, and labor relations occupations are closely re­ lated. Other workers with skills and expertise in interpersonal rela­ tions include employment, rehabilitation, and college career planning and placement counselors; lawyers; psychologists; sociologists; pub­ lic relations specialists; and teachers. These occupations are de­ scribed elsewhere in the Handbook. Sources of Additional Information For general information on careers and certification in the human re­ source field, send a self-addressed, stamped, legal-sized envelope to: Society for Human Resource Management, 606 N. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information about careers in employee training and develop­ ment, contact: American Society for Training and Development, 1640 King St., Box 1443, Alexandria, VA 22313.  For information about careers and certification in employee com­ pensation, contact: "' American Compensation Association, 14040 Northsight Blvd., Scottsdale AZ 85260.  Information about careers and certification in employee benefits is available from: *- International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, 18700 W. Bluemound Rd„ Brookfield, WI53005.  For information about careers in arbitration and other aspects of dispute resolution, contact: *" American Arbitration Association, 140 West 51st St., New York NY 10020.  For information about academic programs in industrial relations, write to: Industrial Relations Research Association, University of Wisconsin, 7226 Social Science Bldg., 1180 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI 53706.  Information about personnel careers in the health care industry is available from: «■ American Hospital Association, American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  For information about personnel and labor relations careers in gov­ ernment, contact: *■ International Association of Personnel in Employment Security, 1801 Louisville Rd., Frankfort, KY 40601.  For additional information on government careers in personnel, send a self-addressed, stamped envelope to: "■ International Personnel Management Association, 1617 Duke St., Alexan­ dria, VA 22314.  Property and Real Estate Managers (D.O.T. 186.117-042, -046, -058, and -062, .167-018, -030, -038 -042 -046 -062, and -066; 187.167-190; 189.157; 191.117-030 and -042 through -050). ’  Nature of the Work Many people own real estate in the form of a home, but, to businesses and investors, real estate is more than simply the roof over their heads and the ground under their feet. For them, real estate is a valu­ able asset—land and structures, such as office buildings, shopping centers, and apartment complexes—that can produce income and ap­ preciate in value over time if well managed. Real estate can be a source of income when it is leased to others, and a substantial busi­ ness expense when it is leased from others. Property managers ad­ minister income-producing commercial and residential properties and  54  Occupational Outlook Handbook  manage the communal property and services of condominium and community associations. Real estate managers plan and direct the purchase, development, and disposal of real estate for businesses. The majority of property and real estate managers work in the field of property management. When owners of apartments, office build­ ings, retail and industrial properties, or condominiums lack the time or expertise to assume the day-to-day management of their real estate investments, they often hire a property manager, or contract for one’s services with a real estate management company. Most property man­ agers handle several properties simultaneously. Property managers act as the owners’ agent and adviser for the property. They market vacant space to prospective tenants, through the use of a leasing agent, advertising, or by other means, and establish rental rates in ac­ cordance with prevailing local conditions. They negotiate and prepare lease or rental agreements with tenants and collect their rent pay­ ments and other fees. Property managers also handle the bookkeeping for the property. They see to it that rents are received and make sure that mortgages, taxes, insurance premiums, payroll, and upkeep and maintenance bills are paid on time. They also supervise the prepara­ tion of financial statements and periodically report to the owners on the status of the property, occupancy rates, dates of lease expirations, and other matters. Property managers negotiate contracts for janitorial, security, groundskeeping, trash removal, and other services. When contracts are awarded competitively, managers must solicit bids from several contractors and recommend to the owners which bid to accept. They monitor the performance of the contractors, and investigate and re­ solve complaints from tenants. Managers also purchase all supplies and equipment needed for the property, and make arrangements with specialists for any repairs that cannot be handled by the regular prop­ erty maintenance staff. Property managers hire the maintenance, stationary engineering, and on-site management personnel. At smaller properties, the proper­ ty manager might employ only a building engineer who maintains the building’s heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems and per­ forms other routine maintenance and repair. Larger properties require a sizable maintenance staff supervised by a full-time on-site or resi­ dent manager, who works under the direction of the property manager. Although some on-site managers oversee large office buildings or shopping centers, most manage apartments. They train, supervise, and assign duties to the maintenance staff and routinely inspect the grounds, facilities, and equipment, determine what repairs and main­ tenance are needed, and assign workers to do them. Occasionally, outside contractors are required, and the on-site manager may obtain bids for the work and submit them to the property manager. On-site managers schedule routine serviceing of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems and insure that the work of the maintenance staff and contract workers is up to standards or contract specifica­ tions. They keep records of expenditures incurred for operating the property and submit regular expense reports to the property manager or owners. They may recruit maintenance staff, interview the job ap­ plicants, and recommend to the property manager qualified candi­ dates for employment. Tenant relations is an important part of the work of on-site man­ agers, particularly apartment managers. Apartment managers handle tenants’ requests for service or repairs and try to resolve complaints. They show vacant apartments to prospective tenants and explain the occupancy terms. They are responsible for enforcing rules and lease restrictions, such as pet restrictions or use of parking areas. Property and on-site managers employed by condominium and homeowner associations must be particularly adept at dealing with people. Instead of tenants, they must deal on a daily basis with homeowners—members of the community association that employs the manager. Hired by the volunteer board of directors of the association, the community association manager administers its daily affairs and oversees the maintenance of property and facilities that the home­ owners own and use jointly through the association. Many communi­ ty associations are small and do not require professional management, but managers of the larger condominiums have many of  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the same responsibilities as the managers of large apartment com­ plexes. Some homeowner associations encompass thousands of homes, and, in addition to administering the associations’ financial records, their managers may be responsible for the operation of com­ munity pools, golf courses, community centers, and the maintenance of landscaping, parking areas, and streets. Some real estate managers are employed by businesses to locate, acquire, and develop real estate needed for their operations and to dispose of property no longer suited to their uses. These managers lo­ cate sites suited for these businesses and arrange to purchase or lease the property. They select a site based on their assessment of such things as property values, zoning, population growth, and traffic vol­ ume and patterns. They negotiate contracts for the purchase or lease of the property, securing the most beneficial terms for their company. Real estate managers periodically review their company’s real estate holdings, identifying properties that are no longer commericially at­ tractive. They negotiate the sale or termination of the lease of proper­ ties selected for disposal. Real estate managers who work for land development companies acquire land and plan the construction of shopping centers, houses and apartments, office buildings, or industrial parks. They negotiate with representatives of local government, other businesses, communi­ ty and public interest groups, and public utilities to eliminate obsta­ cles to the development of the land and to gain support for the planned project. It sometimes takes years to win approval for a pro­ ject, and in the process managers may have to modify the plans for the project many times. Once they are free to proceed with a project, managers negotiate short-term loans to finance the construction of the project, and later negotiate long-term permanent mortgage loans. They then contract with architectural firms to draw up detailed plans, and with construction companies to build the project. Working Conditions Property and real estate managers work in clean, well-lighted offices, but they usually spend a major portion of their time away from their desks. Property managers frequently visit the properties they oversee, sometimes on a daily basis when contractors are doing major repair or renovation work. On-site apartment managers may spend a large portion of their workday away from their office visiting the building engineer in the boiler room, checking up on the janitorial and mainte­ nance staff, or investigating a problem reported by a tenant. Many real estate managers spend the majority of their time away from home, traveling to company real estate holdings or searching for properties that might be acquired. Property and real estate managers often must attend meetings in the evening with property owners, community association boards of directors, or civic groups. Not surprisingly, many property and real estate managers put in long work weeks. Many apartment managers  Property managers supervise janitorial, security, groundskeeping, and other maintenance staff.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  are required to live in the apartments where they work so that they are available to handle any emergency that occurs while they are off duty. They usually receive compensatory time off, however, for working at night or on weekends. Many apartment managers receive time off during the week so that they are available on weekends to show apartments to prospective tenants. Employment Property and real estate managers held about 225,000 jobs in 1990. Most worked for real estate operators and lessors or for property management firms. Others worked for real estate development com­ panies, banks, government agencies that manage public buildings, and corporations with extensive holdings of commercial properties. Many were self-employed developers, apartment owner-managers, or owners of property management or full-service real estate brokerage firms that manage as well as sell real estate for clients. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most employers prefer to hire college graduates for property and real estate management positions. Degrees in business administration, fi­ nance, real estate, public administration, or related fields are pre­ ferred, but persons with degrees in the liberal arts are often accepted. Good speaking and writing skills and an ability to deal tactfully with people are essential. Most persons enter property and real estate man­ agement as on-site apartment or community association managers, or as assistants to property managers. Previous employment as a real es­ tate agent is an asset to apartment managers because it provides expe­ rience useful in showing apartments and dealing with people, as well as an understanding that an attractive, well-maintained property can command higher rental rates and result in lower turnover among ten­ ants. In the past, many persons with backgrounds in stationary engi­ neering and building maintenance have advanced to apartment manager positions on the strength of their knowledge of building me­ chanical systems, but this is becoming uncommon as employers are placing greater emphasis on administrative and communication abili­ ties for manager jobs. On-site managers usually begin at a smaller apartment complex, condominium, or community association, or as an assistant manager at a large property, association, or management company. As they acquire experience working under the direction of a property manager, they may advance by transferring to positions with greater responsibility at larger properties. Persons who excel as on-site managers often transfer to assistant property manager positions where they can acquire experi­ ence handling a broader range of property management responsibilities. Although most persons who enter jobs as assistant property man­ agers do so on the strength of on-site management experience, em­ ployers are increasingly hiring inexperienced college graduates with bachelor’s or master’s degrees in business administration, finance, or real estate for these jobs. Assistants work closely with a property manager and acquire experience performing a variety of management tasks, such as preparing financial statements, analyzing insurance coverage and risk options, marketing the property to prospective ten­ ants, and collecting overdue rent payments. In time, many assistants advance to property manager positions. The responsibilities and compensation of property managers in­ crease as they manage larger properties. Most property managers are responsible for several properties at a time, and as their careers ad­ vance they are gradually entrusted with properties that are larger or whose management is more complex. Many specialize in the manage­ ment of one type of property, such as apartments, office buildings, condominiums and homeowner associations, or retail properties. Man­ agers who excel at marketing properties to tenants may specialize in managing new properties, while those who are particularly knowl­ edgeable about buildings and their mechanical systems might special­ ize in the management of older properties that require renovation or more frequent repairs. Some experienced property and real estate managers open their own property management or real estate firms. Persons most commonly enter real estate manager jobs by transfer­ ring from positions as property managers or real estate brokers. Real  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  55  estate managers must be good negotiators, adept at persuading and handling people, and good at analyzing data to assess the fair market value of property or its development potential. Resourcefulness and creativity in arranging financing are essential for managers who spe­ cialize in land development. Real estate managers may be required to hold a real estate broker’s license. Many property and real estate managers attend short-term formal training programs conducted by various professional and trade associa­ tions active in the real estate field. Employers send many managers to these programs to improve their management skills and expand their knowledge of specialized subjects, such as the operation and mainte­ nance of building mechanical systems, insurance and risk manage­ ment, business and real estate law, and accounting and financial concepts. Many managers also participate in these programs to prepare themselves for positions of greater responsibility in property and real estate management. In many cases, completion of these programs, to­ gether with meeting job experience standards and achieving a satisfac­ tory score on a written examination, leads to certification, or the formal award of a professional designation, by the sponsoring association. Managers of public housing subsidized by the Federal Government are required to be certified, but many other property and real estate managers voluntarily earn a formal professional designation because it represents formal recognition of their achievements and status in the occupation. A number of organizations have such programs. The Institute of Real Estate Management awards the designations Accred­ ited Residential Manager and Certified Property Manager, while the National Association of Home Builders awards the designation Reg­ istered Apartment Manager. The National Apartment Association confers the designations Certified Apartment Manager and Certified Apartment Property Supervisor. The Community Associations Insti­ tute bestows the designation Professional Community Association Manager and Association Manager Specialist, while the Building Owners and Managers Institute International awards the designations Real Property Administrator and Facilities Management Administra­ tor. The International Association of Corporate Real Estate Execu­ tives confers the designations Associate of Corporate Real Estate and Master of Corporate Real Estate. Job Outlook Employment of property and real estate managers is projected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Many job openings are also expected to occur as experienced managers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Op­ portunities are expected to be best for persons with college degrees in business administration and related fields. Growth in the demand for office buildings and retail establish­ ments will spur employment of property and real estate managers. Nearly 9 of every 10 new jobs that will be created over the 1990­ 2005 period are expected to be in wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and service industries. Because establish­ ments in these industries are the primary tenants of commercial prop­ erties, expansion of these industries is expected to require growth in the Nation’s supply of office and retail space. In addition, the expect­ ed faster than average employment growth in some retail trade indus­ tries should require growing numbers of real estate managers to acquire and develop properties for expanding restaurant, food, appar­ el, and specialized merchandise chains. Growth in the Nation’s stock of apartments and houses also should require more property and real estate managers. Although the rate of new household formation is expected to slow somewhat over the 1990-2005 period, the high cost of purchasing a home is expected to force a growing proportion of these workers to delay leaving rental housing. In addition, developments of new houses are increasingly being organized with community or homeowner associations that provide community services and oversee jointly owned common areas, requiring professional management. A growing proportion of commercial and multiunit residential property owners are expected to entrust the management of their properties to a professional manager. Recent changes to income tax  56  Occupational Outlook Handbook  laws have greatly limited the tax benefits that property owners and investors can derive from unprofitable apartments and commercial properties. To help properties become more profitable, more owners are expected to place their investments in the hands of property and real estate managers. Earnings Median earnings of all property and real estate managers were $21,800 a year in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned between $14,600 and $33,600. Ten percent earned less than $10,300 and 10 percent earned more than $47,300 annually. Earnings of property and real estate managers vary widely by level of responsibility. A survey conducted by Huntress Real Estate Execu­ tive Search Inc. found that the middle third of the on-site apartment managers surveyed had annual salaries averaging $31,300 in 1990. Property managers had considerably higher earnings, with the middle third of property managers responsible for multiple apartment proper­ ties averaging $63,000. Of property managers responsible for shop­ ping centers, the middle third earned $69,300; of those who managed office buildings, the middle third earned $72,200. Earnings of corporate real estate managers were generally compa­ rable to those of property managers, according to the same survey. Among those employed by fast-food and restaurant chains, the mid­ dle third of the lease negotiators and site selection representatives av­ eraged $59,900 annually, while the middle third of real estate directors earned $70,400. Among real estate managers employed by retail apparel chains, the middle third of the lease negotiators and site selection representatives averaged $62,300 and the middle third of real estate directors had an average annual salary of $66,600, Community association managers received compensation compa­ rable to on-site and property managers employed by other types of properties. Many resident apartment managers receive the use of an apartment as part of their compensation package. Property and real estate managers often are given the use of a company automobile, and managers employed in land development often receive a small percentage of ownership in projects that they develop. Related Occupations Property and real estate managers plan, organize, staff, and manage the real estate operations of businesses. Workers who perform similar functions in other fields include restaurant and food service man­ agers, hotel and resort managers and assistants, health services man­ agers, education administrators, and city managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about careers in property and real estate man­ agement and programs leading to the award of a professional desig­ nation in the field is available from: m- Apartment Owners and Managers Association of America, 65 Cherry Plaza, Watertown, CT 06795-0238. m- Building Owners and Managers Institute International, 1521 Ritchie Hwy., Arnold, MD 21012. «- Community Associations Institute, 1630 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314. m- Institute of Real Estate Management, 430 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago IL 60611. International Association of Corporate Real Estate Executives, 440 Columbia Dr., Suite 100, West Palm Beach, FL 33409. m- National Apartment Association, 1111 14th St. NW., Suite 900, Washing­ ton, DC 20005. w National Association of Home Builders, 15th and M Sts. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  Purchasing Agents and Managers  services that are required by their organization. These items can range from raw materials, machinery, office supplies, and airline tickets, to television air time. They insure that products are of suitable quality and sufficient quantity, secured at the right price, and available when needed. This is important because the flow of work—or even the en­ tire production process—could be slowed or halted if the right mate­ rials, supplies, or equipment are not on hand when needed. Purchasing agents and managers must have a thorough understand­ ing of the items that are to be purchased. This often requires exten­ sive technical knowledge. In addition, they often work with other departments in their organization to determine what and when sup­ plies are needed. They must also be able to articulate their company’s needs to suppliers and to evaluate and choose between suppliers. Purchasing agents and managers use a variety of means to choose suppliers. They compare listings in catalogs, directories, and trade journals. They meet with salespersons to discuss items to be pur­ chased, examine samples, and attend demonstrations of products and equipment. Some purchasing agents and managers, who usually are called con­ tract specialists, specialize in negotiating and supervising supplier contracts. They determine vendor qualifications and invite suppliers to bid on large orders. They then negotiate prices and contract terms or select the lowest bidder from among those who meet purchasing and delivery date requirements. The nature of the work may differ according to the size and objec­ tive of the organization as well as its purchasing policy. In large orga­ nizations, a distinction is often drawn between the work of a purchasing agent and that of a purchasing manager. Purchasing agents typically focus on routine purchasing tasks, often specializing in a commodity or group of related commodities—for example, steel, lumber, cotton, or petroleum products. This often requires an agent to track such things as market conditions, wholesale price indices, or fu­ tures markets. Purchasing managers usually perform more complex purchasing tasks and may supervise a group of purchasing agents handling a number of related goods and services. Changing business practices have altered the role of purchasing managers and agents and have placed greater importance on their function. Companies recognize the importance of purchasing special­ ists and increasingly involve them at most stages of product develop­ ment and improvement. For example, potential problems with the supply of materials can be avoided by consulting purchasing agents in the early stages of product design. Previously, the job of purchasing agent involved many routine tasks. Today, computers handle many of the more routine tasks—en­ abling purchasing agents and managers to concentrate mainly on products and suppliers. They are used to obtain up-to-date product and price listings, to keep track of inventory levels, to process routine orders, and to help determine when to make purchases. Computers  %  1  I ' a  (D.O.T. 162.117-018; .157-030, -034, and -038, .167-022 and -030, 163.117­ 010; 169.167-054; and 184.117-078.  Nature of the Work Purchasing agents and managers, sometimes called procurement offi­ cers or industrial buyers, purchase the goods, materials, supplies, and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Responsibilities ofpurchasing agents have significantly increased in many industries.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  are also used to maintain bidders’ lists, to record the history of sup­ plier performance, and to issue purchase orders. Successful purchasing agents and managers must develop good business relationships with suppliers. The trend in the private sector toward limited-source contracting reduces the number of vendors with whom an agent or manager deals but results in longer-term rela­ tionships. This makes the selection of the suppliers all the more im­ portant and increasingly the agent’s or manager’s main job is to select the supplier who offers the best combination of quality, service, and price. Purchasing agents also work closely with employees in their own organization. For example, they may discuss design of custommade products with company engineers, defects in purchased goods with quality control technicians, or shipment problems with workers in the shipping department. The Federal Government distinguishes between purchasing agents and the more highly skilled contract specialists. Purchasing agents use simplified purchasing methods to procure items while Federal contract specialists use sealed bidding and negotiated agreements for more expensive or complex items. Although the goal of those who work in the public sector is the same as in the private sector, government purchasing agents and man­ agers must follow strict laws, statutes, and regulations in their work. These laws and regulations are continually being changed, requiring agents and contract specialists to keep informed about the latest regu­ lations and their applications. Working Conditions Purchasing agents and managers generally work a standard 35- to 40hour week in offices, although overtime work is common. Some agents and managers spend part of their time traveling to suppliers, ■Seminars, or trade shows. Employment Purchasing agents and managers held about 300,000 jobs in 1990. Al­ most one-half of all jobs were located in manufacturing industries. Government agencies, primarily in the Federal sector, provided al­ most 20 percent of the jobs. Because of its complex and extensive purchasing requirements, the Department of Defense employs the greatest number of purchasing agents and managers in the Federal Government. Other important Federal employers are the Departments of Agriculture, Interior, and Transportation, the General Services Ad­ ministration, and the Veterans Administration. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although there are no universal educational requirements for entry level jobs, most organizations prefer, and increasingly, require a college degree. A degree is almost essential to advance to higher positions. A master’s degree in business may be required for higher level jobs. It is also important to have strong analytical and communication skills. Educational requirements vary by industry. The Federal Govern­ ment seeks applicants with a college degree or 3 years of work expe­ rience. Companies that manufacture machinery or chemicals may prefer applicants with a technical background, such as engineering or science. Other companies hire business administration majors and other college graduates as trainees. Regardless of the field, familiarity with computers is desirable. Some colleges and vocational-technical institutes offer courses or degrees in purchasing. Although many companies require a bachelor’s degree, some hire graduates of associate degree and vocational education programs in purchasing for entry level jobs. They also may promote clerks or technicians in the purchasing department. Whatever their educational background, beginning purchasing agents are often enrolled in company training programs and spend considerable time learning about company operations and purchasing procedures. They work with experienced agents to learn about com­ modities, prices, suppliers, and negotiating techniques. They may be assigned to production planning to leam about the purchasing system, inventory records, and storage facilities. Purchasing agents and managers must be able to analyze the tech­ nical data in suppliers’ proposals, make buying decisions, and spend  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  57  large amounts of money responsibly. The job requires the ability to work independently as well as a part of a team. In addition, purchas­ ing agents and managers must be able to get along well with people to balance the needs of departments within the organization with bud­ getary constraints. They may consult with lawyers, engineers, and scientists when involved in complex procurements. An experienced purchasing agent may become an assistant pur­ chasing manager in charge of a group of purchasing agents before ad­ vancing to purchasing manager or director of materials management. At the top levels, duties may overlap into other management func­ tions such as production, planning, and marketing. This occupation is becoming increasingly professionalized and specialized. Continuing education is essential for advancement. Many purchasing agents and managers participate in seminars offered by professional societies and take college courses in purchasing. Al­ though no national standard exists, certification is becoming increas­ ingly important. In private industry, the recognized mark of experience and profes­ sional competence is the designation Certified Purchasing Manager. It is conferred by the National Association of Purchasing Manage­ ment, Inc. (NAPM), upon candidates who pass four examinations and meet specified educational and experience requirements. In State and local government, the indications of professional competence are the designations Professional Public Buyer (PPB) and Certified Public Purchasing Officer (CPPO), conferred by the National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc. The PPB is earned by passing a twopart written examination and meeting certain experience require­ ments. To earn the CPPO, a candidate must have additional purchasing experience, pass a three-part written exam, and undergo an oral interview assessment. As more purchasing is conducted on a long-term basis, both pri­ vate and public purchasing agents are specializing in contractual as­ pects of purchasing. The National Contract Management Association confers the designations Certified Associate Contract Manager (CACM) or Certified Professional Contract Manager (CPCM). Can­ didates for these certifications must have related work experience, complete academic coursework, and pass written exams. These desig­ nations primarily apply to contract managers in the Federal Govern­ ment and its suppliers. Job Outlook Employment of purchasing agents and managers is expected to in­ crease about as fast as average for all occupations through the year 2005. Computerization has changed the nature of the work but has not eliminated jobs. Computers allow agents and managers to con­ centrate on buying decisions instead of routine paperwork. In addi­ tion, companies are placing larger responsibilities on purchasing departments, which increases the need for qualified personnel. As in the past, however, most job openings will arise from the need to re­ place workers who leave their jobs. Some purchasing agents and managers transfer to or from other occupations, often sales or other material management positions.  Persons who have a master’s degree in business administration or a bachelor’s degree should have the best opportunities. However, grad­ uates of 2-year programs in purchasing should continue to find good opportunities, especially in small firms. Earnings Median annual earnings for purchasing agents were about $26,900 in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned between $21,200 and $35,900. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $16,100 and the top 10 per­ cent earned more than $45,300. The middle 50 percent of purchasing managers earned between $26,800 and $51,900 in 1990. Purchasing agents in the Federal Government averaged $21,928 in 1990 and contract specialists averaged $39,160. Related Occupations Other workers who negotiate and contract to purchase equipment, supplies, or other merchandise include wholesale and retail buyers,  58  Occupational Outlook Handbook  procurement services managers, and traffic managers. Because buy­ ing and selling are closely related, manufacturers’ sales workers and other sales related occupations are also closely related to purchasing agents and managers. Sources of Additional Information Further information about careers in purchasing and certification is available from: m- National Association of Purchasing Management, Inc., P.O. Box 22160, Tempe, AZ 85285. m- National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc., 115 Hillwood Ave., Falls Church, VA 22046. «“ National Contract Management Association, 1912 Woodford Rd., Vienna, VA 22182. m- Federal Acquisition Institute (VF), General Services Administration, 18th and F Sts. NW., Washington, DC 20405.  Restaurant and Food Service Managers (D.O.T. 185.137; 187.161-010 and .167-026, -106, -126, -206, and -210; 319.137-014 and-018)  Nature of the Work Food is consumed outside the home in a variety of settings. Eating places range from restaurants that serve fast food or that emphasize elegant dining, to institutional dining in school and employee cafete­ rias, hospitals, and nursing facilities. The cuisine offered, its price, and the setting in which it is consumed vary greatly, but the managers of these diverse dining facilities have many responsibilities in com­ mon. Efficient and profitable operation of restaurants and institutional food service facilities requires that managers and assistant managers select and appropriately price interesting menu items, efficiently use food and other supplies, achieve consistent quality in food prepara­ tion and service, recruit and train adequate numbers of workers and supervise their work, and attend to the various administrative aspects of the business. In most restaurants and institutional food service facilities, the manager is assisted by one or more assistant managers, depending on the size and business hours of the establishment. In large establish­ ments, as well as in many others that offer fine dining, the manage­ ment team consists of a general manager, one or more assistant managers, and an executive chef. The executive chef is responsible for the operation of the kitchen, while the assistant managers oversee service in the dining room and other areas of the operation. In some smaller restaurants, the executive chef may also be the general man­ ager, and sometimes an owner. In fast-food restaurants and other food service facilities that operate long hours, 7 days a week, the manager is aided by several assistant managers, each of whom supervises a shift of workers. (For additional information, see the Handbook state­ ments on general managers and top executives and chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers.) Many restaurants change their menu only rarely, but other eating establishments change it frequently. Institutional food service facili­ ties and some restaurants offer a new menu every day. Managers or executive chefs select menu items, taking into account the likely number of customers, the past popularity of various dishes, and con­ siderations such as food left over from prior meals that should not be wasted, the need for variety on the menu, and the availability of foods due to seasonal and other factors. They analyze the recipes of the dishes to determine food, labor, and overhead costs and assign prices to the menu items. Menus must be developed far enough in advance that needed supplies may be received in time. Ordering supplies and dealing with suppliers are important aspects of the work of restaurant and food service managers. On a daily basis, managers estimate food consumption, place orders with suppliers, and schedule the delivery of fresh food and beverages. They receive and check the content of deliveries, evaluating the quality of meats,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, and baked goods. Managers meet or talk with sales representatives of restaurant suppliers to place orders to replenish stocks of tableware, linens, paper, cleaning supplies, cooking utensils, and furniture and fixtures. They also arrange for equipment maintenance and repairs, and for a variety of services such as waste removal and pest control. Managers interview, hire, and, when necessary, discharge workers. They familiarize newly hired workers with the establishment’s policies and practices and oversee their training. Managers schedule the work hours of employees, insuring that there are adequate numbers of work­ ers present during busy periods, but not too many during slow periods. Restaurant and food service managers supervise the kitchen and the dining room. They oversee food preparation and cooking, check­ ing the quality of the food and the sizes of portions to insure that dishes are prepared and garnished correctly and in a timely manner. They also investigate and resolve customers’ complaints about food quality or service. During busy periods, managers may roll up their sleeves and help with the cooking, clearing of tables, or other tasks. They direct the cleaning of the kitchen and dining areas and the washing of tableware, kitchen utensils, and equipment to maintain company and government sanitation standards. They monitor workers and observe patrons on a continual basis to insure compliance with health and safety standards and local liquor regulations. Managers have a variety of administrative responsibilities. In larg­ er establishments, much of this work is delegated to a bookkeeper, but in others, managers must keep accurate records of the hours and wages of employees, prepare the payroll, and do paperwork to com­ ply with licensing laws and reporting requirements of tax, wage and hour, unemployment compensation, and Social Security laws. They also must maintain records of the costs of supplies and equipment purchased and insure that accounts with suppliers are paid on a regu­ lar basis. In addition, managers record the number, type, and cost of items sold to weed out dishes that are unpopular or less profitable. Many managers are able to ease the burden of recordkeeping and pa­ perwork through the use of computers. Managers are among the first to arrive and the last to leave at night. At the conclusion of each day, or sometimes each shift, man­ agers must tally the cash received and charge receipts and balance them against the record of sales. They are responsible for depositing the day’s income at the bank, or securing it in a safe place. Managers are also responsible for locking up and checking that ovens, grills, and lights are off and alarm systems switched on. Working Conditions Since evenings and weekends are popular dining periods, night and weekend work is common. However, many managers of institutional food service facilities work more conventional hours because factory and office cafeterias are often open only on weekdays for breakfast and lunch. Many restaurant and food service managers work 50 hours or more per week. Managers often experience the pressure of simultaneously coordi­ nating a wide range of activities. When problems occur, it is the re­ sponsibility of the manager to resolve them with minimal disruption to customers. The job can be hectic during peak dining hours, and dealing with irate customers or uncooperative employees can be par­ ticularly stressful. Employment Restaurant and food service managers held about 557,000 jobs in 1990. Most worked in restaurants or for contract institutional food service companies, but small numbers also were employed by educa­ tional institutions, hospitals, nursing and personal care facilities, and civic, social, and fraternal organizations. Nearly half were self-em­ ployed. Jobs are located throughout the country, but are most plenti­ ful in large cities and tourist areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many restaurant and food service manager positions are filled by pro­ moting experienced food and beverage preparation and service work-  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  <•»«*>  Restaurant andfood service managers check the quality and quantity of refrigeratedfoods. ers. Waiters, waitresses, chefs, and fast-food workers who have demonstrated their potential for handling increased responsibility sometimes advance to assistant manager or management trainee jobs when openings occur. Executive chefs need extensive experience working as a chef, and general managers need experience working as assistant manager. However, most food service management compa­ nies and national or regional restaurant chains also recruit manage­ ment trainees from among the graduates of 2-year and 4-year college programs. Food service and restaurant chains prefer to hire persons with degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management, but they often hire graduates with degrees in other fields who have demonstrated interest and aptitude. A bachelor’s degree in restaurant and food service management provides a particularly strong preparation for a career in this occupa­ tion. In 1990, more than 160 colleges and universities offered 4-year programs in restaurant and hotel management or institutional food service management. For persons who do not want to pursue a 4-year degree, a good alternative is provided by the more than 800 commu­ nity and junior colleges, technical institutes, and other institutions that offer programs in these fields leading to an associate degree or other formal award below the bachelor’s degree. Both 2-year and 4year programs provide instruction in subjects such as accounting, business law and management, food planning and preparation, and nutrition. Some programs combine classroom and laboratory study with internships that provide on-the-job experience. In addition, many educational institutions offer culinary programs that provide food preparation training which can lead to a career as a cook or chef and provide a foundation for advancement to an executive chef position. Most employers emphasize personal qualities. Restaurant and food service management can be demanding, so good health and stamina are important. Self-discipline, initiative, and leadership ability are es­ sential. Managers must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. They need good communication skills to deal with customers and suppliers, as well as to motivate and direct their subordinates. A neat and clean appearance is also required since managers are often in close personal contact with the public. Most restaurant chains and food service management companies have rigorous training programs for persons hired for management jobs. Through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  59  trainees receive instruction and gain work experience in all aspects of the operations of a restaurant or institutional food service facility— food preparation, nutrition, sanitation, security, company policies and procedures, personnel management, recordkeeping, and preparation of reports. Usually after 6 months or a year, trainees receive their first permanent assignment as an assistant manager. A measure of professional achievement for restaurant and food ser­ vice managers is to earn the designation of certified Foodservice Management Professional (FMP). Although not a requirement for employment or advancement in the occupation, voluntary certifica­ tion provides recognition of professional competence, particularly for managers who acquired their skills largely on the job. The Education­ al Foundation of the National Restaurant Association awards the FMP designation to managers who achieve a qualifying score on a written examination, complete a series of courses that cover a range of food service management topics, and who meet standards of work experience in the field. Willingness to relocate often is essential for advancement to posi­ tions with greater responsibility. Managers advance to larger estab­ lishments, or regional management positions with restaurant chains. Some managers eventually open their own eating and drinking estab­ lishments. Others transfer to hotel management positions, since their restaurant or institutional food service management experience is a good background for food and beverage manager jobs at hotels and resorts. Job Outlook Employment of restaurant and food service managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition to growth in demand for these managers, the need to replace managers who transfer to other occupations or stop work­ ing for a variety of reasons will create many new jobs. Job opportuni­ ties are expected to be best for persons with bachelor’s or associate degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management. Employment will increase with growth in the number of eating and drinking establishments. Population growth, rising personal incomes, and increased leisure time will continue to produce growth in the number of meals consumed outside the home. Also, continued growth in the number of families in which both spouses work should make dining out a more frequent and affordable convenience. Projected employment growth, however, varies by industry. For example, employment of restaurant and food service managers is ex­ pected to increase rapidly in hotels, while slower growth is anticipat­ ed in school and college cafeterias, due to increased contracting-out of cafeteria operations to institutional food service companies. Growth in the population of elderly people is expected to result in growth of food service manager jobs in nursing homes, residential care facilities, and other health care institutions. Employment in eating and drinking establishments is not very sen­ sitive to changes in economic conditions, so restaurant and food ser­ vice managers are rarely laid off during hard times. However, competition among restaurants is always intense, and many restau­ rants do not survive. Earnings Earnings of restaurant and food service managers vary greatly ac­ cording to the type and size of establishment. Based on a survey con­ ducted for the National Restaurant Association, their median base salary was nearly $26,000 a year in 1990, but managers of the largest restaurants and institutional food service facilities often had annual salaries in excess of $42,000. Managers of fast-food restaurants had a median base salary of $23,000 a year; managers of full-menu restau­ rants with table service, $28,000; and managers of commercial and institutional cafeterias, $27,000 a year in 1990. Besides a salary, most managers received an annual bonus or incentive payment based on their performance. In 1990, most of these payments ranged between $2,000 and $8,000 a year. Executive chefs had a median base salary of $31,000 a year in 1990, but those employed in the largest restaurants and institutional  60  Occupational Outlook Handbook  food service facilities often had base salaries over $45,000. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most executive chefs ranged between $2,000 and $4,000 a year. The median base salary of assistant managers was $21,600 a year in 1990, but ranged from $18,200 in fast-food restaurants to over $29,000 in some of the largest restaurants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most assistant managers ranged between $1,000 and $4,000 a year. Manager trainees had a median base salary of $18,600 a year in 1990, but had salaries of nearly $26,000 in some of the largest restau­ rants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most trainees ranged between $1,000 and $3,000 a year. Most salaried restaurant and food service managers received free meals, sick leave, health and life insurance, and 1 to 3 weeks of paid vacation a year, depending on length of service. Related Occupations Restaurant and food service managers direct the activities of business establishments that provide a service to customers. Other managers in businesses that sell goods or services to the general public include hotel managers and assistants, health services administrators, retail store managers, and bank managers. Sources of Additional Information Information about job opportunities may be obtained from local em­ ployers and local offices of the State employment service. Career information about restaurant and food service managers, di­ rectories of 2- and 4-year college programs in restaurant and food service management, and certification as a Foodservice Management Professional are available from: m- The Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, Suite 1400, 250 South Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. General information on hospitality careers may be obtained from: m- Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036-3097.  For general career information and a directory of accredited private trade and technical schools offering programs in restaurant and food service management, write to: *■ National Association of Trade and Technical Schools, P.O. Box 2006, Department BL, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701-2006.  Underwriters (D.O.T. 169.167-058)  Nature of the Work Insurance companies assume billions of dollars in risks each year by transferring the risk of loss from their policyholders to themselves. Underwriters appraise and select the risks their company will insure. The underwriter must analyze information in insurance applications, reports from loss control consultants, medical reports, and actuarial studies (reports that describe the probability of insured loss) and then decide whether to issue a policy. An insurance company may lose business to competitors if the underwriter appraises risks too conser­ vatively, or it may have to pay more claims if the underwriting ac­ tions are too liberal. (The term “life underwriter” is increasingly used in referring to insurance agents and brokers; see the statement on in­ surance agents and brokers elsewhere in the Handbook for a discus­ sion of that occupation.) When deciding that an applicant is an acceptable risk, an under­ writer may outline the terms of the contract, including the amount of the premium. Underwriters frequently correspond with policyholders, agents, and managers about policy cancellations or other matters. On rare occasions, they accompany sales workers on appointments with prospective customers. Most underwriters specialize in one of three major categories of in­ surance: Life, property and casualty, or health. They further special­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ize in group or individual policies. Property and casualty underwriters specialize by type of risk insured, such as fire, homeowner, automo­ bile, marine, property, or workers’ compensation. In cases where ca­ sualty companies insure in a single “package” policy, covering various types of risks, the underwriter must be familiar with different lines of insurance. Some underwriters, called commercial account un­ derwriters, handle business insurance exclusively. They often evalu­ ate a firm’s entire operation in appraising its insurance application. An increasing proportion of insurance sales are being made through group contracts. A standard group policy insures all persons in a specified group through a single contract at uniform premium rates, generally for life or health insurance protection. The group un­ derwriter analyzes the overall composition of the group to be sure that the total risk is not excessive. Another type of group policy pro­ vides members of a group—a labor union, for example—with indi­ vidual policies reflecting their individual needs. These generally are casualty policies, such as those covering automobiles. The casualty underwriter analyzes the application of each group member and makes individual appraisals. Some group underwriters meet with union or employer representatives to discuss the types of policies available to their group. Working Conditions Underwriters have desk jobs that require no unusual physical activity. Their offices generally are comfortable and pleasant. Although some overtime may be required, the normal workweek is 35-40 hours. Un­ derwriters occasionally may attend meetings away from home for several days. Construction and marine underwriters often travel to in­ spect work sites and assess risks. Employment Insurance underwriters held about 105,000 jobs in 1990. The follow­ ing tabulation shows the percent distribution of wage and salary jobs by industry. Percent Total........................................................................................  100  Insurance industries.................................................................... Insurance agents, brokers, and service................................... Fire, marine, and casualty insurance...................................... Life insurance......................................................................... Medical service and health insurance..................................... Pension funds and insurance, not elsewhere classified.......... Banks and credit agencies.......................................................... Real estate and related industries...............................................  94 41 36 11 3 3 5 1  The majority of underwriters worked for insurance companies (or carriers). Most of the remaining underwriters worked throughout the country in independent agencies—firms which represent one or more insurance companies—and brokers—firms which may deal with any insurance company but represent none. Small numbers of underwriters worked for banks, credit agencies, and other financial institutions. Underwriters in the life insurance industry are most likely to work in an insurance company’s home office. In some large agencies, un­ derwriters help life insurance agents determine if the risk will be ac­ cepted or rejected by the home office. However, most regional life insurance offices deal predominantly with sales, not underwriting. Property and casualty underwriters also work in home offices, but more work for agencies or regional branch offices, where they have the authority to underwrite risks and determine an appropriate rating without consulting the home office. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For beginning underwriting jobs, many large insurance companies prefer college graduates who have a degree in business administra­ tion or finance, with courses or experience in accounting. However, a degree in almost any field plus courses in business law and account­ ing provide a good general background. Some companies hire per-  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Underwriters use computers to aid in assessing risks. sons without a college degree for underwriter trainee positions. In ad­ dition, some high school graduates who begin as underwriting clerks may be trained as underwriters after they demonstrate an aptitude for the work. In the property and casualty industry, ratings clerks some­ times advance to underwriter through their skill and experience in re­ searching risk and rate setting. Underwriter trainee or assistant underwriter is the typical entrylevel position for this occupation. They may begin by helping to col­ lect information on applicants, and by evaluating routine applications under the close supervision of an experienced risk appraiser. Property and casualty trainees study claim files to become familiar with factors associated with certain types of losses. Many larger insurers offer a training program, lasting from a few months to a year, that combines study with work. As trainees develop the necessary judgment, they are assigned policy applications that are more complex and have a greater face value. These often require the use of computers for more efficient processing. Consequently, computer literacy is necessary. Continuing education is necessary for advancement. Insurance companies generally pay tuition for underwriting courses that their trainees successfully complete; some also offer salary incentives. In­ dependent study programs for experienced property and casualty un­ derwriters are also available. The Insurance Institute of America offers the designation “Associate in Underwriting (AU),” and the American Institute for Chartered Property Casualty Underwriters of­ fers the designation “CPCU”—Chartered Property Casualty Under­ writer. Earning the CPCU designation generally takes about 5 years, and requires the passage of 10 examinations covering such subjects as personal and commercial risk management, business law, account­ ing, finance, economics, and ethics. Underwriting can be a satisfying career for persons who like work­ ing with detail and enjoy analyzing information. In addition, under­ writers must possess good judgment in order to make sound decisions. They must also be imaginative and aggressive, especially when they have to obtain information from outside sources. Experienced underwriters who complete courses of study may ad­ vance to chief underwriter or underwriting manager. Some underwrit­ ing managers are promoted to senior managerial jobs. Job Outlook Employment of underwriters is expected to rise about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job open­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  61  ings, however, are expected to result from the need to replace under­ writers who transfer to other occupations or stop working altogether. A number of factors underlie the continuing need for underwriters. Shifts in the age distribution of the population will result in an in­ crease in the number of people who assume career and family respon­ sibilities. People in this group have the greatest need for life and health insurance. A growing demand for insurance coverage for working women also is expected. In addition, expanding long-term healthcare and pension benefits for retirees—an increasing proportion of the population—will increase underwriting requirements. Growing security and liability consciousness should contribute to demand for more insurance protection for homes, automobiles, pleasure craft, and other valuables. New or expanding businesses will need protection for new plants and equipment, product liability, and insurance for workers’ compensation and employee benefits. On the other hand, the trend toward self-insurance is expected to lower the demand for some property and casualty underwriters. Busi­ nesses who self-insure set a rate for their own company and pay pre­ miums into a reserve fund. Additionally, many property and casualty companies are foregoing personal lines insurance—especially auto­ mobile—and concentrating on commercial lines of business. Under­ writers specializing in one particular area of insurance may find it difficult to transfer to another type of insurance if their jobs are threatened. Computer technology in the form of expert systems, or artificial in­ telligence (AI), should further reduce the need for underwriters in life insurance and in property and casualty insurance. AI is capable of an­ alyzing far more variables in a shorter amount of time than a human can, so underwriting decisions can be made more accurately and efficiently. Individuals who supplement their underwriting know­ ledge with extensive computer knowledge should have the best opportunities. Since insurance is usually regarded as a necessity, regardless of economic conditions, underwriters are unlikely to be laid off because of a recession. Earnings The following tabulation shows the median salaries of casualty and property underwriters in 1989, according to a survey by the Alliance of American Insurers in collaboration with the American Insurance Association and the National Association of Independent Insurers. Type of Underwriter Personal lines Entry level........................................................................ $23,900 Journey level..................................................................... 28 400 Senior level....................................................................... 36’50o Supervisor................................................... 43 300 Manager..................................................................................  54 j 100  Commercial lines Entry level........................................................................ Journey level..................................................................... Senior level....................................................................... Supervisor...........................................  25,400 29 700 37 200 43 non  Manager......................................................................................  54300  Most insurance companies have hberal vacation policies and other employee benefits. Almost all insurance companies provide employ­ er-financed group life and retirement plans. Related Occupations Underwriters make decisions on the basis of financial data. Other workers with the same type of responsibility include auditors, budget analysts, financial advisors, loan officers, credit managers, real estate appraisers, and risk managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about a career as an insurance underwriter is available from the home offices of many life insurance and property  62  Occupational Outlook Handbook  and liability insurance companies. Information about the insurance business in general and the underwriting function in particular also may be obtained from: >•- Society of Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters, Kahler Hall, P.O. Box 3009,720 Providence Rd., Malvern, PA 19355-0709.  Wholesale and Retail Buyers and Merchandise Managers (D.O.T. 162.157-018, -022; and 185.167-034)  Nature of the Work Shop till you drop! Wholesale and retail buyers and merchandise managers do just that. Working for wholesalers and retailers, buyers purchase merchandise for resale. Merchandise managers supervise buyers and set general buying and pricing policy for their department, division, or store. Regardless of what they are buying—from clothing to machinery—they seek the best available merchandise at the lowest possible price. Working with sales and marketing managers, they also determine how the merchandise will be distributed and marketed. Wholesale and retail buyers are an integral part of a complex system of production, distribution, and merchandising that caters to the vast variety of consumer needs and desires. Buyers working for large and medium- sized firms usually specialize in acquiring one or two lines of merchandise. However, buyers working for small stores may purchase their complete stock of merchandise. Wholesale buyers purchase goods directly from manufacturers or from other wholesale firms for resale to retail firms or to commercial establishments and other institutions. Re­ tail buyers purchase goods from wholesale firms or directly from man­ ufacturers for resale to the public. (Information about purchasing agents—buyers who purchase goods and services for their firm’s inter­ nal use—can be found elsewhere in the Handbook.) The success of any wholesale or retail firm depends on its ability to sell merchandise. Because buyers determine which products the es­ tablishment will sell, it is essential that they be knowledgeable about the products they are buying and know what will appeal to con­ sumers. These skills usually are developed through several years of experience as an assistant buyer—an entry level position. Assistant buyers perform many of the same duties as buyers but have the guid­ ance of an experienced buyer to help them. In order to purchase the best selection of goods, buyers must be fa­ miliar with the merchandise, its domestic and foreign manufacturers and distributors, and its sales record. As a result, they must keep in­ formed about changes in existing products and the development of new ones. To leam about merchandise, buyers read industry periodi­ cals, attend trade shows and conferences, and visit manufacturers’ showrooms. Both wholesalers and retailers are continuing to expand their use of computers, which has simplified many of the routine buying func­ tions and improved efficiency. Traditionally, buyers have relied on sales staff and inventory counts to determine which products were selling. However, computerized systems have dramatically changed this. For example, cash registers connected to computers, known as point-of-sale terminals, allow organizations to maintain centralized, up-to-date sales and inventory records. Information such as the price, color, or model number is often fed into the computer using bar codes or magnetic strips attached to the goods. This information can then be used to produce weekly sales reports that reflect the types of products in demand. With the data generated by these systems, buyers spend their time analyzing data and not collecting it. In addition to monitoring their company’s sales, buyers use com­ puters to gain instant access to the specifications for thousands of commodities, inventory records, and their customers’ purchase records. Buyers also follow ads in newspapers and other media to check competitors’ sales activities and watch general economic con­ ditions to anticipate consumer buying patterns.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Once buyers decide what to purchase, they determine from whom to purchase it. They base their decision on price, availability, reliabil­ ity of the supplier, and selection. Buyer’s responsibilities have ex­ panded with the use of private-label merchandise. This merchandise is produced for a particular store and carries that store’s label. Buyers often work closely with vendors to develop and obtain the desired product. Because most buyers work within a limited budget, they must plan their purchases to keep needed items in stock, but also allow for unexpected purchases when a “good buy” presents itself. The ordering process varies by firm. Many orders are placed dur­ ing buying trips, but they are also made when wholesale and manu­ facturers’ sales workers call on buyers to display their merchandise. Some firms are linked with manufacturers or wholesalers by electron­ ic purchasing systems. These systems speed selection and ordering and provide information on availability and shipment. Often, assistant buyers are responsible for placing orders and checking shipments. Many buyers and merchandise managers assist in the planning and implementation of sales promotion programs. Working with mer­ chandising executives, they determine the nature of the sale and buy accordingly. They also work with advertising personnel to create the ad campaign. For example, they may determine the media in which the advertisement will be placed—newspapers, direct mail, televi­ sion, or some combination of these. In addition, retail buyers often visit the selling floor to ensure that the goods are being displayed properly. Working Conditions Buyers and merchandise managers work in comfortable, well-lighted offices at stores or in corporate headquarters. They frequently work more than a 40-hour week because of special sales and conferences. Also, they may have to work evenings and weekends to complete work on time. For those working in retail trade, this is especially true prior to holiday seasons. In addition, many retail firms discourage the use of vacation time from Thanksgiving until early January. Buyers and merchandise managers often work under great pressure since wholesale and retail trade establishments are highly competi­ tive. Substantial traveling usually is required, and most buyers spend at least several days a month on the road. Employment Wholesale and retail buyers and merchandise managers held about 361,000 jobs in 1990. Nearly all were in full-time positions. About three-fifths of all buyers and merchandise managers were employed in retail establishments, such as department stores, supermarkets and groceries, and clothing stores. The remainder worked for wholesalers of groceries; machinery; electrical goods; hardware, plumbing, and heating equipment; and other durable and nondurable goods. Al­ though buyers and merchandise managers work in all parts of the country, many are located in major metropolitan areas, where whole­ sale distributors and retail stores are concentrated. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement This is not an entry level job. Qualified persons usually begin as as­ sistant buyers or trainees. Firms prefer to hire applicants who are fa­ miliar with tfr merchandise they sell as well as with wholesaling and retailing practices. Some firms promote qualified employees to assis­ tant buyer positions; others recruit and train college graduates as as­ sistant buyers. Most employers use a combination of methods. Educational requirements for entry level assistant buying positions tend to vary with the size of the organization. The largest stores and distributors seek applicants who have completed associate or bache­ lor’s degree programs from any field of study. Training and job expe­ rience introduce the new worker to retail or wholesale trade operations and the policies fundamental to merchandising and man­ agement. Although training periods vary in length, most last several years. Most trainees begin by selling merchandise, supervising sales work­ ers, checking invoices on material received, and keeping track of stock on hand, although widespread use of computers in both whole-  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  63  ity and communications skills because buyers spend a large portion of their time supervising assistant buyers and dealing with manufac­ turers’ representatives and store executives. In addition, buyers need physical stamina to keep up with the fast-paced nature of their work. Experienced buyers may advance by moving to a department that manages a larger volume or by becoming a merchandise manager. Others “jump to the other side of the fence” and go to work in sales for a manufacturer. Job Outlook Employment of buyers and merchandise managers is expected to in­ crease about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Although sales volume will continue to increase with pop­ ulation growth, demand for these workers will slow because of changes taking place in wholesale and retail trade. Most job open­ ings, therefore, will result from replacement needs, which occur as experienced buyers and merchandise managers transfer to other occu­ pations in sales or management or leave the labor force. Over the past few years, the organizational structure of the whole­ sale and retail trade industries has been changing. Many firms have purchased or merged with other firms. When buying functions are centralized by the new organization, fewer buyers and managers are needed. Because merchandising attracts many college graduates, the num­ ber of qualified jobseekers should continue to exceed the number of openings. Prospects are likely to be best for those with previous wholesale or retail experience and a college degree. Wholesale and retail buyers, especially those who buy items affect­ ed by shifting consumer preferences such as apparel or toys, have less job security than people in many other occupations. Buyers who buy items that don’t sell well are often fired.  Merchandise managers coordinate the work of buyers. sale and retail trade has simplified some of these tasks. As they progress, trainees are given more buying-related responsibilities. In order to maintain their effectiveness, buyers must constantly be aware of what their customers want. To stay abreast of new develop­ ments and products, they take courses in merchandising techniques, attend trade shows and conferences, and read industry periodicals. Persons who wish to become buyers should be good at planning and decisionmaking and have an interest in merchandising. Anticipat­ ing consumer preferences and ensuring that goods are in stock when they are needed require resourcefulness, good judgment, and self­ confidence. Buyers must be able to make decisions quickly and take risks. Marketing skills and the ability to identify products that will sell are also very important. Employers often look for leadership abil­   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Median annual earnings of buyers were $25,100 in 1990. Most buy­ ers earned between $17,600 and $34,600 a year. The lowest 10 per­ cent averaged less than $13,500, while the top 10 percent earned more than $46,700. A buyer’s income depends upon the amount and type of product purchased, the employer’s sales volume and, to some extent, the buyer’s seniority. Buyers and merchandise managers receive a variety of benefits. In addition to standard benefits, buyers often earn cash bonuses based on their performance and may receive discounts on merchandise bought from the employer. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations who need a knowledge of marketing and the ability to assess demand are purchasing agents and managers, retail sales workers, sales managers, comparison shoppers, manufac­ turers’ and wholesales sales representatives, insurance sales agents, and services sales representatives. Sources of Additional Information General information about a career in retailing is available from: National Retail Federation, 100 West 31st St., New York, NY 10001.  Professional Specialty Occupations Engineers Nature of the Work Engineers apply the theories and principles of science and mathemat­ ics to the economical solution of practical technical problems. Often their work is the link between a scientific discovery and its applica­ tion. Engineers design machinery, products, systems, and processes for efficient and economical performance. They design industrial ma­ chinery and equipment for manufacturing goods; design defense and weapons systems for the Armed Forces; and design, plan, and super­ vise the construction of buildings, highways, and rapid transit sys­ tems. They also design and develop consumer products and systems for control and automation of manufacturing, business, and manage­ ment processes. Engineers consider many factors in developing a new product. For example, in developing an industrial robot, they determine the general way it needs to work; design and test components; fit them together in an integrated plan; and evaluate the design’s overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety. This process applies to products as different as computers, gas turbines, generators, heli­ copters, and toys. In addition to design and development, many engineers work in testing, production, or maintenance. They supervise production in factories, determine the causes of breakdowns, and test manufactured products to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost to complete projects. Some work in engineering management or in sales, where an engineering background enables them to discuss the technical aspects of a product and assist in planning its installation or use. (See the statements on engineering, science, and data processing managers and manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most engineers specialize; more than 25 major specialties are rec­ ognized by professional societies. Within the major branches are nu­ merous subdivisions. Structural, environmental, and transportation engineering, for example, are subdivisions of civil engineering. Engi­ neers also may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one field of technology, such as propulsion or guidance systems. This section, which contains an overall discussion of engineering, is followed by separate statements on 10 branches of the profession— aerospace; chemical; civil; electrical and electronics; industrial; me­ chanical; metallurgical, ceramic, and materials; mining; nuclear; and petroleum engineering. Engineers in each branch have knowledge and training that can be applied to many fields. Electrical and electronics engineers, for ex­ ample, work in the medical, computer, missile guidance, and power distribution fields. Because there are many separate problems to solve in a large engineering project, such as a mission to Mars, engineers in one field often work closely with specialists in scientific, other engi­ neering, and business occupations. Engineers often use computers to solve mathematical equations which describe how a machine, structure, or system operates. Many engineers also use computer-aided design systems to produce and an­ alyze designs. They also spend a great deal of time writing reports and consulting with other engineers. Complex projects require many engineers, each working with a small part of the job. Supervisory en­ gineers are responsible for major components or entire projects. Working Conditions Many engineers work in laboratories, industrial plants, or construc­ tion sites, where they inspect, supervise, or solve onsite problems. Others work in an office almost all of the time. Engineers in branches such as civil engineering may work outdoors part of the time. A few engineers travel extensively to plants or construction sites. 64   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  More than one-fourth of all engineers are electrical engineers. Employment (thousands)  0  I. .-Ml/ l.  8 #  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Many engineers work a standard 40-hour week. At times, dead­ lines or design standards may bring extra pressure to a job. When this happens, engineers may work long hours and experience considerable stress. Employment In 1990, engineers held 1,519,000 jobs. Over one-half of all engineer­ ing jobs were located in manufacturing industries—mostly in electri­ cal and electronic equipment, aircraft and parts, machinery, scientific instruments, chemicals, motor vehicles, fabricated metal products, and primary metals industries. In 1990, 739,000 jobs were in non­ manufacturing industries, primarily in engineering and architectural services and business and management consulting services, where firms designed construction projects or did other engineering work on a contract basis for organizations in other parts of the economy. Engi­ neers also worked in the communications, utilities, and construction industries. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 201,000 en­ gineers. About 60 percent were in the Federal Government, mainly in the Departments of Defense, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, and Energy, and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administra­ tion. Most engineers in State and local government agencies worked in highway and public works departments. Some engineers are selfemployed consultants. Engineers are employed in every State, in small and large cities, and in rural areas. Some branches of engineering are concentrated in particular industries and geographic areas, as discussed in statements later in this chapter.  Professional Specialty Occupations  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is usually required for beginning engineering jobs. College graduates with a degree in a physical science or mathematics may oc­ casionally qualify for some engineering jobs, especially in engineer­ ing specialties in high demand. Most engineering degrees are granted in branches such as electrical, mechanical, or civil engineering. How­ ever, engineers trained in one branch may work in another. This flexi­ bility allows employers to meet staffing needs in new technologies and specialties in short supply. It also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment prospects, or ones that match their in­ terests more closely. In addition to the standard engineering degree, many colleges offer degrees in engineering technology, which are offered as either 2- or 4-year programs. These programs prepare students for practical de­ sign and production work rather than for jobs that require more theo­ retical, scientific and mathematical knowledge. Graduates of 4-year technology programs may get jobs similar to those obtained by grad­ uates with a bachelor’s degree in engineering. However, some em­ ployers regard them as having skills between those of a technician and an engineer. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions but is not required for the majority of entry level engineering jobs. Many engineers obtain a master’s degree to learn new technology, to broad­ en their education, and to enhance promotion opportunities. Nearly 260 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in en­ gineering, and nearly 100 colleges offer a bachelor’s degree in engi­ neering technology. Although most institutions offer programs in the larger branches of engineering, only a few offer some of the smaller specialties. Also, programs of the same title may vary in content. For example, some emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in industry, while others are more theoretical and are better for stu­ dents preparing to take graduate work. Therefore, students should in­ vestigate curriculums carefully before selecting a college. Admissions requirements for undergraduate engineering schools include courses in advanced high school mathematics and the physical sciences.  The number of degrees granted in engineering has declined recently. Numbers of degrees (thousands)  ...rl... FI__~I  FI__lL_  Source: Engineering Manpower Commission   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  _  65  In a typical 4-year college curriculum, the first 2 years are spent studying basic sciences (mathematics, physics, and chemistry), intro­ ductory engineering, and the humanities, social sciences, and English. In the last 2 years, most courses are in engineering, usually with a concentration in one branch. For example, the last 2 years of an aerospace program might include courses such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer, applied aerodynamics, analytical mechanics, flight ve­ hicle design, trajectory dynamics, and aerospace propulsion systems. Some programs offer a general engineering curriculum; students then specialize in graduate school or on the job. A few engineering schools and 2-year colleges have agreements whereby the 2-year college provides the initial engineering education and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, a few engineering schools have arrange­ ments whereby a student spends 3 years in a liberal arts college studying preengineering subjects and 2 years in the engineering school and receives a bachelor’s degree from each. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master’s degree programs. Some 5- or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work, permitting students to gain valuable experi­ ence and finance part of their education. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require registration for engineers whose work may affect life, health, or property, or who offer their services to the public. In 1990, nearly 500,000 engineers were registered. Registration generally requires a degree from an en­ gineering program accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engi­ neering and Technology, 4 years of relevant work experience, and passing a State examination. Some States will not register people with degrees in engineering technology. Beginning engineering graduates usually do routine work under the supervision of experienced engineers and, in larger companies, may also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult tasks with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may become technical specialists or may supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some eventu­ ally become engineering managers or enter other managerial, man­ agement support, or sales jobs. (See the statements under executive, administrative, and managerial occupations; under sales occupations; and on computer systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some engineers obtain graduate degrees in business administration to im­ prove advancement opportunities; others obtain law degrees and be­ come patent attorneys. Many high level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. Engineers should be able to work as part of a team and should have creativity, an analytical mind, and a capacity for detail. In addition, engineers should be able to express themselves well—both orally and in writing. Job Outlook Employment opportunities in engineering have been good for a num­ ber of years. They are expected to continue to be good through the year 2005 because employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations while the number of degrees granted in engineering is not likely to increase much beyond present levels. Employers will need more engineers as they increase investment in plant and equipment in order to expand output of goods and services and to further increase productivity. In addition, competitive pres­ sures and advancing technology will force companies to improve and update product designs more frequently. Finally, more engineers will be needed to improve deteriorating roads, bridges, water and pollu­ tion control systems, and other public facilities. Freshman engineering enrollments began declining in 1983, and the number of bachelor’s degrees in engineering began declining in 1987. Although it is difficult to project engineering enrollments, this decline may continue, at least through the early 1990s, because the total college-age population is projected to decline. Furthermore, the proportion of students interested in engineering careers has declined as prospects for college graduates in other fields have improved.  66  Occupational Outlook Handbook  One sign that engineering graduates have good prospects is that they have starting salaries substantially higher than those of most other graduates with bachelor’s degrees. Another is that engineering students, who earned less than 9 percent of all bachelor’s degrees in 1990, received more than 40 percent of the job offers to bachelor’s degree graduates, according to the College Placement Council. In ad­ dition, most have received at least one job offer before graduation, which has not been the case for many other graduates. Although employers generally prefer engineering graduates, there should continue to be opportunities in engineering for qualified grad­ uates in science and other related fields. Only a relatively small proportion of engineers leave the profes­ sion each year. Despite this, most job openings will arise from re­ placement needs. A greater proportion of replacement openings is created by engineers who transfer to management, sales, or other pro­ fessional specialty occupations than by those who leave the labor force. Most industries are less likely to lay off engineers than other work­ ers. Many engineers work on long-term research and development projects or in other activities which may continue even during reces­ sions. However, in industries such as electronics and aerospace, large government cutbacks in defense or research and development may re­ sult in layoffs for engineers. New computer-aided design systems enable engineers to produce or modify designs much more rapidly than previously. This increased productivity might have resulted in fewer engineering jobs, but this has not happened. Instead, engineers have used these systems to im­ prove the design process. They now produce and analyze many more design variations before selecting a final one. Therefore, this technol­ ogy is not expected to limit employment opportunities. It is important for engineers to continue their education throughout their careers because much of their value to their employer depends on their knowledge of the latest technology. The pace of technologi­ cal change varies by engineering specialty and industry. Engineers in high-technology areas such as advanced electronics or aerospace may find that their knowledge becomes obsolete rapidly. Even those who continue their education are vulnerable to obsolescence if the particu­ lar technology or product they have specialized in becomes obsolete. Engineers whom employers consider not to have kept up may find themselves passed over for promotions and are particularly vulnera­ ble to layoffs. On the other hand, it is often these high-technology areas that offer the greatest challenges, the most interesting work, and the highest salaries. Therefore, the choice of engineering specialty and employer involves an assessment not only of the potential re­ wards but also of the risk of technological obsolescence. (The out­ look for 10 branches of engineering is discussed in separate statements.) Earnings Starting salaries for engineers with the bachelor’s degree are signifi­ cantly higher than starting salaries of bachelor’s degree graduates in other fields. According to the College Placement Council, engineer­ ing graduates with a bachelor’s degree averaged about $31,900 a year in private industry in 1990; those with a master’s degree and no expe­ rience, $36,200 a year; and those with a Ph.D., $50,400. Starting salaries for those with the bachelor’s degree vary by branch, as shown in the following tabulation. Petroleum..... Chemical...... Metallurgical. Mechanical... Electrical..... Nuclear........ Industrial..... Aerospace.... Mining........ Civil............  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  $35,202 35,122 32,235 32,064 31,778 31,750 30,525 30,509 29,383 28,136  As shown in the following tabulation, the average salary for engi­ neers in private industry in 1990 was $31,412 at the most junior level, and $93,514 at senior managerial levels. Experienced midlevel engi­ neers with no supervisory responsibilities averaged $49,195. Average salary Engineers I....................................................................... Engineers II..................................................................... Engineers III ................................................................... Engineers IV................................................................... Engineers V ..................................................................... Engineers VI................................................................... Engineers VII.................................................................. Engineers VIII ................................................................  $31,412 35,389 41,157 49,195 59,462 70,646 81,597 93,514  The average salary for engineers in the Federal Government was about $49,367 in 1991. Related Occupations Engineers apply the principles of physical science and mathematics in their work. Other workers who use scientific and mathematical principles include physical scientists, life scientists, computer scien­ tists, mathematicians, engineering and science technicians, and archi­ tects. Sources of Additional Information A number of engineering-related organizations provide information on engineering careers. JETS-Guidance, at 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314, serves as a central distribution point for infor­ mation from most of these organizations. To receive information, write JETS-Guidance for an order form. Enclose a stamped, selfaddressed business-size envelope to obtain the order form. Societies representing many of the individual branches of engi­ neering are listed in this chapter. Each can provide information about careers in the particular branch.  Aerospace Engineers (D.O.T. 002.061 and.167)  Nature of the Work Aerospace engineers design, develop, test, and help manufacture commercial and military aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. They de­ velop new technologies in commercial aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas like structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communica­ tion, or production methods. They also may specialize in one type of aerospace product, such as commercial transports, helicopters, space­ craft, or rockets. Aerospace engineers may be experts in aerodynam­ ics, propulsion, thermodynamics, structures, celestial mechanics, acoustics, or guidance and control systems. Employment Aerospace engineers held about 73,000 jobs in 1990. Two-thirds were in the aircraft and parts and guided missile and space vehicle manufacturing industries. Federal Government agencies, primarily the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, provided over 1 out of 10 jobs. Business and engi­ neering consulting firms and communications equipment manufactur­ ing firms accounted for most of the remainder. California, Washington, and Texas, States with large aerospace manufacturers, have the most aerospace engineers. Job Outlook Employment of aerospace engineers is expected to grow about as fast  Professional Specialty Occupations  w• -  67  .#  •*H|  Aerospace engineers design, build, and test components for air- and spacecraft.  Chemical engineers monitor control boards at chemical plants.  as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Although Defense Department expenditures for military aircraft, missiles, and other aerospace systems are expected to decline, faster growth is ex­ pected in the civilian sector. Much of the present fleet of airliners will be replaced with quieter and more fuel-efficient aircraft, and there will be increased demand for spacecraft, helicopters, and business aircraft. Future growth of aerospace engineer employment could be limited because a higher proportion of engineers in aerospace manu­ facturing may be materials, mechanical, or electrical engineers. Most job openings will result from the need to replace aerospace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Since a large proportion of aerospace engineering jobs are defense related, unexpected cancellation of a defense contract can result in layoffs of aerospace engineers.  petroleum refining, and related industries. Most of the rest worked for engineering services or consulting firms that design chemical plants or do other work on a contract basis, or worked for government agen­ cies or as independent consultants.  Sources of Additional Information For information on aerospace careers, send $3 to: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., AIAA Student Programs, The Aerospace Center, 370 L’Enfant Promenade SW., Washington, DC 20024.  (See introductory section of this chapter for information on train­ ing requirements and earnings.)  Job Outlook Employment of chemical engineers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. This re­ flects little, if any, growth in the chemical manufacturing industry, where many chemical engineers are employed. Most openings, how­ ever, will result from the need to replace chemical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Areas relating to the production of industrial chemicals, biotech­ nology, and materials science may provide better opportunities than other portions of the chemical industry. However, much of the pro­ jected growth in employment will be in nonmanufacturing industries, especially service industries. Sources of Additional Information *- American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New York NY 10017. *■ American Chemical Society, Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Chemical Engineers (D.O.T. 008.061 except .030)  Nature of the Work Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry and engineering to solve problems. Many work in the production of chemicals and chemical products. They design equipment and develop processes for manufacturing chemicals in chemical plants, plan and test methods of manufacturing the products, and supervise production. Chemical en­ gineers also work in industries other than chemical manufacturing such as electronics or aircraft manufacturing. Because the knowledge and duties of chemical engineers cut across many fields, they apply principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and mechanical and electrical engineering in their work. They frequently specialize in a particular operation such as oxidation or polymerization. Others spe­ cialize in a particular area such as pollution control or the production of a specific product like automotive plastics or chlorine bleach. Employment Chemical engineers held over 48,000 jobs in 1990. Seventy percent were in manufacturing industries, primarily in the chemical,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Civil Engineers (D.O.T. 005.061, .167-014 and -018; and 019.167-018)  Nature of the Work Civil engineers, who work in the oldest branch of engineering, design and supervise the construction of roads, airports, tunnels, bridges, water supply and sewage systems, and buildings. Major specialties within civil engineering are structural, water resources, environmen­ tal, construction, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, ranging from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Others may work in design, construction, research, and teaching. Employment Civil engineers held about 198,000 jobs in 1990. Over 40 percent of the jobs were in Federal, State, and local government agencies. Over one-third were in firms that provide engineering consulting services, primarily developing designs for new construction projects. The con-  68  Occupational Outlook Handbook  dA  used by electric utilities, and electric motors, machinery controls, and lighting and wiring in buildings, automobiles, and aircraft. Electronic equipment includes radar, computer hardware, and communications and video equipment. The specialties of electrical and electronics engineers include sev­ eral major areas—such as power generation, transmission, and distri­ bution; communications; computer electronics; and electrical equipment manufacturing—or a subdivision of these areas—industri­ al robot control systems or aviation electronics, for example. Electri­ cal and electronics engineers design new products, write performance requirements, and develop maintenance schedules. They also test equipment, solve operating problems, and estimate the time and cost of engineering projects. Employment Electrical and electronics engineers held about 426,000 jobs in 1990, making it the largest branch of engineering. Most jobs were in firms that manufacture electrical and electronic equipment, business ma­ chines, professional and scientific equipment, and aircraft and parts. Computer and data processing services firms, engineering and busi­ ness consulting firms, public utilities, and government agencies ac­ counted for most of the remaining jobs.  Civil engineers review the progress of construction projects. struction industry, public utilities, transportation, and manufacturing industries accounted for most of the rest. Civil engineers usually are found working near major industrial and commercial centers, often at construction sites. Some projects are situated in remote areas or in foreign countries. In some jobs, civil engineers move from place to place to work on different projects. Job Outlook Employment of civil engineers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job open­ ings, however, will result from the need to replace civil engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. A growing population and an expanding economy will create op­ portunities for more civil engineers to design and construct higher ca­ pacity transportation, water supply, and pollution control systems, large buildings, and other structures. More civil engineers also will be needed to repair or replace existing roads, bridges, and other public structures. Because construction and related industries—including those pro­ viding design services—employ many civil engineers, employment opportunities will vary by geographic area and may decrease during economic slowdowns, when construction often is curtailed.  Job Outlook Employment opportunities for electrical and electronics engineers are expected to be good through the year 2005 because employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations. The majority of job openings will result from the need to replace electri­ cal and electronics engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Increased demand by businesses and government for computers and communications equipment is expected to account for much of the projected employment growth. Consumer demand for electrical and electronic goods and increased research and development on computers, robots, and other types of automation should create addi­ tional jobs. Since many electrical engineering jobs are defense related, expect­ ed cutbacks in defense spending could result in layoffs of electrical engineers, especially if a defense-related project or contract is unex­ pectedly cancelled. Furthermore, engineers who fail to keep up with the rapid changes in technology in some specialties risk technological obsolescence, which makes them more susceptible to layoffs or, at a minimum, likely to be passed over for advancement. Sources of Additional Information » Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/United States Activities Board, 1828 L St. NW., Suite 1202, Washington, DC 20036-5104.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Sources of Additional Information »■ American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Electrical and Electronics Engineers (D.O.T. 003.061, .167 except -034, -062, and -070. and .187)  Nature of the Work Electrical and electronics engineers design, develop, test, and super­ vise the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment. Electri­ cal equipment includes power generating and transmission equipment  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Electrical engineers design circuits.  Professional Specialty Occupations  Industrial Engineers (D.O.T. 005.167-026; 012.061 -018, .067, .167 except -022, -026, -034, -058, -062, and -066, and . 187)  Nature of the Work Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways for an organi­ zation to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, ma­ terials, information, and energy. They are the bridge between management and operations. They are more concerned with increas­ ing productivity through the management of people and methods of business organization than are engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes. To solve organizational, production, and related problems most ef­ ficiently, industrial engineers design data processing systems and use mathematical analysis methods such as operations research. They de­ velop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, design production planning and control systems to co­ ordinate activities and control product quality, and design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services. Industrial engineers conduct surveys to find plant locations with the best combi­ nation of raw materials, transportation, and taxes. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related. Employment Industrial engineers held about 135,000 jobs in 1990; about 75 per­ cent of jobs were in manufacturing industries. Because their skills can be used in almost any type of organization, industrial engineers are more widely distributed among industries than other engineers. For example, some work for insurance companies, banks, hospitals, and retail organizations. Others work for government agencies or are independent consultants. Job Outlook Employment of industrial engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job  69  openings, however, will result from the need to replace industrial en­ gineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Industrial growth, more complex business operations, and the greater use of automation in factories and in offices underlie the pro­ jected employment growth. Jobs also will be created as firms seek to reduce costs and increase productivity through scientific management and safety engineering. Sources of Additional Information *■ Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc., 25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, GA 30092.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Mechanical Engineers (D.O.T. 007.061, .161-022, -034, and -038, and .267)  Nature of the Work Mechanical engineers are concerned with the production, transmis­ sion, and use of mechanical power and heat. They design and develop power-producing machines such as internal combustion engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet and rocket engines. They also design and develop power-using machines such as refrigeration and air-con­ ditioning equipment, robots, machine tools, materials handling sys­ tems, and industrial production equipment. The work of mechanical engineers varies by industry and function. Specialties include, among others, applied mechanics, design engi­ neering, heat transfer, powerplant engineering, pressure vessels and piping, and underwater technology. Mechanical engineers design tools needed by other engineers for their work. Mechanical engineering is the broadest engineering discipline, ex­ tending across many interdependent specialties. Some mechanical en­ gineers work in production operations, maintenance, and technical sales. Many are administrators or managers. Employment Mechanical engineers held about 233,000 jobs in 1990. Over 3 out of 5 jobs were in manufacturing—of these, most were in the machinery, transportation equipment, electrical equipment, instruments, and fab­ ricated metal products industries. Business and engineering consult­ ing services and government agencies provided most of the remaining jobs. Job Outlook Employment of mechanical engineers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the  Industrial engineers monitor work flow to find ways of improving productivity.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Mechanical engineers test machine components for reaction to stress.  70  Occupational Outlook Handbook  demand for machinery and machine tools grows and industrial ma­ chinery and processes become increasingly complex. Despite this ex­ pected employment growth, however, most job openings will result from the need to replace mechanical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Since many mechanical engineering jobs are in defense related in­ dustries, reductions in defense spending could result in layoffs in these industries.  neers also test and evaluate materials and develop new materials, such as the composite materials now being used in “stealth” aircraft. Employment Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers held over 18,000 jobs in 1990. About one-quarter worked in metal-producing industries. They also worked in industries that manufacture aircraft and parts, machinery, and electrical equipment, and in business and engineering consulting firms and government agencies.  Sources of Additional Information «■ The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017. «■ American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and. Air-Conditioning Engi­ neers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle NE., Atlanta, GA 30329.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Materials Engineers (D.O.T. 006.061; 011.061 and .261-018; and 019.061-014)  Nature of the Work Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers develop new types of metals, ceramics, composites, and other materials which meet special requirements. Examples are graphite golf club shafts that are light but stiff, ceramic tiles on the space shuttle that protect it during reentry, and the alloy turbine blades in a jet. Most metallurgical engineers work in one of the three main branches of metallurgy—extractive or chemical, physical, and me­ chanical or process. Extractive metallurgists are concerned with re­ moving metals from ores and refining and alloying them to obtain useful metal. Physical metallurgists study the nature, structure, and physical properties of metals and their alloys, and methods of con­ verting refined metals into final products. Mechanical metallurgists develop and improve metalworking processes such as casting, forg­ ing, rolling, and drawing. Ceramic engineers develop new ceramic materials and methods for making ceramic materials into useful products. Ceramics include all nonmetallic, inorganic materials which require high temperatures in their processing. Ceramic engineers work on products as diverse as glassware, semiconductors, automobile and aircraft engine compo­ nents, fiber-optic phone lines, tile, and electric powerline insulators. Materials engineers evaluate technical requirements and material specifications to develop materials that can be used, for example, to reduce the weight, but not the strength of an object. Materials engi-  Job Outlook Employment of metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers is ex­ pected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. More metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers will be need­ ed by the metalworking and other industries to develop new metals, alloys, and materials, as well as to develop new applications for exist­ ing materials. As the supply of high-grade ores diminishes, more met­ allurgical engineers will be required to develop new ways of recycling solid waste materials and processing low-grade ores now regarded as unprofitable to mine. More ceramic and materials engineers will be needed to develop improved materials and products, for example, ceramic automobile engines, which are more fuel efficient than metal engines. Sources of Additional Information The Minerals, Metals, & Materials Foundation, 420 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15086. ASM International, Metals Park. OH 44073.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Mining Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -018)  Nature of the Work Mining engineers find, extract, and prepare minerals for manufactur­ ing industries to use. They design open pit and underground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations, and devise methods for transporting minerals to process­ ing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe, economical, and environmentally sound operation of mines. Some mining engi­ neers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral processing operations to separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materials they are mixed with. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral, such as coal or gold. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many mining engineers have been working to solve problems related to land reclamation and water and air pollution. Employment Mining enginers held about 4,200 jobs in 1990. Over half worked in the mining industry. Other jobs were located in engineering consult­ ing firms, government agencies, or in manufacturing industries. Mining engineers are usually employed at the location of mineral deposits, often near small communities. However, those in research and development, management, consulting, or sales often are located in metropolitan areas.  Materials engineers search for flaws in newly designed composite materials.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Little change is expected in the employment of mining engineers through the year 2005 due to expected low growth in demand for  Professional Specialty Occupations  71  Mining engineers examine the quality of coal deposits.  Nuclear engineers review the design of nuclear power plants.  coal, metals, and other minerals. Most job openings will result from the need to replace the large proportion of mining engineers who transfer to other occupations each year. In the mid-1980’s, mining engineers experienced poor employment opportunities because low prices for oil and metals reduced prof­ itability in coal, metal, and other mining. However, the prices of these commodities, metals in particular, have increased to a level sufficient to increase output and employment opportunities. Increased demand for coal and, consequently, for mining engineers in the coal industry will depend, to a great extent, on the availability and price of other energy sources such as petroleum, natural gas, and nuclear energy as well as the price of coal in other countries. More technologically ad­ vanced mining systems and further enforcement of mine health and safety regulations may also increase the need for mining engineers. As easily mined deposits are depleted, engineers must devise more efficient methods for mining and processing low-grade ores. Employ­ ment opportunities also may rise as new alloys and new uses for min­ erals and metals increase the demand for less widely used ores.  Employment Nuclear engineers held about 18,000 jobs in 1990; one-fifth were in the Federal Government. Nearly half of all federally employed nucle­ ar engineers were civilian employees of the Navy, about one-third worked for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and most of the rest worked for the Department of Energy or the Tennessee Valley Au­ thority. Most nonfederally employed nuclear engineers worked for public utilities or engineering consulting companies. Some worked for defense manufacturers or manufacturers of nuclear power equip­ ment.  Sources of Additional Information •' The Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., P.O. Box 625002, Littleton, CO 80162-5002.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Job Outlook Employment of nuclear engineers is expected to change little through the year 2005. Almost all job openings will result from the need to re­ place nuclear engineers who retire or leave the occupation. Despite the expected absence of growth, there are expected to be good oppor­ tunities for nuclear engineers because the number of new graduates with degrees in nuclear engineering is small and has been declining recently. Some with degrees in physics may also find employment as nuclear engineers. Because of concerns over the safety of nuclear power, few or no nuclear powerplants are likely to be started before the year 2005. However, nuclear engineers will be needed to operate plants present­ ly under construction. In addition, nuclear engineers will be needed to work in defense-related areas and to improve and enforce safety stan­ dards.  Nuclear Engineers  Sources of Additional Information  (D.O.T. 008.061-030; 015.061, .067, .137, and .167)  American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Ave., LaGrange Park, IL 60525.  Nature of the Work Nuclear engineers conduct research on nuclear energy and radiation. They design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear power plants used to generate electricity and power Navy ships. For example, they may work on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by nuclear energy—or on fusion energy. Some specialize in the development of nuclear weapons; others develop industrial and medical uses for ra­ dioactive materials such as equipment to help diagnose and treat medical problems.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Petroleum Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -014 and -026, .161-010, and .167-010 and -014)  Nature of the Work Petroleum engineers explore for and produce oil and natural gas. If a  72  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment Petroleum engineers held over 17,000 jobs in 1990, mostly in the petroleum industry and closely allied fields. Employers include major oil companies and hundreds of smaller, independent oil exploration, production, and service companies. Engineering consulting firms, government agencies, oil field services, and equipment suppliers also employ petroleum engineers. Others work as independent consultants. Because petroleum engineers specialize in the discovery and pro­ duction of oil and gas, relatively few are employed in the refining, transportation, and retail sectors of the oil and gas industry. Most petroleum engineers work where oil and gas are found. Large numbers are employed in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Califor­ nia, including offshore sites. Also, many American petroleum engi­ neers work overseas in oil-producing countries.  Petroleum engineers interpret seismic recordings in the search for oil.  workable reservoir containing oil or natural gas is discovered, petroleum engineers work to achieve the maximum profitable recov­ ery from the reservoir by determining and developing the most effi­ cient production methods. Since only a small proportion of the oil and gas in a reservoir will flow out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods. These include injecting water, chemicals, or steam into a reservior to force more of the oil out, and horizontal drilling or fracturing to connect more of a reservior to a well. Since even the best methods in use today recover only about half the oil in a reservoir, petroleum engineers work to find ways to increase this proportion.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of petroleum engineers is expected to change little through the year 2005. Because of low oil prices in the 1980s, domes­ tic petroleum companies sharply curtailed exploration and production activities, resulting in poor employment opportunities for petroleum engineering graduates. In the long run, however, it appears likely that the price of oil will increase to a level sufficient to increase explo­ ration and production, which would imply excellent employment prospects for petroleum engineers since the number of degrees re­ cently granted in petroleum engineering has been very low. Despite this expected employment growth, most job openings will result from the need to replace petroleum engineers who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. Sources of Additional Information Society of Petroleum Engineers, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083­ 3836.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Architects and Surveyors Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-010 and .167-010)  Nature of the Work The design of a building involves far more than its appearance. Buildings must also be functional, safe, and economical and must suit the needs of the people who use them. Architects take all these things into consideration when they design buildings. Architects provide a wide variety of professional services to indi­ viduals and organizations planning a building project. They may be involved in all phases of development, from the initial discussion of general ideas with the client through construction. Their duties require a variety of skills—design, engineering, managerial, and supervisory. The architect and client first discuss the purposes, requirements, and budget of a project. Based on the discussions, the architect pre­ pares a program—a report specifying the requirements the design must meet. The architect then prepares drawings presenting ideas for meeting the client’s needs. After the initial proposals are discussed and accepted, the architect develops final construction documents. These documents show the building’s appearance and details of its construction. Accompanying these are drawings of the structural system; air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating systems; electrical systems; plumbing; and possibly landscape plans. Architects also specify the building materials and, in some cases, the interior furnishings. In developing designs, architects follow building codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other ordi­ nances, such as those that require easy access by handicapped persons. Throughout the planning stage, the architect makes necessary changes. The architect may also assist the client in obtaining construction bids, selecting a contractor, and negotiating the construction contract. As construction proceeds, the architect may be employed by the client to visit the building site to ensure that the contractor is follow­ ing the design, using the specified materials, and meeting the speci­ fied standards for the quality of work. The job is not complete until all construction is finished, required tests are made, and construction costs are paid. Architects design a wide variety of buildings, such as office and apartment buildings, schools, churches, factories, hospitals, houses, and airport terminals. They also design multibuilding complexes such as urban centers, college campuses, industrial parks, and entire com­ munities. In addition to designing buildings, architects may advise on the selection of building sites, prepare cost and land-use studies, and do long-range planning for land development. Architects sometimes specialize in one phase of work. Some spe­ cialize in the design of one type of building—for example, hospitals, schools, or housing. Others specialize in construction management or the management of their firm and do little design work. Architects often work with engineers, urban planners, interior designers, land­ scape architects, and others. Working Conditions Architects generally work in a comfortable environment. Most of their time is spent in offices advising clients, developing reports and drawings, and working with other architects and engineers. However, they also often work at construction sites reviewing the progress of projects. Architects may be under great stress, working nights and weekends to meet deadlines. Employment Architects held almost 108,000 jobs in 1990. Most jobs were in archi­ tecture firms—the majority of which employ fewer than five workers.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  An architect examines a model of a proposed multibuilding complex. Over one-quarter of all architects were self-employed. They practiced as partners in architecture firms or on their own. A few worked for builders, real estate developers, and for government agencies respon­ sible for housing, planning, or community development such as the Departments of Defense, Interior, and Housing and Urban Develop­ ment, and the General Services Administration. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require individuals to be li­ censed (registered) before they may call themselves architects or con­ tract to provide architectural services. Many architecture school graduates work in the field even though they are not licensed. How­ ever, a licensed architect is required to take legal responsibility for all work. Three requirements generally must be met for licensure: A pro­ fessional degree in architecture, a period of practical training or in­ ternship (usually for 3 years), and passage of all sections of the Architect Registration Examination. In most States, the professional degree in architecture must be from one of the 96 schools of architecture with programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board. There are several types of professional degrees in architecture. Over half of all archi­ tecture degrees are from 5-year Bachelor of Architecture programs intended for students entering from high school. A 2-year Master of Architecture program is for students with a preprofessional under­ graduate degree in architecture or a related area, and a 3- or 4-year Master of Architecture program is for students with a degree in an­ other discipline. In addition, there are many combinations and varia­ tions of these degree programs. The choice of degree type depends upon each individual’s prefer­ ence and educational background. Prospective architecture students should carefully consider the available options before committing to a program. For example, although the 5-year Bachelor of Architec­ ture degree offers the fastest route to the professional degree, courses are specialized and, if the student does not complete the program, moving to a nonarchitecture program may be difficult. A typical pro­ gram includes courses in architectural history and theory, building de­ sign, including its technical and legal aspects, math, physical sciences, and liberal arts. Many architecture schools also offer gradu­ ate education for those who already have a bachelor’s or master’s de­ gree in architecture or other areas. Although graduate education beyond the professional degree is not essential for practicing archi­ tects, it is desirable for research, teaching, and certain specialties. Architects must be able to visually communicate their ideas to clients. Artistic and drawing ability is very helpful in doing this, but not essential. More important is a visual orientation and the ability to conceptualize and understand spatial relationships. Good communi­ 73  74  Occupational Outlook Handbook  cation skills (both written and oral), the ability to work independently or as part of a team, and creativity are important qualities for anyone interested in becoming an architect. Computer literacy is also re­ quired as most firms use computers for word processing, specifica­ tions writing, two- and three- dimensional drafting, and financial management. A knowledge of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is helpful. New graduates usually begin in architecture firms, where they as­ sist in preparing architectural documents or drawings. They also may do research on building codes and materials; or write specifications for building materials, the method of installation, the quality of fin­ ishes, and many other related details. Graduates with degrees in ar­ chitecture also enter related fields such as graphic, interior, or industrial design; urban planning; real estate development; civil engi­ neering; or construction management. In large firms, architects may advance to supervisory or managerial positions. Some architects become partners in established firms; oth­ ers set up their own firm. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for architects are expected to be good through the year 2005 because employment is expected to rise as fast as the average for all occupations and the number of degrees granted in architecture is not expected to increase significantly. However, de­ mand for architects is highly dependent upon the local level of con­ struction, particularly of nonresidential structures such as office buildings and shopping centers. Construction is sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy. During recessions or periods of slow growth, architects will face competition for job openings or clients, and layoffs may occur. Even in good times, there may be areas of the country with poor opportunities. Architects who are licensed to prac­ tice in one State must meet the licensing requirements of other States before practicing elsewhere. These requirements are becoming more standardized, however, facilitating movement to other States. Regard­ less of economic conditions, there will continue to be competition for jobs in the most prestigious firms, which offer good potential for ca­ reer advancement. The use of computer-aided design and drafting is becoming more prevalent in architecture firms but is not expected to reduce the need for architects. Rather, CADD allows architects to develop more op­ tions, and to make changes in plans and elevations more easily, im­ proving the quality of building designs. Although employment is expected to rise about as fast as the aver­ age for all occupations through the year 2005, most job openings are expected to arise as architects transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Earnings The median annual earnings for salaried architects who worked full time were about $36,100 in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned be­ tween $27,100 and $52,400. The top 10 percent earned more than $66,300 and the lowest 10 percent, less than $17,900. According to The American Institute of Architects, the median salary for intern-architects in architectural firms was $24,000 in 1990. Licensed architects with more than 8 years’ experience but who were not managers or principals of a firm earned a median salary of $37,000 in 1990; and principals or partners of firms earned a medi­ an salary of $57,700 in 1990. Partners in some large practices earned over $100,000. Architects who are partners in well-established architectural firms or solo practitioners generally earn much more than their salaried em­ ployees, but their income may fluctuate due to changing business conditions. Architects may have difficulty getting established in their own practices and may go through a period when their expenses are greater than their income. Related Occupations Architects are concerned with the design and construction of build­ ings and related structures. Others who engage in similar work are  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  landscape architects, building contractors, civil engineers, urban plan­ ners, interior designers, industrial designers, drafters, and graphic designers. Sources of Additional Information Information about education and careers in architecture can be obtained from: ' «• Director, Education Programs, The American Institute of Architects, 1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20006.  Landscape Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-018)  Nature of the Work Everyone enjoys attractively designed residential areas, public parks, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, parkways, and in­ dustrial parks. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional but beautiful and compatible with the natural environment as well. They may plan the location of buildings, roads, and walkways and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees. They also may redesign streets to limit automobile traffic and to im­ prove pedestrian access and safety. Natural resource conservation and historic preservation are other important objectives to which land­ scape architects may apply their knowledge of the environment as well as their design and artistic talents. Landscape architects are hired by many types of organizations— from real estate development firms starting new projects to munici­ palities constructing airports or parks. They are often involved with the development of a site from its conception. Working with archi­ tects and engineers, they help determine the best arrangement of roads and buildings. Once these decisions are made, landscape archi­ tects create detailed plans indicating new topography, vegetation, walkways, and landscape amenities. In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the nature and purpose of the project and the funds available. They analyze the natu­ ral elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation. They observe where sunlight falls on the site at different times of the day and examine the site from various angles. They assess the effect of existing buildings, roads, walkways, and utilities on the project. After studying and analyzing the site, they prepare a preliminary design. To account for the needs of the client as well as the conditions at the site, they may have to make many changes before a final design is approved. An increasing number of landscape architects are using computer-aided design (CAD) systems to assist them in preparing their designs. Many landscape architects are also using video simula­ tion as a tool to help clients envision the landscape architects’ ideas. Throughout all phases of the design, landscape architects consult with other professionals involved in the project. Once the design is complete, they prepare a proposal for the client. They draw up de­ tailed plans of the site which include written reports, sketches, mod­ els, photographs, land-use studies, and cost estimates. If the plans are approved, landscape architects prepare working drawings showing all existing and proposed features. They also outline in detail the meth­ ods of construction and draw up a list of necessary materials. Although many landscape architects supervise the installation of their design, some are involved in the construction of the site. How­ ever, this usually is done by the developer or contractor. Some landscape architects work on a wide variety of projects. Oth­ ers specialize in a particular area, such as residential development, historic landscape restoration, waterfront improvement projects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in re­ gional planning and resource management; feasibility, environmental impact, and cost studies; or site construction. Some landscape archi­ tects teach at the college or university level.  Professional Specialty Occupations  Relatively few landscape architects specialize in landscape design for individual homeowners because most residential landscape design projects are too small to provide suitable income compared with larg­ er commercial or multiunit residential projects. Although many land­ scape architects do some residential work, it usually comprises only a small amount of their total workload. Some nurseries offer residential landscape design services, but these services often are performed by lesser qualified landscape designers or others with training and expe­ rience in related areas. Landscape architects who work for government agencies do simi­ lar work at national parks, government buildings, and other govern­ ment-owned facilities. In addition, they may prepare environmental impact statements and studies on environmental issues such as landuse planning. Working Conditions Landscape architects spend most of their time in offices creating plans and designs, preparing models and cost estimates, doing re­ search, or attending meetings. The remainder of their time is spent at the site. Before the project is actually begun, landscape architects an­ alyze the site. During the design and planning stage, they may visit the site to verify that the design can be incorporated into the land­ scape. After the plans and specifications are completed, they spend time at the site observing or supervising the construction. Those who work in large firms may spend considerably more time out of the of­ fice because of travel to sites outside the local area. Salaried employees in both government and landscape architec­ tural firms usually work regular hours, although they may work over­ time to meet a project deadline. Hours of self-employed landscape architects may vary. Employment Landscape architects held about 20,000 jobs in 1990. Three-fifths worked for firms that provide landscape architecture services. Most of the rest were employed by architectural firms. The Federal Gov­ ernment also employs these workers; most were found in the Depart­ ments of Agriculture, Defense, and Interior. About 1 of every 10 landscape architects was self-employed. Most employment for landscape architects is concentrated in urban and suburban areas in all parts of the country. Some landscape archi­ tects work in rural areas, particulary those in the Federal Government who plan and design parks and recreation areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture is usually necessary for entry into the profession. The bachelor’s degree in land­ scape architecture takes 4 or 5 years to complete. There are two types of master’s degree programs. The master’s degree as a first profes­ sional degree is a 3-year program designed for students with an un-  i  Landscape architects use their skills in city and regional planning as well as new development and construction.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  75  dergraduate degree in another discipline; this is the most common type. The master’s degree as the second professional degree is a 2year program for students who have a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture and wish to demonstrate mastery in some aspect of land­ scape architecture. In 1990, 51 colleges and universities offered 61 undergraduate and graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accredited by the American Society of Landscape Architects. College courses in this field include technical subjects such as sur­ veying, landscape design and construction, landscape ecology, struc­ tural design, and city and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape architecture, plant and soil science, geology, de­ sign and color theory, and general management. The design studio is an important aspect of many landscape architecture curriculums. Stu­ dents are assigned real projects to work on, providing them with valu­ able hands-on experience. In addition, most students at the undergraduate level take a year of prerequisite courses such as En­ glish, mathematics, and social science. Forty-four States require landscape architects to be licensed. Li­ censing is based on the Uniform National Examination, and admis­ sion to the exam usually requires a degree from an accredited school plus 1 to 4 years of work experience, although standards vary from State to State. A few States require additional examinations focusing on laws and/or plant materials indigenous to their State. Because States’ requirements for licensure are not uniform, land­ scape architects may not find it easy to transfer to another State to practice. However, those who meet the national standard of graduating from an accredited program, serving 3 years of internship under the su­ pervision of a registered landscape architect, and passage of the Uni­ form National Examination can satisfy requirements in most States. In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions should have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture. The Federal Government does not require its landscape architects to be li­ censed. Persons planning a career in landscape architecture should appreci­ ate nature and enjoy working with their hands. Although creativity and artistic talent are also desireable qualities, they are not absolutely essential to success as a landscape architect. High school courses in mechanical or geometric drawing, art, botany, and mathematics are helpful. Good oral communication skills are important, because these workers must be able to convey their ideas to other professionals and to their clients and make presentations before large groups. Those in­ terested in starting their own firm should be skilled in small business management. In States where licensure is required, new hires are technically called intern landscape architects until they become licensed. Intern landscape architects’ duties vary depending on the type and size of employing firm. They may do project research or prepare base maps of the area to be landscaped, while some are allowed to participate in the actual design of a project. However, interns must perform all work under the supervision of a licensed landscape architect. Addi­ tionally, all drawings and specifications must be signed by the li­ censed landscape architect, who takes legal responsibility for the work. After gaining experience and becoming licensed, landscape ar­ chitects usually can carry a design through all stages of development. After several years, they may become associates, and eventually they may become partners or open their own offices. Job Outlook Employment of landscape architects is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Despite this growth, most job openings are expected to result from the need to replace experienced landscape architects who transfer to other occu­ pations or leave the labor force. The level of new construction plays an important role in determin­ ing demand for landscape architects. Anticipated growth in construc­ tion is expected to increase demand for landscape architectural services over the long run. An increasing proportion of office and other commercial and industrial development will occur outside  76  Occupational Outlook Handbook  cities. These projects typically have a large area of surrounding land which needs to be designed, in contrast to urban development, which often includes little or no surrounding land. Also, as the cost of land increases, the desirability of good landscape design increases. How­ ever, because employment is linked to new construction, landscape architects may face layoffs and competition for jobs when real estate sales and construction slow down, such as during a recession. Increased development of open space into recreation areas, wildlife refuges, and parks will also require the skills of landscape architects. Continued concern for the environment should stimulate employment growth because of the need to design development projects which best fit in with the surrounding environment. In addition to the work related to new development and construc­ tion, landscape architects are expected to be involved in historic preservation, local, city, and regional planning, mined land reclama­ tion, and refurbishment of existing sites. Although landscape architects are increasingly using computeraided design, employment is not expected to be affected because this technology will be used to create more and better designs rather than reduce the demand for landscape architects. Earnings According to the American Society of Landscape Architects, in 1989, the last year for which data are available, graduates with a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture usually started at about $18,000; those with a master’s degree started at about $27,000. Although salaries for experienced landscape architects varied by location and experience, the median salary for all landscape architects was about $37,000 in 1989, according to the American Society of Landscape Architects. Those who are partners in well-established firms may earn much more than their salaried employees, but their incomes may fluctuate with changing business conditions. In 1991, the average an­ nual salary for all landscape architects in the Federal Government was about $43,938. Because many landscape architects work for small firms or are selfemployed, benefits tend to be less generous than those of other work­ ers with similar skills who work for large organizations. With the exception of those who are self-employed, however, most landscape architects receive health insurance, paid vacations, and sick leave.  the earth’s surface. Land Surveyors establish official land, air space, and water boundaries; write descriptions of land for deeds, leases, and other legal documents; define air space for airports; and measure construction and mineral sites. They are assisted by survey techni­ cians, who operate surveying instruments and collect information. Mapping scientists and other surveyors collect geographic informa­ tion and prepare maps and charts. Land surveyors manage one or more survey parties who measure distances, directions, and angles between points and elevations of points, lines, and contours on the earth’s surface. They plan the field­ work, select known survey reference points, and determine the pre­ cise location of all important features of the survey area. They research legal records and look for evidence of previous boundaries. They record the results of the survey, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare plats, maps, and reports. Surveyors who establish official boundaries must be licensed by the State in which they work. The information needed by the land surveyor is gathered by a sur­ vey party. A typical survey party is made up of a party chief and sev­ eral survey technicians and helpers. The party chief, who may be either a land surveyor or a senior survey technician, leads the day-to­ day work activities. The party chief is assisted by survey technicians, who adjust and operate surveying instruments such as the theodolite (used to measure horizontal and vertical angles) and electronic dis­ tance-measuring equipment. Survey technicians or helpers hold the vertical rods that the theodolite operator sights on to measure angles, distances, or elevations. They may also hold measuring tapes and chains if electronic distance-measuring equipment is not used. Survey technicians also compile notes, make sketches, and enter the data ob-  Related Occupations Landscape architects use their knowledge of design theory and landuse planning to develop a landscape project. Others whose work re­ quires similar skills are architects, interior designers, civil engineers, and urban and regional planners. Landscape architects also know how to grow and use plants in the landscape. Botonists, who study plants in general, and horticulturists, who study ornamental plants as well as fruit, vegetable, greenhouse, and nursery crops, do similar work. Sources of Additional Information Additional information, including a list of colleges and universities offering accredited programs in landscape architecture, is available from: American Society of Landscape Architects, 4401 Connecticut Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20008.  ■ -  General information on registration or licensing requirements is available from: <•- Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, 12700 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 110, Fairfax, VA 22033.  Surveyors (D.O.T. 018.131, .167 except -022, .261, .262, .281; 024.061-014; and 184.167-026)  Nature of the Work This statement covers three groups of workers who measure and map  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A surveyor ensures that a new roadway is on course.  Professional Specialty Occupations  tained from these instruments into computers. Some survey parties include laborers or helpers to clear brush from sight lines, drive stakes, carry equipment, and perform other less skilled duties. New technology is changing the nature of the work of surveyors and survey technicians. For larger surveying projects, surveyors are increasingly using the Global Positioning System (GPS), a satellite system which precisely locates points on the earth using radio signals transmitted by satellites. The system was designed by the military for the navigation of its planes, tanks, ships, and other equipment. To use it, a surveyor places a satellite receiver, the size of a backpack, on a desired point. The receiver collects information from several satel­ lites at once to triangulate the position precisely. Two receivers are generally used, one at a known point and the other at the unknown point, and are operated simultaneously. The receiver can also be placed in a car to trace out road systems or for other uses. The system is operative yet not totally complete now, but when all the planned satellites are placed in orbit and as the cost of the receivers are re­ duced, much more surveying work will be done by GPS. Mapping scientists, like land surveyors, measure, map, and chart the earth’s surface but generally cover much larger areas. Unlike land surveyors, however, mapping scientists work mainly in offices and may seldom or never visit the sites they are mapping. Mapping scien­ tists include workers in several occupations. Cartographers prepare maps using information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial pho­ tographs, and satellite data. Photogrammetrists prepare maps and drawings by measuring and interpreting aerial photographs, using an­ alytical processes and mathematical formulas. Photogrammetrists make detailed maps of areas that are inaccessible or difficult to sur­ vey by other methods. Map editors develop and verify map contents from aerial photographs and other reference sources. Some surveyors perform specialized functions which are closer to mapping science than traditional surveying. Geodetic surveyors use high-accuracy techniques, including satellite observations, to measure large areas of the earth’s surface. Geophysical prospecting surveyors mark sites for subsurface exploration, usually petroleum related. Ma­ rine surveyors survey harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water to de­ termine shorelines, topography of the bottom, water depth, and other features. The work of mapping scientists is also changing due to new tech­ nologies. The technologies include GPS, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are computerized data banks of spatial data, new earth resources data satellites, and improved aerial photography. The older specialties of photogrammetrist or cartographer are becom­ ing a new one, geographic information specialist. Further, many ob­ serve that the functions of mapping science and surveying are merging into a broader field, that of the collection and analysis of ge­ ographic spatial information. Working Conditions Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day 5 days a week. Sometimes they work longer hours during the summer, when weather and light conditions are most suitable for fieldwork. Land surveyors and technicians do active and sometimes strenuous work. They often stand for long periods, walk long distances, and climb hills with heavy packs of instruments and equipment. They also are exposed to all types of weather. Occasionally, they may com­ mute long distances or temporarily relocate near a survey site. They also spend considerable time in an office, planning surveys, analyzing data, and preparing reports and maps. Most computations and map drafting are done at a computer. Mapping scientists spend almost all their time in offices. Employment Surveyors held about 108,000 jobs in 1990. Engineering, architec­ tural, and surveying firms employ over three-fifths of all surveyors. Federal, State, and local government agencies employ about onefourth. Major Federal Government employers are the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, the Army Corps of Engi­ neers, the Forest Service, the National Ocean Survey, and the De­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  77  fense Mapping Agency. Most surveyors in State and local govern­ ment work for highway departments and urban planning and redevel­ opment agencies. Construction firms, mining and oil and gas extraction companies, and public utilities also employ surveyors. About 6,000 surveyors were self-employed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most persons prepare to be a licensed surveyor by combining post­ secondary school courses in surveying with extensive on-the-job training. About 25 universities offer 4-year programs leading to a BS degree in surveying. Junior and community colleges, technical insti­ tutes, and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-, and 3-year programs in both surveying and surveying technology. High school students interested in surveying should take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing, and computer science. All 50 States license land surveyors. In the past, many surveyors started as members of survey crews and worked their way up to li­ censed surveyor with little formal training in surveying. However, due to advancing technology and an increase in licensing standards, more formal education is now required. Most States at the present time require some formal post-high school education courses and 5 to 12 years of surveying experience to gain licensure. However, require­ ments vary among the States. Generally, the quickest route is a com­ bination of 4 years of college, 2 to 4 years of experience (a few States do not require any), and passing the State licensing examination. An increasing number of States require a bachelor’s degree in surveying or in a closely related field such as civil engineering or forestry with courses in surveying. High school graduates with no formal training in surveying usually start as a helper. Beginners with postsecondary school training in sur­ veying can generally start as technicians. With on-the-job experience and formal training in surveying—either in an institutional program or from a correspondence school—workers may advance to senior survey technician, then to party chief, and finally, in some cases, to li­ censed surveyor (depending on State licensing requirements). Cartographers and photogrammetrists usually have a bachelor’s de­ gree in engineering or a physical science, although it is possible to enter these jobs through experience as a photogrammetric or carto­ graphic technician. Most cartographic and photogrammetry techni­ cians have had some specialized postsecondary school training. With the development of Geographic Information Systems, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and other mapping scientists now need more edu­ cation and experience in the use of computers than in the past. Surveyors should have the ability to visualize objects, distances, sizes, and other abstract forms and to work precisely and accurately because mistakes can be very costly. Leadership qualities are impor­ tant for party chief and other supervisors. Members of a survey party must be in good physical condition to work outdoors and carry equipment over difficult terrain. They also need good eyesight, coordination, and hearing to communicate by hand or voice signals. Job Outlook Employment of surveyors is expected to grow about as fast as the av­ erage for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition to open­ ings arising from growth in demand for surveyors, many will result from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. The anticipated growth in construction through the year 2005 should create jobs for surveyors who lay out streets, shopping cen­ ters, housing developments, factories, office buildings, and recreation areas. Road and highway construction and improvement also should create new surveying positions. However, employment may fluctuate from year to year along with construction activity. Some growth in employment of mapping scientists and other sur­ veyors may occur in private firms; little or no growth is expected in the Federal Government. Higher levels of technology, a national trend of upgraded licensing  78  Occupational Outlook Handbook  requirements, and the increased demand for geographic spatial data (as opposed to traditional surveying services) mean that opportunities will be best for surveyors and mapping scientists who have at least a bachelor’s degree. New technology such as GPS and GIS may in­ crease productivity for larger projects and may enhance employment opportunities for surveyors and survey technicians who have the edu­ cational background to use it while reducing employment opportuni­ ties for those who do not. Earnings According to the limited data available, the median annual earnings for surveyors were about $25,600 in 1990. In 1990, the median annual earnings for survey technicians were about $23,200 a year. The middle 50 percent earned between $17,400 and $32,100 a year; 10 percent earned less than $14,500 a year; 10 percent earned more than $43,700 a year. In 1991, high school graduates with little or no training or experi­ ence earned about $12,385 annually at entry level jobs on survey crews with the Federal Government. Those with 1 year of related postsecondary training earned $13,515. Those with an associate de­ gree that included courses in surveying generally started as instru­ ment assistants with an annual salary of $15,171. In 1991, persons starting as land surveyors or cartographers with the Federal Govern­   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ment earned $16,973 or $21,023 a year, depending on their qualifica­ tions. The average annual salary for Federal land surveyors in 1991 was $37,024, for surveying technicians, $21,779, for cartographers, $38,957, for cartographic technicians, $27,146, for geodesists, $43,769, and for geodetic technicians, $33,096. Related Occupations Surveying is related to the work of civil engineers and architects, since an accurate survey is the first step in a construction project. Mapping science and geodetic surveying are related to the work of geologists and geophysicists, who study the earth’s internal composi­ tion, surface, and atmosphere. Mapping science is also related to the work of geographers and urban planners, who study how the earth’s surface is used. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, licensure requirements, and schools that offer training in surveying is available from: *■ American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814-2122.  General information on careers in photogrammetry is available from: *■ American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 200, Bethesda, MD 20814.  Computer, Mathematical, and Operations Research Occupations Actuaries (D.O.T. 020.167-010)  Nature of the Work Why do young drivers pay more for automobile insurance than older drivers? How much should an insurance policy cost? How much should an organization contribute each year to its pension fund? An­ swers to these and similar questions are provided by actuaries, who design insurance and pension plans and ensure that they are main­ tained on a sound financial basis. Actuaries assemble and analyze statistics to calculate probabilities of death, sickness, injury, disability, unemployment, retirement, and property loss. They use this information to determine the expected in­ sured loss. For example, they may calculate the probability of claims due to automobile accidents, which can vary depending on the driv­ er’s driving history, type of car, and many other factors. They must make sure that the price charged for the insurance will enable the company to pay all claims and expenses as they occur. Finally, this price must be profitable and yet be competitive with other insurance companies. In a similar manner, the actuary calculates premium rates and determines policy contract provisions for each type of insurance offered. Most actuaries specialize in either life and health insurance or property and casualty insurance; others specialize in pension plans or other employee benefits. To perform their duties effectively, actuaries must keep informed about general economic and social trends and legislative, health, and other developments that may affect insurance practices. Because of their broad knowledge of insurance, company actuaries may work in investment, underwriting, or pension planning departments. Actuaries in executive positions help determine company policy. In that role, they may be called upon to explain complex technical matters to other company executives, government officials, policyholders, and the public. They may testify before public agencies on proposed leg­ islation affecting the insurance business, for example, or explain changes in premium rates or contract provisions. They also may help companies develop plans to enter new lines of business. The small number of actuaries who work for the Federal Govern­ ment usually deal with a particular insurance or pension program, such as Social Security or life insurance for veterans and members of  Strong communication and problem-solving skills are becoming increasingly important for actuaries.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the Armed Forces. Actuaries in State government are usually em­ ployed by State insurance departments that regulate insurance compa­ nies, oversee the operations of State retirement or pension systems, handle unemployment insurance or workers’ compensation problems, and assess the impact of proposed legislation. They might determine whether the rates charged by an insurance company are proper or whether an employee benefit plan is financially sound. Consulting actuaries provide advice for a fee to various clients in­ cluding insurance companies, corporations, hospitals, labor unions, government agencies, and attorneys. Consulting actuaries set up pen­ sion and welfare plans, calculate future benefits, and determine the amount of employer contributions. They may be called upon to testi­ fy in court regarding the value of potential lifetime earnings lost by a person who has been disabled or killed in an accident, the current value of future pension benefits in divorce cases, or the calculation of automobile insurance rates. Actuaries who are enrolled under the pro­ visions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) evaluate these pension plans and report on their financial soundness. Working Conditions Actuaries have desk jobs that require no unusual physical activity; their offices generally are comfortable and pleasant. They usually work at least 40 hours a week. Some actuaries, particularly consulting actuaries, often travel to meet with clients. Consulting actuaries may also be expected to work longer than 40 hours per week. Employment Actuaries held about 13,000 jobs in 1990. Some actuaries were selfemployed. Over one-half of wage and salary actuaries worked in the insurance industry; many of these worked in their company headquarters in cities such as New York, Hartford, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Boston. Most worked for life insurance companies; others worked for property and casualty insurance companies. The number of actuaries employed by an insurance company depends on its volume of busi­ ness and the types of insurance policies it offers. Large companies may employ over 100 actuaries; others, generally smaller companies, may rely instead on consulting firms or rating bureaus (associations that supply actuarial data to member companies). Most of the remain­ ing actuaries worked for firms providing services—especially con­ sulting actuarial services—and for insurance agents and brokers. Other actuaries work for private organizations administering health benefits and welfare plans, accounting firms, or government agencies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A good educational background for a beginning job in a large life or casualty company is a bachelor’s degree in a mathematically- or busi­ ness-related discipline, such as actuarial science, mathematics, statis­ tics, economics, finance, or accounting. Some companies hire applicants with a liberal arts major, provided the applicant has a working knowledge of mathematics, including calculus, probability, and statistics. Courses in accounting, computer science, and insur­ ance also are useful. Companies increasingly prefer well-rounded in­ dividuals who, in addition to a strong technical background, have some training in liberal arts and business. Good communication and interpersonal skills are important, particularly for prospective con­ sulting actuaries. Although only about 38 colleges and universities offer an actuarial science curriculum, hundreds of schools offer a de­ gree in mathematics or statistics. A strong background in mathematics is essential for persons inter­ ested in a career as an actuary. It is an advantage to pass, while still in school, one or more of the examinations offered by professional actu­ arial societies. Three societies sponsor programs leading to full pro­ 79  80  Occupational Outlook Handbook  fessional status in their specialty. The Society of Actuaries gives a se­ ries of actuarial examinations for the life and health insurance and pension field and the Casualty Actuarial Society gives a series of ex­ aminations for the property and liability field. Because the first parts of the examination series of each society are jointly sponsored and cover the same material, students need not commit themselves to a specialty until they have taken the initial examinations, which test competence in subjects such as linear algebra, probability, calculus, statistics, risk theory, and actuarial mathematics. These first few ex­ aminations help students evaluate their potential as actuaries. Those who pass usually have better opportunities for employment and high­ er starting salaries. Actuaries are encouraged to complete the entire series of examina­ tions as soon as possible; completion generally takes from 5 to 10 years. Many students pass two or more actuarial examinations before graduating from college. Examinations are given twice each year. Ex­ tensive home study is required to pass the advanced examinations; many actuaries study for several months to prepare for an examina­ tion. Actuaries who complete approximately half of the total exami­ nations in either the life insurance series or the pension series or seven examinations in the casualty series are awarded “associate” membership in their society. Those who pass an entire series receive full membership and the title “fellow.” The American Society of Pension Actuaries gives eight examina­ tions covering the pension field. Membership status requires 3 years of pension experience and the passage of two enrolled actuarial exams. Fellowship status requires the passage of an additional, ad­ vanced actuarial exam and two consulting exams. Consulting pension actuaries who service private pension plans and certify their solvency must be enrolled and licensed by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries. Applicants for enrollment must meet certain experience, education, and examination require­ ments as stipulated by the Joint Board. Beginning actuaries often rotate among jobs to learn various actu­ arial operations and different phases of insurance work, such as mar­ keting, underwriting, or product development. At first, they prepare tabulations for actuarial tables or perform other simple tasks. As they gain experience, they may supervise clerks, prepare correspondence and reports, and do research. Advancement to more responsible work as assistant, associate, and chief actuary depends largely on job performance and the number of actuarial examinations passed. Actuaries with a broad knowledge of the insurance, pension, and employee benefits fields often advance to administrative and executive positions in underwriting, accounting, or data processing departments. Actuaries with a business back­ ground and supervisory ability may advance to management positions involving marketing, advertising, or planning. Job Outlook Employment of actuaries is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition to growth in the demand for actuarial services, job openings are expected to arise each year to replace actuaries who transfer to other occupations, retire, or stop working for other reasons. College graduates who have passed at least two actuarial examinations while still in school, have a strong mathematical and statistical background, and have strong communi­ cation and problem-solving skills should have the best prospects. Employment growth will be spurred by the increasing volume and complexity of insurance policies and pension plans. Shifts in the age distribution of the population will result in a large increase in the number of people with established careers and family responsibilities. This is the group that traditionally has accounted for the bulk of pri­ vate insurance sales. As people live longer, they draw health and pension benefits for a longer period, and actuaries are needed to recalculate the probabilities of such factors as death, sickness, and length of retirement. The liability of companies for damage resulting from their prod­ ucts has received much attention in recent years. Actuaries will con­ tinue to be involved in the development of product liability insurance,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  medical malpractice and workers’ compensation coverage, and self­ insurance—internal trust funds being established by some large cor­ porations. Despite expected employment growth, actuaries may face competi­ tion for jobs. Due to favorable publicity about the actuarial profes­ sion, the number of workers entering this small occupation has increased substantially in recent years. Earnings In 1990, starting salaries for actuaries averaged about $28,300 for those with a bachelor’s degree, according to the College Placement Council. New college graduates entering the actuarial field without having passed any actuarial exams averaged slightly lower salaries. Insurance companies and consulting firms give merit increases to actuaries as they gain experience and pass examinations. Some com­ panies also offer cash bonuses for each exam passed. A 1990 salary survey of financial services companies, conducted by LOMA, the management association of life insurance companies, indicated that actuarial students who have been designated Associate, Society of Actuaries, received an average salary of $43,100. Newly designated Fellows, Society of Actuaries, received an average salary of $61,900. Fellows with additional years of experience can earn substantially more. Actuaries typically receive other fringe benefits including vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans. Related Occupations Actuaries determine the probability of income or loss from various risk factors. Other workers whose jobs involve related skills include accountants, economists, financial analysts, mathematicians, rate ana­ lysts, rate engineers, risk managers, statisticians, and value engineers. Sources of Additional Information For facts about actuarial careers, contact: »■ American Academy of Actuaries, 1720 I St. NW., 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20006.  For information about actuarial careers in life and health insurance, contact:  Society of Actuaries, 475 N. Martingale Rd., Suite 800, Schaumburg, IL 60173-2226.  For information about actuarial careers in property and casualty in­ surance, contact: *■ Casualty Actuarial Society, 1100 N. Glebe Rd., Suite 600, Arlington, VA 22201.  Career information on actuaries specializing in pensions is avail­ able from: <*- American Society of Pension Actuaries, 2029 K St. NW., 4th Floor, Wash­ ington, DC 20006-1004.  Computer Systems Analysts (D.O.T. 012.167-066; 020.062-010, .067-010, and .224-010; and 109.067­ 010)  Nature of the Work Systems analysts define business, scientific, or engineering problems and design their solutions using computers. This process may include planning and developing new computer systems or devising ways to apply existing systems to operations still completed manually or by some less efficient method. They may design entirely new systems, including hardware and software, or add a single new software appli­ cation to harness more of the computer’s power. Analysts begin an assignment by discussing the data processing problem with managers and users to determine the exact nature of the problem. Much time is devoted to clearly defining the goals of the system so that it can be broken down into separate programmable procedures. Analysts then use techniques such as structured analysis,  Professional Specialty Occupations  data modeling, information engineering, mathematical model build­ ing, sampling, and cost accounting to plan the system. Once the de­ sign has been developed, systems analysts prepare charts and diagrams that describe it in terms that managers and other users can understand. They may prepare a cost-benefit and return-on-invest­ ment analysis to help management decide whether the proposed sys­ tem will be satisfactory and financially feasible. Analysts must specify the files and records to be accessed by the system, design the processing steps, and design the format for the output that will meet the users’ needs. They ensure security of the data by making it unaccessible to those who are not authorized to use it. When the system is accepted, systems analysts may determine what computer hardware and software will be needed to set up the system or implement changes to it. They coordinate tests and observe initial use of the system to ensure it performs as planned. They pre­ pare specifications and work diagrams for computer programmers to follow and work with them to “debug,” or eliminate errors from the system. Some organizations do not employ programmers; instead, a single worker called a programmer-analyst is responsible for both systems analysis and programming. (The work of programmers is de­ scribed elsewhere in the Handbook.) One of the biggest obstacles to wider computer use is the inability of different computers to communicate with each other. Many sys­ tems analysts are involved with connecting all the computers in an in­ dividual office, department, or establishment. This “networking” has many variations; they may be called local area networks, wide area networks, or multiuser systems, for example. A primary goal of net­ working is to allow users of microcomputers (also known as personal computers or PC’s) to retrieve data from a mainframe computer and use it on their machine. This connection also allows data to be en­ tered into the mainframe from the PC. Because up-to-date information—accounting records, sales figures, or budget projections, for example—is so important in modern orga­ nizations, systems analysts may be instructed to make the computer systems in each department compatible with each other so facts and figures can be shared by those who create the figures and those who use them. Similarly, electronic mail requires open pathways to send messages, documents, and data from one computer “mailbox” to an­ other across different equipment and program lines. The analyst must design the gates in the hardware and software to allow free exchange of data, custom applications, and the computer power to process it all. They study the seemingly incompatible pieces and create ways to link them so that users can access information from any part of the system. Because the possible uses of computers are so varied and complex, analysts usually specialize in either business, scientific, or engineer­ ing applications. Previous experience or training in a particular area  Computer systems analysts design tests to ensure the new system performs as required.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  81  usually dictates the field in which they are most qualified to develop computer systems. Working Conditions Systems analysts work in offices in comfortable surroundings. They usually work about 40 hours a week—the same as other professional and office workers. Occasionally, however, evening or weekend work may be necessary to meet deadlines. Employment Systems analysts held about 463,000 jobs in 1990. Most systems ana­ lysts work in urban areas for data processing service firms, govern­ ment agencies, insurance companies, banks, and firms that manufacture durable goods. A small but growing number of systems analysts are employed on a temporary basis. For example, a company installing a new comput­ er system may need the services of several systems analysts just to get the system running. Because not all of them would be needed once the system is functioning, the company might contract directly with the systems analysts themselves or with a temporary help agen­ cy or consulting firm. The company would contract for their services on a temporary basis; temporary jobs usually are for several months at least, and some last up to 2 years or more. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There is no universally accepted way to prepare for a job as a systems analyst because employers’ preferences depend on the work being done. Prior work experience is very important. Many persons enter­ ing this occupation transfer from another occupation, such as comput­ er programmer or engineer. For example, an auditor in a accounting department may become a systems analyst specializing in accounting systems development. College graduates almost always are sought for systems analyst positions, and, for some of the more complex jobs, persons with grad­ uate degrees are preferred. Employers usually want analysts with a background in business management or a closely related field for work in a business environment, while a background in the physical sciences, applied mathematics, or engineering is preferred for work in scientifically oriented organizations. Many employers seek applicants who have a degree in computer science, information science, comput­ er information systems, or data processing. Regardless of college major, employers look for people who are familiar with programming languages and have a broad knowledge of computer systems and technologies. Courses in computer programming or systems design offer good preparation for a job in this field. Systems analysts must be able to think logically, have good com­ munication skills, and like working with ideas and people. They often deal with a number of tasks simultaneously. The ability to concen­ trate and pay close attention to detail also is important. Although sys­ tems analysts often work independently, they also work in teams on large projects. They must be able to communicate effectively with technical personnel, such as programmers and managers, as well as with other staff who have no technical computer background. Technological advances come so rapidly in the computer field that continuous study is necessary to keep skills up to date. Continuing education is usually offered by employers, hardware and software vendors, colleges and universities, or private training institutions. Ad­ ditional training may come from professional development seminars offered by professional computing societies. Certification is an indication of experience and professional com­ petence. The designations Certified Data Processor and Certified Sys­ tems Professional are conferred by the Institute for Certification of Computer Professionals upon candidates who have 5 years of experi­ ence and who have passed a core examination plus exams in two spe­ cialty areas. Systems analysts may be promoted to senior or lead systems ana­ lysts after several years of experience. Those who show leadership ability also can advance to management positions such as manager of information systems or chief information officer. Systems analysts  82  Occupational Outlook Handbook  with several years of experience may start their own computer con­ sulting firms.  Job Outlook Employment of systems analysts is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The de­ mand for systems analysts is expected to rise as organizations attempt to maximize the efficiency of their computer systems. As internation­ al and domestic competition increases, organizations will face grow­ ing pressure to use technological advances in areas such as office and factory automation, telecommunications technology, and scientific re­ search. Many more systems analysts will be needed to incorporate these advances in new or existing systems. As users develop a more sophisticated knowledge of computers, they become more aware of the machine’s potential and better able to suggest operations that will increase their own productivity and that of the organization. The need to design computer networks that will facil­ itate the sharing of information will be a major factor in the rising de­ mand for systems analysts. In addition, falling prices of computer hardware and software are inducing more small businesses to comput­ erize their operations, further stimulating demand for systems analysts. Despite this rapid growth in employment, most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation— although a smaller proportion of systems analysts than of all other professional workers leave their occupation each year. Most of the systems analysts who leave the occupation transfer to other jobs such as manager or senior administrator. College graduates who have had courses in computer program­ ming, systems analysis, and other data processing areas as well as training or experience in an applied field should enjoy very good prospects for employment. Persons without a college degree and col­ lege graduates unfamiliar with data processing will face keen compe­ tition from the large number of experienced workers seeking jobs as systems analysts. Earnings Median annual earnings of systems analysts who worked full time in 1990 were about $38,700. The middle 50 percent earned between $30,900 and $50,700 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $23,000; the highest tenth, more than $62,400. Systems analysts working in the Northeast had the highest earnings; those in the Mid­ west, the lowest. In the Federal Government, the entrance salary for recent college graduates with a bachelor’s degree was about $17,000 a year in 1991; for those with a superior academic record, $21,000.  the creation of new theories and techniques to the translation of eco­ nomic, scientific, engineering, and managerial problems into mathe­ matical terms. Mathematical work falls into two broad classes: Theoretical (pure) mathematics; and applied mathematics. However, these classes are not sharply defined and often overlap. Theoretical mathematicians advance mathematical science by de­ veloping new principles and new relationships between existing prin­ ciples of mathematics. Although they seek to increase basic knowledge without necessarily considering its practical use, this pure and abstract knowledge has been instrumental in producing many sci­ entific and engineering achievements. Applied mathematicians use mathematics to develop theories and techniques, such as mathematical modeling and computational meth­ ods, to solve practical problems in business, government, engineering, and the physical, life, and social sciences. For example, they may ana­ lyze the mathematical aspects of launching communications satellites, the effects of new drugs on disease, the aerodynamic characteristics of objects, and the distribution costs of businesses. Some mathematicians, called cryptanalysts, analyze and decipher encryption systems de­ signed to transmit national security-related information. Mathematicians use computers extensively in many phases of their work—analyzing relationships among variables, solving complex problems, developing models, and processing large amounts of data. Much work in applied mathematics, however, is carried on by per­ sons other than mathematicians. In fact, because mathematics is the foundation upon which many other academic disciplines are built, the number of workers using mathematical techniques is many times greater than the number actually designated as mathematicians. Engi­ neers, computer scientists, and economists are among those who use mathematics extensively but have job titles other than mathematician. Some workers, such as statisticians, actuaries, and operations re­ search analysts, actually are specialists in a particular branch of math­ ematics. (See statements on actuaries, operations research analysts, and statisticians elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Mathematicians working for government agencies and private firms usually have structured work schedules. They may work alone, in a small group of mathematicians, or be an integral part of a team that  ■m it.  Related Occupations Other workers who use research, logic, and creativity to solve busi­ ness problems are computer programmers, financial analysts, urban planners, engineers, operations research analysts, management ana­ lysts, and actuaries. Sources of Additional Information Further information about the occupation of systems analyst is avail­ able from: •• Association for Systems Management, 24587 Bagley Rd., Cleveland, OH 44138.  Information about certification as a computer professional is avail­ able from: m- Institute for the Certification of Computer Professionals, 2200 East Devon Ave. Suite 268, Des Plaines, IL 60018.  Mathematicians (D.O.T. 020.067-014, .187-018; 199.267-014)  Nature of the Work Mathematics is one of the oldest and most basic sciences. Mathemati­ cians today are engaged in a wide variety of activities, ranging from  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Mathematicians use computers to develop mathematical models and to aid in solving complex problems.  Professional Specialty Occupations  includes engineers, computer scientists, and others. Deadlines, over­ time work, special requests for information or analysis, and travel to attend seminars or conferences may be part of their jobs. Mathematics faculty have flexible work schedules, dividing their time among teaching, research, consulting, and administrative re­ sponsibilities. Employment Mathematicians held about 22,000 jobs in 1990. In addition, several thousand persons held mathematics faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty else­ where in the Handbook.) Most mathematicians work in the government and in service and manufacturing industries. The Department of Defense is the primary Federal employer of mathematicians. Smaller numbers work for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Commerce. Major employers within the services sector include ed­ ucational services; computer and data processing services; research and testing services; and management and public relations firms. Within manufacturing, the aircraft and chemicals industries are key employers. Some mathematicians also work for banks, insurance companies, and public utilities. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is the minimum education need­ ed for prospective mathematicians. A master’s degree in mathematics is sufficient preparation for some research positions and for teaching jobs in most junior or community colleges and in some small 4-year colleges. However, in most 4-year colleges and universities, a Ph.D. degree is necessary for full faculty status. In the Federal Government, job candidates must have a 4-year de­ gree with a major in mathematics or a 4-year degree with the equiva­ lent of a mathematics major—24 semester hours of mathematics courses. In private industry, job condidates generally need a master’s degree to obtain jobs as mathematicians. The majority of bachelor’s and master’s degree holders in private industry work, not as mathemati­ cians, but in related fields such as computer science, where they are called computer programmers, systems analysts, or systems engineers. A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is offered by most colleges and universities. Mathematics courses usually required for this degree are analytical geometry, calculus, differential equations, and linear al­ gebra. Additional coursework might include probability theory and statistics, mathematical analysis, numerical analysis, topology, mod­ em algebra, discrete mathematics, and mathematical logic. Many col­ leges and universities urge or even require students majoring in mathematics to take several courses in a field that uses or is closely related to mathematics, such as computer science, engineering, opera­ tions research, a physical science, statistics, or economics. A double major in mathematics and either computer science, statistics, or one of the sciences is particularly desirable. A prospective college mathe­ matics major should take as many mathematics courses as possible while in high school. In 1990, 258 colleges and universities offered a master’s degree in mathematics; 175 also offered a Ph.D. in pure or applied mathemat­ ics. In graduate school, students conduct research and take advanced courses, usually specializing in a subfield of mathematics. Some areas of concentration are algebra, number theory, real or complex analysis, geometry, topology, logic, and applied mathematics. For work in applied mathematics, training in the field in which the mathematics will be used is very important. Fields in which applied mathematics is used extensively include physics, actuarial science, engineering, and operations research; of increasing importance are computer and information science, business and industrial manage­ ment, economics, statistics, chemistry, geology, life sciences, and the behavioral sciences. Mathematicians should have substantial knowledge of computer programming since most complex mathematical computation and much mathematical modeling is done by computer.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  83  Mathematicians need good reasoning ability and persistence in order to identify, analyze, and apply basic principles to technical problems. Communication skills are also important, as mathemati­ cians must be able to interact with others, including nonmathemati­ cians, and discuss proposed solutions to problems. Job Outlook Employment of mathematicians is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. However, an increasing number of workers have job titles which reflect the end product of their work rather than the discipline of mathematics used in that work. Therefore, although employment of mathematicians will not increase much, those with degrees in mathematics should have good job opportunities. Bachelor’s degree holders in mathematics with a strong back­ ground in computer science, electrical or mechanical engineering, or operations research should have very good opportunities in industry and government. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school mathematics teachers. (For additional infor­ mation, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Holders of a master’s degree in mathematics may face competition for jobs in college teaching or theoretical research. However, job op­ portunities in applied mathematics and related areas such as computer science and data processing in industry and government will be more numerous. In industry, holders of the doctorate in applied mathematics are ex­ pected to have better employment prospects than their theoretically oriented colleagues. Holders of a doctorate in theoretical mathematics should have improved opportunities for teaching and research jobs in colleges and universities by the late 1990’s, when large numbers of mathematics faculty will reach retirement age. Earnings According to a 1990 College Placement Council Survey, starting salary offers for mathematics graduates with a bachelor’s degree av­ eraged about $27,000 a year; for those with a master’s degree, $30,100; and for new graduates having the Ph.D., $42,800. Starting salaries were generally higher in industry than in government or edu­ cational institutions. For example, the American Mathematical Soci­ ety reported that, based on a 1990 survey, median annual earnings for new recipients of doctorates in research were $30,000; for those in teaching or teaching and research, $36,500; for those in government, $37,800; and for those in business and industry, $49,500. In the Federal Government in 1991, the average annual salary for all mathematicians in supervisory, nonsupervisory, and managerial positions was $48,000; for mathematical statisticians, $48,427; and for cryptanalysts, $34,885. Benefits for mathematicians tend to be similar to those offered to most professionals who work in office settings: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a retirement plan, among others. Related Occupations Other occupations that require a degree in or extensive knowledge of mathematics include actuary, statistician, computer programmer, sys­ tems analyst, systems engineer, and operations research analyst. In addition, a strong background in mathematics facilitates employment in fields such as engineering, economics, finance, and physics. Sources of Additional Information For more information about the field of mathematics, including ca­ reer opportunities and professional training, contact: «■ American Mathematical Society, P.O. Box 6248, Providence, RI02940. "" Mathematical Association of America, 1529 18th St. NW„ Washington DC 20036. ’  For specific information on careers in applied mathematics, con­ tact: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 3600 University City Sci­ ence Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2688.  84  Occupational Outlook Handbook  For information about careers in noncollegiate academic institu­ tions, contact: <*- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1906 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from area of­ fices of the State employment service and the U.S. Office of Person­ nel Management’s Federal Job Information Centers located in various large cities throughout the country.  Operations Research Analysts (D.O.T. 020.067-018)  Nature of the Work Running a complex organization or operation such as a large manu­ facturing plant, an airline, or a military deployment requires the precise coordination of materials, machines, and people. Operations research analysts help organizations coordinate and operate in the most efficient manner by applying scientific methods and math­ ematical principles to organizational problems. Managers can then evaluate alternatives and choose the course of action that best suits the organization. Operations research analysts, also called management science ana­ lysts, are problem solvers. The problems they tackle are for the most part those encountered in large business organizations: Strategy, fore­ casting, resource allocation, facilities layout, inventory control, per­ sonnel schedules, and distribution systems. The method they use generally revolves about a mathematical model or set of equations that explains how things happen within the organization. Models are simplified representations that enable the analyst to break down sys­ tems into their component parts, assign numerical values to each component, and examine the mathematical relationships between them. These values can be altered to determine what will happen to the system under different sets of circumstances. Types of models in­ clude simulation, linear optimization, networks, waiting lines, and game theory. Operations research analysts use computers extensively in their work. They are typically proficient in database management, pro­ gramming, and in the development and use of sophisticated software programs. Most of the models built by operations research analysts are so complicated that only a computer can solve them efficiently. The type of problem they usually handle varies by industry. For ex­ ample, an analyst for an airline would coordinate flight and mainte­ nance scheduling, passenger level estimates, and fuel consumption to produce a schedule that optimizes all of these factors to ensure safety and produce the most profits. An analyst employed by a hospital would concentrate on a different set of problems—scheduling admis­ sions, managing patient flow, assigning shifts, monitoring use of pharmacy and laboratory services, or forecasting demand for new hospital services. The role of the operations research analyst varies according to the structure and management philosophy of the firm. Some centralize operations research in one department; others disperse operations re­ search personnel throughout all divisions. Some operations research analysts specialize in one type of application; others are generalists. The degree of supervision varies by organizational structure and experience. In some organizations, analysts have a great deal of pro­ fessional autonomy; in others, analysts are more closely supervised. Operations research analysts work closely with senior managers, who have a wide variety of support needs. Analysts must adapt their work to reflect these requirements. Regardless of the industry or structure of the organization, opera­ tions research entails a similar set of procedures. Managers begin the process by describing the symptoms of a problem to the analyst. The analyst then defines the problem, which sometimes is general in na­ ture and at other times specific. For example, an operations research  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Powerful personal computers and businesses' needs mean that employ­ ment of operations researchers likely will continue to grow rapidly. analyst for an auto manufacturer may want to determine the best in­ ventory level for each of the materials for a new production process or, more specifically, to determine how much steel should be stocked. After analysts define the problem, they learn everything they can about it. They research the problem, then break it into its component parts. Then they gather information about each of these parts. Usually this involves consulting a wide variety of personnel. To determine the most efficient amount of steel to be kept on hand, for example, opera­ tions research analysts might talk with engineers about production levels; discuss purchasing arrangements with industrial buyers; and examine data on storage costs provided by the accounting department. With this information in hand, the operations research analyst is ready to select the most appropriate analytical technique. There may be several techniques that could be used, or there may be one stan­ dard model or technique that is used in all instances. In a few cases, the analyst must construct an original model to examine and explain the system. In almost all cases, the selected model must be modified to reflect the specific circumstances of the situation. A model for airline flight scheduling, for example, might take into account the amount of fuel required to fly the routes, several project­ ed levels of passenger demand, varying ticket prices, pilot schedul­ ing, and maintenance costs. The analyst chooses the values for these variables, enters them into a computer, which has already been pro­ grammed to make the calculations required, and runs the program to produce the best flight schedule consistent with several sets of as­ sumptions. The analyst would probably design a model that would take into account wide variations in the different variables. At this point, the operations research analyst presents the final work to management along with recommendations based on the re­ sults of the analysis. Additional runs based on different assumptions may be needed to help in making the final decision. Once a decision has been reached, the analyst works with the staff to ensure its suc­ cessful implementation. Working Conditions Operations research analysts generally work regular hours in an of­ fice environment. Because they work on projects that are of immedi­ ate interest to management, analysts often are under pressure to meet deadlines and may work more than a 40-hour week. The work is sedentary in nature, and very little physical strength or stamina is required. Employment Operations research analysts held about 57,000 jobs in 1990. They are employed in most industries. Major employers include manufac­ turers of chemicals, machinery, and transportation equipment; firms providing transportation and telecommunications services; public utilities; banks; insurance agencies; and government agencies at all  Professional Specialty Occupations  levels. Some analysts work for management consulting agencies that develop operations research applications for firms that do not have an in-house operations research staff. Most analysts in the Federal Government work for the Armed Forces. In addition, many operations research analysts who work in private industry do work directly or indirectly related to National defense. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers strongly prefer applicants with at least a master’s degree in operations research or management science, mathematics, statis­ tics, business administration, computer science, industrial engineer­ ing, or other quantitative disciplines. A high level of computer skills is also required. The organizations often sponsor skill-improvement training for ex­ perienced workers, helping them keep up with new developments in operations research techniques as well as advances in computer science. Some analysts attend advanced university classes on these subjects. Operations research analysts must be able to think logically and work well with people. Thus, employers prefer workers with good oral and written communication skills. The computer is the most im­ portant tool for quantitative analysis, and training or experience in programming is a must. Beginning analysts usually do routine work under the supervision of experienced analysts. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more complex tasks, with greater autonomy to de­ sign models and solve problems. Operations research analysts ad­ vance by assuming positions as technical specialists or supervisors. The skills acquired by operations research analysts are useful for upper level jobs in an organization, and experienced analysts with leadership potential often leave the field altogether to assume non­ technical managerial or administrative positions. Job Outlook Employment of operations research analysts is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to the increasing importance of quantitative analysis in de­ cisionmaking and the increasing availability of computing resources. In addition to jobs arising from the increased demand for these work­ ers, many openings will occur each year as workers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force altogether. More and more organizations are using operations research tech­ niques to improve productivity and reduce costs. This reflects grow­ ing acceptance of a systematic approach to decisionmaking as well as more affordable computers, which give even small firms access to operations research applications. The interplay of these two trends should greatly stimulate demand for these workers in the years ahead. Much of the job growth is expected to occur in the transportation, manufacturing, finance, and services sectors. Firms in these sectors recognize that quantitative analysis can achieve dramatic improve­ ments in operating efficiency and profitability. More airlines, for ex­ ample, are using operations research to determine the best flight and maintenance schedules, select the best routes to service, analyze cus­ tomer characteristics, and control fuel consumption, among other things. Motel chains are beginning to utilize operations research anal­ ysis to improve their efficiency. For example, they analyze automo­ bile traffic patterns and customer attitudes to determine location, size, and style of new motels. Like other management support functions, operations research is spread by its own success. When one firm in an industry increases productivity by adopting a new procedure, its com­ petitors usually follow. This competitive pressure will contribute to demand for operations research analysts. Demand also should be strong in the manufacturing sector as firms expand existing operations research staffs in the face of growing for­ eign competition. More and more manufacturers are using mathemat­ ical models to study parts of the organization for the first time. For example, analysts will be needed to determine the best way to dis­ tribute finished products and to find out where sales offices should be  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  85  based. In addition, increasing factory automation will require more operations research analysts to alter existing models or develop new ones for production layout, robotics installation, work schedules, and inventory control. The Department of Defense and defense contractors employ many operations research analysts. For example, operations researchers helped plan the 1990 military deployment to Saudi Arabia. They de­ termined the best air and water transport schedules to move the maxi­ mum amount of personnel and equipment in the shortest time, making optimal use of people, ships, aircraft, and fuel. Since defense expenditures are likely to be cut in the future, there will be fewer jobs available in the military and defense-related industries for these workers. However, high demand outside the military should more than offset reductions in defense-related demand. Earnings According to recruiters and national operations research associations, operations research analysts with a master’s degree generally earned starting salaries of about $30,000 to $35,000 a year in 1990. Experi­ enced operations research analysts earned about $50,000 a year in 1990, with top salaries exceeding $90,000. Operations research analysts employed by the Federal Government averaged about $52,100 a year in 1991. Related Occupations Operations research analysts apply mathematical principles to organi­ zational problems. Workers in other occupations that stress quantita­ tive analysis include computer scientists, applied mathematicians, statisticians, and economists. Operations research is closely allied to managerial occupations in that its goal is improved organizational ef­ ficiency. Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities for operations research analysts is available from: The Operations Research Society of America, 428 East Preston St., Balti­ more, MD 21202. *■ The Institute for Management Science, 290 Westminster St., Providence RI 02903.  For information on careers in the Armed Forces and Department of Defense, contact: »- Military Operations Research Society, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 202, Alexandria, VA 22304.  Statisticians (D.O.T. 020.067-022, .167-026)  Nature of the Work Statistics is the collection, analysis, and presentation of numerical data. Statisticians design, implement, and interpret the numerical re­ sults of surveys and experiments. In doing so, they often apply their knowledge of statistical methods to a particular subject area, such as biology, economics, engineering, medicine, or psychology. They may use statistical techniques to predict population growth or economic conditions, develop quality control tests for manufactured products, assess the nature of environmental problems, analyze legal and social problems, or help business managers and government officials make decisions and evaluate the results of new programs. Often statisticians are able to obtain information about a group of people or things by surveying a small portion, called a sample, of the group. For example, to determine the size of the total audience for particular programs, television rating services ask only a few thou­ sand families, rather than all viewers, what programs they watch. Statisticians decide where and how to gather the data, determine the type and size of the sample group, and develop the survey question­ naire or reporting form. They also prepare instructions for workers  86  Occupational Outlook Handbook  who will collect and tabulate the data. Statisticians use computers ex­ tensively to process large amounts of data for statistical modeling and graphic analysis. Since statistics are used in so many areas, it sometimes is difficult to distinguish statisticians from specialists in other fields who use statistics. For example, a statistician working with data on economic conditions may have the title of economist. Working Conditions Statisticians usually work regular hours in offices. Some statisticians may travel occasionally to supervise or set up a survey, or to gather statistical data. Some may have fairly repetitive tasks, while others may have a variety of tasks, such as in designing experiments. Employment Statisticians held about 16,000 jobs in 1990. Over one-fourth of these jobs were in the Federal Government, where statisticians were con­ centrated in the Departments of Commerce—especially the Bureau of the Census; Agriculture; and Health and Human Services. Most of the remaining jobs were in private industry, especially in the insur­ ance, transportation equipment, research and testing services, man­ agement and public relations, and computer and data processing services industries. Others worked in colleges and universities, non­ commercial research organizations, and membership organizations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in statistics or mathematics is the minimum educational requirement for many beginning jobs in statis­ tics. The training required for employment as an entry level statistician in the Federal Government is a college degree including at least 15 semester hours of statistics—or a combination of 15 hours of mathe­ matics and statistics if at least 6 semester hours are in statistics. An ad­ ditional 9 semester hours in another academic discipline, such as economics, physical or biological science, medicine, education, engi­ neering, or social science, are also required. Teaching and research po­ sitions in institutions of higher education and many positions in private industry require a graduate degree, often a doctorate, in statistics. Over 70 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s degrees in statistics in 1990. Many other schools also offered degrees in mathe­ matics, operations research, and other fields which included a suffi­ cient number of courses in statistics to qualify graduates for some beginning positions. Required subjects for statistics majors include mathematics through differential and integral calculus, statistical methods, mathematical modeling, and probability theory. Additional courses that undergraduates should take include linear algebra, design and analysis of experiments, applied multivariate analysis, and math­ ematical statistics. Because computers are used extensively for statis­ tical applications, a strong background in computer science is highly recommended; a double major in statistics and computer science is particularly desirable. For positions involving quality control, train-  Computers have become essential tools for statisticians.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ing in engineering or physical science is desirable. A background in biological or health science is useful in positions involving the prepa­ ration and testing of pharmaceutical or agricultural products. For many jobs in market research, business analysis, and forecasting, courses in economics and business administration are helpful. In 1990, approximately 100 universities offered a master's degree program in statistics, and about 70 had statistics departments which offered a doctoral degree program. Many other schools also offered graduate level courses in applied statistics for students majoring in bi­ ology, business, economics, education, engineering, psychology, and other fields. Acceptance into graduate statistics programs does not re­ quire an undergraduate degree in statistics although a good mathe­ matics background is essential. Good communications skills are important for prospective statisti­ cians, not only for those who plan to teach, but also to qualify for many positions in industry, where the need to explain statistical pro­ cesses to non-statisticians is common. Beginning statisticians who have only the bachelor’s degree often spend much of their time doing routine work supervised by an experi­ enced statistician. With experience, they may advance to positions of greater technical and supervisory responsibility. However, opportuni­ ties for promotion are best for those with advanced degrees. Job Outlook Although employment of statisticians is expected to grow more slow­ ly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, job op­ portunities should remain favorable. Many statistics majors, particularly at the bachelor’s degree level, but also at the master’s de­ gree level, may find positions in which they do not have the title of statistician. This is especially true for those involved in analyzing and interpreting data from other disciplines such as economics, biological science, psychology, or engineering. Among graduates with a bachelor’s degree in statistics, those with a strong background in mathematics and computer science should have the best prospects of finding jobs related to their field of study in private industry or government. Federal Government agencies will need statisticians in fields such as agriculture, demography, consumer and producer surveys, transportation, Social Security, health, educa­ tion, energy conservation, and environmental quality control. Howev­ er, competition for entry level positions in the Federal Government is expected to be strong for those just meeting the minimum qualifica­ tion standards for statisticians. Those who meet State certification re­ quirements may become high school statistics teachers, a newly emerging field. (For additional information, see the statement on sec­ ondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Private industry, in the face of increasing competition and strong government regulation, will require increasing numbers of statisti­ cians, especially at the master’s degree level, to monitor productivity and quality in the manufacture of various products including pharma­ ceuticals, motor vehicles, chemicals, and food products. For example, pharmaceutical firms will need more statisticians to assess the safety and effectiveness of the rapidly expanding number of drugs. In an ef­ fort to meet growing competition, motor vehicle manufacturers will need more statisticians to monitor the quality of automobiles, trucks, and their components. Statisticians with knowledge of engineering and the physical sciences will find jobs working with scientists and engineers in research and development. Business firms will rely more heavily than in the past on statisticians to forecast sales, analyze busi­ ness conditions, modernize accounting procedures, and help solve management problems. In addition, sophisticated statistical services will increasingly be contracted out to consulting firms. Ph.D.’s in statistics should have excellent employment prospects, especially in large corporations and in colleges and universities. Large numbers of college and university faculty are expected to retire within 10 to 15 years, creating many openings for Ph.D. statisticians. Earnings The average annual salary for all statisticians in the Federal Govern­ ment in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was  Professional Specialty Occupations  about $47,618 in 1991; mathematical statisticians averaged $48,427. According to a 1990 American Statistical Association salary sur­ vey of statisticians in departments with programs in statistics, the starting median salary for assistant professors was $38,600; for asso­ ciate professors, $43,000; and for professors, $54,700. Statisticians who hold advanced degrees and work in private indus­ try generally earn higher starting salaries than their counterparts in academic settings and in government. Benefits for statisticians tend to be similar to those offered most professionals who work in an office setting: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a retirement plan, among others. Related Occupations People in numerous occupations work with statistics. Among them are actuaries, computer programmers, computer systems analysts, ed­   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  87  ucators, engineers, economists, environmental scientists, financial an­ alysts, health scientists, information scientists, life scientists, mathe­ maticians, operations research analysts, physical scientists, and social scientists. Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in statistics, contact: American Statistical Association, 1429 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information on a career as a mathematical statistician, contact: Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 3401 Investment Blvd., No. 7, Hay­ ward, CA 94545.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from area of­ fices of the State employment service and the U.S. Office of Person­ nel Management or from Federal Job Information Centers located in various large cities throughout the country.  Life Scientists Agricultural Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, and -058; 041.061-014, -018, -046, and-082; and 041.081)  Nature of the Work The work done by agricultural scientists has played an important part in the Nation’s sharply rising agricultural productivity. Agricultural scientists study farm crops and animals and develop ways of improv­ ing their quantity and quality. They look for ways to improve crop yield and quality with less labor, control pests and weeds more safely and effectively, and conserve soil and water. They research methods of converting raw agricultural commodities into attractive and healthy food products for consumers. Agricultural science is closely related to biological science, and agricultural scientists use the principles of biology, chemistry, and other sciences to solve problems in agriculture. They often work with biological scientists on basic biological research and in applying to agriculture the advances in knowledge brought about by biotechnology. Many agricultural scientists manage or administer research and de­ velopment programs or manage marketing or production operations in companies that produce food products or agricultural chemicals, supplies, and machinery. Many work in basic or applied research and development. Some agricultural scientists are consultants to business firms, private clients, or to government. Depending on the area of specialization in which an agricultural scientist concentrates, the nature of the work performed varies. Food science. Food scientists or technologists are usually employed in the food processing industry and help meet consumer demand for food products that are healthful, safe, palatable, and convenient. To do this, they use their knowledge of chemistry, microbiology, and other sciences to develop new or better ways of preserving, process­ ing, packaging, storing, and delivering foods. Some engage in basic research, discovering new food sources; analyzing food content to de­ termine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, or protein; or searching for sub­ stitutes for harmful or undesirable additives, such as nitrites or sugar. Many food technologists work in product development. Others en­ force government regulations, inspecting food processing areas and ensuring that sanitation, safety, quality, and waste management stan­ dards are met.  related scientists study the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals. Some animal scientists inspect and grade livestock food products, purchase livestock, or work in technical sales or marketing. As extension agents or consul­ tants, animal scientists advise agricultural producers on how to prop­ erly upgrade animal housing facilities, lower mortality rates, or increase milk or egg production. Working Conditions Agricultural scientists generally work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Some spend much time outdoors conducting research on farms or agricultural research stations. Employment Agricultural scientists held about 25,000 jobs in 1990. In addition, several thousand persons held agricultural science faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Over two-fifths of all nonfaculty agricultural scientists work for Federal, State, or local governments. Over 3 out of 10 worked for the Federal Government in 1990, mostly in the Department of Agricul­ ture. In addition, large numbers worked for State governments at State agricultural colleges or agricultural research stations. Some worked for agricultural service companies; others worked for com­ mercial research and development laboratories, seed companies,  > v»V  ?/} c VrA-l *>'  Plant science. Another important area of agricultural science is plant science, which includes the disciplines of agronomy, crop science, and soil science. These scientists study plants and soils, helping pro­ ducers of food, feed, and fiber crops to continue to feed a growing population while conserving natural resources. Agronomists and crop scientists not only help increase productivity, but also study ways to improve the nutritional value of crops and the quality of seed. Some crop scientists study the breeding, physiology, and management of crops and use genetic engineering to develop crops which are resis­ tant to insects and drought. Soil science. Soil scientists study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. They study the responses of various soil types to fertilizers, tillage practices, and crop rotation. Some soil scientists conduct soil surveys, classifying and mapping soils. They provide information and recommendations to farmers and other landowners regarding the best use of land and how to avoid or correct problems such as erosion.  -if  Animal science. Animal scientists work to develop better and more efficient ways of producing and processing meat, poultry, eggs, and milk. Dairy scientists, poultry scientists, animal breeders, and other  Agricultural scientists play an important role in increasing the Nation’s agricultural productivity.  88   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Professional Specialty Occupations  pharmaceutical companies, wholesale distributors, and food products companies. About 3,000 agricultural scientists were self-employed in 1990, mainly as consultants. "Warning, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements for agricultural scientists depend on the spe­ cialty and the type of work performed. A bachelor’s degree in agri­ cultural science is sufficient for some jobs in applied research or in assisting in basic research, while a master’s or doctoral degree is re­ quired for basic research. A Ph.D. degree in agricultural science is usually needed for college teaching and for advancement to adminis­ trative research positions. Degrees in related sciences such as biolo­ gy, chemistry, or physics or in related engineering specialties also may be acceptable for some agricultural science jobs. All States have at least one land-grant college which offers agricul­ tural science degrees. Many other colleges and universities also offer agricultural science degrees or some agricultural science courses. However, not every school offers all specialties. A typical undergrad­ uate agricultural science curriculum includes communications, eco­ nomics, business, and physical and life sciences courses, in addition to technical agricultural science courses. Advanced degree programs include classroom and fieldwork, laboratory research, and a thesis based on independent research. Agricultural scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Most agricultural scientists also need an under­ standing of basic business principles. Agricultural scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may advance to jobs such as supervisors of research programs or managers of other agriculturerelated activities. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for agricultural scientists are expected to be good through the year 2005 because enrollments in agricultural science curriculums have dropped considerably over the past few years and because employment is expected to grow faster than the av­ erage for all occupations. Although jobs should be available in most major subfields of agricultural science, animal and plant scientists with a background in molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, or biotechnology, soil scientists with an interest in the environment, and food technologists may experience the best opportunities. In addition to jobs arising from growth in demand for agricultural scientists, many openings will occur as workers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Unlike private industry, employment in Federal agencies is not ex­ pected to grow much because of budget restraints. Employment opportunities as an agricultural scientist are more limited for those with only a bachelor’s degree. However, a bache­ lor’s degree in agricultural science is useful for managerial jobs in businesses that deal with ranchers and farmers such as feed, fertilizer, seed, and farm equipment manufacturers, retailers or wholesalers, and farm credit institutions or for occupations such as farmer or farm manager, cooperative extension service agent, agricultural products inspector, technician, landscape architect, or purchasing or sales agent for agricultural commodities or farm supplies. Many agricultur­ al scientists with a bachelor’s degree may also find work in applied research and product development. Earnings According to the College Placement Council, beginning salary offers in 1990 for graduates with a bachelor’s degree in animal science av­ eraged $19,719 a year, and for graduates in plant science, $21,176. Average Federal salaries for employees in certain agricultural sci­ ence specialties in 1991 were as follows: Animal science, $48,827; agronomy, $42,234; soil science, $39,216; horticulture, $40,520; entomology, $49,475. Related Occupations The work of agricultural scientists is closely related to that of biolo­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  89  gists and other natural scientists such as chemists and physicists. It is also related to agricultural production occupations such as farmer and farm manager and cooperative extension service agent as well as to the work of foresters and conservation scientists. Certain specialties of agricultural science are also related to other occupations. For ex­ ample, the work of animal scientists is related to that of veterinarians; horticulturists, to landscape architects; and soil scientists, to soil con­ servationists. Source of Additional Information Information on careers in agricultural science is available from: Office of Higher Education Programs, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Room 350A, Administration Bldg., 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20250. •" American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI53711. ®" Food and Agricultural Careers for Tomorrow, Purdue University, 127 Agri­ cultural Administration Bldg., West Lafayette, IN 47907.  For information on careers in food technology, write to: Institute of Food Technologists, Suite 300, 221 N. LaSalle St., Chicago IL 60601.  For information on careers in soil science in the Federal Govern­ ment, write to: *■ Soil Conservation Service, 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washing­ ton, DC 20013.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment security agencies or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Biological Scientists (D.O.T. 022.081-010; 041.061, except -010, -014, -018, -046, -054 -070 -074, and -082)  Nature of the Work Biological scientists study living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Most specialize in some area of biology such as ornithology (the study of birds) or microbiology (the study of micro­ scopic organisms). About two-fifths of all biological scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to increase knowledge of living organisms. Others, in applied research, use knowledge provid­ ed by basic research to develop new medicines, increase crop yields, and improve the environment. Biological scientists may work in labo­ ratories and use laboratory animals or greenhouse plants, electron mi­ croscopes, computers, electronic instruments, or a wide variety of other equipment to conduct their research. A good deal of research, however, is performed outside of laboratories. For example, a botanist may do research in tropical rain forests to see what plants grow there, or an ecologist may study how a forest area recovers after a fire. Other biological scientists work in management or administration. They may plan and administer programs for testing foods and dmgs, for example, or direct activities at zoos or botanical gardens. Some work as consultants to business firms or to government, while others test and inspect foods, drugs, and other products or write for technical publications. Some work in sales and service jobs for companies manufacturing chemicals or other technical products. (See the state­ ment on manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives else­ where in the Handbook.) Advances in basic biological knowledge, especially at the genetic level, have given rise to the new field of biotechnology. Biologists using this rapidly developing technology recombine the genetic mate­ rial of animals or plants, making organisms more productive or dis­ ease resistant. The first application of this technology has been in the medical and pharmaceutical area. For example, the human gene that codes for the production of insulin has been inserted into bacteria,  90  Occupational Outlook Handbook  causing them to produce human insulin. This insulin, used by diabet­ ics, is much purer than insulin from animals, the only previous source. Many other substances not previously available in large quan­ tities are starting to be produced by biotechnological means; some may be useful in treating cancer and other diseases. Advances in biotechnology have opened up research opportunities in almost all areas of biology, including commercial applications in agriculture and the food and chemical industries. Most biological scientists who come under the broad category of biologist are further classified by the type of organism they study or by the specific activity they perform, although recent advances in the understanding of basic life processes at the molecular and cellular level have blurred some traditional classifications. Aquatic biologists study plants and animals living in water. Marine biologists study salt water organisms and limnologists study fresh water organisms. Marine biologists are sometimes called oceanogra­ phers, but oceanography usually refers to the study of the physical characteristics of oceans and the ocean floor. (See the statement on geologists and geophysicists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biochemists study the chemical composition of living things. They try to understand the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. Much of the work in biotechnology is done by biochemists because this tech­ nology involves understanding the complex chemistry of life. Botanists study plants and their environment. Some study all as­ pects of plant life; others specialize in areas such as identification and classification of plants, the structure and function of plant parts, the biochemistry of plant processes, or the causes and cures of plant dis­ eases. Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of mi­ croscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungi. Medical mi­ crobiologists study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effect of antibiotics on microorganisms. Other microbiologists may specialize in environmental, food, agricultural, or industrial mi­ crobiology, virology (the study of viruses), or immunology (the study of mechanisms that fight infections). Many microbiologists are using biotechnology to advance knowledge of cell reproduction and human disease. Physiologists study life functions of plants and animals, both in the whole organism and at the cellular or molecular level, under normal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists may specialize in functions such as growth, reproduction, photosynthesis, respiration, or move­ ment, or in the physiology of a certain area or system of the body. Zoologists study animals—their origin, behavior, diseases, and life processes. Some experiments are with live animals in controlled or natural surroundings while others involve dissecting dead animals to study their structure. Zoologists are usually identified by the animal group studied—ornithologists (birds), mammalogists (mammals), herpetologists (reptiles), and ichthyologists (fish). Ecologists study the relationship among organisms and between organisms and their environments and the effects of influences such as population size, pollutants, rainfall, temperature, and altitude on organisms. Agricultural scientists, who may also be classified as biological scientists, are included in a separate statement elsewhere in the Handbook. Working Conditions Biological scientists generally work regular hours in offices, laborato­ ries, or classrooms and usually are not exposed to unsafe or unhealthy conditions. However, some work with dangerous organisms or toxic substances in the laboratory. They could be exposed if safety proce­ dures are not followed. Many biological scientists such as botanists, ecologists, and zoologists take field trips which involve strenuous physical activity and primitive living conditions. Employment Biological scientists held about 62,000 jobs in 1990. In addition, about half as many held biology faculty positions in colleges and uni https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Many biological scientists work in laboratories, conducting basic or applied research. versifies. (See the statement on college and university faculty else­ where in the Handbook.) About 40 percent of nonfaculty biological scientists were em­ ployed by Federal, State, and local governments. Federal biological scientists worked mainly in the Departments of Agriculture, Interior, and Defense, and in the National Institutes of Health. Most of the rest worked in the pharmaceutical industry, hospitals, offices of physi­ cians, or research and testing laboratories. A few were self-employed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The Ph.D. degree generally is required for college teaching, indepen­ dent research, and for advancement to administrative positions. A master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research and for jobs in management, inspection, sales, and service. The bachelor’s degree is adequate for some nonresearch jobs. Some graduates with a bachelor’s degree start as biological scientists in testing and inspec­ tion, or get jobs related to biological science such as technical sales or service representatives. In some cases, graduates with a bachelor’s degree are able to work in a laboratory environment on their own pro­ jects, but this is unusual. Some may work as research assistants. Oth­ ers become biological technicians, medical laboratory technologists or, with courses in education, high school biology teachers. (See the statements on clinical laboratory technologists and technicians, sci­ ence technicians, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Many with a bachelor’s degree in biology enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Some enter a wide range of occupations with little or no connection to biology. Most colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degrees in biologi­ cal science and many offer advanced degrees. Curriculums for ad­ vanced degrees often emphasize a subfield such as microbiology or botany but not all universities offer all curriculums. Advanced degree programs include classroom and field work, laboratory research, and a thesis or dissertation. Biological scientists who have advanced de­ grees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may become managers or administrators within biology; others leave biology for nontechnical managerial, administrative, and sales jobs. Biological scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Those doing field research in remote areas must have physical stamina. Job Outlook Employment of biological scientists is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most growth will be in private industry. Biological scientists will continue to conduct genetic and biotechnical research and help develop and produce products developed by new biological methods. In addition, efforts to clean up and preserve the environment will continue to add to growth, especially for those with a bachelor’s or a master’s degree.  Professional Specialty Occupations  More biological scientists will be needed to determine the environ­ mental impact of industry and government actions and to correct past environmental problems. Anticipated increases in health-related re­ search should also result in growth. Because of budget cuts, employ­ ment of biologists is expected to grow slowly in the Federal Government. In addition to jobs arising from growth in demand for biologists, openings will occur as biological scientists transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Because a large number of biological science college and university faculty are expected to retire in the next 10 years, many more positions will open up in academia. Many persons with a bachelor’s degree in biological science find jobs as science or engineering technicians or health technologists and technicians. Some become high school biology teachers. However, they are usually regarded as teachers rather than biologists. Those with a doctorate in biological science may become college and uni­ versity faculty. (See statements on science and engineering techni­ cians, health technologists and technicians, high school teachers, and college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biological scientists are less likely to lose their jobs during reces­ sions than those in many other occupations since most are employed on long-term research projects or in agricultural research. However, a recession could influence the amount of money allocated to new re­ search and development efforts, particularly in areas of risky or inno­ vative research. A recession could also limit the possibility of extension or renewal of existing projects. Earnings Median annual earnings for biological and life scientists were about $31,300 in 1990; the middle 50 percent earned between $20,700 and $45,200. Ten percent earned less than $13,100, and 10 percent earned over $55,600. According to the College Placement Council, begin­ ning salary offers in private industry in 1990 averaged $21,800 a year for bachelor’s degree recipients in biological science. In the Federal Government in 1991, general biological scientists earned an average salary of $41,754; microbiologists averaged $44,518; ecologists, $42,795; physiologists, $50,097; and geneticists $50,949. 6 ’ Related Occupations Many other occupations deal with living organisms and require a level of training similar to that of biological scientists. These include the conservation occupations of forester, range manager, and soil con­ servationist; animal breeders, horticulturists, soil scientists, and most other agricultural scientists; and life science technicians. Many health occupations are also related to those in the biological sciences, such as medical scientists, medical doctors, dentists, and veterinarians. Sources of Additional Information General information on careers in biological science is available from: "" American Institute of Biological Sciences, Office of Career Service 730 11th St. NW., Washington, DC 20001-4521.  For information on careers in animal biology, contact: "■ American Society of Zoologists, 104 Sirius Circle, Thousand Oaks CA 91360.  For information on careers in physiology, contact: "" American Physiological Society, Membership Services Dept., 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814. For information on careers in biochemistry, contact: w American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in botany, contact; Dr- Harry Horner, Secretary, Botanical Society of America, Dept, of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, 1A 50011-1020.  For information on careers in microbiology, contact: *• American Society for Microbiology, Office of Public and Scientific Af­ fairs, 1325 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local of­ fices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  91  Foresters and Conservation Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-030, -034, -046, -050, -054, -062; 049.127)  Nature of the Work Forests and rangelands serve a variety of needs: They supply wood products, livestock forage, minerals, and water; serve as sites for recreational activities; and provide habitats for wildlife. Foresters and conservation scientists manage, develop, and help protect these and other natural resources. Foresters manage timberland, which involves a variety of duties. Those working in private industry may be responsible for procuring timber from private landowners. To do this, foresters make contact with local forest owners and gain permission to take inventory of the type, amount, and location of all standing timber on the property, a process known as timber cruising. Foresters then appraise the tim­ ber’s worth, negotiate the purchase of timber, and draw up a contract for procurement. Next, they subcontract with loggers or pulpwood cutters to remove the trees, aid in road layout, and maintain close contact with the subcontractor’s workers and the landowner to ensure that the work is performed to specifications. Forestry consultants often act as agents for the forest owner, performing the above duties and negotiating timber sales with industrial procurement foresters. Throughout the entire process, foresters consider not only the eco­ nomics of the purchase but the environmental impact on natural re­ sources. They determine how best to preserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability. They also comply with environ­ mental regulations. Foresters also supervise the planting and growing of new trees They choose and prepare the site, using controlled burning, bulldoz­ ers, or herbicides to clear weeds, bmsh, and logging debris. They ad­ vise on the type, number, and placement of trees to be planted. Foresters monitor the trees to ensure healthy growth and to determine the best time for harvesting. If foresters detect signs of disease or harmful insects, they decide on the best course of treatment to pre­ vent contamination or infestation of healthy trees. Foresters who work for State and Federal governments manage public parks and forests. They may also design campgrounds and recreation areas. Foresters use a number of tools to perform their jobs; Clinometers measure the heights, diameter tapes measure the diameter, and incre­ ment borers and bark gauges measure the growth of trees. Photogrammetry and remote sensing (aerial photographs taken from airplanes and satellites) are often used for mapping large forest areas and for detecting widespread trends of forest and land use. Comput­ ers are used extensively, both in the office and in the field, for the storage, retrieval, and analysis of information required to manage the forest land and its resources. Range managers, also called range conservationists, range ecolo­ gists, or range scientists, manage, improve, and protect rangelands to maximize their use without damaging the environment. Rangelands cover about 1 billion acres of the United States, mostly in the Western States and Alaska. They contain many natural resources, including grass and shrubs for animal grazing, wildlife habitats, water from vast watersheds, recreation facilities, and valuable mineral and energy re­ sources. Range managers help ranchers attain optimum livestock pro­ duction by determining the number and kind of animals to graze, the grazing system to use, and the best season for grazing. At the same time, however, they maintain soil stability and vegetation for other uses such as wildlife habitats and outdoor recreation. Soil conservationists provide technical assistance to farmers, ranchers, and others concerned with the conservation of soil, water’ and related natural resources. They develop programs that are de­ signed to get the most productive use of land without damaging it. Soil conservationists do most of their work in the field. Conservation­ ists visit areas with erosion problems, find the source of the problem,  92  Occupational Outlook Handbook  and help landowners and managers develop management practices to combat it. Foresters and conservation scientists often specialize in one area of work, such as forest resource management, urban forestry, wood technology, or forest economics. Working Conditions Working conditions for foresters and conservation scientists vary considerably. Their image as solitary horseback riders singlehandedly protecting large areas of land far from civilization no longer holds true. Modem foresters and conservation scientists spend a great deal of time working with people. They deal regularly with landowners, loggers, forestry technicians and aides, farmers, ranchers, govern­ ment officials, special interest groups, and the public in general. Some work regular hours in offices or labs. The work can still be physically demanding, though. Many foresters and conservation scientists often work outdoors in all kinds of weather, sometimes in isolated areas. To get to these areas, they use airplanes, helicopters, four-wheel drive vehicles, and horses. It may be necessary for some foresters to walk long distances through densely wooded land in order to carry out their work. Foresters and conservation scientists also may work long hours fighting fires or in other emergencies. Employment Foresters and conservation scientists held about 29,000 jobs in 1990. About 44 percent of the salaried workers were in the Federal Govern­ ment, primarily in the Department of Agriculture’s Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service and in the Department of Interior’s Bureau of Land Management. The Forest Service alone employed over 5,000 foresters and 400 range conservationists in 1990. Another 26 percent worked for State governments, and 7 percent worked for local gov­ ernments. The remainder worked in private industry, mainly in the forestry industry. Other significant employers included logging and lumber companies and sawmills. Some were self-employed as con­ sultants, primarily for private landowners, but also for State and Fed­ eral governments and forestry-related businesses. Most soil conservationists work for the Department of Agricul­ ture’s Soil Conservation Service. Others are employed by State and local governments in their soil conservation districts.  Foresters use a variety of instruments to measure the amount of standing timber.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Although foresters and conservation scientists work in every State, employment is concentrated in the Western and Southeastern States, where many national and private forests and parks are located, and where most of the lumber and pulpwood-producing forests are locat­ ed. Range managers work almost entirely in the Western States, where most of the rangeland is located. Soil conservationists, on the other hand, are employed in almost every county in the country. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in forestry is the minimum educational require­ ment for professional careers in forestry. In the Federal Government, a combination of experience and appropriate education can occasion­ ally be substituted for a 4-year forestry degree, but keen job competi­ tion makes this difficult. Some States have licensing or registration requirements which a forester must meet in order to acquire the title “professional forester.” Becoming licensed or registered usually requires a 4-year degree in forestry, a minimum period of training time, and passing a registra­ tion exam. Foresters who wish to perform specialized research or teach should have an advanced degree, preferably a Ph.D. In 1991, 55 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s or higher degrees in forestry; 45 of these were accredited by the Society of American Foresters. Curriculums stress science, mathematics, com­ munications skills, and computer science, as well as technical forestry subjects. Courses in forest economics and business adminis­ tration supplement the student’s scientific and technical knowledge. Many colleges require students to complete a field session in a camp operated by the college. All schools encourage students to take sum­ mer jobs that provide experience in forestry or conservation work. A bachelor’s degree in range management or range science is the usual minimum educational requirement for range managers, while graduate degrees generally are required for teaching and research po­ sitions. In 1990, 35 colleges and universities offered degrees in range management or range science. A number of other schools offered some courses in range management. Specialized range management courses combine plant, animal, and soil sciences with principles of ecology and resource management. Desirable electives include eco­ nomics, forestry, hydrology, agronomy, wildlife, animal husbandry, computer science, and recreation. Very few colleges and universities offer degrees in soil conserva­ tion. Most soil conservationists have degrees in agronomy, general agriculture, or crop or soil science; a few have degrees in related fields such as wildlife biology, forestry, and range management. Pro­ grams of study generally include 30 semester hours in natural re­ sources or agriculture, including at least 3 hours in soil science. In addition to meeting the demands of forestry and conservation re­ search and analysis, foresters and conservation scientists must enjoy working outdoors, be physically hardy, and be willing to move to where the jobs are. They must also be able to work well with people and have good communications skills. Decisiveness, firmness, and tact are important in disputes involving rights and uses of land and other natural resources. Recent forestry and range management graduates usually work under the supervision of experienced foresters or range managers. After gaining experience, they may advance to more responsible po­ sitions. In the Federal Government, most entry level foresters work in forest resource management. An experienced Federal forester may supervise a ranger district, and may advance to regional forest super­ visor or to a top administrative position. In private industry, foresters start by learning the practical and administrative aspects of the busi­ ness and acquiring comprehensive technical training. They are then introduced to contract writing, timber harvesting, and decisionmak­ ing. Many foresters work their way up to top managerial positions within their companies. Foresters in management usually leave the fieldwork behind, spending more of their time in an office, doing pa­ perwork and supervising others. Soil conservationists usually begin working within one county or conservation district and with experience may advance to the area,  Professional Specialty Occupations  State, regional, or national level. Also, soil conservationists can trans­ fer to related occupations such as farm or ranch management advisor or land appraiser. Job Outlook Employment of foresters and conservation scientists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to budgetary constraints in the Federal Government, where employment is concentrated. However, an expected wave of retirements in the Federal Government should create many job open­ ings for foresters. On the other hand, jobs for soil conservationists should continue to be competitive in the Federal Government. The number of qualified graduates usually exceeds the available positions because the educational requirements for soil conservationists are less specific than those for foresters or range conservationists. More foresters and range managers should be needed in private industry to improve forest, logging, and range management practices and in­ crease output and profitability. Also, State governments and private owners of timberland may employ more foresters due to increased in­ terest in environmental protection and land management. Regardless of the outlook, certain areas of the country offer greater job opportunities for foresters and range conservationists than other regions. Employment for range conservationists is concentrated in the West and Midwest, while most forestry-related employment is in the South and West. Urban forestry is emerging as a fast-growing field, particularly in the Northeast and in major population centers of the country. Because of public interest in environmental issues, foresters are increasingly needed to perform environmental impact studies in urban areas, and to help regional planning commissions make land use decisions. Earnings Most graduates entering the Federal Government as foresters, range managers, or soil conservationists with a bachelor’s degree started at $16,973 or $21,023 a year, in 1991, depending on academic achieve­ ment. Those with a master’s degree could start at $21,023 or $25,717. Holders of doctorates could start at $31,116 or, in research positions, at $37,294. In 1991, the average Federal salary for foresters was   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  93  $38,617; for range conservationists, $34,082; for soil conservation­ ists, $35,835; and for forest products technologists, $53,090. In private industry, starting salaries for students with a bachelor’s degree were comparable to starting salaries in the Federal Govern­ ment, while starting salaries in State and local governments were generally lower. Most foresters and conservation scientists work for Federal, State, and local governments and large private firms, which generally offer more generous fringe benefits—for example, pension and retirement plans, health and life insurance, and paid vacations—than smaller firms. Related Occupations Foresters and conservation scientists are not the only workers con­ cerned with managing, developing, and protecting natural resources. Other workers with similar responsibilities include agricultural scien­ tists, agricultural engineers, biological scientists, farmers, farm man­ agers, forest fire officers, ranchers, ranch managers, soil scientists and soil conservation technicians, wildlife managers, and environ­ mental scientists. Sources of Additional Information Information about the forestry profession and lists of schools offering education in forestry are available from; *■ Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814. American Forestry Association, P.O. Box 2000, Washington, DC 20013.  Information about a career as a range manager as well as a list of schools offering training is available from: *- Society for Range Management, 1839 York St., Denver, CO 80206.  For information about career opportunities in the Federal Govern­ ment, contact; *" Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, Room 3619, 1849 C St. NW., Washington, DC 20240. *•“ Chief, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW„ Washington, DC 20250. *- Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20013.  Physical Scientists Chemists (D.O.T. 022.061-010, -014, and .137-010)  Nature of the Work Chemists search for and put to practical use new knowledge about chemicals. Although chemicals are often thought of as artificial or toxic substances, all physical things, both natural and manmade, are composed of chemicals. Chemists have developed a tremendous vari­ ety of new and improved synthetic fibers, paints, adhesives, drugs, electronic components, lubricants, and other products. They also de­ velop processes which save energy and reduce pollution, such as im­ proved oil refining methods. Research on the chemistry of living things provides the basis for advances in medicine, agriculture, and other areas. Many chemists work in research and development. Much research is performed in laboratories, but research chemists also work in of­ fices when they do theoretical research or plan, record, and report on their research. Some chemical research laboratories resemble high school chemical labs, but others are large and may incorporate proto­ type chemical manufacturing facilities as well as advanced equip­ ment. Chemists may also do some of their research in a chemical plant or outdoors—while gathering samples of pollutants, for example. In basic research, chemists investigate the properties, composition, and structure of matter and the laws that govern the combination of elements and reactions of substances. In applied research and devel­ opment, they create new products or improve existing ones, often using knowledge gained from basic research. For example, synthetic rubber and plastics resulted from research on small molecules uniting to form large ones (polymerization). Chemists also work in production and inspection in chemical man­ ufacturing plants. They prepare instructions for plant workers which specify ingredients, mixing times, and temperatures for each stage in the process. They also monitor automated processes to ensure proper product yield, and test samples to ensure they meet industry and gov­ ernment standards. Chemists also record and report on test results. Others are marketing or sales representatives who sell and provide technical information on chemical products. Chemists often specialize in a subfield. Analytical chemists deter­ mine the structure, composition, and nature of substances and devel­ op analytical techniques. They also identify the presence of chemical pollutants in air, water, and soil. Organic chemists study the chem­ istry of the vast number of carbon compounds. Many commercial products, such as drugs, plastics, and fertilizers, have been developed by organic chemists. Inorganic chemists study compounds consisting mainly of elements other than carbon, such as those in electronic components. Physical chemists study the physical characteristics of atoms and molecules and investigate how chemical reactions work. Their research may result in new and better energy sources. Biochemists, whose work encompasses both biology and chem­ istry, are included under biological scientists elsewhere in the Hand­ book. Working Conditions Chemists usually work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Some are exposed to health or safety hazards when handling certain chemicals, but there is little risk if proper procedures are followed. Employment Chemists held about 83,000 jobs in 1990. The majority of chemists are employed in manufacturing firms—mostly in the chemical manu­ facturing industry, which includes firms that produce plastics materi­ als and synthetics, drugs, soap and cleaners, paints, industrial organic chemicals, and other miscellaneous chemical products. Chemists also 94   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The knowledge gained from basic chemical research often leads to the development of new products. work for State and local governments, primarily in health and agri­ culture, and for Federal agencies, chiefly in the Departments of De­ fense, Health and Human Services, and Agriculture. Others work for research and testing services. In addition, thousands of persons held chemistry faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Chemists are employed in all parts of the country, but they are con­ centrated in large industrial areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or a related discipline is usually the minimum education necessary to work as a chemist. However, gradu­ ate training is required for most research jobs, and most college teaching jobs require a Ph.D. degree. Many colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree program in chemistry, about 590 of which are approved by the American Chemical Society. Several hundred colleges and universities also offer advanced degree programs in chemistry. Students planning careers as chemists should enjoy studying sci­ ence and mathematics, and should like working with their hands building scientific apparatus and performing experiments. Persever­ ance, curiosity, and the ability to concentrate on detail and to work in­ dependently are essential. In addition to required courses in analytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry, undergraduate chemistry majors usually study biological sciences, mathematics, and physics. Computer courses are also important, as chemists are in­ creasingly using computers as a tool in their everyday work. Although graduate students typically specialize in a subfield of chemistry, such as analytical chemistry or polymer chemistry, spe­ cialization is usually unnecessary on the undergraduate level. In fact, undergraduates who are broadly trained have more flexibility when jobhunting or changing jobs than if they narrowly define their inter­ ests. Some employers provide new bachelor’s degree chemists with additional training or education, in order to tailor the chemist to a specific job or type of work. In government or industry, beginning chemists with a bachelor’s degree work in technical sales or services, or assist senior chemists in research and development laboratories. Some may work in research positions, analyzing and testing products, but these are often techni­ cians’ positions, with limited upward mobility. Many employers pre­ fer chemists with a master’s degree or a Ph.D. to work in basic and applied research, and a Ph.D. is generally required for a 4-year col­ lege faculty position and for advancement to many administrative po­ sitions. Chemists who work in sales, marketing, or professional research positions often eventually move into management.  Professional Specialty Occupations  Many people with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry enter other oc­ cupations in which a chemistry background is helpful, such as techni­ cal writers and manufacturers’ or wholesale sales representatives in chemical marketing. Some enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Others enter a wide range of occupations with little or no connection to chemistry. Chemistry graduates may become high school teachers. However, they usually are then regarded as science teachers rather than chemists. Others may qualify as engineers, especially if they have taken some courses in engineering. Job Outlook Chemists are expected to have very good employment opportunities through the year 2005 because employment is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations and the number of degrees granted in chemistry is not expected to increase enough to meet fu­ ture demand. The chemical industry, which faced many problems in the 1980’s, is now much healthier. However, it is still subject to cycli­ cal fluctuations which affect employment of chemists, particularly those in the industrial chemical and oil industries. Expanded research and development, especially in pharmaceutical firms, biotechnology firms, and firms producing specialty chemicals, are expected to con­ tribute to employment growth. Chemists with specialized knowledge in polymers and synthetics, analytical chemistry, and food chemistry should have especially good job opportunities. Ph.D. chemists are, and should continue to be, in strong demand, as employers are in­ creasingly expecting their researchers to have advanced education. Despite the expected growth, most openings will result as chemists retire, transfer to other occupations, or leave the occupation for other reasons. Earnings According to a 1990 survey by the American Chemical Society, the median starting salary for recently graduated chemists with a bache­ lor’s degree was about $23,000 a year; with a master’s degree, $30,000; with a Ph.D., $44,000. The American Chemical Society also reports that the median salary of their members (with varying amounts of experience) with a bachelor’s degree was $39,000 a year in 1990; with a master’s de­ gree, $45,000; with a Ph.D., $55,000. In 1991, chemists in the Federal government earned an average salary of $46,847.  95  conduct geological surveys, construct maps, and use instruments to measure the earth’s gravity and magnetic field. They also analyze in­ formation collected through seismic prospecting, which involves bouncing sound waves off deeply buried rock layers. Many geolo­ gists and geophysicists search for oil, natural gas, minerals, and un­ derground water. Increasingly, geologists, geophysicists, and other earth scientists are becoming known as geological scientists or geoscientists, terms which better describe these scientists’ role in studying all aspects of the earth. Geoscientists play an increasingly important part in studying, pre­ serving, and cleaning up the environment. Many design and monitor waste disposal sites, preserve water supplies, and reclaim contaminat­ ed land and water to comply with stricter Federal environmental rules. They also help locate safe sites for hazardous waste facilities, nuclear powerplants, and landfills. Geologists and geophysicists examine chemical and physical prop­ erties of specimens in laboratories, sometimes under controlled tem­ perature and pressure. They may study fossil remains of animal and plant life or experiment with the flow of water and oil through rocks. Some geoscientists use two- or three-dimensional computer modeling to portray water layers and the flow of water or other fluids through rock cracks and porous materials. A large variety of sophisticated lab­ oratory instruments is used, including X-ray diffractometers, which determine the crystal structure of minerals, and petrographic micro­ scopes, for study of rock and sediment samples. Earthquakes are lo­ cated and their intensities determined using seismographs, instruments which measure energy waves resulting from movements in the earth’s crust.  ifttjliM  ssiiSrSi*  Related Occupations The work of chemical engineers, occupational safety and health workers, agricultural scientists, biological scientists, and chemical technicians is closely related to the work done by chemists. The work of other physical and life science occupations may also be similar to that of chemists. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities and earnings for chemists is available from: American Chemical Society, Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local of­ fices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Geologists and Geophysicists (D.O.T. 024.061 except -014, .161, and .167)  Nature of the Work Geologists and geophysicists study the physical aspects and history of the earth. They identify and examine surface rocks and buried rocks recovered by drilling, study information collected by satellites,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Geologists determine the composition of rock specimens in laboratories.  96  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Geologists and geophysicists also apply geological knowledge to engineering problems in constructing large buildings, dams, tunnels, and highways. Some administer and manage research and exploration programs and others become general managers in petroleum and min­ ing companies. Geology and geophysics are closely related fields, but there are some major differences. Geologists study the composition, structure, and history of the earth’s crust. They try to find out how rocks were formed and what has happened to them since their formation. Geo­ physicists use the principles of physics and mathematics to study not only the earth’s surface but its internal composition, fresh water, at­ mosphere, and oceans as well as its magnetic, electrical, and gravita­ tional forces. Both, however, commonly apply their skills to the search for natural resources and solving environmental problems. Geologists and geophysicists usually specialize. Geological oceanographers study the ocean floor. They collect information using remote sensing devices aboard surface ships or underwater research craft. Physical oceanographers study the physical aspects of oceans such as currents and the interaction of the surface of the sea with the atmosphere. Geochemical oceanographers study the chemical com­ position, dissolved elements, and nutrients of oceans. Although bio­ logical scientists who study ocean life are also called oceanographers (as well as marine biologists), the work they do and the training they need are related to biology rather than geology or geophysics. (See the statement on biological scientists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Hydrologists study the distribution, circulation, and physical proper­ ties of underground and surface waters. They study the form and in­ tensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere. Mineralogists analyze and classi­ fy minerals and precious stones according to composition and struc­ ture. Paleontologists study fossils found in geological formations to trace the evolution of plant and animal life and the geologic history of the earth. Seismologists interpret data from seismographs and other instruments to locate earthquakes and earthquake-related faults. Stratigraphers study the distribution and arrangement of sedimentary rock layers by examining their fossil and mineral content. Meteorolo­ gists sometimes are classified as geophysical scientists. (See the statement on meteorologists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions While some geoscientists spend the majority of their time in an of­ fice, others divide their time between fieldwork and office or labora­ tory work. Geologists often travel to remote field sites by helicopter or four-wheel drive vehicles and cover large areas by foot. Explo­ ration geologists and geophysicists often work overseas or in remote areas, and job relocation is not unusual. Geological and physical oceanographers may spend considerable time at sea. Employment Geologists and geophysicists held almost 48,000 jobs in 1990. In ad­ dition, thousands of persons held geology, geophysics, and oceanog­ raphy faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) About 4 in 10 were employed in oil and gas companies or oil and gas field service firms. Many other geologists worked for consulting firms and business services, especially engineering and architectural services, which often provide services to oil and gas companies. About 1 geologist in 7 was self-employed; most of these were consul­ tants to industry or government. The Federal Government employed about 6,000 geologists, geo­ physicists, oceanographers, and hydrologists in 1989. Over one-half worked for the Department of the Interior in the U.S. Geological Sur­ vey, the Bureau of Land Management, the Minerals Management Service, the Bureau of Mines, and the Bureau of Reclamation. Others worked for the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, Commerce, and Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Some worked for State agencies such as State geological surveys and State departments of conservation. Geologists and geophysicists also worked for non­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  profit research institutions. Some were employed by American firms overseas for varying periods of time. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in geology or geophysics is adequate for entry into some lower level geology jobs, but better jobs with good ad­ vancement potential usually require at least a master’s degree in geol­ ogy or geophysics. Persons with strong backgrounds in physics, mathematics, or computer science also may qualify for some geo­ physics jobs. A Ph.D. degree is essential for most research and col­ lege or university teaching positions, and is becoming more important for employment in some Federal agencies. Over 500 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in ge­ ology or geophysics. Other programs offering related training for be­ ginning geological scientists include geophysical technology, geophysical engineering, geophysical prospecting, engineering geolo­ gy, petroleum geology, and geochemistry. In addition, more than 270 universities award advanced degrees in geology or geophysics. Geologists and geophysicists need to be able to work as part of a team. Computer modeling, data processing, and effective oral and written communication skills are important, as well as the ability to think independently and creatively. Those involved in fieldwork must have physical stamina. Traditional geoscience courses emphasizing classical geologic methods and concepts (such as mineralogy, paleontology, stratigra­ phy, and structural geology) are important for all geoscientists. How­ ever, those students interested in working in the environmental or regulatory fields should take courses in hydrology, hazardous waste management, environmental legislation, chemistry, fluid mechanics, and geologic logging. Geologists and geophysicists often begin their careers in field ex­ ploration or as research assistants in laboratories. They are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Eventually they may be promoted to project leader, program manager, or other man­ agement and research positions. Job Outlook Employment of geologists and geophysicists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In the past, most jobs for geologists and geophysicists were in or re­ lated to the petroleum industry, particularly in the exploration for oil and gas. This industry is subject to cyclical fluctuations. Low oil prices usually cause exploration activities to be curtailed—resulting in layoffs of many geologists and geophysicists. As a result of gener­ ally poor job prospects in the past few years, the number of students enrolling in geology and geophysics has dropped considerably. How­ ever, when exploration activities increase, geologists and geophysi­ cists should have excellent employment opportunities because many experienced geologists and geophysicists have left the occupation. Also, the number of degrees granted in geology is likely to be so low that even a small increase in openings in the oil industry will be greater than the number of geologists and geophysicists available to fill them. Environmental protection and regulatory geoscience are becoming important fields of work for geoscientists with the appropriate train­ ing, and are additional sources of employment growth. In particular, jobs requiring training in hydrology and geochemistry should be in demand. Replacement needs in colleges and universities are expected to in­ crease as the rate of retirements increases over the next 15 years. Earnings Surveys by the College Placement Council indicate that graduates with bachelor’s degrees in the geological sciences received an aver­ age starting offer of $23,463 a year in 1990. According to a 1990 American Geological Institute survey, the av­ erage starting salaries for inexperienced geoscientists were about $23,900 for those with a bachelor’s degree, $26,500 for those with a master’s degree, and $33,300 for those with a Ph.D. However, the  Professional Specialty Occupations  starting salaries can vary widely depending on the employing indus­ try. For example, the oil and gas, and mining and minerals industries offered average starting salaries of $32,500 and $26,700, respective­ ly, for bachelor’s degree holders, while in research institutions, col­ leges, and universities, new hires with a bachelor’s degree averaged about $20,000. Although the petroleum, mineral, and mining industries offer high­ er salaries, the competition in these areas is normally intense, and the job security less than in other areas. In 1991, the Federal Government’s average salary for all geologists in managerial, supervisory, and nonsupervisory positions was $47,669; for all geophysicists, $52,025; for all hydrologists, $43,794; and for all oceanographers, $49,521. Related Occupations Many geologists and geophysicists work in the petroleum and natural gas industry. This industry also employs many other workers in the scientific and technical aspects of petroleum and natural gas explo­ ration and extraction, including drafters, engineering technicians, sci­ ence technicians, petroleum engineers, and surveyors. Also, some physicists, chemists, and meteorologists, as well as mathematicians, computer scientists, soil scientists, and mapping scientists, do related work. Sources of Additional Information Information on training and career opportunities for geologists is available from: *•* American Geological Institute, 4220 King St., Alexandria, VA 22302­ 1507. » Geological Society of America, P.O. Box 9140, 3300 Penrose Pi., Boulder, CO 80301.  Information on training and career opportunities for geophysicists is available from: American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20009. *" Society of Exploration Geophysicists, P.O. Box 70240, Tulsa, OK 74170.  A directory of college and university curriculums in oceanography is available from: *■ Marine Technology Society, 1825 K St. NW, Suite 218, Washington, DC 20006.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local of­ fices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management located in major metropolitan areas.  Meteorologists (D.O.T. 025.062-010)  Nature of the Work Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, the air that surrounds the earth. Meteorologists study the atmosphere’s physical characteristics, motions, and processes, and the way the atmosphere affects the rest of our environment. The best-known application of this knowledge is in forecasting the weather. However, weather information and meteo­ rological research also are applied in air-pollution control, agricul­ ture, air and sea transportation, and the study of trends in the earth’s climate such as global warming or ozone depletion. Meteorologists who forecast the weather, known professionally as operational meteorologists, are the largest group of specialists. They study information on air pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind velocity, and apply physical and mathematical relationships to make short- and long-range weather forecasts. Their information comes from weather satellites, weather radar, and remote sensors and ob­ servers in many parts of the world. Meteorologists use sophisticated computer models of the world’s atmosphere to help forecast the weather and interpret the results of these models to make long-term, short-term, and local-area forecasts.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  97  Some meteorologists engage in research. Physical meteorologists, for example, study the atmosphere’s chemical and physical proper­ ties, the transmission of light, sound, and radio waves, and the trans­ fer of energy in the atmosphere. They also study factors affecting formation of clouds, rain, snow, and other weather phenomena. Cli­ matologists analyze past records of wind, rainfall, sunshine, and tem­ perature in specific areas or regions. Their studies are used to design buildings and to plan heating and cooling systems, effective land use, and agricultural production. Much meteorological research is cen­ tered on improving weather forecasting, mainly through building bet­ ter computer models of the atmosphere, including interactions with land and water surfaces. Working Conditions Jobs in weather stations, most of which operate around the clock 7 days a week, often involve night work and rotating shifts. Weather stations are often at airports, in or near cities, and in isolated and re­ mote areas. Meteorologists in smaller weather offices generally work alone; in larger ones, they work as part of a team. Meteorologists not doing forecasting work regular hours, usually in offices. Employment Meteorologists held about 5,500 jobs in 1990. The largest employer of civilian meteorologists is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad­ ministration (NOAA), which employs about 1,800 meteorologists. About two-thirds of NOAA’s meteorologists work in the National Weather Service at stations in all parts of the United States. The re­ mainder of NOAA’s meteorologists work mainly in research or in pro­ gram management. The Department of Defense employs about 280 civilian meteorologists. Others work for private weather consultants, re­ search and testing services, and computer and data processing services. Hundreds of people teach meteorology and related courses in col­ lege and university departments of meteorology or atmospheric sci­ ence, physics, earth science, and geophysics. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) In addition to civilian meteorologists, thousands of members of the Armed Forces do forecasting and other meteorological work. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in meteorology or a closely related field is the usual minimum requirement for a beginning job as a mete­ orologist. The educational requirements for entry level meteorologists in the Federal Government call for a bachelor’s degree—not necessarily in meteorology—with at least 20 semester hours of meteorology cours­ es, including 6 hours in weather analysis and forecasting and 6 hours in dynamic meteorology. In addition to meteorology coursework, 6 hours of differential and integral calculus and 6 hours of calculusbased physics are required. In 1993, these requirements will be up-  *«**£••* » Xyi As weather equipment and radar systems become more complex, educational and training requirements for meteorologists will increase.  98  Occupational Outlook Handbook  graded to include 3 hours of computer science and 6 hours of coursework appropriate for a physical science major, such as statistics, chemistry, physical oceanography, or physical climatology. Although positions in operational meteorology are available for those with only a bachelor’s degree, obtaining a graduate degree enhances ad­ vancement potential. A master’s degree is usually necessary for con­ ducting research and development, and a Ph.D. is usually required for college teaching. Students who plan a career in teaching or research and development need not necessarily major in meteorology as an under­ graduate. In fact, a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, physics, or engi­ neering is excellent preparation for graduate study in meteorology. Because meteorology is a small field, relatively few colleges and universities offer degrees in meteorology or atmospheric science, al­ though many departments of physics, earth science, geography, and geophysics offer atmospheric science and related courses. Prospec­ tive students should make certain that courses required by the Nation­ al Weather Service and other employers are offered at the college they are considering. Upgraded educational and training require­ ments, such as computer science courses, additional meteorology courses, and a strong background in mathematics and physics, are ex­ pected to become more important to prospective employers as weath­ er equipment and radar systems become more complex. Many programs combine the study of meteorology with another field, such as agriculture, engineering, or physics. For example, hydrometeorolo­ gy is the blending of hydrology (the science of the earth’s water) and meteorology and is an emerging field concerned with the impact of precipitation on the hydrologic cycle and the environment. Beginning meteorologists often do routine data collection, compu­ tation, or analysis and are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Experienced meteorologists may advance to various supervisory or administrative jobs. Increasing numbers of meteorolo­ gists establish their own weather consulting services. Job Outlook Employment of meteorologists is expected to grow faster than the av­ erage for all occupations through the year 2005. The National Weath­ er Service, which employs many meteorologists, is increasing its employment of meteorologists, mainly in its field offices, to improve short-term and local-area weather forecasts. Although some of these additional jobs are being filled internally through the upgrading of meteorological technicians, there still should be many more openings in the National Weather Service in the next 5 to 10 years than there have been in the past. Employment of meteorologists in other parts of the Federal Government is not expected to increase. Many new jobs, though, will be created in private industry with the increased use of private weather forecasting and meteorological services by farmers, commodity investors, utilities, transportation and construction firms, and radio and TV stations. For people in these and other areas, even a slight improvement in the detail and accuracy of weather information and forecasts over the general information provided by the National Weather Service can be a significant benefit. However, because many customers for private weather services are in industries that are sensi­ tive to fluctuations in the economy, the sales and growth of private weather services are dependent on the health of the economy. Despite the projected faster-than-average growth, most of the job openings in this very small occupation will arise from the need to re­ place those who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Earnings The average salary for meteorologists employed by the Federal Gov­ ernment was $44,706 in 1991. In 1991, meteorologists in the Federal Government with a bachelor’s degree and no experience received a starting salary of $16,973 or $21,023 a year, depending on their col­ lege grades. Those with a master’s degree could start at $21,023 or $25,717; those with the Ph.D. degree, at $31,116 or $37,294. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations concerned with the physical environ­ ment include oceanographers, geologists and geophysicists, hydrolo­ gists,and civil and environmental engineers.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities in meteorology is available from: w American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA 02108.  Physicists and Astronomers (D.O.T. 021.067-010; 023.061-010, -014, .067; 079.021-010 and -014)  Nature of the Work Physicists attempt to discover basic principles governing the structure and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interaction of matter and energy. Some physicists use these principles in theoretical areas, such as the nature of time and the origin of the universe, while others work in practical areas such as the develop­ ment of advanced materials, electronic devices, and medical equipment. Physicists design and perform experiments with lasers, cyclotrons, telescopes, mass spectrometers, and other equipment. Based on ob­ servations and analysis, they formulate theories and laws to describe the forces of nature, such as gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear interactions. They also find ways to apply physical laws and theories to problems in nuclear energy, electronics, optics, materials, commu­ nications, aerospace technology, and medical instrumentation. Astronomy is sometimes considered a subfield of physics. As­ tronomers use the principles of physics and mathematics to learn about the fundamental nature of the universe and the sun, moon, planets, stars, and galaxies. They apply their knowledge to problems in navigation and space flight. Most physicists work in research and development. Some do basic research to increase scientific knowledge. For example, they investi­ gate the structure of the atom or the nature of gravity. Practical applications of basic research discoveries are made by physicists who conduct applied research and work to develop new de­ vices, products, and processes. For instance, basic research in solidstate physics led to the development of transistors and then to the integrated circuits used in computers. Physicists also design research equipment. This equipment often has additional unanticipated uses. For example, lasers (devices that amplify light and emit it in a highly directional, intense beam) are used in surgery; microwave devices are used for ovens; and measur­ ing instruments can analyze blood or the chemical content of foods. A small number work in inspection, testing, quality control, and other production-related jobs in industry. Some physics research is done in small or medium-size laborato­ ries. However, many experiments in plasma, nuclear, particle, and some other areas of physics require extremely large, expensive equip­ ment such as particle accelerators. Physicists in these subfields often work in large teams. Although physics research may require extensive experimentation in laboratories, research physicists still spend time in offices planning, recording, analyzing, and reporting on research. Almost all astronomers do research. They analyze large quantities of data and write scientific papers on their findings. Most astronomers spend only a few weeks each year making observations with tele­ scopes, radio telescopes, and other instruments. Contrary to the popu­ lar image, astronomers almost never make observations by looking directly through a telescope because enhanced photographic and elec­ tronic detecting equipment is more effective than the human eye. Most physicists specialize in one of many subfields—elementary particle physics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; physics of condensed matter (solid-state physics); optics; acoustics; health physics; plasma physics; or the physics of fluids. Some spe­ cialize in a subdivision of one of these subfields; for example, within solid-state physics, specialties include superconductivity, crystallog­ raphy, and semiconductors. However, since all physics involves the same fundamental principles, specialties may overlap, and physicists may switch from one subfield to another. Growing numbers of physicists work in combined fields such as  Professional Specialty Occupations  biophysics, chemical physics, and geophysics. Furthermore, the prac­ tical applications of physicists’ work increasingly have merged with engineering. Working Conditions Physicists usually work regular hours in laboratories and offices. At times, however, those who are deeply involved in research may work long or irregular hours. Most do not encounter unusual hazards in their work. Some physicists work away from home temporarily at na­ tional or international facilities with unique equipment such as parti­ cle accelerators. Astronomers who make observations may travel to observatories, which are usually in remote locations, and frequently work at night. Employment Physicists and astronomers held nearly 20,000 jobs in 1990. About the same number held physics faculty positions in colleges and uni­ versities. (See the statement on college and university faculty else­ where in the Handbook.) About two-fifths of all nonfaculty physicists worked for research, development, and testing laboratories. The Fed­ eral Government employed over one-fifth, mostly in the Departments of Defense and Commerce and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Others worked in colleges and universities in nonfac­ ulty positions and for aerospace firms, noncommercial research labo­ ratories, electrical equipment manufacturers, engineering services firms, and the transportation equipment industry. Although physicists are employed in all parts of the country, most are in areas that have heavy industrial concentrations and large re­ search and development laboratories. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree is the usual educational requirement for physicists and astronomers, since most jobs are in research and development or in teaching at large universities or 4-year colleges. Those having bachelor’s or master’s degrees in physics are gener­ ally qualified to work in an engineering-related area or other scientif­ ic fields, to work as technicians, or to assist in setting up laboratories. Some may qualify for applied research jobs in private industry and in the Federal Government, and a master’s degree is often sufficient for teaching jobs in 2-year colleges. Astronomy bachelor’s degree hold-  99  ers usually enter a field unrelated to astronomy. (See statements on engineers, geologists and geophysicists, computer programmers, and computer systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) About 750 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in physics. The undergraduate program provides a broad background in the natural sciences and mathematics. Typical physics courses in­ clude mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, thermodynamics, and atomic, nuclear, and particle physics. About 170 colleges and universities have physics departments which offer Ph.D. degrees in physics. Graduate students usually con­ centrate in a subfield of physics such as elementary particles or con­ densed matter. Many begin studying for their doctorates immediately after their bachelor’s degree. About 72 universities offer the Ph.D. degree in astronomy, either through an astronomy department, a physics department, or a com­ bined physics/astronomy department. Applicants to astronomy doc­ toral programs face keen competition for available slots. Those planning a career in astronomy should have a very strong physics background—in fact, an undergraduate degree in physics is highly recommended, followed by a Ph.D. in astronomy. Mathematical ability, computer skills, an inquisitive mind, imagi­ nation, and the ability to work independently are important traits for anyone planning a career in physics or astronomy. Many Ph.D. physics and astronomy graduates choose to take a postdoctoral position, which is helpful for physicists who want to continue research in their specialty and for those who plan a career teaching at the university level. Beginning physicists, especially those without a Ph.D., often do routine work under the close supervision of more senior scientists. After some experience, they are assigned more complex tasks and given more independence. Physicists who develop new products or processes sometimes form their own companies or join new firms to exploit their own ideas. Job Outlook The employment of physicists and astronomers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Because a large proportion of physicists and astronomers are employed on research projects, changes in research and development budgets could have a major impact on the growth of jobs. In poor economic times, industrial and governmental research and develop­ ment budgets may not grow much, causing little employment growth in these occupations. However, employment opportunities are expect­ ed to improve in the late 1990’s, when many physics and astronomy faculty will be eligible for retirement. As is the case in many occupations, employment growth for physi­ cists differs by subfield. The number of positions available for certain specialists rises and falls depending on which research and develop­ ment projects are funded. Persons with only a bachelor’s degree in physics are not qualified to enter most physicist jobs. However, many find jobs as engineers, technicians, computer specialists, or high school physics teachers. (See the statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Earnings Starting salaries for physicists averaged about $29,200 a year in 1990 for those with a bachelor’s degree, $31,500 for those with a master’s degree, and $41,500 for those with a doctoral degree, according to the College Placement Council. The American Institute of Physics reported a median salary of $58,000 in 1990 for its members with Ph.D.’s. Average earnings for physicists in the Federal Government in 1991 were $56,642 a year, and for astronomy and space scientists, $60,354.  Physicists usually specialize in a subfield ofphysics, such as optics, acoustics, or atomic and molecular physics.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations The work of physicists is closely related to that of other scientific oc­ cupations such as chemist, geologist, and geophysicist. Engineers and engineering and science technicians also use the principles of physics in their work.  100  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities in physics is available from: American Institute of Physics, 335 East 45th St., New York, NY 10017. »- American Physical Society, 335 East 45th St., New York, NY 10017.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For a pamphlet containing information on careers in astronomy and on schools offering training in the field, send your request and 35 cents to: *•" Education Officer, American Astronomical Society, University of Texas, Department of Astronomy, Austin, TX 78712-1083.  Lawyers and Judges (D.O.T. 110; 111; 119.107, .117, .167-010, .267-014; 169.267-010)  Laws affect every aspect of our society. They regulate the entire spec­ trum of relationships among individuals, groups, businesses, and gov­ ernments. They define rights as well as restrictions, covering such diverse activities as judging and punishing criminals, granting patents, drawing up business contracts, paying taxes, settling labor disputes, constructing buildings, and administering wills. Because social needs and attitudes are continually changing, the legal system that regulates our social, political, and economic rela­ tionships also changes. Lawyers and judges link the legal system and society. To perform this role, they must understand the world around them and be sensitive to the numerous aspects of society that the law touches. They must comprehend not only the words of a particular statute, but the human circumstances it addresses as well. As our laws grow more complex, the work of lawyers and judges takes on broader significance. Laws affect our lives in a variety of ways as the legal system performs regulatory tasks in areas such as transportation, commerce, consumer protection, the environment, and social welfare. Lawyers interpret these laws, rulings, and regulations for individuals and businesses, and serve as their advocates in resolv­ ing disputes. When disputes must be settled in court, judges hear each side of the disputes and administer resolutions. Through their deci­ sions, judges play an important role in the development of common law by interpreting how particular laws apply to specific circum­ stances. Nature of the Work Lawyers. Lawyers, also called attorneys, act as both advocates and advisors in our society. As advocates, they represent one of the op­ posing parties in criminal and civil trials by presenting arguments that support their client in court. As advisors, lawyers counsel their clients as to their legal rights and obligations and suggest particular courses of action in business and personal matters. Whether acting as advocates or advisors, nearly all attorneys have certain activities in common. Probably the most fundamental activi­ ties are the interpretation of the law and its application to a specific situation. This requires in-depth research into the purposes behind the applicable laws and into judicial decisions that have been applied to those laws under circumstances similar to those currently faced by the client. Based on this research, attorneys advise clients what ac­ tions would best serve their interests. A growing number of lawyers are using computers in legal re­ search. While all lawyers continue to make use of law libraries to prepare cases, some supplement their search of the conventional printed sources with computer software packages that automatically search the legal literature and identify legal texts that may be relevant to a specific subject. In litigation that involves many supporting doc­ uments, lawyers may also use computers to organize and index the material. Tax lawyers are also increasingly using computers to make tax computations and explore alternative tax strategies for clients. Lawyers must deal with people in a courteous, efficient manner and not disclose matters discussed in confidence with clients. They hold positions of great responsibility, and are obligated to adhere to strict rules of ethics. Finally, most lawyers write reports or briefs which must communi­ cate clearly and precisely. The more detailed aspects of a lawyer’s job depend upon his or her field of specialization and position. While all lawyers are allowed to represent parties in court, some appear in court more frequently than others. Some lawyers specialize in trial work. These lawyers need an exceptional ability to think quickly and speak with ease and authority, and must be thoroughly , familiar with courtroom rules and strategy. Trial lawyers still spepa most of their time outside the courtroom conducting research, jnfct^/  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  viewing clients and witnesses, and handling other details in prepara­ tion for trial. Although most lawyers deal with many different areas of the law, a significant number concentrate on one branch of law, such as admi­ ralty, probate, or international law. Communications lawyers, for ex­ ample, may represent radio and television stations in court and in their dealings with the Federal Communications Commission. They help established stations prepare and file license renewal applica­ tions, employment reports, and other documents required by the FCC on a regular basis. They also keep their clients informed of changes in FCC regulations. Communications lawyers help individuals or cor­ porations buy or sell a station or establish a new one. Lawyers who represent public utilities before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and other Federal and State regulatory agen­ cies handle matters involving utility rates. They develop strategy, ar­ guments, and testimony; prepare cases for presentation; and argue the case. These lawyers also inform clients about changes in regulations and give advice about the legality of their actions. Still other lawyers advise insurance companies about the legality of insurance transactions. They write insurance policies to conform with the law and to protect companies from unwarranted claims. They review claims filed against insurance companies and represent the companies in court. The largest single group of lawyers are in private practice where they may concentrate on civil law, areas such as litigation, wills, trusts, contracts, mortgages, titles, and leases. Some manage a per­ son’s property as trustee or, as executor, see that provisions of a client’s will are carried out. Others handle only public interest cases—civil or criminal—which have a potential impact extending well beyond the individual client. A lawyer may be employed full time by a single client. If the client is a corporation, the lawyer is known as house counsel and usually advises a company about legal questions that arise from its business activities. These questions might involve patents, government regula­ tions, a business contract with another company, a property interest, or a collective bargaining agreement with a union. Attorneys employed at the various levels of government constitute still another category. These lawyers are an important part of the criminal justice system and may work for a State attorney general, a prosecutor or public defender, or a court. At the Federal level, attor­ neys may investigate cases for the Department of Justice or other agencies. Also, lawyers at every government level help develop laws and programs, draft and interpret legislation, establish enforcement procedures, and argue cases. Other lawyers work for legal aid societies—private, nonprofit cor­ porations established to serve disadvantaged people. These lawyers generally handle civil rather than criminal cases. A relatively small number of trained attorneys work in law schools. Most are faculty members who specialize in one or more subjects, while others serve as administrators. Some work full time in nonacademic settings and teach part time. (For additional informa­ tion, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some lawyers become judges, although not all judges have practiced law. Judges. Judges oversee the legal process that in courts of law re­ solves civil disputes and determines guilt in criminal cases according to Federal and State laws and those of local jurisdictions. They pre­ side over cases touching on virtually every aspect of society, from traffic offenses to disputes over management of professional sports, from the rights of huge corporations to questions of disconnecting life support equipment for terminally ill persons. They are responsible for insuring that trials and hearings are conducted fairly and that justice is administered in a manner that safeguards the legal rights of all par­ ties involved. Judges preside over trials or hearings and listen as at­ torneys representing the parties present and argue their cases. They 101  102  Occupational Outlook Handbook  rule on the admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testi­ mony, and settle disputes between the opposing attorneys. They in­ sure that rules and procedures are followed, and if unusual circumstances arise for which standard procedures have not been es­ tablished, judges direct how the trial will proceed based on their knowledge of the law. Judges often hold pretrial hearings for cases. They listen to allega­ tions and, based on the evidence presented, determine whether they have enough merit for a trial to be held. In criminal cases, judges may decide that persons charged with crimes should be held in jail pend­ ing their trial, or may set conditions for release through the trial. In civil cases, judges may impose restrictions upon the parties until a trial is held. When trials are held, juries are often selected to decide cases. However, judges decide cases when the law does not require a jury trial, or when the parties waive their right to a jury. Judges instruct ju­ ries on applicable laws, direct them to deduce the facts from the evi­ dence presented, and hear their verdict. Judges sentence those convicted in criminal cases in many States. They also award relief to litigants including, where appropriate, compensation for damages in civil cases. Judges’ duties vary according to the extent of their jurisdictions and powers. General trial court judges of the Federal and State court systems have jurisdiction over any case in their system. They gener­ ally try civil cases that transcend the jurisdiction of lower courts, and all cases involving felony offenses. Federal and State appellate court judges, although few in number, have the power to overrule decisions made by trial court or administrative law judges if they determine that errors were made in a case, or if legal precedent does not support the judgement of the lower court. They rule on fewer cases and rarely have direct contacts with the people involved. The majority of State court judges preside in courts whose jurisdic­ tion is limited by law to certain types of cases. A variety of titles are assigned to these judges, but among the most common are municipal court judge, county court judge, magistrate, or justice of the peace. Traffic violations, misdemeanors, small claims cases, and pretrial hearings constitute the bulk of the work of these judges, but some States allow them to handle cases involving domestic relations, pro­ bate, contracts, and selected other areas of the law.  *  „  Attorneys spend many hours researching applicable laws and past judicial decisions.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Administrative law judges or hearing officers are employed by government agencies to rule on appeals of agency administrative de­ cisions regarding such things as a person’s eligibility for various so­ cial insurance benefits or worker’s compensation, protection of the environment, enforcement of health and safety regulations, and com­ pliance with economic regulatory requirements. Working Conditions Lawyers and judges do most of their work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms. Lawyers sometimes meet in clients’ homes or places of business and, when necessary, in hospitals or prisons. They fre­ quently travel to attend meetings; to gather evidence; and to appear before courts, legislative bodies, and other authorities. Salaried lawyers in government and private corporations generally have structured work schedules. Lawyers in private practice may work irregular hours while conducting research, conferring with clients, or preparing briefs during nonoffice hours. Lawyers often work long hours, and about half regularly work 50 hours or more per week. They are under particularly heavy pressure, for example, when a case is being tried. Preparation for court includes keeping abreast of the latest laws and judicial decisions. Many judges work a standard 40-hour week, but the caseload of some judges requires that they work over 50 hours per week. In addi­ tion, many judges spend as many hours outside of court preparing for trials, researching points of law, and preparing rulings and judge­ ments as they do on the bench. Some judges with limited jurisdiction are employed part time and divide their time between their judicial responsibilities and other careers. Although work generally is not seasonal, the work of tax lawyers and other specialists may be an exception. Since lawyers in private practice can often determine their own workload and when they will retire, many stay in practice well beyond the usual retirement age. Employment Lawyers and judges held about 633,000 jobs in 1990. About fourfifths of the 587,000 lawyers practiced privately, either in law firms or in solo practices. Most of the remaining lawyers held positions in government, the greatest number at the local level. In the Federal Government, lawyers are concentrated in the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and Defense, but they work for other Federal agencies as well. Other lawyers are employed as house counsel by public utilities, banks, insurance companies, real estate agencies, manufacturing firms, welfare and religious organizations, and other business firms and nonprofit organizations. Some salaried lawyers also have part­ time independent practices; others work as lawyers part time while working full time in another occupation. Judges held 46,000 jobs in 1990. All worked for Federal, State, or local governments, with about half holding positions in State govern­ ment. Most of the remainder were employed at the local level. Many people trained as lawyers are not employed as lawyers or judges; they work as law clerks, law school professors, managers and administrators, and in a variety of other occupations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement To practice law in the courts of any State or other jurisdiction, a per­ son must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the jurisdiction's highest court. Nearly all require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examination. Most juris­ dictions also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics ex­ amination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one jurisdiction occasionally may be admitted to the bar in another with­ out taking an examination if they meet that jurisdiction’s standards of good moral character and have a specified period of legal experience. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must complete at least 3 years of college and graduate from a law school approved by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. (ABA approval signifies that the law  Professional Specialty Occupations  school—particularly its library and faculty—meets certain standards developed by the Association to promote quality legal education.) In 1990, the American Bar Association approved 175 law schools. Oth­ ers were approved by State authorities only. With certain exceptions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA generally are restrict­ ed to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. Seven States accept the study of law in a law office or in combination with study in a law school; only California accepts the study of law by correspondence as qualifying for taking the bar examination. Several States require registration and approval of stu­ dents by the State Board of Law Examiners, either before they enter law school or during the early years of legal study. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 46 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, Saipan, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of the bar ex­ amination; the MBE is not required in Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, and Washington. The MBE, covering issues of broad interest, is given in addition to a locally prepared 6-hour State bar examination. The 3hour Multistate Essay Examination (MSEE) is used as part of the State bar examination in eight States, and additional States are con­ sidering adding it as a requirement. States vary in their use of MBE and MSEE scores. . The required college and law school education usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school—4 years of undergraduate study followed by 3 years in law school. Although some law schools accept a very small number of students after 3 years of college, most require applicants to have a bachelor’s degree. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions which usually require 4 years of study. In 1990, about one 1 of 6 graduates of ABA-approved schools were part-time students. Preparation for a career as a lawyer really begins in college. Al­ though there is no recommended “prelaw” major, the choice of an undergraduate program is important. Certain courses and activities are desirable because they give the student the skills needed to suc­ ceed both in law school and in the profession. Essential skills—profi.ciency in writing, reading and analyzing, thinking logically, and communicating verbally—are learned during high school and college. An undergraduate program that cultivates these skills while broaden­ ing the student’s view of the world is desirable. Majors in the social sciences, natural sciences, and humanities all are suitable, although a student should not specialize too narrowly. Regardless of one’s major, courses in English, a foreign language, public speaking, government, ^philosophy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful; for example, engineering and science courses for the prospective patent attorney, and accounting for the future tax lawyer. In addition, word processing is advisable simply for convenience in law school and on the job. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant’s ability to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through good undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant’s undergraduate school, any prior work expe­ rience, and sometimes a personal interview. However, law schools vary in the weight that they place on each of these factors. Nearly all law schools require that applicants take the LSAT and that they have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Data As­ sembly Service. This service then sends applicants’ LSAT scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. Both this service and the LSAT are administered by the Law School Admission Services. Competition for admission to many law schools is intense. Enroll­ ments rose very rapidly during the 1970’s, with applicants far outnum­ bering available seats. Since then, law school enrollments have remained relatively unchanged and the number of applicants has fluctu­ ated, however, the number of applicants to most law schools still greatly exceeds the number that can be admitted. Enrollments are expected to  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  103  remain at about their present level through the year 2005, and competi­ tion for admission to the more prestigious law schools will remain keen. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students gen­ erally study fundamental courses such as constitutional law, con­ tracts, property law, torts, judicial procedures, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may elect specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporation law. Practical experience often is ac­ quired by participation in school sponsored legal aid or legal clinic activities, in the school’s moot court competitions in which students conduct appellate arguments, in practice trials under the supervision of experienced lawyers and judges, and through research and writing on legal issues for the school’s law journal. In 1990, law students in 38 States and other jurisdiction were re­ quired to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on profes­ sional responsibility and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. A number of law schools have clinical programs where students gain legal experience through practice trials and law school projects under the supervision of practicing lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid clinics, for example,-or on the staff of legislative committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corporate legal departments also provide experience that can be extremely valu­ able later on. Such training can provide references or lead directly to a job after graduation, and can help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Clerkships also may be an important source of financial aid. Graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.) or bachelor of law (LL.B.) as the first professional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desirable for those planning to specialize, do research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs, which gener­ ally require an additional year. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including law and business administration and law and public administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practice. An attorney representing electronics manufacturers, for example, must follow trade journals and the latest Federal regulations. Attorneys in the Department of State must remain well versed in current events and international law, while divorce lawyers read about the changing role of the family in modern society. Many law schools and State and local bar associa­ tions provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent developments. The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Persons planning careers in law should like to work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the public. Integrity and honesty are vital personal qualities. Persever­ ance and reasoning ability are essential to analyze complex cases and reach sound conclusions. Lawyers also need creativity when handling new and unique legal problems. Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired salaried attorneys usually act as research assistants to experienced lawyers or judges. After several years of progressively more respon­ sible salaried employment, some lawyers are admitted to partnership in their firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some lawyers, after years of practice, become full-time law school faculty or administra­ tors; a growing number have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some persons use their legal training in administrative or manage­ rial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation’s legal department to another department often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management. Experience in the practice of law is required, or at least strongly preferred, for most judgeships. All Federal judges and State trial and appellate court judges are required to be lawyers or “learned in law.” Some judges with limited jurisdiction are not required to be lawyers, but nonlawyers are being phased out in many States, or the positions  104  Occupational Outlook Handbook  are being eliminated. Federal administrative law judges must be lawyers and pass a competitive examination administered by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Many State administrative law judges and other hearing officials are not required to be lawyers, but law degrees are preferred for most positions. Federal judges are appointed for life by the President, with the con­ sent of the Senate. Federal administrative law judges are appointed by the various Federal agencies with virtually lifetime tenure. About half of all State judges are appointed, while the remainder are elected in partisan or nonpartisan State elections. Most State and local judges serve fixed terms, which range from 4 or 6 years for most limited ju­ risdiction judgeships to as long as 14 years for some appellate court judges. Judicial nominating commissions, composed of members of the bar and the public, are used to screen candidates for judgeships in many States, as well as for Federal judgeships. Job Outlook Persons seeking positions as lawyers or judges should encounter competition through the year 2005, although for lawyer positions it is expected to gradually lessen as employment grows. The prestige as­ sociated with serving as a judge should insure continued intense com­ petition for openings on the bench. Public concerns about crime, safety, and efficient administration of justice should cause employ­ ment of judges to increase about as fast as the average for all occupa­ tions through the year 2005. Employment of lawyers has grown very rapidly since the early 1970’s, and is expected to continue to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Increased population and growing business activity will help sustain the strong growth in de­ mand for lawyers. This demand also will be spurred by growth of legal action in such areas as employee benefits, consumer protection, criminal prosecution, the environment, and finance, and an anticipat­ ed increase in the use of legal services by middle-income groups through legal clinics and prepaid legal service programs. Rapid growth in the Nation’s requirements for lawyers is expected to bring job openings into rough balance with the relatively stable number of law school graduates each year, which will gradually ease competition for jobs through the year 2005. During the 1970’s, the an­ nual number of law school graduates more than doubled, even outpac­ ing the rapid growth of jobs. Growth in the yearly number of law school graduates tapered off during the 1980’s, but, nevertheless, the number remains at a level high enough to strain the economy’s capaci­ ty to absorb them. Although graduates with superior academic records from well-regarded law schools will continue to enjoy excellent op­ portunities, most graduates will encounter competition for jobs. Turnover among lawyers and judges is low because they are gener­ ally well paid, enjoy considerable social status, and have made a sub­ stantial educational investment for entry into the field. Nevertheless, the majority of job openings will stem from the need to replace lawyers and judges who transfer to other occupations or retire or stop working for other reasons. Employment growth of lawyers will continue to be concentrated in salaried jobs, as businesses and all levels of government employ a growing number of staff attorneys, and as employment in the legal services industry is increasingly concentrated in larger law firms. The number of self-employed lawyers is expected to continue to increase slowly, reflecting the difficulty of establishing a profitable new prac­ tice in the face of competition from larger, established law firms. Also, the growing complexity of law—which encourages specializa­ tion—and the cost of maintaining up-to-date legal research materials both favor larger firms. Large national and regional law firms will continue to be selective in hiring new lawyers for associate positions that offer the potential for partnership status. Graduates of prestigious law schools and those who rank high in their classes should have the best opportunities for such positions. Graduates of less prominent schools and those with lower scholastic ratings may experience difficulty in securing associ­ ate positions with partnership potential but should experience an eas­ ing of competition for positions with smaller law firms, and for  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  salaried jobs on the legal staffs of corporations and government agen­ cies. As in the past, some graduates may continue to be forced to ac­ cept positions for which they are overqualifed or in areas outside their field of interest. They may have to enter fields where legal train­ ing is an asset but not normally a requirement. For example, banks, insurance firms, real estate companies, government agencies, and other organizations seek law graduates to fill many administrative, managerial, and business positions. Due to the competition for jobs, a law graduate’s geographic mo­ bility and work experience assume greater importance. The willing­ ness to relocate may be an advantage in getting a job, but to be licensed in a new State, a lawyer may have to take an additional State bar examination. In addition, employers increasingly seek graduates who have advanced law degrees and experience in a particular field such as tax, patent, or admiralty law. Establishing a new practice probably will continue to be easiest in small towns and expanding suburban areas, as long as an active mar­ ket for legal services already exists. In such communities, competi­ tion from larger established law firms is likely to be less than in big cities, and new lawyers may find it easier to become known to poten­ tial clients; also, rent and other business costs are somewhat lower. Nevertheless, starting a new practice will remain an expensive and risky undertaking that should be weighed carefully. Most salaried po­ sitions will remain in urban areas where government agencies, law firms, and big corporations are concentrated. Some lawyers are adversely affected by cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions, the demand for some discretionary legal services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions, declines. Also, corporations are less likely to liti­ gate cases when declining sales and profits result in budgetary restric­ tions. Although few lawyers actually lose their jobs during these times, earnings may decline for many. Some corporations and law firms will not hire new attorneys until business improves. Several factors, however, mitigate the overall impact of recessions on lawyers. During recessions, individuals and corporations face other legal problems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and divorces, that require legal action. Furthermore, new laws and legal interpretations will create new opportunities for lawyers. Earnings Annual salaries of beginning lawyers in private industry averaged about $47,000 in 1990, but top graduates from the Nation’s best law schools started in some cases at over $80,000 a year. In the Federal Government, annual starting salaries for attorneys in 1990 were about $25,000 or $31,000, depending upon academic and personal qualifi­ cations. Factors affecting the salaries offered to new graduates in­ clude: Academic record; type, size, and location of employer; and the desired specialized educational background. The field of law makes a difference, too. Patent lawyers, for example, generally are among the highest paid attorneys. Salaries of experienced attorneys also vary widely according to the type, size, and location of their employer. The average salary of the most experienced lawyers in private industry in 1990 was over $120,000, but some senior lawyers who were partners in the Nation’s top law firms earned over $1 million. General attorneys in the Federal Government averaged around $53,300 a year in 1990; the relatively small number of patent attorneys in the Federal Government aver­ aged around $62,700. Lawyers on salary receive increases as they assume greater respon­ sibility. Lawyers starting their own practice may need to work part time in other occupations during the first years to supplement their income. Their incomes usually grow as their practices develop. Lawyers who are partners in law firms generally earn more than those who practice alone. Federal trial court judges had salaries of $125,100 in 1991, while appellate court judges earned $132,700 a year. Federal judges with limited jurisdiction, such as magistrates and bankruptcy court judges, had salaries of $115,100 in 1991. Full-time Federal administrative law judges had average salaries of $72,300 in 1990.  Professional Specialty Occupations  105  Annual salaries of State trial court judges averaged nearly $77,500 in 1991, according to a survey by the National Center for State Courts, and ranged from about $55,200 to $100,000. Salaries of State appellate court judges averaged nearly $85,300, but ranged from $67,500 to $113,400. Salaries of State judges with limited jurisdic­ tion varied widely; some part-time judges were paid as little as $500 a year in 1991, while some who worked full-time earned as much as $98,000 annually. Most salaried lawyers and judges were provided health and life in­ surance, and contributions were made on their behalf to retirement plans. Lawyers who practiced independently were only covered by such benefits if they arranged and paid for them themselves.  Education in the United States, which provides detailed information on each of the 175 law schools approved by the ABA, State require­ ments for admission to legal practice, a directory of State bar exami­ nation administrators, and other information on legal education. Single copies are free from the ABA, but there is a fee for multiple copies. Free information on the bar examination, financial aid for law students, and law as a career may also be obtained from: >*■ Information Services, American Bar Association, 750 North Lake Shore  Related Occupations Legal training is useful in many other occupations. Some of these are paralegal, arbitrator, journalist, patent agent, title examiner, legisla­ tive assistant, lobbyist, FBI special agent, political office holder, and corporate executive.  Information on the LSAT, the Law School Data Assembly Service, and financial aid for law students may be obtained from:  Sources of Additional Information The American Bar Association annually publishes A Review of Legal   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  Information on legal education and applying to law school is avail­ able from: Association of American Law Schools, 1201 Connecticut Ave. NW., Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036.  Law School Admission Services, Box 2000, Newtown, PA 18940.  The specific requirements for admission to the bar in a particular State or other jurisdiction may also be obtained at the State capital from the clerk of the Supreme Court or the administrator of the State Board of Bar Examiners.  Social Scientists and Urban Planners Nature of the Work Social scientists study all aspects of human society—from the distri­ bution of products and services to newly formed religious groups or plans for modern mass transportation systems. Social science re­ search provides insights that help us understand the many different ways in which individuals and groups make decisions, exercise power, or respond to change. Through their studies and analyses, so­ cial scientists and urban planners assist educators, government offi­ cials, business leaders, and others in solving social, economic, and environmental problems. Research is a basic activity for many social scientists. They use es­ tablished or newly discovered methods to assemble facts and theory that contribute to human knowledge. Applied research usually is de­ signed to produce information that will enable people to make better decisions or manage their affairs more effectively. Interviews and sur­ veys are widely used to collect facts, opinions, or other information. Data collection takes many other forms, however, including living and working among the people studied; archaeological and other field investigations; the analysis of historical records and documents; ex­ periments with human subjects or animals in a psychological labora­ tory; the administration of standardized tests and questionnaires; and the preparation and interpretation of maps and graphic materials. Social sciences are interdisciplinary in nature. Specialists in one field often find that the research they are performing overlaps work that is being conducted in another social science discipline. Regard­ less of their field of specialization, social scientists are concerned with some aspect of society, culture, or personality. Anthropologists seek to discover principles of human behavior that are applicable to all communities. They study the way of life, re­ mains, language, and physical characteristics of people in all parts of the world; they compare the customs, values, and social patterns of different cultures. Anthropologists generally concentrate in one of four subfields: Sociocultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, or biological-physical anthropology. Most anthropologists specialize in sociocultural anthropology, studying the customs, cultures, and so­ cial lives of groups in a wide range of settings from nonindustrialized societies to modem urban cultures. Archaeologists study the remains and artifacts of earlier cultures to determine their history, customs, and living habits. Linguistic anthropologists study the role of lan­ guage in various cultures. Biological-physical anthropologists study the evolution of the human body and look for the earliest evidences of human life. Economists and marketing research analysts, who account for nearly 1 out of 6 social scientists, study the way we allocate our re­ sources to produce a wide variety of goods and services. They con­ duct surveys and analyze data to determine public preferences for these goods and services. Most economists are concerned with the practical applications of economic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agriculture, transportation, energy, or health. Others develop theories to explain economic phenomena such as unemploy­ ment or inflation. Geographers study the distribution of both physical and cultural phenomena at local, regional, continental, and global scales. Geogra­ phers specialize, as a rule. Economic geographers study the areal dis­ tribution of resources and economic activities. Political geographers are concerned with the relationship of geography to political phenom­ ena—local, national, and international. Physical geographers study the distribution of climates, vegetation, soil, and land forms. Urban and transportation geographers study cities and metropolitan areas, while regional geographers study the physical, climatic, economic, political, and cultural characteristics of regions, ranging in size from a congressional district, to a State, country, continent, or the entire world. Medical geographers study health care delivery systems, epi­ demiology, and the effect of the environment on health. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—a relatively new specialty—combines computer graphics, artificial intelligence, and high-speed communi­ 106   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  cation to store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze, and map geographic data. GIS is used in many specialties, including weather forecasting, emergency management, and resource analysis and management. (Some occupational classification systems include geographers under physical scientists rather than social scientists.) Historians research and analyze the past. Historians usually spe­ cialize in a specific country or region; in a particular time period; or in a particular field, such as social, intellectual, political, or diplomat­ ic history. Biographers collect detailed information on individuals. Genealogists trace family histories. Other historians help study and preserve archives, artifacts, and historic buildings and sites. Political scientists investigate the ways in which political power is organized, distributed, and used. They study a wide range of subjects such as Soviet-American relations, the beliefs and institutions of na­ tions in Asia and Africa, the politics of a New England town or a major metropolis, and the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. Studying topics such as public opinion, political decisionmaking, and ideology, they analyze the structure and operation of governments as well as informal political entities. Depending on the topic under study, a political scientist might conduct a public opinion survey, ana­ lyze election results, or analyze public documents. Psychologists, who constitute over half of all social scientists, study human behavior and use their expertise to counsel or advise in­ dividuals or groups. Their research also assists advertisers, politi­ cians, and others interested in influencing or motivating people. While clinical psychology is the largest specialty, psychologists spe­ cialize in many other fields such as counseling, experimental, social, or industrial psychology. Sociologists analyze the behavior of groups or social systems such as families, neighborhoods, or clubs. Sociologists may specialize in a particular field such as criminology, rural sociology, or medical soci­ ology. Urban and regional planners develop comprehensive plans and programs for the use of land for industrial and public sites. Planners prepare for situations that are likely to develop as a result of popula­ tion growth or social and economic change. Working Conditions Most social scientists have regular hours. While working alone be­ hind a desk, they read and write research reports. Many experience the pressures of deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes must work overtime. Social scientists often work as an intergral part of a research team. Their routine may be interrupted by telephone calls, letters to answer, special requests for information, meetings, or con­ ferences. Travel may be necessary to collect information or attend meetings. Social scientists on foreign assignment must adjust to unfa­ miliar cultures and climates. Some social scientists do fieldwork. For example, anthropologists, archaeologists, and geographers often must travel to remote areas to live among the people they study or stay for long periods at the site of their investigations. They may work under primitive conditions, and their work may involve digging, lifting, and carrying heavy objects. Employment Social scientists held about 224,000 jobs in 1990. They worked for a wide range of employers, including government agencies; research organizations and consulting firms; international organizations; asso­ ciations; museums; historical societies; securities and commodities dealers; social service agencies; hospitals and other health facilities; and business firms. About 3 out of 10 social scientists are self-employed and involved in counseling, consulting, research, and related activities. In addition, many persons with graduate training, usually a doctoral degree, in a social science discipline are employed by colleges and universities, where they characteristically combine teaching with research and consulting. (For more information, see the Handbook statement on  Professional Specialty Occupations  college and university faculty.) As a source of employment, the aca­ demic world is more important for graduates in anthropology, sociol­ ogy, or political science than for graduates in urban and regional planning or psychology. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational attainment among social scientists is significantly higher than for most other occupations. The Ph.D. or equivalent degree is a minimum requirement for most positions in colleges and universities and is important for advancement to many top-level nonacademic re­ search and administrative posts. Graduates with master’s degrees generally have better professional opportunities outside of colleges and universities, although the situation varies by field. For example, job prospects for master’s degree holders in urban and regional plan­ ning are brighter than for master’s degree holders in sociology. Grad­ uates with a master’s degree in a social science discipline qualify for teaching positions in junior colleges. Bachelor’s degree holders have very limited opportunities and in most social science occupations do not qualify for “professional” positions. The bachelor’s degree does, however, provide a suitable background for many different kinds of “junior professional” jobs, such as research assistant, administrative aide, or management trainee. Training in statistics and mathematics is essential for most social scientists. Mathematical and other quantitative research methods are increasingly used in economics, geography, political science, experi­ mental psychology, and other fields. The ability to use computers for research purposes is a “must” in many disciplines. Depending on their jobs, social scientists and urban planners may need a wide range of personal characteristics. Because they constant­ ly seek new information about people, things, and ideas, intellectual curiosity and creativity are two fundamental personal traits. The abili­ ty to think logically and methodically is important to a political scien­ tist comparing the merits of various forms of government. The ability to analyze data is important to an economist studying proposals to re­ duce Federal budget deficits. Objectivity, openmindedness, and sys­ tematic work habits are important in all kinds of social science research. Perseverance is essential for an anthropologist, who might spend years accumulating artifacts from an ancient civilization. Emo­ tional stability and sensitivity are vital to a clinical psychologist working with mental patients. And, of course, written and oral com­ munication skills are essential to all these workers. Job Outlook Employment of social scientists is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, spurred pri­ marily by rapid growth among psychologists —the largest social sci­ ence occupation. Economists and marketing research analysts and urban and regional planners should experience average growth, while all other social scientists combined, including anthropologists, geog­ raphers, historians, political scientists, and sociologists, will experi­ ence slower than average growth. Most job openings will result from the need to replace social scientists who transfer to other occupations or stop working altogether. Opportunities are best for those with advanced degrees. Social sci­ entists currently face competition for academic positions. However, competition may ease in the future due to the wave of retirements ex­ pected among college and university faculty. Prospects are generally better in disciplines such as economics, psychology, and urban and regional planning, which offer many op­ portunities in nonacademic settings. However, graduates in all other social science fields are expected to find enhanced job opportunities in applied fields due to the excellent research, organizational, and quantitative skills they develop in school. Many graduates find em­ ployment in associations, financial instititions, health organizations, research firms, and government agencies. The growing number of historical societies has renewed demand for historians as curators, di­ rectors, and archivists. Rising concern over environmental and eco­ logical issues is spurring demand for geographers, anthropologists, archaeologists, and other social scientists. Increasing emphasis on in­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  107  ternational competition is creating demand for anthropolgists and ar­ chaeologists to study and evaluate cultural diversities. Rising impor­ tance of social science subjects in secondary schools is strengthening the demand for social science teachers at this level. (For additional information, see the statement on secondary school teachers else­ where in the Handbook.) Other considerations that affect employment opportunities in these occupations include specific skills and technical expertise; desired work setting; salary requirements; and geographic mobility. In addi­ tion, experience acquired through internships can prove invaluable later in obtaining a full-time position in a social science field. Earnings Median annual earnings of all social scientists were about $31,400 in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned between $22,000 and $51,800 annually. The lowest 10 percent earned under $16,200, while the highest 10 percent earned over $67,800. According to the College Placement Council, persons with a bach­ elor’s degree in a social science field received starting offers averag­ ing about $24,200 a year in 1990. According to a 1989 National Science Foundation survey, the medi­ an annual salary of doctoral social scientists was $50,400. In the Federal Government, social scientists with a bachelor’s de­ gree and no experience could start at $17,000 or $21,000 a year in 1991, depending on their college records. Those with a master’s de­ gree could start at $25,700, and those having a Ph.D. degree could begin at $31,100, while some individuals could start at $37,300. The average salary of all social scientists working for the Federal Govern­ ment in 1991 was about $46,200. Like many professional occupations, social scientists often receive a fringe benefit package which includes vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans. For those entering aca­ demic careers, benefits may include summer research money, com­ puter access, housing, and secretarial support. Related Occupations A number of fields that require training and personal qualities similar to those of the various social science fields are covered elsewhere in the Handbook. These include lawyers, statisticians, mathematicians, computer programmers, computer systems analysts, reporters and correspondents, social workers, religious workers, college and uni­ versity faculty, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information More detailed information about economists and marketing research analysts, psychologists, sociologists, and urban and regional planners is presented in the Handbook statements that follow this introductory statement. Anthropology For information about careers, job openings, grants and fellowships, and schools that offer training in anthropology, and for a copy of Get­ ting a Job Outside the Academy (special publication no. 14), contact: «■ The American Anthropological Association, 1703 New Hampshire Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20009.  Archaeology For information about careers in archaeology, contact: «■ Society for American Archaeology, 808 17th St. NW., Suite 200, Washing­ ton, DC 20006. Archaeological Institute of America, 675 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215.  Geography Two pamphlets that provide information on careers and job open­ ings for geographers—Geography-Today’s Career for Tomorrow and Careers in Geography—and the annual publication listing schools of­ fering various programs in geography—A Guide to Programs of Ge­ ography in the U.S. and Canada—may be obtained from: Association of American Geographers, 1710 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  History Information on careers and job openings for historians is available from:  108  Occupational Outlook Handbook  *■ American Historical Association, 400 A St. SE., Washington, DC 20003.  General information on careers for historians is available from: *■ Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington, IN 47408.  For additional information on careers for historians, send a self-ad­ dressed, stamped envelope to: American Association for State and Local History, 172 Second Ave. N., Suite 200, Nashville, TN 37201.  Political Science Information on careers and job openings, including Careers and the Study of Political Science: A Guide for Undergraduates, which is available for $2, with bulk rates for multiple copies, may be pur­ chased from: » American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Programs in Public Affairs and Administration, a biennial directo­ ry that contains data on the academic content of programs, the student body, the format of instruction, and other information, may be pur­ chased from: «• National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, 1120 G St. NW., Suite 520, Washington, DC 20005.  Economists and Marketing Research Analysts (D.O.T. 050.067)  Nature of the Work Economists. Economists study the ways a society uses scarce resources such as land, labor, raw materials, and machinery to pro­ duce goods and services. They analyze the costs and benefits of dis­ tributing and consuming these goods and services. Economists conduct research, collect and analyze data, monitor economic trends, and develop forecasts. Their research might focus on topics such as energy costs, inflation, interest rates, farm prices, rents, imports, or employment. Most economists are concerned with practical applications of eco­ nomic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agriculture, transportation, real estate, energy, or health. They use their under­ standing of economic relationships to advise business firms, insur­ ance companies, banks, securities firms, industry associations, labor unions, government agencies, and others. On the other hand, economists who are primarily theoreticians may use mathematical models to develop theories on the causes of business cycles and infla­ tion or the effects of unemployment and tax policy. Depending on the topic under study, economists devise methods and procedures for obtaining the data they need. For example, sam­ pling techniques may be used to conduct a survey, and econometric modeling techniques may be used to develop projections. Preparing reports usually is an important part of the economist’s job. He or she may be called upon to review and analyze all the relevant data, pre­ pare tables and charts, and write up the results in clear, concise lan­ guage. Being able to present economic and statistical concepts in a meaningful way is particularly important for economists whose re­ search is policy directed. Economists who work for government agencies assess economic conditions in the United States and abroad and estimate the economic impact of specific changes in legislation or public policy. For exam­ ple, they may study how the dollar’s fluctuation against foreign cur­ rencies affects import and export markets. Most government economists are in the fields of agriculture, business, finance, labor, transportation, utilities, urban economics, or international trade. Economists in the U.S. Department of Commerce study domestic production, distribution, and consumption of commodities or ser­ vices; those in the Federal Trade Commission prepare industry analy­ ses to assist in enforcing Federal statutes designed to eliminate unfair,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  deceptive, or monopolistic practices in interstate commerce; and those in the Bureau of Labor Statistics analyze data on prices, wages, employment, productivity, and safety and health, among other things.  Marketing Research Analysts. Marketing research analysts are con­ cerned with the design, promotion, price, and distribution of a prod­ uct or service. They provide information which is used to identify and define marketing opportunities; generate, refine, and evaluate market­ ing actions; and monitor marketing performance. Like economists, marketing research analysts devise methods and procedures for ob­ taining data they need. Marketing research analysts often design sur­ veys and questionnaires; conduct telephone, personal, or mail interviews; and sometimes offer product samples to assess consumer preferences and indicate current trends. Once the data are compiled, marketing research analysts code, tabulate, and evaluate the data. They then make recommendations to management based upon their findings and suggest a course of action. They may provide manage­ ment with information to make decisions on the promotion, distribu­ tion, design, and pricing of company products or services; or to determine the advisability of adding new lines of merchandise, open­ ing new branches, or diversifying the company’s operations. Marketing research analysts employed by large organizations often work with statisticians who help them select a group of people to be interviewed who will accurately represent the prospective customers. Under an experienced marketing research analyst’s direction, trained interviewers conduct surveys and office workers tabulate the results. Working Conditions Economists and marketing research analysts working for government agencies and private firms have structured work schedules. They may work alone writing reports, preparing statistical charts, and using computers and calculators. Or they may be an integral part of a re­ search team. Most work under pressure of deadlines and tight sched­ ules, and sometimes must work overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by special requests for data, letters, meetings, or confer­ ences. Travel may be necessary to collect data or attend conferences. Economics and marketing faculty have flexible work schedules, di­ viding their time among teaching, research, consulting, and adminis­ trative responsibilities. Employment Economists and marketing research analysts held about 37,000 jobs in 1990. Private industry—particularly economic and marketing re­ search firms, management consulting firms, banks, and securities, in­ vestment, and insurance companies—employed over half of all salaried workers. The remainder, primarily economists, were em­ ployed by a wide range of government agencies, primarily in the Fed­ eral Government. The Departments of State, Labor, Agriculture, and Commerce are the largest Federal employers of economists. A num-  ....  Economists and marketing research analysts use sampling and econometric modeling techniques.  Professional Specialty Occupations  ber of economists and marketing research analysts combine a full­ time job in government or business with part-time or consulting work in another setting. Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is con­ centrated in large cities—for example, New York City, Washington, D.C., and Chicago. Some economists work abroad for companies with major international operations; for the Department of State and other U.S. Government agencies; and for international organizations, including the World Bank and the United Nations. Besides the jobs described above, many economists and marketing research analysts held economics and marketing faculty positions in colleges and universities. (For information about this occupation, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in economics or marketing is suffi­ cient for many beginning research, administrative, management trainee, and sales jobs. A strong economics background is recom­ mended. Students can choose from a variety of economics courses, ranging from microeconomics and macroeconomics, to history of economic thought or mathematical economics. For marketing majors, courses in business, marketing, and consumer behavior are recom­ mended. Courses in related disciplines, such as political science, psy­ chology, organizational behavior, sociology, finance, business law, and international relations, are suggested. Because of the importance of quantitative skills to economists and marketing researchers, cours­ es in calculus, linear algebra, statistics, sampling theory and survey design, and computer science are highly recommended. Aspiring marketing research analysts should gain experience con­ ducting interviews or surveys while in college. This experience can prove invaluable later in obtaining a full-time position in the field since much of their work in the beginning centers around conducting interviews and writing reports on findings. Beginning analysts also do considerable clerical work such as copying data, editing and cod­ ing questions, and tabulating survey results. With further experience, marketing research analysts are eventually assigned their own re­ search projects. Graduate training increasingly is required for most economist and some marketing research analyst jobs and for advancement to more responsible positions. There are many areas of specialization at the graduate level for economists, including advanced economic theory, mathematical economics, econometrics, history of economic thought, international economics, and comparative economic systems and planning. Students should select graduate schools strong in special­ ties in which they are interested. Marketing research analysts may earn a master’s degree in business administration, marketing, statis­ tics, or some related discipline. Some schools help graduate students find internships or part-time employment in government agencies, economic consulting firms, financial institutions, or marketing re­ search firms. Work experience and contacts can be useful in testing career preferences and learning about the job market for economists and marketing research analysts. In the Federal Government, candidates for beginning economist positions generally need a college degree with a minimum of 21 semester hours of economics and 3 hours of statistics, accounting, or calculus. However, because competition is keen, additional education or experience may be required. For a job as a college instructor in many junior colleges and small 4-year schools, a master’s degree generally is the minimum require­ ment. In some colleges and universities, however, a Ph.D. is neces­ sary for appointment as an instructor. The Ph.D. and extensive publication are required for a professorship and for tenure. In government, industry, research organizations, and consulting firms, economists and marketing research analysts who have a gradu­ ate degree usually can qualify for more responsible research and ad­ ministrative positions. A Ph.D. is necessary for top positions in many organizations. Many corporation and government executives have a strong background in economics or marketing.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  109  Persons considering careers as economists or marketing research analysts should be able to work accurately with detail since much time is spent on data analysis. Patience and persistence are necessary qualities for economists and marketing research analysts since they may spend long hours on independent study and problem solving. At the same time, they must be able to work well with others. Economists and marketing research analysts must be objective and systematic in their work and be able to present their findings, both orally and in writing, in a clear, meaningful way. Creativity and intel­ lectual curiosity are essential for success in these fields, just as they are in other areas of scientific endeavor. Job Outlook Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is ex­ pected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace experienced workers who transfer to other occu­ pations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Opportunities for economists should be best in financial services, research organizations, and consulting firms, reflecting the complexi­ ty of the domestic and international economies and increased reliance on quantitative methods of analyzing business trends, forecasting sales, and planning of purchasing and production. The continued need for economic analyses by lawyers, accountants, engineers, health services administrators, urban and regional planners, environ­ mental scientists, and others also will increase the number of jobs for economists. Other employment opportunities for economists exist in nonprofit organizations and trade associations. Little or no change is expected in the employment of economists in the Federal Govern­ ment—in line with the rate of growth projected for the Federal work­ force as a whole. Employment of economists in State and local government is expected to grow about as fast as the average. A strong background in economic theory, calculus, statistics, and econometrics provides the tools for acquiring any specialty within the field. Those skilled in quantitative techniques and their application to economic modeling and forecasting and marketing research, includ­ ing the use of computers, should have the best job opportunities. Persons who graduate with a bachelor’s degree in economics through the year 2005 should face very keen competition for the lim­ ited number of economist positions for which they qualify. Related work experience—conducting research, developing surveys, or ana­ lyzing data, for example—while in school is a major asset in this competitive job market. Many graduates will find employment in government, industry, and business as management or sales trainees, or as research or administrative assistants. Those with strong back­ grounds in mathematics, statistics, survey design, and computer sci­ ence may be hired by private firms for marketing research work. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school economics teachers. The demand for secondary school eco­ nomics teachers is expected to grow as more States make economics a required course. (For additional information, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Candidates who hold a master’s degree in economics have better employment prospects than bachelor’s degree holders. They face com­ petition for teaching positions in colleges and universities; however, some may gain positions in junior and community colleges. Those with a strong background in marketing and finance may have the best prospects in business, banking, and management consulting firms. Opportunities will be best for Ph.D.’s. Employment prospects for economists in colleges and universities should improve due to an ex­ pected wave of retirements among college faculty. Ph.D. graduates should also have favorable opportunities to work as economists in government, industry, educational and research organizations, and consulting firms. Demand for marketing research analysts should be strong due to increasing competition in business and industry. Marketing research provides organizations valuable feedback from purchasers, allowing companies to evaluate consumer satisfaction and more effectively plan for the future. As companies seek to expand their market and  110  Occupational Outlook Handbook  consumers become better informed, the need for marketing profes­ sionals is increasing. Opportunities for marketing research analysts should be good in a wide range of employment settings, particularly in marketing research firms, as companies find it more profitable to contract out for marketing research services rather than having their own marketing department. Other employment opportunities exist in financial organizations, health care institutions, and insurance compa­ nies. Like economists, graduates with related work experience or an advanced degree in marketing or a closely related business field should have the best job opportunities. Earnings Median annual earnings of full-time economists and marketing re­ search analysts were about $35,800 in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned between $26,200 and $51,800. The lowest 10 percent earned under $18,800, while the top 10 percent earned over $67,800. According to a 1990 salary survey by the College Placement Coun­ cil, persons with a bachelor’s degree in economics received offers av­ eraging $25,200 a year; in marketing, $23,500. The median base salary of business economists in 1990 was $60,000, according to a survey by the National Association of Busi­ ness Economists. Ninety percent of the respondents held advanced degrees. The highest salaries were reported by those who had a Ph.D., with a median salary of $67,500. Master’s degree holders earned a median salary of $54,000, while bachelor’s degree holders earned $41,700. Over half of those responding also had income from secondary employment. The highest paid business economists were in the securities and investment, nondurable manufacturing, banking, real estate, and consulting industries. The lowest paid were in academia and government. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the entrance salary for economists having a bachelor’s degree averaged about $17,000 a year in 1991; however, those with superior academic records could begin at $21,000. Those having a master’s degree could qualify for positions at an annual salary of $25,700. Those with a Ph.D. could begin at $31,100, while some individuals with experi­ ence could start at $37,300. Economists in the Federal Government averaged around $50,100 a year in 1991. As in many other professional occupations, economists and market­ ing research analysts often receive a basic benefit package which in­ cludes vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a pension plan. For those entering academic careers, benefits may include sum­ mer research money, computer access, housing, and secretarial support. Related Occupations Economists are concerned with understanding and interpreting finan­ cial matters, among other subjects. Others with jobs in this area in­ clude financial managers, financial analysts, accountants and auditors, underwriters, actuaries, securities and financial services sales workers, credit analysts, loan officers, and budget officers. Marketing research analysts are involved in social research, includ­ ing the planning, implementation, and analysis of surveys to deter­ mine people’s needs and preferences. Other jobs using these skills include social welfare research workers, employment research and planning directors, sociologists, and urban and regional planners. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers in business economics, contact: National Association of Business Economists, 28790 Chagrin Blvd., Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44122.  For information about careers and salaries in marketing research, contact;  American Marketing Association, 250 South Wacker Dr., Suite 200, Chica­ go, IL 60606. •• Marketing Research Association, 2189 Silas Deane Hwy., Suite 5, Rocky Hill, CT 06067.  For information about careers in noncollegiate academic institu­ tions, contact: «■ Joint Council on Economic Education, 432 Park Ave. South, New York, NY 10016.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Psychologists (D.O.T. 045.061, .067, .107-022, -026, -030, -034, and -046)  Nature of the Work Psychologists study human behavior and mental processes to under­ stand, explain, and change people’s behavior. They may study the way a person thinks, feels, or behaves. Research psychologists inves­ tigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Pychologists in applied fields counsel and conduct training programs; do market research; or provide mental health services in hospitals, clinics, or private settings. Like other social scientists, psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their validity. Research methods depend on the topic under study. Psychologists may gather information through con­ trolled laboratory experiments; personality, performance, aptitude, and intelligence tests; observation, interviews, and questionnaires; clinical studies; or surveys. Computers are widely used to record and analyze this information. Since psychology deals with human behavior, psychologists apply their knowledge and techniques to a wide range of endeavors includ­ ing human services, management, education, law, and sports. In addi­ tion to the variety of work settings, psychologists specialize in many different areas. Clinical psychologists—who constitute the largest specialty—generally work in hospitals or clinics, or maintain their own practices. They may help the mentally or emotionally disturbed adjust to life. Others help people deal with life stresses such as di­ vorce or aging. Clinical psychologists interview patients; give diag­ nostic tests; provide individual, family, and group psychotherapy; and design and implement behavior modification programs. They may collaborate with physicians and other specialists in developing treat­ ment programs. Some clinical psychologists work in universities, where they train graduate students in the delivery of mental health services. Others administer community mental health programs. Counseling psychologists use several techniques, including inter­ viewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living—personal, social, educational, or vocational. (Also see the statements on counselors and social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Developmental psychologists study the patterns and causes of be­ havioral change as people progress through life from infancy to adult­ hood. Some concern themselves with behavior during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, while others study changes that take place during maturity and old age. Educational psychologists design, develop, and evaluate educational programs. Experimental psycholo­ gists study behavior processes and work with human beings and ani­ mals such as rats, monkeys, and pigeons. Prominent areas of experimental research include motivation, thinking, attention, learn­ ing and retention, sensory and perceptual processes, effects of sub­ stance use and abuse, and genetic and neurological factors in behavior. Industrial and organizational psychologists apply psychological techniques to personnel administration, management, and marketing problems. They are involved in policy planning, applicant screening, training and development, psychological test research, counseling, and organizational development and analysis, among other activities. For example, an industrial psychologist may work with management to develop better training programs and to reorganize the work setting to improve worker productivity or quality of worklife. School psy­ chologists work with teachers, parents, and administrators to resolve students’ learning and behavior problems. Social psychologists exam­ ine people’s interactions with others and with the social environment. Prominent areas of study include group behavior, leadership, atti­ tudes, and interpersonal perception. Some relatively new specialties include cognitive psychology, health psychology, and neuropsychology. Cognitive psychologists  Professional Specialty Occupations  deal with the brain’s role in memory, thinking, and perceptions; some are involved with research related to computer programming and arti­ ficial intelligence. Health psychologists promote good health through health maintenance counseling programs that are designed, for exam­ ple, to help people stop smoking or lose weight. Neuropsychologists study the relation between human physical systems and behavior. The emergence and growth of these specialties reflects the increasing par­ ticipation of psychologists in providing direct services to special pa­ tient populations. For example, these psychologists work in stroke and head injury programs, oncology programs, and medical practices specializing in neurology. Other areas of specialization include community psychology, com­ parative psychology, consumer psychology, engineering psychology, environmental psychology, family psychology, forensic psychology, psychometrics, population psychology, psychology and the arts, his­ tory of psychology, psychopharmacology, and military and rehabilita­ tion psychology. Working Conditions A psychologist’s specialty and place of employment determine work­ ing conditions. For example, clinical, school, and counseling psychol­ ogists in private practice have pleasant, comfortable offices and set their own hours. However, they often have evening hours to accom­ modate their clients. Some employed in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health facilities often work evenings and weekends, while oth­ ers in schools and clinics work regular hours. Psychologists em­ ployed by academic institutions divide their time among teaching, research, and administrative responsibilities. Some maintain part-time consulting practices as well. In contrast to the many psychologists who have flexible work schedules, some in government and private industry have more structured schedules. Reading and writing re­ search reports, they often work alone. Many experience the pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, and overtime work. Their routine may be interrupted frequently. Travel may be required to attend confer­ ences or conduct research. Employment Psychologists held about 125,000 jobs in 1990. Educational institu­ tions—primarily elementary and secondary schools—employed more than one-third of all salaried psychologists in positions involving counseling, testing, special education, research, and administration; hospitals, clinics, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, and other health facilities employed one-third; while government agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels employed one-sixth. The Veterans Administration, the Department of Defense, and the Public Health Service employ the overwhelming majority of psychologists em­ ployed by Federal agencies. State and local governments employ psy­ chologists in health agencies, correctional facilities, and other settings. Psychologists also work in social service organizations, re-  r _  IHHH  Over two-fifths of all psychologists are self-employed.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  111  search organizations, management consulting firms, market research firms, and other businesses. After several years of experience, some psychologists enter private practice or set up their own research or consulting firms. About twofifths of all psychologists are self-employed. Besides the jobs described above, many persons held psychology faculty positions at colleges and universities. (For information about this occupation, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree is generally required for employment as a psychol­ ogist. Psychologists with doctorates (Ph.D or Psy.D.—Doctor of Psy­ chology) qualify for a wide range of responsible research, clinical, and counseling positions in universities, private industry, school set­ tings, and government. Persons with a master’s degree in psychology can administer and interpret tests as psychological assistants. Under the supervision of psychologists, they can conduct research in laboratories, conduct psy­ chological evaluations, counsel patients, or perform administrative duties. They may teach in 2-year colleges or work as school psychol­ ogists or counselors. A bachelor’s degree in psychology qualifies a person to assist psy­ chologists and other professionals in community mental health cen­ ters, vocational rehabilitation offices, and correctional programs; to work as research or administrative assistants; and to take jobs as trainees in government or business. However, without additional aca­ demic training, their advancement opportunities are limited. In the Federal Government, candidates having at least 24 semester hours in psychology and one course in statistics qualify for entry level positions. Competition for these jobs is keen, however. Clinical psychologists generally must have completed the Ph.D. or Psy.D. re­ quirements and have served an internship; vocational and guidance counselors usually need 2 years of graduate study in counseling and 1 year of counseling experience. At least 1 year of full-time graduate study is needed to earn a mas­ ter’s degree in psychology. Requirements usually include practical experience in an applied setting or a master’s thesis based on a re­ search project. For example, a master’s degree in school psychology requires 2 years of course work and a 1-year internship. Three to 5 years of graduate work usually are required for a doctor­ al degree. The Ph.D. degree culminates in a dissertation based on original research. Courses in quantitative research methods, which in­ clude the use of computers, are an integral part of graduate study and usually necessary to complete the dissertation. The Psy.D., based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation, prepares students for clinical and other applied positions. In clinical or coun­ seling psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree generally include an additional year or more of internship or supervised experi­ ence. Competition for admission into graduate programs is keen. Some universities require an undergraduate major in psychology. Others prefer only basic psychology with courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences, statistics, and mathematics. Over 3,000 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree pro­ gram in psychology; about 400, a master’s; about 300, a Ph.D. In ad­ dition, about 30 professional schools of psychology—some affiliated with colleges or universities—usually offer the Psy.D. The American Psychological Association (APA) presently accredits doctoral train­ ing programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology. The Na­ tional Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, with the assistance of the National Association of School Psychologists, is also involved in the accreditation of advanced degree programs in school psychology. APA also accredits institutions that provide in­ ternships for doctoral students in school, clinical, and counseling psy­ chology. Although financial aid is difficult to obtain, some universities award fellowships or scholarships or arrange for part-time employ­ ment. The Veterans Administration (VA) offers predoctoral trainee­  112  Occupational Outlook Handbook  ships to interns in VA hospitals, clinics, and related training agencies. The National Science Foundation, the Department of Health and Human Services, and many other organizations also provide financial aid. Psychologists in independent practice or who offer any type of pa­ tient care, including those in clinical, counseling, and school psychol­ ogy, must meet certification or licensing requirements. All States and the District of Columbia have such requirements. Licensing laws vary by State, but generally require a doctorate in psychology and 1 to 2 years of professional experience. In addition, most States require that applicants pass an examination. Most State boards administer a stan­ dardized test and, in many instances, additional oral or essay exami­ nations. Very few States certify those with a master’s degree as psychological assistants or associates. Some States require continuing education for relicensure. Most States require that licensed or certified psychologists limit their practice to those areas in which they have developed profession­ al competence through training and experience. The American Board of Professional Psychology recognizes pro­ fessional achievement by awarding diplomas primarily in clinical psychology, clinical neuropsychology, and counseling, forensic, in­ dustrial and organizational, and school psychology. Candidates need a doctorate in psychology, 5 years of experience, and professional en­ dorsements; they also must pass an examination.  Table 1. Percent of doctoral degrees awarded in psychology, by subfield, 1990 Subfield  Percent  Total........................................................................................  100  Clinical....................................................................................... Counseling.................................................................................. General....................................................................................... Developmental........................................................................... Experimental.............................................................................. Industrial/organizational............................................................. Social.......................................................................................... Educational................................................................................. Cognitive.................................................................................... School......................................................................................... Other...........................................................................................  41 14 14 5 4 4 4 3 2 2 10  demand for psychologists include: increased emphasis on mental health maintenance in conjunction with the treatment of physical ill­ ness; public concern for the development of human resources, includ­ ing the growing elderly population; and increased testing and counseling of children. Changes in the level of government funding for these kinds of services could affect the demand for psychologists. Employment prospects for psychologists in colleges and universi­ ties should improve due to an expected wave of retirements among college faculty. Opportunities also will become more plentiful in other settings such as businesses, nonprofit organizations, and re­ search and computer firms. Companies will use psychologists’ exper­ tise in survey design, analysis, and research to provide personnel testing, program evaluation, and statistical analysis. Job opportunities in health care should remain strong—for example, in health mainte­ nance organizations, nursing homes, and alcohol and drug abuse re­ habilitation programs. Other openings are likely to occur as psychologists study the effec­ tiveness of changes in health, education, military, law enforcement, and consumer protection programs. Psychologists also are increasing­ ly studying the effects on people of technological advances in areas such as agriculture, energy, the conservation and use of natural re­ sources, and industrial and office automation. Opportunities are best for candidates with a doctoral degree. Persons holding doctorates from leading universities in applied areas such as school, clinical, counseling, health, industrial, and educational psychol­ ogy should have particularly good prospects. Psychologists with exten­ sive training in quantitative research methods and computer science will have a competitive edge over applicants without this background. Most graduates with a master’s degree in psychology may en­ counter competition for the limited number of jobs for which they qualify. Graduates of master’s degree programs in school psychology should have the best job prospects, as schools are expected to in­ crease student counseling and mental health services. Some master’s degree holders may find jobs as psychological assistants in communi­ ty mental health centers. These positions often require direct supervi­ sion by a licensed psychologist. Others may find jobs involving research and data collection and analysis in universities, government, or private companies. Bachelor’s degree holders can expect very few opportunities in this field. Some may find jobs as assistants in rehabilitation centers or in other jobs involving data collection and analysis. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school psychology teachers. (For more information, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)  SOURCE: National Research Council  Even more so than in other occupations, persons pursuing a career in psychology must be emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal effectively with people. Sensitivity, compassion, and the ability to lead and inspire others are particularly important for clinical work and counseling. Research psychologists should be able to do detailed work independently and as part of a team. Verbal and writing skills are necessary to communicate treatment and research findings. Patience and perseverance are vital qualities because results from psychological treatment of patients or research often are long in coming. Job Outlook Employment of psychologists is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Largely be­ cause of the substantial investment in training required to enter this specialized field, psychologists have a strong attachment to their oc­ cupation—only a relatively small proportion leave the profession each year. Nevertheless, most job openings are expected to result from replacement needs. Stimulating the demand for psychologists are programs to combat the increase in alcohol abuse, drug dependency, marital strife, family violence, and other problems plaguing society. Other factors spurring  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings According to a 1989 survey by the American Psychological Associa­ tion, the median annual salary of psychologists with a doctoral degree was about $55,000. In academic institutions, the median was about $41,000; in research positions, about $50,000; and in business and in­ dustry (including self-employed), about $67,000. Ph.D. or Psy.D. psychologists in private practice and in applied specialties generally have higher earnings than other psychologists. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the average starting salary for psychologists having a bachelor’s degree was about $17,000 a year in 1991; those with superior academic records could begin at $21,000. Counseling and school psychologists with a mas­ ter’s degree and 1 year of counseling experience could start at $25,700. Clinical psychologists having a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree and 1 year of internship could start at $31,100; some individuals could start at $37,300. The average salary for psychologists in the Federal Government was about $49,900 a year in 1991. Psychologists receive a variety of fringe benefits including paid vacations, sick leave, health insurance, and pensions. In addition, many employers also offer tuition reimbursement. Related Occupations Psychologists are trained to evaluate, counsel, and advise individuals  Professional Specialty Occupations  and groups. Others who do this kind of work are psychiatrists, social workers, clergy, special education teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers, educational requirements, financial assis­ tance, and licensing in all fields of psychology, contact: »■ American Psychological Association, Educational Programs, Office, 1200 17th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036.  For information on careers, educational requirements, and licens­ ing of school psychologists, contact: *•" National Association of School Psychologists, 8455 Colesville Rd., Suite 1000, Silver Spring, MD 20910.  Information about State licensing requirements is available from: •“ The American Association of State Psychology Boards, P.O. Box 4389, Montgomery, AL 36103.  Information on traineeships and fellowships also is available from colleges and universities that have graduate departments of psychology.  Sociologists (D.O.T. 054)  Nature of the Work Sociologists study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form. These include families, tribes, communities, and governments, as well as a variety of social, religious, political, business, and other organizations. Soci­ ologists study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their ori­ gin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members. Some sociologists are concerned primarily with the characteristics of social groups, organizations, and institutions. Others are more interested in the ways individuals are affected by each other and by the groups to which they belong. Still others focus on social traits such as gender, age, or race, that make an important difference in how a person experiences life on a daily basis. As a rule, sociologists work in one or more special fields, such as criminology; racial and ethnic relations; urban studies; group forma­ tion; social organization, stratification, and mobility; education; so­ cial psychology; urban, rural, political, industrial, and comparative sociology; gender roles and relations; sociological practice; and the family. Household and family matters have always been areas of in­ terest for sociologists; however, these subjects recently have been at­ tracting more attention due to the increase in the number of divorces and changes in living arrangements. Other specialties include medical sociology—the study of social factors that affect mental and public health; gerontology—the study of aging and the special problems of aged persons; environmental so­ ciology—the study of the effects of the physical environment and technology on people; clinical sociology—therapy and intervention in social systems for assessment and change; demography—the study of the size, characteristics, and movement of populations; criminolo­ gy—the study of factors producing deviance from accepted legal and cultural norms; and industrial sociology—the study of work and or­ ganizations. For example, an industrial sociologist may work as an arbitrator helping settle disputes arising in the workplace. Other sociologists specialize in research design and data analysis. Sociologists usually conduct surveys or engage in direct observation to gather data. For example, after providing for controlled conditions, an organizational sociologist might test the effects of different styles of leadership on individuals in a small work group. A medical sociol­ ogist might study the effects of terminal illness on family interaction. Sociological researchers also evaluate the efficacy of different kinds of social programs. They might examine and evaluate particular pro­ grams of income assistance, job training, or remedial education. In­ creasingly, sociologists use statistical and computer techniques in their research.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  113  The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, ad­ ministrators, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy. For example, in recent years sociologists have devoted more time to studying issues related to abortion rights, AIDS disease, high school dropouts, homeless, and latch-key chil­ dren. Sociologists often work closely with community groups and members of other professions, including psychologists, physicians, economists, statisticians, urban and regional planners, political scien­ tists, anthropologists, law enforcement and criminal administration officials, and social workers. Some sociologists are primarily administrators. They apply their professional knowledge in areas as diverse as intergroup relations, family counseling, public opinion analysis, law enforcement, educa­ tion, personnel administration, public relations, regional and commu­ nity planning, and health services planning. They may, for example, administer social service programs in family and child welfare agen­ cies or develop social policies and programs for government, commu­ nity, youth, or religious organizations. A number of sociologists are employed as consultants. Using their expertise and research skills, they advise on such diverse problems as halfway houses and foster care for the mentally ill; ways of counsel­ ing ex-offenders; or how to improve efficiency and flexibility in large corporations. Sociologists in business consult on the management of complex organizations and conduct market research for advertisers and manufacturers. Increasingly, sociologists are involved in the eval­ uation of social and welfare programs. Sociologists are often confused with social workers, and in facl they do contribute to one another’s disciplines. However, while soci­ ologists conduct research on organizations, groups, and individuals,  Sociologists study human society and social behavior.  114  Occupational Outlook Handbook  social workers directly help people who are unable to cope with their circumstances. (For more information, see the statement on social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions The work of sociologists generally includes much reading, research, and writing. Sociologists working in government agencies and pri­ vate firms have structured work schedules, and many experience the pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, heavy workloads, and over­ time. They often work as an integral part of a team. Their routine may be interrupted by numerous telephone calls, letters, requests for information, and meetings. Travel may be required to collect data for research projects or to attend professional conferences. Sociologists in private practice have varied hours, and may work evenings and weekends to accommodate clients or complete a project. Sociology faculty have more flexible work schedules, dividing their time between teaching, research, consulting, and administrative responsibilities. Employment Sociologists held several thousand jobs in 1990. Government agen­ cies employ a significant proportion of them to deal with such sub­ jects as poverty, crime, public assistance, population growth, education, social rehabilitation, community development, mental health, racial and ethnic relations, drug abuse, school droputs, and en­ vironmental impact studies. Sociologists in the Federal Government work primarily for the Departments of Health and Human Services, Agriculture, Interior, and Defense. Those specializing in demography, international development, or health may work for international orga­ nizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and Federal agencies such as the Bureau of the Census. Sociologists specializing in criminology work primarily for law enforcement agencies in State and local government. Sociologists also hold managerial, research, personnel, and planning positions in research firms, consulting firms, educational institutions, corpora­ tions, professional and trade associations, hospitals, and welfare or other nonprofit organizations. Some sociologists have private prac­ tices in counseling, research, or consulting. Others held sociology faculty positions in colleges and universities. (For more information about this occupation, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A master’s degree in sociology is usually the minimum requirement for employment in applied research or community college teaching. The Ph.D. degree is essential for many senior level positions in re­ search institutes, consulting firms, corporations, and government agencies, and is required for appointment to permanent teaching and research positions in colleges and universities. Sociologists with master’s degrees can qualify for administrative and research positions in public agencies and private businesses. Training in research, statistical, and computer methods is an advan­ tage in obtaining such positions. Bachelor’s degree holders in sociology often get jobs in related fields. Their training in research, statistics, and human behavior qual­ ifies them for entry-level positions in social services, management, sales, personnel, and marketing. Many work in social service agen­ cies as counselors or child care, juvenile, or recreation workers. Oth­ ers are employed as interviewers or as administrative or research assistants. Sociology majors with sufficient training in statistical and survey methods may qualify for positions as junior analysts or statis­ ticians in business or research firms or government agencies. Regard­ less of a sociologist’s level of educational attainment, completion of an internship while in school can prove invaluable in finding a posi­ tion in this field. In the Federal Government, candidates generally need a college de­ gree with 24 semester hours in sociology, including course work in theory and methods of social research. However, since competition  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  for the limited number of positions is keen, advanced study in the field is highly recommended. Over 180 colleges and universities offer doctoral degree programs in sociology; most of these also offer a master’s degree. In over 160 schools, the master’s is the highest degree offered; about 850 schools have bachelor’s degree programs. Sociology departments offer a wide variety of courses, including aging, criminal justice, delinquency, de­ viance and social control, family and society, field methods, gender roles, sociological theory, social statistics and quantitative methods, social psychology, rural sociology, organizational behavior and analy­ sis, mental health, and science and technology. Students are encour­ aged to combine a strong quantitative background with an area of study that interests them. Some departments of sociology have highly structured programs, while others are relatively unstructured and leave most course selec­ tion up to the individual student. Departments have different require­ ments regarding foreign language skills, courses in statistics, internships, and completion of a thesis for the master’s degree. The choice of a graduate school is important for people who want to become sociologists. Students should select a school that has ade­ quate research facilities and offers appropriate areas of specialization such as theory, demography, clinical sociology, or quantitative meth­ ods. Opportunities to gain practical experience also may be available, and sociology departments may help place students in business or re­ search firms and government agencies. The American Sociological Association sponsors a master’s level certification program in applied social research. Certification by the Sociological Practice Association (SPA) is necessary for some clini­ cal and applied sociology positions, especially at the doctoral level. Certification requirements generally include at least 1 year of experi­ ence that demonstrates competence in clinical sociology, a doctorate or a master’s degree from an accredited school, and successful demonstration of competency at SPA-sponsored training workshops or conferences. The ability to work independently is important for sociologists. In­ tellectual curiosity is an essential trait; researchers must have an in­ quiring mind and a desire to find explanations for the phenomena they observe. Like other social scientists, sociologists must be objec­ tive in gathering information about social institutions and behavior; they need analytical skills in order to organize data effectively and reach valid conclusions; and they must be careful and systematic in their work. They should be able to get along well with people, and should have good oral and writing skills. Job Outlook Demand for sociologists should be spurred by research in various fields such as demography, criminology, gerontology, and medical so­ ciology, and by the need to evaluate and administer programs de­ signed to cope with social and welfare problems. Most job openings, however, are expected to result from the need to replace sociologists who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Opportunities should be best for Ph.D. graduates. Employment prospects for college and university positions should improve due to an expected wave of retirements among college faculty. An increasing proportion of Ph.D.’s are finding job opportunities outside colleges and universities. Some may take research and admin­ istrative positions in government, research organizations, and busi­ ness firms. Those well-trained in quantitative research methods—including survey techniques, advanced statistics, and com­ puter science—will have the widest choice of jobs. For example, pri­ vate firms that contract with the government to evaluate social programs and conduct other research increasingly seek sociologists with strong quantitative skills. Demand is expected to be much stronger for sociologists with training in practice areas—such as clinical sociology, criminology, environmental sociology, medical sociology, gerontology, evaluation research, and demography—than for specialists in sociological theo­ ry. For example, additional demographers may be sought to help  Professional Specialty Occupations  businesses plan marketing and advertising programs and to help de­ veloping countries analyze censuses, prepare population projections, and formulate long-range public planning programs. More criminolo­ gists may be sought to help reduce deviance from legally and socially accepted behavior in our society. More gerontologists may be needed to help formulate programs for our expanding elderly population. Persons with a master’s degree will find positions in junior and community colleges. Others may find employment in Federal, State, and local governments as planners, demographers, or social re­ searchers. Some may find research and administrative jobs in re­ search firms, business, and government. For example, sociologists with backgrounds in business and quantitative research methods may find opportunities as management analysts or marketing researchers. Bachelor’s degree holders will find fewer opportunities for jobs as professional sociologists. As in the past, many graduates will take po­ sitions as trainees and assistants in business, industry, and govern­ ment. As with advanced degree holders, extensive training in quantitative research methods provides these graduates with the most marketable skills. Some may find positions in social welfare agen­ cies. For those planning careers in law, journalism, business, social work, recreation, counseling, and other related disciplines, sociology provides an excellent background. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school sociology teachers. (For more information, see the statement on secondary school teachers else­ where in the Handbook.) Earnings According to the American Sociological Association, the median salary of sociologists in business and industry was $41,200 in 1990. Sociologists working for nonprofit agencies averaged $34,800 annu­ ally. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the average entrance salary for sociologists with a bachelor’s degree was about $17,000 or $21,000 a year in 1991, depending upon the applicant’s academic record. The starting salary for those with a master’s degree was about $25,700 a year, and for those with a Ph.D., about $31,100, while some individuals could start at $37,300. Sociologists in the Federal Government averaged around $49,600 a year in 1991. In general, sociologists with the Ph.D. degree earn substantially higher salaries than those without the doctoral degree. Some sociolo­ gists supplement their regular salaries with earnings from other sources, such as consulting, counseling work, or publishing articles and books. Like other professional workers, sociologists receive a variety of fringe benefits including paid vacations, sick leave, health insurance, and a pension plan. Related Occupations Sociologists are not the only people whose jobs require an under­ standing of social processes and institutions. Others whose work de­ mands such expertise include anthropologists, economists, geographers, historians, political scientists, psychologists, urban and regional planners, reporters and correspondents, and social workers. Sources of Additional Information Additional information on careers, certification, and graduate depart­ ments of sociology is available from: *" The American Sociological Association, 1722 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information about careers in demography, contact: Population Association of America, 1722 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information about careers and certification in clinical and ap­ plied sociology, contact: «■ Sociological Practice Association, College of Arts and Sciences, South Eastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402.  For information about careers in rural sociology, contact: Rural Sociology Society, Department of Sociology, Montana State Univer­ sity, Bozeman, MT 59715.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  115  Urban and Regional Planners (D.O.T. 188.167-110 and 199.167-014)  Nature of the Work Urban and regional planners, often called community or city plan­ ners, develop programs to provide for growth and revitalization of urban, suburban, and rural communities and their regions. Planners help local officials make decisions on social, economic, and environ­ mental problems. Planners usually devise plans outlining the best use of a communi­ ty’s land—where residential, commercial, recreational, and other human services should take place. Planners also are involved in vari­ ous other planning activities, including social services, transportation, and resource development. They address such issues as central city redevelopment, traffic congestion, and the impact of growth and change on an area. They formulate capital improvement plans to con­ struct new school buildings, public housing, and sewage systems. Planners are involved in environmental issues including pollution control, wetland preservation, and landfills. Planners are also con­ fronting social issues such as sheltering the homeless, premises for drug treatment centers, and needs of an aging population. Planners examine community facilities such as health clinics and schools to be sure these facilities can meet the demands placed upon them. They keep abreast of the economic and legal issues involved in community development or redevelopment and changes in housing and building codes or environmental regulations. Because suburban growth has increased the need for traveling between suburbs and the urban center, the planner’s job often includes designing new trans­ portation systems and parking facilities. As an alternative, planners may develop transportation management plans which are designed to control the traffic, not accommodate it. For example, developers may be required to provide public transportation facilities or cities may be required to set up van pool transportation systems. Urban and regional planners prepare for situations that are likely to develop as a result of population growth or social and economic change. They estimate, for example, the community’s long-range needs for housing, transportation, and business and industrial sites. Working within a framework set by the community government, they analyze and propose alternative ways to achieve more efficient and attractive urban areas. Before preparing plans for long-range community development, urban and regional planners prepare detailed studies that show the current use of land for residential, business, and community purposes. These reports include such information as the location of streets, highways, water and sewer lines, schools, libraries, and cultural and recreational sites. They also provide information on the types of in­ dustries in the community, characteristics of the population, and em­ ployment and economic trends. With this information, urban and regional planners propose ways of using undeveloped or underuti­ lized land and design the layout of recommended buildings and other facilities such as subway lines and stations. They also prepare materi­ als that show how their programs can be carried out and what they will cost. As in many other fields, planners increasingly use comput­ ers to record and analyze information. For example, computers are used for determining program costs and forecasting future trends in employment, housing, or population. Urban and regional planners often confer with land developers, civic leaders, and other public planning officials. They often function as mediators in community disputes by presenting alternatives that are acceptable to opposing parties. Planners may prepare materials for community relations programs, speak at civic meetings, and ap­ pear before legislative committees to explain their proposals. In large organizations, planners usually specialize in areas such as physical design, public transportation, community relations, historic preservation, environmental issues, and the renovation or reconstruc­  116  Occupational Outlook Handbook  tion of rundown business districts. In small organizations, planners must be able to do various kinds of work. Working Conditions Urban and regional planners spend most of their time in offices. To be familiar with areas that they are developing, however, they occa­ sionally spend time outdoors examining the features of the land under consideration for development, its current use, and the types of struc­ tures on it. Although most planners have a scheduled 40-hour work­ week, they frequently attend evening or weekend meetings or public hearings with citizens’ groups. Planners may experience the pressure of deadlines and tight work schedules. Employment Urban and regional planners held about 23,000 jobs in 1990. Local government planning agencies—city, county, or regional—employed 3 out of 4. An increasing proportion of public agency planners work in small jurisdictions with fewer than 50,000 inhabitants. Many are em­ ployed in State agencies that deal with housing, transportation, or envi­ ronmental protection. Federal employers include the Departments of Defense, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation. Many planners do consulting work, either part time in addition to a regular job, or full time for a firm that provides services to private de­ velopers or government agencies. Other employers include architec­ tural and surveying firms, educational institutions, banks and mortgage companies, large land developers, and law firms specializ­ ing in land use. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers often seek workers who have advanced training in urban or regional planning. Most entry jobs in Federal, State, and local gov­ ernment agencies require 2 years of graduate study in urban or re­ gional planning, or the equivalent in work experience. A master’s degree from an accredited planning program is the usual requirement at the entry level. Although graduates having a bachelor’s degree in planning, architecture, or engineering may qualify for beginning posi­ tions, their advancement opportunities may be limited without a mas­ ter’s degree. Courses in related disciplines such as demography, economics, finance, health administration, location theory, and man­ agement are highly recommended. In addition, familiarity with statis­ tical techniques and computer usage is highly desirable. In 1991, about 80 colleges and universities offered a master’s de­ gree program in urban or regional planning. Most of these programs have been accredited by the Planning Accreditation Board, which consists of representatives of the American Planning Association (APA), the American Institute of Certified Planners, and the Association of Collegiate Schools of Plan­ ning. Most graduate programs in planning require 2 years. Graduate students spend considerable time in studios, workshops, or laboratory  •It!,!;  tt: E. i i is  B  tm nn,  Local government planning agencies employ 3 out of 4 urban and regional planners.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  courses learning to analyze and solve urban and regional planning problems and often are required to work in a planning office part time or during the summer. Local government planning offices offer stu­ dents internships that provide experience that often proves invaluable in obtaining a full-time planning position after graduation. The American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP), a branch of APA, grants certification to individuals with the appropriate combina­ tion of education and professional experience who pass an examina­ tion. Data on AICP membership indicate that certified urban planners tend to hold the more responsible, better paying positions in their field. Planners must be able to think in terms of spatial relationships and visualize the effects of their plans and designs. Planners should be flexible and able to reconcile different viewpoints to make construc­ tive policy recommendations. The ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing also is necessary for anyone interested in this field. After a few years’ experience, urban and regional planners may ad­ vance to assignments requiring a high degree of independent judg­ ment such as designing the physical layout of a large development or recommending policy, program, and budget options. Some are pro­ moted to jobs as planning directors and spend a great deal of time meeting with officials in other organizations, speaking to civic groups, and supervising other professionals. Further advancement oc­ curs through a transfer to a large city with more complex problems and greater responsibilities. Job Outlook Employment of urban and regional planners is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings will arise from the need to replace experienced planners who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Demand will be spurred primarily by the continuing importance of environmental, economic, transportation, and energy production plan­ ning. Other factors contributing to the demand for urban and regional planners include interest in zoning and land-use planning in undevel­ oped and nonmetropolitan areas, including coastal areas; the need to replace old public facilities such as bridges, highways, and sewers; historic preservation and rehabilitation activities; central city redevel­ opment; and commercial development to support suburban areas with rapidly growing populations. Demand for urban and regional planners varies by region. Oppor­ tunities should be best in rapidly growing communities and in States which have mandated planning, such as Florida and Maine. Local governments need planners to address problems associated with pop­ ulation growth. For example, new housing developments require roads, sewer systems, fire stations, schools, libraries, and recreation facilities that must be planned while considering budgetary con­ straints. Job growth also is expected to occur in smaller cities and towns in older areas—for example, in the Northeast—undergoing preservation and redevelopment. Changes in the level of government funding for planning services could affect demand for these workers. Graduates of leading institutions with accredited planning pro­ grams should have very good job prospects. For other jobseekers, ge­ ographic mobility and the willingness to work in small towns or rural areas may be necessary. Earnings Salaries of planners vary by degree, type of employer, experience, size of community in which they work, and geographic location. Ac­ cording to a 1989 survey by APA, urban and regional planners earned a median annual salary of $39,500. Planners with a Ph.D. earned a median salary of $50,000; those with a master’s degree earned $40,000; and bachelor’s degree holders earned $36,000. The median annual salary of planners in city governments was $38,000; in county governments, $34,700; in joint city/county gov­ ernments, $32,400; in State governments, $40,000; in private consult­ ing firms, $45,000; and in nonprofit foundations, $39,500. For  Professional Specialty Occupations  planners with over 10 years’ experience, county and joint city/county agencies paid about $44,400 annually, while private businesses and consulting firms paid about $55,000. Directors of public planning agencies earned as much as $13,000 more than staff members at com­ parable levels of experience. Salaries of planners in large jurisdic­ tions may be as much as $5,000 a year higher than their counterparts in small jurisdictions. Planners with a master’s degree were hired by the Federal Govern­ ment at a starting average salary of $25,700 a year in 1991. In some cases, persons having less than 2 years of graduate work could enter Federal service as interns at yearly salaries of about $17,000 or $21,000. Salaries of urban and regional planners employed by the Federal Government averaged $48,000 a year in 1991. Like many professional occupations, urban and regional planners receive a basic fringe benefit package which includes vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a pension plan.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  117  Related Occupations Urban and regional planners develop plans for the orderly growth of urban and rural communities. Others whose work is related to the work of planners include architects, landscape architects, city man­ agers, civil engineers, environmental engineers, and geographers. Sources of Additional Information Additional information on careers, salaries, and certification in urban and regional planning, as well as job referrals are available from: American Planning Association, 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  Information on schools offering training in urban and regional planning is available from: American Planning Association, Planners' Bookstore, 1313 East 60th St„ Chicago, IL 60637.  Social and Recreation Workers Human Services Workers (D.O.T. 195.267-014 and .367 except -026 and -030)  Nature of the Work “Human services worker” is a generic term for people with job titles such as social service technician, case management aide, social work assistant, residential counselor, alcohol or drug abuse counselor, men­ tal health technician, child abuse worker, community outreach work­ er, and gerontology aide. They work in group homes and halfway houses; correctional, mental retardation, and community mental health centers; family, child, and youth service agencies; and pro­ grams concerned with alcoholism, drug abuse, family violence, and aging. Human services workers generally perform under the direction of social workers or, in some cases, psychologists. The amount of re­ sponsibility these workers assume and the degree of supervision they receive vary a great deal. Some are on their own most of the time and have little direct supervision; others work under close direction. Human services workers help clients obtain benefits or services. They assess their needs and establish their eligibility for services. They examine financial documents such as rent receipts and tax re­ turns to determine whether the client is eligible for food stamps, Medicaid, or other welfare programs, for example. They also provide information on how to obtain services; arrange for transportation and escorts, if necessary; and provide emotional support. Human services workers may transport or accompany clients to group meal sites, adult day care programs, or doctors’ offices; tele­ phone or visit clients’ homes to make sure services are being re­ ceived; or help resolve disagreements, such as between tenants and landlords. Human services workers monitor, keep records on, and in­ form supervisors about clients’ progress. Human services workers play a variety of roles in community set­ tings such as neighborhood clinics, mental health centers, emergency shelters, “drop-in” centers for drug abusers and the mentally ill, and group homes and halfway houses. They may organize and lead group activities, assist clients in need of counseling or crisis intervention, or administer a food bank or emergency fuel program. In mental hospitals and psychiatric clinics, they may help clients master everyday living skills and teach them how to communicate more effectively and get along better with others. They also assist with music, art, and dance therapy and with individual and group counseling and lead recreational activities. In halfway houses and group homes, they oversee adult residents who need some supervision or support on a daily basis, but do not  —  Human services workers inform clients how to obtain services. 118   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  need to live in an institution. They review clients’ records, talk with their families, and confer with medical personnel in order to gain bet­ ter insight into their background and needs. They may teach residents to prepare their own meals and to do other housekeeping activities. They also provide emotional support, lead recreation activities, and make oral and written reports on the condition and progress of residents. Working Conditions Working conditions vary. Many human services workers generally spend part of the time in an office or residential facility and the rest in the field—visiting clients or taking them on trips, or meeting with people who provide services to their clients. Most work a regular 40hour week, although some work may be in the evening and on week­ ends. Human services workers in residential settings generally work in shifts because residents need supervision around the clock. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and lack of equipment may add to the pressure. Turnover is reported to be high, especially among workers without academic preparation for this field. Employment Human services workers held about 145,000 jobs in 1990. About one-fourth were employed by State and local governments, primarily in hospitals and outpatient mental health centers, facilities for the mentally retarded and developmentally disabled, and public welfare agencies. Another fourth worked in private agencies offering adult day care, group meals, crisis intervention, counseling, and other so­ cial services. Some supervised residents of group homes and halfway houses. Human services workers also held jobs in clinics, community mental health centers, and private psychiatric hospitals. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement While some employers hire high school graduates, most prefer appli­ cants with some college preparation in human services, social work, or one of the social or behavioral sciences. Some prefer those with a 4-year college degree. The kind of work human service workers do and the amount of responsibility entrusted to them often depend on their level of formal education. Workers with a high school education or less are likely to perform clerical duties. Those with a college de­ gree might be assigned to do direct counseling, coordinate program activities, or manage a group home. Employers may also look for ex­ perience in other occupations or leadership experience in school or in a youth group. Some enter the field on the basis of courses in social work, psychology, sociology, rehabilitation, or special education. Most employers provide in-service training such as seminars and workshops. A strong desire to help others, patience, and understanding are characteristics highly valued by employers. Other important personal traits include communication skills, a strong sense of responsibility, and the ability to manage time effectively. Hiring requirements in group homes tend to be more stringent than in other settings. In 1990, approximately 000 certificate and associate degree pro­ grams in human services or mental health were offered at community and junior colleges, vocational-technical institutes, and other postsec­ ondary institutions. In addition, about 000 programs offered a bache­ lor’s degree in human services. A small number of programs leading to master’s degrees in human services administration were offered as well. Generally speaking, academic programs in this field educate stu­ dents for specialized roles—work with developmentally disabled adults, for example. Students are exposed early and often to the kinds of situations they may encounter on the job. Programs typically in­ clude courses in psychology, sociology, crisis intervention, social work, family dynamics, therapeutic interviewing, rehabilitation, and gerontology. Through classroom simulation internships, students  Professional Specialty Occupations  learn interview, observation, and recordkeeping skills; individual and group counseling techniques; and program planning. Formal education is almost always necessary for advancement. In group homes, completion of a 1-year certificate in human services along with several years of experience may suffice for promotion to supervisor. In general, however, advancement requires a bachelor’s or master’s degree in counseling, rehabilitation, social work, or a related field. Job Outlook Employment of human services workers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Op­ portunities for qualified applicants are expected to be excellent, not only because of projected rapid growth in the occupation, but because of substantial replacement needs. Turnover among counselors in group homes is reported to be especially high. Employment growth will occur as the number of older people, who are more likely to need services, grows rapidly. In addition, there will be a continuing need to provide services to the mentally impaired and developmental^ disabled, those with substance abuse problems, and a wide variety of other needs handled by human services workers. Adult day care, a relatively new concept, is expected to expand sig­ nificantly due to very rapid growth in the number of people of ad­ vanced age, together with growing awareness of the value of day programs for adults in need of care and supervision. Pressures to respond to the needs of the chronically mentally ill can be expected to persist. For many years, as deinstitutionalization has proceeded, chronic mental patients have been left to their own de­ vices. If the movement to help the homeless and chronically mentally ill gains momentum, more community-based programs and group residences will be established, and demand for human services work­ ers will increase accordingly. Employment in State and local governments will grow only as fast as the average for all occupations, but will remain a major employer of human services workers. Replacement needs alone will generate many job openings in the public sector. Because so many human services jobs involve direct contact with people who are vulnerable to exploitation or mistreatment, employers try to be selective in hiring. Applicants are screened for appropriate personal qualifications. Relevant academic preparation is generally required, and volunteer or work experience is preferred. Inasmuch as this is responsible and emotionally draining work which pays rela­ tively poorly, qualified applicants should have little difficulty finding employment. Earnings According to limited data available, starting salaries for human ser­ vices workers ranged from $12,000 to $20,000 a year in 1990. Expe­ rienced workers generally earned between $15,000 and $25,000 annually, depending on their education, experience, and employer. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations that require skills similar to those of human services workers include social workers, community outreach workers, religious workers, occupational therapy assistants, physical therapy assistants and aides, psychiatric aides, and activity leaders. Sources of Additional Information Information on academic programs in human services may be found in most directories of 2- and 4-year colleges, available at libraries or career counseling centers. For information on programs and careers in human services, contact: »• National Organization for Human Service Education, P.O. Box 6257, Fitchburg State College, Fitchburg, MA 01420. •" Council for Standards in Human Service Education, Montgomery Commu­ nity College, 340 Dekalb Pike, Blue Bell, PA 19422.  Information on job openings may be available from State Employ­ ment Service offices or directly from city, county, or State depart­ ments of health, mental health and mental retardation, and human resources.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  119  Social Workers (D.O.T. 189.267-010, 195.107-010 through -046, .137-010, .164-010, .167­ 010, -014, -030, and -034, .267-018, and .367-026)  Nature of the Work Social workers help individuals and families cope with problems such as homelessness or inadequate housing, unemployment, lack of job skills, financial mismanagement, serious illness, handicaps, sub­ stance abuse, unwanted pregnancy, or antisocial behavior. They also work with families that have serious conflicts, including those involv­ ing child or spousal abuse or divorce. Through direct counseling, social workers help clients bring their real concerns into the open and help them to consider solutions or find other resources. Often, social workers provide concrete informa­ tion such as: Where to go for debt counseling; how to find childcare or eldercare; how to apply for public assistance or other benefits; or how to get an alcoholic or drug addict'admitted to a rehabilitation program. They may also pull together services in consultation with clients and then follow through to assure they are actually provided. They may review eligibility requirements, fill out forms and applications, arrange for services, visit clients on a regular basis, and step in during emergencies. Most social workers specialize in one field such as child welfare and family services, mental health, medical social work, school social work, community organization, or clinical social work. Social workers in child welfare or family services may counsel children and youth who have difficulty adjusting socially, advise par­ ents on how to care for handicapped children, or arrange homemaker services during a parent’s illness. If children have serious problems in school, child welfare workers may consult with parents, teachers, and counselors to identify underlying causes. Some social workers assist single parents, arrange adoptions, and help find foster homes for ne­ glected or abandoned children. Child welfare workers also work in residential institutions for children and adolescents. Social workers in child or adult protective services investigate re­ ports of abuse and neglect and intervene if necessary. They may insti­ tute legal action to remove victims from homes and place them temporarily in an emergency shelter or with a foster family. Mental health social workers provide for the mentally disabled— services such as individual and group therapy, outreach, crisis inter­ vention, social rehabilitation, and training in skills of everyday living. They may also help plan for supportive services to ease patients’ re­ turn to the community. (Also see the statements on counselors and psychologists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Medical social workers help patients and their families cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses and handle problems that may stand in the way of recovery or rehabilitation. They may organize support groups for families of patients suffering from cancer, AIDS, Alzheimer’s disease, or other illnesses. They also advise family care­ givers, and counsel patients and help plan for their needs after dis­ charge by arranging for at-home services—from meals-on-wheels to oxygen equipment. Some work on interdisciplinary teams that evalu­ ate certain kinds of patients—geriatric or transplant patients, for ex­ ample. School social workers diagnose students’ problems and arrange needed services, counsel children in trouble, and integrate handi­ capped students into the general school population. School social workers deal with problems such as student pregnancy, misbehavior in class, and excessive absences. They also advise teachers on how to deal with problem students. Social workers in criminal justice make recommendations to courts, do pre-sentencing assessments, and provide services for prison inmates. Probation and parole officers provide similar services to individuals sentenced by a court to probation or those on parole.  120  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Industrial or occupational social workers, generally located in an employer’s personnel department or health unit, offer direct counsel­ ing to employees, often those whose performance at work is affected by emotional or family problems or substance abuse. They also de­ velop education programs and provide information about community resources. Clinical or psychiatric social workers offer psychotherapy or coun­ seling. Some social workers specialize in gerontological services. They run support groups for family caregivers or for the adult children of aging parents; advise elderly people or family members about the choices in such areas as housing, transportation, and long-term care; and coordinate and monitor services. Working Conditions Most social workers have a standard 40-hour week. However, they may work some evenings and weekends to meet with clients, attend community meetings, and handle emergencies. Some, particularly in voluntary nonprofit agencies, work part time. They may spend most of their time in an office or residential facility, but may also travel lo­ cally to visit clients or meet with service providers. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and large caseloads add to the pressure in some agencies. Employment Social workers held about 438,000 jobs in 1990. About 2 out of 5 jobs were in State, county, or municipal government agencies, pri­ marily in departments of human resources, social services, child wel-  Social workers should be objective, yet sensitive to people and their problems.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  fare, mental health, health, housing, education, and corrections. Most in the private sector were in voluntary social service agencies, com­ munity and religious organizations, hospitals, nursing homes, or home health agencies. Although most social workers are employed in cities or suburbs, some work in rural areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree is the minimum requirement for most positions. Besides the bachelor’s in social work (BSW), undergraduate majors in psychology, sociology, and related fields satisfy hiring require­ ments in some agencies, especially small community agencies. A master’s degree in social work (MSW) is generally necessary for po­ sitions in health and mental health settings. Jobs in public agencies may also require an MSW. Supervisory, administrative, staff training positions usually require at least an MSW. College and University teaching positions and most research appointments normally require a doctorate in social work. In 1990, the Council on Social Work Education accredited 394 BSW programs and 113 MSW programs. There were 45 doctoral pro­ grams for Ph.D. in Social Work and for DSW (Doctor of Social Work). BSW programs prepare graduates for direct service positions such as caseworker or group worker. They include courses in social work practice, social welfare policies, human behavior and the social environment, and social research methods. Accredited BSW pro­ grams require at least 400 hours of supervised field experience. An MSW degree prepares graduates to perform assessments, to manage cases, and to supervise other workers. Master’s programs usually last 2 years and include 900 hours of supervised field instruc­ tion, or internship. Entry into an MSW program does not require a bachelor’s in social work, but courses in psychology, biology, sociol­ ogy, economics, political science, history, social anthropology, urban studies, and social work are recommended. Some schools offer an ac­ celerated MSW program for those with a BSW, Social workers may advance to supervisor, program manager, as­ sistant director, and finally to executive director of an agency or de­ partment. Advancement generally requires an MSW, as well as experience. Other career options for social workers are teaching, re­ search, and consulting. Some help formulate government policies by analyzing and advocating policy positions in government agencies, in research institutions, and on legislators’ staffs. Some social workers go into private practice. Most private practi­ tioners are clinical social workers who provide psychotherapeutic counseling. Private practitioners usually need an MSW and a network of contacts for referrals. In 1990, 48 States and the District of Columbia had licensing, cer­ tification, or registration laws regarding social work practice and the use of professional titles. Voluntary certification is offered by the Na­ tional Association of Social Workers (NASW), which grants the titled ACSW (Academy of Certified Social Workers) or ACBSW (Acade­ my of Certified Baccalaureate Social Workers) to those who qualify. For clinical social workers, professional credentials include listing in the NASW Register of Clinical Social Workers or in the Directory of American Board of Examiners in Clinical Social Work. These creden­ tials are particularly important for those in private practice: some health insurance providers require them for reimbursement. Social workers should be emotionally mature, objective, and sensi­ tive to people and their problems. They must be able to handle re­ sponsibility, work independently, and maintain good working relationships with clients and coworkers. Volunteer or paid jobs as a social work aide offer ways of testing one’s interest in this field. Job Outlook Employment of social workers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The number of older people, who are more likely to need services, is growing rapid­ ly. In addition, the need for and concern about services to the mental­ ly ill, the mentally retarded, and individuals and families in crisis are expected to grow. The need to replace social workers who leave the  Professional Specialty Occupations  occupation, however, will provide the most openings. Employment in hospitals is projected to grow much faster than the average for the economy as a whole due to greater emphasis on dis­ charge planning, which facilitates early discharge of patients by as­ suring that the necessary medical services and social supports are in place. Employment in private social service agencies is also projected to grow much faster than average. Employment in government is pro­ jected to grow only about as fast as average. Opportunities for social workers in private practice will expand be­ cause of the anticipated availability of funding from health insurance and from public sector contracts. Also, with increasing affluence, people will be more willing to pay for professional help to deal with personal problems. The growing popularity of employee assistance programs is also expected to spur demand for private practitioners, some of whom provide social work services to corporations on a con­ tract basis. Employment in home health care services is growing, not only be­ cause hospitals are moving to release patients more quickly, but be­ cause a large and growing number of people have impairments or disabilities that make it difficult to live at home without some form of assistance. Employment of school social workers is expected to grow, due to expanded efforts to respond to the adjustment problems of immi­ grants, children from single-parent families, and others in difficult sit­ uations. Moreover, continued emphasis on integrating handicapped children into the general school population—a requirement under the Education for AH Handicapped Children Act—will probably lead to more jobs. The availability of State and local funding will dictate the actual increase in jobs in this setting, however. Competition is stronger in cities where training programs for social workers abound; rural areas often find it difficult to attract and retain qualified staff. Earnings In January 1991, medical social workers in private hospitals who worked full-time averaged $14.73 per hour, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Social workers employed by the Federal Government averaged $38,195 in 1991. According to limited data, social workers in all types of settings generally earned between $23,000 and $36,000 in 1990. Related Occupations Through direct counseling or referral to other services, social workers help people solve a range of personal problems. Workers in occupa­ tions with similar duties include the clergy, counselors, counseling psychologists, and vocational rehabilitation counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in social work, contact: National Association of Social Workers, 7981 Eastern Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910.  The Council on Social Work Education publishes an annual Direc­ tory of Accredited BSW and MSW Programs. Price and ordering in­ formation for this and other CSWE publications is available from: Council on Social Work Education, 1600 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information on doctoral programs in social work, contact: Dr. Sheila B. Kamerman, Chair for Group for the Advancement of Doctor­ al Education, c/o Columbia University, School of Social Work, 122 West 113rd St., New York, NY 10025.  Recreation Workers (D.O.T. 153.137-010; 159.124-010; 187.137-010; 195.227-010 and -014; and 352.167-010)  Nature of the Work As leisure time in our lives increases, opportunities for organized  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  121  recreation become more important. Recreation workers plan, orga­ nize, and direct activities that help people enjoy and benefit from leisure hours. They should not be confused with recreational thera­ pists, who help individuals recover or adjust to illness, disability, or specific social problems. (The work of recreational therapists is de­ scribed elsewhere in the Handbook.) Recreation programs, whether institutionally or community based, are as diverse as the people they serve and the people who run them. Employment settings range from pristine wilderness areas to health clubs in the city center. At local playgrounds and community centers, for example, recreation personnel organize and conduct a variety of leisure activities, including arts, crafts, fitness, and sports. Recreation workers are also employed by theme parks, tourist attractions, and firms that offer “getaway” vacations or adventure trips. Other employment settings include parks, campgrounds, and recre­ ational areas; schools, churches, and synagogues; retirement commu­ nities, senior centers, and adult daycare programs; military bases; correctional institutions; and corporations. Recreation personnel in industry organize and direct leisure activi­ ties and athletic programs for employees and their families such as bowling and softball leagues, social functions, travel programs, dis­ count services, and, to an increasing extent, exercise and fitness pro­ grams. These activities are generally for adults. Camp counselors lead and instruct campers in nature-oriented forms of recreation such as swimming, hiking, and horseback riding as well as outdoor education. In addition, they provide campers with specialized instruction in a particular area such as music, drama, gymnastics, tennis, or computers. In resident camps, the staff also provides guidance and supervision in daily living tasks and general socialization. Recreation workers occupy a variety of positions at different levels of responsibility. Recreation leaders provide direction and are respon­ sible for a recreation program’s daily operation. They may give in­ struction in dance, drama, crafts, games, and sports; keep records; and maintain recreation facilities. Those who provide instruction in specialties such as art, music, drama, swimming, or tennis may be called activity specialists. They often conduct classes and coach teams in the activity in which they specialize. Recreation leaders and activity specialists usually work under a supervisor. Recreation supervisors plan programs to meet the needs of the pop­ ulation they serve; supervise recreation leaders, sometimes over a large region; and direct specialized activities. In order to accomplish these tasks more efficiently, a growing number of supervisors are using computers in their work. Working Conditions While the average workweek for recreation workers is about 40 hours, people entering this field should expect some night work, weekend work, and irregular hours. The work setting for recreation workers may be anywhere from a vacation cruise ship to a woodland recreational park. Recreation workers often spend much of their time outdoors and may work under a variety of weather conditions. Recre­ ation supervisors may spend most of their time in an office. Since full-time recreation workers spend more time acting as managers than hands-on activities leaders, they engage in less physical activity. However, as is the case for anyone engaged in physical activity, recreation workers risk injuries and the work can be physically tiring. Employment Recreation workers held about 194,000 jobs in 1990. (This estimate does not include many summer workers.) More than half worked in government agencies, primarily in park and recreation departments at the municipal and county levels. About 15 percent worked in mem­ bership organizations with a civic, social, fraternal, or religious orien­ tation—the Boy Scouts, the YWCA, and Red Cross, for example. Approximately 12 percent were in programs run by social service or­ ganizations (senior centers and adult daycare programs, for example) or in residential care facilities such as halfway houses, group homes, and institutions for delinquent youth.  122  Occupational Outlook Handbook  mpS]  Strong interpersonal and leadership skills are desirable traits for recreation workers. Other employers include commercial recreation establishments, amusement parks, sports and entertainment centers, wilderness and survival enterprises, tourist attractions, vacation excursions, hotels and other resorts, camps, health spas, athletic clubs, apartment com­ plexes, and others. The recreation field is characterized by an unusually large number of part-time, seasonal, and volunteer jobs. The largest number of paid employees in the recreation field are part-time or seasonal workers. Typical jobs include summer camp counselors, lifeguards, craft spe­ cialists, and after-school and weekend recreation program leaders. Many jobs are filled by teachers and college students. The vast ma­ jority of volunteers serve as activity leaders at local day-camp pro­ grams, or in youth organizations, camps, nursing homes, hospitals, senior centers, YMCA’s, and other settings. Some volunteers serve on local park and recreation boards and commissions. Part-time work during school and volunteer experience may lead to a full-time job. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational requirements for jobs in this field range from a high school diploma or less for many summer jobs to graduate education for administrative positions in large public systems. Most applicants for full-time career positions are college graduates with majors in parks and recreation, or leisure studies, but a bachelor’s degree in any liberal arts field may be sufficient for some jobs in the private sector. Some jobs also require specialized training in a particular field, such as art, music, drama, or athletics, and some require special certifica­ tion, such as a lifesaving certificate. However, a bachelor’s degree is not always necessary. Some career recreation positions are filled by graduates of associate degree programs in parks and recreation, social work, and other human services disciplines. Occasionally high school graduates are able to fill career positions but this is not common. A number of jobs in this field are held by college students who work part time while earning a degree. Most supervisors have a bachelor’s degree and experience. Persons with academic preparation in parks and recreation, leisure studies, physical education, fitness management, and related fields generally have better prospects for career advancement, although this varies from one employer to another. In some organizations, it is possible to reach the top of the career ladder without a college education, but this is becoming increasingly difficult.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A bachelor’s degree and experience are considered minimum re­ quirements for administrators. However, increasing numbers are ob­ taining master’s degrees in parks and recreation as well as in related disciplines. Many persons in other disciplines, including social work, forestry, and resource management, pursue graduate degrees in recre­ ation. 1 In industrial recreation, or “employee services” as this field is more commonly called, companies prefer applicants with a bache­ lor’s degree in recreation or leisure studies and a strong background in business administration. Programs leading to an associate or bachelor’s degree in parks and recreation, leisure studies, or related fields are offered at 340 colleges and universities. Many also offer master’s or Ph.D. degrees in this field. In 1991, 95 parks and recreation curriculums at the bachelor’s de­ gree level were accredited by the Council on Accreditation, spon­ sored by the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) in cooperation with the American Association for Leisure and Recre­ ation (AALR). Accredited programs provide broad exposure to the history, theory, and philosophy of park and recreation management. Courses are offered in community organization; supervision and ad­ ministration; recreational needs of special populations such as older adults or the disabled; and supervised fieldwork. Students have an opportunity to specialize in areas such as therapeutic recreation, park management, outdoor recreation, industrial or commercial recreation, and camp management. The American Camping Association has developed a curriculum for camp director education. Many national youth associations offer training courses for camp directors at the local and regional levels. Persons planning recreation careers should be outgoing, good at motivating people, and sensitive to the needs of others. Good health and physical stamina are required. Activity planning calls for creativ­ ity and resourcefulness. Willingness to accept responsibility and the ability to exercise judgment are important qualities since recreation personnel often work alone. To increase their leadership skills and understanding of people, students should obtain related work experi­ ence in high school and college. Such experience may help students decide whether their interests really point to a human services career. Individuals contemplating careers in recreation at the supervisory or administrative level should develop managerial skills. College courses in management, business administration, accounting, and per­ sonnel management are likely to be useful. Certification for this field is offered by the NRPA National Certifi­ cation Board and the American Camping Association. In 1991, 40 States had adopted NRPA standards for leisure technicians and leisure professionals. The American Camping Association offers a certification program for camp directors. To become certified, indi­ viduals must pass an oral and written examination and complete a 5day workshop. Continuing education is necessary to remain certified. Certification is not usually required for employment or advance­ ment in this field, but is becoming a desireable qualification. Employ­ ers faced with an abundance of qualified applicants are likely to give preference to those with professional credentials, experience, or both. Job Outlook Employment of recreation workers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 because of a growing number of people with both leisure time and the money to purchase leisure services; increased interest in fitness and health; and rising demand for recreational opportunities for older adults in senior centers and retirement communities. As is generally the case, howev­ er, most job openings will result from replacement needs. Employment opportunities will be more favorable in some settings than others. Job growth will occur in the commercial recreation in­ dustry, composed of amusement parks, athletic clubs, camps, sports clinics, and swimming pools. Hiring practices in commercial recre­ ation vary a great deal, and employer preference for applicants with formal training in recreation, physical education, and related fields has not been clearly established.  Professional Specialty Occupations  Demand for recreation workers is also expected in the fast-growing social services industry. Recreation workers will be needed to devel­ op and lead activity programs in such settings as senior centers, halfway houses, children’s homes, and daycare programs for the mentally retarded or developmentally disabled. Hiring practices in social service agencies vary, also. Some jobs require course work or degrees in recreation, rehabilitation, or other human services fields, while others require only suitable personal qualifications and work experience. The number of recreation workers in employee services and recre­ ation is expected to continue to increase, as more business corpora­ tions institute programs to provide recreational and other services, such as daycare and elder care, to their employees. Overall job growth in local government is expected to be slow due to budget constraints, and local park and recreation departments are expected to do less hiring for permanent, full-time positions than in the past. As a result, this sector’s share of recreation worker employ­ ment will shrink by the end of the century. Nonetheless, opportuni­ ties will vary widely by region, since resources as well as priorities for public services differ from one community to another. Thus, hiring prospects for recreation personnel will be much better in some park and recreation departments than overall projections would suggest. Because the field is open to all college graduates regardless of major, and to some high school or junior college graduates, applica­ tions for career positions in recreation greatly exceed the number of job openings. Keen competition for jobs is expected to continue. Indi­ viduals with both experience and formal training in recreation are ex­ pected to have the best opportunities for staff positions. Those with graduate degrees should have the best opportunities for supervisory or administrative positions. While the market for full-time career positions is expected to re­ main competitive, prospects are much better for the very large num­ ber of temporary seasonal jobs. These positions, typically filled by high school or college-age individuals, do not generally require for­ mal education in recreation or leisure studies, although swimming, lifeguarding, skiing, and similar skills may be necessary. Demand for seasonal workers is great, and job opportunities should be plentiful. Employers are competing for their share of the vacationing student labor market, and salaries in recreation are not always competitive with those in other fields.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  123  Earnings Median annual earnings of all levels of recreation workers who worked full time in 1990 were about $16,000. The middle 50 percent earned between about $11,200 and $21,600. The lowest 10 percent earned about $8,400 or less, while the top 10 percent earned about $27,300 or more. However, earnings potential for recreation directors and others in supervisory or managerial positions can be much higher —anywhere from $22,000 to $95,000, depending on the level of responsibility and the size of the staff. Most public and private recreation agencies provide full-time recreation workers with vacation and other fringe benefits such as sick leave and hospital insurance. Part-time workers receive few, if any, fringe benefits. Related Occupations Recreation workers must exhibit leadership and sensitivity in dealing with people. Other occupations that require similar personal qualities include recreational therapists, social workers, parole officers, human relations counselors, school counselors, clinical and counseling psy­ chologists, and teachers. Sources of Additional Information For information on local government jobs in recreation, contact the nearest department of parks and recreation. Ordering information for materials describing careers and academ­ ic programs in recreation is available from: National Recreation and Park Association, Division of Professional Ser­ vices, 3101 Park Center Dr., Alexandria, VA 22302.  The American Association for Leisure and Recreation publishes information sheets on 25 separate careers in parks and recreation. For price and ordering information, contact: AALR, 1900 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  For information on careers in employee services and recreation, contact: National Employee Services and Recreation Association, 2400 South Downing Ave., Westchester, IL 60154.  For information on careers in camping and summer counselor op­ portunities, contact: American Camping Association, 5000 State Rd. 67 North, Martinsville, IN 46151.  For information on careers with the YMCA, contact: *■ YMCA of the USA, 101 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.  Religious Workers Protestant Ministers (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Protestant ministers lead their congregations in worship services and administer the various rites of the church, such as baptism, confirma­ tion, and Holy Communion. They prepare and deliver sermons and give religious instruction. They also perform marriages; conduct fu­ nerals; counsel individuals who seek guidance; visit the sick, aged, and handicapped at home and in the hospital; comfort the bereaved; and serve church members in other ways. Many Protestant ministers write articles for publication, give speeches, and engage in interfaith, community, civic, educational, and recreational activities sponsored by or related to the interests of the church. Some ministers teach in seminaries, colleges and universities, and church-affiliated preparato­ ry or high schools. The services that ministers conduct differ among Protestant de­ nominations and also among congregations within a denomination. In many denominations, ministers follow a traditional order of worship; in others, they adapt the services to the needs of youth and other groups within the congregation. Most services include Bible reading, hymn singing, prayers, and a sermon. In some denominations, Bible reading by a member of the congregation and individual testimonials may constitute a large part of the service. Ministers serving small congregations generally work personally with parishioners. Those serving large congregations have greater ad­ ministrative responsibilities and spend considerable time working with committees, church officers, and staff, besides other duties. They may share specific aspects of the ministry with one or more as­ sociates or assistants, such as a minister of education who assists in educational programs for different age groups, or a minister of music. Working Conditions Ministers are “on call” for any serious troubles or emergencies that involve or affect members of their churches. They also may work long and irregular hours in administrative, educational, and commu­ nity service activities. Many of the ministers’ duties are sedentary, such as reading or doing research in a study or a library to prepare sermons or write articles. In some denominations, ministers are reassigned by a central body to a new pastorate every few years. Employment In 1990, there were an estimated 255,000 Protestant ministers who served individual congregations. Thousands of others served without a regular congregation, or worked in closely related fields, such as chaplains in hospitals, the Armed Forces, universities, and correction­ al institutions. While there are numerous denominations, most minis­ ters are employed by the five largest Protestant bodies—Baptist, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian. All cities and most towns in the United States have at least one Protestant church with a full-time minister. Although most ministers are located in urban areas, many serve two or more small congrega­ tions in less densely populated areas. Some small churches increas­ ingly are employing part-time ministers who may be seminary students, retired ministers, or holders of secular jobs. Unpaid pastors serve other churches with meager funds. Some churches employ spe­ cially trained members of the laity to conduct nonliturgical functions. Training and Other Qualifications Educational requirements for entry into the Protestant ministry vary greatly. Many denominations require—or at least strongly prefer—a college bachelor’s degree followed by study at a theological school. 124   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Many ministers are active in community social, recreation, and charitable projects. However, some denominations have no formal educational require­ ments, and others ordain persons having various types of training in Bible colleges, Bible institutes, or liberal arts colleges. Many denomi­ nations now allow women to be ordained, but others do not. Persons considering a career in the ministry should verify the entrance re­ quirements with their particular denomination before deciding on a career as a minister. In general, each large denomination has its own school or schools of theology that reflect its particular doctrine, interests, and needs. However, many of these schools are open to students from other de­ nominations. Several interdenominational schools associated with universities give both undergraduate and graduate training covering a wide range of theological points of view. In 1990, over 200 American Protestant theological schools were accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. These admit only students who have received a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent in liberal arts from an accredited college. Many denominations require a 3-year course of professional study in one of these accredited schools or seminaries after college graduation for the degree of master of divinity. College students considering theological study should prepare by taking courses that will aid them later. At the earliest possible date, they should contact their denominations and the schools to which they intend to apply, to learn how to prepare for the program they hope to enter. Recommended preseminary or undergraduate college courses generally include English, history, philosophy, natural sci­ ences, social sciences, fine arts, music, religion, and foreign lan­ guages. These courses provide a knowledge of modern social, cultural, and scientific institutions and problems. The standard curriculum for accredited theological schools consists of four major categories: Biblical, historical, theological, and practi­ cal. Courses of a practical nature include pastoral care, preaching, re­ ligious education, and administration. Many accredited schools require that students work under the supervision of a faculty member or experienced minister. Some institutions offer doctor of ministry degrees to students who have completed additional study, usually 2 or  Professional Specialty Occupations  more years, and served at least 2 years as a minister. Scholarships and loans are available for students of theological institutions. Persons who have denominational qualifications for the ministry usu­ ally are ordained after graduation from a seminary or after serving a probationary pastoral period. Denominations that do not require semi­ nary training ordain clergy at various appointed times. Some evangeli­ cal churches may ordain ministers with only a high school education. Men and women entering the clergy often begin their careers as pas­ tors of small congregations or as assistant pastors in large churches. Job Outlook Competiton is expected to continue for paid Protestant Ministers through the year 2005 due to slow growth of church membership and large number of qualified candidates. However, competition is expect­ ed to ease somewhat as Protestant seminary enrollment stabilizes and as more ministers reach retirement age. Opportunities are expected to be best for graduates of theological schools. The amount of competi­ tion for paid positions will vary among denominations and geographic regions. Competition will still be strong for more responsible positions serving large, urban congregations. Relatively favorable prospects are expected for ministers in evangelical churches. Ministers willing to work part time or for smaller, rural congregations also should have rel­ atively favorable opportunities. Most of the openings for ministers through the year 2005 will arise from the need to replace retirees and, to a lesser extent, those who die or leave the ministry. Employment alternatives for newly ordained Protestant ministers who are unable to find positions in parishes include working in youth counseling, family relations, and welfare organizations; teaching in religious educational institutions; and serving as chaplains in the Armed Forces, hospitals, universities, and correctional institutions. Earnings Salaries of Protestant clergy vary substantially, depending on age, ex­ perience, denomination, size and wealth of congregation, and geo­ graphic location. Based on limited information, the estimated average annual income of Protestant ministers was about $27,000 in 1990. The average salary, including fringe benefits such as housing, insur­ ance, and transportation, was an estimated $44,000. In large, wealthi­ er denominations, ministers often earned significantly higher salaries. Increasingly, ministers with modest salaries earn additional income from employment in secular occupations. Related Occupations Protestant ministers advise and counsel individuals and groups regarding their religious as well as personal, social, and vocational development. Other occupations involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in entering the Protestant ministry should seek the counsel of a minister or church guidance worker. Theologi­ cal schools can supply information on admission requirements. Prospective ministers also should contact the ordination supervision body of their particular denomination for information on special re­ quirements for ordination. Occupational information about the Protestant ministry can also be obtained from:  125  and interpreters of Jewish law and tradition. They conduct religious services and deliver sermons on the Sabbath and on Jewish holidays. Like other clergy, rabbis conduct weddings and funeral services, visit the sick, help the poor, comfort the bereaved, supervise religious edu­ cation programs, engage in interfaith activities, and involve them­ selves in community affairs. Rabbis serving large congregations may spend considerable time in administrative duties, working with their staffs and committees. Large congregations frequently have an associate or assistant rabbi. Many assistant rabbis serve as educational directors. Rabbis serve either Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, or Recon­ structionist congregations. Regardless of their particular point of view, all Jewish congregations preserve the substance of Jewish reli­ gious worship. Congregations differ in the extent to which they follow the traditional form of worship—for example, in the wearing of head coverings, the use of Hebrew as the language of prayer, or the use of instrumental music or a choir. The format of the worship service and, therefore, the ritual that the rabbi uses may vary even among congre­ gations belonging to the same branch of Judaism. Rabbis also may write for religious and lay publications and teach in theological seminaries, colleges, and universities. Working Conditions Rabbis work long hours and are “on call” to visit the sick, comfort the bereaved, and counsel those who seek it. Community and educa­ tional activities may also require long or irregular hours. Some of their duties are intellectual and sedentary, such as study­ ing religious texts, researching and writing sermons and articles for publication, and preparing lectures for adult education. Rabbis have a good deal of independent authority, since they have no formal hierarchy. They are responsible only to the board of trustees of the congregations they serve. Employment In 1990, there were approximately 1,000 Orthodox, 1,300 Conserva­ tive, 1,550 Reform, and 200 Reconstructionist rabbis. Although the majority served congregations, many rabbis functioned in other set­ tings. Some taught in Jewish Studies programs at colleges and uni­ versities. Others served as chaplains in the military services, in hospitals, in college settings, and other institutions, or in one of the many Jewish community service agencies. Although rabbis serve Jewish communities throughout the Nation, they are concentrated in major metropolitan areas with large Jewish populations. Training and Other Qualifications . To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi, a student must complete a course of study in a seminary. Entrance requirements and the cur­ riculum depend upon the branch of Judaism with which the seminary is associated.  *■ National Council of Churches, Professional Church Leadership, Rm. 863, 475 Riverside Dr., New York, NY 10115. »■ Hartford Seminary, 77 Sherman St., Hartford, CT 06105.  Rabbis (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their congregations, and teachers  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Rabbis organize religious educational programs for their congregations.  126  Occupational Outlook Handbook  In general, the curriculums of Jewish theological seminaries pro­ vide students with a comprehensive knowledge of the Bible, Talmud, Rabbinic literature, Jewish history, theology, and courses in educa­ tion, pastoral psychology, and public speaking. Students get extensive practical training in dealing with social problems in the community. Training for alternatives to the pulpit, such as leadership in communi­ ty services and religious education, is increasingly stressed. Some seminaries grant advanced academic degrees in such fields as Bibli­ cal and Talmudic research. All Jewish theological seminaries make scholarships and loans available. About 35 seminaries educate and ordain Orthodox rabbis. The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary and the Beth Medrash Govoha Seminary are representative of the two basic kinds of Orthodox semi­ naries. The former requires a bachelor’s degree for entry and has a for­ mal 3-year ordination program. The latter has no formal admission requirements but may require more years of study for ordination. The training is rigorous. When students have become sufficiently learned in the Talmud, the Bible, and other religious studies, they may be or­ dained with the approval of an authorized rabbi, acting either indepen­ dently or as a representative of a rabbinical seminary. The Jewish Theological Seminary of America educates rabbis for the Conservative branch. The Hebrew Union College—Jewish Insti­ tute of Religion educates rabbis for the Reform branch. For admis­ sion to their rabbinical programs leading to ordination, both seminaries require the completion of a 4-year college course, as well as earlier preparation in Jewish studies. A student with a strong back­ ground in Jewish studies can complete the course at the Conservative seminary in 4 years; for other enrollees, the course may take as long as 6 years. Normally, 5 years of study are required to complete the rabbinical course at the Reform seminary, including 1 year of preparatory study in Jerusalem. Exceptionally well-prepared students can shorten this 5-year period to a minimum of 3 years. The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College educates rabbis in the newest branch of Judaism. A bachelor’s degree is required for admis­ sion. The rabbinical program is based on a 5-year course of study which emphasizes, in each year, a period in the history of Jewish civ­ ilization. A preliminary preparatory year is required for students without sufficient grounding in Hebrew and Jewish studies. Gradu­ ates are awarded the title “Rabbi” and the Master of Arts in Hebrew Letters and, with special study, can earn the Doctor of Hebrew Let­ ters degree. Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as spiritual leaders of small congregations, assistants to experienced rabbis, directors of Hillel Foundations on college campuses, teachers in educational institu­ tions, or chaplains in the Armed Forces. As a rule, experienced rabbis fill the pulpits of large and well-established Jewish congregations. Job Outlook Job opportunities for rabbis are expected to be generally favorable in the four major branches of Judaism through the year 2005. Present unmet needs for rabbis, together with the many rabbis approaching retirement age, should insure that the relatively constant numbers of persons completing rabbinical training in the years ahead will en­ counter good job prospects. Since most rabbis prefer to serve in large, urban areas, employment opportunities generally are best in non­ metropolitan areas, particularly in smaller communities in the South, Midwest, and Northwest. Graduates of Orthodox seminaries who seek pulpits should have good opportunities as growth in enrollments slows and as many grad­ uates choose not to seek pulpits. Orthodox rabbis willing to work in small communities should have particularly good prospects. Conservative and Reform rabbis are expected to have good em­ ployment opportunities throughout the country. Reconstructionist rabbis are expected to have very good employ­ ment opportunities since membership is expanding rapidly. Earnings Income varies widely, depending on the size and financial status of the congregation, as well as its denominational branch and geographic  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  location. Rabbis may earn additional income from gifts or fees for of­ ficiating at ceremonies such as bar mitzvahs and weddings. Based on limited information, annual average earnings of rabbis generally ranged from $38,000 to $90,000 in 1990, including fringe benefits. Fringe benefits may include housing, health insurance, and a retirement plan. Related Occupations Rabbis advise and counsel individuals and groups regarding their re­ ligious, personal, social, and vocational development. Others in­ volved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in becoming rabbis should discuss their plans for a vocation with a practicing rabbi. Information on the work of rabbis and allied occupations can be obtained from: The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, 2540 Amsterdam Ave., New York, NY 10033. (Orthodox) The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 3080 Broadway, New York, NY 10027. (Conservative) <*■ Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion, Director of Place­ ment, at any one of three campuses: 1 W. 4th St., New York, NY 10012; 3101 Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45220; 3077 University Mall, Los Angeles, CA 90007. (Reform) Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, Church Rd. and Greenwood Ave., Wyncote, PA 19095.  Roman Catholic Priests (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Roman Catholic priests attend to the spiritual, pastoral, moral, and educational needs of the members of their church. They deliver ser­ mons, administer the sacraments, and preside at liturgical functions such as funeral services. They also comfort the sick, console and counsel those in need of guidance, and assist the poor. In recent years, some priests have paid increasing attention to nonliturgical concerns such as human rights and social welfare. A priest’s day usually begins with morning meditation and mass and may end with an individual counseling session or an evening visit to a hospital or home. Many priests direct and serve on church committees, work in civic and charitable organizations, and assist in community projects. The two main classifications of priests—diocesan (secular) and re­ ligious—have the same powers, acquired through ordination by a bishop. The differences lie in their way of life, their type of work, and the church authority to whom they are immediately subject. Diocesan priests generally work in parishes assigned by the bishop of their dio­ cese. Religious priests generally work as part of a religious order, such as the Jesuits, Dominicans, or Franciscans. They may engage in specialized activities, such as teaching or missionary work, assigned by superiors of their order. Both religious and diocesan priests hold teaching and administra­ tive posts in Catholic seminaries, colleges and universities, and high schools. Priests attached to religious orders staff a large proportion of the church’s institutions of higher education and many high schools, whereas diocesan priests are usually concerned with the parochial schools attached to parish churches and with diocesan high schools. The members of religious orders do most of the missionary work conducted by the Catholic Church in this country and abroad. Working Conditions Priests spend long and irregular hours working for the church and the community. Religious priests are assigned duties by their superiors in their par­ ticular orders. Some religious priests serve as missionaries in foreign  Professional Specialty Occupations  f  '  ... I  im*  Priests visit and counsel parishioners. countries, where they may live under difficult and primitive condi­ tions. Some live a communal life in monasteries, where they devote themselves to prayer, study, and assigned work. Diocesan priests are “on call” at all hours to serve their parish­ ioners in emergencies. They also have many intellectual duties, in­ cluding study of the scriptures and keeping abreast of current religious and secular events in order to prepare sermons. Diocesan priests are responsible to the bishop of the diocese. Employment There were approximately 53,000 priests in 1990, about two-thirds of them diocesan priests, according to the Official Catholic Directory. There are priests in nearly every city and town and in many rural communities. The majority are in metropolitan areas, where most Catholics reside. Large numbers of priests are located in communities near Catholic educational and other institutions. Training and Other Qualifications Preparation for the priesthood generally requires 8 years of study be­ yond high school in one of about 230 seminaries. Preparatory study may begin in the first year of high school, at the college level, or in theological seminaries after college graduation. High school seminaries provide a college preparatory program that emphasizes English grammar, speech, literature, and social studies. Latin may be required and modern languages are encouraged. In Hispanic communities, knowledge of Spanish is mandatory. The seminary college offers a liberal arts program stressing philosophy and religion, the study of man through the behavioral sciences and history, and the natural sciences and mathematics. In many college seminaries, a student may concentrate in any one of these fields. The remaining 4 years of preparation include sacred scripture; dog­ matic, moral, and pastoral theology; homiletics (art of preaching); church history; liturgy (mass); and canon law. Fieldwork experience usually is required; in recent years, this aspect of a priest’s training has been emphasized. Diocesan and religious priests attend different major seminaries, where slight variations in the training reflect the differences in their duties. Priests commit themselves to celibacy. Postgraduate work in theology is offered at a number of American Catholic universities or at ecclesiastical universities around the world, particularly in Rome. Also, many priests do graduate work in fields unrelated to theology. Priests are encouraged by the Catholic Church to continue their studies, at least informally, after ordination.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  127  In recent years, continuing education for ordained priests has stressed social sciences, such as sociology and psychology. Young men never are denied entry into seminaries because of lack of funds. In seminaries for secular priests, scholarships or loans are available. Those in religious seminaries are financed by contributions of benefactors. A newly ordained secular priest usually works as an assistant pas­ tor or curate. Newly ordained priests of religious orders are assigned to the specialized duties for which they are trained. Depending on the talents, interests, and experience of the individual, many opportuni­ ties for greater responsibility exist within the church. Job Outlook The job outlook for Roman Catholic priests is expected to be very fa­ vorable through the year 2005. More priests will be needed in the years ahead to provide for the spiritual, educational, and social needs of the increasing number of Catholics. In recent years, the number of ordained priests has been insufficient to fill the needs of newly estab­ lished parishes and other Catholic institutions, and to replace priests who retire, die, or leave the priesthood. This situation is likely to in­ tensify if, as expected, seminary enrollments continue to decline and an increasing proportion of priests approach retirement age. In response to the shortage of priests, certain traditional functions increasingly are being performed by lay deacons and by teams of clergy and laity. Presently about 9,500 lay deacons have been or­ dained to preach and perform liturgical functions such as baptisms, distributing Holy Communion, and reading the gospel at the mass. The only services a deacon cannot perform are saying mass and hear­ ing confessions. Teams of clergy and laity undertake nonliturgical functions such as hospital visits and meetings. Priests will continue to offer mass, administer sacraments, and hear confession, but may be less involved in teaching and administrative work. Earnings Diocesan priests’ salaries vary from diocese to diocese. Based on limited information, salaries averaged about $9,000 in 1990. In addi­ tion to a salary, diocesan priests received a package of benefits that could include a car allowance, free room and board in the parish rec­ tory, health insurance, and a retirement plan. Religious priests take a vow of poverty and are supported by their religious order. Priests who do special work related to the church, such as teaching, usually receive a partial salary which is less than a lay person in the same position would receive. The difference between the usual salary for these jobs and the salary that the priest receives is called “con­ tributed service.” In some of these situations, housing and related expenses may be provided; in other cases, the priest must make his own arrangements. Some priests doing special work receive the same compensation that a lay person would receive. Related Occupations Roman Catholic priests advise and counsel individuals and groups re­ garding their religious as well as personal, social, and vocational de­ velopment. Other occupations involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Young men interested in entering the priesthood should seek the guidance and counsel of their parish priests. For information regard­ ing the different religious orders and the secular priesthood, as well as a list of the seminaries which prepare students for the priesthood, contact the diocesan Director of Vocations through the office of the local pastor or bishop. Occupational information about the Roman Catholic priesthood can also be obtained from: <•" National Coalition for Church Vocations, 1603 S. Michigan Ave., Suite 400, Chicago, IL 60616. •" Hartford Seminary, 77 Sherman St., Hartford, CT 06105.  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors Adult Education Teachers (D.O.T. 075.127-010; 090.222-010; 090.227-018; 097.227-010 and -014 099.223, .227-014, -018, -026, and -030; 149.021; 150.027-014; 151.027-014 152.021; 153.227-014; 159.227; 166.227; 239.227; 621.221; 683.222 689.222; 715.221; 740.221; 789.222; 806.227; and 919.223)  Nature of the Work Adult education teachers work in three main areas: adult vocationaltechnical; adult basic; and adult continuing education. Some adult ed­ ucation programs prepare people who have graduated or left school for occupations that do not require a college degree, such as welder, automated systems manager, X-ray technician, and cosmetologist, or help people upgrade current skills. Others offer courses not specifi­ cally intended to prepare for an occupation, such as basic education for school dropouts, cooking, dancing, exercise and physical fitness, photography, and the stock market. Adult education teachers may lecture in classrooms and also give students hands-on experience. Increasingly, adult vocational-techni­ cal education teachers integrate academic and vocational curriculums so that students obtain a variety of skills. For example, an electronics student may be required to take courses in principles of mathematics and science in conjunction with hands-on electronics skills. General­ ly, teachers demonstrate techniques, have students apply them, and critique the students’ work so that they can learn from their mistakes. For example, welding instructors show students various welding techniques, including the use of tools and equipment, watch students use the techniques, and have them repeat procedures if done incor­ rectly. Some adult education teachers instruct in adult basic education programs. Teachers may work with students who do not speak En­ glish; teach adults reading, writing, and mathematics up to the eighth grade level; or teach adults through a twelfth grade level in prepara­ tion for the General Educational Development Examination (GED). The GED offers the equivalent of a high school diploma. Teachers in this program deal with students at different levels of development who may lack proper study habits and self-confidence, and who may require more attention and patience than other students. These teachers may refer students for counseling or job placement. Because many people who need adult basic education are reluctant to seek it out, teachers may also recruit participants. Adult education teachers also prepare lessons and assignments, grade papers and do related paperwork, attend faculty and profession­ al meetings, and stay abreast of developments in their field. (For in­ formation on vocational education teachers in secondary schools, see the Handbook statement on secondary school teachers.)  Adult education teachers are employed by public school systems; community and junior colleges; universities; businesses that provide formal education and training for their employees; automotive repair, bartending, business, computer, electronics, medical technology, and similar schools and institutes; dance studios; health clubs; job train­ ing centers; community organizations; labor unions; and religious or­ ganizations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements vary widely by State and by subject. In gener­ al, teachers need work or other experience in their field, and a license or certificate in fields where these usually are required for full profes­ sional status. In some cases, particularly at educational institutions, a bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree is required. In other cases, an acceptable portfolio of work is required. For example, to secure a job teaching a flower arranging course, an applicant would need to show examples of previous work. Most States and the District of Columbia require adult basic educa­ tion teachers to have a bachelor’s degree from an approved teacher training program, and some require teacher certification. (For infor­ mation on teacher certification, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Adult education teachers update their skills through continuing ed­ ucation. Teachers may take part in seminars, conferences, or graduate courses in adult education, training and development, or human re­ sources development, or may return to work in business or industry for a limited period of time. Adult education teachers should communicate and relate well with students, enjoy working with them, and be able to motivate them. Adult basic education instructors, in particular, must be patient, un­ derstanding, and supportive to make students comfortable, develop trust, and help them better understand their needs and aims. Some teachers advance to administrative positions in departments of education, colleges and universities, and corporate training depart­ ments. Such positions may require advanced degrees, such as a doc­ torate in adult and continuing education. (See statement on education administrators elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Employment of adult education teachers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the de­ mand for adult education programs continues to rise. An increasing number of adults are taking courses for career advancement, skills upgrading, and personal enrichment. Enrollments in adult basic edu-  Working Conditions Since adult education teachers work with adult students, they do not encounter some of the behavioral or social problems sometimes found when teaching younger students. The adults are there by choice, and are usually highly motivated—attributes that can make teaching these students rewarding and satisfying. Many adult education teachers work part time. Many courses are offered at night or on weekends and range from 2- to 4-hour work­ shops and 1-day minisessions to semester-long courses. Employment Adult education teachers held about 517,000 jobs in 1990. Almost half taught part time, a larger proportion than for other teachers, and many taught only intermittently. Flowever, many of them also held other jobs, in many cases doing work related to the subject they taught. Many adult education teachers are self-employed. 128   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Some adult education teachers prepare people for occupations that do not require a college degree.  Professional Specialty Occupations  cation programs are increasing because of changes in immigration policy that require basic competency in English and civics, and an in­ creased awareness of the difficulty in finding a good job without basic academic skills. Employment growth of adult vocational-technical education teach­ ers will result from the need to train young adults for entry level jobs, and to upgrade the skills of experienced workers who want to ad­ vance or switch fields or whose jobs have been eliminated due to changing technology or business reorganization. In addition, in­ creased cooperation between businesses and educational institutions to insure that students are taught the skills employers desire should result in greater demand for adult education teachers, particularly at community and junior colleges. Many job openings for adult education teachers will stem from the need to replace persons who leave the occupation. Many teach part time and move into and out of the occupation for other jobs, family responsibilities, and to retire, so turnover is higher than that for most other teaching occupations. Opportunities will be best in fields such as computer technology, automotive mechanics, and medical technol­ ogy which offer very attractive, and often higher paying, job opportu­ nities outside of teaching. Earnings In 1990, salaried adult education teachers who usually worked full time had median earnings around $26,100 a year. The middle 50 per­ cent earned between $18,300 and $37,200. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $12,300, while the top 10 percent earned more than $45,600. Earnings varied widely by subject, academic credentials, ex­ perience, and region of the country. Part-timers are generally paid hourly wages and do not receive benefits or pay for preparation time outside of class. Related Occupations Adult education teaching requires a wide variety of skills and apti­ tudes, including the power to influence, motivate, and train others; organizational, administrative, and communication skills; and creativ­ ity. Workers in other occupations that require these aptitudes include other teachers, counselors, school administrators, public relations specialists, employee development specialists and interviewers, and social workers. Sources of Additional Information Information on adult basic education programs and certification re­ quirements is available from State departments of education and local school districts. For information about adult vocational-technical education teach­ ing positions, contact State departments of vocational-technical edu­ cation. For information on adult education teaching positions, contact de­ partments of local government, State adult education departments, schools, colleges and universities, religious organizations, and a wide range of businesses that provide formal training for their employees. General information on adult education is available from: •' American Association for Adult and Continuing Education, 1112 16th St. NW„ Suite 420, Washington, DC 20036. American Vocational Association, 1410 King St., Alexandria, VA 22314. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, 1900 Kenny Rd., Columbus, OH 43210-1090.  Archivists and Curators (D.O.T. 101; 102 except .261-014 and .367-010; 109 except .067-010, .137­ 010, and .367-010)  Nature of the Work Archivists, curators, museum technicians, and conservators search for, acquire, analyze, describe, arrange, catalog, restore, preserve, ex­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  129  hibit, maintain, and store items of lasting value so that they can be used by researchers or for displays, publications, and broadcasting. These may consist of historical documents, audiovisual materials, corporate records, art, coins, stamps, minerals, clothing, maps, live and preserved plants and animals, buildings, computer records, or historic sites. Archivists and curators plan and oversee the work of maintaining collections. They may also, along with technicians and conservators, work directly on collections. Archivists and curators may coordinate educational and public service programs, such as tours, workshops, lectures, and classes, and may work with the boards of institutions to administer plans and policies. They also may conduct research on topics or items relevant to their collections. Archivists determine what portion of the vast amount of informa­ tion produced by government agencies, corporations, educational in­ stitutions, other organizations, families, and individuals should be made part of a permanent historical record or put on exhibit. They or­ ganize and describe records so they can be located easily, determine whether records should be stored as original documents, on micro­ film, on computers, or in some other format, and assist researchers and others who use the records. Archives may be part of a library, museum, or historical society, or may be a separate unit. Most items in archives are textual documents, but photographs, blueprints, audiovisual materials, computer records, and other items also are stored. Archivists often specialize in an area of history or technology so they can better determine what should be­ come part of the archives. Archivists may also work with specialized types of records—for example, manuscripts, machine-readable records, photographs, cartographic records, motion pictures, and sound recordings. Curators, sometimes called collections managers, oversee collec­ tions in museums, zoos, aquariums, botanic gardens, and historic sites. They acquire items through purchases, gifts, field exploration, intermuseum loans, or, in the case of some plants and animals, breed­ ing. Curators also plan and prepare exhibits. Most curators specialize in fields such as botany, art, or history. Those working in large institutions may be highly specialized. A large natural history museum, for example, would have specialists in birds, fishes, insects, and mollusks. Furthermore, in large institutions, most curators specialize in particular functions. Some maintain the collection, while others perform administrative tasks. Registrars, for example, are responsible for keeping track of and moving objects in the collection. In small institutions, with only one or a few curators, they are responsible for almost everything from maintaining collec­ tions to directing the affairs of museums. Conservators coordinate the activities of workers engaged in the examination, repair, and conservation of museum objects. This may require substantial historical and archaeological research. They use X-rays, radiographs, special lights, and other laboratory equipment in examining objects to determine their condition, the need for repair, and the method of preservation. Museum technicians assist curators and conservators by perform­ ing various preparatory and maintenance tasks on museum items. Archivists, curators, and conservators are increasingly using com­ puters to catalog and organize collections, as well as to perform origi­ nal research. Working Conditions The working conditions of archivists and curators vary. Some spend most of their time working with the public, providing reference assis­ tance and educational services. Others perform research or process records, which often means working alone or in offices with only one or two other persons. Those who restore and install exhibits or work with bulky, heavy record containers may climb, stretch, or lift, and those in zoos, botanical gardens, and other outdoor museums or his­ toric sites frequently walk. Curators may travel extensively to evaluate potential additions to the collection, to organize exhibitions, and to conduct research in their area of expertise.  130  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment Archivists and curators held about 17,000 jobs in 1990. About 3 out of 10 were employed in museums, botanical gardens, and zoos, and approximately 1 in 6 was in public and private education, particularly in college and university libraries. One-third worked in Federal, State, and local government. Most Federal archivists work for the Na­ tional Archives and Records Administration; others manage military archives in the Department of Defense. Most Federal Government cu­ rators work at the Smithsonian Institution, in the military museums of the Department of Defense, and in archaeological and other museums managed by the Department of Interior. All State governments have archival or historical records sections employing archivists. State and local governments have numerous historical museums, parks, li­ braries, and zoos employing curators. Some large corporations have archives or records centers, employ­ ing archivists to manage the growing volume of records created or maintained as required by law or necessary to the firms’ operations. Religious and fraternal organizations, professional associations, con­ servation organizations, and research firms also employ archivists and curators. Conservators may work under contract to treat particular items, rather than work as a regular employee of a museum or other institution. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employment as an archivist or curator generally requires graduate training and substantial practical or work experience. Many archivists and curators work in archives or museums while completing their for­ mal education, in order to gain the experience that many employers look for when hiring. Employers generally look for archivists with undergraduate and graduate degrees in history or library science, with courses in archival science. Some positions may require knowledge of the discipline relat­ ed to the collection, such as business or medicine. An increasing num­ ber of archivists have a double master’s degree in history and library science. Approximately 65 colleges and universities offer courses or practical training in archival science; some also offer master’s and doc­ toral degrees. The Academy of Certified Archivists offers voluntary certification for archivists. Certification requires the applicant to pass an examination offered by the Academy. Archivists need analytical ability to understand the content of doc­ uments and the context in which they were created, and to decipher  i m  Prospective archivists and curators need graduate training and work experience.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  deteriorated or poor quality printed matter, handwritten manuscripts, or photographs and films. Archivists also must be able to organize large amounts of information and write clear instructions for its re­ trieval and use. Many archives are very small, including one-person shops, with limited promotion opportunities. Advancement generally is through transferring to a larger unit with supervisory positions. A doctorate may be needed for some advanced positions, such as director of a State archives. In most museums, a master’s degree in an appropriate discipline of the museum’s specialty—for example, art, history, or archaeology— or museum studies is required for employment as a curator. Many employers prefer a doctoral degree, such as for curators in a science discipline. In small museums, curatorial positions may be available to individuals with a bachelor’s degree. For some positions, an intern­ ship of full-time museum work supplemented by courses in museum practices is needed. Museum technicians generally need a bachelor’s degree in an appro­ priate discipline of the museum’s specialty, museum studies training, or previous museum work experience. Technician positions often serve as a stepping stone for individuals interested in curatorial work. With the ex­ ception of small museums, a master’s degree is needed for advancement. When hiring conservators, employers look for a master’s degree in conservation, with an undergraduate background in science or art. In­ dividuals may also enter the profession through apprenticeship pro­ grams, available through museums, nonprofit organizations, and private practice conservators. Students interested in museum work may take courses or obtain a bachelor’s or master’s degree in museum studies. Colleges and uni­ versities throughout the country offer bachelor’s and master’s degrees in museum studies. However, many employers feel that, while muse­ um studies are helpful, a thorough knowledge of the museum’s spe­ cialty and museum work experience are more important. Curatorial positions often require knowledge in a number of fields. For historic and artistic conservation, courses in chemistry, physics, and art are desirable. Since curators—particularly those in small mu­ seums—may have administrative and managerial responsibilities, courses in business administration and public relations also are recommended. Curators must be flexible because of their wide variety of duties. They need an aesthetic sense to design and present exhibits, and, in small museums, manual dexterity is needed to erect exhibits or re­ store objects. Leadership ability is important for museum directors, while public relations skills are valuable in increasing museum atten­ dance and fundraising. In large museums, curators may advance through several levels of responsibility, eventually to museum director. Curators in smaller museums often advance to larger ones. Individual research and publi­ cations are important for advancement. Continuing education, which enables archivists, curators, museum technicians, and conservators to keep up with developments in the field, is available through meetings, conferences, and workshops sponsored by archival, historical, and curatorial associations. Job Outlook Employment of archivists and curators is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition, turnover among archivists and curators will create a number of job openings. Federal Government archives are expected to grow slowly, but those in other areas, such as educational services and State and local government, are expected to grow faster. Archival jobs will also be­ come available as institutions put more emphasis on establishing archives and organizing records and information. Museums and botanical and zoological gardens, where curators are concentrated, are expected to grow in response to increased public interest in sci­ ence, art, history, and technology. Despite the anticipated increase in the employment of archivists and curators, competition for jobs is expected to be keen. A job as a curator  Professional Specialty Occupations  is attractive to many people, and many have the necessary subject knowledge; yet there are only a few openings. Consequently, candi­ dates may have to work part time, or as an intern, or even as a volun­ teer assistant curator or research associate after completing their formal education, and substantial work experience in collection management, exhibit design, or restoration will be necessary for permanent status. Job opportunities for curators should be best in art and history muse­ ums, since these are the largest employers in the museum industry. Earnings Earnings of archivists and curators vary considerably by type and size of employer. Average salaries in the Federal Government, for exam­ ple, are much higher than those in religious organizations. Salaries of curators in large, well-funded museums may be several times higher than those in small ones. Salaries in the Federal Government depend upon education and ex­ perience. In early 1991, inexperienced archivists and curators with a bachelor’s degree started at about $17,000, while those with some ex­ perience started at $21,000. Those with a master’s degree started at $25,700, and with a doctorate, $31,100 or $37,300. In 1991, archivists employed by the Federal Government averaged $42,800 a year, curators averaged $44,800, and museum specialists and techni­ cians averaged $27,400. According to a survey by the Association of Art Museum Direc­ tors, average salaries for workers in large art museums in 1990 were as follows; Chief curator/director........................................................... $48,000 Curator.................................................................................. 44,200 Senior conservator................................................................ 42,500 Curatorial assistants.............................................................. 20,400 Related Occupations Archivists’ and curators’ interests in preservation and display are shared by anthropologists, arborists, archaeologists, artifacts conser­ vators, botanists, ethnologists, folklorists, genealogists, historians, horticulturists, information specialists, librarians, paintings restorers, records managers, and zoologists. Sources of Additional Information For information on archivists and on schools offering courses in archival science, contact: »■ Society of American Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504, Chicago, IL 60605. For information about certification for archivists, contact: Academy of Certified Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504, Chica­ go, IL 60605.  For general information about careers as a curator and schools of­ fering courses in museum studies, contact: American Association of Museums, 1225 I St. NW., Suite 200, Washing­ ton, DC 20005.  For information about curatorial careers and internships in botani­ cal gardens, contact: American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, 786 Church Rd„ Wayne, PA 19087. For information about conservation and preservation careers, contact: *■ American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1400 16th St. NW., Suite 340, Washington, DC 20036.  For information on curatorial and other positions in natural history museums, contact: Association of Systematics Collections, 730 11th St. NW., Second Floor, Washington, DC 20001.  College and University Faculty (D.O.T. 090.227-010)  Nature of the Work College and university faculty teach and advise over 13 million full­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  131  time and part-time college students and perform a significant part of our Nation’s research. They also study and meet with colleagues to keep up with developments in their field and consult with govern­ ment, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. Faculty are generally organized into departments, based on subject or field. They usually teach several different courses in their depart­ ment—algebra, calculus, and differential equations, for example. They may instruct undergraduates, graduate students, or both. College and university faculty may give lectures to several hun­ dred students in large halls, lead small seminars, and supervise stu­ dents in laboratories. They also prepare lectures, exercises, and laboratory experiments, grade exams and papers, and advise and work with students individually. In universities, they also counsel, teach, and supervise graduate student research. They may use closedcircuit and cable television, computers, videotapes, and other teach­ ing aids. Faculty keep up with developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences. They also do their own research to expand knowledge in their field. They experiment, collect and analyze data, and examine original documents, literature, and other source material. From this, they develop hypotheses, arrive at conclusions, and write about their findings in scholarly journals and books. Most faculty members serve on academic or administrative com­ mittees which deal with the policies of their institution, departmental matters, academic issues, curricula, budgets, equipment purchases, and hiring. Some work with student organizations. Department heads generally have heavier administrative responsibilities. The amount of time spent on each of these activities varies by indi­ vidual circumstance and type of institution. Faculty members at uni­ versities generally spend a significant part of their time doing research; those in 4-year colleges, somewhat less; and those in 2-year colleges, relatively little. However, the teaching load usually is heav­ ier in 2-year colleges. Working Conditions College faculty generally have flexible schedules. They must be pre­ sent for classes, usually 12 to 16 hours a week, and for faculty and committee meetings. Most establish regular office hours for student consultations, usually 3 to 6 hours per week. Otherwise, they are rela­ tively free to decide when and where they will work, and how much time to devote to course preparation, study, research, and other activi­ ties. They may work staggered hours and teach classes at night and on weekends. They have even greater flexibility during the summer and school holidays, when they may teach or do research, travel, or pursue nonacademic interests. Most colleges and universities have funds used to support faculty research or other professional develop­ ment needs, including travel to conferences and research sites. Faculty may experience a conflict between their responsibilities to teach students and the pressure to do research—“publish or perish.” This may be a particular problem for young faculty seeking advance­ ment. However, increasing emphasis on undergraduate teaching abili­ ty in tenure decisions may alleviate some of this pressure. Employment College and university faculty held about 712,000 jobs in 1990, most­ ly in public institutions. About 3 out of 10 college and university faculty members work part time. Some part-timers, known as “adjunct faculty,” have prima­ ry jobs outside of academia—in government, private industry, or in nonprofit research—and teach “on the side.” Others want full-time jobs but can’t find them. Some of them work part time in more than one institution. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most college and university faculty are in four academic ranks: Pro­ fessors, associate professors, assistant professors, and instructors. A small number are lecturers. Most faculty members are hired as instructors or assistant profes­ sors. Four-year colleges and universities generally hire doctoral de-  132  Occupational Outlook Handbook  integrity and intellectual honesty. Finally, they need to be able to work in an environment where they receive little direct supervision.  College faculty teach and conduct research. gree holders for full-time, tenure-track positions, but may hire mas­ ter’s degree holders or doctoral candidates for certain disciplines, such as the arts, or for part-time and temporary jobs. In 2-year col­ leges, master’s degree holders often qualify for full-time positions. Doctoral programs usually take 4 to 7 years of full-time study beyond the bachelor’s degree. Candidates usually specialize in a subfield of a discipline, for example, organic chemistry, counseling psychology, or European history, but also take courses covering the whole discipline. Programs include 20 or more increasingly special­ ized courses and seminars plus comprehensive examinations on all major areas of the field. They also include a dissertation. This is a re­ port on original research to answer some significant question in the field; it sets forth an original hypothesis or proposes a model and tests it. Students in the natural sciences and engineering usually do laboratory work; in the humanities, they study original documents and other published material. The dissertation, done under the guid­ ance of one or more faculty advisors, usually takes 1 or 2 years of full-time work. In some fields, particularly the natural sciences, some students spend an additional 2 years on postdoctoral research and study before taking a faculty position. A major step in the traditional academic career is attaining tenure. Newly hired faculty serve a certain period (usually 7 years) under term contracts. Then, their record of teaching, research, and overall contribution to the institution is reviewed; tenure is granted if the re­ view is favorable and positions are available. With tenure, a professor cannot be fired without just cause and due process. Those denied tenure usually must leave the institution. Tenure protects the faculty’s academic freedom—the ability to teach and conduct research without fear of being fired for advocating unpopular ideas. It also gives both faculty and institutions the stability needed for effective research and teaching, and provides financial stability for faculty members. About two-thirds of full-time faculty are tenured, and many others are in the probationary period. Some faculty—based on teaching experience, research, publica­ tion, and service on campus committees and task forces—move into administrative and managerial positions, such as departmental chair­ person, dean, and president. At 4-year institutions, such advancement requires a doctoral degree. At 2-year colleges, a doctorate is helpful but not generally required, except for advancement to some top ad­ ministrative postitions. (Deans and departmental chairpersons are covered in the Handbook statement on education administrators, while college presidents are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) College faculty need intelligence, inquiring and analytical minds, and a strong desire to pursue and disseminate knowledge. They should be able to communicate clearly and logically, both orally and in writing. They need to be able to establish rapport with students and, as models for them, to be dedicated to the principles of academic  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of college and university faculty is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as enrollments in higher education increase. Many additional open­ ings will arise as faculty members retire. Enrollments increased in the early and mid-1980’s despite a de­ cline in the traditional college-age (18-24) population. This resulted from a higher proportion of 18- to 24-year-olds attending college, along with a growing number of part-time, female, and nontraditional age students. Enrollments are expected to continue to grow through the year 2005, particularly as the traditional college-age population begins increasing after 1996, when the leading edge of the babyboom “echo” generation (children of the baby boomers) reaches col­ lege age. In addition, the number of students age 25 or over may continue to grow, further increasing enrollments. Faculty retirements should increase significantly from the late 1990’s through 2005. The large number of faculty who entered the profession during the 1950’s and 1960’s will approach retirement age at this time, creating a significant number of job openings. Once enrollments and retirements increase in the late 1990’s, op­ portunities for faculty should be much improved over those in the 1970’s and 1980’s. In the past two decades, keen competition for fac­ ulty jobs forced some applicants to accept part-time or short-term academic appointments that offered little hope of tenure, and others to seek nonacademic positions. However, as competition for jobs lessens in the late 1990’s, opportunities for tenure should improve, and fewer college and university faculty should have to take part-time or short-term appointments. Job prospects will continue to be better in certain fields—business, engineering, health science, computer science, physical sciences, and mathematics, for example—largely because very attractive nonaca­ demic jobs will be available for many potential faculty. Employment of college faculty is also related to the nonacademic job market  The traditional college age population will begin to increase in the mid-1990's. Population 18 to 24 years of age (millions)  1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  Source: Bureau of Census, Series 18 population projections (high fertility/high immigration assumptions)  2000  2005  Professional Specialty Occupations  through an “echo effect.” Good job prospects in a field—for example, engineering during the late 1970’s and early 1980’s—cause more stu­ dents to enroll, increasing faculty needs in that field. On the other hand, poor job prospects in a field, such as history in recent years, discourages students and reduces demand for faculty. Earnings Earnings vary according to faculty rank and type of institution and, in some cases, by field. Faculty in 4-year institutions earn higher salaries, on the average, than those in 2-year schools. According to a 1990-91 survey by the American Association of University Professors, salaries for full-time faculty on 9-month contracts averaged $43,700. By rank, the average for professors was $56,200; associate professors, $41,800; assistant professors, $34,600; and instructors, $26,100. Those on 11- or 12-month contracts obviously earned more. In fields where there are high-paying nonacademic alternatives—notably medicine and law but also engineering and business—earnings exceed these averages. In oth­ ers—the liberal arts, for example—they are lower. Many faculty members have added earnings, both during the aca­ demic year and the summer, from consulting, teaching additional courses, research, writing for publication, or other employment. Most college and university faculty enjoy some unique benefits, in­ cluding access to campus facilities and tuition waivers for depen­ dents, housing and travel allowances, and paid sabbatical leaves. Related Occupations College and university faculty function both as teachers and researchers. They communicate information and ideas. Related occu­ pations include elementary and secondary school teachers, librarians, writers, consultants, lobbyists, trainers and employee development specialists, and policy analysts. Faculty research activities are often similar to those of scientists, project managers, and administrators in industry, government, and nonprofit research organizations. Sources of Additional Information Professional societies generally provide information on employment opportunities in their fields. Names and addresses of these societies appear in statements elsewhere in the Handbook. Special publications on higher education, available in libraries, list specific employment opportunities for faculty.  Counselors (D.O.T. 045.107-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, .117-010; 090.107-010; and 169.267.026)  Nature of the Work Counselors assist people with personal, family, social, educational, and career decisions, problems, and concerns. Their duties depend on the individuals they serve and the settings in which they work. School and college counselors help students understand their abili­ ties, interests, talents, and personality characteristics so that the stu­ dent can develop realistic academic and career options. They use interviews, counseling sessions, tests, or other tools to assist them in evaluating and advising students. They may operate career informa­ tion centers and career education programs. High school counselors advise on college majors, admission requirements, entrance exams, and financial aid, and on trade, technical school, and apprenticeship programs. They help students develop jobfinding skills such as re­ sume writing and interviewing techniques. Counselors also help stu­ dents understand and deal with their social, behavioral, and personal problems. They emphasize preventive and developmental counseling to provide students with the life skills needed to deal with problems before they occur, and to enhance personal, social, and academic growth. They work with students individually, in small groups, or with entire classes. Counselors consult and work with parents, teach­ ers, school administrators, school psychologists, school nurses, and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  133  social workers. Elementary school counselors do more social and per­ sonal counseling, and less vocational and academic counseling than secondary school counselors. They observe younger children during classroom and play activities and confer with their teachers and par­ ents to evaluate their strengths, problems, or special needs. College career planning and placement counselors help students and alumni with career development and job hunting. Rehabilitation counselors help persons deal with the personal, so­ cial, and vocational impact of their disabilities. They evaluate the strengths and limitations of individuals, provide personal and voca­ tional counseling, and may arrange for medical care, vocational train­ ing, and job placement. Rehabilitation counselors interview individuals with disabilities and their families, evaluate school and medical reports, and confer and plan with physicians, psychologists, occupational therapists, employers, and others. Confering with the client, they develop and implement a rehabilitation program, which may include training to help the person become more independent and employable. They also work toward increasing the client’s capac­ ity to adjust and live independently. Employment counselors help individuals make wise career deci­ sions. They help clients explore and evaluate their education, train­ ing, work history, interests, skills, personal traits, and physical capacities, and may arrange for aptitude and achievement tests. They also work with individuals in developing jobseeking skills and assist clients in locating and applying for jobs. Mental health counselors work with individuals and groups to pro­ mote optimum mental health. They help individuals deal with such concerns as addictions and substance abuse, family, parenting, and marital problems, suicide, stress management, problems with self-es­ teem, issues associated with aging, job and career concerns, educa­ tional decisions, and issues of mental and emotional health. Mental health counselors work closely with other mental health specialists, including psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, psychi­ atric nurses, and school counselors. (See the statements on psycholo­ gists and social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Counselors specialize in many other areas, including marriage and family, multicultural, and gerontological counseling. Working Conditions Most school counselors work the traditional 9- to 10-month school year with a 2- to 3-month vacation, although an increasing number are employed on 10 1/2- or 11-month contracts. They generally have the same hours as teachers. Rehabilitation and employment counselors generally work a stan­ dard 40-hour week. Self-employed counselors and those working in mental health and community agencies often work evenings to coun­ sel clients who work during the day. College career planning and placement counselors may work long and irregular hours during re­ cruiting periods. Since privacy is essential for confidential and frank discussions with clients, counselors usually have private offices. Employment Counselors held about 144,000 jobs in 1990. School counseling was the largest specialty. In addition to elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, counselors worked in a wide variety of public and pri­ vate establishments. These include health care facilities; job training and vocational rehabilitation centers; social agencies; correctional in­ stitutions; and residential care facilities, such as halfway houses for criminal offenders and group homes for children, the aged, and the disabled. Counselors also worked in organizations engaged in com­ munity improvement and social change, as well as drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs and State and local government agencies. A growing number of counselors are in private practice, health mainte­ nance organizations, and group practice. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Generally, counselors have a master’s degree in college student af-  134  Occupational Outlook Handbook  :..  W- ,rm  -IX * ■ -  Counselors generally need a master’s degree in their specialty. fairs, elementary or secondary school counseling, gerontological counseling, marriage and family counseling, substance abuse coun­ seling, rehabilitation counseling, agency or community counseling, mental health counseling, counseling psychology, career counseling, or a related field. Graduate level counselor education programs in colleges and uni­ versities are usually in departments of education or psychology. Courses are grouped into eight core areas: Human growth and devel­ opment; social and cultural foundations; helping relationships; groups; lifestyle and career development; appraisal; research and evaluation; and professional orientation. In an accredited program, 48 to 60 semester hours of graduate study, including a period of super­ vised clinical experience in counseling, are usually required for a master’s degree. The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredits graduate coun­ seling programs. In 1991, 34 States had some form of counselor credentialing legis­ lation—licensure, certification, or registry—for practice outside schools. Requirements vary from State to State. In some States, cre­ dentialing is mandatory; in others, voluntary. Many counselors elect to be Nationally certified by the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC), which grants the credential “National Certified Counselor.” In order to be certified, a counselor must hold a master’s degree in counseling, have at least 2 years of professional counseling experience, and pass NBCC’s National Counselor Examination. This national certification is distinct from State certification. All States require school counselors to hold State school counsel­ ing certification. Some States require public school counselors to have both counseling and teaching certificates. Depending on the State, a master’s degree in counseling and 2 to 5 years of teaching ex­ perience may be required for a counseling certificate. Vocational and related rehabilitation agencies generally require a master’s degree in rehabilitation counseling, counseling and guid­ ance, or counseling psychology for rehabilitation counselor jobs. Some, however, may accept applicants with a bachelor’s degree in re­ habilitation services, counseling, psychology, or related fields. Expe­ rience in employment counseling, job development, psychology, education, or social work may be helpful. The Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) accredits gradu­ ate programs in rehabilitation counseling. A minimum of 2 years of study—including a period of supervised clinical experience—are re­ quired for the master’s degree. Some colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in rehabilitation services education. In most State vocational rehabilitation agencies, applicants must pass a written examination and be evaluated by a board of examiners. Many employers require rehabilitation counselors to be certified. To become certified, counselors must meet educational and experience standards established by the Commission on Rehabilitation Coun­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  selor Certification, and pass a written examination. They are then designated as “Certified Rehabilitation Counselors.” Some States require counselors in public employment offices to have a master’s degree; others accept a bachelor’s degree with appro­ priate counseling courses. Mental health counselors generally have a master's degree in men­ tal health counseling, another area of counseling, or in psychology or social work. They are voluntarily certified by the National Academy of Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselors. Generally, to receive this certification, a counselor must have a master’s degree in counsel­ ing, 2 years of post-master’s experience, a period of supervised clini­ cal experience, a taped sample of clinical work, and a passing grade on a written examination. Some employers provide training for newly hired counselors. Many have work-study programs so that employed counselors can earn graduate degrees. Counselors must participate in graduate stud­ ies, workshops, institutes, and personal studies to maintain their cer­ tificates and licenses. Persons interested in counseling should have a strong interest in helping others and the ability to inspire respect, trust, and confidence. They should be able to work independently or as part of a team. Prospects for advancement vary by counseling field. School coun­ selors may move to a larger school; become directors or supervisors of counseling or pupil personnel services; or, usually with further graduate education, become counselor educators, counseling psychol­ ogists, or school administrators. (See the statements on psychologists and education administrators elsewhere in the Handbook.) Rehabilitation, mental health, and employment counselors may be­ come supervisors or administrators in their agencies. Some coun­ selors move into research, consulting, or college teaching, or go into private practice. Job Outlook Overall employment of counselors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition, re­ placement needs should increase significantly by the end of the decade as the large number of counselors now in their 40’s and 50’s reach retirement age. Employment of school counselors is expected to grow faster than average because of increasing secondary school enrollments, State legislation requiring counselors in elementary schools, and the ex­ panded responsibilties of counselors. Counselors are increasingly be­ coming involved in crisis and preventive counseling, helping students deal with issues ranging from drug and alcohol abuse to death and suicide. Faster than average growth is also expected for rehabilitation and mental health counselors. Insurance companies are increasingly al­ lowing for reimbursement of counselors, enabling many counselors to move from schools and government agencies to private practice. The number of people who need rehabilitation services will rise as advances in medical technology continue to save lives that only a few years ago would have been lost. In addition, more rehabilitation and mental health counselors will be needed as society focuses on ways of developing mental well-being, such as controlling job and familyrelated stress, with the help of counselors. The number of employment counselors, who work primarily for State and local governments, could be limited by budgetary constraints.  Earnings Median earnings for full-time educational and vocational counselors were about $31,000 a year in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned be­ tween $24,200 and $40,000 a year. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $17,700 a year, while the top 10 percent earned over $49,300 a year. The average salary of school counselors in the 1990-91 academic year was about $38,000, according to the Educational Research Ser­ vice. Some school counselors earn additional income working sum­ mers in the school system or in other jobs.  Professional Soecialtv Occupations  Self-employed counselors who have well-established practices generally have the highest earnings, as do some counselors working for private companies, such as insurance companies and private reha­ bilitation companies.  135  MS*  Related Occupations Counselors help people evaluate their interests, abilities, and disabili­ ties, and deal with personal, social, academic, and career problems. Others who help people in similar ways include college and student personnel workers, teachers, personnel workers and managers, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, members of the clergy, occupa­ tional therapists, training and employee development specialists, and equal employment opportunity/affirmative action specialists. Sources of Additional Information For general information about counseling, as well as information on school, college, mental health, rehabilitation, multicultural, career, marriage and family, and gerontological counselors, contact: «• American Association for Counseling and Development, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  Kindergarten and elementary school teachers play a vital role in the development of children.  For information on accredited counseling and related training pro­ grams, contact: »• Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Pro­ grams, American Association for Counseling and Development, 5999 Steven­ son Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For information on national certification requirements and proce­ dures for counselors, contact: '«■ National Board for Certified Counselors, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27435.  For information about rehabilitation counseling, contact: National Rehabilitation Counseling Association, 633 So. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314. »• National Council on Rehabilitation Education, 1213 29th St. NW., Wash­ ington, DC 20007.  For information on certification requirements for rehabilitation counselors, contact: Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, 1835 Rohlwing Rd., Suite E, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008.  For general information about school counselors, contact: <*■ American School Counselor Association, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexan­ dria, VA 22304.  State departments of education can supply information on colleges and universities that offer approved guidance and counseling training for State certification and licensure requirements. State employment service offices have information about job opportunities and entrance requirements for counselors.  Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers (D.O.T. 092.227-010, -014; 094.224-010, .227-010 through -022; 099.224­ 010)  Nature of the Work Kindergarten and elementary school teachers play a vital role in the development of children. What is learned and experienced during the early years can shape children’s views of themselves and the world, and affect later success or failure in school, work, and their personal lives. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers introduce children to numbers, language, science, and social studies. Teachers often work with an entire class, but also provide individual attention as much as possible. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers may use games, music, artwork, films, slides, and the latest technology in teaching, such as computers and video discs, to teach basic skills. Teachers must continually update their skills to use the latest technol­ ogy in the classroom. They assign lessons, give tests, hear oral pre https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  sentations, and oversee special projects. Teachers maintain order in the classroom and instill good study habits and an appreciation for learning. In recent years, teachers have become more involved in cur­ riculum design—for example, choosing textbooks and evaluating teaching methods. Teachers observe and evaluate students’ performance and poten­ tial. Teachers increasingly are using new assessment methods, such as examining a portfolio of a student’s artwork or writing, rather than merely testing, to analyze student achievement. Teachers also keep track of students’ social development and health, tutor or counsel pupils with academic or personal problems, and discuss problems or progress with parents. Most elementary school teachers instruct one class of children in several subjects. In some schools, two or more teachers team teach and are jointly responsible for a group of students in at least one sub­ ject. In other schools, a teacher may teach one special subject—usual­ ly music, art, reading, science, arithmetic, or physical education—to a number of classes. A small but growing number of teachers instruct multi-level classrooms—those with students at several different learning levels. Special education teachers instruct students with a variety of dis­ abilities. Other teachers work with students who are very bright or “gifted,” academically or economically disadvantaged, or who have limited English proficiency. In addition to classroom activities, teachers plan lessons, prepare tests, grade papers, prepare report cards, meet with parents, attend faculty meetings and conferences, and supervise extracurricular activ­ ities after school. Working Conditions Kindergarten and elementary school teachers spend most of their time moving about the classroom. Introducing children to the joy of learn­ ing and seeing them gain new skills can be very rewarding. However, teachers may have to deal with disruptive children. Including activities outside the classroom, many teachers work more than 40 hours per week. Most elementary school teachers work a traditional 10-month school year with a 2-month vacation during the summer. Teachers on the 10-month schedule may teach in the summer session or take other jobs. They may enroll in college cours­ es or workshops in order to continue their education. Some teachers in year-round schools work 8-week sessions, are off 1 week between sessions, and have a long midwinter break. Most States have tenure laws that prevent public school teachers from being fired without just cause and due process. Teachers may obtain tenure after they have satisfactorily completed a probationary period of teaching, usually 3 years. Tenure is not a guarantee of a job, but it does provide some security.  136  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment Kindergarten and elementary school teachers held about 1,520,000 jobs in 1990. More than 8 out of 10 worked in public schools. Most were in schools that have students in kindergarten through grade six; however, some taught in middle schools, where students are between the upper elementary and lower high school grades. In addition, most of the 332,000 special education teachers taught in elementary schools. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers are distributed geographically much the same as the population.  The elementary school age population will increase throughout most of the 1990-2005 period. Population 5 to 13 years of age (millions)  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require public elementary school teachers to be certified. Usually certification is granted by the State board of education through a certification advisory committee. Teachers may be certified to teach the early childhood grades (usu­ ally nursery school through the third grade); the elementary grades (grades one through six or eight); or a special subject, such as reading or music; or special education. Requirements for regular certification vary by State. Generally, however, they include a bachelor’s degree and completion of an ap­ proved teacher training program with a prescribed number of educa­ tion credits. Depending on the State, an individual need not major in education, but in a specific subject area or an interdisciplinary pro­ gram. Some 5-year programs exist, and these generally lead to a mas­ ter’s degree as well as teacher certification. Traditional teacher education programs for kindergarten and elementary school teachers include courses—designed specifically for those preparing to teach— in mathematics, science, social science, music, art, and literature, as well as prescribed professional education courses, such as philosophy of education, psychology of learning, and teaching methods. Future teachers acquire teaching skills through supervised practice teaching in an elementary school for about one semester. Some States require a specific grade point average in the coursework. Under alternative certification programs, college graduates who do not meet certification requirements may become certified by taking only those courses that they lack, such as certain education courses. States also issue emergency certificates to individuals who do not meet all requirements for a regular certificate when schools cannot hire enough teachers with regular certificates. Almost all States require applicants for certification to be tested for competency in basic skills, teaching skills, or subject matter. Almost all require continuing education for renewal of a teacher’s certifi­ cate—some require a master’s degree. Teachers often take these re­ quired courses during their summer vacation. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers who are certified in one State to become certified in another. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers should be organized, creative, dependable, and patient. They should be able to communi­ cate with students and understand their educational and emotional needs. . With additional education and certification, teachers may become school librarians, reading specialists, curriculum specialists, or guid­ ance counselors. Teachers may become supervisors or administrators, although the number of these positions is limited. In some school sys­ tems, well-qualified experienced teachers can be appointed senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while retaining most of their teaching responsibilities.  Earnings According to the National Education Association, public elementary school teachers averaged about $32,400 a year in 1990-91. Earnings in private schools generally were lower. Some teachers earn extra income during the summer working in the school system or in other jobs. Many public school teachers belong to unions, such as the Ameri­ can Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association, that bargain with school systems over wages, hours, and the terms and conditions of employment.  Job Outlook Employment of kindergarten and elementary school teachers is expect­ ed to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as enrollments increase and class size declines. The number of job openings for elementary school teachers should increase sub­ stantially from the mid-1990’s to the year 2005 as the large number of teachers now in their 40’s and 50’s reach retirement age. Employment of special education teachers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to recent Federal legislation emphasizing training and em­  Related Occupations Kindergarten and elementary school teaching requires a wide variety of skills and aptitudes, including organizational and administrative abilities; a talent for working with children; research and communica­ tion skills; the power to influence, motivate, and train others; creativi­ ty; and patience. Workers in other occupations that require some of these aptitudes include preschool workers, trainers and employee de­ velopment specialists, employment interviewers, education administra­ tors, college and university faculty, librarians, personnel specialists, public relations specialists, social workers, and counselors.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  2000  2005  Source: Bureau of Census, Series 18 population projections (high fertility/high immigration assumptions  ployment for individuals with disabilities; technological advances re­ sulting in more survivors of accidents and illnesses; and growing public interest in individuals with special needs. The supply of teachers is likely to increase in response to reports of improved job opportunities, more teacher involvement in school poli­ cy, greater public interest in education, and higher salaries. In fact, enrollments in teacher education programs have already increased. In addition, more teachers should be available from alternative certifica­ tion programs. Some central cities and rural areas have difficulty attracting teach­ ers. Job prospects should continue to be better in these areas than in suburban districts. The number of teachers employed depends on State and local ex­ penditures for education. Pressure from taxpayers to limit spending could result in fewer teachers than projected; pressures to increase spending to improve the quality of education could result in more.  Professional Specialty Occupations  Sources of Additional Information Information on certification requirements is available from local school systems and State departments of education. Information on teachers’ unions and education-related issues can be obtained from: *■ American Federation of Teachers, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20001. National Education Association, 1201 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  A list of institutions with teacher education programs accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education can be obtained from: »• National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2010 Massachusetts Ave. NW., 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20036.  Librarians (D.O.T. 100 except 100.167-010 and .367-018)  Nature of the Work Librarians make information available to people. They manage staff, oversee the collection and cataloging of library materials, and direct information programs for the public. Library work is divided into three basic functions: User services, technical services, and administrative services. Librarians in user ser­ vices—for example, reference and children’s librarians—work direct­ ly with users to help them find the information they need. This may involve analyzing users’ needs to determine what information is ap­ propriate, and searching for, acquiring, and providing the information to users. Librarians in technical services, such as acquisitions librari­ ans and catalogers, acquire and prepare materials for use and may not deal directly with the public. Librarians in administrative services oversee the management of the library, supervising library employees and directing activities to see that all parts of the library function properly. Depending on the employer, librarians may perform a com­ bination of user, technical, and administrative services. In small libraries or information centers, librarians generally han­ dle all aspects of the work. They read book reviews, publishers’ an­ nouncements, and catalogs to keep up with current literature and other available resources, and select and purchase materials from publishers, wholesalers, and distributors. Librarians prepare new ma­ terials for use by classifying them by subject matter, and describe books and other library materials in a way that users can easily find them. They supervise assistants who prepare cards, computer records, or other access tools that indicate the title, author, subject, publisher, date of publication, and location in the library. Librarians also compile lists of books, periodicals, articles, and au­ diovisual materials on particular subjects, and recommend materials to be acquired. They may collect and organize books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and other materials in a specific field, such as rare books, genealogy, or music. In addition, they publicize services; pro­ vide reference help; supervise staff; prepare the budget; and oversee other administrative matters. In large libraries, librarians often specialize in a single area, such as acquisitions, cataloging, bibliography, reference, special collec­ tions, circulation, or administration. Librarians may be classified according to the type of library in which they work: Public libraries, school library/media centers, aca­ demic libraries, and special libraries. They may work with specific groups, such as children, young adults, adults, or disadvantaged indi­ viduals. In school library/media centers, librarians help teachers de­ velop curricula, acquire materials for classroom instruction, and sometimes team teach.Librarians may also work in information cen­ ters or libraries maintained by government agencies, corporations, law firms, advertising agencies, museums, professional associations, medical centers, and research laboratories. They build and arrange  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  137  the organization’s information resources, usually limited to subjects of special interest to the organization. Many libraries are tied into remote data bases through their com­ puter terminals and some also maintain their own computerized data bases. The widespread use of automation in libraries makes computer skills important to librarians. Libraries may employ automated sys­ tems librarians who plan and operate computer systems, and informa­ tion scientists who design information storage and retrieval systems and develop procedures for collecting, organizing, interpreting, and classifying information. (See statement on computer systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Working conditions in user services are different from those in tech­ nical services. Assisting users in obtaining the information for their jobs or for recreational and other needs can be challenging and satis­ fying. When working with users under deadlines, the work may be busy, demanding, and stressful. In technical services, selecting and ordering new materials can be stimulating and rewarding. However, librarians may sit at desks or at computer terminals all day. Extended work at video display terminals may cause eyestrain and headaches. They may also have their performance monitored for errors or for quantity of tasks completed each hour or day. Approximately 1 in 4 librarians works part time. Public and col­ lege librarians often work weekends and evenings. School librarians generally have the same workday schedule as classroom teachers and similar vacation schedules. Special librarians usually work normal business hours. Employment Librarians held about 149,000 jobs in 1990. Most were in school and academic libraries; others were in public libraries and special li­ braries. A small number of librarians worked for hospitals and reli­ gious organizations. Others worked for governments at all levels. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A master’s degree in library science (M.L.S.) is necessary for librari­ an positions in most public, academic, and special libraries, and in some school libraries. In the Federal Government, an M.L.S. or the equivalent in education and experience is needed. Many colleges and universities offer M.L.S. programs, but many employers prefer grad-  • «•* J|  m  Librarians need a master’s degree in library science.  138  Occupational Outlook Handbook  uates of the approximately 60 schools accredited by the American Li­ brary Association. Most M.L.S. programs require a bachelor’s de­ gree; any liberal arts major is appropriate. Some programs take 1 year to complete; others take 2. A typical graduate program includes courses in the foundations of library and information science, including the history of books and printing, in­ tellectual freedom and censorship, and the role of libraries and infor­ mation in society. Other basic courses cover material selection and processing; the organization of information; reference tools and strategies; and user services. Course options include resources for children or young adults; classification, cataloging, indexing, and ab­ stracting; library administration; and library automation. The M.L.S. provides a general, all-round preparation for library work, but some people specialize in a particular area such as archives, media, or library automation. A Ph.D. degree in library and information science is advantageous for college teaching or for a top administrative post, particularly in a college or university library or in a large library system. In special libraries, a knowledge of the subject specialization, or a master’s degree, doctorate, or professional degree in the subject is highly desirable. Subject specializations include medicine, law, busi­ ness, engineering, and the natural and social sciences. For example, a librarian working for a law firm may also be a licensed attorney, holding both library science and law degrees. In some jobs, know­ ledge of a foreign language is needed. State certification requirements for public school librarians vary widely. Most States require that school librarians—often called li­ brary media specialists—be certified as teachers and have courses in library science. In some cases, an M.L.S., perhaps with a library media specialization, or a master’s in education with a specialty in li­ brary school media or educational media is needed. Some States re­ quire certification of public librarians employed in municipal, county, or regional library systems. Experienced librarians may advance to administrative positions, such as department head or library director.  According to the Educational Research Service, experienced school librarians averaged about $35,400 during the 1990-91 school year. According to the Special Libraries Association, 1990 salaries for special librarians with 1 to 2 years of library experience averaged $30,300, and those with 3 to 5 years of experience average $31,100. Salaries for special library managers averaged $44,500. Librarians in the Federal Government averaged $41,200 in 1991. Related Occupations Librarians play an important role in the transfer of knowledge and ideas by providing people with access to the information they need and want. Jobs requiring similar analytical, organizational, and com­ municative skills include archivists, information scientists, museum curators, publishers’ representatives, research analysts, information brokers, and records managers. The management aspect of librarian work is similar to the work of managers in a variety of business and government settings. School librarians have many duties similar to those of school teachers. Sources of Additional Information Information on librarianship, including a listing of accredited educa­ tion programs and information on scholarships or loans, may be ob­ tained from: American Library Association (ALA), Office for Library Personnel Re­ sources, 50 East Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611.  For information on a career as a special librarian, write to: Special Libraries Association, 1700 18th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20009. Material about a career in information science may be obtained from: »■ American Society for Information Science, 8720 Georgia Ave., Suite 501, Silver Spring, MD 20910.  Information on schools receiving Federal financial assistance for library training is available from: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Library Programs, Li­ brary Development Staff, U.S. Department of Education, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW„ Room 402, Washington, DC 20208-5571.  Those interested in a position as a librarian in the Federal service should write to:  Job Outlook Graduates of M.L.S. programs should have favorable job prospects largely due to the decline in the number of such graduates during the 1980’s. Many job openings for librarians will result from the need to replace those who retire, transfer to other occupations, or leave the labor force for other reasons. Employment of librarians is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The limited growth in employment of librarians during the 1980’s is expected to continue. Budgetary constraints will likely contribute to the slow growth in employment of librarians in school, public, and college and university libraries. However, employment in special libraries is ex­ pected to grow faster as the number of managerial and professional specialty workers they serve grows rapidly. Employment of library school graduates outside traditional library settings is expected to grow. Nontraditional library settings include bibliographic cooperatives, regional information networks, and infor­ mation search services. These settings employ systems analysts, data base specialists, managers, and researchers. Information management, a rapidly developing field, is also ex­ pected to offer many employment opportunities for library school graduates with backgrounds in information science and library au­ tomation. Employers include private corporations, consulting firms, and information brokers.  (D.O.T. 091.221-010, .227-010; 094.224-010, .227-010 through -022; 099.244-010, and .227-022)  Earnings Salaries of librarians vary by the individual’s qualifications and the type, size, and location of the library. Based on a survey published in the Library Journal, starting salaries of graduates of library school master’s degree programs ac­ credited by the American Library Association averaged $25,300 in 1990, and ranged from $23,400 in public libraries to $26,200 in school libraries. In college and university libraries, they averaged $24,000, and in special libraries, they averaged $27,100.  Nature of the Work Secondary school teachers help students delve more deeply into sub­ jects introduced in elementary school and learn more about the world and about themselves. They specialize in a specific subject, such as English, Spanish, mathematics, history, or biology, in junior high or high school. They may teach a variety of related courses, for exam­ ple, American history, contemporary American problems, and world geography.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Information concerning requirements and application procedures for positions in the Library of Congress may be obtained directly from: Personnel Office, Library of Congress, 101 Independence Ave. SE., Wash­ ington, DC 20540.  State library agencies can furnish information on scholarships available through their offices, requirements for certification, and general information about career prospects in the State. Several of these agencies maintain job “hotlines” which report openings for li­ brarians. State departments of education can furnish information on certifi­ cation requirements and job opportunities for school librarians. For information on a career as a law librarian, as well as a list of ALA accredited library schools offering programs in law librarianship, contact: American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 940, Chicago, IL 60604.  Secondary School Teachers  Professional Specialty Occupations  IJ[ wtmku jh** <•**** J„i, h pmmm/ <** u ^stt*<a tux*.'iJLJf  ; e««fi 4 i rt*  eh  332,000 special education teachers worked in secondary schools. Employment is distributed geographically much the same as the population.  etiufibW*;  ; i> 'jmf W«<cA«»s 6 tit UaK  Increasing enrollments will spur rapid employment growth among secondary school teachers. Special education teachers instruct students with a variety of dis­ abilities. Other teachers work with students who are very bright or “gifted,” academically or economically disadvantaged, or who have limited English proficiency. Teachers lecture and demonstrate to students, and may use films, slides, overhead projectors, and the latest technology in teaching, such as computers and video discs. Teachers must continually update their skills to utilize the latest technology in the classroom. They de­ sign their classroom presentations to meet student needs and abilities. They may also work with students individually. Teachers assign lessons, give tests, and maintain classroom discipline. Teachers in­ creasingly are using new assessment methods, such as examining a portfolio of a student’s artwork or writing, to analyze student achievement. Science teachers supervise laboratory work, and vocational educa­ tion teachers give students “hands-on” experience with instruments, tools, and machinery. In addition to classroom activities, secondary school teachers plan and evaluate lessons, prepare tests, grade papers, prepare report cards, oversee study halls and homerooms, supervise extracurricular activities, and meet with parents and school staff. They also may help students deal with academic or personal problems and in their choice of courses, colleges, and careers. Teachers also participate in educa­ tion conferences and workshops. In recent years, teachers have be­ come more involved in curriculum design, such as choosing textbooks and evaluating teaching methods.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All 50 States and the District of Columbia require public secondary school teachers to be certified. Certification is generally for one or several related subjects. Usually certification is granted by the State board of education or a certification advisory committee. Requirements for regular certificates vary by State. However, all States require a bachelor’s degree and completion of an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of subject and ed­ ucation credits and supervised practice teaching in a secondary school. Aspiring teachers either major in the subject they plan to teach while also taking education courses, or major in education and take subject courses. Some States require specific grade point aver­ ages for teacher certification. Many States offer alternative teacher certification programs for people who have college training in the subject they will teach but do not have the necessary education courses required for a regular cer­ tificate. Alternative certification programs were originally designed to ease teacher shortages in certain subjects, such as mathematics and science. The programs have expanded to attract other people into teaching, including recent college graduates and mid-career changers. In some programs, individuals begin teaching immediately under pro­ visional certification. After working under the close supervision of experienced educators for 1 or 2 years while taking education courses outside school hours, they receive regular certification if they have progressed satisfactorily. Under other programs, college graduates who do not meet certification requirements take only those courses that they lack, and then become certified. This may take from 1 to 2 semesters of full-time study. Aspiring teachers who need certification may also enter programs that grant a master’s degree in education, as well as certification. States also issue emergency certificates to indi­ viduals who do not meet all requirements for a regular certificate when schools cannot hire enough teachers with regular certificates.  The high school age population will increase throughout the 1990-2005 period. Population 14 to 17 years of age (millions)  Working Conditions Seeing students develop new skills and gain an appreciation of the joy of learning can be very rewarding. However, teaching may be frustrating when dealing with unmotivated and disrespectful students. Including school duties performed outside the classroom, many teachers work more than 40 hours a week. Most teachers work the traditional 10-month school year with a 2-month vacation during the summer. Teachers on the 10-month schedule may teach in summer sessions or take other jobs. Many enroll in college courses or work­ shops in order to continue their education. Teachers in districts with a year-round schedule work 8 weeks, are on vacation for 1 week, and have a 5-week midwinter break. Most States have tenure laws that prevent teachers from being fired without just cause and due process. Teachers may obtain tenure after they have satisfactorily completed a probationary period of teaching, normally 3 years. Tenure is not a guarantee of a job, but it does pro­ vide some security. Employment Secondary school teachers held about 1,280,000 jobs in 1990; more than 9 out of 10 were in public schools. In addition, some of the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  139  Source: Bureau of Census, Series 18 population projections (high fertility/high immigration assumptions)  140  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Almost all States require applicants for teacher certification to be tested for competency in basic skills, teaching skills, or subject matter proficiency. Almost all require continuing education for renewal of the teacher’s certificate—some require a master’s degree. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers certified in one State to become certified in another. Secondary school teachers should be knowledgeable in their sub­ ject and able to communicate with and motivate students. With addi­ tional preparation and certification, teachers may move into positions as school librarians, reading specialists, curriculum specialists, or guidance counselors. Teachers may become administrators or super­ visors, although the number of positions is limited. In some systems, well-qualified experienced teachers can become senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while keeping most of their teaching responsibilities. Job Outlook Employment of secondary school teachers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as high school enrollments grow and class size declines. Job openings for secondary school teachers are expected to increase substantially by the end of the decade as the large number of teachers now in their 40’s and 50’s reach retirement age. Employment of special education teachers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to recent Federal legislation emphasizing training and em­ ployment for individuals with disabilities; technological advances re­ sulting in more survivors of accidents and illnesses; and growing public interest in individuals with special needs. The supply of secondary school teachers is also expected to in­ crease in response to reports of job opportunities, more teacher in­ volvement in school policy, greater public interest in education, and higher salaries. In fact, enrollments in teacher training programs have already increased. In addition, more teachers should be available from alternative certification programs. Some central cities and rural areas have difficulty attracting enough teachers, so job prospects should continue to be better in these areas than in suburban districts. The number of teachers employed depends on State and local ex­ penditures for education. Pressures from taxpayers to limit spending   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  could result in fewer teachers than projected; pressures to spend more to improve the quality of education could mean more.  Earnings According to the National Education Association, public secondary school teachers averaged about $33,700 a year in 1990-91. Earnings in private schools generally were lower. Many public school teachers belong to unions, such as the Ameri­ can Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association, that bargain with school systems over wages, hours, and the terms and conditions of employment. In some schools, teachers receive extra pay for coaching sports and working with students in extracurricular activities. Some teachers earn extra income during the summer working in the school system or in other jobs. Related Occupations Secondary school teaching requires a wide variety of skills and apti­ tudes, including organizational, administrative, and recordkeeping abilities; research and communication skills; the power to influence, motivate, and train others; patience; and creativity. Workers in other occupations requiring some of these aptitudes include school admin­ istrators, college and university faculty, counselors, trainers and em­ ployee development specialists, employment interviewers, librarians, public relations representatives, sales representatives, and social workers. Sources of Additional Information Information on certification requirements and approved teacher train­ ing institutions is available from local school systems and State de­ partments of education. Information on teachers’ unions and education-related issues may be obtained from; *■ American Federation of Teachers, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20001. »■ National Education Association, 1201 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  A list of institutions with teacher education programs accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education can be obtained from: •" National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2010 Massachusetts Ave. NW., 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20036.  Health Diagnosing Occupations Chiropractors (D.O.T. 079.101-010)  Nature of the Work Chiropractors, also known as chiropractic doctors, treat patients whose health problems are associated with the body’s muscular, ner­ vous, and skeletal systems, especially the spine. Interference with these systems is believed to impair normal functions and lower resis­ tance to disease. Chiropractors hold that misalignment of spinal ver­ tebrae or irritation of the spinal nerves can alter many important body functions by affecting the nervous system. The chiropractic approach to health care is holistic, stressing the patient’s overall well-being. It recognizes that many factors affect health, including exercise, diet, rest, environment, and heredity. Chi­ ropractors use natural, nondrug, nonsurgical health treatments, and rely on the body’s inherent recuperative abilities. They also recom­ mend lifestyle changes—in eating and sleeping habits, for example— to their patients. When appropriate, chiropractors consult with and refer patients to other health practitioners. Like other health practitioners, chiropractors follow a standard rou­ tine to secure the information needed for diagnosis and treatment: They take the patient's medical history, conduct physical, neurologi­ cal, and orthopedic examinations, and may order laboratory tests. Xrays are an important diagnostic tool because of the emphasis on the spine and its proper function. Chiropractors also employ a postural and spinal analysis unique to chiropractic diagnosis. In cases where difficulties can be traced to involvement of muscu­ loskeletal structures, chiropractors manually manipulate or adjust the spinal column. Many chiropractors also use other forms of treatment such as water, light, massage, ultrasound, electric, and heat therapy. In addition, straps, tapes, braces, and other support mechanisms may be used. Counseling about nutrition, exercise, stress management, and other matters is provided as necessary. Chiropractors do not pre­ scribe drugs or perform surgery. State laws and regulations specify the types of services chiropractors may provide. Some chiropractors specialize in areas related to athletic injuries, neurology, orthopedics, nutrition and internal disorders. Others spe­ cialize in taking and interpreting X-rays and other diagnostic images. Almost all chiropractors are solo or group practitioners, who also have the administrative responsibilities of running a practice. In larg­ er offices, chiropractors delegate these tasks to office managers and chiropractor assistants. Chiropractors in private practice are ultimate­ ly responsible for developing a clientele, hiring employees, and keep­ ing records. Working Conditions Chiropractors work in offices that are clean and comfortable. The av­ erage workweek is about 43 hours. Chiropractors who work for them­ selves are free to set their own hours. Since they must accommodate their patients, however, they may work evenings or weekends. Chiropractors who take X-rays must take appropriate precautions against the dangers of repeated exposure to radiation. Employment In 1990, an estimated 42,000 persons practiced chiropractic. About 70 percent of active chiropractors are in solo practice. The remainder are in group practice or work for other chiropractors. A small number teach, conduct research at chiropractic colleges, or work in hospitals and HMO’s. Many chiropractors are located in small communities, but the pro­ portion in larger communities is increasing. There are geographic im­ balances in the distribution of chiropractors, in part because many  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chiropractors evaluate posture and spinal structure.  establish practices close to colleges of chiropractic. The Western and Southwestern States have a higher concentration of chiropractors rel­ ative to the population than the Middle Atlantic States. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All 50 States and the District of Columbia regulate the practice of chiropractic and grant licenses to chiropractors who meet educational requirements and pass a State board examination. Many States have reciprocity agreements that permit chiropractors licensed in another State to obtain a license without further examination. The scope of the practice permitted and the educational require­ ments for a license vary considerably from one State to another, but in general, State licensing boards require completion of a 4-year chi­ ropractic college course following at least 2 years of undergraduate education, although some States require a 4-year bachelors’ degree. All State boards recognize academic training in chiropractic colleges accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education. For licensure, all State boards recognize either all or part of the three-part test administered by the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners. State examinations may supplement the National Board tests, depending on State requirements. To maintain licensure, almost all States require completion of a specified number of hours of continuing education each year. Contin­ uing education programs are offered by chiropractic colleges, the American Chiropractic Association (ACA), International Chiroprac­ tors Association (ICA), and State chiropractic associations. Special councils within the ACA and ICA also offer programs leading to clinical specialty certification, called “diplomate” certification, in areas such as orthopedics, neurology, sports injuries, occupational and industrial health, nutrition, radiology, thermography, and internal disorders. In 1990, 14 of the 17 chiropractic colleges in the United States were fully accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education. All chiropractic colleges require applicants to have at least 2 years of un­ dergraduate study, including courses in English, the social sciences or humanities, organic and inorganic chemistry, biology, physics, and 141  142  Occupational Outlook Handbook  psychology. Many applicants have a bachelors’ degree, which may eventually become the minimum entry requirement. Chiropractic colleges emphasize courses in skeletal manipulation and spinal adjustments. All, however, offer a broader curriculum con­ sisting of basic and clinical sciences in addition to the chiropractic courses. During the first 2 years, most chiropractic colleges empha­ size classroom and laboratory work in basic science subjects such as anatomy, physiology, public health, microbiology, pathology, and biochemistry. The last 2 years stress physical and laboratory diagno­ sis, neurology, orthopedics, geriatrics, physiotherapy, and nutrition, in addition to adjustment techniques and clinical experience. Students completing chiropractic education earn the degree of Doctor of Chi­ ropractic (D.C.). Chiropractic requires keen observation to detect physical abnor­ malities and considerable hand dexterity but not unusual strength or endurance. Chiropractors should be able to work independently and handle responsibility. As in other health-related occupations, sympa­ thy, understanding, and the desire to help others are desirable quali­ ties for dealing effectively with patients. Newly licensed chiropractors have a number of options: They can apply for a residency program, set up a new practice, purchase an es­ tablished one, enter into partnership with an established practitioner, or take a salaried position with an established chiropractor to acquire the experience and the funds needed to equip and open an office. Job Outlook Demand for chiropractic is related to the ability of patients to pay, ei­ ther directly or through health insurance, and to public awareness of the profession, which is growing. The rapidly expanding older popu­ lation, with their increased likelihood of mechanical and structural problems, will also increase demand. Many job openings will result from the need to replace chiropractors who retire or die. According to a 1990 survey by the American Chiropractic Association, most chiro­ practors felt supply and demand were in rough balance in their geo­ graphic area. Earnings In 1990, the median income for chiropractors was about $74,000, after expenses, according to the ACA. In chiropractic, as in other types of independent practice, earnings are relatively low in the be­ ginning, and increase as the practice grows. In 1990, the lowest 10 percent of chiropractors had net incomes of $24,000 or less, and the highest 10 percent earned $180,000 or more. Earnings are also influ­ enced by the characteristics and qualifications of the practitioner, and geographic location. Self-employed chiropractors must provide for their own health insurance and retirement. Related Occupations Chiropractors diagnose, treat, and work to prevent disorders and in­ juries. So do physicians, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists, veterinari­ ans, occupational therapists, and physical therapists. Sources of Additional Information General information on chiropractic as a career is available from: American Chiropractic Association, 1701 Clarendon Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209. »" International Chiropractors Association, 1110 North Glebe Rd., Suite 1000, Arlington, VA 22201.  For a list of chiropractic colleges, as well as general information on chiropractic as a career, contact: «■ Council on Chiropractic Education, 4401 Westown Pky., Suite 120, West Des Moines, IA 50265.  For information on State education and licensure requirements, contact: Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, 901 54th Ave., Suite 101, Greeley, CO 80634.  For information on requirements for admission to a specific chiro­ practic college, as well as scholarship and loan information, contact the admissions office of the individual college.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Dentists (D.O.T. 072, except .117)  Nature of the Work “Dentists” conjures images of drilling and filling cavities. Dentists perform those tasks, but they also perform many other procedures to diagnose and treat problems of the teeth and tissues of the mouth. Dentists examine X-rays, place protective plastic sealants on chil­ dren’s teeth, straighten teeth, and repair fractured teeth. They also perform corrective surgery of the gums and supporting bones to treat gum diseases. Dentists remove teeth and make molds and measure­ ments for dentures to replace missing teeth. Some dentists make den­ tures and crowns; however, most send the specifications to dental laboratories. Dentists provide instruction in diet, brushing, flossing, the use of fluorides, and other aspects of dental care, as well. Dentists use a variety of equipment. They use X-ray machines, drills, and hand tools like mouth mirrors, brushes, and scalpels. They administer anesthetics. Dentists also write prescriptions for antibi­ otics. Dentists in private practice oversee a variety of administrative tasks, including bookkeeping and buying equipment. They may em­ ploy and supervise dental hygienists, dental assistants, and dental lab­ oratory technicians. (These occupations are described elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most dentists are general practitioners who handle a wide variety of dental needs. Other dentists practice in one of eight specialty areas. Orthodontists, the largest group of specialists, straighten teeth. The next largest group, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, operate on the mouth and jaws. The remainder specialize in pediatric dentistry (den­ tistry for children); periodontics (treating the gums); prosthodontics (making artificial teeth or dentures); endodontics (root canal therapy); dental public health (community dental health); and oral pathology (diseases of the mouth). Working Conditions Most dental offices are open 4 or 5 days a week. Some dentists work evenings and weekends to meet their patients’ needs. Dentists work, on average, 37 hours a week, according to the American Dental As­ sociation. Younger dentists may work fewer hours as they build up their practice, while established dentists often work fewer hours as they grow older. A considerable number continue in part-time prac­ tice well beyond the usual retirement age. Most dentists are “solo practitioners,” that is they own their own businesses and work alone or with a small staff. Some dentists have partners, and a few work for other dentists as associate dentists. Dentists wear masks, gloves, and safety glasses to protect them­ selves and their patients from infectious diseases like hepatitis. Employment Dentists held about 174,000 jobs in 1990. Because some dentists hold more than one job, the number of jobs exceeds the number of all ac­ tive dentists—about 149,000 in 1990, according to the U.S. Public Health Service. Almost 9 out of 10 dentists are in private practice. Others work in private and public hospitals and clinics. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All 50 States and the District of Columbia require dentists to be li­ censed. To qualify for a license in most States, a candidate must grad­ uate from a dental school accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation and pass written and practical examinations. Candi­ dates may fulfill the written part of the State licensing by passing the National Board Dental Examinations. Individual States or regional testing agencies give the practical examinations. Currently, about 15 States require dentists to obtain a specialty li­ cense before practicing as a specialist. Requirements include 2 to 4  Professional Specialty Occupations  Dentistry requires diagnostic ability and manual skills. Dentists should have good visual memory, excellent judgment of space and shape, and a high degree of manual dexterity, as well as scientific ability. Good business sense, self-discipline, communiciation skills, and the ability to instill confidence are helpful for success in private practice. High school students who want to become dentists should take courses in biology, chemistry, health, and mathematics. Some recent dental school graduates work for established dentists as associates for a year or two in order to gain experience and save money to equip an office of their own. Most dental school graduates, however, purchase an established practice or open a new practice im­ mediately after graduation. Each year about one-fourth to one-third of new graduates enroll in postgraduate training programs to prepare for a dental specialty.  I I **  i  *W *  ’  Dentists provide instruction in flossing, brushing, and other dental care. years of graduate education and, in some cases, completion of a spe­ cial State examination. Advanced-level education also is necessary in the other States, but the dental profession, not the State licensing au­ thority, defines the specialist’s practice. Most State licenses permit dentists to engage in both general and specialized practice. Dentists who want to teach or do research usually spend an additional 2 to 4 years in advanced dental training in programs operated by dental schools or hospitals. Dental schools require a minimum of 2 years of college-level pre­ dental education. However, the majority of dental students have at least a bachelor’s degree. Predental education includes courses in both the sciences and humanities. All dental schools require applicants to take the Dental Admissions Test (DAT). They consider scores earned on the DAT, the applicants’ overall grade point average (GPA), science course GPA, and informa­ tion gathered through recommendations and interviews when select­ ing students. Dental school generally lasts 4 academic years, although one insti­ tution condenses the program into 3 calendar years, and another pro­ gram lasts 5 years. Studies begin with classroom instruction and laboratory work in basic sciences including anatomy, microbiology, biochemistry, and physiology. Beginning courses in clinical sciences, including laboratory technique courses, also are provided at this time. During the last 2 years, the student gains practical experience by treating patients, usually in dental clinics under the supervision of li­ censed dentists. Most dental schools award the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S). An equivalent degree, Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.), is conferred by the rest.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  143  Job Outlook Employment of dentists is expected to grow more slowly than the av­ erage for all occupations through the year 2005. Nevertheless, job prospects should continue to improve because the number of dental school graduates has dropped sharply since the early 1980’s and is not likely to increase through 2005. Dental school enrollments began dropping in 1979, (see chart) as it became clear that keen competition for patients had developed. This surplus of dentists was attributable to the very large numbers of dental graduates that resulted from a Federal decision during the 1960’s to support expansion of the Na­ tion’s dental schools. Demand for dental care should grow substantially. As members of the baby boom generation advance into middle age, a large number will need maintenance on complicated dental work like bridges. Plus, elderly people are more likely to retain their teeth than their predeces­ sors, so they will require much more care than in the past. The younger generation will continue to need preventive check-ups de­ spite treatments like fluoridation ofthe water supply which decrease dental caries. Furthermore, many people, who presently can not af­ ford the dental care they need, may seek out dental care since more people will have dental insurance and greater disposable incomes in the future. The decline of dental school enrollments points to opportunities for young practitioners. First-year enrollments  i ri _ri _ri_r  ct? $ <t> <pv rJ. A' rv' $ o' & <0 nr & £ & & & & & & rv (S' nr Ar 'v & #& &a Jr a & & &V & & & & °f Source: American Dental Association  144  Occupational Outlook Handbook  However, the employment of dentists is not expected to grow as rapidly as the demand for dental services. Because of surpluses, many dentists today are not working as many hours as they would like and could take on more patients. Also, as their practices expand, dentists are likely to hire more dental hygienists and dental assistants to han­ dle routine services that they now perform themselves. Unlike other occupations, replacement needs create relatively few job openings for dentists since dentists tend to remain in the profes­ sion. Earnings The net median income of dentists in private practice was about $80,000 a year in 1989, according to the American Dental Associa­ tion. Net median income of those in specialty practices was about $110,000 a year, and for those in general practice, $75,000 a year. Dentists in the beginning years of their practice often earn less, while those in mid-careers earn more. During recessions, some patients put off dental work, so dentists may have less work and lower earnings. A relatively large proportion of dentists are self-employed. Like other business owners, these dentists must provide their own health insurance, life insurance, and retirement benefits. Related Occupations Dentists examine, diagnose, and treat diseases and abnormalities. So do clinical psychologists, optometrists, physicians, veterinarians, and podiatrists. Sources of Additional Information For information on dentistry as a career and a list of accredited dental schools, contact: SELECT Program, American Dental Association, 211 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611. *■ American Association of Dental Schools, 1625 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington. DC 20036.  The American Dental Association also will furnish a list of State boards of dental examiners. Persons interested in practicing dentistry should obtain the requirements for licensure from the board of dental examiners of the State where they plan to work. Prospective dental students should contact the office of student fi­ nancial aid at the schools to which they apply for information on scholarships, grants, and loans, including Federal financial aid.  Optometrists (D.O.T. 079.101-018)  Nature of the Work Over half the people in the United States wear glasses or contact lens­ es. Optometrists (doctors of optometry, also known as O.D.’s) pro­ vide most of the primary vision care these people and others need. Optometrists examine people’s eyes to diagnose vision problems and eye disease. They treat vision problems, and in most States, they treat certain eye diseases as well. Optometrists use instrumentation and observation to examine eye health and to test patients’ visual acuity, depth and color perception, and their ability to focus and coor­ dinate the eyes. They analyze test results and develop a treatment plan. Optometrists prescribe eyeglasses, contact lenses, vision thera­ py, and low-vision aids. They use drugs for diagnosis in all States and, as of 1991, they may use drugs to treat some eye diseases in 28 States. Optometrists often provide post-operative care to cataract pa­ tients. When optometrists diagnose conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure, that require treatment beyond the optometric scope of practice, they refer patients to other health practitioners. Optometrists should not be confused with ophthalmologists or dis­ pensing opticians. Ophthalmologists are physicians who diagnose and treat eye diseases and injuries. Ophthalmologists perform surgery and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •Pm.  * fr  Many optometrists are self-employed. prescribe drugs, eyeglasses, and contact lenses. Dispensing opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses and in some States may fit contact lenses ac­ cording to prescriptions written by ophthalmologists or optometrists, but they do not examine eyes or prescribe treatment. (See statements on physicians and dispensing opticians elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most optometrists are in general practice. Some specialize in work with the elderly, with children, or with partially sighted persons who use microscopic or telescopic lenses. Others develop and implement ways to protect workers’ eyes from on-the-job strain or injury. Some specialize in contact lenses, sports vision, or vision therapy. Still oth­ ers teach, do research, or consult. Most optometrists are private practitioners who also handle the business aspects of running an office, such as developing a patient base, hiring employees, keeping records, and ordering equipment and supplies. Optometrists who operate franchise optical stores may also have some of these duties. Working Conditions Optometrists work in places—usually their own offices—that are clean, well lighted, and comfortable. The work requires attention to detail and manual dexterity. Self-employed optometrists have some flexibility in their hours of work, and many choose to work over 40 hours a week. Many work Saturdays and evenings to suit the needs of patients, but emergency calls are few. Employment Optometrists held about 37,000 jobs in 1990. The number of jobs is greater than the number of practicing optometrists because some op­ tometrists hold two or more jobs. For example, an optometrist may have a private practice, but also work in another practice, clinic, or vision care center. Although many optometrists are in solo practice, a growing num­ ber are in partnership or group practice. Some optometrists work as salaried employees in the offices of established optometrists, health maintenance organizations (HMO’s), retail optical stores, ophthal­ mologists, and the Veterans Administration. Some optometrists are consultants to industrial safety programs, insurance companies, manufacturers of ophthalmic products, HMO’s, and others. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require that optometrists be li­ censed. Applicants for a license must have a Doctor of Optometry de­ gree from an accredited optometry school and pass a written and clinical State board examination. In many States, applicants can sub­ stitute the examinations of the National Board of Examiners in Op­ tometry, usually taken during the student’s academic career, for part or all of the written examination. Some States allow applicants to be licensed without lengthy examination if they have a license in another State. In 47 States and the District of Columbia, optometrists must  Professional Specialty Occupations  earn continuing education credits to renew their licenses. Licenses are renewed every 1 to 2 years. The Doctor of Optometry degree requires completion of a 4-year program at an accredited optometry school preceded by at least 2 or 3 years of preoptometric study at an accredited college or university (most optometry students hold a bachelor’s degree). In 1991, 16 U.S. schools and colleges of optometry were accredited by the Council on Optometric Education of the American Optometric Association. Requirements for admission to schools of optometry include cours­ es in English, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A few schools require or recommend courses in psychology, history, sociol­ ogy, speech, or business. All applicants must take the Optometry Ad­ missions Test (OAT), which measures academic ability and scientific comprehension. Most applicants take the test after their sophomore or junior year. Competition for admission is keen. Optometry programs include classroom and laboratory study of health and visual sciences, and clinical training in the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders. Included are courses in pharmacology, op­ tics, biochemistry, and systemic disease. Business ability, self-discipline, and the ability to deal tactfully with patients are important for success. Optometrists wishing to teach or perform research may study for a master’s or Ph.D. degree in visual science, physiological optics, neu­ rophysiology, public health, health administration, health information and communication, or health education. One-year postgraduate clin­ ical residency programs are available for optometrists who wish to specialize in family practice optometry, pediatric optometry, geriatric optometry, low-vision rehabilitation, vision therapy, contact lenses, hospital based optometry, and primary care optometry. Job Outlook Employment of optometrists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 in response to the vision care needs of a growing and aging population. The maturing of the baby-boom generation, together with rapid growth in the elderly population and the coverage of optometric services by Medicare, will drive this growth. Persons over the age of 45 visit optometrists and ophthalmologists more frequently because of the onset of vision problems in middle age and the increased likelihood of cataracts, glaucoma, diabetes, and hypertension in old age. Employment of op­ tometrists will also grow due to greater recognition of the importance of vision care, rising personal incomes, and growth in employee vi­ sion care plans. Employment of optometrists would grow more rapidly were it not for anticipated productivity gains which will allow each optometrist to see more patients. These will result from greater use of optometric assistants and other support personnel, and the introduction of new equipment. Replacement needs are low. In this occupation, replacement needs arise almost entirely from retirements and deaths. Optometrists general­ ly remain in practice until they retire; few transfer to other occupations. Earnings According to the American Optometric Association, net earnings of new optometry graduates in their first year of practice averaged about $45,000 in 1990. Overall, optometrists averaged about $75,000 annually. Incomes vary depending upon location, specialization, and other factors. Salaried optometrists tend to earn more initially than op­ tometrists who set up their own independent practice. However, in the long run, those in private practice generally earn more. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations who apply scientific knowledge to pre­ vent, diagnose, and treat disorders and injuries in humans or animals are chiropractors, dentists, physicians, podiatrists, veterinarians, speech-language pathologists, and audiologists. Sources of Additional Information For information on optometry as a career, and a listing of accredited  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  145  optometric educational institutions, as well as required pre-optometry courses write to: American Optometric Association, Educational Services, 243 North Lind­ bergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63141.  The Board of Optometry in each State can supply information on licensing requirements. For information on specific admission requirements and sources of financial aid, contact the admissions officer of individual optometry schools.  Physicians (D.O.T. 070 and 071)  Nature of the Work Physicians perform medical examinations, diagnose illnesses, and treat people suffering from injury or disease. They advise patients on diet, hygiene, and preventive health care. Those in private prac­ tices handle or oversee the business aspects of running an office. There are two types of physicians: The M.D.—Doctor of Medicine—and the D.O.—Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine. M.D.’s are also known as allopathic physicians. While M.D.’s and D.O.’s may use all accepted methods of treatment, including drugs and surgery, D.O.’s place special emphasis on the body’s musculoskele­ tal system. They believe that good health requires proper alignment of bones, muscles, ligaments, and nerves. Most M.D.’s specialize. (See table 1.) Pediatricians, general and family practitioners, and general internists are often called primary care physicians since they are the first health professionals patients usually consult. They tend to see the same patients on a regular basis for a variety of ailments and preventive treatment. When ap­ propriate, they refer patients to other specialists. D.O.’s tend to be primary care providers although they can be found in all specialties. Working Conditions Physicians often work long, irregular hours. Almost half work more than 60 hours a week, but one-fourth generally work a 40-hour week. Most specialists work fewer hours than general practitioners and family practitioners. In general, as doctors approach retirement age, they may accept fewer new patients and tend to work shorter hours. Salaried physicians who are employees of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO’s) or group practices work about the same number of hours a week as self-employed physicians. However, salaried physicians spend fewer hours in direct patient care. Employment Physicians (M.D.’s and D.O.’s) held about 580,000 jobs in 1990. About 2 out of 3 were in office-based practice, including clinics and HMO’s; about one-fifth were employed in hospitals; and most oth­ ers practiced in the Federal Government. While physicians have traditionally been solo practitioners, a growing number are partners or salaried employees of group prac­ tices. Organized as clinics, HMO’s, or as groups of physicians, med­ ical groups can afford expensive medical equipment and realize other business advantages. The Northeast has the highest ratio of physicians to population; the South, the lowest. D.O.’s tend to practice in small cities and towns and in rural areas. M.D.’s, on the other hand, tend to locate in urban areas, close to hospital and educational centers. Some rural areas remain underserved, although the situation is changing some­ what. Currently, more medical students are being exposed to prac­ tice in rural communities with the direct support of educational centers and hospitals in more populous areas.  146  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Table 1. Distribution of M.D.’s by specialty, 1989 Percent Total.....................................................................................  100.0  General and family practice.....................................................  11.7  Medical specialties: Allergy................................................................................. Cardiovascular diseases........................................................ Dermatology........................................................................ Gastroentrology................................................................... Internal medicine.................................................................. Pediatrics............................................................................. Pediatric allergy.................................................................... Pediatric cardiology............................................................. Pulmonary diseases.............................................................  0.2 2.6 1.2 1.2 16.2 6.6  0.1 0.1 1.0  Surgical specialties: Colon and rectal surgery...................................................... General surgery................................................................... Neurological surgery........................................................... Obstetrics and gynecology.................................................. Ophthalmology.................................................................... Orthopedic surgery.............................................................. Otolaryngology.................................................................... Plastic surgery..................................................................... Thoracic surgery..................................................................  0.1 6.4 0.7 5.5 2.7 3.1 1.3 0.7 0.4  Other specialties: Aerospace medicine............................................................ Anesthesiology.................................................................... Child psychiatry.................................................................. Diagnostic radiology........................................................... Emergency medicine........................................................... Forensic pathology.............................................................. General preventive medicine................................................ Neurology............................................................................ Nuclear medicine................................................................. Occupational medicine........................................................ Psychiatry............................................................................ Public health........................................................................ Physical medicine and rehabilitation................................... Pathology............................................................................. Radiology............................................................................ Radiation oncology............................................................. Urology................................................................................ Other specialty..................................................................... Unspecified/unknown...........................................................  0.1 4.2 0.7 2.5 2.3 0.1 0.2 1.5 0.2 0.5 5.8 0.3 0.7 2.7 1.9 0.5 1.5 1.5 12.3  SOURCE: American Medical Association  The minimum educational requirement for entry to a medical or osteopathic school is 3 years of college; most applicants, however, have at least a bachelor’s degree, and many have advanced degrees. A few medical schools offer a combined college and medical school program that lasts 6 years instead of the customary 8 years. Required premedical study includes undergraduate work in physics, biology, and inorganic and organic chemistry. Students should also take courses in English, other humanities, mathematics, and the social sciences. There are 141 medical schools in the United States—126 teach al­ lopathic medicine and award a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.); 15 teach osteopathic medicine and award the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.). Acceptance to medical school is very competitive. Applicants must submit transcripts, scores from the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and letters of recommendation. An interview with an admissions officer may also be necessary. Character, personality, leadership qualities, and participation in extracurricular activities also are considered. Students spend the first 2 years of medical school primarily in labo­ ratories and classrooms taking courses such as anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, microbiology, pathology, medical ethics, and laws governing medicine. They also learn to take case histories, perform examinations, and recognize symptoms. During the last 2 years, students work with patients under the supervision of experi­ enced physicians in hospitals and clinics to learn acute, chronic, pre­ ventive, and rehabilitative care. Through rotations in internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery, they gain experience in the diagnosis and treatment of illness. Following medical school, almost all M.D.’s go directly on to gradu­ ate medical education, called a residency. The National Board of Medi­ cal Examiners (NBME) gives a standard examination for all students, including foreign medical school graduates, applying for an M.D. resi­ dency. All D.O.’s serve a 12-month rotating internship after gradua­ tion. The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners gives an examination for internship application. Following their internship, many D.O.’s take a residency program in a specialty area, too. M.D.’s and D.O.’s seeking board certification in a specialty may spend up to 6 years—depending on the specialty—in residency train­ ing. A final examination immediately after residency, or after 1 or 2 years of practice, is also necessary for board certification by the American Board of Medical Specialists (ABMS) or the American Os­ teopathic Association (AOA). Physicians can be board-certified in 24 different areas: Allergy and immunology; anesthesiology; colon and rectal surgery; dermatology; emergency medicine; family practice; internal medicine; neurological surgery; neurology; nuclear medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; ophthalmology; orthopaedic surgery; oto­ laryngology; pathology; pediatrics; physical medicine and rehabilita­ tion; plastic surgery; preventative medicine; psychiatry; radiology; surgery; thoracic surgery; and urology. For those training in a subspe­ cialty, another 1 to 2 years of residency is usual.  Osteopathic physicians are located chiefly in States that have os­ teopathic hospitals. In 1991, 4 out of 5 D.O.’s were practicing in 16 States. Michigan had the most D.O.’s, followed by Pennsylvania, Ohio, Florida, Texas, and New Jersey. Training and Other Qualifications All States, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories require physicians to be licensed. Licensure requirements for both D.O.’s and M.D.’s include graduation from an accredited medical school (usually 4 years), completion of a licensing examination, and between 1 and 6 years of graduate medical education, that is, a residency for M.D.’s and an internship for D.O.’s. Although physicians licensed in one State can usually get a license to practice in another without further examination, some States limit reciprocity. Graduates of foreign med­ ical schools can generally begin practice in the United States after completing a U.S. hospital residency training program.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Physicians often work long, irregular hours.  Professional Specialty Occupations  To teach or do research, physicians may acquire a master’s or Ph.D. in such fields as biochemistry or microbiology. They may oth­ erwise spend 1 year or more in research or in an advanced clinical training fellowship. A physician’s training is costly. In 1987-88, the annual tuition for public medical schools averaged approximately $13,100; for private medical schools it was approximately $25,600. Room, board, and other expenses are extra. While education costs have increased, student finan­ cial assistance has not. Scholarships have become harder to find. Loans are available, but subsidies to reduce interest rates are limited. People who wish to become physicians must have a desire to serve the ill, be self-motivated, and be able to survive the pressures and long hours of premedical and medical education. For example, medi­ cal residents often work 24-hour shifts and 80 hours a week or more. Efforts, however, are being made to limit the hours residents work. Prospective physicians must also be willing to study throughout their career to keep up with medical advances. Physicians should have a good bedside manner, be emotionally stable, and be able to make de­ cisions in emergencies. Job Outlook Employment of physicians is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to continued expansion of the health industry. The population is growing and aging, and health care needs increase sharply with age. In addition, new technologies per­ mit physicians to do more tests, perform more procedures, and treat conditions previously regarded as untreatable. Despite efforts to control costs, the payment of most services through private insurance, Medi­ care, and Medicaid will continue to encourage growth. The need to re­ place physicians is lower than for most occupations because almost all physicians remain in the profession until they retire. Job prospects are better for primary care physicians such as family practitioners and internists, and for geriatric and preventive care spe­ cialists, than for those in some nonprimary care specialties such as surgery and radiology. However, changes in Federal Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement, which are designed to encourage more physicians to provide primary care services, may equalize prospects. There are shortages of physicians in some rural and low income areas. This is because physicians find these areas unattractive due to low earnings potential, isolation from medical colleagues, or other reasons, not because of any overall shortage. Some health care analysts believe that there is, or that there will soon be a general oversupply of physicians; others disagree. In ana­ lyzing job prospects, it should be kept in mind that an oversupply may not necessarily limit the ability of physicians to find employ­ ment or to set up and maintain a practice. It could result in physicians performing more procedures than otherwise so as to keep up their in­ comes, or it could result in their providing more time to each patient, giving more attention to preventive care, and providing more services in rural and poor areas. It is also possible that where surpluses are due to specialty imbalances, physicians in surplus specialities would pro­ vide more services in shortage ones. Unlike their predecessors, newly trained physicians face radically different choices of where and how to practice. Many new physicians are likely to avoid solo practice and take salaried jobs in group medi­ cal practices, clinics, and HMO’s in order to have regular work hours and the opportunity for peer consultation. Others will take salaried positions simply because they cannot afford the high costs of estab­ lishing a private practice while paying off student loans. Graduates of foreign medical schools have long been a source of physicians in the United States. It seems unlikely, however, that they will continue to augment the supply of U.S.-trained physicians to the extent they have had in the past. This is due to such factors as more difficult qualifying entrance exams for foreign-trained students seek­ ing U.S. residencies and keener competition for a residency once hav­ ing passed the exams. Earnings Physicians have among the highest earnings of any occupation. Ac­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  147  cording to the American Medical Association, average income, after expenses, for all physicians was about $155,800 in 1989; those under 36 years of age averaged $113,300. Earnings vary according to spe­ cialty; the number of years in practice; geographic region; hours worked; and skill, personality, and professional reputation. Self-em­ ployed physicians—those who own or are part owners of their medi­ cal practice—had an average income of $175,300, while those who were employed by others earned an average of $119,200 a year. As shown in table 2, average income of physicians, after expenses, varies by specialty. Table 2. Average income of M.D.’s after expenses, 1989 All physicians..................................................................... $155,800 Surgery............................................................................... Radiology........................................................................... Obstetrics/gynecology........................................................ Anesthesiology................................................................... Pathology........................................................................... Internal medicine............................................................... Psychiatry........................................................................... Pediatrics............................................................................ General practice/family practice........................................  220,500 210,500 194,300 185,800 154,500 146,500 117,700 104,700 95,900  SOURCE: American Medical Association  Salaries of medical residents averaged $25,858 in 1990-91 for those in their first year of residency to $33,277 for those in their sixth year, according to the Association of American Medical Colleges. Physicians who establish their own practice make a sizable finan­ cial investment to equip a modem office. Related Occupations Physicians work to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases, disorders, and injuries. Professionals in other occupations that require similar kinds of skill and critical judgment include audiologists, chiroprac­ tors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists, speech pathologists, and vet­ erinarians. Sources of Additional Information For a list of allopathic medical schools, as well as general informa­ tion on premedical education, financial aid, and medicine as a career, contact: American Medical Association, 515 N. State St., Chicago, IL 60610. Association of American Medical Colleges, Publications Department, 2450 N St. NW„ Washington, DC 20037.  For general information on osteopathic medicine as a career, contact: *■ American Osteopathic Association, Department of Public Relations, 142 East Ontario St., Chicago, IL 60611. American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, 6110 Execu­ tive Blvd., Suite 405, Rockville, MD 20852.  Information on Federal scholarships and loans is available from the directors of student financial aid at schools of allopathic and osteo­ pathic medicine. Information on licensing is available from State boards of examiners.  Podiatrists (D.O.T. 079.101-022)  Nature of the Work The human foot is a complex structure, containing twenty-six bones, plus muscles, nerves, ligaments, and blood vessels, designed for bal­ ance and mobility. Podiatrists, also known as doctors of podiatric  148  Occupational Outlook Handbook  medicine (DPM’s), diagnose and treat disorders and diseases of the foot and lower leg to keep this part of the body working properly. Podiatrists treat the major foot conditions: Corns calluses, ingrown toenails, and bunions; as well as, hammertoes, ankle and foot injuries, and foot complaints associated with diseases such as diabetes. In treating these problems, podiatrists prescribe drugs, order physical therapy, and perform surgery. They also fit corrective inserts called orthotics and design custom-made shoes. Podiatrists may use a force plate to help design the orthotics and shoes. They have patients walk across the plate that is connected to a computer, which “reads” the patients’ feet. From the computer readout, podiatrsts may order the correct design. In diagnosing a foot problem, podiatrists may order X-rays and laboratory tests. Podiatrists refer patients to other health practitioners when they spot systemic diseases, such as arthritis, diabetes, and heart disease, of which first symtoms may appear in the foot. For ex­ ample, diabetics are prone to foot ulcers and infections due to their poor circulation. Most podiatrists are in private practice, which means that they run a small business. They handle administrative duties like hiring em­ ployees, ordering supplies, and overseeing recordkeeping. Most podiatrists have a general practice. Some podiatrists special­ ize in surgery. Others specialize in orthopedics and public health. Be­ sides these certified specialties, podiatrists may practice a subspecialty such as sports medicine, pediatrics, dermatology, radiol­ ogy, and diabetic foot care. Working Conditions Podiatrists usually work independently in their own offices. They work about 38 hours a week, on the average. Podiatrists with solo practices set their own hours, but to meet the needs of their patients, they may have some evening and weekend hours. Podiatrists who are employed in hospitals or clinics may work nights and weekends and be on call. Employment Podiatrists held about 16,000 jobs in 1990. Traditionally, podiatrists have been solo practitioners and most still are; however, some are en­ tering into partnerships and group practices. Some podiatrists are em­ ployed in hospitals, nursing homes, and offices and clinics of physicians clinics. The Veterans Administration and public health de­ partments employ podiatrists, too. Geographic imbalances are pronounced in podiatric medicine. This reflects the fact that most podiatry graduates establish their practices in or near one of the seven States that have colleges of podatric medicine. This has left large areas of the country—particularly the South, the Southwest, and nonmetropolitan areas—with few podia­ trists. In these areas, foot care is typically provided by primary care physicians and orthopedists.  A podiatrist operates to correct a hammertoe.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require a license for the prac­ tice of podiatric medicine. Each defines its own licensing require­ ments. Generally, however, the applicant must be a graduate of an accredited college of podiatric medicine and pass written and oral ex­ aminations. Twenty-two States also require completion of an accred­ ited residency program. Some States permit applicants to substitute the examination of the National Board of Podiatric Examiners, given in the second and fourth years of podiatric medical college, for part or all of the written State examination. Certain States grant reciproci­ ty to podiatrists who are licensed in another State. The seven colleges of podiatric medicine are located in California, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Prerequi­ sites for admission include the completion of at least 90 semester hours of undergraduate study, an acceptable grade point average, and suitable scores on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). All of the colleges require 8 semester hours each of biology, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, and physics and 6 hours of English. Most entrants surpass the minimum qualifications. Although not mandated, over 95 percent of podiatric students possessed a bache­ lor’s degree. Colleges of podiatric medicine offer a 4-year program whose core curriculum is similar to that in other schools of medicine. Classroom instruction in basic sciences, including anatomy, chemistry, patholo­ gy, and pharmacology, is given during the first 2 years. Third- and fourth-year students have clinical rotations in private practices, hospi­ tal