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1974-75 Edition
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin 1785

Pointers on Using the Handbook

To learn the contents and arrangement of this Handbook, see How the Handbook is Or­

ganized, page 3.
To locate an occupation or industry in this book, see:

Table of Contents, page IX.
Alphabetical Index, page 803.
Dictionary of Occupational Titles Index, page 826.
For a general view of work and jobs in the United States, read the chapter on Tomorrow’s

Jobs, page 15.
Forecasts of the future are precariousl To interpret the standards on the outlook in each occu­

pation, keep in mind the points made on page 15, as well as the method presented in the
Technical Appendix, page 15.
The job picture is constantly changing. To find out how you can keep your information up

to date, see the section on Sources of Additional Information, page 10.
You may need local information, too. The Handbook gives facts about each occupation for

the United States as a whole. For suggestions on sources of additional information for
your own locality, see page 12.

Subscribe To The Occupational Outlook Quarterly, An Essential Com ­
panion To Your Handbook
*it keeps up to date the volatile field of manpower and occupational information
*it reports promptly on new occupational research results
*it analyzes legislative, educational, and training developments that will help young
people with their career plans
Order form on back cover of this Handbook

1974-75 Edition
Peter J. Brennan, Secretary
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner


Bulletin 1785

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402,
GPO Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on page 841. Price $6.85.
Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents.

 Microfiche edition available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22151, at $1.45 a set.
Make checks for microfiche payable to NTIS.


Today, young Americans must be aware of the effect sweeping changes in our society will
have on their career futures. The 1974-75 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook is a
key tool for helping young people make sensible career decisions.
Because changing demands cause shifts in skill and training requirements for occupations,
students should begin the process of career exploration early in their lives. By acquiring a broad
knowledge of occupations, each student can become aware of many career alternatives and be
prepared to make suitable choices that coincide with his or her abilities and aspirations.
The main purpose of the Handbook is to provide occupational information that broadens
the knowledge of choices available to young people and helps them make intelligent career
plans. It is also a useful resource for persons entering or reentering the work force at different
stages of their lives.
For hundreds of occupations, the Handbook answers such questions as: what does a person
actually do on the job; what abilities and interests does the job call for; what kind of schooling
and other training is required for the job; what are the working conditions like; and most
importantly, what will be the job opportunities in coming years?
For more than a quarter of a century, the Handbook has been the standard reference for
vocational guidance information. Our hope in the Department of Labor is that this publication
will continue to be a valuable tool in guiding future workers into jobs which will be both
satisfying and productive.

PETER J. BRENNAN, Secretary o f Labor

Prefatory Note
Between 1972 and 1985 employment in the United States will likely increase by as much as
20 million jobs. Accompanying this increase, a significant shift from goods-producing
industries—agriculture, mining, construction, and manufacturing—toward service-producing
industries—transportation and utilities, trade, finance, services, and government—is expected.
This expected shift is especially significant for educational and vocational planning. To assure
that young people will have the necessary skills to meet future job requirements will require
flexibility in our educational system and necessitate a continuing appraisal of career oppor­
tunities in the years ahead.
With respect to the latter, for the past 3 decades, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has been
researching occupational and manpower trends. The major publication of this research is the
Occupational Outlook Handbook, which provides encyclopedic information on work for over
800 occupations and 30 major industries. The Handbook information is based on BLS analysis
of data received from business firms, trade associations, labor unions, professional societies,
educational institutions, government agencies, and other groups. In addition to the Handbook,
which is published every other year, other BLS vocational guidance materials include reprints
of Handbook statements on individual occupations and the Occupational Outlook Quarterly,
issued to supplement the Handbook with articles on current developments in the occupational
outlook field.
With the current need to strengthen programs of career education, I feel that the Occupa­
tional Outlook Handbook will be more useful for students, counselors, and educators than ever
before. To that end, the Bureau has done considerable revision work. This edition presents
occupational materials in a new clustering system designed to organize occupations by related
activities. The new Handbook also includes expanded earnings information, additional informa­
tion on job characteristics as they relate to young people’s interests and abilities, and finally
an extensively revised guide on how to use the Handbook for career guidance.

JULIUS SHISKIN, Commissioner, Bureau o f Labor Statistics

Letter of Endorsement

Work can be one of life’s most rewarding experiences. A job can offer pride in achievement
and an opportunity for individual growth, as well as the security of an adequate income. But
satisfying employment seldom is achieved without informed career planning.
Up-to-date and accurate occupational information is a keystone to career planning. The
wealth of information contained in this edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook pro­
vides a major resource. For more than 800 occupations and 30 major industries, timely,
accurate, and useful materials are provided. Counselors and counselees can Find a ready source
of comprehensive information in the Handbook covering what workers do in various occupa­
tions, training and educational requirements, advancement possibilities, occupational outlook,
earnings and working conditions, and sources of additional information.
The new edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook will continue to be an invaluable
tool for counselors in various work settings who are responsible for helping clients make
sound educational and vocational choices and plans that will lead to rewarding occupational
endeavors in the Nation’s job market.
Dr. S. Norman Feingold, President
American Personnel and Guidance

Robert J. Brown
Associate Manpower Administrator
U.S. Employment Service
U.S. Department of Labor
Dr. M. Richard Rose
Deputy Assistant Secretary of
Defense for Education
U.S. Department of Defense

Donald E. Johnson, Administrator
Veterans Administration
Dr. John Ottina, Acting
U.S. Commissioner of Education
Office of Education
U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare
Philip J. Rutledge, Acting
Social and Rehabilitation Service
U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare

The Handbook was prepared in the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Manpower and
Occupational Outlook, under the supervision of Russell B. Flanders. General direction was
provided by Dudley E. Young, Assistant Commissioner for Manpower Structure and Trends.
The planning and coordination of the Handbook was done by Neal H. Rosenthal, with the
assistance of Gerard C. Smith. Max L. Carey, Michael F. Crowley, Constance B. DiCesare, and
Michael J. Pilot supervised the research and preparation of individual Handbook sections.
Members of the Division’s staff who contributed sections were Elinor W. Abramson, Harold
Blitz, Elizabeth Bullivant, Marlene A. Carey, Donald E. Clark, Mary DeLaVergne, Robert
T. Devlin, Hall Dillon, Alan Eck, Susan C. Gentz, Stephen W. Ginther, Stephen C. Hough,
Phil Howard, Linda W. Jarett, Maurice P. Moylan,Rose G. Nassis, Kathleen A. Naughton,
H. James Neary, Irving P. Phillips, John O. Plater, Jr., Jon Q. Sargent, Joan Slowitsky, Dixie
Sommers, Lois M. Terlizzi, Darrel P. Wash, and Elliott Werner.
Statistical assistance was provided by Sara B. Brown, Jane K. Green, and Melverlynn Hull
under the direction of Olive B. Clay. Jean F. Whetzel prepared indexes, and Donald Dillon
coordinated the gathering and editing of the photographs.
The chapter on Agriculture was coordinated in the office of Information, U.S. Department
of Agriculture, under the direction of Hal R. Taylor, Deputy Director of Information.

Photograph Credits
The Bureau of Labor Statistics gratefully acknowledges the cooperation and assistance of
the many government and private sources that either contributed photographs or made their
facilities available to the U.S. Department of Labor photographers for this edition of the
Occupational Outlook Handbook.

Government Sources

Federal. Department of Agriculture; Atomic Energy
Commission; Department of Commerce—National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration;
General Accounting Office; General Services
Administration—National Archives; Government
Printing Office; Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare—Food and Drug Administration, and
National Institutes of Health; Department of In­
terior; Department of Justice—Federal Bureau of
Investigation; National Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration; Department of the Navy—Naval Ocean­
ographic Office; Department of Transportation—
Federal Aviation Administration; Treasury Depart­
ment—Internal Revenue Service; U.S. Postal Service;
and Veterans Administration.
State and Local. City of Houston; District of
Columbia; Montgomery County; New York City—
Fire Department; and Ohio—State Police.
Private Sources

Membership Groups. American Association of Col­
leges of Pharmacy; American Bankers Association;
American Dietetic Association; American Home
Economic Association; American Petroleum In­
stitute; American Podiatry Association; American
Society of Civil Engineers; B’nai Brith; British
Information Services; Instrument Society of Amer­
ica; International Alliance of Theatrical Stage
Employers and Moving Picture Machine Operators
of the United States and Canada; International
Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers;
International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union; Iron
and Steel Institute; Lutheran Council in United
States of America; Marble Insfitute of America;

Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association; Tile
Contractors Association of America, Inc.; and
Washington D.C. Board of Realtors, Inc.
Industry and Businesses. Aluminum Company of
America; American Airlines; American Telephone
and Telegraph; ARA Services, Inc.; Atchison,
Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Co.; Banning and
Sons Motors, Inc.; Bausch and Lomb; Bethlehem
Steel Corp.; Blake Construction Co.; Brunswick
Corp.; The C&O/B&O Railroads;-Chrysler Corp.;
CIBA-Geigy Corp.; Collins Radio Co.; Congoleum,
Inc.; Consolidated Edison Company of New York,
Inc.; Continental Trailways Co.; Davis, Smith, and
Palmer, Inc.; Del Monte Corp.; E.I. Du Pont De
Nemours and Co.; Eastman Kodak Co.; Eli Lilly Co.;
Exxon Corp.; Ford Motor Co.; Fraser Paper, Ltd.;
Geico, Inc.; General Electric Co.; General Motors
Corp.; Georgia-Pacific Co.; Girard Bank and Trust;
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.; Great Atlantic and
Pacific Tea Co., Inc.; Grumman Aerospace Corp.;
H am ilton W atch Co., Inc.; H arry B. Gilpin Co.;
Hecht Co.; Honeywell, Inc.; Hughes Aircraft Co.;
Ingersoll-Rand Co.; Inland Steel Co.; International
Business Machine Corp.; Jack Morton Productions;
Kewanee Boiler Corp.; Link Belt Co.; Litton In­
dustries; Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co.; May­
flower Transit Co., Inc.; Merkle Press; Minnesota
Mining and Manufacturing Co.; Mutual of Omaha;
The National Cash Register Co.; North American
Aviation; Olin Industries (Winchester Division);
Oster Corp. (Professional Products Division); Otis
Elevator Co.; Parking Management Inc.; Phillips
Petroleum Co.; Pittsburgh Plate Glass Industries;
Prudential Insurance Company of America; RCA
Service Co.; Reynolds Aluminum Co.; Schlage Lock
Co.; Sears Roebuck and Co.; Sheraton Hotels and
Motor Inns; Southern Railroad System; Suburban

V lll


Trust Co.; Texaco, Inc.; Transworld Airlines;
Unilux, Inc.; Union Carbide Corp.; Westinghouse
Electric Corp.; Weyerhaeuser Co.; Woodward and
Lothrop; and Xerox Corp.

Schools. California Technical Institute; George
Washington University; Georgetown University;
Montgomery Junior College; Stanislaus State Col­
lege; and University of Maryland.

Publications. Bar Server Handbook; Minneapolis
Tribune; Motel/Hotel Inn Journal; Signs o f the
Times magazine; Washington Post; and Washington

Others. Children’s Memorial Hospital of Chicago;
Kennedy Center; National Ballet; Don Ross, United
Nations Information Center; Washington (D.C.)
Hospital Center; and Washington (D.C.) Metro­
politan Area Transit Authority.

A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and industrial organizations
are in a position to supply valuable information to counselors or young people seeking informa­
tion about careers. For the convenience of Handbook users, the statements on separate occupa­
tions or industries list some of the organizations or other sources which may be able to
provide further information. Although these references were assembled with care, the Bureau
of Labor Statistics has no authority or facilities for investigating organizations. Also, since the
Bureau has no way of knowing in advance what information or publications each organization
may send in answer to a request, the Bureau cannot evaluate the accuracy of such information.
The listing o f an organization, therefore, does not in any way constitute an endorsement or
recommendation by the Bureau or the U.S. Department o f Labor, either o f the organization
and its activities or o f the information it may supply. Such information as each organization
may issue is, of course, sent out on its own responsibility.
The occupational statements in this Handbook are not intended, and should not be used, as
standards for the determination o f wages, hours, jurisdictional matters, appropriate bargain­
ing units, or formal job evaluation systems. These descriptive statements are presented in a
general, composite form and, therefore, cannot be expected to apply exactly to specific jobs in
a particular industry, establishment, or locality.

Guide to the Handbook




TOMORROW’S JOBS ...............................


The Outlook for Occupations
Foundry occupations.............................
Molders .........................................
Corem akers..........................
Machining occupations.........................
All-round machinists............
Instrument makers (mechanical) ..
Machine tool operators........
Set-up men (machine tools) ..........
Tool and die makers .....................
Printing occupations....................
Bookbinders and related workers ..
Composing room occupations . . . .
Electrotypers and stereotypers . . . .
Lithographic occupations.....
Photoengravers .............................
Printing pressmen and assistants ..
Other industrial production and related
occupations .......................................
Automobile painters .....................
Automobile trimmers and installa­
tion men (automobile uphol­
sterers) .......................................
Boilermaking occupations ............
Forge shop occupations.........
Furniture upholsterers...........
Inspectors (manufacturing)..........
Motion picture projectionists......
Photographic laboratory occupations
Power truck operators...........



Production painters.......................
Stationary engineers .....................
Stationary firemen (boiler)............
Waste water treatment plant
operators ...................................
Welders and flame cutters..............
OFFICE OCCUPATIONS.........................
Clerical occupations .............................
Bookkeeping workers ...................
Cashiers .........................................
File clerks.......................................
Hotel front office clerks ................
Office machine operators ..............
Postal clerks...................................
Shipping and receiving clerks........
Statistical clerks.............................
Stock c le rk s...................................
Stenographers and secretaries . . . .
Typists ...........................................
Computer and related occupations........
Electronic computer operating per­
sonnel .........................................
Systems analysts ...........................
Banking occupations.............................
Bank clerks.....................................
Bank officers .................................
Bank tellers ...................................
Insurance occupations...........................
Actuaries .......................................
Claim adjusters .............................
Claim examiners ...........................
Underwriters .................................
Administrative and related occupations
Advertising workers .....................
City managers ...............................
College student personnel workers .
Credit officials...............................
Hotel managers and assistants . . . .
Industrial traffic m anagers............
Lawyers .........................................
Marketing research workers..........




Personnel w orkers.........................
Public relations w orkers...............
Purchasing agents .........................
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS ......................
Cleaning and related occupations..........
Building custodians.......................
Exterminators ...............................
Hotel housekeepers and assistants .
Food service occupations .....................
Bartenders .....................................
Cooks and chefs.............................
Meatcutters ...................................
Waiters and waitresses .................
Personal service occupations ................
Bellmen and bell captains..............
Funeral directors and embalmers ..
Private household service occupations ..
Private household workers ............
Protective and related service occupations
FBI special ag en ts.........................
Guards and watchmen...................
Police officers.................................
State police officers.......................
Health and regulatory inspectors
Construction inspectors
Other service occupations.....................
Mail carriers...................................
Telephone operators .....................


Teaching occupations ...........................
Kindergarten and elementary school
Secondary school teachers ............
College and university teachers . . .
Library occupations...............................
Library technical assistants...........


SALES OCCUPATIONS...........................
Automobile parts countermen . . . .
Automobile salesworkers .............
Automobile service advisors..........
Gasoline service station attendants
Insurance agents and brokers........
Models ..........................................



Manufacturers salesworkers..........
Real estate salesworkers and brokers
Retail trade salesworkers .............
Securities salesworkers.................
Wholesale trade salesworkers........
Asbestos and insulation workers ..
Carpenters .....................................
Cement masons (cement and con­
crete finishers) ...........................
Construction laborers...................
Electricians (construction) ...........
Elevator constructors ...................
Floor covering installers . . . . . . . . .
L athers...........................................
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo workers.............................
Operating engineers (construction
machinery operators .................
Painters and paperhangers ............
Plasterers .......................................
Plumbers and pipefitters...............
Sheet-metal w orkers.....................
Stone m asons.................................
Structural, ornamental, and rein­
forcing iron workers, riggers,
and machine movers .................
ACTIVITIES ..................... .............
Air transportation occupations..............
Air traffic controllers ...................
Aircraft mechanics .......................
Airline dispatchers.........................
Flight attendants ...........................
Flight engineers.............................
Ground radio operators and tele­
typists .........................................
Pilots and copilots.........................
Traffic agents and clerks...............
Merchant marine occupations ..............
Merchant marine officers.............
Merchant seamen .........................
Railroad occupations ...........................
Bridge and building w orkers..........
C lerks.............................................




Locomotive engineers...................
Locomotive firemen .....................
Shop trades.....................................
Signal department workers............
Station agents ...............................
Telegraphers, telephoners, and
towermen ...................................
Track workers ...............................
Driving occupations...............................
Intercity bus drivers.......................
Local transit busdrivers ..............
Local truck drivers.........................
Long distance truck drivers............
Parking attendants .......................
Taxi drivers ...................................


Conservation occupations.....................
V Foresters.........................................
JForestry aides and technicians . . . .
VRange managers ...........................
Soil conservationists .....................
Engineers ..............................................
Ceramic .........................................
Chemical .......................................
Civil ..............................................
Electrical .......................................
Industrial .......................................
Mining ...........................................
Environmental scientists.......................
Life science occupations .......................
Biochemists ...................................
Life scientists.................................
Soil scientists.................................
Mathematics occupations.....................
Physical scientists .................................
Astronomers .................................
Food scientists...............................
Physicists .......................................



Technician occupations.........................
Broadcast technicians...................
Draftsmen .....................................
Engineering and science technicians
Food processing technicians..........
Telephone craft occupations..................
Central office craft occupations . . .
Central office equipment installers .
Linemen and cable splicers............
Telephone servicemen...................
Other mechanics and repairmen............
Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and
heating mechanics.....................
Appliance servicemen ...................
Automobile body repairmen..........
Automobile mechanics ..................
Boat motor mechanics...................
Bowling pin-machine mechanics ..
Business machine servicemen........
Computer service technicians........
Diesel mechanics...........................
Dispensing opticians and optical
Electric sign servicemen ................
Farm equipment mechanics ..........
Industrial machinery repairmen . . .
Instrument repairm en...................
Jewelers .........................................
Maintenance electricians................
Motorcycle mechanics...................
Piano and organ servicemen..........
Shoe repairmen .............................
Television and radio service tech­
nicians .........................................
Truck mechanics and bus mechanics .
Vending machine mechanics..........
Watch repairmen...........................
HEALTH OCCUPATIONS.......................
Dental occupations ...............................
Dental assistants ...........................
Dental hygienists...........................
Dental laboratory technicians........
Medical practitioners ...........................
Optometrists .................................
Osteopathic physicians ..................




Podiatrists .....................................
Medical technician, technologist, and
assistant occupations.........................
Electrocardiograph technicians . . .
Electroencephalographic technicians
Medical assistants.........................
Medical laboratory w orkers..........
Medical record technicians and
Operating room technicians..........
Optometric assistants ...................
Radiologic (X-ray) technicians . . . .
Respiratory therapists...................
Nursing occupations.............................
Registered nurses...........................
Licensed practical nurses .............
Nursing aides, orderlies, and
Therapy and rehabilitation occupations
Occupational therapists.................
Occupational therapy assistants . . .
Physical therapists.........................
Physical therapist assistants and
aides ..........................................
Speech pathologists and audiol­
ogists ..........................................
Other health occupations .....................
Dietitians .......................................
Hospital administrators ...............
Medical record administrators . . . .


SOCIAL SCIENTISTS...............................
Political scientists .........................
Sociologists ...................................


Counseling occupations.........................
School counselors .........................
Employment counselors ...............
Rehabilitation counselors.............
College career planning and place­
ment counselors .........................
Clergymen ............................................
Protestant ministers.......................
Roman Catholic priests.................



Other social service occupations............
Cooperative extension service
Home economists .........................
Recreation w orkers.......................
Social service aides .......................
Social w orkers...............................


O CCUPATIONS.............................
Performing a rtis ts .................................
Actors and actresses .....................
D ancers..........................................
Singers ...........................................
Design occupations ...............................
Commercial artists .......................
Displaymen ...................................
Floral designers.............................
Industrial designers.......................
Interior designers...........................
Landscape architects.....................
Urban planners .............................
Communications-related occupations ..
Interpreters ...................................
Newspaper reporters.....................
Radio and television announcers ..
Technical w riters...........................


The Outlook for Industries


Coal m ining...........................................
Petroleum and natural gas production
and processing...................................


CONSTRUCTION .....................................


M ANUFACTURING.................................
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft............
Aluminum .............................................
Atomic energy field...............................
Baking ..................................................
D ru g .................................................. \ .



Xl l l


Industrial chemical ...............................
Iron and ste e l.........................................
Logging and lumber m ills.....................
Motor vehicle and equipment...............
Office machine and computer...............
Paper and allied products.....................
Petroleum refining.................................
Printing and publishing.........................


U TILITIES.......................................
Civil aviation .........................................
Electric power .......................................
Merchant m arine...................................
Radio and TV broadcasting .................
Railroads ..............................................


Restaurants ...........................................
Retail food stores...................................


ESTATE ...........................................
Banking .................................................
Insurance ...............................................


INDUSTRIES .................................
H otels....................................................
Laundry and drycleaning .....................


GOVERNM ENT................. , .....................
^Federal civilian employment.................
Postal service.................................
'State and local government...................
Armed Forces .......................................


TECHNICAL APPENDIX .......................




TITLES (D.O.T.) IN D E X ................






The Handbook begins with two in­
troductory chapters designed to help
counselors and students make effec­
tive use of the book and to give them
a general view of the world of work.
This chapter describes the con­
tents and organization of the book. It
tells how the information was as­
sembled, and discusses a number of
points that need to be kept in mind in
interpreting the statements. It also
gives suggestions regarding supple­
mentary sources of occupational in­
formation, and tells how readers can
keep up to date on developments
affecting the employment outlook in
different occupations. The second in­
troductory chapter describes some of
the most important occupational and
industrial employment trends, to
provide a background for inter­
preting the reports on individual oc­
Occupation and Industry Reports

The reports on different fields of
work that make up the main body of
the Handbook are grouped into two
major divisions: Employment Out­
look for Occupations and Employ­
ment Outlook for Industries. Within
the occupational division there are 13
career cluster groups—Industrial
Production and Related Occupa­
tions; Office Occupations; Service
Occupations; Education and Related
Occupations; Sales Occupations;
Construction Occupations; Occupa­
tions in Transportation Activities;
Scientific and Technical Occupa­
tions; Mechanics and Repairmen;
Health Occupations; Social Science
Occupations; Social Service Occu­

pations; and Art, Design, and Com­ alphabetical index is also provided at
munications occupations. These the back of the book. The occupa­
career clusters help relate the out­ tions covered in the Occupational
look materials to school curriculum Outlook Handbook also are coded
and occupational training programs, according to the occupational
career ladders and lattices, and classification system developed by
fields of interest for young persons the U.S. Department of Labor and
engaged in career exploration and published in the Dictionary o f Oc­
planning. The clusters are based cupational Titles. This Dictionary
on a concept of related activities. provides a code number (D.O.T.
Physicians, for example, are in­ number) for each occupation includ­
cluded in the same section of the ed in it; the code number can be used
Handbook as hospital attendants as a filing system for occupational
and all other health employees. information. The code numbers of
Within each .of these career clusters, the D.O.T. are listed in parentheses
occupations are further grouped into immediately below the main occupa­
related sub-fields. Within the office- tional group headings in the Hand­
occupations cluster, the reader can book. An index listing occupations
find groups for clerical occupations, covered in the Handbook by D.O.T.
computer and related occupations, number is also provided at the back
banking occupations, insurance oc­ of the book. Volumes I and II of the
cupations, and administrative and re­ D.O.T. may be sought for further in­
lated occupations. The industry formation; they also contain job
reports are grouped according to classifications and definitions. A
major industry divisions in the econ­ D.O.T. supplement lists individual
omy—agriculture; mining; con­ physical demands, working condi­
struction; manufacturing; trans­ tions, and training-time data for each
portation; communications and job defined in the Dictionary.
public utilities; wholesale and retail
The technical appendix of this
trade; finance, insurance, and real es­ Handbook discusses the sources and
tate; service and miscellaneous; and methods used to analyze the occu­
Government. An introductory state­ pational outlook in different fields of
ment for each major industry divi­ work. It is designed for readers wish­
sion provides information on occupa­ ing more information on this subject
tional trends in the industry.
than is included in this chapter.
Indexes and Appendix

Sources of Information

To help the readers locate infor­
mation on the occupations in which
they are interested, a detailed list of
the occupational reports, by field of
work, is provided in the table of con­
tents at the front of the book. An

Information, both on employ­
ment trends and outlook and on the
many related topics discussed in the
occupational reports, was drawn
from a great variety of sources.
Interviews with hundreds of experts



in industry, unions, trade associ­ training are discussed, as are a num­
Points to Bear in Mind
ations, and public agencies provided ber of small but rapidly growing
in Using the Handbook
a great deal of up-to-date informa­ fields and other occupations of spe­
The information contained in the
tion. The Bureau’s other research cial interest. In total, the occupa­
programs were a second source: they tions covered account for about 97 individual sections of each occu­
supplied data on employment in dif­ percent of all workers in sales oc­ pational statement follows a stand­
ferent industries, productivity and cupations; about 95 percent of all ard format under the headings:
technological developments, wages workers in professional and related nature of work; places of employ­
and working conditions, trade union occupations; about two-thirds of all ment; training, other qualiFications
agreements, industrial hazards, and workers in skilled, clerical, and serv­ and advancement; employment out­
a number of other topics. Addi­ ice occupations, and two-Fifths of look; earnings and working con­
tional data regarding the nature of those in operative occupations. ditions, and sources of additional in­
the work in various occupations, Smaller proportions of managerial formation. In using the Handbook it
training and licensing requirements, workers and laborers are discussed. is important to keep in mind the pur­
wages, and employment trends were The main types of farming occupa­ poses for which the information was
designed. Also, because of imperfect
provided by other agencies of the tions also are discussed.
After the information from these data sources, the limited length of
Federal Government—among them,
the Bureau of Apprenticeship and many sources was compiled and ana­ each occupational statement, and
Training and the U.S. Employment lyzed in conjunction with the many other factors, each of the sec­
Service, Manpower Administration, Bureau’s overall economic model, tions has its own unique limitations.
Department of Labor; the Bureau of conclusions were reached as to The following describes the informa­
the Census, Department of Com­ prospective employment trends in tion in each of the sections, includ­
merce; the Office of Education and the various occupations. (See the ing its purpose and its limitations.
The N ature o f the W ork section of
the Vocational Rehabilitation Ad­ Technical Appendix for a discussion
ministration, Department of Health, of the methodology used in employ­ each Handbook statement describes
Education, and Welfare; the Vet­ ment outlook analysis.) In addition, the major job duties performed by a
erans Administration; the Civil Ser­ estimates were made of the numbers worker in the occupation. It is in­
vice Commission; the Interstate of job openings that will be created tended to show young people what
Commerce Commission; the Civil by retirements and deaths and trans­ the worker does and how he does it.
Aeronautics Board; the Federal fers out of each occupation. The sup­
Each job description is typical.
Communications Commission; the ply of new workers likely to be avail­ However, job duties may vary by fac­
Department of Transportation; and able in a particular Field also was tors such as employer and size of the
the National Science Foundation. analyzed, by studying statistics on employing organization, geographic
Many other public and private or­ high school and college enrollments location of the job, and other vari­
ganizations—educational institutions, and graduations, as well as data on ables.
business Firms, professional societies, the numbers of apprentices in skilled
In some occupations, individual
trade associations, and trade unions— trades, re-entries into an occu­ workers specialize in certain tasks.
also made available published data and pation, and transfers into an occupa­ In others they perform the entire
range of work in the occupation.
supplied much helpful information tion.
Preliminary drafts of the occu­ This can be illustrated by the Field of
through interviews.
pational reports were reviewed by medicine, where doctors usually
officials of leading companies, trade specialize because of the amount of
associations, trade unions, and pro­ skill and knowledge required to func­
fessional societies, and by other ex­ tion in each area.
Occupations Covered
perts. The information and conclu­
Occupational skill requirements
sions presented in each report thus continually change along with
The more than 850 occupations reflect the knowledge and judgment changes in technology, industrial
discussed in the 325 separate sec­ not only of the Bureau of Labor Sta­ processes, and products. Analysts
tions of the Handbook generally are tistics staff, but also of leaders in the who prepare the Handbook attempt
those of greatest interest to young field discussed, although the Bureau, to include information on the latest
people. Most major occupations re­ of course, takes full responsibility for changes but because of the rapidity
quiring long periods of education or all statements made.
of technological improvement and



innovation in some fields of work all
developments are not covered in the
The nature of the work section of
each occupational statement is most
valuable when used with other infor­
mation in the statement. The
descriptions of the nature of the
work may lead one to other informa­
tion that is important to job satis­
faction. For example, the descrip­
tions of some construction jobs indi­
cate that the work is done outdoors.
Information on other jobs indicates
that the worker sits indoors at a desk
most of the time. Many of these job
characteristics are described further
in the sections on working con­
The Places o f E m ploym en t sec­
tion provides information on the
number of workers in an occupation
and, when data are available, on the
proportions of women and part-time
workers. Industries that are major
employers are discussed and the geo­
graphic concentration of employ­
ment is noted. When employment in
a specific industry or area of the
country does not significantly vary
from the overall employment distri­
bution, such information generally is
not presented in the statement.
The places of employment sec­
tion is designed to provide readers
with information on the quantitative
importance of the occupation in the
economy, as well as to alert readers
to potential incompatibilities be­
tween their career preferences and
the occupation. For example, the
data in the places of employment
section can indicate that because of
the geographic distribution of
employment it may be difficult to
live near family and friends or in a
particular climate and at the same
time have good employment pros­
pects. However, data in the Hand­
book indicate that employment in
most occupations is widespread
enough that career choices usually

need not be changed because of geo­
graphical considerations.
This section also highlights other
factors affecting occupational choice
that are generally explained in more
detail in other sections of the state­
ment. For example, when the
employment size of two occupations
is significantly different, the larger
occupation usually will have more
job openings each year because of the
large number of workers who die or
retire each year. The need to fill job
openings that result from persons
leaving the labor force accounts for
more than half of all openings. In
addition, occupations employing a
high proportion of women generally
have relatively higher numbers of an­
nual job openings than occupations
employing predominantly men be­
cause many women leave the work­
force to have children and raise
The greater the diversity in the
places of employment in an occu­
pation, the more likely it is that less
comprehensive data will be pre­
sented in other sections of the oc­
cupational statement. For example,
educational and training qualifica­
tions needed to enter an occupation
or to obtain professional licenses and
certificates often differ among
States, regions of the country, and
industries in which the occupation is

found. Specific job duties and work­
ing conditions often are slightly dif­
ferent in various industries and busi­
ness establishments. And, the extent
of trade union membership within an
occupation may also vary by indus­
try and area of the country.
The Training, Other Qualifica­
tions, and A dvancem ent section is de­

signed to inform the reader about the
type of training needed for entering
an occupation, and about the re­
quirements for advancement to
higher levels. It is important to be
aware of the type of training re­
quired because it is often necessary

early in high school to start planning
courses toward that goal.
Variety in Training. Workers can
qualify for jobs through a variety of
methods, including college training
leading to a bachelor’s or advanced
degree, junior or community college
training leading to a certificate or
associate degree, public and private
post-secondary vocational schools,
home study courses, government
training programs, Armed Forces,
apprenticeship and other formal
training offered on-the-job or in the
classroom by employers, and in high
schools. The Handbook identifies
which of these routes of entry can be
taken in each of the occupations.
The Handbook generally presents
the minimum level and type of
education required for the various
occupations and the preferred back­
ground for entry. In many cases,
alternative ways of attaining re­
quired training are also listed in the
individual OOH statements. Also
provided is information on high
school and post-high school courses
that are of particular help in pre­
paring for the occupations.
Although people with different
educational backgrounds may be
able to enter an occupation, the level
of entry and the speed of advance­
m ent are often determ ined by the
amount of training. For example, a
high school graduate with clerical
skills can enter the medical record
field as a clerk and receive about a
month of on-the-job training. A
graduate of a two-year medical
record technician course at a com­
munity college can begin his career
at the technician level as a super­
visor of several clerks. The graduate
of a four-year medical record librar­
ian course may enter the medical
record profession as the head of the
medical record department in a hos­
pital. The chance that the person
who starts as a clerk will, after years


of experience, be head of the depart­
ment is very small, and as more
trained people enter the labor force
the chance to advance without aca­
demic training to the highest posi­
tions in any occupation becomes
more remote.
In an effort to protect the public,
there are State certifications or
licensing requirements for some
occupations to assure that the work­
ers are qualified. The Handbook pro­
vides information to help young per­
sons become aware of any special
requirements that exist in a specific
occupation. Physicians and nurses
are examples of professionals who
must pass State board exams for
licensing. Elementary and second­
ary school teachers must success­
fully complete a specified list of
courses among their college sub­
jects, depending on the grade level
and subject matter they plan to
teach. Also, the courses required for
a teacher’s license differ from State
to State. A person who is preparing
for an occupation that requires State
licensing should, therefore, become
familiar with the information on
licensing for the occupation that is
presented in the Handbook and then
obtain specific information on the
requirements in the State or States in
which he or she plans to work. This
information will help in gearing
courses so the requirements can be
When one decides on an occu­
pation, the “continuing education”
that will be required in order to reach
the desired level in the occupation is
as important a consideration as the
initial education requirement. A per­
son who sees himself as a college
president and begins working as an
assistant to the registrar after com­
pleting his bachelor’s degree should
be prepared to spend several years in
graduate school. Once the require­
ments necessary to advance to the
desired level of the chosen occu­


pation are determined, the individ­
ual should decide whether he or she
has the natural talents and personal
qualities needed, and whether he or
she is willing to put in the time and
effort to meet those requirements. If
formal education is involved, will the
employer pay for it, and if not, can
the employee afford the cost? Also,
individuals must decide whether they
have the academic ability to com­
plete the education.
In addition to the education, train­
ing, and other requirements neces­
sary both to enter the occupation and
to reach the desired position, another
essential factor in career choice is the
correlation of specific personal char­
acteristics with the characteristics of
the job. To provide this information,
the Handbook presents typical job
characteristics for each occupation.
This allows individuals to match
their unique qualifications, “likes”,
and “dislikes” to the job. This is not
an easy task, since it is often diffi­
cult for young persons to assess
themselves. Tests which help individ­
uals assess their personal character­
istics can be very valuable.
The number of occupational char­
acteristics that can be related to
tangible personal characteristics are
numerous. Listed below are some of
the job characteristics described in
the Handbook and the relevant per­
sonal characteristics.
Responsible decisions required—
Individuals should be able to make
important decisions and to exercise
good judgment.
Motivates others— Individuals should
be able to influence the behavior
of others.
Directs the activity of others— In­
dividuals should have supervisory
Work is closely supervised— In­
dividuals must feel comfortable in a
situation where work performance is
controlled closely by a supervisor.
Highly competitive— Individuals

should be able to face the pressures
of competing with others on the job
for recognition and achievement.
Works with ideas— Individuals
should be able to think in abstract
term s to solve work re la te d
Works with people— Individuals
should have pleasant personalities
and the ability to get along with
others in face-to-face relationships.
Works with objects— Individuals
should have manual skills and some
physical coordination.
Works independently— Individ­
uals should have initiative, self-disci­
pline, and organizational ability.
Works as part of a team— In­
dividuals should have the ability to
interact with fellow employees in
performing duties.
Opportunity for self-expression—
Individuals should have creative
talents and the ability to utilize theii
own ideas in practical ways.
Opportunity to see physical re­
sults of work— Individuals should
derive satisfaction from seeing their
work produce a tangible product.
Works with detail— Individuals
should enjoy working with technical
data, numbers, or written materials
on a continuing basis.
Generally is confined to a work
area— Individuals should feel com­
fortable performing their work at
one setting.
Work is repetitious— Individuals
should be comfortable performing
the same task on a continuing basis.
Exposed to weather conditions—
Individuals should enjoy working
outside, and should not be adverse to
exposure to weather and temper­
ature extremes.
Helps people— Individuals should
enjoy assisting people in a helping
The E m ploym en t O utlook section
informs students and counselors of
prospective job opportunities and is,
therefore, one of the major aids that


young people can use to evaluate the
career potential of the occupations
they find interesting. However, the
prospect of relatively few job open­
ings should not prevent someone
from pursuing a particular career. A
student who knows his own interests
and has discussed his abilities and
aptitudes with his counselor should
not forego a potentially rewarding
career only because the prospective
outlook in that occupation is less
favorable than in other occupations.
Even in occupations with relatively
poor prospects, jobs are available be­
cause of the need to replace workers
who leave the occupation; on the
average, job openings resulting from
replacement of workers who leave
the occupation account for more
than half of all openings.
Outlook information can be very
useful to someone who has great in­
terest in a cluster of occupations re­
quiring similar interests, abilities,
and educational backgrounds. A stu­
dent who has become interested in
sales occupations, for example, can
compare the job prospects for real
estate, insurance, automobile, and
manufacturer’s salesmen and select
the one or two offering the best op­
Information about the future out­
look in an occupation is very diffi­
cult to develop. No one can predict
future labor market conditions with
perfect accuracy. In every occupa­
tion and industry, the ratio between
the number of job seekers and the
number of job openings constantly
changes. A rise or fall in the demand
for a product or service affects the
number of workers needed to pro­
duce it. New inventions and techno­
logical innovations create some jobs
and eliminate others. Changes in the
size or age distribution of the popula­
tion, work attitudes, training oppor­
tunities, or retirement programs
determine the number of workers
available. As these forces interact in
the labor market, some occupations

Figure I

Very rapid
Little or no change

40.0 percent or more
30.0 percent to 39.9
15.0 percent to 29.9
5.0 percent to 14.9
0 percent to 4.9

experience a shortage, some a sur­
plus, some a balance between appli­
cants and openings. Methods used by
economists to develop information
on future occupational prospects
differ, and judgments which go into
any assessment of the future also
differ. Therefore, it is important for
users of the Handbook to under­
stand what underlies each statement
on outlook.
The keys to understanding the out­
look statements are the economic
assumptions used in developing pro­
jections of future needs. One of the
assumptions that underlie the state­
ments on employment outlook in this
Handbook is that high employment
levels will be maintained and that no
cataclysmic events will occur, such as
a war or a severe and prolonged eco­
nomic depression. Such catas­
trophes would, of course, create an
entirely different employment situ­
ation from that likely to develop un­
der the assumed conditions. But
young people would find it impos­
sible to build their lifetime plans in
expectation of such unpredictable
catastrophes, although, on the basis
of historical experience, they must be
prepared to weather economic ups
and downs during their working
lives. The basic economic assump­
tions are discussed in detail in the in­
troductory section of the Handbook
titled Tomorrow’s Jobs, and the
Technical Appendix of the Hand­

40.0 percent or more
—30.0 percent to —39.9
—15.0 percent to —29.9
— 5.0 percent to —14.9
— 0 percent to — 4.9

In making employment projec­
tions, all possible factors should be
taken into account. Nevertheless, not
all factors can be quantified or them­
selves projected. For this reason, out­
look information in the Handbook is
generally presented as a qualitative
statement about growth in an oc­
cupation. Opportunities will usually
be favorable if employment in oc­
cupations increases over time along
with the growth of the economy;
those occupations that are expected
to remain constant or decline gener­
ally have less favorable prospects
than does the average occupation.
The adjectives used to describe
changes in employment require­
ments correspond to the ranges of
percent change, as shown in figure I.
For some occupations, it also is
possible to make estimates of the
future supply of workers. These are
usually in professional occupations
where the paths of entry are rather
limited, and which therefore allow a
statistical assessment based on
trends in the number of young people
pursuing specific types of education
or training and entering the occupa­
tion related to the training. When
supply estimates as well as demand
estimates have been made, the Hand­
book chapters contain a qualitative
statement of job opportunities corre­
sponding to the demand-supply rela­
tionship. (See figure II.)

Figure II

Job opportunities
Very good
Good or favorable
May face competition
Keen competition

Prospective demand-supply relationship
Demand much greater than supply
Demand greater than supply
Rough balance between demand and supply
Likelihood of more supply than demand
Supply greater than demand


clerical workers are salary earners.
Salary workers usually know how
large their pay checks will be each
week or month, which makes budget­
ing easier. Wage workers’ earnings
may be different each week, depend­
ing on how many hours they work.
Both wage and salary workers re­
ceive overtime pay, but this is more
common for wage workers. Over­
time rates and the standard work­
week (the number of hours worked
before overtime is paid) vary from
job to job. Many employees are cov­
ered by the Fair Labor Standards
Act, which requires overtime pay at
1- 1/2 times the hourly rate for more
than 40 hours’ work a week. For
many workers overtime pay is a rela­
tively large part of their total ear­
Workers assigned to night shifts or
other irregular hours often receive
extra pay per hour, called a shift
Earnings take a variety of forms
besides the familiar rate plus over­
time. Waiters and waitresses get
What are Earnings? To most people, most of their earnings in tips from
the word “ e a rn in g s ” m eans customers. Salesmen may receive a
money—a paycheck in the mailbox com m ission—a percent of the
or cash in the pocket. Money, how­ am ount of their sales. Factory w ork­
ever, is only one kind of financial re­ ers are sometimes paid a piece rate, a
ward for work. Paid vacations, clean certain payment for each item they
uniforms, and free lunches are also produce. Tips, commissions, piece
part of the total earnings package. rates, and other kinds of pay are
There are three basic kinds of earn­ often combined with flat rate wages
ings—cash, fringe benefits, and pay­ and salaries.
Almost 10 percent of all workers
ment in kind.
in 1972 were in business for them­
Cash. In 1972 more than 90 percent selves and earned self-employment
of all American workers received income instead of wages or salaries.
cash for their work in the form of a Self-employment income takes an
wage or salary. A wage or salary is almost endless variety of forms.
usually a “ flat rate” —a certain Farmers, shopkeepers, and other
amount of money for a specific small businessmen receive money
period of time at work. A wage is selling their products. Doctors and
usually an hourly or daily rate, and a lawyers collect fees from their
salary is a weekly, monthly, or yearly clients. Writers sell short stories to
rate. Most craftsmen, factory work­ magazines or receive royalties from
ers, and laborers are wage earners, publishing their books.
Some occupations offer the chance
and most professional, technical, and

The information in the Handbook
discusses the outlook for the Nation
as a whole. Job prospects in local
areas, however, which are of great in­
terest to many young people, may
not correspond to those described in
the Handbook. The Handbook can­
not discuss the outlook in each local­
ity because the analysis is too much
for any centralized staff of research­
ers to handle. In using the national
statements, therefore, young people
should discuss with counselors the
prospects in the particular areas in
which they would like to live. Infor­
mation is often available on the local
outlook from local offices of State
employment security agencies.
The Earnings section helps answer
many questions young people ask
when choosing a career. Will the in­
come be high enough to maintain the
desired standard of living? Is the pay
high enough to justify the training
costs? How much will a worker’s
earnings increase as he gains experi­
ence? In what localities are the best­
paying jobs in the occupation?


to earn income in addition to regu­
lar wages and salaries. Seamstresses
often take in sewing after shop hours,
and college professors are paid for
publishing independent research.
Fringe Benefits. In addition to cash,
most American workers receive a
variety of indirect payments, or
fringe benefits, ranging from paid
holidays to life insurance. The im­
portance of fringe benefits has in­
creased tremendously since World
War II, and by 1970 accounted for
nearly one-fifth of the total earnings
package in private industries other
than farming.
Several fringe benefits received by
a majority of workers are required
by Federal and State law. They in­
clude Social Security, Workmen’s
Compensation, and unemployment
insurance. These benefits provide
payments to workers who are not
employed because of old age, workrelated injury or disability, or lack of
suitable jobs.
Among the most common fringe
benefits are paid time off for vaca­
tions, holidays, and sick leave. Some
workers also receive time off, usu­
ally without pay, for jury duty, mili­
tary service, and maternity leave.
Some fringe benefits help protect
the worker’s income if he is injured,
sick, unemployed, or retired. These
include life, health, and accident in­
surance, retirement plans, supple­
mental unemployment benefits, and
severance pay. The costs of insur­
ance and retirement are often shared
by the worker and employer.
Some employers also offer stock
options and profit-sharing plans, sav­
ing plans, and bonuses.
Payments in kind. In addition to
cash and fringe benefits, some work­
ers receive part of their earnings as
goods or services, also called “kind” .
For example, hired farm hands and
private household workers often re­
ceive room and board. Other earn-



ings in kind include laundered uni­
forms, meals, company housing,
business expense accounts, and free
airline tickets. These items should be
considered earnings because they are
worth money and come with the job.
Which Jobs Pay the Mostl Compar­
ing the earnings in different occupa­
tions is not easy, mainly because
good information is available only
for one category of earnings—wages
and salaries. For some occupations
even this information is not avail­
able. Nevertheless, the Handbook
provides some types of comparisons
in many occupational statements.
Generally, these are comparisons
among the average earnings of all
nonsupervisory wage and salary
workers in private industry, except
farming, which is the broadest aver­
age type of earnings data available in
current statistics. Other compar­
isons are made between similar occu­
pations. For example, a comparison
of hourly earnings of different con­
struction craftsmen such as brick­
layers, carpenters, and plumbers.

for draftsmen in 1970. for example,
was $167 a week, but the beginner
usually starts out as a tracer at $103.
As he gains experience he will ad­
vance to be a junior draftsman at
$126, senior draftsman at $158, and
after many years a lead draftsman at
$190. At each higher step in the lad­
der the draftsman is expected to do
more complicated work with less
supervision. If the opportunity com­
es along he might move to a higher
paying position as a supervisor or

Location. In most occupations a
worker’s earnings will vary with the
location of his job. The average
weekly earnings of lead draftsmen,
for example, vary considerably from
city to city. (See table 1.) The high­
est earnings, of the 10 cities listed,
occurred in Detroit, where many
draftsmen are concentrated in the
automobile industry. The lowest
earnings shown are in smaller cities
in the South and West.
The variations in the earnings of
draftsmen, however, do not tell much
about such variations in other oc­
cupations. Although there are some
Earning Variations. Within each general national patterns of earn­
occupation there are many levels of ings differentials, each occupation
pay. Earnings vary with the work­ has its own geographical pattern, and
er’s experience, location, industry, each occupation must be studied for
and type of work, and in the Hand­ its own. Young people using the
book this information is, when possi­
ble, provided.
Table t. Average Weekly Earnings of Lead

Handbook also should check with
counselors and local employers to
Find out about specific earnings in
local areas.
Industry and Type o f Work. Work­
ers in most occupations can Find jobs
in different industries, sometimes do­
ing different types of work. Because
the job market is not exactly -the
same in each situation, the worker
can expect his pay to vary according
to whom he works for and what he
does on the job.
The earnings of senior accounting
clerks, for example, vary consid­
erably by industry. As shown in
Table 2, accounting clerks averaged
$141.50 a week in public utilities and
$144.50 in manufacturing, but only
$122.00 in retail trade and $123.50 in
finance, insurance, and real estate.
Those working in service industries
and in wholesale trade earned
$132.00 and $136.50 a week, respec­
The salaries of Ph.D. chemists
show how earnings may vary by type
of work. (See table 3.) In 1972,
chemists in management jobs earned
$6,700 more than those in research
and development. Chemists in
marketing and production earned
$400 less than research-and-development chemists, but $4,300 more than
Draftsmen, 1970-71, by Selected City

and Region

Experience. Beginning workers near­
ly always earn less than experienced
workers. In most occupations, work­
ers move up a “ladder” to higher pay
and generally do more responsible
work as they gain experience. Some
ladders, especially those in unskilled
jobs, have only one or two steps. In
other occupations, the ladders have
many steps, and many even offer a
choice of several different kinds of
work with different levels of pay.
The beginning draftsman faces a
typical ladder. The average salary

Detroit, Michigan .....................................
Dayton, O h io ..............................................
Chicago, Illinois..........................................
Houston, Texas ..........................................
Seattle, Washington .................................
Columbus, O h io ..........................................
Salt Lake City, U t a h .................................
Scranton, Pennsylvania............................
Raleigh, North C arolina..........................
Little Rock, A rkansas......................

A verage weekly earnings
............... $295.00
............... 226.00
............... 215.50
............... 206.00
............... 193.00
............... 189.50
............... 175.00
............... 173.00
............... 172.50
............... 162.50


North Central ....................................................
N o rth ea st.............................................................................................................................
West .....................
South ...................................................................................................................................
United S ta te s ......................................................................................................................
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Table 2. Average weekly earnings of senior accounting clerks, by industry, 1971
Weekly earnings
Public utilities .......................................................... ............................................................... $144.50
M anufacturing........................................................................................................................... 141.50
Wholesale tr a d e ......................................................................................................................... 136.50
Services........................................................................................................................................ 132.00
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ................................
Retail trade ............................................................................................................................... 122.00
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Table 3. Average annual salaries of chemists, with Ph.D. degrees, by type of work,


depends on adjusting to working con­
ditions other than what he planned.
For example, a young person may
enter a particular occupation be­
cause outdoor work is appealing, and
be disappointed to learn that the next
levels of the career ladder are desk
Sources o f A ddition al Inform ation.

People using the Handbook may
want more detail on the occupations
Type o f work
A nnual salaries
Management .............................................................................................................................. $26,300
discussed in the individual reports, or
Research and Development ................................................................................................... 19,600
information on fields of work that
Marketing and P roduction..................................................................................................... 19,200
T each in g...................................................................................................................................... 14,900'
are not covered in this publication.
O ther............................................................................................................................................ 18,300
Suggestions as to sources of addi­
1Salary for 9-month academic year.
tional information are given in most
SOURCE: American Chemical Society.
of the occupational reports. Several
publications of the Bureau of Labor
The W orking Conditions section most other people are off. Shift work
Statistics also provide further infor­
provides information that can be may be preferred by some individ­
mation on topics such as earnings,
most important to an individual’s job uals who want to pursue certain day­
hours of work, and working con­
satisfaction because preferences for time hobbies such as hunting, fish­
working conditions vary consid­ ing, gardening, etc.
Environment— Work settings Bureau o f Labor Statistics Publica­
erably among individuals. Some peo­
ple, for example, have a preference vary from clean air-conditioned of­ tions. In addition to this Handbook
for outdoor work while others prefer fices to places that are dirty, greasy, the Bureau of Labor Statistics issues
working in an office. Some people or poorly ventilated. With this a periodical, the Occupational Out­
like the variety of shift work, and knowledge, workers can avoid jobs look Quarterly, to keep readers up to
others want the steadiness of a 9-to- that may submit them to unpleasant date between editions of the Hand­
5-job. Proper consideration of work­ conditions.
book:, on developments affecting
Outdoor work— Those who work employment opportunities and on
ing conditions can contribute greatly
outdoors may be exposed to weather the findings of new occupational out­
to job satisfaction and success.
The Handbook discusses many extremes. It may be preferred over look research. In addition the
aspects of working conditions that indoor work, however, by those who Bureau issues, at irregular intervals,
occupational outlook bulletins that
are of concern to individuals who are consider outdoor work healthier.
H azardous— In some jobs, give much more detailed informa­
looking into their prospective
careers. The following are several employees are subject to possible tion on various Fields of work than
types of working conditions, with burns, cuts, falls, etc., and must at­ can be included in either the Hand­
book or the Quarterly.
their implications, that are dis­ tend to proper safety precautions.
The Bureau has also developed a
Physical demands— Some jobs re­
cussed in the occupational state­
quire standing, stooping, kneeling, or visual aid for counselors entitled
ments when they apply.
Overtime work required— When working in cramped positions. Physi­ Jobs for the 70’ It consists of a set
overtime is required, employees must cal strength and stamina may be re­ of 40 color slides that show the
give up some of their free time and quired, and those without such attri­ changing occupational and indus­
should therefore be flexible in their butes should be careful in selecting trial mix, and trends in manpower
personal lives. Overtime, however, such jobs.
development, education, and train­
provides the opportunity to increase
Young people planning their ing. The slides, which have an ac­
earning power.
careers should also consider how companying narrative, are available
Shift Work— Evening or night working conditions may change in an directly from Bureau of Labor
work is part of the regular work occupation as they progress up the Statistics Regional Offices.
schedule in some jobs. Employees career ladder. For example, an
The Bureau will be glad to place
are, therefore, usually working while employee may find that promotion the name of any user of this Hand­


book on its mailing list to receive an­ tions and in major industries and
nouncements of new publications labor market areas. Weekly working
and releases summarizing the re­ hours for some groups of workers
sults of new studies. Anyone wishing and customary practices regarding
to receive such materials should send pensions, vacations, holidays, and
the request, with his address to the sick leave are also reported. A list
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. of surveys is included in the Directory
Department of Labor, Washington, o f Area Wage Surveys, which may
be obtained free from the Bureau of
D.C. 20212.
Other Bureau of Labor Statistics Labor Statistics.
publications that are useful to coun­
selors can be purchased from the Union Wage Scales. Annual bulle­
Government Printing Office in tins and releases on minimum wage
Washington, D.C., or from Bureau scales and maximum hours of work
of Labor Statistics Regional Offices. at straight-time rates for cities of
A list of these publications, along 100,000 or more population—69
with descriptions of their contents cities in the printing industry, 68
cities in the construction and local
trucking industries, and 67 cities
Employment and Earnings. Monthly in the local transit industry. Quar­
reports featuring timely analysis terly releases on surveys in seven
of current developments in employ­ major building trades, in 100 cities,
ment, unemployment, hours, and cover averages and increases in wage
earnings for the Nation. Contains scale by trade, and wage trends for
statistics on employment, earnings, the industry as a whole.
hours of work, and labor turnover
by industry for the Nation and by Monthly Labor Review. The Bureau
industry division for each State and of Labor Statistics issues the Monthly
for 202 metropolitan areas. Also, Labor Review which contains ar­
contains detailed statistics on the ticles that can help counselors keep
labor force, including characteristics abreast of the changing social, eco­
of the employed and unemployed, nomic, and demographic scene. In
such as age, marital status, color, addition to providing a statistical
industry, and occupational attachment. section on labor force and employ­
ment, labor turnover, earnings and
S p ecia l L a b o r F orce R e p o rts. Re­ hours, consum er and wholesale
ports based on special surveys of prices, and work stoppages, the
the labor force are issued several Monthly Labor Review publishes
times a year. They include statistics special articles by experts on sub­
and analysis of selected character­ jects such as the impact of technolog­
istics of the labor force, such as edu­ ical change on employment, occupa­
cational attainment, employment of tional counseling, and manpower
school dropouts and recent high planning.
school graduates, work experience
The procedure for ordering these
during the year, and marital and reports can be found in the back
family status. Published in the of the Handbook.
Monthly Labor Review, which may Sources o f A ddition al Assistance.
be available in your school library. The U.S. Office of Education pub­
lishes the Directory o f Post Second­
Area Wage Surveys. These reports ary Schools With Occupational
include figures on average earnings Programs, 1971, Public and Private.
and employment in selected occupa­ This volume contains a program


index and lists schools that offer
specific occupational training and
is a valuable tool for counselors,
teachers and students. Other sources
likely to be helpful in providing in­
formation and assistance are public
libraries; schools; State employ­
ment services; private personnel
agencies; business establishments;
and trade unions, employers asso­
ciations, and professional societies.
A brief description of each follows.
Public Libraries. These libraries
usually have many books, pam­
phlets, and magazine articles giving
information about different occu­
pations. They also may have several
books and current indexes that list
the great numbers of publications
on occupations, and the librarians
may be of assistance in finding the
best ones on a particular field of
Schools. School libraries and guid­
ance offices also often have exten­
sive reading materials on occupa­
tions.In addition, school counselors
and teachers usually know of any
local occupational information that
has been assembled through special
surveys made by schools or other
community agencies. Teachers of
special subjects such as music, print­
ing, and shorthand can often give
information about occupations re­
lated to the subjects they teach.
Business Establishments. Employers
and personnel officers usually can
supply information about the nature
of the work performed by employees
in their own industries or busi­
nesses, and about the qualifications
needed for various jobs, as well as
other facts about employment con­
ditions and opportunities. The names
of local firms in a particular industry
can be found in the classified sec­
tions of telephone directories or can
be obtained from local chambers
of commerce.


Trade Unions, Employers’ Asso­ are paid. Job Information Service
ciations, and Professional Societies. (JIS) units in many local offices per­
Frequently, these organizations have mit job seekers to select their own
local branches; their officials can jobs from a computerized listing of
supply information relating to the job opportunities in the area. These
occupations with which they are job listings are updated daily and
provide comprehensive information
supplied by employers on specific job
State Employment Services. Coun­ openings in the area. In addition, the
selors in local public employment JIS includes a library of general in­
offices are in a particularly good formation on occupational trends,
position to supply information about industrial developments, and Statejob opportunities, hiring standards, Federal government job oppor­
and wages in their localities. The tunities, as well as association and
services available through the public union promotional materials. The
employment offices are described staff conduct manpower surveys to
in the following section of this chap­ determine the area’s available skills,
training needs, and future occupa­
tional opportunities. Through the
Services to jobseekers at public employment service network of of­
employment offices. Local offices of fices, information is also available on
State Employment Services special­ job opportunities in other areas of
ize in finding jobs for workers and the country.
workers for jobs. State Employment
Services are affiliated with the U.S. E m ploym en t Counseling. Employ­
Employment Service of the U.S. ment counseling assists young people
Department of Labor’s Manpower who are starting their careers, as well
Administration and constitute a as experienced workers who wish or
Federal-State partnership. Employ­ need to change their occupation. The
ment and related services are avail­ major purposes of employment
able without charge in every State. counseling are to help people under­
At each of the over 2,400 public stand their actual and potential abil­
Employment Service offices across ities, interests, and personal traits; to
the Nation, jobseekers are aided in know the nature of occupations; and
obtaining employment, and employ­ to make the best use of their capaci­
ers are assisted in finding qualified ties and preferences in the light of
available job opportunities.
The employment counselor is spe­
Four basic services are provided to
workers by the public Employment cially trained and has access to a
Service: (1) Job information; (2) large store of occupational informa­
employment counseling; (3) referral tion.
to job training; and (4) job place­
Testing. Most local offices have test­
ing services available which the coun­
Job Inform ation. The personnel who selor may use to assist him in ap­
staff the public Employment Service praising an individual’s aptitudes, in­
offices are familiar with their areas terests, and clerical and literacy
and thus know what kinds of work­ skills.
USES aptitude tests are particu­
ers are employed in local industry,
what jobs are available, what hiring larly helpful in relating an appli­
requirements and opportunities for cant’s potential abilities to the apti­
advancement are, and the wages that tude requirements of 62 broad oc­


cupational groupings and hundreds
of specific occupations. A Spanish
Language and a nonreading edition
for individuals with very limited
education have also been developed.
R eferral to Training. Many individ­

uals seek work for which they lack
some qualifications. Sometimes the
job requires basic education or a spe­
cific skill. Besides referring a job­
seeker to a job, the public Employ­
ment Service may suggest training
for an applicant so that he can qual­
ify for or secure a better job.
Jobs and job requirements change.
In today’s fast-paced world, impor­
tant considerations when selecting a
vocation are the training required to
perform the work, and ways that
training need can be met.
Job Placem ent. A primary objective

of the public Employment Service is
to place workers in jobs. Regular
contact is maintained with local
employers to learn about their job
openings. Requests are received from
employers for many different kinds
of workers. As a result, registered
applicants have access to a variety of
job vacancies with many employers,
just as the employer has access to
many applicants. This dual function
eliminates “hit-or-miss” job hunting.
S p e c ia l S e r v ic e s


V etera n s.

Veterans are legally entitled to prior­
ity in all services, with preferential
treatment for disabled veterans over
other veterans. In addition, the Viet­
nam Era Veterans Readjustment
Assistance Act requires that some
specific form of assistance designed
to enhance employment prospects be
given to each veteran who applies to
the Employment Service. Each local
office has a veterans’ employment
representative who is assigned the
responsibility to see that these prior­
ity services are provided by all local
office staff.



Employment Service maintains a
year-round program of services to
youth, including counseling, job
development, placement, training,
and referral to other agencies. Spe­
cial efforts include: (1) In the Sum­
mer Employment Program, the
Employment Service enlists the
cooperation of private and public
sectors to help develop as many
employment opportunities as pos­
sible for disadvantaged youth, to
provide valuable summer experience
and enable them to return to school
in the fall; (2) The ES-School
Cooperative Program provides
placement-related services to gradu­
ating seniors, school dropouts, and
potential dropouts who desire to
enter the labor market.
Special Services fo r Youth.

provided employment services to
help overcome barriers, and this may
include referral for supportive serv­
ices such as child care or health ex­
aminations to agencies which pro­
vide such services, or referral to
training which will help develop the
job seeker’s employability.
Individuals with mental or physi­
cal disabilities which constitute voca­
tional handicaps are given special
consideration by the Employment
Service. Middle-age and older work­
ers are assisted in making realistic
job choices and overcoming prob­
lems related to getting and holding
jobs. Employers are encouraged to
hire individuals on their ability to
perform the work. Similar attention
is given to the employment prob­
lems of minority group members and
all others facing special difficulties in
obtaining suitable employment.

Other Special Services. Disadvan­
taged job seekers who have special C om m unity M anpower Service. Job­
problems obtaining employment are seekers, employers, schools, civic

groups, and public and private agen­
cies concerned with manpower prob­
lems are invited to utilize the service
of the public Employment Service
office in their community, and to
avail themselves of the job informa­
tion in that office. Local offices are
listed in the phone book as agencies
of the State government.
P rivate Personnel Agencies. Private

personnel agencies can provide a
great deal of information and assist­
ance to job seekers. These agencies
employ counselors to assist clients
with career planning and placement.
Because they are located in cities
and towns throughout the country,
private personnel agencies are often
an excellent source of information
about occupational opportunities in
local areas. The private personnel
agencies can be found in local tele­
phone directories and generally
charge a fee for their services.


Young people in an ever growing
and changing society are faced with
the difficult task of choosing sound
career plans from among the thou­
sands of alternatives. As the econ­
omy continues to expand, creating
more and different kinds of jobs, this
planning process becomes more dif­
ficult. Making career plans calls for
an evaluation of an individual’s inter­
ests and abilities, as well as for spe­
cific information on occupations.
This Handbook provides students,
counselors, teachers, and parents
with occupational information.
Several questions are of major im­
portance to young persons as they
view the variety of occupational
choices open to them. Among these
questions are: What fields look espe­
cially promising for employment op­
portunities? What competition can
be expected from other workers?
What type and how much training
and education are reqmred in order
to enter particular jobs? How do
earnings in certain occupations com­
pare with earnings in other occupa­
tions requiring similar training?
What types of employers provide
which kinds of jobs? What are the
typical working conditions asso­
ciated with particular occupations?
Of importance in evaluating infor­
mation that answers these and
related questions is knowledge of the
dynamic changes that are continual­
ly occurring in our economy—the
trends in the Nation’s work force and
in its business, industrial, and oc­
cupational development. New ways
of making goods, new products, and
changes in living standards are con­
stantly changing the types of jobs

that become available. To throw
light on the changing characteristics
of occupations and to provide back­
ground for understanding the out­
look in specific occupations, this
chapter focuses on overall patterns of
change in the country’s industrial
and occupational composition. It
also discusses the implications of
these changes for education and
training in relation to occupational
No one can forecast the future.
Nevertheless, by using the wealth of
information available, extensive
economic and statistical analyses,
and the best judgment of informed
experts, the work future can be
described in broad terms. Of course,
some aspects of the future can be
predicted more accurately than
others. For example, the number of
18-year-olds in 1985 can be esti­
mated with a very high degree of ac­
curacy because individuals 5 years
old in 1972 are accounted for in our
vital statistics, and the death rate of
children between 5 and 18 is ex­
tremely low and stays about the
same from year to year. On the other
hand, forecasting employment re­
quirements for automobile assemb­
lers in 1985 is extremely difficult.
Employment of these workers can be
affected by the changing demand for
American-made automobiles, shifts
in buyers’ preference (toward the
compact car, for example), changes
in the ways cars are made (more
automation or the use of new types
of engines), and unpredictable eco­
nomic developments outside of the
automobile industry.
To project the demand for all

workers in the economy, specific as­
sumptions have to be made about
general economic movements and
broad national policy. The picture of
the future employment outlook
reflected in the Handbook is based
on the following fundamental
1. Maintenance of high levels of
employment and of utilization of
available manpower in 1985;
2. that no major event such as
long-duration or widespread energy
shortages will alter substantially the
rate of economic growth. (Although
energy shortages were being experi­
enced in the economy as this Handbook
went to press, no conclusive assess­
ments could be made at this time of
the magnitude or duration of the
shortages or their long-run effect on
employment either as a factor stimu­
lating or restricting employment op­
portunities in specific industries or
occupations. Future editions of the
Handbook will incorporate the sig­
nificant findings of special studies
and reports in this area.)
3. that economic, social, and edu­
cational trends will continue to
change according to patterns of the
recent past;
4. that scientific-technological ad­
vancement will continue at about the
same rate as in recent years;
5. that the United States will not
be at war, but that there will be no
substantial reduction in the defense
budget beyond that already in effect.
The Handbook’s assessment of the
1985 industrial and occupational
outlook assumes a projected total
labor force of 107.7 million in 1985,
all-volunteer Armed Forces of 2.0



million, and a resulting civilian labor
force of 105.7 million.
Knowledge of specific industries is
necessary because employers seek a
wide variety of skills; for example,
many different industries employ en­
gineers, salesmen, and secretaries.
Employment patterns have shifted
considerably over the years and are
expected to continue to do so. These
changes greatly affect employment
opportunities and occupational
Industrial employment and oc­
cupational requirements change as a
result of many factors. A new
machine or a newly automated pro­
cess may require different occupa­
tional skills or may even create an
entirely new occupation; a change in
product demand may affect the
number of workers needed; an in­
vention may all but eliminate an in­
dustry or create a new one.
Industrial Profile

To help understand the Nation’s
industrial composition, industries
may be viewed as either goodsproducing or service-producing.
They may further be grouped into
nine major divisions according to

Industries Providing Services O ffer M ore Jobs
Than Those Providing Goods____________________2
W ORKERS (in millions)1

G o o d s producing
M a n u fa c tu rin g
C o n tract construction
M in in g
A gricu ltu re




S e rv ice producing
T ra n sp o rta tio n a n d
public u tilitie s
Trad e
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e ,
a n d real estate
S erv ices
G o v e rn m e n t



1 Wage and salary workers, except agriculture, which include self-employed and unpaid family workers.

Bureau of Labor Statistics.

product or service. (See chart l.)
Most of the Nation’s workers are
in industries that produce services, in
activities such as education, health
care, trade, repair and maintenance,
and in government, transportation,
and banking and insurance service.
The production of goods—raising
food crops, building, extracting min­
erals, and ma nuf a c t ur i ng of
goods—has required less than half of
the country’s work force since the
late I940’s. (See chart 2.) In general,
job growth through the 1970’s is ex­

W here People W ork
EM PLOYMENT 1972 (in millions)



M anufacturing
Governm ent
Transportation and public utilities
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Contract construction
1 Wage and salary workers except agriculture which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

pected to continue to be faster in the
service-producing industries than in
the goods-producing industries.
However, among industry divisions
within both the goods-producing and
service-producing sectors, the growth
pattern will continue to vary. (See
chart 3.)
Service-producing industries. In
1972, about 49.7 million workers
were on the payrolls of serviceproduci ng i ndust ri es — t rade;
Government; services and miscel­
laneous; transportation and other
utilities; and finance, insurance, and
real estate—about 15.9 million
greater than the number employed in
I960. The major factors underlying
the rapid growth of the I960’s have
been (l) population growth; (2) in­
creasing urbanization with its ac­
companying need for more city ser­
vices; and (3) rising income and liv­
ing standards accompanying demand
for improved services, such as health,
education, and security. These fac­
tors are expected to continue to
result in rapid growth of service in­
dustries as a group, and they are ex­
pected to help employ (8.7 million
by 1985, an increase of about 38 per­
cent over the 1972 level.



fastest-growing industries through the
mid-1980’s. More than half again as
many workers are expected to be em­
ployed in this industry division in
1985 as in 1972. Manpower require­
ments in health services are ex­
pected to grow rapidly due to popu­
lation growth and the increasing
Finance, insurance,and real estale
ability of persons to pay for health
care. Business services, including ac­
counting, data processing, and main­
Contract construction
tenance, also are expected to grow
very rapidly.
Transportation and public utilities
Transportation and public utility
employment in 1972 at 4.5 million
was only slightly more than onetenth higher than in 1960. Different
parts of this industry, however, have
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
experienced different growth trends.
Trade, the largest division within Employment growth has been For example, air travel employment
the service-producing industries, has greatest in agencies providing educa­ increased rapidly but the railroad in­
expanded sharply since 1960. Whole­ tion, health, sanitation, welfare, and dustry declined.
sale and retail outlets have multi­ protective services. Federal Govern­
The number of jobs in transporta­
plied in large and small cities to ment employment increased about tion, and in public utilities as a
satisfy the need of an increasingly ur­ 21 percent between 1960 and 1972.
whole, is expected to continue to in­
ban society. Employment in trade
Government will continue to be a crease slowly to 1985, and widely
was about 15.7 million in 1972, major source of new jobs through the differing employment trends will
about 38 percent above the 1960 mid-1980’s. By the mid-1980’s em­ continue to be experienced among
ployment in Govern,ment may be as individual industries within the divi­
Employment in trade is expected much as 42 percent higher than in sion. Rapid increases in employ­
to grow by about 26 percent be­ 1972. Most of the growth will be in ment are expected in air transporta­
tween 1972 and 1985. Although an State and local governments, in tion, and a decline is expected to con­
ever-increasing volume of merchan­ which employment needs may rise by tinue in railroad employment, and
dise will be distributed as a result of 1985 to 16.0 million, about 50 per­ little or no change is expected in
increases in population and con­ cent higher than the 10.6 million water transportation. Overall em­
sumer expenditures, the rate of in­ employed in 1972. Federal Govern­ ployment in this industry division
crease in manpower needs will be ment employment is expected to rise is expected to increase to almost 5.2
slowed by laborsaving technology, slowly to about 2.8 million in 1985, million in 1985, 15 percent above
such as the greater use of electronic 150,000 or about 6 percent above the the 1972 level.
data processing equipment and auto­ 1972 level of 2.7 million.
Finance, insurance, and real es­
mated warehousing equipment,
Service and miscellaneous in­ tate, the smallest of the service-pro­
growth in the number of self-service dustries employment has increased ducing industry divisions, has grown
stores, and the growing use of ven­ rapidly since World War II as a about 47 percent since 1960 to more
result of the growing need for than 3.9 million in 1972. Employ­
ding machines.
maintenance and repair, advertis­ ment has grown especially rapidly in
Government employment has
grown faster than any other industry ing, domestic, and health care ser­ banks; in credit agencies; and among
division, and has increased by almost vices. From 1960 to 1972, total security and commodity brokers,
three-fifths, from 8.4 million to 13.3 employment in this industry division dealers, exchanges, and services.
million, between 1960 and 1972. rose by about two-thirds, from 7.4
Job growth in finance, insurance,
Growth has been mostly at the State million to about 12.3 million.
and real estate will keep in step with
Service and miscellaneous indus­ the overall employment increases of
and local levels, which together ex­
panded by more than two-thirds. tries will continue to be among the nonfarm employment through the

Through the M id -1 9 8 0 's Employment G row th
W ill Vary W idely, by Industry


mid- 1980’s. Finance, insurance, and
real estate employment is expected
to expand to nearly 5.6 million by
1985, about 42 percent above 1972
G ood s-P ro d u cin g In d u strie s.
Employment in the goods-producing
industries—agriculture, manufactur­
ing, construction, and mining—more
than 26.5 million in 1972—has in­
creased slowly in recent years. Signi­
ficant gains in productivity resulting
from automation and other techno­
logical developments as well as the
growing skills of the work force have
permitted large increases in output
without corresponding increases in
employment. Employment in goodsproducing industries is expected to
increase to about 30 million in 1985,
13 percent above the 1972 level.
However, widely different patterns
of employment changes have oc­
curred and will continue among the
industry divisions in the goodsproducing sector.
Agriculture (farming), which until
the late 1800’s employed more than
half of all workers in the economy,
employed only 4 percent, or 3.5
million workers, in 1972. Increases
in the average size of farms, rapid
mechanization, and improved fertili­
zers, feeds, and pesticides have
created large increases in output at
the same time that employment has
fallen sharply.
Farming is facing a continuing
decline in manpower needs. Factors
resulting in past declines will con­
tinue, and the outlook is for a 1985
farm work force 45 percent lower
than in 1972.
Mining employment, at about
607,000 workers in 1972, has declin­
ed by nearly 15 percent since 1960,
primarily because of labor-saving
technological changes. This trend is
likely to continue, and mining is the
only nonagricultural industry divi­
sion that is not expected to increase
between 1972 and 1985.


Contract construction employ­
ment, at more than 3.5 million in
1972, has increased more than onefifth since 1960. The Nation’s grow­
ing need for homes, offices, stores,
highways, bridges, dams, and other
physical facilities resulted in this in­
crease in employment.
Between 1972 and 1985, employ­
ment in contract construction is ex­
pected to grow by more than onefifth to about 4.3 million.
Manufacturing, the largest divi­
sion within the goods-producing sec­
tor that had about 18.9 million
workers in 1972, increased about 13
percent in employment between 1960
and 1972. New products for indus­
trial and consumer markets and the
rapid growth of the defense-space
market have spearheaded the post
World War II growth.
Manufacturing employment is ex­
pected to increase about 23 percent
through the mid-1980’s and to reach
about 3.2 million in 1985. Employ­
ment in durable goods manufactur­
ing is projected to increase slightly
faster, and nondurable goods some­
what more slowly than the total.
However, the rate of growth will
vary among the individual manu­
facturing industries.

Occupational Profile

As American industries continue
to grow larger, more complex, and
more mechanized, basic changes will
take place in the Nation’s occupa­
tional structure. Furthermore, oc­
cupations will become more com­
plex and specialized. Thus, an impos­
ing and confusing number of occupa­
tional choices is provided to individ­
uals who are planning their careers.
An individual, in examining the vast
number of choices, should first look
at broad groupings of jobs that have
similar characteristics such as en­
trance requirements. (See chart 4.)
Among the most significant
changes in the Nation’s occupational
structure has been the shift toward
white-collar jobs. In 1956, for the
first time in the Nation’s history,
white-collar workers—professional,
managerial, clerical, and sales—out­
num bered b lu e -c o lla r w o rk ­
ers—craftsmen, operatives, and la­
borers. (See chart 5.)
Through the 1970’s, we can expect
a continuation of the rapid growth of
white-collar occupations, a slowerthan-average growth of blue-collar
occupations, a faster-than-average
growth among service workers, and a

Employment in M ajor Occupational
Groups, by Sex

(in millions)

Clerical workers
Professional and technical
Service workers
Operatives, except transport
Managers and administrators
except farm_____________________ _
Sales workers
Nonfarm laborers
Transport equipment operatives
Farm workers
^Includes self-em ployed and unpaid family workers.

Bureau of Labor Statistics




1972-85. (See chart 7.) Workers in
this area will be in great demand as
Employment Has Shifted Toward
the Nation makes greater efforts
W hite-C ollar Occupations_______
toward the country’s socio-economic
WORKERS (in millions)
progress, urban renewal, trans­
portation, harnessing the ocean, and
enhancing the beauty of the land.
The quest for scientific and technical
knowledge is bound to grow, and to
raise the demand for workers in sci­
entific and technical specialties. The
late 1970’s and early 1980’s will see a
continuing emphasis on the social
sciences and medical services. By
1985, th e re q u ire m e n ts for
professional, technical, and kindred
workers may be almost one-half
greater than 1972 employment.
M a n a g e r s , o f j i c i a l s and
The following section describes in proprietors totaled about 8.0 million
further decline of farm workers.
Total employment is expected to in­ greater detail the changes that are in 1972. As a group they will increase
crease about 24 percent between expected to occur among the broad about 30 percent between 1972 and
1972 and 1985. In comparison, an in­ occupational groups through the 1985. As in the past, requirements
for salaried managers are likely to
crease of about 37 percent is ex­ mid-1980’s.
P ro fessio n a l and tech n ica l continue to increase rapidly because
pected for white-collar jobs, and only
about 15 percent for blue-collar oc­ workers, the third largest occupa­ of the increasing dependence of
cupations. By 1985, white-collar jobs tional group in 1972, number about business organizations and govern­
will account for more than one-half 11.5 million, and include such high­ ment agencies on management
of all employed workers compared ly trained personnel as teachers, specialists. On the other hand, the
with about 48 percent in 1972. The engineers, dentists, accountants, and number of self-employed managers
rapid growth expected for white- clergymen.
is expected to continue to decline as
collar workers and service workers
Professional occupations will be larger businesses continue to restrict
reflects continuous expansion of the fastest-growing occupations from growth of the total number of firms,
the service-producing industries,
which employ a relatively large pro­
Industries Differ in the Kinds of Workers
portion of these workers. The grow­
They Employ_________________________
ing demand for workers to perform
research and development, to pro­
vide education and health services,
Fin a n c e , in su ra n c e , a n d
and to process the increasing amount
r e a l e state
of paperwork throughout all types
T ra d e
of enterprises, also will be signi­
S e rv ic e s1
ficant in the growth of whiteWhite-collar
collar jobs. The slower-than-average
T ra n sp o rta tio n a n d
56.8 I 2.7
p u b lic utilities
40 5 l
growth of blue-collar and farm
M anufacturing
6 8 .3
workers reflects the expanding use of
B lue-collar
labor-saving equipment in our Na­
M in in g
7 0 .3 j 1.0
tion’s industries and the relatively
C ontract construction
79.1 !
slow growth of the goods-producing
Excludes private household workers
industries that employ large pro­
portions of blue-collar workers.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
(See chart 6.)





Through the M id-1980 s Employment Growth
W ill Vary Widely among Occupations________


-4 0

Professional ond technical workers
Clerical workers
Managers, officials, and proprietors
Service workers
Nonfarm laborers
Farm workers


Bureau of Labor Statistics

and as supermarkets continue to
replace small groceries and general
Clerical workers, numbering 14.2
million in 1972, include workers who
operate com puters and office
machines, keep records, take dicta­
tion, and type. Clerical workers
made up the largest group of workers
in 1972. Many new clerical positions
are expected to open up as industries
employing large numbers of clerical
workers continue to expand. The
trend in retail stores toward trans­
ferring to clerical workers functions
that were performed by salespersons
also will tend to increase employ­
ment needs of clerical workers. The
demand also will be strong for those
qualified to handle jobs created by
electronic data processing oper­
ations. The need for clerical workers
as a group is expected to increase
by almost two-fifths between 1972
and 1985.
Sales workers, accounting for
about 5.4 million workers in 1972,
are found primarily in retail stores,
wholesale firms, insurance com­
panies, real estate agencies, as well
as offering goods door-to-door. Sales
workers are expected to increase

more than one-fifth between 1972
and 1985.
Increasing sales of many new
products resulting from rapid popu­
lation growth, new product develop­
ment, business expansion, and rising
business levels will be the major
reason for increasing employment of
sales workers.
Craftsmen, numbering about 10.8
million in 1972, include carpenters,
tool and die makers, instrument
makers, all-round machinists, elec­
tricians, and typesetters. Industrial
growth and increasing business ac­
tivity are the major factors expected
to spur the growth of craft occupa­
tions through the mid 1980’s. How­
ever, technological developments will
tend to limit the expansion of this
group. Craftsmen are expected to in­
crease by about one-fifth, some­
what slower growth than the aver­
age for all occupations.
Semiskilled workers (operatives)
made up the second largest major oc­
cupational group in 1972 with about
13.5 million workers engaged in
assembling goods in factories; driv­
ing trucks, buses and taxis; and
operating machinery.
Em ploym ent of sem iskilled

workers is expected to increase about
13 percent above the 1972 level,
despite continued technological ad­
vances that will reduce employment
for some types of semiskilled occu­
pations. Increases in production gen­
erated by rising population and rapid
economic growth, as well as the in­
creasing trend toward motor truck
transportation of freight, are ex­
pected to be major factors con­
tributing to the increasing employ­
Laborers (excluding those in farm­
ing and mining), who numbered
nearly 4.2 million workers in 1972,
for the most part move, lift, and
carry materials and tools in the
Nation’s workplaces. Employment
of laborers is expected to increase
slightly between 1972 and 1985 in
spite of the rises in manufacturing
and construction, which employ most
laborers. Increased demand is ex­
pected to be offset by rising pro­
ductivity resulting from continued
substitution of mechanical equip­
ment for manual labor.
Service workers, including men
and women who maintain law and
order, assist professional nurses in
hospitals, give haircuts and beauty
treatments, serve food, and clean and
care for our homes, totaled about
11.0 million in 1972. This diverse
group will increase about 22 percent
between 1972 and 1985. Some of the
main factors that are expected to in­
crease requirements for these oc­
cupations are the rising demand for
hospital and other medical care; the
greater need for protective services
as urbanization continues and cities
become more crowded; and the more
frequent use of restaurants, beauty
parlors, and other services as income
levels rise and as an increasing num­
ber of housewives take jobs outside
the home.
Farm wor k e r s — in c lu d in g
farmers, farm managers, laborers,
and foremen—numbered nearly 3.1



Furthermore, employment growth
generally will be fastest in those oc­
cupations requiring the most educa­
tion and training. For example, pro­
WORKERS NEEDED - 1972 - 85 (in millions)
fessional occupations requiring the
10 12 14 16
most education will show the fastest
Replacem ents
C lerical workers
growth through the mid-1980’s. (See
Professional an d technical workers
chart 7.)
A high school education has
Service workers
become a standard for American
workers. Thus, because of personnel
M anagers, officials, and proprietors
practices in American industries, a
Craftsmen and foremen
high school graduate is in a better
competitive position in the job
Nonfarm laborers
market than a nongraduate.
Farm workers!
Although training beyond high
^Employment decline more than offsets openings
school has been the standard for
created by deaths and retirements.
Source Bureau of Labor Statistics
some time for many professional
occupations, many other areas of
work require more than just a high
million in 1972. Employment re­ men will be considerably more rapid school diploma. As new, automated
quirements for farm workers are ex­ than the rate of growth for operatives. equipment is introduced on a wider
pected to decline to about 1.6 million
scale in offices, banks, insurance
in 1985. This decrease is antici­
companies, and government oper­
Outlook and Education
pated, in part, because of continued
ations, skill requirements are rising
improvement in farm technology.
N um erous opportunities for for c lerical and o th er jo b s.
employment will be available for job­ Employers increasingly are demand­
seekers during the years ahead. ing better-trained workers to operate
Job Openings
Employers are seeking people who complicated machinery. In many
In considering careers, young peo­ have higher levels of education areas of sales work, new develop­
ple should not eliminate occupations because many jobs are more com­ ments in machine design, use of new
just because their preferences will not plex and require greater skill. materials, and the complexity of
be among the most rapidly growing.
Although growth is a key indicator
of future job outlook, more jobs will
be created between 1972-85 from
School Enrollment W ill Continue to Rise
deaths, retirements, and other labor
force separations than from employ­
ment growth. (See chart 8.) Replace­
ment needs will be particularly
significant in occupations which have
a large proportion of older workers
and women. Furthermore, large oc­
cupations that have little growth may
offer more openings than a fast­
growing, small one. For example,
among the major occupational
groups, openings for operatives
resulting from growth and replace­
ment combined will be greater than
for craftsmen, although the rate of
Source Bureau of the Census
growth in the employment of crafts-

Training Needs Are Determined
by Replacement Plus Growth



Unemployment Rates Are Highest
for Young W orkers


U N E M P LO Y M EN T R ATE, M ARCH 1972 (percent)


8 or less




4 or more


High School


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

equipment are making greater tech­
nical knowledge a requirement for
demonstrators; and repairmen must
become familiar with even more
complicated machines. Because
many occupations are becoming in­
creasingly complex and technical,
specific occupational training such as
that obtained through apprentice­
ship, junior and community colleges,
and post-high school vocational
education courses is becoming more
and more important to young people
preparing for successful careers.
As part of the demand for greater
education, the proportion of youth in
high school has increased, and an even
larger proportion of high school
graduates pursue higher education.
(See chart 9.) This trend is expected
to continue through the mid-1980’s.
With so much competition from
young people who have higher levels
of education, the boy or girl who
does not get good preparation for
work will find the going more dif­
ficult in the years ahead. Employers
will be more likely to hire workers
who have at least a high school
diploma. Furthermore, present ex­

perience shows that the less educa­
tion and training a worker has, the
less chance he has for a steady job,
because unemployment falls most
heavily on the worker who has the
least education. (See chart 10.)
In addition to its importance in
competing for jobs, education is
highly valued in the determination of
income. According to the most

recently available data, men who had
college degrees could expect to earn
more than $600,000 in their life­
times, or nearly three times the
$214,000 likely to be earned by
workers who had less than 8 years of
schooling, nearly twice that earned
by workers who had 1 to 3 years of
high school, and nearly one and twothirds as much as high school gradu­
ates. Clearly the completion of high
school pays a dividend. A worker
who had only 1 to 3 years of high
school could expect to earn only
about $31,000 more than workers
who had an elementary school
education, but a high school gradu­
ate could look forward to a $94,000
lifetime income advantage over an
individual completing elementary
school. (See chart 11.)
In summary, young people who
have acquired skills or good basic
education will have a better chance
for interesting work, good wages,
and steady employment. Getting as
much education and training as one’s
abilities and circumstance permit
should therefore be a top priority for
today’s youth.

Estimated Lifetime Earnings for M en Tend to
Rise w ith Years of School Completed____________ 11
ESTIM A TED E A R N IN G S - 1968 TO DEATH (in th o u sa n d s of d o lla rs)

8 0 0 - ________________________

Elem entary School
Source: Bureau of the Census



High School
C o lle g e


All Levels



Millions of people who work in in­
dustrial production help to ensure
the continued growth of our econ­
omy and its smooth operation. These
skilled and semiskilled blue-collar
workers are involved in almost every
production process.
Workers in this group are em­
ployed m o stly in fa c to r ie s .
Machinists and machine tool opera­
tors shape metal to precise sizes.
Assemblers put together auto­
mobiles, television sets, and hun­
dreds of other products. Inspectors
examine and test products to assure
quality. Printing craftsmen operate
the various types of machinery used
to print newspapers, books, and
other publications. Some factory
workers are not directly involved in
the production process, but support
it in some way. Stationary engineers,
for example, operate boilers and
other equipment. Millwrights move
and install heavy industrial ma­
chinery. Power truck operators move
materials about the plant.
Industrial workers also are em­

ployed outside of manufacturing in a
variety of activities. Automobile
painters, for example, restore the
finish on old and damaged cars.
Photographic laboratory workers
develop film and make prints and
Semiskilled workers, such as
assemblers and power truck opera­
tors, ordinarily need only brief onthe-job training. Skilled workers,
such as stationary engineers and ma­
chinists, require considerable train­
ing to qualify for their jobs. Many
learn their trades on the job, but
training authorities generally rec­
ommend completion of a 3- or 4year apprenticeship program as the
best way to learn a skilled trade.
Most jobs in industrial pro­
duction do not require a high school
diploma. However, many employers
prefer high school or vocational
school graduates who have taken
courses such as blueprint reading and
machine shop.
Growth rates for individual occu­
pations in industrial production will

differ greatly. Employment of
welders, for example, is expected to
rise rapidly as a result of growth in
the metalworking industries and the
wider use of welding. A moderate in­
crease in the number of assemblers is
expected, despite the continued auto­
mation of assembly processes. Em­
ployment in some printing crafts, on
the other hand, is expected to de­
cline slowly as a result of more effi­
cient printing methods. Even in
declining occupations, however,
some job openings are expected as
experienced workers retire, die, or
transfer to other fields.
This chapter includes statements
on 22 industrial production and re­
lated occupations. Many other
workers who are involved in indus­
trial production are described else­
where in the Handbook because of
their close association with partic­
ular occupational groups. For ex­
ample, engineers are included in the
chapter on Scientific and Technical


Foundry workers produce metal
castings for numerous industrial and
household products that range from
machine tools to bathtubs. Casting is
a method of forming metal into in­
tricate shapes. Molten metal is
poured into carefully prepared molds
and allowed to solidify.
The patternm aker, the core­
maker, and the molder each play an
important part in the process. The
patternmaker makes a wood or
metal model of the casting. A molder
places it in a box and packs sand around the model to form a mold. If
the casting is to have a hollow sec­
tion, a coremaker makes a core of
packed and hardened sand that is
positioned in the mold before the
molten metal is poured in.
In 1972, about 19,000 pattern­
makers, 56,000 molders, and 23,000
coremakers worked in the foundry
industry and foundry departments of
other industries such as automobile
and machinery manufacturers.
A high school education is the
minimum requirement for an ap­
prentice in patternmaking and for
more skilled molding and core­
making jobs. An eighth grade educa
tion, however, may be enough for en­
try into many molding and core­
making jobs.
Employment in these trades is ex­
pected to show little or no change
through the mid-1980’s because of
automation and other labor-saving
im provem ents in p ro d u ctio n
methods. Nevertheless, the need to
replace experienced workers who die,
retire, or transfer to other occupa­
tions will provide some openings.
Patternmakers, molders, ana core­

makers are discussed in detail in the
following statements. (For a general
description of many other jobs in­
volved in metal casting, see the state­
ment on foundries elsewhere in the
Sources Qf Additional

For details about training oppor­
tunities for patternmakers, core­
makers, and molders, contact local
foundries, the local office of the
State employment service, the
nearest office of the State appren­
ticeship agency, or the Bureau of Ap­
prenticeship and Training, U.S.
Department of Labor. Information
also is available from the following
American Foundrymen’s Society, Golf
and Wolf Rds., Des Plaines, 111.
60016 .

Cast Metals Federation, Cast Metals
Federation Building, 20611 Center
Ridge Road, Rocky River,
Ohio 44116.

International M olders’ and Allied
W o rk ers’ U n io n , 1225 E ast
McMillan St., Cincinnati, Ohio

castings. Most of the workers in the
occupation are metal patternmakers
(D.O.T. 600.280); a somewhat
smaller number are wood pattern­
makers (D.O.T. 661.281). Some
patternmakers work with both metal
and wood as well as plaster and
Patternmakers work from blue­
prints prepared by engineers. They
make a precise pattern for the prod­
uct, carefully checking each dimen­
sion with instruments such as
micrometers and calipers. Precision
is important because any imperfec­
tions in the pattern will be repro­
duced in the castings made from it.
Wood patternmakers select the
wood stock, lay out the pattern, and
saw each piece of wood to size. They
then shape the rough pieces into Final
form with various woodworking ma­
chines, such as lathes and sanders, as
well as many small hand tools. Final­
ly, they assemble the pattern seg­
ments by hand, using glue, screws,
and nails.
Metal patternmakers prepare pat­
terns from metal stock or from
rough castings made from a wood
pattern. To shape and finish the
patterns, .they use many metal­
working machines, including lathes,
drill presses, shapers, milling ma­
chines, power hacksaws, and
grinders. They also use small
hand tools.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Apprenticeship is the best means
of qualifying as a journeyman
patternmakei. Because of the high
degree of skill and the wide range of
knowledge needed for patternmak­
ing it is difficult to learn the trade on
the job. In some instances, skilled
Nature of the Work
machinists have been able to trans­
Foundry patternmakers are highly fer to metal patternmaking with ad­
skilled craftsmen who make the pat­ ditional on-the-job training or ex­
terns used in making molds for metal perience. Trade school courses in



need to replace experienced pattern­
makers who retire, die or transfer to
other occupations. Most of these
openings will be for metal pattern­
The need for patternmakers will
not keep pace with increases in the
production of castings because of the
greater use of metal patterns. These
patterns can be used many times, re­
ducing the number of individual pat­
terns needed.
Because patternm akers learn
either basic metalworking or wood­
working they are prepared for jobs in
related fields when patternmaking
employment is not available. Wood
patternmakers can qualify for wood­
working jobs, such as cabinet­
makers, and metal patternmakers
can transfer their skills to metal­
working jobs such as machinist.

Earnings and Working
Patternmakers work from blueprints.

patternm aking provide useful earn higher pay as their skill in­
preparation for the prospective ap­ creases and some become foremen or
prentice, and may be credited toward supervisors.
Patternmaking, although not
completion of the apprenticeship.
The usual apprenticeship period strenuous, requires considerable
for patternmaking is 5 years. Each standing and moving about. Manual
year at least 144 hours of classroom dexterity is especially important be­
instruction in related technical sub­ cause of the precise nature of the
jects normally are provided. Ap­ work. The ability to visualize ob­
prenticeship programs for wood and jects in three dimensions is also im­
metal patternmaking are separate. portant.
Employers generally require appren­
tices to have at least a high school
Employment Outlook
Apprentice patternmakers begin
by helping journeymen in routine
Employment of foundry pattern­
duties. They make simple patterns makers is expected to show little or
under close supervision and, as they no change through the mid-1980’s
progress, the work becomes in­ despite the anticipated increases in
creasingly complex and the super­ foundry production Some openings
vision more general. Patternmakers will arise each year because of the

Patternmakers generally have
higher earnings than other pro­
duction workers in manufacturing.
In January 1972, average straighttime hourly earnings of wood
patternmakers ranged from $4.35 in
steel, gray iron and malleable iron
foundries, to $4.85 in non-ferrous
foundries, according to a wage sur­
vey made by the National Foundry
Association. Metal patternmakers
earnings were generally higher. In
comparison, all production workers
in manufacturing averaged $3.71 an
Patternmakers work indoors in
well-lighted, well-ventilated areas.
The rooms in which they work are
generally separated from the areas
where the casting takes place, so they
are not exposed to the heat and noise
of the foundry floor.
For sources of additional infor­
mation, see the introductory section
of this chapter.



Nature of the Work

The molder prepares a mold which
contains a hollow space in the shape
of the item to be made. The mold is
made by packing and ramming
specially prepared sand around a
pattern—a model of the object to be
duplicated—in a box called a flask.
A flask .is usually made in two parts
which can be separated to remove the
pattern without damaging the mold
cavity. When molten metal is poured
into the cavity, it soldifies and forms
the castin g . A m older uses
pneumatic-powered rammers and
handtools to pack and smooth the
sand in the molds.
Most of the workers in this oc­
cupation are machine molders; the

rest are hand molders. Machine
molders (D.O.T. 518.782) operate
machines that simplify and speed the
making of large quantities of identi­
cal sand molds. Machine molders
assemble the flask and pattern on the
machine table, fill the flask with pre­
pared sand, and operate the ma­
chine with levers and pedals. Many
of these workers set up and adjust
their own machines.
Hand molders use mainly manual
methods to make the sand molds.
Power tools, such as pneumatic ram­
mers, and handtools, such as trowels
and mallets, are used to smooth the
sand. Molds for small castings are
usually made on the workbench by
bench molders (D.O.T. 518.381);
those for large and bulky castings are
made on the foundry floor by floor
molders (D.O.T. 518.381). An all­

Molder makes sand mold.

round hand molder makes many dif­
ferent types of molds. A less skilled
molder specializes in a few simple
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Completion of a four-year appren­
tice program, or equivalent experi­
ence, is needed to become a journey­
man hand molder. Workers with this
training are also preferred for some
kinds of machine molding but in
general a shorter training period is
required in order to become a
qualified machine molder. Molders’
helpers and less-skilled hand molders
frequently learn molding skills in­
formally on the job. However, this
way of learning the trade takes
longer and is less reliable than ap­
An eighth grade education usually
is the minimum requirement for ap­
prenticeship. Many employers, how­
ever, require additional education up
to and including high school gradua­
tion for apprenticeship in skilled
hand molding or machine molding
Apprentices, under close super­
vision by journeymen, begin with
simple jobs such as shoveling sand.
Gradually they take on more diffi­
cult and responsible work, such as
ramming molds, withdrawing pat­
terns, and setting cores. They also
learn to operate the various types of
molding machines. Beginning with
simple shapes and advancing to more
complex work, they make complete
molds as training progresses. In
addition, the apprentice may work in
other foundry departm ents to
develop all-round knowledge of
foundry methods and practices. The
apprentice usually receives at least
144 hours of classroom instruction
each year in subjects such as shop
arithmetic, metallurgy, and shop



Hand molders who do highly
repetitive work usually learn their
jobs during a brief training period.
Trainees work with a molder to
make a particular kind of mold.
After 2 to 6 months, the trainee
usually is capable of making a
similar mold. Most machine mold­
ing jobs can be learned in 2 to 3
months on the job.
Physical standards for molding
jobs are fairly high. Hand molders
stand at their work, move about a
great deal, and do frequent lifting.
They need good vision and a high
degree of manual dexterity. Since
molding work is strenuous few
women are employed. Molders may
advance to a specialized molding job
or eventually to a supervisory

For sources of additional infor­
mation, see the introductory section
of this chapter.

Nature of the Work

Coremakers prepare the “cores”
that are placed in molds to form the
hollow sections in metal castings.
The poured metal solidifies around
the core, so that when the core is re­
moved the desired cavity or contour
A core may be made either by
hand or machine. In both instances,
sand is packed into a block of wood
or metal in which a space of the de­

sired size and shape has been hol­
lowed out. After the core is removed
from this box it is hardened by bak­
ing or by another drying method.
When hand methods are used the
coremaker uses mallets and other
handtools to pack sand into the core
box. Small cores are made on the
workbench by bench coremakers
(D.O.T. 518.381) and large ones are
made on the foundry floor by floor
coremakers (D.O.T. 518.381).
Machine coremakers (D.O.T.
518.885) operate machines that
make sand cores by forcing sand in­
to a core box. Some machine core­
makers are required to set up and
adjust their machines and do finish­
ing operations on the cores. Others
are primarily machine tenders. They
are closely supervised and their ma-

Employment Outlook

Employment of molders is ex­
pected to show little or no change
through the mid-1980’s. The trend to
more machine molding and the in­
creasing use of permanent and shell
molds will limit employment growth.
Nevertheless, the need to replace ex­
perienced molders who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations will
provide some openings.
Earnings and Working

In January 1972, floor molders
averaged $3.85 an hour and bench
molders averaged $3.55, according
to a wage survey made by the
National Foundry Association. By
comparison, production workers in
all manufacturing industries averag­
ed $3.71 an hour.
Working conditions vary consid­
erably from one foundry to another.
Heat and fumes have been greatly re­
duced in many plants by the instal­
lation of improved ventilation sys­
tems and air-conditioning.

Coremakers build sand core for metal casting.


job training. Coremakers earn higher
pay as their skill increases, and some
become foremen or supervisors.
An eighth grade education usually
is the minimum required for core­
making apprentices; some employers
require graduation from high school.
For less skilled coremaking jobs, in­
Training, Other Qualifications,
experienced workers may be hired or
and Advancement
other foundry workers upgraded.
Completion of a 4-year apprentice Some types of hand coremaking re­
training program or the equivalent quire a high degree of manual dex­
experience is needed to become a terity. Light coremaking is not stren­
skilled hand coremaker. Apprentice­ uous and women frequently are em­
ships also are sometimes required for ployed.
the more difficult machine core­
making jobs. Apprenticeship train­
Employment Outlook
ing in coremaking and molding are
often combined.
Employment of coremakers is ex­
A p p ren tic es, w orking with pected to show little or no change
journeymen coremakers, are assign­ through the mid-1980’s. Despite the
ed routine duties before they make anticipated increase in foundry pro­
simple cores and operate ovens. As duction employment growth in this
their skill increases apprentices make occupation will be limited as more
more complex cores. Classroom in­ cores are made by machine instead
struction covering subjects such as of by hand. Nevertheless, several
arithmetic and the properties of hundred job openings will arise each
metals generally supplement on-the- year because of the need to replace
chines are adjusted for them. (To see
how the coremaker’s job is a basic
step in the casting process, read the
description of sand casting given in
the statement on foundries else­
where in the Handbook.)


experienced coremakers who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupations.
Earnings and Working

In January 1972, the average
hourly earnings of floor coremakers
were $3.85; bench coremakers, $3.65;
and machine coremakers, $3.25, ac­
cording to a wage survey made by
the National Foundry Association.
By comparison, production workers
in all manufacturing industries
averaged $3.71 an hour.
Working conditions vary con­
siderably from one foundry to
another. Heat and fumes have been
greatly reduced in many plants by
the installation of improved ventila­
tion systems and air-conditioning.
Although the injury rate in foundries
is higher than the average for manu­
facturing, coremaking is one of the
least hazardous foundry jobs.
For sources of additional infor­
mation, see the introductory section
of this chapter.

Nearly every product made by
American Industry contains metal
parts or is manufactured by ma­
chines made of metal parts. In 1972,
about 1.1 million machinists, ma­
chine tool operators, tool and die
makers, instrument makers, and set­
up men used a wide variety of ma­
chine and hand tools to shape these
metal parts.
A machine tool is a stationary,
power-driven device that holds and
brings together the cutting instru­
ment (tool) and the metal to be cut.
Some of the most common machine
tools are lathes and machines that
drill, bore, mill, and grind. Metal
also can be shaped by using chemi­
cals, electricity, magnetism, sound,
light, and liquids under controlled
Motors, farm machinery, and
typewriters are among the wide
variety of metal products with interchangable parts that are mass-pro­
duced and easily assembled from
drawings and blueprints. Precision
instruments are frequently used to
check the accuracy of metal parts
that may be machined to tolerances
of 10 millionths of an inch.
All-round machinists can operate
most types of machine tools, where­
as machine tool operators generally
work with only one kind. Tool and
die makers make dies (metal forms)
for presses and diecasting machines,
devices to guide drills into metal, and
special gages to determine whether
the work meets specified tolerances.
Instrument makers use machine
tools to produce highly accurate in­
strument parts from metal and othei
materials. Setup men adjust tools for

semiskilled machine tool operators
to run. (Detailed discussions of work
performed, training, and earnings of
these occupations are presented in
the chapters that follow.)

(D.O.T. 600.280, .281, and .381)
Nature of the Work

The all-round machinist, who can
set up and operate most types of
machine tools, uses these tools to
make metal parts. Because he plans
and carries through all operations, he
may switch from one product to
another and give variety to his work.
His knowledge of metals and ma­
chine tools enables him to turn a
block of metal into an intricate part
of precise specifications. He selects
the tools and materials for each job
and plans the cutting and finishing
operations from a blueprint or
written specifications. He makes
standard shop computations relat­
ing to dimensions of work and ma­
chining specifications. He often uses
precision-measuring instruments,
such as micrometers, to measure the
accuracy of his work to thousandths
or even millionths of an inch. After
completing machining operations, he
may use hand files and scrapers be­
fore he assembles the finished parts
with wrenches and screwdrivers.
Machinists who make and repair
metal parts in maintenance depart­
ments must have a broad knowledge
of the way machines work to adjust
and test parts. In plants that pro­

duce large numbers of metal prod­
ucts, highly skilled machinists
specialize in layout work and mark
specifications on metal for machine
tool operators who do the machin­
ing operations.
Places of Employment

An estimated 320,000 machinists
were employed in 1972. Almost
every factory using substantial
amounts of machinery employed allaround machinists to maintain its
mechanical equipment. Some all­
round machinists made large quan­
tities of identical parts in production
departments of metalworking fac­
tories; others made limited numbers
of varied products in machine shops.
Most all-round machinists worked in
the following industries: Machinery,
including electrical; transportation
equipment; fabricated metal pro­
ducts; and primary metals. Other in­
dustries employing substantial num­
bers of these workers were the rail­
road, chemical, food processing, and
textile industries. The Federal
Government also employed all­
round machinists in Navy yards and
other installations.
Machinists have great flexibility in
their work because all types of ma­
chinery in nearly every locality re­
require their skills.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A 4-year apprenticeship is the
usual way to learn the machinist
trade, but some companies have
training programs for single pur­
pose machines that require less than
4 years. Many machinists, however,
learn on the job.
A young person interested in be­
coming a machinist should be
mechanically inclined and temper­
amentally suited to do highly accu­
rate work that requires concen31



Employment Outlook

tration as well as physical effort. A
prospective machinist should be able
to work independently. Although the
work is sometimes tedious and
repetitious, the all-round machinist
frequently has the satisfaction of see­
ing the final results of his work.
A high school or vocational school
education, including mathematics,
physics, or machine shop training, is
desirable. Some companies require
experienced machinists to take addi­
tional courses in mathematics and
electronics, at company expense, so
that they can service and operate
numerically controlled machine
tools. In addition, equipm ent
builders generally provide training in
the electrical, hydraulic, and me­
chanical aspects of machine-andcontrol systems.





program lasts 4 years and consists of
approximately 8,000 hours of shop
training and about 570 hours of re­
lated classroom instruction. In shop
training, the apprentice learns chip­
ping, filing, hand tapping, dowel fit­
ting, riveting, and the operation of
various machine tools. In the
classroom, he studies blueprint read­
ing, mechanical drawing, shop
mathematics, and shop practices.
All-round machinists have numer­
ous opportunities. Many advance to
foreman or supervisory jobs. Some
take additional training and become
tool and die or instrument makers. A
skilled machinist may open his own
shop or advance into other technical
jobs in machine programing and

The number of all-round machin­
ists is expected to increase moder­
ately through the mid-1980’s as a
result of the anticipated expansion of
matalworking activities. Most job
openings will arise from the need to
replace experienced machinists who
retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work.
The demand for machinists will be
affected by two main factors. As
population and income rise, so will
the demand for machined goods,
such as automobiles, household
appliances, and industrial products.
Partially offsetting this, however,
will be worker-productivity increases
resu ltin g from te ch n o lo g ic al
Chief among these technological
innovations is the expanding use of
numerically-controlled machine
tools. These machines, which trans­
late numbers into a series of mo­
tions or processes, significantly
reduce the time required to perform
machining operations.
Much of the employment growth
will occur in maintenance shops, as
industries continue to use a greater
volume of complex machinery and
equipment. Skilled maintenance ma­
chinists are needed to prevent costly
breakdowns in highly mechanized
plants. In such plants, a breakdown
of one machine may stop many other
Earnings and Working

The earnings of machinists com­
pare favorably with those of other
skilled workers. Average hourly
rates for machinists in 15 areas sur­
veyed in 1972-73 are shown in the
accompanying tabulation on the
following page.
Machinists must follow strict safe­
ty regulations when working around



high-speed machine tools. Shortsleeve shirts, safety glasses, and
other protective devices are required
to reduce accidents. Most shops are
clean and workplaces are welllighted.
A rea

H o u r ly R a te

B oston...........................................
Buffalo .........................................
C leveland.....................................
Denver ...............................................
Detroit .........................................
Greensville, S.C ............................
Houston .............................................


Huntsville, Ala....................................
Los Angeles— Long B e a c h ___
Louisville ...........................................
Minneapolis—St. P a u l .............
New Y o r k .....................................
Portland, Oreg..............................
San Francisco—O a k la n d .........


Companies employing machinists
generally provide paid vacations and
holidays. Other fringe benefits fre­
quently included health and life in­
surance, accident insurance, supple­
mental unemployment benefits, and
Many machinists are members of
unions including the International
Association of Machinists and Aero­
space Workers; the International
Union, United Automobile, Aero­
space, and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America; the Interna­
tional Union of Electrical, Radio
and Machine Workers; the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers; the United Steelworkers of
America; and the Mechanics Educa­
tional Society of America.
Sources of Additional

The National Machine Tool
Builders Association, 7901 Westp a rk
D r.,
M c L e a n , V a.
22101—whose members build a large
percentage of all machine tools used
in this country—will supply, on re­
quest, information on career oppor­

tunities in the machine tool industry.
The National Tool, Die and Preci­
sion Machining Association, 9300
Livingston Rd., Oxon Hill, Md.
20022, offers information on ap­
prenticeship training, including Rec­
ommended Apprenticeship Stand­
ards for Tool and Die Makers, cer­
tified by the U.S. Department of
Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training.
The Tool and Die Institute, 777
Busse Highway, Park Ridge, 1 1
60068—a trade association—offers
information on apprenticeship train­
ing in the Chicago area.
Many local offices of State
employment services provide free
aptitude testing to persons interested
in becoming all-round machinists or
tool and die makers. The State
employment service also may be a
source of information about train­
ing opportunities under the Man­
power Development and Training
Act. In addition, the State employ­
ment service refers applicants for ap­
prentice programs to employers. In
many communities, applications for
apprenticeship also are received by
labor-management apprenticeship
Apprenticeship information also
may be obtained from the following
unions (which have local offices in
many cities):
International Association of Machin­
ists and Aerospace Workers, 1300
Connecticut Ave. NW ., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.
International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricul­
tural Im plem ent W orkers of
America, Skilled Trades Depart­
ment, 8000 East Jefferson Ave.,
Detroit, Mich. 48214.
International Union of Electrical
Radio and Machine Workers, 1126
16th St. NW ., Washington, D.C.
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers, 1125 15th St
NW ., Washington, D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 600.280)
Nature of the Work

Instrument makers (also called ex­
perimental machinists and modelmakers) work closely with engineers
and scientists in translating designs
and ideas into experimental models,
special laboratory equipment, and
custom instruments. Experimental
devices constructed by these crafts­
men are used, for example, to regu­
late heat, measure distance, record
earthquakes, and control industrial
processes. The parts and models may
range from simple gears to intricate
parts of navigation systems for guid­
ed missiles. Instrument makers also
modify existing instruments for
special purposes.
Instrument makers fabricate
metal parts using machine tools
(such as lathes and milling ma­
chines) and handtools (such as files
and chisels). Because accuracy is im­
portant, they measure finished parts
with a wide variety of precision­
measuring equipment, including
micrometers, verniers, calipers, and
dial indicators, as well as standard
optical measuring instruments.
Using considerable imagination
and ingenuity, they work from rough
sketches, verbal instructions, or
ideas, as well as from detailed blue­
prints. Sometimes specifications
must not vary more than ten mil­
lionths of an inch. To meet these
standards, they commonly use spe­
cial equipment or precision devices,
such as the electronic height gauge,
that other machining workers
seldom use. They also work with a
variety of materials, including
plastics and rare metals such as
titanium and rhodium.
An instrument maker may con­
struct, assemble, and then test all



Instrument makers must work with detail.

parts of an instrument in small
shops. When working with electrical
and electronic components that are
to be incorporated into an instru­
ment, however, they frequently work
with other instrument makers or
electronic specialists.

Places of Employment

Many of the approximately 5,000
instrument makers employed in 1972
worked for Firms that manufactured
instruments. Others were in research
and development laboratories that
make special devices for scientific
research. The Federal Government
employed many instrument makers.
The main centers of instrument

making are located in and around a
few large cities, particularly New
Y ork, Chicago, Los Angeles,
Boston, Philadelphia, Washington,
Detroit, Buffalo, Cleveland, and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Some instrument makers advance
from the ranks of machinists or skill­
ed machine tool operators. These
craftsmen, working at First under
close supervision and doing the
simpler jobs, usually need 1 to 2
years or more of instrument shop ex­
perience to qualify as instrument

More frequently, instrum ent
makers learn their trade through ap­
prenticeships that generally last 4
years. A typical 4-year program in­
cludes 8,000 hours of shop training
and 576 hours of related classroom
in s tr u c tio n . Shop tra in in g
emphasizes the use of machine tools,
hand tools, and measuring instru­
ments, and the working properties of
various materials. Classroom in­
struction covers related technical
subjects such as mathematics,
physics, blueprint reading, chem­
istry, metallurgy, electronics, and
fundamental instrument design. The
apprentice must learn enough shop
mathematics to plan his work and to
use formulas. A basic knowledge of
mechanical principles is needed in
solving gear and linkage problems.
For apprenticeship programs,
employers generally prefer high
school graduates who have taken
algebra, geometry, trigonometry,
science, and machine shop work.
Further technical schooling in elec­
tricity and electronics is often desir­
able, and may make possible future
promotions to technician positions.
A person interested in becoming
an instrument maker should have a
strong interest in mechanical sub­
jects and better-than-average ability
to work with his hands. He must
have initiative and resourcefulness
because instrument makers often
work alone under minimum or no
supervision. Since the instrument
maker often faces new problems, he
must be able to develop original solu­
tions. Frequently, he must visualize
the relationship between individual
parts and the complete instrument,
and must understand the principles
of the instrum ent’s operation.
Because of the nature of his job, the
instrument maker has to be very con­
scientious and take considerable
pride in creative work.
As the instrument maker’s skills
and knowledge improve, he may ad­



vance to more responsible positions.
Up to 10 years’ experience is re­
quired to rise to the top skill level. By
gaining additional training beyond
the high school level in subjects such
as physics and machine design, some
instrument makers may advance to
technician jobs. In these jobs, they
plan and estimate time and material
requirements for the manufacture of
instruments or provide specialized
support to professional personnel.
Others may become supervisors and
train less skilled instrument makers.

Employment Outlook

E m ploym ent of in stru m en t
makers is expected to
moderately through the mid-1980’s
as a result of an expected expansion
of metalworking activities and the
growing use of instruments in manu­
facturing processes and research and
development work. However, since
this occupation is relatively small,
only a small number of openings will
result in any one year.
Growing numbers of instrument
makers will be needed to make
models of new instruments for massproduction and also to make custom
or special instruments, particularly
in the expanding field of industrial
automation. Also, more versatile and
sensitive precision instruments can
be expected to emerge from current
research and development programs.
Earnings and Working

Earnings of instrument makers
compare favorably with those of
other highly skilled metalworkers. In
1972, instrument makers generally
earned between $4 and $6 an hour
for a standard workweek.
Instrument shops usually are clean
and well-lighted, with temperatures
strictly controlled. Instrument

chining operations on several differ­
ent machine tools.
Typically, the semiskilled opera­
tor places rough metal stock in a ma­
chine tool on which the speeds and
operation sequence already have
been set. By using special, easy-touse gages, he watches the machine
and makes minor adjustments. How­
ever, he depends on skilled machin­
ing workers for major adjustments
when the machine is not working
A skilled machine tool operator
usually works on a single type of ma­
chine and does little or no hand fit­
ting and assembly work. He plans
and sets up the correct sequence of
machining operations according to
blueprints, layouts, or other instruc­
tions. He adjusts speed, feed, and
other controls, and selects the prop­
er cutting instruments or tools for
each operation. Using micrometers,
gauges, and other precision-measur­
ing instruments, he checks his com­
pleted work with the tolerance limits
given in the specifications. He also
may select cutting and lubricating
oils to cool metal and tools during
machining operations.
Sources of Additional
Operators use lathes; drill presses;
and boring, grinding, milling, and
See list under this same heading in automatic screw machines. Both
the statement on all-round ma­ skilled and semiskilled operators
have job titles related to the kind of
machine they operate, such as en­
gine lathe operator, milling machine
operator, and drill press operator.

assembly rooms are sometimes
known as “white rooms,’’ for almost
sterile conditions are maintained.
Serious work accidents are not
common, but machine tools and fly­
ing particles may cause finger, hand,
and eye injuries. Safety rules
generally require the wearing of
special glasses, aprons, tightly fitted
clothes, and short-sleeve shirts;
neckties are prohibited.
Most companies that employ in­
strument makers provide paid
holidays and vacations. Other non­
wage benefits frequently include
health, accident, and life insurance,
and a pension plan.
Many instrument makers are un­
ion members. Among the union
represented are the International
Association of Machinists and Aero­
space Workers; the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers;
the International Union of Elec­
trical, Radio and Machine Workers;
and the International Union, United
A u to m o b ile, A ero sp ace, and
Agricultural Implement Workers of

(D.O.T. 602., 603., 604., 605., and
Nature of the Work

Many machine tool operators do
simple, repetitive jobs that can be
learned quickly on one or two types
of machine tools. Other more skilled
workers do complex and varied ma­

Places of Employment

About 545,000 machine tool
operators were employed in 1972,
mainly in factories that produce
fabricated metal products, transpor­
tation equipment, and machinery in
large quantities. Skilled machine
tool operators worked in production
departments, maintenance depart­
ments, and toolrooms.



machine tool operators derive satis­
faction from seeing the results of
their work.
Skilled machine tool operators
may become all-round machinists,
tool and die makers, or advance to
jobs in machine programing and

Employment Outlook

Machine tool operator oversees numerically controlled machining operation.

ly determine the time required to be­
come a machine tool operator. Most
semiskilled operators learn their jobs
in a few months, but a skilled opera­
tor often requires 1-1/2 to 2 years.
Training, Other Qualifications,
Some companies have formal train­
and Advancement
ing programs for new employees.
Most machine tool operators learn
Although no special education is
their skills on the job. A beginner required for semiskilled jobs, young
usually starts by observing a skilled people seeking such work can im­
operator at work. When the trainee prove their opportunities by com­
first operates a machine, he is super­ pleting courses in mathematics and
vised closely by a more experienced blueprint reading. In hiring begin­
worker. The beginner learns how to ners, employers often look for people
use measuring instruments and to who have mechanical aptitude and
make elementary com putations some experience working with ma­
needed in shop work. He gradually chinery. Physical stamina is impor­
acquires experience and learns to tant since much time will be spent
operate a machine tool, read blue­ standing. Applicants should be able
prints, and plan the sequence of to work independently within a
machining work.
relatively small work area. Although
Individual ability and effort large­ much of the work is tedious, many

Machine tool operators worked in
every State and in almost every city
in the United States.

The number of machine tool
operators is expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1980’s,
primarily as a result of the antici­
pated expansion of metalworking ac­
tivities. In addition, many thousands
of workers will be hired to replace
experienced machine tool operators
who retire, die, or transfer to other
Technological developments will
continue to affect both the number
and skill requirements of machine
tool operators. The use of faster and
more versatile automatic machine
tools and numerically controlled ma­
chine tools will result in greater out­
put per worker and tend to limit em­
ployment growth. Other factors that
may slow the growth in this occupa­
tion are the increasingly important
new processes in metal removal, such
as electrical discharge and ultra­
sonic machining, and the use of pow­
dered metals that reduce the machin­
ing necessary for a final product.
Workers who have thorough back­
grounds in machining operations,
mathematics, blueprint reading, and
a good working knowledge of the
properties of metals will be better
able to adjust to the changing job re­
quirements that will result from
these technological advances.

Earnings and Working

Machine tool operators are paid
according to hourly or incentive



rates, or on the basis of a combina­
tion of both methods. Average
hourly rates for operators in 14 areas
surveyed in 1972— are presented

A rea

See the list under this same
heading in the statement on all­
round machinists.

H o u rly ra te

B altim ore.....................................
B oston...........................................
C hicago.........................................
Denver ...............................................
Detroit .........................................
Houston .............................................
Los Angeles—Long Beach ______
M inneapolis-St. P au l.....................
Portland, Oreg....................................
San Francisco—O akland...........
T am pa-St. Petersburg.............
Waterbury, Conn...............................
Worcester, Mass..............................


Machine tool operators must use
protective glasses and may not wear
loose-fitting garments when working
around high-speed machine tools. In­
creasing emphasis upon safety regu­
lations has reduced the accident rate
for these workers. Most shops are
clean and workplaces are welllighted.
Companies employing machine
tool operators usually provide paid
holidays and vacations. Other em­
ployee benefits may include health
and life insurance, accident insur­
ance, supplemental unemployment
benefits, and a pension plan.
Most machine tool operators be­
long to unions, including the Inter­
national Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; the Inter­
national Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace, and Agri­
cultural Implement Workers of
America; the International Union of
Electrical, Radio and Machine
Workers; the International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers; the
United Steelworkers of America;
and the Mechanics Educational
Society of America.

Source of Additional

(D.O.T. 600.380)
Nature of the Work

The setup man, often called a ma­
chine tool job setter, is a skilled
specialist employed in plants and
machine shops that do machining in
large volume. His main job is to get
machine tools ready for use (set up),
and to explain to semiskilled workers
the operations to be performed and
ways to check the accuracy of their
work. Usually a setup man is assign­
ed a number of machine tools that
often are of one type, such as turret
lathes. However, he may set up

several different kinds. Working
from drawings, blueprints, written
specifications, or job layouts, he
determines the rate at which the
material is to be fed into the ma­
chines, operating speeds, tooling,
and operation sequence. He then se­
lects and installs the proper cutting
or other tools and adjusts guides,
stops, and other controls. He may
make trial runs and adjust the ma­
chine and tools until the parts pro­
duced conform to specifications. The
machine is then turned over to a
semiskilled operator.
Places of Employment

Most of the estimated 43,000
setup men in 1972 were employed in
factories that manufactured fabri­
cated metal products, transporta­
tion equipment, and machinery.
These workers usually were em­
ployed by large companies that em­
ployed many semiskilled machine
tool operators. They are not usually
employed in maintenance shops or in
small jobbing shops.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A setup man must qualify as an
all-round machinist. He must be able
to operate one or more kinds of ma­
chine tools and select the sequence of
operations so that metal parts will be
made according to specifications.
The ability to communicate clearly is
important in explaining the machin­
ing operations to sem iskilled
workers. Setup men may be ad­
vanced within a shop or transferred
into other jobs, such as parts
Employment Outlook

Employment of setup men is ex­
pected to increase rapidly through
the mid-1980’s as a result of the anti­



worn or damaged dies, gauges, jigs,
cipated expansion of metalworking TOOL AND DIE MAKERS
and fixtures, and design tools and
activities due to heightened con­
sumer and industrial demand for ma­ (D.O.T. 601.280, .281, and .381)
Compared with most other ma­
chined goods. Offsetting this some­
chining workers, tool and die makers
what will be increased productivity
Nature of the Work
have a broad knowledge of machin­
of setup men due to numerically-con­
Tool and die makers are highly ing operations, mathematics, and
trolled machined tools. Job oppor­
tunities also will arise from the need skilled, creative workers whose prod­ blueprint reading, and do precise
to replace experienced setup men ucts—tools, dies, and special guid­ handwork. Tool and die makers use
who retire, die, or transfer to other ing and holding devices—are used to almost every type of machine tool
mass-produce metal parts.. Tool- and precision-measuring instru­
fields of work.
makers produce jigs and fixtures ment. They work and are familiar
(devices that hold metal while it is with the machining properties of
Earnings and Working
shaved, stamped, or drilled). They metals and alloys commonly used in
also make gauges and other measur­ manufacturing.
The earnings of setup men com­ ing devices for manufacturing preci­
pare favorably with those of other sion metal parts. Diemakers con­
Places of Employment
skilled machining workers. In 1972, struct metal forms (dies) to shape
setup men generally earned between metal in stamping and forging opera­
In 1972, about 170,000 tool and
$4 and $6 an hour for a standard tions. They also make metal molds die makers were employed, pri­
for diecasting and for molding marily in plants that produce manu­
Good safety habits are important plastics. Tool and die makers repair facturing, construction, and farm
since the setup man must handle
sharp cutting tools. He also may be
exposed to high-speed machine tools
that have sharp cutting instruments
when he makes the trial runs to test
the accuracy of the setup.
Companies that employ setup men
usually provide paid holidays and
vacations. Many also provide paid
accident, health and life insurance,
and retirement.
Many setup men are members of
unions, including the International
Association of Machinists and Aero­
space Workers; the International
Union, United Automobile, Aero­
space, and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America; and the United
Steelworkers of America.
Sources of Additional

See list under this same heading in
th e s ta te m e n t on a ll-ro u n d

Tool and Die maker uses computer run machine to make dies.



machinery. Others worked in auto­
mobile, aircraft, and other transpor­
tation equipment industries; small
tool and die shops; and electrical ma­
chinery and fabricated metal in­
Tool and die workers are found in
every State. Large numbers were em­
ployed in California, Illinois, Mich­
igan, New York, Ohio, and Penn­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Tool and die making skills can be
obtained through formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent on-the-job train­
ing. Applicants should have a good
working knowledge of mathematics
and physics, as well as considerable
mechanical ability, finger dexterity,
and an aptitude for precise work.
In selecting apprentices, most em­
ployers prefer young men who have a
high school or trade school educa­
tion. Some employers test apprentice
applicants to determine their me­
chanical aptitudes and their abilities
in mathematics. Young people enter­
ing the trade must be able to work to
exacting standards in various types
of tool and die work.
Most of the four years of a tool
and die apprenticeship are spent in
practical shop training. The appren­
tice learns to operate the drill press,
milling machine, lathe, grinder, and
other machine tools. He also learns,
to use hand tools in fitting and
assembling tools, gauges, and other
mechanical equipment, and studies
heat treating and other metal­
working processes. Classroom train­
ing consists of shop mathematics,
shop theory, mechanical drawing,
tool designing, and blueprint reading.
Several years’ experience after ap­
prenticeship is often necessary to
qualify for more difficult tool and die
work. Some com panies have
separate appenticeship programs for

toolmaking and diemaking.
Some machining workers become
tool and die makers without com­
pleting formal apprenticeships. After
years of experience as skilled ma­
chine tool operators or machinists,
plus additional classroom training,
they develop into all-round workers
who can skillfully perform tool and
die making.
Tool and die makers can become
tool designers or advance to super­
visory positions. Some open their
own tool and die shops.
Employment Outlook

Employment of tool and die
makers is expected to increase
slowly through the mid-1980’s. Most
job opportunities will become avail­
able as experienced tool and die
makers retire, die, or transfer to
other fields of work.
The anticipated long-range ex­
pansion in the machinery, electrical
equipment, transportation equip­
ment, and other metalworking indus­
tries will result in a continued need
for tools and dies. The growth of
this occupation may be limited,
however, by the use of electrical-dis­
charge machines and numericallycontrolled machines that have signif­
icantly changed toolmaking proc­
esses. Numerically-controlled ma­
chining operations require fewer of
the special tools and jigs and fix­
tures that are made by tool and die
makers. Numerically-controlled ma­
chines also could replace many of the
conventional machines now used in
manufacturing tools, jigs, and fix­
tures, and could increase the output
of each tool and die maker.
As a group, tool and die makers
have a long working life, because
their extensive skills and knowledge
can be acquired only after many
years of experience. Tool and die
makers also have greater occupa­
tional mobility than other less skilled

workers, and can transfer to jobs as
Earnings and Working

Tool and die makers are among
the highest-paid machining workers.
Average hourly rates for tool and die
makers in 15 areas surveyed in
1972-73 are presented below:
A rea

A tla n ta .....................................
B altim ore................................
Buffalo .....................................
C hicago.....................................
D a lla s .......................................
Denver .....................................
Detroit .....................................
Houston ...................................
Los Angeles—Long Beach ..
New Y o r k ................................
Salt Lake City ........................
San Francisco—Oakland . . . .
Worcester, Mass......................

H o u r ly ra te


As with other machining workers,
tool and die makers wear protective
glasses when working around metal
cutting machines. Tool and die shops
are usually safer than similar opera­
tions in production plants.
Most companies that employ tool
and die makers pay for holidays and
vacations. Health, life, and accident
insurance and pensions are among
other benefits.
Many tool and die makers are
members of unions, including the
International Association of Ma­
chinists and Aerospace Workers; the
International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace, and Agri­
cultural Implement Workers of
America; and the United Steel­
workers of America.
Sources of Additional

See list under this same heading in
th e s ta te m e n t on a ll-ro u n d

operation of complicated machines,
such as rounding and cutting

In 1972, more than 400,000 print­
ing craftsmen were employed to pro­
duce newspapers, magazines, busi­
ness forms, and hundreds of other
printed materials. Although most of
these craftsmen worked for pub­
lishers and commercial printing
shops, many had jobs in insurance
companies, paper mills, govern­
ment agencies, and many other
organizations that do their own prin­
Printing craftsmen usually special­
ize in one area of printing oper­
ations: type composition, platemak­
ing, presswork, or binding. The most
common way to learn the skills need­
ed in most of these fields is through
apprenticeship, which generally lasts
from 4 to 6 years. Apprenticeship
applicants usually must be high
school graduates who are 18 to 30
years of age, but requirements vary
among employers. Most printing
craftsmen who are covered by union
contracts work fewer than 40 hours a
week. Some contracts specify a
standard workweek of less than 35
hours, but most fall within a 35 to
37-1/2 hour range.
Through the mid-1980’s, oppor­
tunities to enter printing crafts will
stem mainly from the need to re­
place experienced workers who re­
tire, die, or leave the field for other
reasons. Employment growth also
will provide job openings in some
crafts, but laborsaving technological
developments will restrict growth in
The statements that follow deal
with employment opportunities for
the major groups of printing work­
ers: composing room occupations,

photoengravers, electrotypers and
stereotypers, printing pressmen and
assistants, lithographic occupations,
and bookbinders.

Nature of the Work

Many printed items, such as books
and magazines must be folded, sew­
ed, stapled, or bound after they leave
the printing shops. Much of this
work is done by skilled bookbinders
(D.O.T. 977.781).
Edition-binding—making books
in quantity from big, flat printed
sheets of paper—is the most compli­
cated kind of binding. Bookbinders
first fold the printed sheets into one
unit or more, known as a “signa­
ture,” so that the pages will be in the
right order. They then insert any il­
lustrations that have been printed
separately, gather and assemble
signatures in proper order, and sew
them together. They shape the book
bodies with presses and trimming
machines and reinforce them with
glued fabric strips. Covers are glued
or pasted onto the book bodies, and
then the books undergo a variety of
finishing operations and frequently
are wrapped in paper jackets.
Machines are used extensively
throughout the process.
Skilled bookbinders seldom per­
form all the different binding tasks,
but many have had training in all of
them. In large shops, skilled book­
binders may be assigned to one or a
few operations, most often to the

Bookbinder finishes cover.

In many binding shops much of
the work is done by bindery workers
who are trained in only one oper­
ation or in a small number of rela­
tively simple tasks. For example,
bindery workers perform such tasks
as fastening sheets or signatures to­
gether using a machine stapler and
feeding signatures into various
machines for stitching, folding, or
gluing operations.
Places of Employment

About 33,000 bookbinders were
employed in 1972. Many work in
shops that specialize in bookbind­
ing; others work in the bindery
departments of book publishing
firms, commercial printing plants,
and large libraries. Some book­
binders work for the Federal govern­



Training and Other

A 4- or 5-year apprenticeship,
which includes on-the-job training as
well as related classroom instruc­
tion, generally is required to qualify
as a skilled bookbinder. Apprentice­
ship applicants usually must have a
high school education, mechanical
aptitude, and be at least 18 years of
age. During the apprenticeship,
trainees learn to assemble signa­
tures; to renovate old, worn bind­
ings; and to use various binding
machines, such as puncher and
Most unskilled bindery hands
learn their tasks through informal
on-the-job training which may last
from several months to 2 years. A
few learn through formal appren­
ticeship programs that include class­
room instruction as well as on-thejob training.
Employment Outlook

Employment of bookbinders and
bindery workers is expected to in­
crease moderately through the mid1980’s. In addition to the jobs from
employment growth, several hundred
openings will arise each year as ex­
perienced workers retire or change
Despite the anticipated growth in
the amount of bound printed materi­
als, employment growth will be lim­
ited by the increasing mechanization
of bindery operations. For example,
the use of integral folders which
automatically fold pages as they
come off the press.
Earnings and Working

Wage rates for skilled book­
binders tend to be below the average
for other printing crafts. A survey of
union wage rates in 69 large cities
showed that the minimum wage rates

for bookbinders in publishing firms
and bookbinding shops averaged
$5.86 an hour in 1972. This rate was
about half again above the average
for nonsupervisory workers in all
private industries, except farming.
Among the individual cities sur­
veyed, minimum hourly rates for
bookbinders ranged from $3.06 in
Syracuse, N.Y. to $7.88 in New
York, N.Y.
The wage rates for bindery work­
ers are considerably lower than the
rates for bookbinders, and are
among the lowest for printing indus­
try workers. A survey of union wages
in 69 large cities shows that in 1972
the average minimum hourly rate for
bindery workers was $3.54. Among
the individual cities surveyed, mini­
mum hourly rates for bindery work­
ers ranged from $3.06 in Syracuse,
N.Y., to $4.25 in New York, N.Y.
Bookbinding shops tend to be
noisy when machinery is operating.
Bookbinders have some variety in
their jobs, but the jobs of bindery
workers tend to be monotonous.
Most bindery workers are mem­
bers of the Graphic Arts Union.
Sources of Additional

Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local bookbinding
shops, local offices of the Graphic
Arts Union, or the local office of the
State employment service.
General information on book­
binding occupations is available
from the following organizations:
American Newspaper A ssociation,
11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston,
Va. 20041.
The Graphic Arts Technical Founda­
tion, 4615 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh,
Pa. 15213.
The Graphic Arts Union, 1900 L St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Printing Industries of America, Inc.,
1730 North Lynn St., Arlington,
Va. 22201.

(D.O.T. 650.582, 654.782, and
Nature of the Work

The printing process begins in a
composing room when manuscript
copy is set in type, proofed, and
checked for errors. Machine and
handset type and other materials
such as photoengravings are assem­
bled and prepared for the pressroom.
Hand compositors (typesetters)
(D.O.T. 973.381) make up the old­
est composing-room occupation. To­
day most type that is set by hand is
for work that requires special com­
position (usually larger size type for
advertising copy) and for small jobs
in which the setting of type by
machine would be impractical.
To set type, the compositor reads
from the manuscript copy and sets
each line of type in a “composing
stick” (a device that holds type in
place) letter by letter and line by line.
When this stick is full, the com­
positor slides the completed lines
onto a shallow metal tray called a
Typesetting machine operators are
craftsmen who operate semiauto­
matic machines which set type much
more rapidly than hand methods.
Many of these workers specialize in
operating linotype, keyboard, cast­
ing, or phototypesetting machines.
Linotype (or intertype) machine
operators (D.O.T. 650.582), reading
from the copy clipped to the
machine’s copy board, select letters
and other characters by operating a
keyboard which has 90 keys. As they
press the keys, the letters, in forms of
metal molds, are assembled into lines
of words. As they complete each line,
the operators touch a lever and the
machine automatically casts the line
of type into a solid metal strip called
a “slug.” The slugs are assembled



with the fundamentals of photog­
raphy, including darkroom proce­
dures, to develop the film. They also
make minor repairs on the photo­
typesetting machine. Since much of
this equipment has electronic con­
trols, operators need a basic knowl­
edge of the principles of electronics.
Typesetting machine operators
also use machines similar to type­
writers to set “cold type” on paper.
“Cold type” composition may be set
directly on a paper or metal sheet
from which the plate is to be made,
or the cold type images may be cut
from paper and pasted on layout
sheets. The process of assembling
and pasting this type on layout sheets
is called paste makeup, and is some­
what similar to hand composition.
The worker who assembles and
pastes up all the materials for a page
is called a paste-makeup man. Cold
type composition frequently is used
by newspapers for display adver­
tising, and to set regular text copy.
Places off Employment
Linotype operator sets type.

into the type forms from which either
the printing impressions or printing
plates are made. Nearly all news­
paper plants, large commercial
shops, and typographic composition
firms use these machines to set type.
In small plants, operators also may
maintain and repair typesetting
Monotype keyboard operators
(D.O.T. 650.582) operate keyboards
which are similar to typewriters, but
which have about four times as many
keys. The keyboard machine pro­
duces a perforated paper tape that
later is fed into the casting machine
by monotype caster operators
(D.O.T. 654.782). The machine
reads the tape and automatically
selects the metal molds for each
letter. Molten metal is forced into

molds to form the type. Caster oper­
ators insert the tape, adjust and tend
the machine while it is operating, and
do minor maintenance and repair
Phot otypes et ting machine
operators (D.O.T. 650.582) operate
high speed typesetting machines. In
phototypesetting, a photographic
process replaces the function of the
hot metal, and the final product is a
film or photographic print of the
type rather than a metal slug. In a
common kind of phototypesetting,
perforated paper tape or a magnetic
tape is fed into a machine which
reads the tape and photographs the
individual characters indicated on
the tape.
In addition to machine operation,
phototypesetters must be familiar

About 170,000 workers were em­
ployed in composing room occupa­
tions in 1972. About one-third work
for newspaper plants. Many others
work for commercial printing plants,
book and magazine printers, and
Federal, State, and local govern­
ments. Some work for banks, insur­
ance companies, advertising agen­
cies, manufacturers, and other firms
that do their own printing.
Composing room workers can find
jobs in almost every community
throughout the country, but they are
concentrated in large cities.
Training and Other

Most compositors obtain their
skills through apprenticeship train­
ing. Others learn while working as
shop helpers for several years, or
through a combination of trade


school and helper experience.
Generally, apprenticeship covers a
6-year period of progressively ad­
vanced training, supplemented by
classroom instruction or corre­
spondence courses. However, this
period may be shortened by as much
as 2 to 2-1/2 years for apprentices
who have had previous experience or
schooling or who show the ability to
learn the trade more rapidly.
After basic training as a hand
compositor, the apprentice receives
intensive training in one specialized
field or more, such as in the oper­
ation of typesetting machines, in­
cluding phototypesetting and tele­
typesetting machines, as well as in
specialized work in hand com­
position and photocomposition.
Applicants for apprenticeship
generally must be high school gradu­
ates and in good physical condition.
They sometimes are given aptitude
tests. Important qualifications in­
clude training in English, especially
spelling, and in mathematics. Print­
ing and typing courses in vocational
or high schools are good prepara­
tion for apprenticeship applicants,
and a general interest in electronics
and photography is becoming in­
creasingly useful. Artistic ability is
an asset for a compositor in layout
Tape-perforating machine oper­
ators must be expert typists. They
generally learn to type in commer­
cial courses in high school or in busi­
ness school. These operators do not
need to be trained as journeymen
compositors but they must be famil­
iar with printing terms and measure­
ments. The training period for tape­
perforating machine operators is
about a year.
Employment Outlook

Employment in composing-room
occupations is expected to decline
slowly through the mid-1980’s.
Nevertheless, a few thousand job


openings are expected each year as
experienced workers retire, die, or
change occupations.
In spite of the anticipated expan­
sion in the volume of printing,
employment in composing room oc­
cupations is expected to decline be­
cause of technological changes in
typesetting equipment that will
enable fewer operators to set type
faster. For example, over the past
decade automatically operated type­
setting machines have been used in­
creasingly. The use of computers,
programmed to perforate the codes
for spacing, length of line, and
hyphenation, simplifies the work of
the tape-perforating machine opera­
tor and increases the speed at which
type can be set.
Technological changes also will
affect the educational and skill re­
quirements for composing room
workers. For example, greater use of
phototypesetting requires workers
who have some photographic skills.
Since much of the new typesetting
equipment is operated by electronics
systems, a knowledge of the prin­
ciples of electronics is becoming in­
creasingly important for composing
room workers.
Earnings and Working

Union compositors on the day
shift in newspaper plants had an
average minimum rate of $5.94 an
hour in 1972, according to a survey
of 69 large cities. This rate was about
one-half more than the average for
nonsupervisory workers in all pri­
vate industries, except farming.
Minimum hourly rates for compos­
itors among the surveyed cities rang­
ed from $3.55 in Tampa, Fla., to
$6.86 in Chicago, 1 Compositors
who worked nights received slightly
higher pay.
Working conditions for com­
positors vary from plant to plant.
Some heat and noise are made by

typesetting machines. In general, the
new plants are well-lighted and
clean, and many are air-condi­
tioned. Hand compositors have to
stand for long periods and do some
heavy lifting. People with some types
of physical handicaps, such as deaf­
ness, have been able to work in the
A substantial proportion of com­
positors are members of the Inter­
national Typographical Union.
Sources of Additional

Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local employers, such
as newspapers and printing shops,
the local office of the International
Typographical Union, or the local
office of the State employment ser­
General information on compos­
ing room occupations is available
from the following organizations:
A m erican N ew spaper Publishers
Association, 11600 Sunrise Valley
Dr., Reston, Va. 20041.
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation,
4615 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.
International Typographic Composi­
tion Association, Inc., 2233 Wis­
consin Ave. NW ., Washington,
D.C. 20007.
International Typographical Union,
P.O. Box 157, Colorado Springs,
Colo. 80901.
Printing Industries of America, Inc.,
1730 North Lynn St., Arlington,
Va. 22201.

Nature of the Work

Electrotypers (D.O.T. 974.381)
and stereotypers (D.O.T. 975.782)


make duplicate press plates of metal,
rubber, and plastic for letterpress
printing. These plates are made from
the metal type forms prepared in the
composing room. Electrotypes are
used mainly in book and magazine
work. Stereotypes, which are less
durable, are used chiefly for news­
papers. Electrotyping and stereo­
typing are necessary because most
volume printing requires the use of
duplicate plates. When a large edi­
tion of a magazine or newspaper is
printed, several plates must be used
to replace those which become too
worn to make clear impressions.
Furthermore, many big plants use
rotary presses which require curved
plates made by either electrotyping
or stereotyping from flat type forms.
Electrotypers make a wax or
plastic mold of the metal type form
which is coated with chemical solu­
tions before being placed in an
electrolytic bath containing metal.
This leaves a metallic shell on
the coated mold. The shell is strip­
ped from the mold, backed with
metal or plastic, and carefully Finish­
The stereotyping process is sim­
pler, quicker, and less expensive than
electrotyping, but it does not yield as
durable or as Fine a plate. Stereo­
typers make molds or mats of papermache instead of wax or plastic. The
mat is placed on the type form and
covered with a cork blanket and
a sheet of fiberboard. The covered
form is run under heavy steel rollers
to impress the type and photoengrav­
ings on the mat. Then the mat is
placed in a stereotype casting
machine which casts a composition
lead plate on the mold. In many of
the la rg e r p la n ts, a u to m a tic
machines cast stereotype plates.


Places of Employment

About 4,000 electrotypers and
stereotypers were employed in 1972.
Many electrotypers work in large
plants that print books and maga­
zines. Most stereotypers work for
newspaper plants, but some are em­
ployed in large commercial printing
plants. Electrotypers and stereo­
typers also are employed in service
shops which do this work for print­
ing Firms.
Jobs in these trades can be found
throughout the country, but employ­
ment is concentrated in large cities.
Training and Other

Nearly all electrotypers and
stereotypers learn their trades
through 5- to 6-year apprentice­
ships. Electrotyping and stereo­
typing are separate crafts and rela­
tively few transfers take place be­
tween the two. The apprenticeship
program of each trade covers all
phases of the work and almost
always includes classes in related
technical subjects as well as training
on the job.
Apprenticeship applicants must be
at least 18 years of age and, in most
instances, must have a high school
education or its equivalent. If possi­
ble, this education should include
courses in chemistry and machine
shop. Physical examinations and
aptitude tests often are given to pro­
spective apprentices.
Employment Outlook

Employment of electrotypers and
stereotypers is expected to decline
slowly through the mid-1980’s.
Nevertheless, a small number of
openings will arise as experienced
Some electrotypers and stereo­ workers retire, die, or change oc­
typers do only one phase of the work, cupations.
such as casting, molding, or Finish­
Despite the anticipated increase in
ing. Others handle many tasks.
the total volume of printing, employ­

ment will decline because of laborsaving technological developments.
For example, the increasing use of
automatic plate-casting eliminates
many steps in platemaking. Further­
more, the greater use of lithographic
(offset) printing reduces the need for
electrotype and stereotype plates,
which are not needed in lithographic
Earnings and Working

In 1972 union minimum wage
rates in 69 large cities averaged $5.58
an hour for electrotypers and $5.83
an hour for stereotypers in book and
commercial printing shops. Both
averages were considerably higher
than the average for nonsupervisory
workers in all private industries, ex­
cept farming.
Much of the work in these trades
requires little physical effort since
the preparation of duplicate printing
plates is highly mechanized. How­
ever, some lifting of relatively heavy
press plates is required.
Nearly all electrotypers and
stereotypers are members of the
International Stereotypers’ and Electrotypers’ Union of North America.
Sources of Additional

Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local employers, such
as newspapers and printing shops,
the local office of the International
Stereotypers’ and Electrotypers’
Union, or the local office of the State
employment service.
General information on electro­
typers and stereotypers is available
from the following organizations:
A m erican N ew spaper Publishers
Association, 11600 Sunrise Valley
Dr., Reston, Va. 20041.


Graphic Arts Technical Foundation,
4615 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.
International Stereotypers’ and Elect r o ty p e r s ’ U n io n o f N o r th
America, 10 South La Salle St.,
Chicago, 111. 60603.
Printing Industries of America, 1730
North Lynn St., Arlington, Va.

Nature of the Work

Lithography, also called offset
printing, is one of the most rapidly
growing methods of printing. It is a
process of photographing the matter
to be printed, making a printing
plate from the photograph, and
pressing the inked plate against a
rubber plate which in turn presses it
onto the paper.
Several operations are involved in
lithography, and each is performed
by a specialized group of workers.
The main group of lithographic
workers includes cameramen, artists,
and letterers, strippers, platemakers, and pressmen.
Cameramen (D.O.T. 972.382)
start the process of making a litho­
graphic plate by photographing and
developing negatives of the copy.
They generally are classified as line
cameramen, halftone cameramen, or
color separation photographers.
Negatives may need retouching to
lighten or darken certain parts.
Lithographic artists (D .O .T.
972.281) make these corrections by
sharpening or reshaping images on
the negatives. They do the work by
hand, using chemicals, dyes, and spe­
cial tools. Like cameramen, they are
assigned to only one phase of the
work, and may have job titles such as
dot etchers, retouchers, or letterers.

Strippers (D .O .T. 971.281)
arrange and paste film or prints of
type and art work on the layout
sheets from which photographic im­
pressions are made for the press
p la tes. Pl at emaker s (D .O .T .
972.781) cover the surface of the
plates with a coating of photo­
sensitive chemicals, or the plate may
come with the coating already
applied. After exposing the sensi­
tized plate to the negative, they
chemically treat the plate to bring
out the photographic image.
Lithographic pressmen (D.O.T.
651.782) tend lithographic (offset)
printing presses. They install plates
on the presses and adjust the pres­
sure and water and ink rollers for
correct operation. Basically, the
duties of these workers are similar to
those of letterpress and gravure

Places of Employment

About 80,000 skilled lithographic
workers were employed in 1972.
Many work for commercial printing
plants, newspapers, and book and
magazine printers. Some work for
the U.S. Government Printing Of­
Lithographic workers can find
jobs throughout the country, but
most jobs are in large cities.
Training and Other

A 4- or 5-year apprenticeship pro­
gram usually is required in order to
become a well-rounded lithographic
craftsman. These programs may
emphasize a specific craft, such as
platemaker or pressman, although
an attempt is made to make the ap-



prentice familiar with all litho­
graphic operations.
Usually, apprenticeship appli­
cants must be in good physical condi­
tion, high school graduates, and at
least 18 years of age. Aptitude tests
are sometimes given to prospective
apprentices. High school and voca­
tional school training in photog­
raphy, mathematics, chemistry,
physics, and art are helpful in learn­
ing these crafts.
Employment Outlook

Employment of skilled litho­
graphic workers is expected to in­
crease very rapidly through the mid1980’s. In addition to the job open­
ings resulting from employment
growth, the need to replace workers
who retire, die, or change occupa­
tions will provide some openings.
Employment of lithographic
workers is expected to increase in re­
sponse to the continued growth of
offset printing. Commercial print­
ing firms and newspaper publishers
increasingly are using offset presses
in place of letter presses. Employ­
ment growth also will be stimulated
by the greater use of photographs
and drawings in printed matter, and
by the more widespread use of color
in many printed products.
Earnings and Working

Average minimum union rates for
cameramen, dot etchers or process
artists, and letterers ranged from
$4.00 an hour in Little Rock, Ark.,
to $7.46 an hour in Boston, Mass.,
according to a survey in 69 large
cities in 1972. Rates of platemakers
ranged from $4.00 an hour in Little
Rock, Ark., to $7.15 an hour in
Boston, Mass. The wide range of
rates for lithographic press­
men—from $3.21 an hour for small
multilith press operators in Little

Rock, to $9.51 an hour for a press­
man on a large web press in
(D.O.T. 971.281 and .382)
Chicago—is due largely to the many
different types and sizes of presses.
Lithographic workers are on their
Nature of the Work
feet much of the time, but the work is
Photoengravers make metal prin­
not strenuous. They are sometimes
ting plates of pictures and other copy
under pressure to meet publication
that cannot be set up in type. In
Most lithographic workers are letterpress photoengraving, ink is
members of the Graphic Arts Inter­ rolled over the printed surface which
national Union. A large number of stands higher than the rest of the
offset pressmen are members of the plate. When paper is pressed against
International Printing Pressmen and the raised surface, the print or image
Assistants’ Union of North America. is picked up. Similarly, gravure
photoengravers make gravure plates
on which the image is etched below
Sources of Additional
the plate’s surface. Ink is placed in
the etched or sunken areas, and when
Details on apprenticeship and paper is pressed against the surface
other training opportunities in litho­ the ink is lifted out and appears on
graphic occupations are available the paper.
In the m aking of a p h o to ­
from local employers, such as news­
papers and printing shops, local of­ engraving plate for the letterpress
fices of the union previously men­ process, the entire job may be done
tioned, or the local office of the State either by one worker or by several,
employment service. General infor­ each doing a particular operation,
mation on lithographic occupations such as camera work, printing, and
etching. In large shops, however, the
may be obtained from:
work is divided almost always
A m erican N ew spaper Publishers
among a number of these specialists.
Association, 11600 Sunrise Valley
Photoengravers first photograph
Dr., Reston, Va. 20041.
the material to be reproduced. After
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation,
developing the negative, they print
4615 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.
the image on a metal plate by coat­
ing the plate with a solution sensi­
The Graphic Arts International Union,
tive to light and then exposing it to
1900 L St. NW., Washington, D.C.
the negative. When the plate is plac­
ed in an acid bath, the nonimage
International Printing Pressmen and
areas are etched away and the image
A s s is ta n ts ’ U n io n o f N o rth
America, 1730 Rhode Island Ave.
areas stand out.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
The number of photoengraving
National Association of Photo-Lithog­
operations performed depends on the
raphers, 230 West 41st St., New
quality of the printing required.
York, N.Y. 10036.
Photoengravings for very high qual­
Printing Industries of America, Inc.,
ity books or periodicals, for example,
1730 North Lynn St., Arlington,
require more careful finishing than
Va. 22201.
those for new spapers. P h o to ­
engravers use handtools to inspect
and touch up the plates. They cut
away metal from the nonprinting
part of the plate to prevent it from



touching the inking rollers during
Gravure photoengraving is like
letterpress photoengraving, except
that in gravure photoengraving the
image areas rather than the back­
ground are etched away.
Places of Employment

An estimated 16,000 journeymen
photoengravers were employed in
1972. More than half work in com­
mercial shops making photoengrav­
ings for other printing firms. News­
papers and rotogravure shops em­
ploy several thousand p h o to ­
engravers. Book and magazine print­
ers and the Federal government also
employ these craftsmen. Many
photoengravers have their own
Photoengravers can find jobs
throughout the country, but employ­
ment is concentrated in large print­
ing centers, such as New York,
Chicago, Philadelphia, and Los

dred job openings are expected each conditioned and well-lighted. Most
year as experienced workers retire, photoengravers are members of the
die, or change occupations.
Graphic Arts International Union.
Employment of these craftsmen is
Sources of Additional
expected to decline despite the grow­
ing use of photographs and other il­
lustrations in publications. Im­
Details about apprenticeship and
proved photographic equipment, and other training opportunities may be
Training and Other
the increasing use of lithographic obtained from local employers, such
(offset) printing, which requires no as newspapers and printing shops,
Most photoengravers learn their photoengraving, will limit the num­
the local office of the Graphic Arts
trade through a 5-year apprentice­ ber of photoengravers needed.
Union, or the local office of the State
ship program which includes at least
employment service.
800 hours of classroom instruction.
General information on photo­
Earnings and Working
Apprenticeship applicants must be at
engravers is available from the
least 18 years of age and generally
following organizations:
must have a high school education or
Union photoengravers on the day
A m erican N ew spaper Publishers
its equivalent, preferably with shift in newspaper plants had an
Association, 11600 Sunrise Valley
courses in chemistry and physics. average minimum rate ot $6.46 an
Dr., Reston, Va. 20041.
Many employers require a physical hour in 1972, according to a survey
American Photoplatemakers Associ­
examination for prospective photo­ of 69 large cities. This average was
ation, 166 West Van Buren St.,
engravers; the condition of the appli­ about two-thirds more than the aver­
Chicago, 111. 60604.
cant’s eyes is particularly important age for nonsupervisory workers in all
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation,
because of the close work and color private industries, except farming.
4615 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.
discrimination involved.
Minimum hourly rates for photo­
engravers among the surveyed cities
The Graphic Arts Union, 1900 L St.
ranged from $4.31 in Jacksonville,
Employment Outlook
NW „ Washington, D.C. 20036.
Fla. to $8.01 in New York, N.Y.
Printing Industries of America, Inc.,
Employment of photoengravers is
Photoengravers stand up much of
1730 North Lynn St., Arlington,
expected to decline slowly through the time, but the work is not strenu­
Va. 22201.
the mid-1980’s. However, a few hun­ ous. Work areas usually are air-



(D.O.T. 651.782, .885, and .886)
Nature of the Work

The actual printing operation is
performed in the pressroom. Print­
ing pressmen prepare type forms and
press plates for final printing and
tend the presses.
The object of preparation work is
to insure printing impressions that
are distinct and uniform. This oper­
ation may be performed by placing
pieces of paper exactly the right
thickness underneath low areas of
the press plates to level them. Press­
men also adjust control margins and
the flow of ink to the inking roller. In
some shops, they oil and clean the
presses and make minor repairs.
Pressmen who work with large
presses have assistants and helpers.
Pressmen’s work may differ great­
ly from one shop to another, mainly
because of differences in the kinds
and sizes of presses. Small commer­
cial shops generally have small and
relatively simple manual presses. At
the other extreme are the enormous
presses used by the large newspaper,
magazine, and book printers. These
giant presses are fed paper in big
rolls called “webs” up to 50 inches or
more in width. They print the paper
on both sides; cut, assemble, and fold
the pages; and count the finished
newspaper sections as they come off
the press. Presses of this kind are
operated by crews of journeymen
and less skilled workers under the
direction of a pressman-in-charge.
Places of Employment

About 140,000 pressmen and
assistants were employed in 1972.
More than half work for commer­
cial printing shops and book and
magazine publishers. Many others

have jobs in newspapers plants.
Some pressmen and assistants are
employed by banks, insurance com­
panies, manufacturers, and other
organizations that do their own
printing, such as Federal, State, and
local governments.
Pressmen and assistants can find
jobs throughout the country, but
employment is concentrated in large
Training and Other

Employment Outlook

Employment of pressmen is ex­
pected to increase slowly through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to the
jobs from employment growth, a few
thousand openings will arise each
year as experienced workers retire,
die, or change occupations.
More pressmen will be needed be­
cause of growth in the amount of
printed materials. The use of faster
and more efficient presses, many of
which have automatic controls, will
limit employment growth.

Most pressmen learn their trade
through apprenticeship, but some
Earnings and Working
workers learn while working as help­
ers or press assistant. Others obtain
their skills through a combination of
A survey of union wages in 69
work experience and vocational or large cities shows that in 1972 the
technical school training.
average minimum hourly rate for
The length of apprenticeship and newspaper pressmen-in-charge was
the content of training depend large­ $6.06; for newspaper pressmen,
ly on the kind of press used in the $5.80; for book and job cylinder
plant. The apprenticeship period in pressmen, $5.92; and for book and
commercial shops is 2 years for press job press assistants and feeders,
assistants, and 4 to 5 years for press­ $5.29. These rates were higher than
men. In addition to on-the-job in­ the average for all nonsupervisory
struction, the apprenticeship in­
workers in private industries, except
cludes related classroom or corre­ farming. Many pressmen work night
spondence school courses.
shifts and receive extra pay.
Individual companies generally
Pressrooms are noisy, and work­
choose apprentices from among ers in certain areas frequently wear
press assistants and others already ear protectors. Pressmen are subject
employed in the plant. Young people to hazards when working near
often may work for 2 or 3 years in machinery, and often have to lift
the pressroom before they begin ap­ heavy type forms and press plates.
prenticeship training. A high school At times, they work under pressure
education or its equivalent gener­
to meet deadlines.
ally is required. Because of technical
Most pressroom workers are cov­
developments in the printing indus­ ered by union agreements. The prin­
try, courses in chemistry and phys­ ciple union in this field is the Inter­
ics are helpful. Mechanical aptitude national Printing Pressmen and
is important in making press adjust­
Assistants’ Union of North America.
ments and repairs. An ability to
visualize color is essential for work
Sources of Additional
on color presses, which are being
used increasingly. Physical strength
and endurance are needed for work
Details about apprenticeship and
on some kinds of presses, where the other training opportunities may be
pressmen lift heavy plates and stand obtained from local employers, such
for long periods.
as newspapers and printing shops.*



the local office of the International
Printing Pressmen and Assistants’
Union, or the local office of the State
employment service.
General information about press­
men and assistants is available from
the following organizations:

A m erican N ew spaper Publishers
Association, 11600 Sunrise Valley
Dr., Reston, Va. 20041.

International Printing Pressmen and
A s s is ta n ts ’ U n ion o f N orth
America, 1730 Rhode Island Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

Graphic Arts Technical Foundation,
4615 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.

Printing Industries of America, Inc.,
1730 North Lynn St., Arlington,
Va. 22201.

Nature of the Work

Television sets, automobiles, and
refrigerators are typical of the manu­
factured products that undergo many
assembly operations. Assemblers,
most of whom are semiskilled
workers, put together the parts for
these and thousands of other prod­
Some assemblers, known as floor
assemblers, put together large, heavy
machinery or equipment on shop
floors, often fastening parts with
bolts, screws, or rivets. Others,
known as bench assemblers, put
together small parts to make subassemblies or small complete units.
Many assemblers work on items that
move automatically past their work
stations on conveyors. These workers
must complete their job within the
time it takes the part or product to
pass their work station.
The duties of assemblers depend
upon the product being manu­
factured and the process being used.
In aircraft and missile production,
these workers may assemble and in­
stall parts into subassemblies. In the
automobile industry, one assembler
may start nuts on bolts, and the next
worker may tighten the nuts with
power-driven tools. Assemblers in
electronic plants may connect parts
with electrical wire.
Assemblers use many different
tools depending on the product and
the work they are doing. Pliers,
screwdrivers, soldering irons, power
drills, and wrenches are among the

common tools used by semiskilled
Skilled assemblers work on the
more complex parts of subassem­
blies with little or no supervision, and
are responsible for the final assem­
bly of complicated jobs. These
workers must know how to read

blueprints and other engineering
specifications and use a variety of
tools and precision measuring instru­
ments. In relatively new fields such
as electronics, instrumentation, and
missiles, subassembly work may re­
quire a high degree of skill.
Places of Employment

In 1972, more than 1 million
a s s e m b le r s — h a lf o f th e m
women—worked in manufacturing
plants. Most were in plants that
made fabricated metal products, ma­
chinery, and motor vehicles. More
than half of all assemblers were


em ployed in the heavily in ­
Manufacturing plants will need
dustrialized States of California, more assemblers to produce goods
New York, Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, for the Nation’s growing economy.
New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
Growth in population and personal
income will increase the demand for
consumer products such as auto­
Training, Other Qualifications,
mobiles and household appliances.
and Advancement
Business expansion will increase the
Inexperienced people can be train­ demand for industrial machinery and
ed to do assembly work in a few days equipment. Employment of assem­
or weeks. The new worker may have blers, however, is not expected to
his job duties explained to him by the keep pace with manufacturing out­
supervisor and then be placed under put because automation of assembly
the direction of an experienced processes and other laborsaving
employee. When the new worker has innovations are expected to raise out­
developed sufficient speed and skill, put per worker and limit employ­
he is placed “on his own” and is ment growth.
responsible for the work he does.
Em ployment in plants th at
Employers seek applicants who produce durable goods, such as auto­
are physically fit and dependable and mobiles and aircraft, is particularly
who have some aptitude for me­ sensitive to changes in business con­
chanical work. High school grad­ ditions and national defense needs.
uates or workers who have taken Therefore, assemblers in these plants
vocational school courses, such as may be subject to occasional layoffs.
blueprint reading, are preferred by
many employers, although a high
Earnings and Working
school diploma is not usually re­
quired. Generally, for production­
line jobs, employers look for
Wage rates for assemblers ranged
applicants who can do routine work from about $3 to $5 an hour in 1972,
at a fast pace. For other types of according to information from a
assembly jobs, applicants may have limited number of union contracts.
to meet special requirements. For ex­ Variation in wages depends on geo­
ample, in plants that make electrical graphic area, industry, and type of
and electronic products, which may assembly work.
contain many different colored
The working conditions of
wires, applicants often are tested for assemblers differ, depending on the
color blindness.
particular job performed. Assem­
A relatively small number of blers of electronic equipment may
semiskilled assemblers advance to put together small components at a
skilled assembly jobs. A few also bench in a room that is clean, well
may become inspectors or foremen.
lighted, and free from dust. Floor
assemblers of industrial machinery,
on the other hand, may install and
Employment Outlook
assemble heavy parts and may often
Employment of assemblers is ex­ be exposed to contact with oil and
pected to increase slowly through grease. Workers on assembly lines
the mid-1980’s, with thousands of may be under pressure to keep up
openings each year. Many more with the speed of the lines. Some
job openings will result as workers assemblers are paid incentive or
retire, die, or transfer to other piece-work rates and are encouraged
to work more rapidly by the prospect


of higher earnings.
Many assemblers are members of
labor unions. These include the
International Association of Ma­
chinists and Aerospece Workers; the
International Union of Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers; the
International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America; and
the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers. Most union con­
tracts provide for fringe benefits such
as holiday and vacation pay, health
insurance, life insurance, and retire­
ment pensions.
Source off Additional

Additional information about
em ploym ent opportunities for
assemblers may be available from
local offices of the State employment

(D.O.T. 845.781)
Nature of the Work

Automobile painters make old and
damaged motor vehicles “look like
new.” These skilled workers repaint
vehicles that have lost the luster of
their original paint, and the repaired
portions of vehicles damaged in traf­
fic accidents. (Production painters
who work for motor vehicle manu­
facturers are discussed elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
To prepare an automobile for
painting, painters or their helpers
rough-sand it to remove original
paint and rust. Painters then use a
spray gun to apply primer coats to
the automobile surface. After the
primer dries, they sand the surface



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

until it is smooth. For roughsanding, they usually use a pneu­
matic or electric sander and a coarse
grade of sandpaper; final sanding
may be done by hand, using a fine
grade of sandpaper. Small nicks and
scratches that cannot be removed by
sanding are filled with automobilebody putty. Masking tape and paper
are used to cover areas not to be
Before painting repaired portions
of an automobile, painters may mix
paints to match the color of the car.
Before applying paint, they adjust
the nozzle of the spray gun accord­
ing to the kind of lacquer or enamel
being used and, if necessary, adjust
the air-pressure regulator to get the
needed amount of pressure. Painters
must handle the spray gun skillfully
so that the paint is applied evenly,
rapidly, and thoroughly. To speed
drying, they may place the freshly

painted automobile under heat lamps
or in a special infrared oven. Painters
or their helpers may polish the newly
painted surface.
Places of Employment

About 25,000 persons worked as
automobile painters in 1972. Almost
two-thirds worked in shops that
specialize in automobile body repairs
and painting, and in shops that make
general automobile repairs. Most
others worked for automobile and
truck dealers. Some painters worked
for organizations that maintained
and repaired their own fleets of
motor vehicles, such as trucking
companies and bus lines.
Geographically, employment is
distributed about the same as pop­
ulation, although autom obile
painters are employed in every sec­
tion of the country.

Most automobile painters start as
helpers, and acquire their skills infor­
mally by working with experienced
painters. Usually, beginners remove
automobile trim, clean, and sand
surfaces to be painted, and polish
painted surfaces. As helpers gain ex­
perience, they progress to more com­
plicated tasks, such as using spray
guns to apply primer coats and paint
small areas. Three to four years of
informal on-the-job training are re­
quired in order to become fully
A small number of automobile
painters learn through apprentice­
ship. Apprenticeship programs,
which generally last 3 years, consist
of on-the-job training supplemented
by classroom instruction.
In 1972, training programs for un­
employed and underem ployed
workers seeking entry jobs as auto­
mobile painters were in operation in
several cities, under the Manpower
Development and Training Act. Per­
sons who complete these programs,
which usually last up to a year,
generally need additional on-the-job
or apprenticeship training to qualify
as skilled painters.
Young persons considering this
work as a career should have good
health, keen eyesight, a good color
sense, and a steady hand. Courses in
automobile-body repair offered by
high schools and vocational schools
provide helpful experience. Comple­
tion of high school is generally not a
requirement but may be an advan­
tage, because to many employers
high school graduation indicates that
a young person can complete a job.
An experienced autom obile
painter with supervisory ability may
advance to shop foreman. Many ex­
perienced painters who acquire the
necessary capital open their own


Employment Outlook

Em ploym ent of autom obile
painters is expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1980’s.
In addition to jobs created by
growth, several hundred openings are
expected each year because of the
need to replace experienced painters
who retire or die. Openings also will
occur as some painters transfer to
other occupations.
Em ployment of autom obile
painters is expected to increase
primarily because more motor
vehicles will be damaged in traffic
accidents as the number of vehicles
grows. Accident losses will grow,
even though better highways, driver
training courses, and improved
bumpers and other safety features on
new vehicles may slow the rate of
growth. Despite the increasingly
durable paint on new cars, the num­
ber of cars that need repainting also
may increase.
Earnings and Working

Painters employed by automobile
dealers in 34 large cities had esti­
mated average hourly earnings of
$6.66 in 1972, compared with $3.65,
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Skilled painters usually
earn between two and three times
as much as inexperienced helpers
and trainees.
Many painters employed by auto­
mobile dealers and independent
repair shops are paid a commission
based on the labor cost charged to
the customer. Under this method,
earnings depend largely on the
amount of work and how fast the
painter completes it. Employers fre­
quently guarantee their commis­
sioned painters a minimum weekly
salary. Helpers and trainees usually
are paid an hourly rate until they are
sufficiently skilled to work on a com­

mission basis. Painters employed by
trucking companies, buslines, and
other organizations that repair their
own vehicles usually receive an hour­
ly rate. Most painters work 40 to 48
hours a week.
Many employers provide holiday
and vacation pay, and additional
benefits such as life and health in­
surance, and contribute to retire­
ment plans. Some shops furnish
laundered uniforms free of charge.
Automobile painters are exposed
to fumes from paint and paint­
mixing ingredients. However, in
most shops, the painting is done in
special ventilated booths that pro­
tect the painters. Masks covering the
nose and mouth are used, as well.
Painters must be agile because they
often bend and stoop while working.
Only average physical strength is
Many automobile painters belong
to unions, including the Inter­
national Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; the Inter­
national Union, United A uto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America; the
Sheet Metal Workers’ International
Association; and the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf­
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of
America (Ind.). Most painters who
are union members work for the
larger automobile dealers, trucking
companies, and buslines.
Sources of Additional

For more details about work op­
portunities, contact local employers,
such as automobile-body repair
shops and automobile dealers; locals
of the unions previously mentioned;
or the local office of the State
employment service. The State
employment service also may be a
source of information about the
Manpower Development and Train­
ing Act, apprenticeship, and other


programs that provide training op­
General information about the
work of automobile painters may be
obtained from:
Automotive Service Industry Associa­
tion, 230 North Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60601.
A u tom otive Service C ouncils o f
America, Inc., 4001 Warren Blvd.,
Hillside, 111. 60162.

(D.O.T. 780.381 and .884)
Nature of the Work

Automobile trimmers, often
assisted by installation men, replace
and repair upholstery and other
automobile fabrics. Trimmers and
installation men together are called
automobile upholsterers. (Workers
who upholster automobiles in fac­
tories are not included in this
Automobile trimmers (D.O.T.
780.381) are skilled upholsterers who
custom-make seat covers, door pan­
els, convertible tops, and other items.
To make these items, they first deter­
mine the dimensions of each peice of
vinyl, leatherette, broadcloth, or
other material to be used and mark
the material for cutting. Although
trimmers follow standard designs for
most items, they may use their own
creations or the original designs
specified by customers. After cutting
and fitting, they use heavy-duty sew­
ing machines to stitch the pieces.
Finished pieces are stretched and
pulled to fit snugly; and then trimm­
ed of excess material. In addition to
upholstery and convertible tops,
trimmers may make truck seat



cushions, tarpaulins, boat covers,
and seats for buses, motorcycles,
and small airplanes. They also may
mend damaged upholstery, repair
window and convertible top mecha­
nisms, and cut and install automo­
bile glass.
Automobile trimmers often are
assisted by installation men, some­
times called seat-cover installers
(D.O.T. 780.884), who remove worn
seat covers and convertible tops and
install new ones. In addition they
may install sunroofs and vinyl tops.
Trimmers and installation men use
many handtools including shears,
knives, special pliers, and various
types of w renches and tack
hammers. They also use heavy-duty
sewing machines and power tools
such as air-powered staplers and
wrenches. Some shops have electric
steaming machines which shrink
fabrics, and special electronic
welders which bind synthetic
Places of Employment

Most of the 9,000 automobile
trim m ers and installation men
employed in 1972 worked in shops
that specialized in automobile uphol­
stery and convertible tops. Others
worked in automotive repair and

Automobile upholsterer installs new
seat covers.

accessories sections of department
stores, and in automobile dealer­
ships and body repair shops. Most
automobile upholstery shops employ
from one to five trimmers. In small
shops, the number of installation
men generally equals the number of
trimmers. However, installation men
outnumber trimmers in many of the
larger shops, particularly those that
specialize in installing factory-made
seat covers and tops.
Although automobile upholsterers
are employed throughout the coun­
try, most work in the larger cities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most trimmers and installation
men learn their skills on the job.
Beginners, usually hired as trainees,
first learn to remove seats and uphol­
stery and install seat covers; they
gradually advance to more difficult
jobs, such as installing convertible
tops. After qualifying as installation
men, they make seat covers, tops,
and other items. Although a capable
beginner can become a fully qual­
ified installation man in 3 to 6
months, 3 to 4 years usually are re­
quired to become a skilled trimmer.
A few automobile trimmers begin
as apprentices. Apprenticeship pro­
grams, which usually last 3 to 4
years, consist of on-the-job training
and classroom instruction.
T raining program s for un­
employed and underem ployed
workers for entry jobs as auto­
mobile trimmers were in operation in
several cities in 1972 under the Man­
power Development and Training
Act. People who complete these
programs, which usually last up to a
year, may need additional on-the-job
or apprenticeship training to qualify
as skilled trimmers.
Applicants for entry jobs should
be mechanically inclined and in good
physical condition. Employers are
interested in hiring those who enjoy

working creatively with their hands.
A high school education is desirable
but not essential. High school and
vocational school courses in furni­
ture upholstering provide valuable
training. Courses in mathematics are
useful in laying out and planning up­
holstery work.
Experienced trimmers with super­
visory ability may advance to
foremen in large shops. Many auto­
mobile upholstery shops are owned
by trimmers who acquired the neces­
sary experience and funds to start
their own businesses.
Employment Outlook

Employment of automobile
trimmers and installation men is ex­
pected to increase slowly through
the mid-1980’s. Most job opportu­
nities will result from the need to
replace workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations.
Reasons for increased employment
include a greater demand for truck
cushions and tarpaulins and a great­
er demand for custom upholstery
work in recreational vehicles such
as motor homes, motorcycles, and
boats. In addition, the growth of
relatively new fields such as vinyl
and sunroof installations is expected
to increase employment.
Traditionally seat cover and con­
vertible top installations have made
up a large part of trim shop work.
Recently, however, the number of
new convertibles has declined sharp­
ly, and more durable fabrics are
now used in automobile upholstery.
As a result, the rate of increase for
additonal trimmers and installation
men will be less than the rate of
growth in the number of motor
Earnings and Working

According to information from a


limited number of automobile up­
holstery shops, beginners earned
from $1.75 to $2.50 an hour in 1972.
Experienced installation men earned
$2.50 to $4.60 an hour, and skilled
trimmers earned $4.00 to $7.75 an
Most trimmers and installation
men are paid a weekly salary or
hourly wage and work from 44 to 48
hours a week. Many receive com­
missions or bonuses based on sales,
in addition to their regular pay.
Some trimmers are paid a straight
Many employers provide paid
holidays and vacations, and all, or
part, of the cost of health and life in­
surance. Some also contribute to
retirement plans.
Trimmers and installation men
generally work in shops that are
clean, well-lighted, and relatively
quiet. They sometimes work in
awkward or uncomfortable posi­
tions and are subject to minor cuts
and bruises, but serious injuries are
A small percentage of trimmers
and installation men are members of
the International Brotherhood of
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse­
men and Helpers of America (Ind.).
Sources of Additional

More details about work oppor­
tunities may be obtained from local
automobile upholstery shops or the
local office of the State employment
service. The State employment serv­
ice also may have information about
the Manpower Development and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other programs that provide train­
ing opportunities.
General information about the
work of automobile trimmers and in­
stallation men may be obtained
National Association of Auto Trim
Shops, 129 Broadway, Lynbrook,
L.I., N.Y. 11563.

(D.O.T. 356.381 and 610.381)
Nature of the Work

Years ago the village blacksmith
was as vital as the country doctor.
No one else could repair a broken
wagon wheel, shoe a horse, or forge a
tool to suit a farmer’s needs. Power
hammers and ready-made horse
shoes have made work easier, but the
blacksm ith’s job has remained
basically the same.
To make or repair metal parts,
blacksmiths first heat the metal in a
forge to soften it. When it begins to
glow, they pick up the metal with
tongs, place it on the anvil, and shape
it with presses and power hammers.
Broken parts are rejoined by ham­
mering them together. The black­


smith uses handtools such as
hammers and chisels to finish the
part; he often reheats it in the forge
to keep it soft and workable.
To harden a finished p art,
blacksmiths heat it to a high temper­
ature in the forge and then plunge it
into a water or oil bath. To temper
the part—make it less brittle—they
heat the metal to a lower temper­
ature for some time, and then allow
it to cool at room temperature.
An ancient skill practiced by many
blacksmiths is shoeing horses; black­
smiths who specialize in this activity
often are called farriers. After
removing the old shoe blacksmiths
examine the horse’s hoof for bruises
and clean, trim, and shape the hoof.
When the hoof is ready they posi­
tion and nail a shoe on the hoof and
trim the hoof flush to the new shoe.
Today most blacksmiths use ready-



made horse shoes, but they may have
to make or adjust shoes for a proper
The jobs of industrial blacksmiths
and forge shop workers are similar.
(For a detailed discussion of jobs in
forge shops, see the statement on
forge shop occupations elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Places of Employment

About 10,000 blacksmiths were
employed in 1972. Almost two-thirds
of them worked in factories, rail­
roads and mines. The remainder
worked in small shops, and most of
them were self-employed.
Blacksmiths work in all parts of
the country—in rural communities
as well as in large industrial
centers—and horseshoers are found
in all States, especially near horse
farms and race tracks.

Training, and other

Most beginners enter the occupa­
tion by working as helpers in black­
smith shops. Others enter through
formal apprenticeship programs
which generally last 3 or 4 years. Ap­
prenticeship programs usually teach
blueprint reading, proper use of tools
and equipment, heat-treatment of
metal, and forging methods. Most
apprentices are found in large indus­
trial firms rather than in small repair
shops. Vocational school or high
school courses in metalworking,
blueprint reading, and mathematics
are helpful to young people inter­
ested in becoming blacksmiths.
Blacksmiths must be in good
physical condition. Pounding metal
and handling heavy tools and parts
require considerable strength and
Opportunities for advancement
are limited, especially for black­

smiths who work in small repair
shops. However, blacksmiths may
advance to be foremen or inspectors
in factories, or to open their own
repair shops.

Employment Outlook

and bruises from handling tools.
Safety glasses, metal-tip shoes, face
shields, and other protective devices
have helped reduce injuries.
Many blacksmiths are members of
the International Brotherhood of
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders,
Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers.
Other unions representing black­
smiths include the United Steel­
workers of America, the Industrial
Union of Marine and Shipbuilding
Workers of America, and the Inter­
national Union of Journeymen

Employment of blacksmiths is ex­
pected to decline slowly through the
mid-1980’s. However, a few hundred
job openings will arise each year to
replace experienced workers who
retire, die, or transfer to other oc­
Employment is expected to decline
because forge shops are producing
Sources of Additional
many small metal articles formerly
made by blacksm iths. M etal­
For details about training oppor­
working operations once performed
tunities in this trade, contact local
only by blacksmiths are being done
blacksmith shops and local offices of
by other workers such as welders and the State employment service.
forgeshop craftsmen. The skills of
all-around blacksmiths, however,
will continue to be required in the
maintenance departments of large
industrial firms and in many small
metalworking and repair shops.

Earnings and Working

In union contracts covering a large
number of blacksmiths in steel
plants, railroad shops, and in the
shipbuilding and petroleum in­
dustries, hourly pay ranged from
$4.06 to $6.17 in 1972. Most con­
tracts provide for 8 or 9 paid holi­
days a year and up to 5 weeks’ vaca­
tion, depending on length of service.
Other benefits include life insurance,
hospitalization, and sickness and ac­
cident insurance, and pension plans.
Blacksmith shops tend to be hot
and noisy, but conditions have im­
proved in recent years because of
large ventilating fans and less vibra­
tion from new machines. Black­
smiths are subject to burns from
forges and heated metals and cuts

Nature of the Work

Boilers, vats, and other large
vessels that hold liquids and gasses
are essential to many industries.
Boilers, for example, supply the
steam that drives the huge turbines in
electric utility plants and ships.
Tanks and vats are used to process
and store chemicals, oil, and hun­
dreds of other products. Layout men
and fitup men help make the parts of
these vessels, and boilermakers
assemble them.
Layout men (D.O.T. 809.381 and
.781) follow blueprints in marking off
lines on metal plates and tubes.
These lines serve as guides to other
workers in the shop who cut and
shape the metal. Layout men use
compasses, scales, gages, and other
devices to make measurements.


Their measurements must be precise
because errors may be difficult or
impossible to correct once the metal
is cut.
Before the boiler parts are
assembled, fitu p men (D.O.T.
819.781) see that they fit together
properly. These workers bolt or tackweld the parts into place temporarily
and alter those that do not line up ac­
cording to blueprints. To make alter­
ations, they use sledge hammers,
drills, grinders, welding machines,
cutting torches, and other tools.
Boilermakers (D.O.T. 805.281)
assemble and erect large boilers in
shops and at the construction sites
where these vessels will be used. They
lift heavy metal parts into place with
rigging equipment such as hoists and
jacks, and weld or rivet the parts
together. After a boiler is com­
pleted, they test it for leaks and other
Boilermakers also do repair jobs.
After finding the cause of trouble,
they may dismantle the boiler, patch
weak spots with metal stock, replace
detective sections with new parts, or
strengthen joints. Installation and
repair work often must meet State
and local safety standards.

Places of Employment

About 33,000 boilerm akers,
layout men, and fitup men were
employed in 1972. Several thousand
boilermakers worked in the con­
struction industry, mainly to
assembly and erect boilers and other
pressure vessels. Boilermakers also
were employed in the maintenance
and repair departments of iron and
steel plants, petroleum refineries,
railroads, and electric powerplants.
Large numbers worked in Federal
Government installations, principal­
ly in Navy shipyards and Federal
powerplants. Layout men and fitup
men worked mainly in plants that
make fire-tube and water-tube
boilers, heat exchangers, heavy
tanks, and similar boiler-shop
Boilermakers work in every State,
but employment is concentrated in
States that are highly industrialized,
such as Pennsylvania, California,
Illinois, Ohio, New York, Texas, and
New Jersey. Most layout men and
fitup men also are employed in these
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Many workers have become
boilermakers by working for several
years as helpers to experienced
boilermakers, but most training
authorities agree that a 4-year ap­
prenticeship is the best way to learn
this trade. Apprenticeship programs
usually consist of 4 years of on-thejob training, supplemented by about
150 hours of classroom instruction
each year in subjects such as blue­
print reading, shop mathematics,
and welding.
Most layout men and fitup men
are hired as helpers and learn the
craft by working with experienced
men. It generally takes at least 2
years to qualify as an experienced


layout or fitup man.
When hiring apprentices or
helpers, employers prefer high school
graduates. Courses in mathematics,
blueprint reading, and shopwork
provide a useful background for all
boilermaking jobs. Most firms re­
quire applicants to pass a physical
examination because good health
and the capacity to do heavy work
are n ecessary in these jo b s.
Mechanical aptitude and manual
dexterity also are im p o rtan t
Layout men and fitup men may
become boilermakers or shop fore­
men. Boilermakers may become
foremen for boiler installation con­
tractors; a few may go into business
for themselves.
Employment Outlook

Employment in boilermaking oc­
cupations is expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1980’s.
In addition to the job openings
resulting from employment growth,
several hundred openings will arise
each year as experienced workers
retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work.
Employment is expected to in­
crease mainly because of the expan­
sion of industries that use boiler
products—particularly electric and
gas utilities and the chemical,
petroleum, steel, and shipbuilding in­
dustries. The development of atomic
energy facilities may create a need
for more boilermakers, layout men,
and fitup men to manufacture and
install boilers and related products.
In shops that make boiler products,
however, employment growth will be
limited by more efficient production
Earnings and Working

According to a national survey of



workers in the construction indus­
try, union minimum wage rates for
boilermakers in 54 large cities
averaged $8.01 an hour in 1972,
compared with $7.69 for all build­
ing trades journeymen. Average
minimum hourly rates for boiler­
makers in 14 of these cities, selected
to show how wages differ among
various areas, appear in the accom­
panying tabulation.
C ity

A tla n ta ............................
B altim ore........................
B oston...............................
C hicago.............................
Cleveland ........................
Denver .............................
F resn o...............................
Houston ..........................
Kansas City ....................
Los Angeles ....................
New O rleans....................
P hoenix.............................
Spokane ..........................
Syracuse ..........................

R a te p e r h o u r



Comparable wage data were not
available for boilermakers employed
in industrial plants. However, wage
rates were available from union con­
tracts that cover many boiler­
makers, layout men, and fitup men
employed in fabricated plate work
and the petroleum and shipbuilding
industries in 1972. Most of these con­
tracts called for minimum hourly
wage rates ranging from about $3.75
to $7.15. Generally, layout men
received higher rates than boiler­
makers, and boilermakers received
higher rates than fitup men.
Boilermakers, layout men, and
fitup men in industrial plants usually
work the same number of weekly
hours as do other plant workers,
generally 40 hours. Most union con­
tracts covering these workers pro­
vide fringe benefits such as paid
vacations, health and life insurance,
and retirement pensions.
When assembling boilers or mak­
ing repairs, boilermakers often work
in cramped quarters or at great

heights. Some work also must be
done in damp, poorly ventilated
Boilermaking is more hazardous
than many other metalworking oc­
cupations. Employers and unions
attempt to eliminate injuries by
promoting safety training and the
use of protective equipment, such as
safety glasses and metal helmets.
M ost boilerm aking w orkers
belong to labor unions. The prin­
cipal union is the International
Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron
Shipbuilders, Blacksmiths, Forgers
and Helpers. Some boilermaking
workers are members of [industrial
unions, such as] the Industrial Union
of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers
of America; the Oil, Chemical and
Atomic Workers International
Union; and the United Steelworkers
of America.
Sources of Additional

For further information regarding
boilermaking apprenticeships or
other training opportunities, in­
quiries should be directed to local
construction companies and boiler
manufacturers or the local office of
the State employment service.

ferent as automobile bumpers, silver­
ware, costume jewelry, electronic
components, and jet engine parts.
Electroplaters also make items such
as spray paint masks, turbine blades
and pen caps, through a process
known as electroforming.
Skill requirements and work per­
formed vary by type of shop. All­
round platers in small shops analyze
solutions, do a great variety of
plating, calculate the time and cur­
rent needed for various types of plat­
ing, and perform other technical
duties. They also may order chem­
icals and other supplies for their
work. Platers in the larger shops
usually carry out more specialized
assignments that require less tech­
nical knowledge.
Before electroplaters coat an arti­
cle, they first cover the parts not to
be electroplated with lacquer,
rubber, or tape. They then either
scour the article or dip it into a clean­
ing bath, before putting it in the
plating solution. They may remove
the article from the solution from
time to time to make sure that work
is progressing satisfactorily.
Electroplaters must check many of
the plated articles for defects. To
determine the quality of the work,
they use micrometers, calipers, and
electronic devices.
Places of Employment

(D.O.T. 500.380 and .782 through
. 886)
Nature of the Work

Electroplaters use plating solu­
tions and electric current (electrol­
ysis) to coat metal and plastic ar­
ticles with chromium, nickel, silver,
or other metal, to give the articles a
protective surface or an attractive
appearance. Products that are elec­
troplated include items as widely dif­

In 1972 there were about 17,000
electroplaters. About half of them
worked in shops that specialized in
metal plating and polishing for
manufacturing firms and for other
customers. The remaining platers
were employed in plants that manu­
factured plumbing fixtures, cooking
utensils, household appliances, elec­
tronic components, motor vehicles,
and other metal products.
Electroplaters are employed in
almost every part of the country,
although most work in the North-


Electroplater prepares to immerse helicopter parts in nickel solution.

east and Midwest near the centers of
the metalworking industry. Large
numbers of electroplaters work in
Los Angeles, San Francisco,
Chicago, New York, Detroit, Cleve­
land, Providence, and Newark, N.J.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most electroplaters learn the trade
on the job by helping experienced
platers. It usually takes at least 3
years to become an all-round plater.
Platers in large shops usually are not
required to have an all-round knowl­
edge of plating, and can learn their
jobs in much less time.
A small percentage of elec­
troplaters receive all-round prepara­
tion by working 3 or 4 years as an ap­
prentice. Apprenticeship programs
combine on-the-job training and
related classroom instruction in the
properties of metals, chemistry, and
electricity as applied to plating. The
apprentice does progressively more
difficult work as his skill and knowl­
edge increase. By the third or fourth
year, he determ ines cleaning
methods, does plating without super­
vision, makes solutions, examines
plating results, and supervises
helpers. Qualified platers may ad­
vance to be foremen.
A few people take a 1- or 2-year
electroplating course in a junior

college, technical institute, or voca­
tional high school. In addition, many
branches of the American Electro­
platers Society give basic courses in
electroplating. Young persons who
wish to become electroplaters will
find high school or vocational school
courses in chemistry, electricity,
physics, mathematics, and blueprint
reading helpful.

Employment Outlook


$4.50 in 1972, according to the
limited information available. Dur­
ing apprenticeship or on-the-job
training, a worker’s wage rate starts
at about 60 to 70 percent of an ex­
p erien ced w o rk e r’s ra te and
progresses to the full rate by the end
of the training period.
Almost all plants pay shift
premiums for night work. Many
employers provide paid holidays and
vacations and pay part or all of addi­
tional benefits such as life, health,
and accident insurance.
Plating work involves some
hazards because acid, alkaline, and
poisonous solutions are used.
H um idity and odor also are
problems in electroplating plants.
However, most plants have ventila­
tion systems and other safety devices
that have reduced occupational
hazards. Protective clothing and
boots provide additional protection.
Generally, mechanical devices are
used for lifting, but at times the
worker must lift and carry objects
weighing up to 100 pounds.
Some platers are members of the
Metal Polishers, Buffers, Platers and
Helpers International Union. Other
platers have been organized by the
International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America, and
the International Association of
Machinists and Aerospace Workers.

Employment of electroplaters is
expected to increase moderately
through the mid-1980’s. In addition,
many openings will result from the
need to replace experienced workers
who retire, die, or transfer to other
Expansion of metalworking in­
dustries and the electroplating of a
Sources of Additional
broadening group of metals and
plastics are expected to increase the
need for electroplaters. However,
For educational information con­
continuing mechanization, and the cerning electroplating and other
assignment of technical responsibil­ metal finishing methods, write to:
ities to chemists and other person­
American Electroplaters Society, Inc.,
nel, will limit growth of this occupa­
56 M elm ore G ard en s,
E ast
Orange, N.J. 07017.
Earnings and Working

Hourly wage rates for elec­
troplaters ranged from $2.50 to

For information on job oppor­
tunities and training, write to:
N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f M etal
F inishers, 248 Lorraine A ve.,
Upper Montclair, N.J. 07043.



struct employees in safety practices. ery, leather products, and laundry
In unionized plants, foremen may and drycleaning industries.
meet with union representatives to
Nature of the Work
discuss work problems and griev­
Foremen play an important role in ances. They must know the rules of Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
the national economy. They super­ labor-management agreements and
vise skilled, semiskilled, and un­ run their operation according to the
When choosing foremen, employ­
skilled blue-collar workers, and are agreements.
ers generally look for experience,
often responsible for seeing that mil­
skill, and leadership ability. Espe­
lions of dollars of equipment and
cially helpful are the abilities to
material are used efficiently. They
motivate employees, to command
Places of Employment
may oversee workers assembling
respect, and to get along with people.
television sets, servicing auto­
Most foremen rise through the
Foremen work for almost all busi­
mobiles, laying bricks, unloading nesses and government agencies that ranks—that is, they are promoted
ships, or any thousands of other ac­ employ blue-collar workers. About from the machine, work bench, or a
tivities. Foremen are known by 1.4 million were employed in 1972; construction craft. By working at
different titles. For example, in the about 93 percent were men.
different jobs over a period of time,
textile industry they are referred to
Foremen work mainly in the they develop many skills and gain a
as second hands; aboard ship they highly industrialized sections of the thorough knowledge of the jobs they
are called boatswains; and in con­ Nation. About three-fifths work for supervise. During this time, they also
struction they are known as over­ the following manufacturing indus­ learn much about their fellow work­
seers, strawbosses, or gang leaders.
tries: machinery, metals, transpor­ ers, and about management policies
Supervision is the most important tation equipment, food, chemicals, and employee attitudes toward these
part of the foremen’s job. Many and paper products. Large numbers policies. Very often, foremen are
blue-collar workers never work for also are found in the construction, former union members who have
supervisors higher than foremen, and trade, and service industries. Many served as elected representatives and
it is through their foremen that they female foremen, or forewomen, work learned about grievance procedures,
get work orders, recognition, and for the apparel, electrical machin­ collective bargaining, and labordiscipline. Foremen interpret and
communicate company policy to the
workers. They also train newly hired
workers and advise experienced
workers on the proper way to handle
jobs. In some cases, foremen also
work at specific crafts. “ Working
foremen” are common in construc­
tion, where, for example, bricklayer
foremen lay brick as well as super­
vise journeymen bricklayers and
Foremen must plan and schedule
the work of their subordinates and
keep production and employee
records. They must use considerable
judgment in their planning and allow
for unforeseen problems such as
absenteeism and machinery break­
down. Foremen participate in meet­
ings and prepare reports on produc­
tion, costs, personnel, and safety.
Foremen see that safety rules and
regulations are followed and in­



management contracts.
The experience gained by rising
through the ranks gives foremen the
advantage of knowing how a job
should be done and possible prob­
lems involved, and helps them know
what to expect from the workers they
Although fewer than one-tenth of
all foremen are college graduates, a
growing number of employers are
hiring foremen trainees with college
backgrounds. This practice is most
prevalent in industries that have
highly technical production proc­
esses such as the chemical, oil, and
electronics industries. Employers
generally look for college graduates
with backgrounds in business ad­
ministration, industrial relations,
m athem atics, engineering, or
science. Foremen trainees undergo
on-the-job training until they are
able to accept supervisory respon­
Foremen with outstanding ability,
particularly those with college educa­
tion, may move up to higher
management positions. In manufac­
turing, for example, they may ad­
vance to jobs such as department
head, general foreman, and plant
manager. In the construction indus­
try, some foremen use the experi­
ence and skills they gain to go into
business for themselves.

Most foremen will continue to
work in manufacturing. However, a
large part of the increase in foremen
jobs will be due to the rapid expan­
sion of nonmanufacturing indus­
tries—construction, trade, service,
and public utilities. The number of
foremen in construction is expected
to grow very rapidly.
Earnings and Working

In 1971, the average (median)
earnings of foremen who worked full
time was $10,410, compared with
$7,965, in all occupations. Foremen
usually are salaried and not paid for
overtime. Their salary levels gener­
ally are keyed to the wage rates of
the highest paid workers they super­
vise. Some companies keep wages of
foremen about 10 percent to 30 per­
cent higher than those of workers
they supervise.
Working conditions of foremen
vary widely from industry to indus­
try. Since they are the First level of
supervision, foremen must spend
much time with workers on the plant
floor or at the construction site.
Plant foremen are apt to get dirty
around machinery and materials and
have to put up with noisy manufac­
turing operations. Construction fore­
men often work in unpleasant
weather. Foremen generally work
more than 40 hours a week and are
Employment Outlook
expected to be on the job before the
workers arrive, and after they leave.
Employment of foremen is ex­
Some foremen who have limited
pected to increase moderately
authority may feel isolated, neither a
through the mid-1980’s. In addition,
member of the work force nor an im­
many job openings will arise as ex­
portant part of management. On the
perienced foremen retire, die, or
other hand, foremen have more in­
transfer to other occupations.
teresting and challenging jobs and
Growth of business and govern­
more prestige than blue-collar
ment organizations will create a de­
mand for more foremen. Demand
also will be stimulated by the trend
Sources of Additional
toward more complex production
processes that require greater super­
More facts about foremen are


available from:
American Management Association,
135 West 50th Street, New York,
N.Y. 10020.

Forging is one of the oldest
methods of working and shaping
metals. The simplest way is the hand
forging done by a blacksmith.
Modern forge shops substitute heavy
power equipment and dies (tools that
shape metal) for the blacksmith’s
hammer and anvil. Five men oper­
ating a large forging machine can
turn out more forgings in one hour
than Five blacksmiths can make in a
Forged metal is exceptionally
strong and is used for many prod­
ucts that take heavy wear. Examples
include automobile crankshafts,
gears, wrenches, scissors, and many
aerospace equipment parts. Most
forgings are steel; but aluminum,
copper, brass, bronze, and other
metals are forged also. Forgings vary
in weight from ounces to many tons.
Nature of the Work

Before metal can be shaped, it
must be heated in intensely hot fur­
naces (forges). Then workers
manipulate the glowing metal be­
tween two metal dies that are at­
tached to power presses or ham­
mers. With tremendous force, the
hammers or presses pound or
squeeze the metal into the desired
shape. To Finish the forging, other
workers remove rough edges and ex­
cess metal and perform other Finish­
ing operations such as heat treating
and polishing.
Two kinds of dies are used. The
open die, which is flat and similar to
the blacksmith’s hammer, is used


and shape of the metal being formed.
Descriptions of some major forgeshop production occupations follow.
Hammersmiths (D.O.T. 612.381)
direct the operation of open die
power hammers. They interpret blue­
prints, drawings, and sketches so
that the part being forged will meet
specifications. They decide the
amount of hammer force, and if and
when the metal needs additional
heating. Hammersmiths determine
how to work the metal under the
hammer and which tools are needed
to produce desired angles and curves.
Hammersmiths head crews of four
or more workers. A hammer driver
or hammer runner regulates the
force of the forging blow. A crane­
man transfers the metal from the fur­
nace to the hammer and manipu­
lates it under the hammer. A heater
controls the furnace that brings the
metal to correct forging tempera­
tures. One or more helpers assist the
crew as needed.
The duties of hammer operators
(D.O.T. 610.782), or hammermen,
who operate impression die power
hammers, are similar to those of
hammersmiths at open die power
hammers. Generally, the bigger the
hammer and the larger or more intri­
cate the shape to be formed, the
greater the skill required of the oper­
ator. With the assistance of helpers
and heaters, hammermen set and
align dies in the hammers. They con­
trol the force of the forging blow,
manipulate the metal under the ham­
mer, and determine if and when the
metal needs additional heating.
Press operators (D.O.T. 611.782
and .885) control huge presses
when small numbers of forgings or mers, power presses, dies, and fur­ equipped with either impression or
large size forgings are needed. The naces. Forge-shop workers also use open dies that press and squeeze hot
impression or closed die, which has a hand tools, such as hammers and metal rather than hammer or pound
cavity shaped to the form of the tongs, and measuring devices, such it. They regulate machine pressure
metal part, is used to produce large as rules, scales, and calipers. From and move the hot metal between the
quantities of identical parts.
two to ten men make up a hammer dies. They may control the metal
Basic forge-shop equipment con­ or press crew, depending on the size heating operations. Some operators
sists of various types of power ham­ and type of equipment and the size set up the dies in the presses. Their


skills are very similar to those of
e ith e r
h a m m e r s m ith s
With the help of heaters and sev­
eral helpers, upsetters (D.O.T.
611.782), or upsettermen, operate
machines that shape hot metal by
applying horizontal pressure. The
heads of nails and bolts, for example,
are made by upset forging.
Heaters (D.O.T. 619.782) control
furnace temperatures. They deter­
mine when the correct temperature
has been reached by observing the
metal’s color and the furnace’s
temperature gauge. Using tongs or
mechanical equipment, they trans­
fer the hot metal from the furnace to
hammers or presses. Some heaters
clean furnaces.
Inspectors (D.O.T. 612.281) ex­
amine forged pieces for accuracy,
size, and workmanship. They use
gauges, micrometers, and calipers to
measure forgings. Machines that test
strength and hardness and electronic
testing devices also may be used.
Die sinkers (D.O.T. 601.280)
make the impression dies for the
forging hammers and presses. Work­
ing from a blueprint, drawing, or
template, these skilled workers make
an outline of the object to be forged
on two matching steel blocks. They
form the object’s shape in the blocks
by using milling machines and other
machine tools such as EDM (elec­
trical discharge machinery) and
ECM (electrical chemical machin­
ery). Using scrapers, grinders, and
other handtools, die sinkers smooth
and finish the die cavity. Finally, a
sample is prepared from the finished
cavity and is checked against
Many forge-shop workers clean
and finish forgings. For example,
trimmers (D.O.T. 617.885) remove
excess metal with presses equipped
with trim m ing dies. Grinders
(D.O.T. 705.884) remove rough
edges with power abrasive wheels.

Sandblasters or shotblasters (D.O.T.
503.887) operate sandblasting or
shotblasting equipment that cleans
and smoothes forgings. Picklers
(D.O.T. 503.885) dip forgings in an
acid solution to remove surface scale
and reveal any surface defects. Heat
treaters (D.O.T. 504.782) heat and
cool forgings to harden and temper
the metal.
Places of Employment

In 1972, about 63,000 production
workers were employed in forge
shops. Nearly three-fourths of these
worked in shops that make and sell
forgings. The remainder worked in
plants that use forgings in their final
products, such as automobiles, farm
equipment, and hand tools.
Although forge-shop workers are
found in all States, they are concen­
trated near steel-producing centers
that provide the steel for the forg­
ings, and near metalworking plants
that are the major users of forged
products. Large numbers of forgeshop workers are employed in Penn­
sylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan,
Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Cali­
fornia, and New York.


tical experience in metal properties,
power hammer and furnace oper­
ation, hand tool use, and blueprint
Training requirements for inspec­
tors vary. Only a few weeks of onthe-job training is necessary for those,
who make examinations visually or
with simple gauges. Others who in­
spect forgings made to exact
specifications may need some back­
ground in blueprint reading and
mathematics, and may be given sev­
eral months of training.
Employers usually require no
more than a grammar school educa­
tion for helpers and heaters, but high
school graduates are preferred.
Young people interested in more
skilled forge-shop jobs should com­
plete high school and take mathe­
matics (especially geometry), draft­
ing, and shopwork.
Although cranes are used to move
very large objects, forge-shop work­
ers must be strong enough to lift and
move heavy forgings and dies. They
need stamina and endurance to work
in the heat and noise of a forge shop.
Employment Outlook

E m ploym ent of fo rg e-sh o p
production workers is expected to in­
Training, Other Qualifications,
crease slowly through the midand Advancement
1980’s. Most job openings will arise
Most forge-shop workers learn from the need to replace experi­
their skills on the job. They gener­ enced workers who retire, die, or
ally join hammer or press crews as transfer to other fields of work.
helpers or heaters. As they become
Employment will grow because of
experienced, they progress to other expansion in industries that use forg­
jobs. Advancement to hammer­ ings, particularly machinery and
smith, for example, requires several automobile industries. However,
years of on-the-job training and ex­ employment will increase much
more slowly than forge shop produc­
Some forge shops offer appren­ tion, because improved forging tech­
tice training programs for skilled niques and equipment will result in
jobs such as die sinker, heat treater, greater output per worker. Because
hammer operator, hammersmith, forge-shop production is sensitive to
and press operator. Apprenticeships changing business conditions, some
usually last 4 years. These programs forge-shop workers may be laid off
provide classroom training and prac­ periodically.



Earnings and Working

Average hourly earnings of forgeshop production workers are higher
than the average for all manufac­
turing production workers. In 1972,
production workers in iron- and
steel-forging plants averaged $5.04
an hour, compared with $3.81 an
hour for production workers in all
manufacturing industries.
Most forge shops provide various
fringe benefits such as paid holi­
days, vacations, and retirement pen­
sions. Other important benefits in­
clude health and medical insurance
and life insurance.
Many forge shops have heat
deflectors and ventilating fans to re­
duce heat and smoke. Improve­
ments in machinery and shop prac­
tices have reduced some noise and
vibration. Further improvements,
particularly in noise levels, will be
made to meet the standards of the
new Occupational Safety and Health
Act. Labor and management coop­
erate to encourage good work prac­
tices through safety training and the
required use of protective equip­
ment such as face shields, ear plugs,
safety glasses, metal-toe shoes,
helmets, and machine safety guards.
Most forge shop workers are un­
ion members. Many are members of
the International Brotherhood of
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders,
Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers.
Others are members of the United
Steelworkers of America; the Inter­
national Union, United A uto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America; the
In te rn a tio n a l A sso ciatio n of
Machinists and Aerospace Work­
ers; and the International Die Sink­
ers’ Conference (Ind.).
Sources of Additional

Further information on employ­

ment opportunities in forging can be
obtained from local offices of the
State employment service, person­
nel departments of forge shops,
locals of the labor organizations
listed above, or from:
The Forging Industry Association, 55
Public Square, Cleveland, Ohio
The Open Die Forging Institute, 120
East Ogden Ave., Hinsdale, 111.

(D.O.T. 780.381)
Nature of the Work

Furniture upholsterers recon­
dition sofas, chairs, and other uphol­
stered furniture. These craftsmen re­
pair or replace fabrics, springs, web­
bing, frames, and other parts that are
worn or damaged. (Workers em­
ployed in the manufacture of uphol­
stered furniture are not included in
this statement.)
In order to work at a convenient
level, upholsterers usually place the
furniture on which they are working
on padded wooden horses. Using
tack pullers or chisels and mallets,
they pull out the tacks holding the
old fabric in place and remove the
fabric. They may then remove the
padding and burlap to uncover the
springs. Broken or bent springs are
removed. If the webbing that holds
the springs in place is worn, the
workers remove all the springs and
the webbing. Upholsterers then re­
pair the frame, as well, by regluing
loose sections and refinishing ex­
posed wooden parts.
In reupholstering furniture, they
first tack strips of webbing to the
frames. Next, they sew new springs
to the webbing and tie each spring to
the adjoining ones, securing the out­

side springs to the frame. They use
burlap, filling, and padding to cover
the springs, and sew the padding to
the burlap. Finally, after covering
the padding with muslin and new up­
holstery fabric, they attach these
materials to the frame and make sure
everything is smooth and tight. They
complete the job by sewing or tack­
ing on fringe, buttons, or other or­
Upholsterers use a variety of
handtools including tack and staple
removers, pliers, hammers, and hand
or power shears. They also use spe­
cial tools such as webbing stretchers
and upholstery needles. They may
also use sewing machines.
Sometimes upholsterers pick up
and deliver furniture. Those who own
shops order supplies and equipment,
keep business records, and perform
other managerial tasks.
Places of Employment

About 35,000 people worked as
furniture upholsterers in 1972. Over
half worked in small upholstery
shops, most of which had less than
eight employees. Many upholsterers
also worked for furniture stores.
Also, businesses that maintain their
own furniture, such as theaters and
hotels, employed a few upholsterers.
Geographically, employment of
upholsterers is distributed in about
the same proportion as population.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The most common way to enter
this trade is to start as a helper in an
upholstery shop and learn on the job.
Newly hired helpers do simple jobs,
such as removing old fabric, pad­
ding, and springs. As they gain ex­
perience, they do more complex
tasks, such as installing webbing and
springs, and sewing on fabric and
trimming. A skilled upholsterer



ture in houses and businesses will in­
crease as population, personal in­
come, and business expenditures
grow. More durable fabrics and the
trend to buying new furniture in­
stead of having old pieces reuphol­
stered, however, will limit the de­
mand for upholsterers.
Earnings and Working

Earnings data for furniture uphol­
sterers are not available on a
national basis. However, informa­
tion from union contracts covering
many of these workers in 1972 indi­
cated that hourly rates for helpers
ranged from $2.20 to $4.50, and for
experienced upholsterers from $3.25
to $4.95. Hourly rates in the South
were generally lower than those in
the North and West. A few uphol­
sterers were paid on a piece-work
Upholsterers generally work 40
hours a week, although overtime is
common during the weeks before
major holidays. Many upholsterers
Upholsterer tacks new material on chair.
received paid vacations and sick
needs about 3 years of on-the-job good manual dexterity and be able to leave, and some are covered by
do occasional heavy lifting. An eye health insurance plans.
Many upholstery shops are spa­
Inexperienced persons can learn for detail, good color sense, and a
cious, adequately lighted, and well
many skills of the trade by working flair for creative work are helpful.
in furniture factories and perform­
Upholsterers usually buy their ventilated and heated. However, the
ing a variety of jobs closely related to handtools, but employers provide workshop’s air may contain dust
from padding and stuffing. In addi­
furniture upholstering. They may get power tools.
Many upholsterers open their own tion, upholsterers stand while they
valuable training, also, in vocational
or high school courses that include shops. Almost one out of every three work and also do a considerable
chair caning, furniture making, tex­ upholsterers is self-employed—a amount of stooping and bending.
tile fabrics, and upholstery repair. much higher proportion than in most The work generally is safe, although
minor cuts from sharp tools and
However, additional training and ex­ other trades.
back strain from lifting heavy furni­
perience in a shop is usually re­
ture are not uncommon.
quired before these workers can
Employment Outlook
qualify as skilled upholsterers. A few
people learn the trade through for­
Employment of upholsterers is ex­
Sources of Additional
mal apprenticeship programs that pected to grow slowly through the
last from 3 to 4 years and include mid-1980’s. Most job openings will
For more details on work oppor­
classroom instruction as well as on- arise because of the need to replace
tunities for upholsterers, contact
the-job training.
experienced workers who retire, die,
Young persons interested in or transfer to other occupations. local employers or the local office of
the State employment service.
becoming upholsterers should have
The amount of upholstered furni­



Nature of the Work

produced durable goods such as
machinery, transportation equip­
ment, electronics equipment, and
furniture. Others were employed in
plants that produced goods such as
textiles, apparel, drugs, and leather
Inspectors worked in every part of
the country. The largest numbers are
found in heavily industrialized States
such as Ohio, New York, Michigan,
Illinois, Pennsylvania, California,
and New Jersey.

Most products—including the
things we eat, drink, wear, and ride
in—are checked by inspectors some­
time during the manufacturing
process to make sure they are of the
desired quality. Inspectors also
check the quality of the raw mate­
rials and parts that make up finished
Inspectors use a variety of
methods to make certain that Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
products meet specifications. They
may merely look for flaws, imper­
Inspectors generally are trained on
fections, or defects; or they may use the job for a brief period—from a
gauges, micrometers, and other in­ few hours or days to several months,
struments to examine parts and depending upon the skill required.
materials. They may read work
Employers look for applicants
orders or blueprints and do calcula­
tions using decimals or common
fractions when measuring. They may
use handtools, such as screwdrivers,
magnifying glasses, and tweezers.
Skilled inspectors work under
general supervision, whereas semi­
skilled inspectors usually work under
close supervision. Generally, skilled
inspectors have greater discretion in
accepting or rejecting products, and
are responsible for inspecting the
most important parts of mass-pro­
duced goods. Skilled inspectors also
use a wider variety of testing in­
Many inspectors count the items
rejected. When the number rises
above a certain level, they notify
their supervisors so that corrections
can be made on the production line.
Some inspectors make minor repairs
and adjustments and grade products
for quality.

who have good health and eyesight,
can follow directions, and can con­
centrate on details. Applicants
should be able to get along with peo­
ple since inspectors work occasional­
ly as part of a team. A few large
companies give preemployment tests
to check such skills as the ability to
work with numbers. Some employers
may hire applicants who do not have
a high school diploma but who have
qualifying aptitudes or related ex­
perience. Other employers prefer ex­
perienced production workers for in­
spection jobs.
Some semiskilled inspectors—par­
ticularly in metalworking indus­
tries—who take courses, such as
blueprint reading and shop mathe­
matics, may advance to skilled in­
spectors or quality control tech­
nicians. After acquiring sufficient ex-

Places of Employment

In 1972, most of the approximate­
ly 725,000 inspectors—two-fifths of
them women—worked in plants that

Inspector shows trainees how to check machined parts.


perience and knowledge, a few tracts provide for fringe benefits such
become foremen.
as paid holidays and vacations,
health insurance, life insurance, and
retirement pensions.
Employment Outlook


(D.O.T. 638.281)
Nature of the Work

Employment of inspectors is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the mid-1980’s, with thou­
sands of openings each year. Addi­
tional openings will result as workers
retire, die, or transfer to other oc­
Most of the industries that employ
these workers are expected to in­
crease their employment in the long
run. The growing complexity of
manufactured products should also
result in a need for more inspectors.
However, increasing use of mech­
anized and automatic inspection
equipment will limit employment

Sources of Additional

Millwrights are skilled craftsmen
who move and install heavy in­
Information about employment dustrial machinery. They must know
opportunities in this field may be how to dismantle, reassemble, and
available from local offices of the align complex equipment. To assem­
State employment service.
ble machinery, millwrights fit bear­
The American Society for Quality ings, align gears and wheels, attach
Control certifies quality technicians. motors, and connect belts. They
Information about the test required often construct concrete founda­
for certification may be obtained by tions and platforms and fabricate
writing to:
metal framework on which ma­
chinery is mounted. Millwrights
American Society for Quality Control,
must be able to read blueprints and
161 W est W isc o n sin A v e .,
work with wood, steel, concrete, and
Milwaukee, Wise. 53203.

Earnings and Working

According to limited information,
average hourly rates for inspectors
ranged from about $3 to $6 in 1972,
depending on skill level, type of
product inspected, geographic area,
and industry.
Working conditions vary consid­
erably for inspectors. For example,
some have well lighted, air
conditioned workplaces in an air­
craft or missile plant; others, who
work on the production floor of a
machinery or metal fabricating
plant, often are exposed to high
temperatures, oil, grease, and noise.
Many inspectors are members of
labor unions, including the Inter­
national Union, United A uto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America; the
In te rn a tio n a l A sso ciatio n of
Machinists and Aerospace Workers;
the International Union of Elec­
trical, Radio and Machine Workers;
and the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers. Most union con­

Millwrights move machinery into place.



other building materials.
To move machinery, millwrights
use hoists, jacks, wood blocking, and
other rigging devices. To dismantle
and assembly equipment they use
wrenches and other handtools and
portable power tools. They also use
calipers, squares, plumb bobs, and
other devices to align and level
Millwrights employed by contract
installation and construction com­
panies do a variety of installation
work. Those employed in factories
usually specialize in installing the
particular types of machinery used
by their employers. They also may
maintain plant equipment such as
conveyors and cranes.
Places of Employment

Most of the estimated 85,000
millwrights employed in 1972 work­
ed for manufacturing companies; the
majority were in metal, paper,
lumber, and chemical products in­
dustries. Others worked for con­
tractors in the construction industry.
Machinery manufacturers employed
a small number to install equipment
in customers’ plants.
Millwrights work in every State.
However, about half of them are em­
ployed in the heavily industrialized
State of Michigan, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania, Illinois, New York, and In­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most millwrights start as helpers
to skilled workers and learn the trade
on the job. Others learn through for­
mal apprenticeship programs. Ap­
prenticeship programs generally last
4 years and include training in dis­
mantling, moving, eracting, and
repairing machinery. They also may
work with concrete and receive in­
struction in related skills such as

carpentry. Classroom instruction is
given in shop mathematics, blue­
print reading, hydraulics, electricity,
and safety. Many companies require
that applicants be high school gradu­
ates between the ages of 18 and 26.
High school courses in science,
mathematics, mechanical drawing,
and machine shop practice are
useful. Because millwrights often put
together and take apart complicated
machinery, mechanical aptitude is
important. Strength and agility also
are important, because the work re­
quires considerable lifting and clim­

Louisville, Kentucky . . . .
Minneapolis-St. Paul,
Minnesota ....................
New Haven, Connecticut
New Orleans, Louisiana .
St. Louis, Missouri .........
Trenton, New Jersey . . . .


Millwrights employed by con­
struction companies usually have
higher wage rates than those in
manufacturing. The minimum aver­
age hourly rates for millwrights un­
der union contracts in construction
ranged from $5.45 to $9.07 in 1972,
according to a national survey of
building trades workers in 68 large
Apprentices generally start at 50
Employment Outlook
percent or more of the skilled
Employment of millwrights is ex­ worker’s rate and receive periodic in­
pected to increase moderately creases over that rate by the end of
through the mid-1980’s as new plants their training period.
Millwrights employed by factories
are built, as plant layouts are chang­
ordinarily work year round. Those
ed, and as additional complex
machinery is maintained. A few employed by construction companies
thousand openings will arise annual­ and those companies that manu­
ly as millwrights retire, die, or facture and install machinery may
have periods of unemployment.
transfer to other occupations.
Frequently they work away from
Earnings and Working
The work of millwrights involves
some hazards. For example, there
In 1971-72, hourly wages for are dangers of being struck by fall­
millwrights in all industries averaged ing objects or by machinery that is
about $5.00, which was considerably being moved. There also is the
higher than the average wage for danger of falling from high work
other production or nonsupervisory places. In addition, millwrights are
workers. Straight-time hourly earn­ subject to usual shop hazards such as
ings for millwrights in 12 cities that cuts and bruises. Accidents have
represent various regions of the been reduced by the use of protec­
country, appear in the accompanying tive devices such as safety belts and
Rate per hour
Most millwrights belong to labor
unions, among which are the Inter­
national Association of Machinists
(all industries)
and Aerospace Workers; United
Canton, O h io ........... ..
Brotherhood of Carpenters and
Boston, Massachusetts . .
Buffalo, New York ..................
Joiners of America (construction
Houston, T e x a s...............
millwrights); United Steelworkers of
Los Angeles-Long Beach
America; International Union,
and Anaheim-Santa
United Automobile, Aerospace and
Ana-Garden Grove,
Agricultural Implement Workers of
C alifornia...............................



America; International Brother­
hood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper
Mill Workers; and the International
Union of Electrical, Radio and
Machine Workers. Employer-union
contracts usually provide for benefits
such as paid holidays and vacations.
Sources of Additional

Further information on appren­
ticeship programs may be obtained
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and
Joiners of America, 101 Constitu­
tion Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

Projectionist adjusts arc lamp in projector.

(D.O.T. 960.382)
Nature of the Work

Projectionists are key behind-thescenes workers in motion picture
theaters. From a room high in the
back of the theater, the projectionist
operates the movie projectors and
sound equipment.
To show a feature-length movie,
projectionists use two projectors,
sound equipment, a film rewinding
machine, and seven or more reels of
film. Before the movie begins, they
check the equipment to see that it
works properly, and load the projec­
tors with the first and second reels.
Most projectors burn a carbon rod to
provide light for the screen. After ig­
niting and adjusting the rod, projec­
tionists start the first reel. If the pic­
ture is out of focus or unsteady they
adjust the projector lens.
A reel of film lasts about 20
minutes. When the reel is almost
complete, cue marks (small circles in
the upper right corner of the picture)

signal that it is time to start the se­
cond projector. When a second series
of cue marks appears, the projec­
tionist simultaneously closes the
shutter on the first projector and
opens the second one. This change­
over happens so quickly that the
audience does not notice an inter­
ruption on the screen. Next, the pro­
jectionist removes the used reel and
rewinds it on the rewinding machine.
The entire process is repeated until
all the reels have been shown. When
film breaks, the projectionist must
rapidly rethread it so that the show
may continue.
Some new theaters, especially
multiscreen ones, have automatic
equipment that reduces the projec­
tionist’s workload. Some machines,
for example, automatically change
Projectionists clean and lubricate
equipment, check for defective parts
and damaged film, and make minor
repairs and adjustments. For exam­
ple, they may replace a badly worn

projector sprocket. Major repairs are
made by servicemen who specialize
in projection and sound equipment.

Places of Employment

An estimated 16,000 full-time mo­
tion picture projectionists—nearly
all of them men—were employed in
1972. More than three-fourths work­
ed for indoor theaters; most of the
remainder worked for drive-ins.
Some projectionists worked in large
manufacturing companies, tele­
vision studios, and in Federal, State,
and local governments. Although
many theaters employ one projec­
tionist for each shift, the larger
theaters have two. A few employ
more than two projectionists.
Projectionists work in cities and
towns of all sizes throughout the
country. In theaters located in small
towns, theater owners or members of
their families may do projectionist


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement


Employment Outlook

Employment of motion picture
projectionists will gorw slowly
Most theaters in urban areas are through the mid-1980’s. Most job
unionized and young people who openings will occur as experienced
want jobs as projectionists must workers retire, die, or transfer to
complete a union apprenticeship pro­ other fields of work.
The number of movie theaters is
gram. In nonunion theaters, young
people may start as an usher or expected to grow as more are built in
helper and learn the trade by work­ suburban areas but employment of
ing with an experienced projectionist. projectionists will grow slowly
Unions require applicants to be 18 this growth. In many new shopping
and prefer high school graduates. centers, several theaters are being
The apprenticeship training usually built side by side so that one projec­
lasts 1 to 2 years depending on the tionist can take care of more than
policy of the local. After training, the one theater.
apprentice must pass an exam for un­
ion membership. In some cases, a
Earnings and Working
capable apprentice may be assigned
to a full- or part-time job at
Average hourly earnings for pro­
journeyman’s pay before becoming a
jectionists in large metropolitan
union member. In a few cities and
States, projectionists must be licens­ areas ranged from $4.10 to $9.19 in
1972, according to information from
several union contracts. Generally,
Apprentices learn the trade by downtown multiscreen theaters pay
working with experienced projec­ higher hourly rates than suburban
tionists. They first learn simple or drive-in theaters.
tasks, such as threading and rewind­
M ost p r o je c tio n is ts w ork
ing film. With experience they evenings; generally 4 to 6 hours, 6
progress to more difficult assign­ evenings a week. They may work
ments, such as adjusting and repair­ more than 6 hours on Saturday and
ing equipment. An apprentice may Sunday in theaters that feature
work in several theaters to become matinees. Some projectionists work
familiar with different types of at several theaters. For example, a
equipment. Some apprentices are not weekly schedule may call for two
paid during training.
evenings in each of three theaters.
Young people interested in becom­ Projectionists employed in drive-in
ing projectionists should have good theaters, particularly those in
eyesight, including normal color northern States, may be laid off for
perception, and good hearing. They several months during the winter.
should be temperamentally suited to
Many projectionists receive 2 or 3
working along and in close quarters. weeks of paid vacation and premium
Manual dexterity and mechanical pay for weekend or holiday work.
aptitude are also important personal Some are covered by hospitalization
qualifications. Practical experience and pension plans.
gained from operating small movie
Projection rooms usually have
projectors at home, at school, or in adequate lighting and ventilation,
the Armed Forces also is helpful. and many are air-conditioned. The
Advancement opportunities for pro­ work is not strenuous and is relative­
jectionists are very limited. A few, ly hazard free, but there is some
however, become theater managers. danger of electrical shocks and burns

if proper safety precautions are not
taken. Although projectionists must
stand up a lot, they can sit for short
periods while the equipment is
operating. Most projectionists work
without direct supervision and have
infrequent contact with other theater
Sources of Additional

Details about apprenticeship
programs and employment oppor­
tunities may be obtained from any
local of the International Alliance of
Theatrical Stage Employees and
Moving Picture Machine Operators
of the United States and Canada.

(D.O.T. 970.281, 976.381,
.687 through .887)
Nature of the Work

Amateur snapshots, home movies,
professional portraits, and photo­
graphs to illustrate publications re­
quire the skills of thousands of
photographic laboratory employees.
These workers develop film, make
prints and slides, and perform re­
lated tasks, such as enlarging and re­
touching photographs. (This chapter
does not discuss employees of
laboratories that specialize in
processing professional motion pic­
ture film.)
All-round darkroom technicians
(D.O.T. 976.381) can perform all
tasks necessary to develop and print
film. The technician varies the
developing process according to the
type of film—black-and-white nega­
tive, color negative, or color positive.
For example, a developing process


for black-and-white negative film
covers five steps: developer, stop
bath, fixing bath, washing, and dry­
ing. The first three steps use chemi­
cal solutions and are performed in
darkness. After unwinding a roll of
film, the technician places it in the
developer, a solution that brings out
the image on exposed film. After the
film has remained in the developer
for a specified period, the technician
transfers it to a stop bath to prevent
over-development. Next, the film is
placed in a fixing bath that makes it
insensitive to light, thus preventing
further exposure. Finally, the techni­
cian washes the film with water to re­
move the fixing solution and places
the film in a drying cabinet. In many
photographic labs, technicians regu­
late machines that automatically
perform the steps described above.
Processes for developing color
films are more complex than those
used for black-and-white. Thus,
some labs employ color technicians
(D.O.T. 976.381)—highly skilled
workers who specialize in processing
color film.
The darkroom technician makes a

Darkroom technician makes print.

photograph by transferring the im­
age from a negative to photographic
paper. Printing frequently is per­
formed on a projection printer,
which consists of a fixture for
holding negatives and photographic
paper, an electric lamp, and a
magnifying lens. The technician
places the negative between the lamp
and lens, and the paper below the
lens. When he turns on the lamp,
light passes through the negative and
lens and records a magnified image
of the negative on the paper. During
printing, the technician may vary the
contrast of the image or remove un­
wanted background by using his
hand or paper patterns to shade part
of the photographic paper from the
projected image. After removing the
exposed photographic paper from
the printer, he develops it in much
the same way as the negative. If the
customer desires, the technician
mounts the finished print in a frame
or on a paper or cardboard back.
In addition to working in the
laboratory, darkroom technicians
may set up lights and cameras or
otherwise assist experienced photog­
raphers. Many technicians, partic­
ularly those in portrait studios,
divide their time between taking and
processing pictures. In some labs,
helpers assist technicians. They also
may be assisted by workers who
specialize in a particular activity,
such as developers (D.O.T. 976.381),
printers (D.O.T. 976.381), and
retouchers (D.O.T. 970.281).
In most large photo labs, dark­
room technicians supervise semi­
skilled w orkers who perform
specialized assignments that require
only a limited knowledge of develop­
ing and printing. Included are film
numberers (D.O.T. 976.887), who
sort film according to the type of
processing needed and number each
roll for in d entification; film
strippers, who unwind rolls of film
and place them in developing


machines; printer operators (D.O.T.
976.782), who operate machines that
expose rolls of photographic paper
to negatives; print developers,
machine (D.O.T. 976.885), who
operate machines that develop these
rolls of exposed photographic paper;
chemical mixers (D.O.T. 976.884),
who measure and combine the
various chemicals that make up
developing solutions; slide mounters,
who operate machines that cut, in­
sert, and seal film in cardboard
mounts; and photocheckers and
assemblers (D.O.T. 976.687), who
inspect the finished slides and prints
and package them for customers.
Places of Employment

In 1972, about 38,000 persons
worked in photo lab occupations.
More than half of them were in semi­
skilled photofinishing occupations;
the remainder were darkroom
Most semiskilled workers are
employed by large commercial labs
that specialize in processing film for
amateur photographers. A large
proportion of darkroom technicians
work in photo labs operated by por­
trait and commercial studios and by
m anufacturers, newspaper and
magazine publishers, advertising
agencies, and other organizations.
Darkroom technicians also work in
commercial labs that specialize in
processing the work of professional
Photo lab jobs can be found
throughout the country, but employ­
ment is concentrated in the more
populous cities and States.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most darkroom technicians learn
their skills through informal on-thejob training. Beginners start as
helpers, and gradually learn to


develop and print film by assisting
experienced technicians. It generally
takes 3 to 4 years to become a fully
qualified darkroom technician.
Some helpers become specialists in a
particular activity, such as printing
or developing. Generally, the train­
ing time required in order to become
a specialist is less than is needed to
become an all-round darkroom
When hiring darkroom technician
helpers, employers prefer applicants
who have high school educations.
Courses in chemistry and mathe­
matics are helpful to young people
interested in this trade. Some high
school and trade schools offer
courses in photography that include
training in film processing. The
Armed Forces also offer training for
darkroom technicians. Experience
gained through processing film as a
hobby is helpful.
Two-year curricula leading to an
associate degree in photographic
technology are offered by a few
colleges. Completion of college level
courses in this field is helpful to peo­
ple who are interested in supervisory
and managerial jobs in photo labs.
Many darkroom technicians even­
tually become professional photog­
raphers. (See Statement on photog­
raphers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Others advance to supervisory posi­
tions in laboratories.
Training requirements for workers
in semiskilled photolab occupations
range from a few weeks to several
months of on-the-job training. For
example, film numberers and slide
mounters usually can learn their jobs
in less than a month, but printer
operators and chemical mixers need
several months or longer. For many
semiskilled jobs, manual dexterity,
good vision including normal color
perception, and good hand-eye co­
ordination are important qualifi­
cations. However, some labora­
tories employ blind workers as film


numberers and film strippers, since
these jobs are performed in the dark
to prevent damage to exposed film.
Completion of high school generally
is not required for semiskilled jobs,
but frequently is needed for advance­
ment to supervisory jobs.
Employment Outlook

Employment in photo lab occupa­
tions is expected to increase rapidly
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to jobs resulting from employment
growth, many openings will result
from the need to replace experi­
enced workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
The need for semiskilled workers
is tied closely to the growth of
amateur photography. Film pur­
chases by amateur photographers are
expected to increase very rapidly as a
result of rising population and per­
sonal income, more leisure time, and
increased travel. Improvements in
still and movie cameras that make
them easier to load and operate also
should contribute to increases in the
use of film. However, the use of me­
chanized film processing equipment
will increase the efficiency of
laboratory workers, and will keep
employment from growing as fast as
the amount of film processed.
The need for all-round darkroom
technicians is expected to increase as
a result of the growing demand for
photography in business and govern­
ment. A major factor contributing to
this demand will be the increasing
variety of printed matter that is illus­
trated with photographs. The grow­
ing use of photography in research
and development activities also will
contribute to the demand for dark­
room technicians.

vary greatly and depend on factors
such as skill level, experience, and
geographic location. Beginning pay
for inexperienced darkroom techni­
cians’ helpers ranged from $2.25 to
$3.50 an hour in 1972, according to
the limited information available.
Most of the experienced all-round
darkroom technicians earned
between $3.00 and $5.50 an hour.
Workers in semiskilled occupa­
tions earned from $2.25 to $3.75 an
hour. Among these workers, printer
operators and chemical mixers gen­
erally had the highest earnings.
Many photo labs provide paid
holidays, vacations, and other bene­
fits, such as health and life insurance.
Workers in labs operated by business
and government organizations
receive the same fringe benefits as
their fellow employees.
The m ajority of photo lab
employees have a 40-hour work­
week and get premium pay for over­
time. In labs that specialize in proc­
essing film for amateur photog­
raphers, employees may work a con­
siderable amount of overtime during
the summer and for several weeks
after Christmas. Many labs employ
additional workers temporarily dur­
ing these seasonal peaks.
Photo lab jobs are not physically
strenuous. In many semiskilled oc­
cupations, workers perform their
jobs while sitting, but the work is
repetitious and the pace is rapid.
Some workers (for example, printer
operators and photocheckers and
assemblers) are subject to eye fa­
tigue. Photofinishing labs are gen­
erally clean, well-lighted, and airconditioned.
Sources of Additional

Information about employment
op p o rtu n ities in photographic
laboratories and schools that offer
Earnings of photo lab workers degrees in photographic technology
Earnings and Working



is available from:
Master Photo Dealers’ and Finishers’
Association, 603 Lansing Ave.,
Jackson, Mich. 49202.
P r o fe ssio n a l P h o to g r a p h e r s o f
America, Inc., 1090 Executive
Way, Des Plaines, 111. 60018.

(D.O.T. 922.782 and .883)

Nature of the Work

In the past, manual workers usual­
ly did the hard physical labor of
moving raw materials and products.
Today, many heavy materials are
moved by workers who operate vari­
ous types of self-powered trucks. A
typical truck has a hydraulic or elec­
tric lifting mechanism and special at­
tachments for use on particular jobs.
For example, a truck may have a
fork lift to move piles of cartons, a
scoop to lift coal, or a tow bar to pull
small trailers.
Operators must use care and skill
in driving trucks. For example, when
loading or removing materials from
stock, which may be stacked from
floor to ceiling, they must be able to
judge distance so that no damage oc­
curs. They also must know how
much the truck can lift and carry and
the kinds of jobs it can do.
Operators may have to keep
records of materials moved and do
some manual loading and unload­
ing. They also may be responsible for
keeping their trucks in good work­
ing condition by cleaning, oiling,
checking the water in batteries, and
making simple adjustments.
Places of Employment

About 300,000 power truck

operators were employed in 1972.
Power truck operators worked in all
types of manufacturing industries.
Large numbers were employed in
plants that made automobiles, ma­
chinery, fabricated metal products,
and iron and steel. Many power
truck operators also were employed
in warehouses, depots, dock ter­
minals, and mines.
Because power truck operators are
employed in many different indus­
tries, they work in all parts of the
co u n try . A lthough some are
employed in small towns, most work
in heavily populated areas where
large factories are located.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most workers can learn to operate

a power truck in a few days. It takes
several weeks, however, to learn the
layout and operation of a plant and
the most efficient way of handling
Large companies generally re­
quire applicants to pass a physical
examination. Many large com­
panies have formal training pro­
grams to teach new employees to
operate power trucks, make simple
repairs, and handle materials. They
also learn plant layout and opera­
tion and safe driving rules.
Young persons who are planning
to become power truck operators
should have manual dexterity,
mechanical ability, and aboveaverage eyesight, including good
depth perception.
Opportunities for advancement
are limited. A few operators may



become material-movement foremen
or supervisors.
Employment Outlook

Employment of power truck
operators is expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1980’s.
In addition to jobs resulting from
employment growth, many openings
will result from the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or trans­
fer to other occupations.
More goods will be manufactured
as population grows and our stan­
dard of living rises. Power truck
operators will be needed to move
these goods and the materials used to
produce them. Employment growth
will be limited, however, by the
development of more efficient trucks
and other mechanized material­
handling equipment.
Earnings and Working

Many power truck operators are
members of labor unions. Most un­
ion contracts in manufacturing
plants provide for fringe benefits
such as paid holidays and vacations,
health insurance, life insurance, and
retirement pensions.

uct manufactured gets a coating of
paint or other protection. In massproduction, most painters use sprayguns to apply paint, lacquer, varnish,
and other finishes; some use brushes;
and others operate spraying ma­
chines, dipping tanks, or tumbling
barrels. The work of production
painters in factories is different from
Sources of Additional
that of skilled painters in construc­
tion and maintenance work. (See
Information on work oppor­ statements on painters and automo­
tunities for power truck operators bile painters elsewhere in the Hand­
may be available from the local of­ book.)
fice of the State employment service.
Production painters may have to
clean items before painting them. On
multicolored items they use masking
tape to keep colors from over­
lapping. Spraygun operators adjust
spraygun nozzles and other controls
PRODUCTION PAINTERS so the paint will be applied evenly.
Some operate special sprayguns such
as those used to apply powdered
Nature of the Work
plastics. Painting machine operators
Almost every metal or wood prod­ may load items into the machine or

According to a survey of metro­
politan areas in 1971-72, power
truck operators in manufacturing
earned an average of $3.50 an
hour, about the same as the average
for nonsupervisory workers in all pri­
vate industries except farming. Ear­
nings of operators varied by region,
as shown below:
A rea
Hourly rate
United S ta te s .................................
N o rth ea st....................................
South ...........................................
North Central ......................
West .............................................

Power truck operators are subject
to hazards such as falling objects and
collisions between vehicles. They
may operate their trucks outdoors
where they are exposed to all kinds
of weather. Some operators may
handle loose material that is dirty or
dusty. Moving materials throughout
a plant, however, is likely to be less
routine and boring than many other
production jobs.

Production painters apply acrylic enamel to automobile body.


onto conveyors before applying
Most production painters do sim­
ple, repetitive work; others have to
decide finishes, paint thinning, and
the adjustment of spray equipment.
Mixing paints and figuring areas to
be painted require simple arithmetic
involving decimals and fractions.
Production painters may replace
nozzles and clean sprayguns and
other equipment. Besides the paint­
ing equipment, they use wrenches,
mixing paddles, and gages which
show the consistency of paint.
Places of Employment

A bout 180,000 p ro d u ctio n
painters were employed in 1972;
most of whom were men. More than
four-fifths of the total worked in
plants that manufactured furniture,
automobiles, household appliances,
industrial machinery, and other
durable goods. Large numbers of
production painters were employed
in New York, Michigan, Ohio,
California, Illinois, Pennsylvania,
Texas, North Carolina, and New
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The new worker usually learns by
watching and helping experienced
production painters. The length of
training may vary from a few days to
several months.
Production painters should have a
steady hand, the ability to stand for
long periods, and good eyesight to
distinguish between colors and to
apply paint evenly. High school
graduation generally is not required.
Opportunities for advancement
are limited. A small number of pro­
duction painters become inspectors
and foremen.
Employment Outlook

Em ploym ent



painters is expected to increase slow­
ly through the mid-1980’s. Most job
openings will result as experienced
workers retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
Most manufacturing industries
which employ production painters
are expected to increase their output
in the years ahead. Demand for con­
sumer products, such as automo­
biles and furniture, will increase as
population and personal income
grow. Business growth will create a
need for more industrial machinery
and equipment. Employment of
painters, however, is not expected to
keep pace with manufacturing out­
put because the greater use of auto­
matic sprayers and other laborsaving innovations, such as powder
coating applied by electrostatic guns,
should raise output per worker.
Earnings and Working

Hourly wage rates for production
painters ranged from about $2.30 to
$4.60 in 1972, based on information
from a limited number of union con­
tracts. Most contracts provided for
holiday and vacation pay, health in­
surance, life insurance, and retire­
ment pensions.
Painters are exposed to fumes
from paint and paint-mixing in­
gredients. Some wear protective
clothing and masks which cover the
nose and mouth. When painting
large objects, they sometimes work
in awkward and cramped positions.
Among unions organizing produc­
tion painters are the International
Union, United Automobile, Aero­
space and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America; the United
Furniture Workers of America; and
the United Steelworkers of America.
Sources of Additional

More facts about job oppor­


tunities in this field may be available
from local offices of the State
employment service.

(D.O.T. 950.782)
Nature of the Work

Stationary engineers operate and
maintain boilers, diesel engines, tur­
bines, generators, pumps, and com­
pressors. The equipment is used to
generate power and to control the
temperature and humidity in fac­
to r ie s and o th e r b u ild in g s .
Stationary engineers must operate
and maintain the equipment accord­
ing to State and local laws, since the
safety of many people depends upon
its proper functioning.
Stationary engineers detect and
identify any trouble that develops by
watching and listening to ma­
chinery, and by analyzing readings of
meters, gages, and other instru­
ments. They operate levers, throttles,
switches, valves, and other devices to
regulate the machinery, and 'also
record such information as fuel con­
sumption and boiler temperatures
and pressure. Stationary engineers
use handtools to repair equipment.
Common repairs involve reseating
valves and replacing gaskets, pumps,
and bearings.
In a large plant, the stationary
engineer may have charge of the
boiler room, and direct the work of
assistant stationary engineers, tur­
bine operators, boiler operators, and
air-conditioning and refrigeration
mechanics. In a small plant, the
stationary engineer may operate and
maintain equipment by himself.
Places of Employment

In 1972, about 175,000 stationary


engineers were employed in a wide
variety of places, including power
stations, factories, sewage and watertreatment plants, office and apart­
ment buildings, hotels, and hospitals.
F e d e r a l , S t a t e , an d lo c a l
governments also employed large
numbers of these workers. Most
plants which operate on three shifts
employ four to eight stationary
engineers, but some have more. In
many plants, only one engineer
works on each shift.
Because stationary engineers work
in so many different kinds of indus­
tries, they are employed in all parts
of the country. Although some are
employed in small towns and in rural
areas, most work in the more heavily
populated areas where large indus­
trial and commercial businesses are
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Many stationary engineers start as
helpers or craftsmen in other trades
and acquire their skills through in­
form al on-the-job experience.
However, most training authorities
recommend formal apprenticeship
programs because of the increasing
complexity of the machines and
In selecting apprentices, most joint
labor-management apprenticeship
committees prefer high school or
trade school graduates between 18
and 25 years of age who have receiv­
ed instruction in mathematics, me­
chanical drawing, machine-shop
practice, physics, and chemistry.
Mechanical aptitude, manual dex­
terity, and good physical condition
also are important qualifications.
The apprenticeship usually lasts 3
to 4 years. In addition to on-the-job
training, apprentices receive class­
room instruction in practical chemis­
try, elementary physics, blueprint
reading, applied electricity, and
other technical subjects.


Becoming a stationary engineer of stationary engineer licenses which
without going through a formal ap­ specify the steam pressure or horse­
prenticeship program usually takes power of the equipment the engineer
many years of experience as an assis­ can operate. The first-class license
tant to licensed stationary engineers. permits the stationary engineer to
This practical experience usually is operate equipment of all types and
supplemented by technical or other capacities. The lower class licenses
school training or home study.
limit the capacity of the equipment
Some States, the District of the engineer may operate without the
Columbia, and many large and supervision of a higher rated
medium-size cities have licensing engineer.
re q u ire m e n ts for s ta tio n a ry
Stationary engineers advance to
engineers. Although requirements more responsible jobs by being plac­
for a license differ from place to ed in charge of larger, more power­
place, the following are typical: ful, or more varied equipment.
applicants must be over 21 years of Generally, engineers advance to
age; they must reside for a specified these jobs as they obtain higher
period in the State or locality in grade licenses. A dvancem ent,
which the examination is given; and however, is not automatic. For ex­
they must meet the experience re­ ample, an engineer who has a firstquirements for the class of license class license may work for some time
requested and pass an examination as an assistant to another first-class
which may be written, oral, or both. engineer before a vacancy occurs.
Generally, there are several classes Some stationary engineers eventual-

stationary engineer operates compressor.


ly advance to jobs as plant engineers They usually work a 5-day, 40-hour
and as b u ild in g and p la n t week. In plants that operate around
the clock, they may be assigned to
any one of three shifts—often on a
rotating basis—and to Sunday and
Employment Outlook
holiday work. Many employers
E m ploym ent of s ta tio n a ry provide finge benefits such as health
engineers is expected to show little or insurance, life insurance, and retire­
no change through the mid-1980’s. ment pensions.
Nevertheless, several thousand job
Engine rooms, powerplants, or
openings will arise annually because boiler rooms usually are clean and
of the need to replace experienced well-lighted. Even under the most
workers who retire, die, or transfer favorable conditions, however, some
to other occupations.
stationary engineers are exposed to
Industrial growth will result in an high temperatures, dust, dirt, con­
increased use of large boilers and tact with oil and grease, and fumes or
auxiliary equipment in factories, smoke. They may have to crawl in­
powerplants, and other buildings. side boilers and work in crouching or
The need for additional stationary kneeling positions to inspect, clean
engineers, however, will be limited or repair the interiors.
by the trend to more powerful and
Because stationary engineers often
more centralized equipment with work around boilers and electrical
automatic controls. For example, and mechanical equipment, they
large boilers make it possible to in­ must be alert to avoid burns, electric
crease capacity without correspond­ shock, and injury from moving
ing increases in the number of machinery.
stationary engineers. In a growing
Among the unions to which these
number of plants, centralized con­ workers belong are the International
trol panels and closed circuit televi­ Union of Operating Engineers and
sion monitoring systems will reduce the International Union, United
the need for on-site observation of A u to m o b ile, A ero sp ace and
equipment. Automatic control Agricultural Implement Workers of
systems which regulate throttles, America.
valves, and other devices previously
regulated by hand, also will increase
Sources of Additional
the efficiency of stationary engineers.


(D.O.T. 951.885)
Nature of the Work

Stationary firemen operate and
maintain the steam boilers that
power industrial machinery and heat
factories, offices, and other build­
ings. Qualified firemen may be
responsible for inspecting boiler
equipment, lighting boilers, and
maintaining steam pressure.
In most plants, stationary fire­
men operate mechanical devices that
control the flow of air, gas, oil, or
coal into fireboxes. They read meters
and other instruments to make sure
boilers are operating according to
safety regulations. They sometimes
make minor repairs, and test and
treat boiler water with chemicals.
They may also operate waste heat
Stationary firemen often are
supervised by stationary engineers
who operate and maintain a variety
of equipment, including boilers,
diesel and steam engines, and
refrigeration and air-conditioning
systems. (Additional information on
statio n ary engineers appears
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Places of Employment

Information about training or
Earnings and Working
Most of the 93,000 stationary fire­
work opportunities may be obtained
from local offices of State employ­ men employed in 1972 worked in
Stationary engineers had average ment services, locals of the Inter­ manufacturing industries. Plants
hourly earnings of $4.14 in 1971-72, national Union of O perating that manufacture lumber, iron and
according to a survey of metro­ Engineers, and from State and local steel, paper, chemicals, and trans­
portation equipment are among the
politan areas. This was higher than licensing agencies.
Specific questions about the occu­ leading employers of stationary fire­
the average for all nonsupervisory
men. Public utilities also employ
workers in private industry, except pation may be referred to:
many of these workers.
farming. Averages for engineers in
International Union of Operating En­
Although stationary firemen are
individual areas ranged from $4.29
gineers, 1125 17th St. N W .,
employed in all parts of the country,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
in the south to $5.21 in the western
most work in the more heavily popu­
United States.
N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f P ow er
lated areas where large manufac­
Stationary engineers generally
Engineers, Inc. 176 West Adam
turing plants are located.
St., Chicago, 111. 60603.
have steady year-round employment.



Employment Outlook

Employment of stationary fire­
men is expected to decline slowly
through the mid-1980’s. Hundreds of
job openings, however, will result
each year from the need to replace
experienced firemen who transfer to
other occupations, retire, or die.
Although an increase in the use of
boilers and auxiliary equipment is
expected, the trend to automatic,
more powerful, and more centralized
equipment is expected to result in a
decline in employment of stationary
firemen. In large plants, however,
where turbines and engines are hous­
ed under a separate roof, and where
there is a need for constant sur­
veillance of boilers, firemen will con­
tinue to be needed.
Earnings and Working

Stationary fireman lights boiler.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Some large cities and a few States
require stationary firemen to be
licensed. An applicant can obtain the
knowledge and experience to pass the
license examination by first working
as a helper in a boiler room.
License requirements differ from
city to city and from State to State.
However, applicants usually must
meet experience requirements and
pass an examination to obtain a
license. For specific information
about licensing, State and local
authorities should be consulted.
There are two types of stationary
firemen licenses—for low and high
pressure boilers. Low pressure fire­
men operate boilers generally used
for heating buildings. High pressure
firemen operate the more powerful

boilers and auxiliary boiler equip­
ment used to power machinery as
well as heat large buildings. Both
high and low pressure firemen, how­
ever, may operate equipment of any
pressure if a stationary engineer is on
Stationary firemen should under­
stand the operation of machinery,
and must have normal vision and
good hearing. Because of the mech­
anization of equipment, physical
strength is no longer a major require­
ment for this type of work.
Stationary firemen may advance
to stationary engineers. To help them
advance, firemen sometimes supple­
ment their on-the-job training by
taking courses in chemistry, physics,
blueprint reading; electricity, and air
conditioning and refrigeration.
Stationary firemen also may become
maintenance mechanics.

Stationary firemen had average
hourly earnings of $3.74 according to
a survey of metropolitan areas in
1971-72. This was the average
for all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Average for firemen in individual
areas ranged from $2.25 in Green­
ville, S.C. to $5.44 in Detroit,
Many stationary firemen received
paid holidays and vacations, and
other benefits such as health in­
surance, life insurance, and retire­
ment pensions.
Stationary firemen may have to
work in awkward positions and be
exposed to noise, heat, grease,
fumes, and smoke. They are subject
also to burns, falls, and injury from
moving machinery. Defective boilers
and auxiliary equipment may be
dangerous to firemen and other per­
sons. Modern equipment and safety
procedures, however, have reduced
The principal unions organizing


stationary engineers are the Inter­ through the various treatment proc­
national Brotherhood of Firemen esses.
and Oilers and the International
Operators read meters and gauges
Union of Operating Engineers.
to make sure plant equipment is
working properly. Other jobs in­
clude operating screening devices to
Sources of Additional
remove solids from wastewater; tak­
ing samples of the water for labora­
Information about training or tory analysis; and testing and adjust­
work opportunities in this trade may ing the level of chlorine in the water.
be obtained from local offices of Operators also make minor repairs
State employment services, locals of on valves, pumps, and other equip­
the International Brotherhood of ment. They use wrenches, pliers, and
Firemen and Oilers, and from State other common hand tools, as well as
and local licensing agencies.
special tools. Occasionally operators
Specific questions about the must work under emergency con­
nature of the occupation, training, ditions—for example, a heavy rain­
and employment opportunities may storm may cause abnormal amounts
be referred to:
of wastewater to flow into sewer
pipes and threaten to exceed a plant’s
International Brotherhood of Firemen
treatment capacity.
and Oilers, 200 Maryland Ave.


The duties of operators vary de­
pending on the type and size of plant.
The treatment process in an indus­
trial plant, such as a food-process­
ing company for example, may be
simple since the wastewater is of a
known content. Treatment plants
which serve entire cities, on the other
hand, must be equipped to treat a
mixture of waste products that varies
daily, thus making the operator’s job
more complicated. In smaller plants,
one operator may be responsible for
the entire system—making repairs,
keeping plant records, handling com­
plaints, and doing the maintenance
work for the facility. In larger plants,
the staff may include chemists,
laboratory technicians, mechanics,
helpers, foremen, and a superinten­

NE., Washington, D.C. 20002.

(Sewage-Plant Operator)
(D.O.T. 955.782)
Nature of the Work

Clean water is essential for our
health and recreation and for the ex­
istence of fish and wildlife. Wastewater treatment plant operators help
keep America’s water clean by re­
moving harmful domestic and indus­
trial waste.
Waste materials are carried by
water through sewer pipes to treat­
ment plants. Wastewater treatment
plant operators control equipment to
remove these materials or render
them harmless. By operating and
maintaining pumps, pipes, and
valves that connect the collection
system to the treatment facility,
operators move the wastewater


| ~, I

fluTMpri 1
Eli H

Treatment plant operator records instrument reading.




Places of Employment

About 20,000 people worked full­
time as wastewater treatment plant
operators in 1972, of whom 14,500
worked in municipal plants, 4,500 in
private industry, and 1,000 in
Federal installations.
W astew ater treatm en t plant
operators are employed throughout
the country. Geographically, em­
ployment is distributed much like the
Nation’s population, with most jobs
in larger towns and cities. Many
operators in small towns are em­
ployed part-time.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Trainees usually start as helpers
and learn their skills on the job under
the direction of an experienced
operator. They learn by helping in
routine tasks, such as recording
meter readings; taking samples of
wastewater and sludge; and doing
simple maintenance and repair work
on pumps, electric motors, and
valves. They also are expected to per­
form housekeeping tasks such as
cleaning and maintaining plant
equipment and property.
Young people who are interested
in entering the field should have
some mechanical aptitude, and
should be competent in basic mathe­
matics. Employers generally prefer
trainees who have a high school
diploma or its equivalent, and in
some States this is a minimum
educational requirement. Some posi­
tions, particularly in larger cities and
towns, are covered by civil service
regulations, and applicants may be
required to pass written examina­
tions testing elementary mathe­
matics, mechanical aptitude, and
general intelligence. Operators must
be agile, since they have to climb lad­
ders and move easily around heavy

Some two-year programs leading
to an associate degree in wastewater
technology are available that pro­
vide a good general knowledge of the
water pollution control field as well
as basic preparation for becoming an
operator. Since plants are becoming
more complex, completion of such
courses increase an applicant’s
chances for employment and pro­
motion. Programs also are available
under provisions of the Manpower
Development and Training Act.
Trainees who have completed such
programs may bypass much of the
basic on-the-job training and ad­
vance more rapidly.
Most State water pollution con­
trol agencies offer training courses to
improve the skills of treatment plant
operators. These courses cover prin­
ciples of sludge digestion, odors and
their control, chlorination, sedimen­
tation, biological oxidation, and flow
measurements. Some operators take
correspondence courses on subjects
related to wastewater treatment, and
some municipalities will pay part of
the tuition for courses leading to a
college degree in science or engineer­
Operators may be promoted to
supervisory positions such as fore­
man and superintendent. Superin­
tendents of large and complex plants
are expected to have an engineering
or science degree. A high school
diploma and increasingly respon­
sible experience may be sufficient to
qualify as superintendent of a small
or medium-sized plant at present,
but educational requirements are ris­
ing as more complex treatment
plants are built to meet new water
pollution control standards. A
limited number of operators may be­
come technicians employed by State
water pollution control agencies to
monitor and provide technical
assistance to plants throughout the
State. Some technical-vocational
school or junior college training is

generally preferred for technician
In 35 States, supervisors and cer­
tain operators must pass an ex­
amination to certify that they are ca­
pable of overseeing treatment plant
operations. Voluntary certification
programs are in effect in the re­
maining States, with the exception
of Alaska and Mississippi.
Under a typical program, there
are different classes of certification
for different sizes of treatment
plants. For example, to be certified a
Class I operator (corresponding to a
Class I plant serving a population of
less than 2,000), an applicant may be
required to be a high school grad­
uate, demonstrate general knowl­
edge of treatment operations by
passing a written test, and have com­
pleted 1 year of employment at a
treatment plant. Requirements for
certification as a Class IV operator
(corresponding to a Class IV plant,
serving a population in excess of 40,000) may be completion of 2 or more
years of college in science and
engineering; 5 years of treatment
plant experience at a Class III plant
or higher, 2 years of which were in a
position of major responsibility; and
specific knowledge of the entire field
of wastewater treatment as demon­
strated through a written test.
Employment Outlook

Employment of wastewater treat­
ment plant operators is expected to
rise rapidly through the mid-1980’s,
mainly as a result of the construc­
tion of new treatment plants to proc­
ess the increasing amount of
domestic and industrial wastewater.
Also, more highly trained operators
will be needed as existing plants ex­
pand and modernize their facilities to
cope more effectively with water
pollution. In addition to the new jobs
from employment growth, many job
openings will occur as experienced


operators retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
Earnings and Working

Earnings of operators ranged from
about $5,000 to $14,000 a year in
1972, based on information from a
survey covering a number of cities
throughout the United States.
Operators at the supervisory level
could earn even more. Salaries for
trainees were roughly 80 percent of
operators’ salaries in most cities.
Fringe benefits for operators
usually are similar to those received
by other local government em­
ployees. Typically, they receive paid
vacations and holidays, overtime,
shift differential pay, sick leave, paid
hospitalization and life insurance,
and retirement benefits.
Because pollution control is a
never ending task, operators work
different shifts and in an emergency
may have to work overtime. Opera­
tors may be exposed to unpleasant
odors, as well as noise from the
operation of electrical motors and
pumps. However, odor is kept to a
minimum by the use of chlorine or
other chemicals.
Sources of Additional

Young people interested in a
career in wastewater treatment
should contact their local or State
water pollution control agencies. Ad­
ditional information may be ob­
tained from:
Water Pollution Control Federation,
3 9 0 0 W is c o n s in A v e . N W .,
Washington, D.C. 20016
Environmental Protection Agency, Of­
fice of Water Programs Operations
Manpower Development Staff, 401
M St. SW., Washington, D.C.


(D.O.T. 810. through 819.887)
Nature of the Work

Welding is one of the most com­
mon means of joining metal parts.
Many of the parts in automobiles,
spacecraft, airplanes, household
appliances, and thousands of other
products are joined by this process.
Structural metal used for bridges and
buildings is often welded. Most of
the 40 or more different welding
processes fall under three basic cate­
gories: arc, gas, and resistance weld­
ing. Arc and gas welding can be per­
formed manually or by machine.
Resistance welding is mainly a
machine process.
Manual welders may do arc or gas
welding, or both, and they may be
either skilled or semiskilled. Skilled
welders are able to plan and lay out
work from drawings, blueprints, or
other written specifications. They
know the welding properties of steel,
bronze, aluminum, and other metals
and alloys. They also can weld all
types of joints held in various posi­
tions (flat, vertical, horizontal, and
overhead). Semiskilled manual weld­
ers usually do repetitive work; that
is, production work which generally
does not involve critical safety and
strength requirements. They primar­
ily weld surfaces in only one position.
Manual welders control the melt­
ing of metal edges by directing heat
to the edges, either from an electric
arc or from a gas-welding torch. In
one of the most common arc weld­
ing processes, they first “strike” an
arc (create an electric circuit) by
touching the metal with the elec­
trode. They guide the electrode at a
suitable distance from the edges, and
intense heat caused by the arc melts
the edges and the electrode tip. The
molten metal solidifies to form a
solid connection.

Welders use special masks and heavy
gloves to prevent injuries.

Gas welders apply an intensely hot
flame to the metal edges. After the
torch is lighted, valves are adjusted
to obtain the proper flame for the
particular job. Gas welders heat the
metal with the torch and apply a
welding rod to the molten metal to
supply additional filler for the joint.
In production processes, espe­
cially where the work is repetitive
and the items to be welded are rela­
tively uniform, the welding may be
done by semiskilled workers who
operate machines. For example,
resistance welding operators (D.O.T.
813.885) feed and aline the work and
remove it after the welding oper­
ation is completed. Occasionally,
they may adjust the controls of the
machine for the desired electric cur­
rent and pressure.
Closely related to manual welders
are oxygen cutters (D.O.T. 816.782
and .884) and arc cutters (D.O.T.
816.884). These workers cut or trim



metals. Oxygen cutters melt the
metal with a gas torch and cut it by
releasing a stream of oxygen from
the torch. Arc cutting differs from
oxygen cutting because an electric
arc is the source of heat. Oxygen and
arc cutters also may operate a torch
mounted on an electrically- or
mechanically-controlled machine
which automatically follows the
proper guideline.
Places of Employment

About 555,000 welders and flame
cutters were employed throughout
the country in 1972. Very few were
women. About three-fifths of the
total were employed by firms that
manufactured durable goods, such as
transportation equipment, machin­
ery, and primary metals. Most of the
rest worked for construction firms
and repair shops.
The widespread use of the welding
and cutting processes enables these
workers to find jobs in every State.
Most of the jobs, however, are found
in the major metalworking areas. In
1972, about half of all welders and
cutters were employed in seven
States—Pennsylvania, California,
Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Texas, and
New York.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Generally, it takes several years of
training to become a skilled manual
arc or gas welder, and somewhat
longer to become a combination
welder (both arc and gas welding).
Some of the less skilled jobs, how­
ever, can be learned in a few months
of on-the-job training.
Training requirements for resist­
ance-welding machine operators de­
pend upon the particular type of
equipment used; most of them learn
their work in a few weeks. Little skill
is required for most oxygen and arc­

cutting jobs; generally, they also can
be learned in a few weeks.
Young persons planning careers as
welders or cutters need manual dex­
terity, good eyesight, and good eyehand coordination. They should be
able to concentrate on detailed work
for long periods, and must be free of
any physical disabilities that would
prevent them from bending, stoop­
ing, and working in awkward
For entry into manual welding
jobs most employers prefer appli­
cants who have high school or voca­
tional school training in welding.
Courses in mathematics, mechan­
ical drawing, and blueprint reading
also are helpful.
Beginners often start in simple
production jobs where the type and
thickness of metal, as well as the
position of the welding operation,
rarely change. Occasionally, they are
first given jobs as cutters and later
move up to manual welding.
A few large companies offer
welder apprenticeship programs that
run as long as 8,000 hours. Also, the
U.S. Department of the Navy, at
several of its installations, conducts
4-year welder apprenticeship pro­
grams for its civilian employees.
Programs to train unemployed
and underemployed workers for en­
try level welding jobs or to upgrade
welding skills were operating in
many cities in 1972 under the Man­
power Development and Training
Act and other legislation. The train­
ing, which may be in the classroom
or on the job, lasts from several
weeks up to 1 year. Additional work
experience and on-the-job training
may qualify graduates as skilled
welders in a relatively short time.
Before being assigned to work on
boilers or other jobs where the
strength of the weld is highly criti­
cal, welders may be required to pass
an ex am in atio n given by an
employer or government agency.

New d e v e lo p m e n ts in som e
manufacturing industries are in­
creasing the skills required of wel­
ders. This is particularly true in fields
such as atomic energy or missile
manufacture, which have high stan­
dards for the reliability of welds
and require more precise work.
Welders may be promoted to jobs
as welding inspectors, technicians, or
foremen. A small number of experi­
enced welders open their own weld­
ing and repair shops.
Employment Outlook

Employment of welders is ex­
pected to increase rapidly through
the mid-1980’s as a result of the
generally favorable longrun outlook
for metalworking industries and the
wider use of the welding process. In
addition to jobs created by employ­
ment growth, a few thousand open­
ings will arise annually because of
the need to replace experienced
workers who retire or die. Openings
will occur, also, as some welders
transfer to other occupations.
Many more manual welders will
be needed for maintenance and re­
pair work in the growing metal­
working industries. The number of
manual welders in production work
is expected to increase in plants that
manufacture ships, boilers, storage
tanks, and other structural-metal
products. The construction industry
will need an increasing number of
welders as the use of welded steel
building techniques expands.
Employment prospects for resist­
ance welders are expected to con­
tinue to be favorable because of the
increased use of machine resistance­
welding in the manufacture of motor
vehicles, aircraft and missiles, rail­
road cars, and other products.
The number of jobs for oxygen
and arc cutters is expected to rise
somewhat during the years ahead as
the result of the general expansion of



metalworking activity. The in­
creased use of oxygen and arc-cut­
ting machines, however, will tend to
restrict growth in these occupations.
Earnings and Working

National wage data on welders
and cutters are not available. How­
ever, data from several union
contracts in the shipbuilding and
fabricated structural metal products
industries indicate that welders hour­
ly earnings ranged from $3.85 to
$4.90 in 1972. Cutters generally
earn less than welders.
The standard workweek for weld­
ers and cutters is 40 hours. Many
employers provide paid vacations
and holidays, and additional bene­
fits, such as life and health insur­
ance, and retirement pensions.
Welders and cutters use protec­
tive clothing, goggles, helmets with
protective lenses, and other devices
to prevent burns and eye injuries.
Although lighting and ventilation are
usually adequate, they occasionally
work in the presence of toxic gases

and fumes caused by the melting of
some metals. They are often in con­
tact with rust, grease, paint, and
other elements on metal surfaces.
Operators of resistance-welding
machines are largely free from the
hazards associated with hand weld­
ing. An eyeshield or goggles gener­
ally offer adequate protection to
these workers.
Many welders and cutters are un­
ion members. Among the unions that
organize these workers are the Inter­
national Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Boiler­
makers, Iron Shipbuilders, Black­
smiths, Forgers and Helpers; the
International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America; the
United Association of Journeymen
and Apprentices of the Plumbing and
Pipe Fitting Industry of the United
States and Canada; and the United
Electrical, Radio and Machine
Workers of America (Ind.). Only
one labor organization—the Inter­
national Union, United Welders
(Ind.), is known to be composed en­

tirely of welders, employed largely in
the aircraft industry on the west
Sources of Additional

For further information on train­
ing and work opportunities for weld­
ers and flame cutters, contact local
employers. Local offices of the State
employment service also may have
information about the Manpower
Development and Training Act, ap­
prenticeship, and other programs
that provide training opportunities.
General information about welders
may be obtained from the State
Supervisor of Trade and Industrial
Education or the local Director of
Vocational Education in the State or
city in which a person wishes to re­
ceive training or by writing to:
The American Welding Society, 2501
NW. 7th St., Miami, Fla. 33125.
International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricul­
tural Im plem ent W orkers of
America, 8000 East Jefferson Ave.,
Detroit, Mich. 48214.



Office workers perform a wide
range of tasks that are needed to
keep business and other organiza­
tions running on a day to day basis.
Clerical workers, such as secretaries
and typists, maintain files, type, and
operate office machines. Profes­
sional and technical employees, on
the other hand, give legal advice, pre­
pare and analyze financial reports,
design computer systems, and ar­
range bank loans.

Opportunities in office work exist
for people with widely different
educational backgrounds. Some jobs
can be entered with only a high
school education; many others, how­
ever, require at least a college degree.
Many clerical employees work
with things and often do detailed,
repetitive tasks. Most professional
office workers, on the other hand,
work with ideas; they apply their
skills to solving problems and devis­

ing ways to provide better services to
those who depend on them. Besides
the technical skills required to do
their jobs, office workers need judg­
ment and the ability to communi­
cate their ideas to others.
This chapter of the Handbook
describes office work in Clerical Oc­
cupations, Computer and Related
Occupations, Banking Occupations,
Insurance Occupations, and Admin­
istrative and Related Occupations.


tasks. For example, a typist in a typ­
ing pool may be promoted to senior
typist. Receptionists who learn typ­
ing and office procedures may be­
come secretaries or typists. Promo­
tion to supervisor or manager gener­
ally depends on leadership ability,
work experience, and knowledge of
the overall operations of the

More than 14 million people
worked in clerical jobs in 1972.
Many keep records and do other of­
fice paperwork. Others handle com­
m u n icatio n s, o p e ra te office
machines, ship and receive merchan­
dise, and ring sales on cash registers.
Workers in clerical jobs have a
wide variety of skills and experi­
ence. They include highly skilled title
searchers in real estate firms and ex­
ecutive secretaries in business offices
as well as relatively unskilled
messengers and file clerks.
More than one out of five clerical
employees work as secretaries or
stenographers. Bookkeepers and ac­
counting clerks, representing a little
more than one-tenth of the total,
make up the next largest group.
Chart 12—shows employment in
these and other major clerical
occupations discussed in the Hand­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Clerical workers need high school
diplomas for all but the most rou­
tine jobs, and many employers pre­
fer applicants who have had busi­
ness courses. Some companies
cooperate with local high schools and
business schools in office education
programs that enable students to
work part time while attending
school. This experience is helpful
for beginners seeking jobs after
graduation. The Federal Govern­
ment also sponsors training for
some clerical occupations under
provisions of the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act and other

Beginning clerical workers often
receive on-the-job training. They
learn how their employers keep
records and the kinds of business
Employment Outlook
forms used. They also may learn to
Employment of clerical workers
operate adding and duplicating
machines and other office equip­ is expected to increase rapidly
ment. They may attend school to through the mid-1980’s. In addition
learn how to operate tabulating to jobs created by growth, thou­
machines and other specialized sands of openings will occur as
equipment. Secretaries and typists employees die, retire, or leave their
need special skills that must be learn­ jobs.
ed in schools or formal training
The growth in the number of cler­
ical workers is expected to result
Many clerical jobs require read­ primarily from the increasing paper­
ing comprehension, a knowledge of work that will accompany the expan­
spelling and grammar, and arith­ sion of large and complex organiza­
metic skills. Some employers test tions. Employment opportunities
applicants for clerical aptitude.
will be best for secretaries, typists,
Advancement opportunities for and other skilled workers whose jobs
many clerical workers are good and are not likely to be handled by
organizations often provide courses machines. Demand for these work­
so that employees can get the skills ers will be particularly strong in
needed. As workers become skillful, b an k s, in su ran ce co m p an ies,
they are assigned more difficult manufacturing firms, government of-

A Majority of the Approximately
14 Million Clerical W orkers Are
Employed in These Occupations


EM PLO YM EN T 1972 (in millions)

Secretaries and stenographers
Bookkeepers (including accounting clerks)
Stock clerks and storekeepers
Shipping and receiving clerks
Statistical clerks
Postal clerks
File clerks
Office machine operators

Bureau of Labor Statistics


fices, and professional service
As more firms use computers and
business machines, routine clerical
jobs such as payroll, stock, bank, and
file clerks may be reduced or elimi­
nated. However, as work is shifted
from clerks to machines, new jobs
will be created for machine oper­
ators, particularly in large urban
business firms.
Many clerical workers, including
secretaries, receptionists, and others
who deal with the public and who
exercise initiative, will not be
affected by automation.

Earnings and Working

Clerks in routine jobs earned as
little as $83 a week and some experi­
enced and highly skilled employees
earned up to $162 a week, according
to a 1972 Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey. Salary variations within an
occupation usually reflect differ­
ences in educational levels and work
Salaries in different parts of the
country also vary; earnings gener­
ally are lowest in southern cities and
highest in northeastern and western
urban areas. For example, secre­
taries averaged $141 a week in the
Northeast, $142 in the West, and
$126 in southern cities.
Office employees work a 40-hour
week in most cities. In some, espe­
cially in the Northeast, the sched­
uled work week is 371/2 hours.
Most office workers in large cities
receive 7 or more paid holidays a
year and 2 weeks vacation after
working 1 year. Longer vacations,
based on added years of service, may
range to 4 weeks or more. Group life
and health insurance plans, sick
benefits, and retirement plans may
be available.


Sources of Additional

Many State employment service
offices can provide information
about earnings, hours, and employ­
ment opportunities in clerical jobs.
Information concerning training
for clerical occupations is available
State Supervisor of Office Occupations
Education, State Department of
Education, State Capitol.

Teachers should contact:
Division of Vocational and Technical
Education, Bureau of Adult Voca­
tional and Library Programs, U.S.
Office of Education, Washington,
D.C. 20202.

A directory of private business
schools located in cities throughout
the country may be obtained from:
United Business Schools Association.
1730 M St., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 210.368 through .588,
and 219.388 and .488)
Nature of the Work

Every business needs systematic
and up-to-date records of accounts
and business transactions. Book­
keeping workers maintain these
records in journals, ledgers, and on
other accounting forms. They also
prepare periodic financial state­
ments showing all money received
and paid out. The duties of book­
keeping workers vary with the size of
the business in which they work.
In many small firms, a general
bookkeeper (D.O.T. 210.388) is the
only bookkeeping worker. He
analyzes and records all financial
transactions, such as orders and cash

Bookkeeper records business

sales. He also does the other book­
keeping work involved in operating a
business, which includes checking
money taken in against that paid out
to be sure accounts “balance” and
calculating the firm ’s payroll.
Although most of this work is done
by hand, occasionally a bookkeeper
uses simple office equipment such as
an adding machine. A general book­
keeper also does other office work
such as preparing and mailing cus­
tomers’ bills and answering the
Large businesses usually have
many bookkeepers and accounting
clerks under the direction of a head
bookkeeper. Bookkeepers may spe­
cialize in certain types of work such
as preparing statements on a com­
pany’s income from sales or its daily
operating expenses. They may use
complex bookkeeping machines. Ac­
counting clerks (D.O.T. 219.488),
who sometimes are known as book­



keeping clerks, perform a variety of
routine duties. They record details of
business transactions, including
deductions from payrolls and bills
paid and due. They also may type
vouchers, invoices, and other
Places of Employment

Bookkeeping workers numbered
over 1.5 million persons in 1972.
About 90 percent were women.
Although jobs for bookkeeping
workers are found in all kinds of
firms, most work in retail stores,
factories, banks, and insurance com­
panies. Large numbers also work
in wholesale firms, hospitals, and
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

High school graduates who have
taken business arithmetic, book­
keeping, and accounting meet the
minimum requirements for most
bookkeeping jobs. Some employers,
however, prefer applicants who have
completed business courses at a
junior college or business school.
Persons also may qualify for
bookkeeping jobs through on-the-job
training. In some areas, companies
cooperate with business schools and
high schools in work-study programs
offering part-time experience that
helps students get a job after gradua­
Bookkeeping workers need above
average aptitude for working with
numbers and the ability to con­
centrate on details. They should be
able to type and operate various of­
fice machines. Because bookkeepers
depend on other office workers for
information, persons in these jobs
should be able to work as part of a
Newly hired bookkeeping workers
begin by recording routine trans­

than average salaries, while workers
in stores, banks, and insurance com­
panies made less than the average.
Beginning bookkeeping workers in
the Federal G overnm ent had
monthly earnings which ranged from
$430 to $485. Experienced workers
were paid from $545 to $610 a
Working conditions for book­
keepers are similar to those of other
office workers in the same firms.
Employment Outlook
(See introductory section to this
A lth o u g h th e n u m b e r of chapter for more information on
bookkeepers will increase slowly Earnings and Working Conditions
through the mid-1980’s, thousands of and for Sources of Additional Infor­
workers will be needed each year. mation.)
Most job openings will be due to
deaths, retirements, and transfers.
Despite the expected increase in
the volume of recordkeeping,
employment growth in this occupa­
tion will be slowed by the use of elec­
(D.O.T. 211.138, .368, .468,
tronic data processing and other
.488, and 299.468)
bookkeeping machines. Many types
of machines can process data more
Nature of the Work
accurately, rapidly, and econom­
Supermarkets, movie theaters,
ically than workers doing it by hand.
Nevertheless, the need for book­ and restaurants are among the many
keeping workers probably will out­ businesses that employ cashiers to
pace the impact of laborsaving office handle payments from customers.
Most cashiers receive money, make
machines over the next decade.
change when necessary, fill out
charge forms, and give receipts.
Earnings and Working
Some also keep records of the
amount of each transaction so that at
Beginning accounting clerks in the end of the day accounts can be
private firms averaged $489 a month balanced. Many cashiers prepare
in 1972, according to a Bureau of cash and checks for deposit at the
Labor Statistics survey of clerical oc­ bank and pay for company supplies
cupations. Experienced clerks earned and equipment. Some prepare pay
$628 a month, about the same as the envelopes or paychecks and make
average for all nonsupervisory work­ out sales tax reports. (The occupa­
ers in private industry, except tion of bank cashier, which is differ­
farming. Relative earnings of book­ ent from other cashier jobs, is dis­
keeping workers have decreased cussed elsewhere in the Handbook.)
In addition to these duties,
slowly over the last ten years.
Accounting clerks working in cashiers, depending on their
cities for firms employing at least 2,- employers, may do other jobs and
500 people earned the highest have different job titles. Those who
salaries. Earnings also varied by in­ work in theaters, for example, (often
dustry; public utilities paid higher called box office cashiers or ticket

actions and advance to more respon­
sible assignments, such as preparing
income statements and operating
complex bookkeeping machines.
Some workers are promoted to
supervisory jobs. Bookkeepers who
complete courses in college account­
ing may become accountants. (The
occupation of accountant is dis­
cussed elsewhere in the Handbook.)



Courses in business arithmetic,
bookkeeping, typing, and other busi­
ness subjects are good preparation.
The Federal Government sponsors
programs to train unemployed and
underemployed workers for entry
positions as cashiers under pro­
visions of the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act and other
legislation. Cashier training also is
offered as part of many public school
vocational programs.
Many employers provide on-thejob training for cashiers. In a small
firm this training may be informal as
the beginning cashier works under
supervision of an experienced
employee. In large firms, training is
more formal and may include class­
room instruction in various phases of
a cashier’s job.
For some cashier jobs, employers
seek persons who have special skills
or business experience, such as typ­
ing or selling. Many cashier openings
sellers) operate ticket-dispensing hotels and hospitals, use machines are filled by promoting clerk-typists
machines and answer telephone in­ that record the charges for tele­ in offices, baggers in supermarkets,
quiries. Restaurant cashiers, some­ phone, medical, and other services and other qualified workers already
times called cashier checkers or and prepare itemized bills. Cashiers employed by the firm.
Young persons planning to
hostess-cashiers, handle reserva­ also may operate adding and change­
become cashiers should be able to do
tions for meals and special parties, dispensing machines.
repetitious work accurately. They
type menus, or sell items at the candy
need finger dexterity, a high degree
and cigarette counter. In super­
Places off Employment
of eye-hand coordination, and an ap­
markets and other self-service stores,
In 1972, about 1 million persons, titude for working with figures.
cashiers known as check-out clerks,
checkers, or grocery clerks wrap or over 85 percent of them women, were Because they meet the public,
bag purchases and, during slack employed as cashiers. Although c a s h ie rs sh o u ld be n e a t in
periods, may restock shelves and cashiers are found in businesses of all appearance and able to deal tact­
mark prices. In many offices, types and sizes, more than four-fifths fully and pleasantly with their
cashiers, known as agency or front- work in grocery, drug, and other customers.
Promotion opportunities for
office cashiers, type, operate the retail stores. Large numbers also are
switchboard, do bookkeeping, and employed in restau ran ts and cashiers are likely to be limited, par­
theaters. Most of the businesses ticularly in small firms. However,
act as receptionists.
Cashiers operate several types of employing cashiers are located in the cashier’s job affords a good op­
machines. Most use cash registers cities or suburban shopping centers; portunity to learn an employer’s
which print the amount of the sale on however, many also are found in business and so may serve as a stepa paper tape and release a money small towns.
pingstone to a more responsible
drawer. A growing number operate
clerical job or managerial position.
Cashiers working in chain stores and
computerized registers that calculate Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
the necessary taxes automatically
other large retail businesses, for ex­
Employers prefer that beginning ample, may advance to department
and record inventory numbers.
Others, especially those who work in cashiers have high school diplomas. or store managers.



cases, they are exposed to cold drafts
in the winter and considerable heat
Employment in this large occupa­ during the summer. (See intro­
tion is expected to increase rapidly ductory section of this chapter for
through the mid-1980’s due to con­ Sources of Additional Information.)
tinued expansion of business activity.
In addition, the trend to self-service
merchandising will spur the demand
for cashiers to perform check-out
duties formerly handled by salesworkers. Thousands of workers will
be needed each year to fill new jobs
and to replace those who leave the
(D.O.T. 132.388, 205.368, 206.388,
219.588, 920.887)
Opportunities probably will con­
tinue to be best for cashiers having
typing and bookkeeping skills. There
Nature of the Work
also should be many chances for
An orderly file system is often the
part-time work.
key to an efficient office. In most of­
fices, records are arranged to prevent
Earnings and Working
time and money losses caused by in­
ability to locate information quickly.
Beginning cashiers often earn the This system creates job opportun­
minimum wage required by law. In ities for file clerks, who keep records
several States and in establishments accurate, up to date, and properly
covered by the Federal law, the min­ placed.
imum was $1.60 an hour in 1972;
File clerks handle office informa­
elsewhere, starting salaries were tion by classifying, storing, updating,
somewhat lower. Unionized cashiers and retrieving it on request. To do
and some in highly responsible jobs this, they read incoming material
or those requiring specialized train­ and put it in order for future use by
ing often earn more than $3 an hour. means of some system like number,
Grocery checkers in supermarkets letter of the alphabet, subject matter,
sometimes earn more than $4 an or other. When these records are re­
quested, file clerks locate them and
Cashiers often work during rush turn them over to the borrower. They
periods which are outside regular of­ keep track of materials removed
fice hours. Holiday, weekend, late from the files and make sure that
afternoon, and evening work may be those given out are returned.
required, especially in theaters,
Some clerks operate mechanized
restaurants, and food stores. Many files which rotate to bring the needed
cashiers in these establishments work records to them. Others retrieve
part time or on split shifts. Those documents or spools of microfilm,
employed full time in supermarkets and place them in an electronic
and other large retail stores usually transmitter which displays the infor­
work a 5-day, 40-hour week; how­ mation on video terminals located
ever, they generally work on Satur­ elsewhere in the organization.
day and have another day off during Records also must be up-to-date in
order to be useful. File clerks make
the week.
sure that new information is added to
Most cashiers work indoors, often
in small booths or behind counters existing files shortly after it is receiv­
located near store entrances. In some ed.
Employment Outlook

From time to time, file clerks have
other duties, in addition to storing,
updating, and retrieving data. For
example, they may destroy outdated
file materials or transfer them to in­
active storage. They check files at
regular intervals to insure that all
items are correctly placed. When­
ever data cannot be located, the file
clerk searches for the missing
records. As an organization’s needs
for information change, file clerks
modify old filing systems or establish
new ones.
In small offices, file clerks often
ty pe, so rt m ail, or o p e ra te
duplicating machines. Those who
work with automated filing systems
may code and microfilm all in­
coming documents.

Places off Employment

About 270,000 persons—85 per­
cent of them women—worked as file
clerks in 1972. One out of every five
worked part time. In addition, many
other clerical workers have some fil­
ing tasks in connection with their
Although filing jobs are found in
almost every kind of organization,
nearly one-half of all file clerks work
in either banks, insurance com­
panies, or factories.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers prefer high school
graduates for beginning file clerks.
Many seek applicants who can type,
and who have some knowledge of of­
fice practices as well. High schools,
colleges, and private business schools
teach these and other skills that help
a beginner to get a job. The Federal
Government also sponsors programs
to train unemployed and under­
employed workers for entry posi­
tions as file clerks. This training is
offered under provisions of the Man­
power Development and Training
Act and other legislation.
Some on-the-job training usually
is necessary because each organi­
zation has its own filing system and
office procedures. In organizations
th a t have sp ecialized filing
procedures, clerks learn their jobs in
a few weeks. Learning to operate
mechanical filing systems usually
takes more time. Where file clerks
have a variety of related duties,
training may take up to three
File clerks must read accurately
and rapidly, spell well, and like
detailed work. They should be neat,
able to work as part of a team, and
not easily bored by repeated tasks.
File clerks can advance to more
difficult filing duties and to jobs
supervising other file clerks. Those
who improve their skills may be pro­
moted to office machine operators,
receptionists, and typists.


The increasing use of computers to
arrange, store, and transmit infor­
mation will cause the occupation to
grow less rapidly than in recent
years. However, the growing volume
of paper work and continued expan­
sion of those businesses that hire
many file clerks should assure
steady employment.

Earnings and Working

According to a Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey, beginning file
clerks in urban areas averaged $96 a
week in 1972. Weekly salaries of
those having some experience
averaged $105; of those having a
great deal of experience, $130. File
clerks earn about three-fourths as
much as the average for nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
In the Federal Government, begin­
ning file clerks without high school
diplomas started at about $92 a week
in early 1973; high school graduates
averaged $104 a week, and experi­
enced clerks $118.
Working conditions for file clerks
usually are similar to those for other
office workers in the same organiza­
tion. Although they do not do heavy
lifting, they often must stoop, bend,
and reach. (See the statement on
Clerical Occupations for more in­
formation on Earnings and Working
Conditions and for Sources of
Additional Information.)

guests, issue keys, and handle mail.
By working “up front,” these clerks
deal directly with the public and help
build the hotel’s reputation. In small
hotels and in many motels, front of­
fice clerks (who are sometimes
owners) also may work as book­
keepers, cashiers, or telephone
operators. Large hotels usually em­
ploy several front office clerks for
different jobs, such as handling mail
or information, or as key clerk. In
the largest hotels, floor supervisors
or floor clerks handle distribution of
mail, packages, and telegrams.
Almost 50,000 persons—most of
them men—worked as front office
clerks in 1972.
Room or desk clerks rent avail­
able rooms. Usually, they are the
first of the front office clerical staff
to greet guests. In assigning rooms,
they must consider reservations,
guests’ preferences, and, at the same
time, try to maximize hotel revenues.
These clerks give information about
rates and services and see that regis­
tration forms are properly filled out.
After check-in is completed hotel
room clerks signal bellmen who es­
cort guests to their rooms. Reserva­
tion clerks acknowledge written or
wired requests for rooms, type out
registration forms, and notify the
room clerk when guests are due to
arrive. Rack clerks keep room
assignment records to advise house­
keepers, telephone operators, and
others concerned with room occu­
pancies when rooms are occupied,
vacant, or closed for repairs.

Employment Outlook

Employment of file clerks is ex­
pected to grow moderately through
the mid-1980’s as business expan­
sion creates a need for more and
better recordkeeping. Also, many file
clerks will be needed each year to
replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to other jobs.

(D.O.T. 242.368)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

High school graduates who have
some clerical aptitude may be hired
for beginning jobs as mail, infor­
Nature of the Work
mation, or key clerks. A knowledge
Hotels and motels employ front of bookkeeping may be helpful in
office clerks to rent rooms, greet smaller hotels or on nightshift work



tively stable job which is not usually
affected by changes in general
economic conditions.
See the Hotel statement else­
where in the Handbook for infor­
mation on Earnings and Working
Conditions, Sources of Additional
Information, and for additional in­
formation on Employment Outlook.

(D.O.T. 207.782, .884, and .885;
213.782, 214.448, 215.388,
216.488, 234.582, and .885)
Nature of the Work

Front office clerk keeps room occupancy information current.

where additional duties may be per­
formed. Occasionally, employees in
other related work—for example,
bellmen or elevator operators—may
be transferred to front office jobs.
Although education beyond high
school generally is not required for
front office work, college training is
an asset for advancem ent to
m anagerial jobs. N eatness, a
courteous and friendly manner, and
ease in dealing with people are im­
portant traits for front office clerks.
Inexperienced workers learn about
the front office routine mainly on the
job. They usually have a brief train­
ing period which describes duties and
gives information about the hotel
such as room locations and services
offered. Once on the job, they receive
help from the assistant manager or
an experienced front office worker.
Most hotels promote front office
workers from within so that a key or

rack clerk may be promoted to
room clerk, then to assistant front
office manager, and later to front of­
fice manager. Clerks may improve
their opportunities for promotion by
taking home study courses such as
those sponsored by the Educational
Institute of the American Hotel and
Motel Association. (See statement
on Hotel Managers and Assistants
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Employment Outlook

Employment is expected to in­
crease very rapidly through the mid1980’s as hundreds of hotels, motels,
and motor hotels open or expand. In
addition to new front office jobs
created by growth, many openings
will result from the need to replace
workers who are promoted, transfer
to other occupations, or sto.p work­
ing. A front office clerk has a rela­

To speed paper work, modern
business offices use a variety of ma­
chines ranging from the simple letter
opener to complicated equipment for
involved computations. This state­
ment presents information on the
work of people who operate some of
the more common types of office
machines. Many, such as the book­
keeping and billing machine opera­
tors, have job titles related to the
kind of equipment they use. (Exclud­
ed from this section but discussed
in the Handbook are operators
of transcribing machines, type­
writers, and computers; clerical
workers who occasionally use copy­
ing or adding m achines; and
s t a t i s t i c a l c le r k s w ho use
Billing machine operators (D.O.T.
214.488) use machines that type and
add in order to prepare customers’
statements. The customer’s name
and address, items bought, and price
are entered on each bill. The ma­
chine calculates and prints totals,
discounts, and other items.
Bookkeeping machine operators
(D.O.T. 215.388) use office ma-



count quantities of accounting and
statistical information. Cards are in­
serted into tabulating machines that
count the various items on each card,
multiply, and make other cal­
culations. The results are printed on
accounting records and other busi­
ness forms.
Places off Employment

chines that record all financial tran­
sactions of a business on bookkeep­
ing forms. Operators using book­
keeping machines also prepare trial
balances, summary reports, and
other statistical information.
Adding and calculating machine
operators (D.O.T. 216.488) use elec­
trically and manually-operated ma­
chines to compute payrolls and in­
voices and do other statistical work.
Desired totals and results are auto­
m a tic a lly co m p u ted . A d d in g
machine operators use machines to
add and subtract and sometimes to
multiply. Calculating machine
o p era to rs and C o m p to m e te r
o p era to rs use m ore com plex
machines to add, subtract, multiply,
divide, and compute square roots
and percentage distrib u tio n s.
Although many office workers
operate adding m achines and
calculators in addition to other
duties, these employees are full-time,
trained calculator operators.
Mail preparing and mail handling
machine operators (D.O.T. 234.582

and .885) run automatic equipment
that handles incoming and outgoing
mail. Some machines open the
envelopes; others fold and insert
enclosures or address, seal, and
stamp envelopes. Addressing ma­
chines print addresses from stencils
cut by typists or from plates pre­
pared by em bossing m achine
operators (D.O.T. 208.782) who use
a special kind of typewriter.
Duplicating machines reproduce
documents more quickly and inex­
pensively than they can be typed.
Although any office employee can
operate some of this equipment, ma­
chines which produce thousands of
copies in a single “run” usually re­
quire full-time trained duplicating
machine operators (D.O.T. 207.782,
.884, and .885) who keep the equip­
ment properly adjusted. In some ma­
chines, the paper is fed and removed
manually; in other machines, these
operations are automatic.
Operators o f tabulating machines
and related equipment (D.O.T. 213.
782) run machines that sort and

In 1972, a b o u t 2 0 0 ,0 0 0
people—three-fourths of them
women—worked as office machine
operators. (This total does not in­
clude over 450,000 computer opera­
ting personnel who are discussed un­
der Computer and Related Occupa­
tions elsewhere in the Handbook.)
About one-third of all office ma­
chine operators work for manufac­
turing companies. Large numbers
also work for banks and insurance
companies, government agencies,
and wholesale and retail stores.
Others prepare monthly bills and
mailing circulars in service centers
for firms that do not have their own
office machinery.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers prefer high school or
business school graduates for begin­
ning office machine operators. Most
newly hired workers also are ex­
pected to operate basic office equip­
ment, such as adding machines and
calculators. Courses in business
arithm etic and typing are useful
because many positions involve
varied assignments.
The amount of instruction and onthe-job training beginners receive de­
pends on the types of machines they
operate. Although a few days may be
enough to train operators of some
duplicating machines, a few weeks
may be needed to train key-driven
calculating machine operators.
These operators often are trained at



company expense in schools run by
equipment manufacturers. The
Federal Government also sponsors
programs to train unemployed and
underemployed workers for entry
positions as office machine opera­
tors under provisions of the Man­
power Development and Training
Act, and other legislation.
Finger dexterity, eye and hand co­
ordination, and good vision are im­
portant for most office machine
operator jobs. Billing and calculat­
ing machine operators should under­
stand mathematics so they can detect
obvious errors in computations.
Some mechanical ability is advanta­
geous, especially for duplicating and
tabulating machine operators.
Most employers promote from
within and give strong consideration
to seniority and job performance as
shown by supervisors’ ratings. Pro­
motion may be from a routine ma­
chine job to a more complex one, or
to a related clerical job. Employers
often provide needed additional
training. In firms having large
clerical staffs, office machine opera­
tors may advance to jobs where they
train beginners or to supervisory
positions as section or department
Employment Outlook

Employment of office machine
operators will grow slowly through
the mid-1980’s as businesses intro­
duce new types of recording and
copying equipment. In addition to
openings that will result from
growth, many jobs will arise as
operators die, retire, or transfer to
other work.
Despite expected growth in the
volume of billing, computing, and
duplicating work, the occupation will
expand only slowly as automated
record-keeping systems spread. In
addition, advances in computer
technology and data transmission

devices will enable large employers
to centralize record keeping, and to
reduce somewhat requirements for
operators in branch offices.

the statement on Clerical Occupa­
tions for further information on
Working Conditions and for Sources
of Additional Information.)

Earnings and Working

A 1972 Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey in urban areas provides
Figures on earnings for several office
machine operator occupations. The
lowest salaries were paid in the
South and the highest in the North
and West.
For some occupations averages
are given separately for different skill
groups. Operators in Class A were
very experienced and performed
comparatively difficult work. Those
in Classes B and C had some or no
experience, worked on more routine
assignments, and used simpler equip­
ment. The average weekly salaries
reported by this survey are shown in
the accompanying tabulation:
Average Weekly
Salaries, 1972
Billing machine Operators


Bookeeping machine operators
Class A ........................... 126.00
Class B ........................... 104.50
Comptometer operators . . . 116.50
Tabulating machine operators
Class A ........................... 165.50
Class B ........................... 137.50
Class C ........................... 115.00

Billing and bookkeeping machine
operators earned slightly less than
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Because of the noise of machines,
groups of operators often work in
areas which are apart from other
company offices. In other respects,
their working conditions usually are
similar to those of other office
workers in the same firms. (See

(D.O.T. 231.688, 232.138 and .368)
People are most familiar with the
window clerk who sits behind the
counter in post office lobbies selling
stamps or accepting parcel post.
However, the majority of postal
clerks are distribution clerks who
sort incoming and outgoing mail in
workrooms. Only in a small post of­
fice does a clerk do both kinds of
When mail arrives at the post of­
fice it is dumped on long tables where
distribution clerks and mail handlers
separate it into groups of letters,
parcel post, and magazines and
newspapers. Clerks feed letters into
stamp-canceling machines and
cancel the rest by hand. The mail is
then taken to other sections of the
post office to be sorted by destina­
tion. Clerks first separate the mail
into primary destination categories:
mail for the local area, for each near­
by State, for groups of distant
States, and for some of the largest
cities. This primary distribution is
followed by one or more secondary
distributions. For example, local
mail is combined with mail coming
in from other cities, and sorted ac­
cording to street and number. In post
offices with electronic mail-sorting
machines, clerks simply push a but­
ton corresponding to the letter’s
destination, and the letter drops into
the proper slot.
The clerks at post office windows
provide a variety of services in addi­
tion to selling stamps and money
orders. They weigh packages to



In many large post offices, postal clerks use electronic machines to sort mail.

determine postage and check to see if
their size, shape, and condition are
satisfactory for mailing. Clerks also
register and insure mail and answer
questions about postage rates, mail­
ing restrictions, and other postal
matters. Occasionally they may help
a customer file a claim for a damag­
ed package. In large post offices a
window clerk may provide only one
or two of these services and called
a registry, stamp, or money order
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Postal clerks must be at least 18
and pass a four-part written exmination. The first part tests reading ac­
curacy by asking the applicant to
compare pairs of addresses and indi­
cate which are identical. The second
part tests ability to follow oral in­
structions. The third measures
general intelligence, including
vocabulary, and the fourth tests
ability to do simple arithmetic.
Applicants who work with an elec­
tronic sorting machine must pass a

special examination which includes a
machine aptitude test. They must
pass a physical examination and may
be asked to show that they can lift
and handle mail sacks weighing up to
70 pounds.
Applicants should apply at the
post office where they wish to work
because each post office keeps a
separate list of those who have pass­
ed the examination. Applicants’
names are listed in order of their
scores. Five extra points are added to
the score of an honorably discharged
veteran, and 10 extra points to the
score of a veteran wounded in com­
bat or disabled. Disabled veterans
who have a compensable, ser­
vice-connected disability of 10 per­
cent or more are placed at the top of
the list. When a vacancy occurs, the
appointing officer chooses one of the
top three applicants; the rest of the
names remain on the list for future
New clerks are trained on the job.
Most clerks begin with simple tasks
to learn regional groupings of States,
cities, and ZIP codes. To help clerks
learn these groups, many post offices

offer classroom instruction.
A good memory, good coordina­
tion, and the ability to read rapidly
and accurately are important.
Distribution clerks work closely
with other clerks, frequently under
the tension and strain of meeting
mailing deadlines. Window clerks
must be tactful when dealing with the
public, especially when answering
questions or receiving complaints.
Postal clerks are classified as
casual, part-time flexible, part-time
regular, or full-time. Casual workers
are hired to help handle the large
amounts of mail during the Christ­
mas season. Part-tim e flexible
employees do not have a regular
work schedule, but replace absent
workers or help with extra work
loads as the need arises. Part-time
r e g u la r s h av e a se t w o rk
schedule—for example, 4 hours a
Most clerks begin as part-time
flexible employees and become full­
time workers as vacancies occur. As
their seniority increases, they may
bid for preferred assignments such as
the day shift, a window job, or a
higher level nonsupervisory position
as stamp supply clerk or claims
clerk. The supervisory examination
may be taken after 4 to 5 years of
Employment Outlook

Employment of postal clerks
—who numbered 286,000 in 1972—
is expected to grow slowly
through the mid-1980’s. Most
openings will result from the need to
replace clerks who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations.
Although the amount of mail post
offices handle is expected to grow as
both population and the number of
businesses grow, modernization of
post offices and installation of new
equipment will increase the amount
of mail each clerk can handle. For



example, machines which semiautomatically mark destination codes on
envelopes are now being tested.
These codes can be read by com­
puter-controlled letter so rter
machines which automatically drop
each letter into the proper slot for its
destination. With this system, clerks
read addresses only once, at the time
they are coded, instead of several
times, as they now do. Eventually
this equipment will be installed in all
large post offices.
Earnings and Working

Earnings of postal clerks are re­
lated to the size of the post office
where they work. Earnings are
higher in larger post offices because
clerks in these jobs process more
regular mail, and more mail requir­
ing special handling, than do clerks
in smaller post offices.
Most clerks are at the grade 5 level
and in mid-1972 those working a
part-time flexible schedule began at
$4.02 and could reach $5.13 an hour
after 7 years. Clerks working full­
time earned $8,072 a year and could
advance to $10,657 after 7 years.
Clerks who worked in third- and
fourth-class post offices were at the
grade 3 level. All clerks who work
night shifts receive 10 percent ad­
ditional pay.
Working conditions of clerks
differ according to the specific work
assignments and the amount and
kind of laborsaving machinery in the
post office. In small post offices
clerks must carry heavy mail sacks
from one part of the building to
another, and sort the mail by hand.
In large post offices, chutes and con­
veyors move the mail and much of
the sorting is done by machine. In
either case, clerks are on their feet
most of the time, reaching for sacks
of mail, placing packages and
bundles into sacks while sorting and

them to the proper office.
walking around the workroom.
Many receptionists keep business
Distribution clerks may become
bored with the routine of sorting records of callers, the times at which
mail unless they enjoy trying to im­ they called, and the persons to whom
prove their speed and accuracy. They they were referred. When they are
also may have to work at night, not busy with callers, receptionists
because most large post offices proc­ may type, file, or operate a switch­
board. Some receptionists open and
ess mail around the clock.
A window clerk, on the other sort mail and collect and distribute
hand, has a greater variety of duties, messages. Still others prepare travel
has frequent contact with the public, vouchers and do simple bookkeep­
generally has a less strenuous job, ing.
and never has to work a night shift.
(For inform ation on fringe
Places of Employment
benefits, see statement on postal ser­
vice occupations elsewhere in the
About 435,000 persons—97 per­
cent of them women—worked as
receptionists in 1972. Nearly 1 out of
10 worked part time.
Sources off Additional
Although there are jobs for recep­
tionists in almost every kind of
Local post offices and State organization, over half work for doc­
employment service offices can sup­ tors, lawyers, or other professional
ply details about entrance examina­ people. Large numbers also work in
tions and empoyment opportunities hospitals, insurance companies,
for postal clerks.
banks, factories, and businesses pro­
viding personal services.

(D.O.T. 235.862, 237.368)
Nature of the Work

All organizations want to make a
good first impression on the public.
This is an important part of the job
of the receptionist, who generally is
the first person a caller sees.
Receptionists greet customers and
other visitors, determine their needs,
and refer callers to the officials who
can help them. Receptionists in
hospitals, after obtaining personal
histories, direct patients to the
proper waiting rooms; in beauty
shops, they arrange appointments
and show customers to the oper­
ator’s booth; and in large plants, they
provide callers with identification
cards and arrange escorts to take

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A high school diploma generally is
required for work as a receptionist.
Courses in English, spelling, type­
writing, elementary bookkeeping,
and business practices are helpful to
the beginner.
Liking people and wanting to help
them are assets to the receptionist. A
neat appearance, pleasant voice,
and even disposition also are
important. Because receptionists do
not work under close supervision,
common sense and a thorough un­
derstanding of how the business is
organized help them handle various
situations that arise.
Promotion opportunities for
receptionists are limited, especially
in small offices. In large work places,
however, a receptionist who has
clerical skills may advance to a



Receptionists usually are con­
fined to specific work areas that are
comfortably furnished. Although
most have regular hours, recep­
tionists in hospitals and beauty shops
may work evenings and weekends.
(See the statement on Clerical
Occupations for Sources of Addi­
tional Information.)

(D.O.T. 209.688, 219.388, 222.138
through .687, 223.387,
239.588, 910.368 and 920.887)
Nature of the Work

Receptionist checks correspondence.

better-paying job as a secretary or tionist’s work is of a person to per­
administrative assistant. Many com­ son nature, it is unlikely to be af­
panies have their own training pro­ fected by office automation.
grams so that the skills needed for
advancement can be learned on the
Earnings and Working
job. College or business school train­
ing also can be helpful in advancing
According to a Bureau of Labor
to better-paying office jobs.
Statistics survey, full-time switchboard/receptionists working in ur­
Employment Outlook
ban areas averaged $108 a week in
Employment of receptionists is ex­ 1972. This was slightly under the
pected to grow very rapidly during average earnings for non super­
the next ten years. Thousands of visory workers in private industry,
openings will result each year as busi­ except farming. Receptionists work­
nesses providing personal and profes­ ing in the Western United States had
sional services expand and as those average weekly earnings of $113.
who die, retire, or transfer to other Those in Southern cities averaged
jobs are replaced. In addition, more $100 a week.
In the Federal Government, begin­
firms are realizing the importance of
the receptionist in promoting good ning information receptionists earn­
public relations. Because the recep­ ed $104 a week in early 1973.

Shipping and receiving clerks keep
track of goods transferred between
firms and their customers and sup­
pliers. In small companies, one clerk
may keep records of all shipments
sent out and sent out and received; in
larger companies, many clerks take
care of this recordkeeping.


Shipping clerks are responsible for
all shipments leaving a business
place. Before goods are sent to a cus­
tomer, these clerks check to be sure
the order has been filled correctly.
They obtain merchandise from the
stock room, and wrap it or pack it in
shipping containers. Clerks also put
addresses and other identifying infor­
mation on packages, look up and
compute either freight or postal
rates, and record the weight and cost
of each shipment. They may also be
responsible for preparing invoices
and furnishing information about
shipments to other parts of the com­
pany, such as the accounting depart­
ment. Once a shipment is checked
and ready to go, shipping clerks may
move it to the shipping dock and
direct its loading on trucks accord­
ing to different shipments’ destina­
tions. Shipping and receiving clerks
working in small firms may com­
bine the various duties of stock
clerks in their jobs. (For more infor­
mation about the additional duties of
shipping clerks in small firms, see
statement on Stock Clerks else­
where in Handbook.)
When shipments arrive, receiving
clerks perform tasks similar to ship­
ping clerks. They determine whether
their employer’s orders have been
correctly filled, by verifying incom­
ing shipments against the original
order and the accompanying bill of
lading or invoice. They record the re­
ceipt and condition of incoming ship­
ments. Clerks also make adjust­
ments with shippers for lost and
damaged merchandise. Routing or
moving shipments to the proper
department, warehouse section, or
stockroom, and providing informa­
tion that is needed to compute inven­
tories, also may be part of their job.


ping and receiving clerks in 1972.
More than half worked in factories;
large numbers also were employed
by wholesale houses or retail stores.
Although jobs for shipping and
receiving clerks are found in all
localities, most clerks work in urban

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

High school graduates are pre­
ferred for beginning jobs in shipping
and receiving departments. Business
arithmetic, typing, and other high
school business subjects are helpful
for completing paperwork. The abil­
ity to write legibly is important.
Dependability and an interest in
learning about the firm’s products
and business activities also are qual­
ities which employers seek. In addi­
tion, shipping and receiving clerks
should be able to work under close
supervision at repetitive tasks.
New employees usually are trained
on-the-job by an experienced worker.
As part of their training they often
file, check addresses, attach labels,
and check items included in ship­
ments. As clerks gain experience,
they may be assigned tasks requir­
ing a good deal of independent judg­
ment, such as handling problems of
damaged merchandise, or super­
vising other workers in shipping or
receiving rooms.
Work as a shipping or receiving
clerk offers a good opportunity for
an ambitious young person to learn
about his company’s products and
business practices. Some clerks may
be promoted to head shipping or
receiving clerks or warehouse man­
agers. Others may enter related
fields such as industrial traffic
management or purchasing. (Indus­
Places of Employment
trial traffic managers and purchas­
About 450,000 persons—85 per­ ing agents are discussed elsewhere in
cent of them men—worked as ship­ the Handbook.)

Employment Outlook

Employment of shipping and
receiving clerks is expected to rise
slowly through the mid-1980’s as
population growth and business ex­
pansion increase the quantity of
goods distributed. Several thousand
jobs will become available each year
as employment grows and as work­
ers retire, die, or transfer to other oc­
Although substantial growth is ex­
pected in the volume of goods dis­
tributed, employment of shipping
and receiving clerks will increase at a
somewhat slower rate as fewer clerks
handle a greater volume of goods.
This results from more firms using
computers to keep track of shipping
and receiving records, and moving
belts to handle shipments once lifted
by hand.
Earnings and Working

Shipping and receiving clerks in
urban areas averaged $3.50 an hour
in 1972, according to a Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey. This is about
as much as the average earnings for
all nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming.
Salaries of these workers varied by
type and location of employer. For
example, shipping and receiving
clerks employed in the Western
United States averaged $3.26 an
hour, while those in the South earned
$2.79 an hour.
Many shipping and receiving
clerks receive time-and-a-half for
work over 40 hours. Nightwork and
overtime, including work on Satur­
days, Sundays, and holidays, may be
necessary when shipments have been
unduly delayed or when materials
are needed immediately on produc­
tion lines. Although shipping and
receiving clerks do much of their
work in warehouses or in shipping
and receiving rooms, they may do



some of it on outside loading plat­
forms. Work places often are large,
unpartitioned areas which may be
drafty, cold, and littered with pack­
ing materials.
Some of the work that shipping
and receiving clerks do takes physi­
cal stamina and strength. Most
clerks must stand for long periods
while they check merchandise.
Locating numbers and descriptions
on cartons often requires a great deal
of bending, stooping, and stretching.
Also, under the pressure of getting
shipments moved on time, clerks
may help load or unload materials in
the warehouse. (See introductory
section of this chapter for Sources of
Additional Information.)

(D.O.T. 205.368, 206.588, 209.588,
219.388, .488, .588, 222.687,
223.588, 913.368, 953.168)
Nature of the Work

Administrators and managers in
all types of organizations depend on
numerical records to help make deci­
sions. Statistical clerks prepare and
insure the accuracy of these records.
Jobs in this field can be grouped into
four categories: recording, com­
piling and coding, computing and
tabulating, and scheduling.
Recording. This work involves col­
lecting, recording, and verifying the
accuracy of information. Shipping
checkers in manufacturing com­
panies and in wholesale and retail
businesses (D.O.T. 222.687) insure
that merchandise is ready for ship­
ment, is properly labeled, and con­
tains the desired number of items.
Car checkers for railroads (D.O.T.
209.588) record shipments as they
arrive or leave a freight terminal.

Statistical clerk checks policy records for insurance company.

They check railroad car numbers,
contents and weights of shipments to
verify specifications on the invoice.
Talleymen (D.O.T. 223.588), who
may have a title referring to their
work or items which they observe,
record the number of materials re­
ceived, transferred, or produced, and
work in several industries. For exam­
ple, lumber talliers or lumber check­
ers work in saw mills; pit recorders
record production data in steel mak­

sort records of shipments, produc­
tion, and finance to provide com­
pany officials with current informa­
tion on business activities. Record
keepers (D.O.T. 206.588), also
known as classification clerks,
record data systematically for easy
location. Coding clerks (D.O.T.
219.388) code information for trans­
fer to computer cards. Personnel
clerks (D.O.T. 205.368) gather and
file information on the employees of
a business; their work may include
some typing and preparation of
Compiling and coding. In organiza­ reports.
tions of all types, information must
be properly filed, verified, or ana­ C o m p u tin g and ta b u la tin g .
lyzed by data processing equipment. Organizations frequently use numer­
Posting clerks (D.O.T. 219.588) do ical records for reports and research.
this work by making entries in regis­ Statistical clerks gather information
ters and journals. They receive and from records to present in a chart or



table for analysis. Actuary clerks
(D.O.T. 219.388) assist actuaries in
insurance companies to determine
the risk involved in providing insur­
ance coverage. They also use calcu­
lators and prepare charts and tables
for studies on general insurance
practices. Policy checkers (D.O.T.
219.488) verify insurance company
records. S ta tistic a l assistants
(D.O.T. 219.388), also known as
tabulating clerks, calculate and com­
pute numerical data for government
and business research projects.
Demurrage clerks (D.O.T. 219.388),
employed by railroads, compute
charges for the use of railroad tracks
and calculate the weight of ship­
ments or distance railroad cars have
Scheduling. Many business activ­
ities involve the movement of people
and things, and statistical clerks do
much of the required scheduling. For
example, assignment clerks (D.O.T.
913.368) work for bus companies
and assign drivers to meet riders’
transportation needs. Drivers are
selected on the basis of experience,
length of service, and nature of the
assignm ent. C r e w s c h e d u l e r s
(D.O.T. 219.388) do similar work for
airlines; they assign pilots to sched­
uled flights and log the mileage each
pilot has flown. Gas dispatchers
(D.O.T. 953.168) determine the
proper pressure of a natural gas line
to meet customers’ requirements
after considering information such as
the weather, time of day, and other
factors that affect the use of gas.
Places of Employment

About 300,000 persons worked as
statistical clerks in 1972. More than
two-thirds were women, but some
jobs were held predominately by
men. For example, shipping check­
ers who may lift and move heavy
items and assignment clerks who

often are experienced bus drivers,
usually are men.
Although statistical clerks are em­
ployed in nearly every industry, over
half worked in Finance, insurance,
and real estate companies; manufac­
turing Firms; and Federal, state, and
local government.
Because businesses of almost every
size require numerical records,
statistical clerks work throughout
the United States. Jobs are concen­
trated, however, in heavily popu­
lated cities that are centers of indus­
try and government activities.

experienced workers to qualify for
more responsible jobs as they be­
come available. Qualified statistical
clerks may perform more difficult
assignments or advance to super­
visory positions. With additional
training in mathematics and exten­
sive experience, statistical assistants
may become statisticians. Many
compiling-coding jobs and com­
puting-tabulating jobs can lead the
exceptional employee with special­
ized training to a career in computer
programing and related work.
Employment Outlook

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employment of statistical clerks is
expected to grow m oderately
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to openings from growth, several
thousand clerks will be needed each
year to replace workers who die, re­
tire, or transfer to other jobs.
Among the factors that will con­
tribute to the demand for these work­
ers is the expected increase in busi­
ness and government research pro­
jects, requiring the collection and
processing of large amounts of
numerical data. In addition, ad­
ministrators will rely increasingly on
numerical records to analyze and
control all aspects of their organiza­
tion’s work.
Although the growing use of com­
puters to process routine informa­
tion will eliminate some statistical
clerk positions, most jobs involve
duties that cannot be computerized.
Also, the increasing use of data
processing will stimulate the demand
for those clerks who prepare data for
computer use.

Most employers prefer statistical
clerks who are high school grad­
uates. They also seek applicants who
have logical minds, an aptitude for
working with numbers, and the abil­
ity to do detailed work. Clerks
should be tactful and even tem­
pered. Courses in business arith­
metic, bookkeeping, and typing are
good preparation for this work.
In many companies, general clerks
who have become familiar with their
employers’ record systems and office
procedures are promoted to statis­
tical clerk positions. On-the-job
training that equips the employee to
specialize in numerical work may in­
clude the use of calculators, tabu­
lating machines, and typewriters.
Statistical clerks who observe and
record data must be familiar with the
items or information which they ob­
serve. For example, lumber check­
ers must know the various types and
qualities of wood products. Statis­
tical clerks, in compiling and coding
jobs, must locate and assemble infor­
Earnings and Working
mation from records in an orderly
manner. In preparing data for com­
puters, coding clerks must be care­
Limited information indicates that
ful to avoid errors.
beginning statistical clerks earn
Most employers follow a promo- about as much as workers in other
tion-from-within policy that allows entry level clerical jobs such as gen­



eral clerks or file clerks; salaries for
these workers ranged between $90
and $100 a week in 1972. The en­
trance salary for beginning statis­
tical clerks employed by the Federal
Government was $118 a week in early
According to a recent survey, ex­
perienced workers doing statis­
tically related clerical work, includ­
ing the operation of tabulating
machines or calculators, earned
between $115 and $140 a week. Top
level clerks and supervisors earned
$165 a week and more. Earnings usu­
ally are highest in the manufac­
turing, transportation, and utilities
industries; and lower in retail trade;
finance, insurance and real estate;
and service industries.
Nearly every employer of statis­
tical clerks offers some form of
health plan, insurance coverage, and
retirement benefits. Most statistical
clerks work in clean, well-lighted,
and well-ventilated offices.

Stock clerk stores new shipment.

(D.O.T. 223.138, .368, .387,
.388, .588, .687, 623.381,
910.388, 969.387)
Nature of the Work

Most employers recognize the im­
portance of keeping well-balanced
inventories to prevent sales losses or
slowdowns in production.
Stock clerks (D.O.T. 223.387)
help protect against such losses by
controlling the flow of go'ods receiv­
ed, stored, and issued. They usually
receive and unpack incoming mer­
chandise or material. They may
check the items against outgoing
orders for quality and quantity and
sometimes make minor repairs or
adjustments. They also report
damaged or spoiled goods and

process papers necessary for obtain­
ing replacements or credit.
Materials are stored in bins, on the
floor, or on shelves according to the
plan of the stockroom. Stock clerks
organize and mark items with iden­
tifying codes or prices so that inven­
tories can be located quickly and
easily. They keep records of items
entering or leaving the stockroom.
Sometimes they label, pack, crate, or
address goods for delivery.
Stock clerks working in small
firms may combine the varied duties
of shipping and receiving clerks. (For
more information about the addi­
tional duties of stock clerks in small
firms, see the statement on Shipping
and Receiving Clerks elsewhere in
the Handbook.) In large firms with
specialized jobs, inventory clerks

(D.O.T. 223.388) take periodic
counts of items on hand and make
reports showing stock balances.
P ro cu rem en t clerks (D .O .T .
223.368) work in factories and
prepare orders for the purchase of
new equipment.
The duties of stock clerks also de­
pend on the items they handle. For
example, stock clerks who work with
foods and drugs must maintain
proper temperature and humidity
conditions; those who handle large
construction items do much walking
and climbing to note the condition
and quantity of that stock.
Places of Employment

About 500,000 people — 80 per­
cent of them men — worked as stock



pected to rise very rapidly through
the mid-1980’s as business expan­
sion increases the quantity of goods
that firms keep on hand. Many thou­
sands of jobs will open each year as
employment grows and as workers
die, retire, or transfer to other oc­
Although substantial growth is ex­
pected in the quantity of goods
stocked by firms, employment will
increase at a slightly slower rate
as computers are used increasingly
for inventory control. Because en­
Training, Other Qualifications,
trance into this occupation is rela­
and Advancement
tively easy and many young people
Although there are no specific seek this work as a first job, some
educational requirements for stock competition for openings is likely.
clerks, employers prefer high school
graduates. Many look for reading
Earnings and Working
and writing skills, a basic knowledge
of mathematics, and typing and fil­
ing abilities. Good health, especially
Stock clerks working in large
good eyesight, is important. Gener­ cities earned average weekly salaries
ally, those who handle jewelry, li­ of $145 in 1972, according to the
quor, or drugs must be bonded.
limited data available. This was
Stock clerks usually receive on- slightly above the average for nonthe-job training. New workers begin supervisory workers in private in­
with simple tasks such as counting dustry, except farming.
and marking stock. Basic respon­
In the Federal Government, inex­
sibilities of the job usually are learn­ perienced stock clerks averaged $92
ed within several weeks. As they pro­ a week in early 1973, experienced
gress, stock clerks learn to keep rec­ clerks $132.
ords of incoming and outgoing mate­
Stock clerks usually work a 40rials, take inventories, and order hour week and receive the same
fringe benefits as do office em­
This is a job where many young ployees. Those working in urban
people start their careers. In a small areas usually have at least seven paid
firm, the stock clerk may advance to holidays a year and 2 weeks of vaca­
a sales position or become an assis­ tion after 1 year on the job. Life and
tant buyer or purchasing agent. In health insurance and sick benefits
large firms, stock clerks can advance also are generally available, as are
to more responsible stock handling retirement pension plans that supple­
jobs such as invoice clerk, stock con­ ment benefits paid under the Federal
trol clerk, or procurement clerk. A Social Security program.
few may be promoted to the stockAlthough stock clerks usually
room supervisor’s job, but addi­ work in relatively clean, heated, and
tional education often is required.
well-lighted areas, some stockrooms
may be damp and drafty. Clerks
handling refrigerated goods may
Employment Outlook
spend some time in cold storage
Employment of stock clerks is ex­ rooms. Stock clerks are on their feet

clerks in 1972. Nearly three-fourths
of the total worked in factories,
wholesale firms, and retail stores.
Many others were employed in mail­
order houses, airlines, government
agencies, hospitals, and other
organizations that keep large quan­
tities of goods on hand. Although
jobs for stock clerks are found in all
parts of the country, most work in
urban areas where factories, ware­
houses, and stores are concentrated.

much of the working day, often on a
concrete floor. The job also involves
considerable bending, lifting, and
climbing. (See the statement on
Clerical Occupations for additional
information on working conditions.)
Sources off Additional

Information about the work and
earnings of stock clerks in wholesale
establishments is available from:
National Association of WholesalerD istributors, 1725 K St. N W .,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 201.268 and .368, 202.388,
and 209.138)
The efficiency of any organization
depends upon stenographers and
secretaries who are at the center of
communications within their firm.
They transmit information among
their employer’s staff and to persons
in many other organizations.
Stenographers (D.O.T. 202.388)
take dictation and then transcribe
their notes on a typewriter. They
may either take shorthand or use a
stenotype machine which prints sym­
bols as certain keys are pressed.
General stenographers, including
most beginners, take routine dicta­
tion and do other office tasks such as
typing, filing, answering telephones,
and operating office machines. Ex­
perienced and highly skilled stenog­
raphers take difficult dictation and
do more responsible clerical work.
They may sit in on staff meetings and
give a summary report or a word for
word record of the proceedings. They
also supervise other stenographers,
typists, and clerical w orkers.



Stenographer transcribes her shorthand notes.

Technical stenographers must know
the terms used in a particular profes­
sion. They include medical, legal,
and engineering or scientific
stenographers. Some experienced
stenographers take dictation in
foreign languages; others work as
public stenographers serving travel­
ing business people and others who
require them.
Shorthand reporters are specializ­
ed stenographers who record all
statements made in proceedings.
About half of all shorthand reporters
work as court reporters attached to
courts of law at different levels of
government. They take down all
statem ents made at legal pro­
ceedings and present their record as
the official transcript. Other short­

hand reporters record the proceedings
in the Congress of the United States,
in State legislatures, and in both
State and Federal agencies. Still
others work as free-lance reporters
who record out-of-court testimony,
meetings and conventions, and other
private activities.
Most shorthand reporters take
their notes on a stenotype machine
and transcribe them on a typewriter.
Sometimes the reporter dictates
notes on magnetic tapes that a typist
can transcribe later. Because the
reporter’s transcript is the official
record of a proceeding, accuracy is
extremely important.
Secretaries (D.O.T. 201.368)
relieve their employers of routine
duties so that they can work on more

important matters. Although most
secretaries type, take shorthand, and
deal with callers, the time spent on
these duties varies with the type of
organization where they work.
In offices where dictation and typ­
ing are handled in specialized
centers, administrative secretaries
handle all other secretarial duties.
They often work in clusters of three
or four so that they can readily help
each other. Because they are released
from dictation and typing, they can
serve as many as 6 to 12 of the
professional staff. Their duties range
from filing, routing mail, and
answering telephones to more
responsible jobs such as answering
letters, doing statistical research, and
writing reports.
Some secretaries are trained in
specific skills needed in certain types
of work. Medical secretaries prepare
case histories and medical reports;
legal secretaries do legal research
and help prepare briefs; and
technical secretaries assist engineers
or scientists in drafting complex
reports and research proposals.
Another specialized secretary is the
social secretary (201.268), who
arranges social functions, answers
personal correspondence, and keeps
the employer informed about all
social activities.
Places of Employment

About 3 million persons—95
percent of them women—worked in
occupations requiring secretarial or
stenographic skills in 1972. Of this
number, about 95 percent were
More than half of all secretaries
and stenographers work in banks, in­
surance companies, real estate firms,
and government organizations.
Many specialized stenographers and
secretaries work for doctors,
lawyers, and other professional peo­
ple. Although many shorthand


reporters are court reporters, some
work in firms that furnish reporting
services on a contract basis.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Generally, graduation from high
school is required for a job as a sten­
ographer or secretary. Many
employers prefer applicants having
additional secretarial training at a
college or private business school.
Courses vary from a few months’ in­
struction in basic shorthand and typ­
ing to longer programs teaching spe­
cialized skills such as shorthand
reporting or legal or medical
secretarial work.
An increasing number of private
firms and government agencies have
their own training facilities where
employees can upgrade their skills
and broaden their knowledge of the
organization. The Federal Govern­
ment sponsors programs to train
unemployed and low-skilled workers
for entry jobs as stenographers and
secretaries under provisions of the
Manpower Development and Train­
ing Act and other legislation.
Many courts of law require their
court reporter to be a Certified
Shorthand Reporter (CSR). Others
hire reporters with the under­
standing that they will be certified
within one year. The National Short­
hand Reporters Association gives
tests for speed and accuracy to cer­
tify reporters.
Although there are many differ­
ent shorthand methods, employers
usually have no preferences. The
most important factor in hiring and
promotion is speed and accuracy. To
qualify for jobs in the Federal Serv­
ice—and for employment in many
private firms—stenographers must
be able to take dictation at 80 words
per minute and type 40 words per
minute. Some private firms ask
beginning secretaries to take dicta­
tion at 100 words per minute and


type 50 words per minute. Many
shorthand reporting jobs require
more than 200 words of dictation per
minute; shorthand reporters in the
Federal Government must take 175
words a minute.
Stenographers and secretaries
should have good hearing; a knowl­
edge of spelling, punctuation, gram­
mar, and vocabulary is essential.
The ability to concentrate amid
distractions is vital for shorthand
reporters. Employers look for per­
sons who are poised and alert, and
who have pleasant personalities. Dis­
cretion, judgment, and initiative are
important for the more responsible
secretarial positions.
Many stenographers who improve
their skills advance to secretarial
jobs; others, who acquire the neces­
sary speed through additional train­
ing, can become shorthand reporters.
An increasing number of executive
secretaries are promoted into man­
agement positions where they use
their experience and knowledge of
the employing organization.
Employment Outlook

Employment of secretaries is
expected to increase very rapidly
through the mid-1980’s as the con­
tinued expansion of business creates
a growing volume of paper work.
Thousands of jobs will become avail­
able each year due to growth and
the need to replace those who die,
retire, or stop working for other
Although the use of automatic of­
fice equipment is not expected to
have a significant impact on employ­
ment of secretaries, opportunities for
stenographers will be limited as
more firms install dictating ma­
Earnings and Working

According to a recent Bureau of

Labor Statistics survey, general
stenographers working in urban
areas averaged $515 a month in
1972; experienced workers who were
highly skilled averaged $589.
Shorthand reporters generally earn
higher salaries than other steno­
graphic workers.
According to the same survey,
secretaries to supervisors of small of­
fices earned monthly salaries of
$581. Secretaries to officers in small
companies had average monthly
salaries of $653; those working for
middle management in large com­
panies averaged $703. Secretaries
having greater responsibilities, such
as executive secretaries to corporate
officers, earned average monthly
salaries of $758.
Beginning clerk/stenographers in
the Federal Government earned
from $450 to $640 a month in early
1973, depending on education, train­
ing and experience. Earnings of
beginning shorthand reporters rang­
ed from $710 to $970 a month de­
pending on speed, education, and ex­
perience. Starting salaries for sec­
retaries in the Federal Government
ranged from $640 to $790 a month.
In 1972, earnings of stenographers
were slightly less, and those of
secretaries somewhat more than
average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Working conditions for secre­
taries and stenographers generally
are similar to those of other office
workers in the same organization.
Shorthand reporters, however, often
sit for long periods of time while
recording an event. (See the state­
ment on Clerical Occupations for
more information on Earnings and
Working Conditions.
Sources of Additional

For information on careers in sec­
retarial work write:



other general office work. Varitypists (203.582) produce master
copies, such as stencils, on machines
Additional information on ca­ similar to typewriters.
reers in secretarial work and a direc­
Transcribing machine operators
tory of business schools is available (D.O.T. 208.588) type letters and re­
ports as they listen to dictation re­
corded on magnetic tape. Other
United Business Schools Association,
typists who have special duties in1730 M St. NW., Washington, D.C.
D.C. 20036.
cludqpolicy writers (D.O.T. 203.588)
For information about shorthand in insurance companies, waybill
clerks (D.O.T. 209.588) in railroad
reporting contact:
offices, and mortgage clerks (D.O.T.
National Shorthand Reporters Asso­
203.588) who work in banks.
ciation, 25 West Main St., Madi­
In some offices, many typists are
son, Wise. 53703.
grouped in a pool that handles all the
transcription and typing for several
departments. Some of these typists
handle strictly confidential docu­
ments, while others operate com­
posing equipment that produces
(D.O.T, 203.138 through .588;
documents in different type sizes and
208.588; and 209.382 through .588) styles.
National Secretaries Association, 616
East 63rd St., Kansas City, Mo.

Places off Employment

About 1 million persons—95 per­
cent of them women—worked as
typists in 1972. Nearly 1 out of 6
worked part time. Many other
clerical workers use some typing
skills in the performance of their
Although typists are employed in
all kinds of organizations, about half
work in factories, banks, insurance
companies, and government agen­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Typists generally need high school
diplomas. Good spelling, punctua­
tion, and grammar are essential.
Ability to operate office equipment,
such as copying and adding

Nature of the Work

A rapid flow of written communi­
cation is essential to the modern of­
fice. The typist helps to maintain this
flow by making copies of printed,
handwritten, and recorded words.
Beginning or junior typists usually
type headings on form letters, copy
directly from handwritten drafts, and
address envelopes. Often, they do
other office tasks, including answer­
ing telephones, filing, and operating
office machines such as copiers, and
More experienced typists do work
that requires a high degree of ac­
curacy and independent judgment.
Senior typists work from rough
drafts which are difficult to read or
which contain technical material.
They may plan and type compli­
cated statistical tables, combine and
rearrange materials from different
sources, or prepare master copies to
be reproduced on copying machines.
Clerk typists (D.O.T. 209.388)
combine typing with filing, sorting
mail, answering telephones, and

A growing number of businesses use automatic typewriters.



machines, and also a knowledge of
office procedures, are assets.
An increasing number of com­
panies and government organiza­
tions have their own typist training
programs. These give employees a
chance to learn or upgrade skills so
that they can advance to more
responsible positions within the
organization. The Federal Govern­
ment sponsors programs to train un­
employed and low-skilled workers
for entry positions as typists, under
provisions of the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act and other
M any e m p lo y e rs r e q u ir e
applicants for typing jobs to take a
test that shows their speed and ac­
curacy. For most jobs, 40 to 50
words per minute is required. All
typists who transcribe recorded dic­
tation need sharp hearing and must
be especially good in spelling.
Successful typists are neat, accurate,
and are able to concentrate amid dis­
As beginners increase their skills,

they often advance to higher level
typing jobs. Typists who learn short­
hand can be promoted to secretaries
or stenographers.

Employment Outlook

The number of typists is expected
to grow rapidly through the mid1980’s as business expansion in­
creases the volume of paper work.
There will be several thousand job
openings each year due to growth of
the occupation and the need to re­
place those who stop working or
transfer to other jobs.
Continued growth in the volume
of paper work will assure excellent
opportunities for typists in the years
ahead. Demand should be particu­
larly strong for highly skilled work­
ers and those who can handle other
office jobs as well as typing. Some
employers will prefer typists who
are familiar with new kinds of typing
equipment such as high speed ma­

chines equipped with a magnetic
Earnings and Working

According to a recent Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey, beginning
typists averaged $109 a week in 1972.
Those having experience earned $127
a week, slightly less than the average
earnings for nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary for typists without
experience was $104 a week in early
1973, compared with $132 a week for
those with experience.
Working conditions for typists
usually are similar to those of other
office employees where they work.
Typists sit for long periods and often
must contend with high noise levels
caused by machines located in the
same area. (See the statement on
Clerical Occupations for more
information on working conditions
and also for sources of additional

Data processing needs have in­
creased very rapidly over the past
decade as population has grown, as
business organizations have become
more complex, and as scientific and
technical knowledge has expanded.
The computer has enabled us to keep
pace with the increasing need for
more and better inform ation.
Workers in computer and related oc­
cupations prepare data in the form
necessary for machine processing,
operate computer consoles and vari­
ous related equipment, and analyze
and interpret the machine’s output.
Most computer careers require
specialized training that varies wide­
ly in content and length depending
upon the occupation. While there are
no universal educational require­
ments for systems analysts and pro­
grammers, a college degree is in­
creasingly important—especially for
work in scientifically and techni­
cally oriented systems. Computer
operators usually need at least a high
school education; however, training
and experience in operating the ma­
chine is more important than formal
All computer jobs, including those
that generally require a college
education, stress the importance of
learning on the job. While this is the
primary source of training for
o p e ra tin g p erso n n el, college
graduates in computer science also
may spend a year or more working
on a system to learn how it functions.
In addition to technical knowl­
edge and skills, computer personnel
need good powers of concentration
and should enjoy working with de­
tails. Those who operate equipment,
for example, keypunchers or con­

sole operators, must have manual
dexterity and some mechanical apti­
tude. Although programmers and
systems analysts seldom run com­
puter equipment, they also need me­
chanical ability to trace the source of
data processing errors.
This chapter describes 3 computer
occupations: Computer Operating
Personnel, Programmers, and
Systems Analysts.

(D.O.T. 213.138, .382, .582, .588,
and .885, and 223.387)

Nature off the Work

Computers require specialized
workers to code “input,” operate the
console, and translate “output” into
words and numbers. Although large
systems require several workers,
small ones need only one or two em­
“ Input” is data to be processed
plus a programmer’s step-by-step in­
structions to the computer. (Infor­
mation about the occupation of
Programer is given elsewhere in the
H andbook.) In many systems,
keyp u n ch o p era to rs (D .O .T .
213.582) or data typists (D.O.T.
213.588) prepare input. Keypunch
operators use machines similar to
typewriters that punch holes in cards
to represent specific items of infor­
mation. Data typists use special
typewriters to prepare input data
which the machine converts to holes

on cards or magnetic impulses on
Some computer systems get their
input from “direct access” devices
that use magnetic surfaces for re­
cording data. These systems use ma­
chines called converters to transfer
data from punched cards or paper
tapes to the magnetic surface. Cardto-tape converter operators (D.O.T.
213.382) wire plugboards and inter­
pret signals from a panel of lights on
the machine. They also must under­
stand the whole system to recognize
errors in input or other situations
that prevent proper operation.
Once facts and figures have been
coded, data are ready to be process­
ed. A console operator (D.O.T.
213.382) examines the programmer’s
instructions and makes sure the com­
puter is loaded with tape, cards, or
other input. The operator then starts
the computer. During the proc­
essing, he manipulates switches and
observes lights. If the computer stops
or lights signal an error, the operator
must locate the problem. Some
operators who work with automatic
systems do not start the computer
each time a different problem is run.
They must, however, watch the
equipment carefully in order to res­
pond to various machine signals.
Output is translated from machine
language to words and numbers. In
some systems, machines directly
connected to the computer do this. In
others, converters and high-speed
printers run by auxiliary equipment
operators—tape-to-card converter
operators (D.O.T. 213.382) and
high-speed printer operators (D.O.T.
213.382) —do this work. With the in­
creasing use of telephone lines to
transmit data, many auxiliary equip­
ment operators run communications
as well as computing equipment.
Places of employment

About 480,000 persons worked as



console, auxiliary equipment, and
keypunch operators in 1972. Nearly
three-fifths of all console and aux­
iliary equipment operators were
men; women held 9 out of 10 key­
punching jobs.
Jobs for operating personnel are
found in all kinds of organizations,
but they are most numerous in
government agencies, insurance and
public utility companies, banks, and
factories. Large numbers also work
for wholesale and retail stores, and
for independent service organiza­
tions that process data for other
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

E m p lo y e rs o fte n tr a n s f e r
operators of tabulating and book­
keeping machines to newly installed
electronic computers. Other opera­
tors are recruited from the outside.
In hiring outsiders, private
employers usually require a high
school education. For console opera­
tors, some college training may be
preferred. The Federal Government
requires console and auxiliary equip­
ment operators to be high school
graduates unless they have specializ­
ed training or experience. Many
employers give applicants special
tests to determine their aptitude for
computer work, especially the ability
to reason logically.
Beginners usually receive training
after they are hired. While auxiliary
equipment operators train for a few
weeks, console operators need a
longer period of instruction. They at­
tend classes to learn to mount tapes
and operate the console. This
classroom training is supplemented
by instruction on the job, where
op erators become sufficiently
familiar with the equipment to trace
mechanical failures.
As they gain experience, opera­
tors work on more complex equip­

Computer operator positions tape.

ment. Eventually, they may be pro­
moted to supervisors, or to jobs
that combine supervision and con­
sole operation. Through on-the-job
experience and additional study,
some console operators qualify as
Most employers prefer high school
graduates for jobs as keypunchers.
Although some organizations will
train good typists in the operation of
keypunching equipment, most seek
workers who already have basic
skills as keypunchers. Instruction in
operating a keypunch machine is
available in many high schools,
public and private vocational

schools, private computer schools,
and numerous business schools and
colleges. The Federal Government
also sponsors programs to train un­
employed and low-skilled workers
for entry jobs as keypunch operators
under provisions of the Manpower
Development and Training Act and
other legislation.
Although advancement oppor­
tunities for keypunch operators are
limited, some are promoted to super­
visory positions after several years
on the job. With additional training,
often including college study, a few
keypunch operators advance to jobs
as console operators.



Keypunch and auxiliary equip­
ment operators should be able to
work under close supervision and as
part of a team. Operating personnel
also must be skillful in working with
things and not easily bored by repeti­
tious tasks. Console operators fre­
quently must exercise independent
judgment, especially when working
without supervision on second or
third shifts.
Employment Outlook

ment operators work evenings or
nights because many computers run
for two or three shifts. Tape
librarians usually work on day shifts.
Because electronic computers are
housed in carefully controlled tem­
peratures, operators work in airconditioned rooms. However, one
disadvantage is the high level of noise
generated by some auxiliary equip­
ment. (See introduction to this
chapter for additional information
on Working Conditions.)

Changes in technology will have
Sources of Additional
different effects on the employment
growth of occupations included in
Further inform ation on data
the group computer operating per­
processing careers is available from:
Console and auxiliary equipment
Data Processing Management Associa­
operators will grow rapidly over
tion, 505 Busse Highway, Park Ridge,
111. 60068.
the period as new computers are
installed and existing systems in­
For a list of reading materials
crease their capabilities. The demand giving information about computer
for keypunch operators is not operating personnel contact:
expected to keep pace with the
Association for Computing Machinery,
growth in computer installations,
1133 Avenue of the Americas, New
however, because faster and more
York, N.Y. 10036.
efficient methods of data entry
will increasingly replace card punch
Earnings and Working

Beginning console operators aver­
aged $127 a week in 1972, according
to a recent Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey in urban areas. Ex­
perienced console operators averag­
ed $177 a week and experienced
keypunch operators $125. Salaries of
beginning operating personnel in the
Federal Government are roughly
comparable to those in private in­
dustry; in early 1973, they started at
$132 a week. Console operators
earned slightly more and keypunch
operators slightly less than all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
Some console and auxiliary equip­

(D.O.T. 020.188)
Nature of the Work

An electronic computer can
process masses of information with
great speed and accuracy, but the
machine cannot think for itself. The
programmer’s job is to prepare stepby-step instructions for the com­
puter to follow.
Before a computer can process a
problem, exact and logical steps for
its solution must be worked out. An
experienced programmer or systems
analyst does this preliminary work.
(See the statement on Systems Ana­
lysts elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Some programmers, whose work in­
volves a considerable amount of this
preliminary analysis, are known as
When this preliminary job is Fin­
ished, the programmer prepares de­
tailed instructions that tell the
machine how to process the data.
The way a “program” is written de­
pends on the nature of the problem
and the type of equipment to be used.
The mathematical calculations in­
volved in billing a firm’s customers,
for example, are different from those
required in most scientific work. A
business programmer works on in­
structions that tell the computer how
to bill customers or make up a pay­
roll. First the programmer decides
what company records contain the
information needed to prepare the
documents. Next he makes a flow
chart or diagram showing the com­
puter what order to follow in doing
each step. From the flow chart, the
programmer writes detailed instruc­
tions telling the machine exactly
what to do with each piece of infor­
mation. He also prepares an instruc­
tion sheet for a computer operator to
follow when the program is run. (The
work of computer operators is de­
scribed in the Handbook statement
on Computer Operating Personnel.)
The Final step in programming is a
check to be sure that the pro­
grammer’s instructions are correct
and will produce the desired infor­
mation. This check is called “debug­
ging.” The programmer uses a sam­
ple of the data to be processed to re­
view what will happen as the com­
puter follows instructions. He
changes the instructions to take care
of any errors that appear and has the
computer make a trial run.
Because of differences in their
work, many programmers specialize
in either business or scientific appli­
cations. Some, known as systems or
software programmers, write in­
structions that tell the computer how



to schedule jobs and when to switch
from one to another. Although a
simple program can be written in a
few days, one designed to produce
many different kinds of information
may require a year or more. Often
several programmers at different
levels of responsibility work to­
gether under an experienced
programmer’s supervision.
Places of Employment

About 186,000 persons—about
three-fourths of them men—worked
as programmers in 1972. In addi­
tion, some professional workers such
as engineers, economists, and ac­
countants spend part of their time
Most programmers work in large
business organizations and govern­
ment agencies. Large numbers also
Programmer explains instructions for processing data.
work for computer and other
manufacturers and independent serv­
ice organizations that furnish com­
ministration are helpful. Some work­ mers have to solve problems in new
puter services for a fee.
ers with no college training but ex­ ways.
Beginning programmers usually
perience in machine tabulation or
Training, Other Qualifications,
payroll are promoted to program­ attend training classes for a few
and Advancement
ming jobs. They usually need addi­ weeks. Then they work on simple
There are no universal training tional courses in data processing be­ assignments while continuing with
requirements for programmers. fore they are fully qualified further specialized training. A
programmer generally needs a year
Some are college graduates; others programmers.
take special courses in computer
Interested persons can learn some or more of experience before he can
work to supplement experience in a of the necessary programming skills handle all aspects of his job without
field such as accounting or inven­ at a growing number of technical close supervision. Once he becomes
schools, colleges, and universities. skilled, his prospects for further ad­
tory control.
Organizations that use computers Instruction ranges from intro­ vancement are good. In large
for science and engineering prefer ductory home study courses to ad­ organizations, workers may be pro­
college graduates with degrees in the vanced computer technology at the moted to lead programmers or sys­
physical sciences, math, engineer­ graduate level. High schools in many tems analysts with supervisory re­
ing, or computer science. Graduate parts of the country also offer sponsibilities.
degrees are required for some jobs. courses in computer programming.
Very few scientific employers are in­
In hiring programmers, employ­
Employment Outlook
terested in an applicant with no col­ ers look for people who have an apti­
The employment of programmers
lege training.
tude for logical thinking and exact­
Many employers who use com­ ing analysis. The job also calls for will grow rapidly over the next
puters to process business records patience, persistence, and the ability decade as the number of computer
don’t require college degrees, al­ to work with extreme accuracy. installations increases. Thousands of
though college courses in data proc­ Ingenuity and imagination are par­ job openings will become available
essing, accounting, and business ad­ ticularly important when program­ each year due to growth and the need



to replace workers who leave the
occupation. Because many program­
mers are young, relatively few job
openings will be due to death or
The number of programmers will
increase as business continues to
automate processes once done by
hand. For example, many stores will
computerize credit information and
their ordering and inventory of
merchandise. Employment growth
also will be sharp in computer serv­
ice bureaus (organizations that fur­
nish computer services for a fee).
Substantial growth will continue in
Firms that were among the First to use
computers on a large scale, inclrding banks, insurance companies, and
Although employment growth will
be signiFicant, programmers are not
expected to multiply as rapidly as
they have in the past for several
reasons. Improved programming
languages should make it easier for
nonprogrammers to use machines,
and preprogrammed mini-computers
will be used for many applications.
In addition, new techniques will
enable the programmers to handle
a greater volume of work. The best
opportunities will be for experienced
persons qualiFied in both program­
ming and systems analysis who have
kept up with the latest equipment
and techniques.

Earnings and Working

Beginning business programmers
averaged $8,500 a year in 1972, ac­
cording to a Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics survey in urban areas. Those in
the North and West earned slightly
more than the average while work­
ers in the South earned a little less.
Also programmers who worked for
manufacturers and public utilities
had higher earnings than those em­

ployed by banks and insurance com­
Experienced business program­
mers averaged $11,000 a year, nearly
twice as much as average earnings
for all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Lead programmers averaged $14,400
and managers of programming,
$16,700 a year.
Federal government salaries are
close to those in private industry. In
early 1973, beginners started at $7,700 or $9,500; most experienced
programmers earned from $11,600
to $18,900 a year.
Programmers work about 40
hours a week, but their hours are not
always from 9 to 5. Once or twice a
week a programmer may report ear­
ly or work late to use the computer
when it is available. Occasionally,
they work on weekends or are tele­
phoned to advise computer oper­
ators working a second or third shift.
Sources of Additional

Additional details about the oc­
cupation of programmer are avail­
able from:
Data Processing Management Associ­
ation, 505 Busse Highway, Park
Ridge, 111. 60068.
American Federation of Information
Processing Societies, 210 Summit
Ave., Montvale, N.J. 07645.

For a list of reading materials on
career opportunities in program­
ming contact:
Association for Computing Machin­
ery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, N.Y. 10036.

(D.O.T. 003.187, 012.168,
020.081 and 020.088)
Nature of the Work

Many essential business functions
and scientiFic procedures rely on the
work of systems analysts. Their job
is to plan the activities needed for
processing data to solve business,
scientiFic, or engineering problems.
Although a system can be developed
to process data by hand, with ofFice
machines, or by computers, most
analysts develop methods to use
computers. This statement applies
only to analysts who work on sys­
tems that use computers.
Systems analysts begin an assign­
ment by determining the exact
nature of the data processing prob­
lem. Often managers or subject
matter specialists help them to do
this. Then the analyst structures the
problem logically, identiFies all the
data needed, and specifies how they
are to be processed. Systems ana­
lysts may use various techniques in
their work such as cost accounting,
sampling, and mathematical model
building. After analyzing the prob­
lem and devising a data processing
system, they prepare charts and dia­
grams that describe how the system
Analysts usually recommend
which data processing equipment is
to be used, and prepare instructions
for programmers. (See the state­
ment on Programm ers in this
chapter.) They also translate Final re­
sults into terms that managers or
customers can understand. Data
processing problems are so varied
and complex that many systems ana­
lysts specialize in one area. For ex­
ample, analysts who work for scien­
tific or engineering organizations
may develop systems to determine
the flight path of a space vehicle.



Systems analyst confers with programmer.

Others develop business systems for wholesale and retail businesses, A
functions such as accounting, fore­ growing number also are employed
casting sales, or marketing research. by universities and independent
Some analysts improve systems organizations that furnish computer
already in use. They may develop services for a fee.
better procedures or adapt the sys­
tem to handle additional or different
types of data. Others do research, de­ Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
scribed as advanced systems design,
to devise new methods of systems
There is no universally acceptable
analysis. These analysts usually have
way of preparing for work in sys­
m a th e m a tic a l or en g in eerin g
tems analysis. Some employers pre­
fer applicants who have a bachelor’s
degree and experience in mathe­
matics, science, engineering, ac­
Places of Employment
counting, or business. Others stress a
More than 100,000 persons— graduate degree.
Educational preparation and ex­
about 90 percent of them men—
perience often determine the kind of
worked as systems analysts in 1972.
Most analysts worked in urban job opportunities available. For ex­
areas for manufacturing concerns, ample, employers usually want an
insurance companies, banks, and analyst who has a background in

business administration for work in
Finance or one having an engineer­
ing background for a scientifically
oriented system. Applicants also
may qualify on the basis of profes­
sional experience in scientific, tech­
nical, or managerial occupations, or
practical experience in data proc­
essing jobs such as programmer or
computer operator. (See the state­
ment on Computer Operators in this
Most employers prefer people who
have had some experience in com­
puter programming. A beginner can
learn to use electronic data-processing equipment on the job, or can
take special courses offered by his
employer, computer manufacturers,
or colleges. In the Federal Govern­
ment, for example, systems analysts
usually begin their careers as
programmers. After gaining some
experience, they may be promoted to
systems analyst trainees, and thus
later qualify as systems analysts.
Systems analysts need an aptitude
for logical thinking and should like
working with ideas. Although they
sometimes work as part of a team,
much of their work is done inde­
pendently. They should be able to
concentrate and pay close attention
to details.
In large data-processing depart­
ments, a person who begins as a
junior systems analyst and gains ex­
perience may be promoted to senior
or lead systems analyst. Systems
analysts who show leadership ability
also can advance to jobs as man­
agers of systems analysis or dataprocessing departments.
Employment Outlook

Employment of systems analysts is
expected to grow very rapidly
through the mid-1980’s as data
processing systems in business and
Government expand. In addition
to opportunities that result from



growth, some openings will occur
as systems analysts advance to more
responsible positions or leave their
jobs to enter other employment.
Because many of these workers are
young, relatively few positions will
result from retirement or death.
Among the factors expected to
contribute to a growing demand for
systems analysts are the extension of
computer technology to small busi­
nesses and the growth of computer
centers to serve individual clients for
a fee. Employment also will be
stimulated by efforts to develop sys­
tems that will retrieve information
more efficiently, and to monitor in­
dustrial processes.
Earnings and Working

Beginning systems analysts aver­

aged $11,800 a year in 1972, accord­
ing to a private survey which cov­
ered more than 85,000 workers in
business and government data-processing installations in all parts of the
country. Earnings of experienced
systems analysts averaged $15,700
annually; in some cases they were
paid $25,000 or more a year. Sys­
tems analysts earn over twice as
much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
Systems analysts usually work
about 40 hours a week—the same as
other professional and office work­
ers. Unlike many computer oper­
ators who work evening or night
shifts, systems analysts generally
work only during the day. Occasion­
ally, evening or weekend work may
be necessary to complete emergency

Sources of Additional

Additional information about the
occupation of systems analyst is
available from:
American Federation of Information
Processing Societies, 210 Summit
Avenue, Montvale, N.J. 07645.
Data Processing Management Associ­
ation, 505 Busse Highway, Park
Ridge, 111. 60068.

For a list of reading materials on
career opportunities in the data
processing field write:
Association for Computing Machin­
ery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, N.Y. 10036.

( D .O .T . 2 1 9 .3 8 8 ) s e p a r a t e
documents—checks, deposit slips,
and other items—into different
groups and tabulate each “batch” so
they may be charged to the proper
accounts; often they use canceling
and adding machines in their work.
Modern banks offer a variety of those of clerks in other businesses. Many banks also employ proof
services to meet the needs of their (Secretaries, office machine oper­ machine operators (D.O.T. 217.388),
customers. They provide checking ators, receptionists, and other who use equipment that sorts items
and savings accounts, loans, trust clerical workers whose jobs are much and adds and records the amount of
fund management, and financial the same in banks as in other busi­ money involved.
The bookkeeping workers who
nesses are discussed elsewhere in the
Bank work is highly specialized, Handbook.)
keep records of depositors’ accounts,
and most employees gain experience
In a small bank, one clerk may do and of bank transactions such as
and skill through on-the-job train­ several jobs such as sort checks, total loans or the- purchase and sale of
ing. Although banks usually seek debit and credit slips, and prepare securities, are the largest single
college graduates for officer trainee monthly statements for depositors. group of bank clerks. Bookkeeping
jobs, many opportunities exist for In a large bank, however, each clerk machine operators (D.O.T. 215.388)
high school graduates as well. Banks usually specializes and frequently has may use conventional bookkeeping
also give many workers oppor­ a special job title.
machines or electronic posting ma­
tunities to qualify for better posi­
Bank clerks known as sorters chines to record financial transtions if they enroll in programs
offered by the American Institute of
Banking, or if they take finance and
business courses in colleges and un­
Bank employees should enjoy
working with numbers and be able to
perform detailed work. Personal
qualifications such as honesty and
the ability to meet and communi­
cate with customers are important.
This section discusses 3 office oc­
cupations unique to banking: Clerks,
Tellers, and Officers.

(D.O.T. 209.388, 210.388, 215.388,
217.388, 219.388 and .488)
Nature of the Work

All complex organizations require
the processing of large amounts of
paperwork. Because of the spe­
cialized nature of banking, some of
the duties of bank clerks differ from

Bank clerks record financial transactions.



actions. In banks, these workers are
sometimes known as account clerks,
posting machine operators, or
recording clerks. Bookkeepers
(D.O.T. 210.388) job titles relate to
the kinds of records they keep—for
example, Christmas club book­
keeper, discount bookkeeper,
interest-accrual bookkeeper, trust
bookkeeper, and commodity loan
clerk. Thousands of bookkeeping
and accounting clerks (D.O.T.
219.488) also do routine typing,
calculating, and posting. Included in
this group are reconcilement clerks,
who process statements from other
banks to aid the auditing of ac­
counts; and trust investment clerks,
who post the daily investment trans­
actions of bank customers.
Other clerical employees whose
duties and job titles are unique to
banking include country collection
clerks (D.O.T. 219.388), who sort
thousands of pieces of mail daily and
determine which items must be held
at the main office and which should
be routed to branch banks for col­
lection. Also employed are transit
clerks (D.O.T. 217.388), who sort
checks and drafts on other banks, list
and total the amounts involved, and
prepare documents to be mailed for
collection; exchange clerks (D.O.T.
219.388), who service foreign deposit
accounts and determine charges for
cashing or handling checks drawn
against such accounts; interest clerks
(D.O.T. 219.388), who keep records
on interest-bearing items that are
due to or from the bank; and
mortgage clerks (D.O.T. 209.388),
who type legal papers dealing with
real estate upon which money has
been loaned, and maintain records
relating to taxes and insurance on
these properties.
Electronic data-processing has
created several new clerical occupa­
tions which are unique to banking.
These include the electronic readersorter operator who runs electronic

check sorting equipment; the check
inscriber or encoder who operates
machines that print information on
checks and other documents in mag­
netic ink to prepare them for
machine reading; and the control
clerk who keeps track of the large
volume of documents flowing in and
out of the computer division. Other
occupations include card-type con­
verter operator, coding clerk, con­
sole operator, data typist, data con­
verting machine operator, data ex­
amination clerk, high speed printer
operator, tape librarian, teletype
operator, and verifier operator.
Most of the 475,000 clerical
employees in banks in 1972 were

during one’s employment—particu­
larly the courses offered by the
A m e ric a n
In s titu te
Banking—may help workers ad­
vance. (See statement on the Bank­
ing Industry for further information
on the Institute’s educational

Employment Outlook

Employment of bank clerks is
expected to increase rapidly
through the mid-1980’s. New jobs
created by growth, as well as replace­
ments for those who retire, die, or
stop working for other reasons,
probably will result in thousands of
openings each year. Replacement
needs are relatively high in banks, as
Training, Other Qualifications,
in other industries which employ
and Advancement
many women in clerical positions.
Jobs for clerks will arise as es­
High school graduation is ade­ tablished banks expand their serv­
quate preparation for most begin­ ices and new banks are opened. In
ning clerical jobs in banks. Courses banks that install electronic equip­
in bookkeeping, typing, business ment, however, fewer opportunities
arithmetic, and office machine oper­ can be expected for check sorters and
ation also are desirable. Applicants bookkeeping machine operators.
may be given brief tests to deter­ Most workers affected by the shift to
mine their ability to work rapidly computer processing will be retrain­
and accurately, and to communicate ed and reassigned, either to new jobs
effectively with others. They should created by the change in equipment
be able to work as part of a team and and methods, or to other duties re­
under close supervision.
lated to new banking services.
Beginners may be hired as file Overall, the volume of work is ex­
clerks, keypunch operators, transit pected to be so great that the total
clerks, clerk-typists, or for related number of clerks will continue to
work. Some are trained by the bank rise for some years to come. Occu­
to operate various office machines. pations related to electronic data
A few start as inside messengers.
processing will have the most rapid
A clerk in a routine job may be growth.
promoted to a minor supervisory
position to teller or credit analyst,
and eventually to senior supervisor.
Opportunities for advancement to
According to a Bureau of Labor
bank officer positions also exist for
outstanding clerks who have had Statistics survey, clerical workers in
college training or have taken spe­ financial institutions, including
banks, usually earned between $87
cialized courses in banking.
Additional education obtained and $150 a week in 1972.



Experienced tabulating machine
operators and secretaries received
the highest weekly salaries: about
$150. The earnings of beginning
file clerks and messengers were
generally the lowest: $87 and $89
a week.
Bank clerks are covered under the
Fair Labor Standards Act, a Federal
law which provides for a minimum
wage. In 1972, the minimum was
$1.60 an hour; thus, any clerk who
worked a 40-hour week earned at
least $64.
See statement on the Banking In­
dustry for information on Places of
Employment and Sources of Ad­
ditional Information; and for ad­
ditional information on Training,
Employment Outlook, and Earnings
and Working Conditions.
Branch bank manager helps new customers open checking account.

(D.O.T. 186.118, .138, .168, and
.288; 161.118, 189.118 and .168)
Nature of the Work

Practically every bank has a presi­
dent who directs operations; one or
more vice presidents who act as
general managers or have charge of
bank departments such as trust, or
credit; and a comptroller or cashier
who, unlike cashiers in stores and
other businesses, is an executive of­
ficer generally responsible for all
bank property. Large banks also
may have treasurers and other senior
officers, as well as junior officers, to
supervise the various sections within
different departm ents. Banks
employed almost 220,000 officers in
1972; women were about, one-sixth
of the total.
A bank officer makes decisions
within a framework of policy set by
the board of directors and existing

T rust m anagem ent requires
laws and regulations. An officer
knowledge of Financial planning and
must have a broad knowledge of
business activities to relate to the investment for investment research
operations of his department. For ex­ and estate and trust administration.
ample, loan officers evaluate the Operations officers plan, coordinate,
credit and collateral of individuals and control the work flow; update
and businesses applying for a loan. systems; and strive for bank efficien­
Similarly, trust officers must under­ cy. They also train and supervise a
stand each account before they invest large number of people. Careers in
funds to support families, send young bank operations include electronic
people to college, or pay retirement data processing and internal and
pensions. Besides supervising finan­ customer services.
cial services, officers advise individ­
A correspondent bank officer is
uals and businessmen and participate responsible for relations with other
in community projects.
banks; branch bank manager, for all
Because banks offer many ser­ functions of a branch office; and an
vices, a wide choice of careers is international officer, for advising
available to those who specialize.
customers with Financial dealings
Loan officers must be familiar abroad. A working knowledge of a
with economics, production, dis­ foreign country’s language, geogra­
tribution, merchandising, and com­ phy, politics, history, and economic
mercial law. They also need to know growth can help those interested in
business operations and be able to international banking.
analyze financial statements. Of­
Other career Fields for bank of­
ficers may handle installment, com­ ficers are auditing, economics, per­
mercial, real estate, or agricultural sonnel administration, public rela­
tions, and operations research.



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Bank officer positions are filled
by management trainees or by pro­
moting outstanding bank clerks.
College graduation usually is re­
quired for management trainees.
A business administration major in
finance or a liberal arts curriculum
including accounting, economics,
commercial law, political science,
and statistics serve as excellent
preparation for officer trainee posi­
tions. Valuable experience may be
gained through summer employ­
ment programs.
Many banks have well-organized
officer-training programs usually
ranging from 6 months to 1 year.
Trainees may start as credit or in­
vestment analysts or rotate among
bank departments to get the “feel”
of banking; bank officials then can
determine the position for which
each employee is best suited.
Although persons planning to
become bank officers should like to
work independently and analyze
detailed information, they need tact
and good judgment in order to
counsel customers.
Advancement to officer may come
slowly in small banks where the
number of positions is limited. In
large banks that have special train­
ing programs, promotions may come
more quickly. For a senior officer
position, however, an employee
usually needs many years of experi­
Although experience, ability, and
leadership are emphasized for
promotion, advancement also may
be accelerated by special study.
Courses in every phase of banking
are offered by the American Institute
of Banking, a long-established,
industry-sponsored school. (See the
statement on the Banking Industry
elsewhere in the Handbook for more
information on the Institute’s

program and o th e r tra in in g
programs sponsored by universities
and local bankers’ associations.)
Employment Outlook

Through the mid-1980’s, employ­
ment of bank officers is expected to
increase rapidly. Computers will be
used to expand banking activities;
additional officers will be required
for sound management and control
and to replace those who retire or
leave their jobs for other reasons.
Although college graduates who
meet the standards for executive
trainees should find good oppor­
tunities for entry positions, many
senior officer positions will be filled
by promoting people already experi­
enced in banking. Competition for
these promotions, particularly in
large banks, is likely to be keen.

(D.O.T. 212.368)
Every bank, no matter how small,
has at least one teller who receives
and pays out money and records
these transactions. In a very small
bank, one all-round teller may han­
dle all transactions; in larger banks
different kinds of transactions usual­
ly are assigned to different tellers.
For example, a Christmas Club teller
accepts and records deposits made to
Christmas Club savings accounts
and a note teller handles certain
transactions for clients who have
made loans. Other tellers who have
special job titles include commercial
(or paying and receiving), savings,
foreign exchange, payroll, discount,
and securities tellers.


According to a private survey con­
ducted in 1972, large banks, in­
surance companies, and other finan­
cial institutions paid salaries ranging
from $550 to $780 a month to new
executive trainees who were college
The salaries of senior bank officers
may be several times as great as
these starting salaries. For officers,
as well as for other bank employees,
earnings are likely to be lower in
small towns than in big cities.
See the statement on the Banking
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for Places of Employment and
Sources of Additional Information,
and for general information on bank­
ing occupations.

Bank tellers should possess a pleasant



Commercial tellers, the most
common, cash customer’s checks
and handle deposits and with­
drawals from checking and savings
accounts. Before cashing a check, the
teller must verify the identity of the
person to whom payment is made,
and must be certain that the payee’s
account has sufficient funds to cover
the payment. When accepting a
deposit, the teller checks the ac­
curacy of the deposit slip and enters
the total in a passbook or on a
deposit receipt. Tellers may use
machines for making change and for
totaling deposits. Those who handle
savings accounts may use a “win­
dow” posting machine to print a
receipt, record the transaction in the
customer’s passbook, and simul­
taneously post the transaction to the
bank’s ledger.
After banking hours, tellers count
cash on hand, list the currencyreceived tickets on a settlement
sheet, and balance the day’s ac­
counts. They also sort checks and
deposit slips. Paying and receiving
tellers may supervise one or more
About 250,000 tellers were em­
ployed in 1972. A large number
worked part time; about 9 out of 10
were women.

tact, and courtesy are important,
because customers deal with tellers
far more frequently than with other
bank employees. Since tellers handle
large sums of money and are bonded,
they must meet the standards estab­
lished by bonding companies.
Although tellers work independently,
their recordkeeping is closely super­
vised. They work with detail and are
confined to a small work area.
New tellers usually observe experi­
enced workers for a few days before
doing the work themselves. Training
may last from a few days to 3 weeks
or longer. Beginners usually start as
commercial tellers; in large banks
which have a separate savings teller’s
“cage,” they may start as savings
After gaining experience, a com­
petent teller in a large bank may ad­
vance to head teller; those who have
had some college or specialized
training offered by the banking in­
dustry may be promoted to officers.
(See the statement on the Banking
Industry for information about the
educational programs of the Amer­
ican Institute of Banking.)

Employment Outlook

The number of bank tellers is
expected to increase rapidly
Training, Other Qualifications,
through the mid-1980’s as banks ex­
and Advancement
pand their services. An increasing
In hiring tellers, banks prefer high proportion of tellers, however, will
school graduates experienced in work part-time during peak hours to
clerical work. Maturity, neatness, accommodate customers who trans­

act business during the noon hour
and evenings. Thousands of open­
ings will occur each year as a result
of employment growth and the need
to replace tellers who retire, die, or
stop working for other reasons.
Replacement needs are relatively
high for the many thousands of
women tellers.
A lth o u g h in creased use of
mechanical and electronic equip­
ment may eliminate some routine
duties and speed other work, total
employment is unlikely to be ad­
versely affected.


According to a Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey, all nonsupervisory
workers in banking, including
tellers, averaged $112 a week in
1972. The range between the low­
est and highest salaries depends
on experience, the worker’s specific
duties, and location and size of the
Bank tellers are covered under the
Fair Labor Standards Act, a Federal
law which provides for minimum
wages. In 1972, the minimum was
$1.60 an hour; thus, tellers who
worked a 40-hour week earned at
least $64.
See the statement on the Banking
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for" Places of Employment and
Sources of Additional Information,
and for general information on bank­
ing occupations.

Insurance protection has become
an integral part of the American way
of life. It frees policyholders and
their beneficiaries from worry and
financial burdens that may result
from death, illness, or other losses
beyond their control. Businesses
could not operate, nor could most
people buy homes or other major
items, without the assurance of
protection from sudden disaster. In­
surance workers adapt policies to
meet changing needs, decide which
applications can be accepted and es­
tablish premium rates on the
policies, and investigate and settle
A college degree is increasingly
important for professional, tech­
nical, and managerial jobs in insur­
ance, although some positions are
open to high school graduates who
have appropriate experience. Insur­
ance workers in clerical positions
need a high school diplom a.
Regardless of their previous training,
insurance workers must continually
learn while on the job to develop
their potential. Many professional
associations sponsor courses in all
phases of insurance work; employees
are encouraged to participate to
prepare themselves for more respon­
sible jobs.
This section describes 4 insurance
occupations: Actuaries, Claim Ad­
justers, Claim Examiners, and
Underwriters. (Statements on the In­
surance Industry and Insurance
Agents and Brokers are included
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

(D.O.T. 020.188)
Nature of the Work

Why do young persons pay more
for automobile insurance than older
persons? How much should an insur­
ance policy cost? Answers to these
and similar questions are provided
by actuaries who design insurance
and pension plans that can be main­
tained on a sound financial basis.
They assemble and analyze statistics
to calculate probabilities of death,
sickness, injury, disability, un­
employment, retirement, and proper­
ty loss from accident, theft, fire, and
other potential hazards. Actuaries
use this information to determine the
expected insured loss. For example,
they may calculate how many per­
sons who are 21 years old today will
live to age 65—the possibility that an
insured person might die during this
period is a risk to the company. They
then calculate a price for assuming
this risk that will be profitable to the
company yet be competitive with
other insurance companies. Finally,
they must make sure that the price
charged for the insurance will enable
the company to pay all claims and
expenses as they occur. In the same
manner, the actuary calculates
premium rates and policy contract
provisions for each type of insur­
ance offered. M ost actu aries
specialize in either life and health in­
surance or in property and liability
(casualty) insurance.
To perform their duties effectively,
actuaries must keep informed about
general economic and social trends,

and legislative, health, and other
developments that may affect insur­
ance practices. Because of their
broad knowledge of insurance, ac­
tuaries may work on problems aris­
ing in investment, underwriting,
group insurance, and pension sales
and service departments. Actuaries
in executive positions help deter­
mine general company policy. In
that role, they explain complex tech­
nical matters to a variety of laymen,
company executives, and govern­
ment officials. They also may testify
before public agencies on proposed
legislation affecting the insurance
business, or justify intended changes
in premium rates or contract
Actuaries who work for the
Federal Government usually deal
with a particular insurance or pen­
sion program, such as social security
or life insurance for veterans and
members of the Armed Forces. Ac­
tuaries in State government posi­
tions regulate insurance companies,
supervise the operations of State
retirement or pension systems, and
work on problems connected with
unemployment insurance or work­
men’s compensation. Consulting
actuaries set up pension and wel­
fare plans and make periodic evalu­
ations of these plans for private
companies, unions, and government
Places of Employment

Approximately 5,500 persons
worked as actuaries in 1972. About
one-half of all actuaries worked in
the three states that are the major
centers of the insurance industry —
New York, Connecticut, and Illinois.
Over two-thirds of all actuaries
worked for private insurance com­
panies. Most worked for life insur­
ance companies; the rest worked for
property and liability (casualty)
companies. The number of actuaries



employed by an insurance company
depends on the volume of its busi­
ness and the number and types of in­
surance policies it offers. Large com­
panies may employ over 100 ac­
tuaries; small firms may have only a
few actuaries on their staffs or rely
instead on rating bureaus or con­
sulting firms.
Consulting firms and rating
bureaus (associations that supply ac­
tuarial data to member companies)
employed about one-fifth of all ac­
tuaries. Other actuaries work for
private organizations administering
independent pension and welfare
plans or for Federal and State
government agencies. A few teach in
colleges and universities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum requirement for
beginning jobs in actuarial work is a
bachelor’s degree with a major in
mathematics, statistics, economics,
or business administration and a
thorough foundation in calculus,
probability, and statistics. Other
desirable courses are insurance law,
econom ics, and acc o u n tin g .
Actuaries receive on-the-job training.
Although only 17 colleges and uni­
versities offer training specifically
designed for actuarial careers,
several hundred schools offer some Those who pass these examinations until they become more familiar with
usually have better opportunities for the field. Persons who complete five
of the necessary courses.
It usually takes from 5 to 10 years employment and receive a higher examinations in either field are
after beginning an actuarial career to starting salary. Advanced examina­ awarded “associate” membership in
complete the entire series of ex­ tions, usually taken by those in the society. Those who have passed
a m in atio n s req u ired for full junior actuarial positions, require ex­ an entire series receive the title
professional status. These examina­ tensive home study and experience in “fellow” .
Beginning actuaries often rotate
tions cover general mathematics, insurance work.
The Society of Actuaries gives 10 among different jobs to learn various
specialized actuarial mathematics,
and all phases of the insurance busi­ actuarial examinations for the life in­ actuarial operations and to become
ness. Those considering an actuarial surance and pension field; and the familiar with different phases of in­
career should take at least the begin­ Casualty Actuarial Society gives 9 surance work. At first, their work
ning examination covering general for the property and liability (casual­ may be rather routine, such as
mathematics while still in college. ty) field. Since the first parts of the preparing calculations or tabulation
Success in passing the first two ex­ examination series of either Society for actuarial tables or reports. As
aminations helps beginners to are the same, students may defer the they gain experience, they may
evaluate their potential as actuaries. selection of their insurance specialty supervise actuarial clerks, prepare


correspondence and reports, and
do research.
Advancement to more responsible
work as assistant, associate, and
chief actuary depends largely on job
performance and the number of ac­
tuarial examinations passed. Many
actuaries, because of their broad
knowledge of insurance and related
fields, are selected for adminis­
trative positions in other company
activities, particularly in under­
writing, accounting, or data proc­
essing departments. Some actuaries
advance to top executive positions.

Employment Outlook

Employment of actuaries is ex­
pected to rise very rapidly through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to job
openings resulting from this growth,
several hundred actuaries will be
needed each year to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. Job opportunities
should be favorable for new college
graduates who have passed one or
two of the actuarial examinations
while still in school and have a strong
mathematical and statistical back­
ground. However, because of the
large number of persons expected to
receive degrees in mathematics, and
the increasing number of students
taking actuarial examinations, com­
petition for beginning jobs could in­
A more affluent and insurance­
conscious population and business
community will demand a rising
number and variety of insurance
policies. There will be a need for ac­
tuaries to solve the growing number
of problems arising from continuous­
ly rising, and increasingly complex
insurance and pension coverage. The
growing number of group health and
life insurance plans and of pension
and other benefit plans will require
actuarial services. Government


regulatory agencies will need addi­
tional actuaries. The wide-spread use
of electronic computers has also
made more actuarial studies possi­
ble, and there will be a need for actu­
aries capable of working with elec­
tronic computers.
New State and Federal legisla­
tion, such as no-fault automobile in­
surance, competitive rating, and pen­
sion reform may be passed, and
make more actu arial studies

Sources of Additional

For facts about acuarial opportu­
nities and qualifications contact:
Casualty Actuarial Society, 200 East
42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10017
Society of Actuaries, 208 South LaSalle
St., Chicago, 111. 60604.

Earnings and Working

(D.O.T. 191.268, 241.168)

In 1972, actuaries had average
salaries over three times as high as
the average for non-supervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Depending on their college
grades and experience, new college
graduates entering the field as
trainees earned from about $8,000 to
$10,000 a year. Most insurance com­
panies paid $300 to $800 a year more
to trainees who had completed their
first actuarial examination, and
another $300 to $800 when they com­
pleted the second examination.
In the Federal government, new
graduates with the bachelor’s degree
could start at $7,694 or $9,520 a year
in early 1973, depending on their
college grades. Those with the
master’s degree could start at $9,520
or $11,614.
Beginning actuaries can look
forward to a marked increase in
earnings as they gain professional ex­
perience and successfully complete
either society’s series of examin­
ations. Insurance companies give
merit increases to those who pass one
or a group of examinations. Fellows
of either the Society of Actuaries or
the Casualty Actuarial Society earn
over $18,000 a year and many actu­
aries earn more than $25,000 a year.
Those in executive positions in large
companies may earn over $35,000.

Claim adjusters investigate,
negotiate, and settle claims made
against an insurance company by
policyholders who have suffered loss.
Most adjusters work for companies
that sell property and liability in­
surance, although some handle
claims arising under accident or
health insurance policies. (See the
statement on Claim Examiners for a
discussion of claim settlement in life
When an insurance company
receives a claim, the adjuster deter­
mines the amount of the loss and
whether the policy covers it. Ad­
justers use reports, physical evidence,
and testimony of witnesses in inves­
tigating a claim. When their com­
pany is liable, they negotiate with the
claimant and settle the case.
A d ju sters m ake sure th a t
settlements are in line with the real
extent of the loss. They must protect
their company from false or inflated
claims but, at the same time, settle
valid claims fairly and promptly.
Some adjusters are allowed to issue
checks on company funds; others
submit their Findings to the insurance
company which then pays the clai­
Some adjusters work with all lines
of insurance. Others specialize in
claims from property damage by



fire, marine losses, automobile
damage, workmen’s compensation
losses, or bodily injury. Some States
have no-fault insurance plans that
relieve the adjuster from deter­
mining responsibility for a loss. Ad­
justers who work in these States,
however, still must decide the true
amount of a loss. For some minor
property damage cases, the insured
parties submit estimates of repair
costs. For other claims, adjusters
personally inspect the damage and
make a brief investigation.
Adjusters work mostly away from
the office. They may be called to the
site of an accident or to the location
of a fire or burglary. Adjusters make
their own schedules of the activities
needed to dispose of a claim proper­
ly. They also keep written or taped
records of information obtained
from witnesses and other sources,
and prepare reports of their findings.

Claim adjuster discusses automobile damage with a policyholder.

such as a hurricane or a riot, to work
with local personnel. Some cases
result in travel outside the United

Places of Employment

About 128,000 persons—most of Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
them men—were claim adjusters in
Although a growing number of
1972. Adjusters work for insurance
companies, adjustment bureaus firms require claim adjusters to have
(organizations formed by several in­ a college degree, many hire those
surance companies to settle claims), without college training, partic­
and independent adjusting firms. ularly if they have specialized experi­
Some contract their services private­ ence. For example, a person ex­
perienced in automobile repair work
ly for a fee.
A few public adjusters represent may qualify as an auto adjuster.
the insured rather than the insurance However, an adjuster who lacks
company. These adjusters usually college training probably will be
are retained by banks, financial slower in advancing to senior or
organizations, and other business supervisory positions.
No specific field of college study is
firms to handle fire and other
losses to property. They negotiate recommended; many successful ad­
claims against insurance companies justers have liberal arts back­
and deal with adjusters for such com­ grounds. An adjuster who has a
business or accounting background
Adjusters can look forward to might specialize in loss from business
working in almost any area of the interruption or damage to merchan­
United States, since claims must be dise. Those with college training in
settled locally in all parts of the engineering or law will find their
country. Occasionally, the adjuster education helpful in adjusting bodily
may travel to the scene of a disaster, injury claims. Legal training is desir­

able, although few employers de­
mand that beginning adjusters have a
law degree.
Nearly three-fourths of the States
and Puerto Rico require adjusters to
be licensed. Despite wide variation
among State licensing requirements,
applicants usually must comply with
one or more of the following: pass a
written examination covering the
fundamentals of adjusting; furnish
character references; be 20 or 21
years of age and fulfill State residen­
cy qualifications; offer proof that
they have completed an approved
course in insurance or loss adjusting;
and file a surety bond.
Many insurance companies and
adjustment firms offer on-the-job
training and home study courses for
beginning adjusters. The Insurance
Institute of America offers a sixsemester study program leading to a
diploma in insurance loss and claim
adjusting upon successful com­
pletion of six examinations. Ad­
justers can prepare for these exam­
inations by independent home study,
through company or public classes,
or by college courses in insurance. A
professional Certificate in Insurance



Adjusting also is available from the
College of Insurance in New York
Because they work closely with
c l a im a n ts , w itn e s s e s , and
policyholders, adjusters must be able
to adapt to many different persons
and situations. They should be able
to gain the respect and cooperation
of p e o p le fro m d if f e r e n t
backgrounds. When an adjuster’s
evaluation of a claim differs from
that of the person who has suffered
the loss, he should be able to explain
his conclusions tactfully. Successful
adjusters must be observant and pay
careful attention to details.
Most adjuster trainees are assign­
ed to field offices or urban training
centers operated by some insurance
companies for an orientation course
in general insurance principles.
Beginners work on small claims un­
der the supervision of an experi­
enced adjuster. As they learn more
about claim investigation and settle­
ment, they are assigned claims that
are higher in loss value and more dif­
Adjusters may be promoted to
senior or chief adjuster when they
demonstrate competence in handling
assignments and progress in avail­
able study courses. The adjuster who
shows administrative skills may ad­
vance to claim supervisor in a field
office; senior adjusters who are able
to organize workflow and make
decisions may be promoted to
managerial positions in the field or
home office. Adjusters with legal
backgrounds can advance to trial at­
torney or home office legal manager.
Employment Outlook

Employment of claim adjusters is
expected to grow m oderately
through the mid-1980’s as the
number of insurance claims con­
tinues to increase. In addition to jobs
created by growth of the occupa­

Claim adjusting is not a desk job.
tion, many others will result from the
need to replace workers who die, re­ It requires that a person be physi­
cally fit because much of the day
tire, or transfer to other jobs.
Several factors point to a growing may be spent in driving from one
volume of insurance and a resulting place to another, walking about
need for claim adjusters. Higher per­ outdoors, and climbing stairs. Ad­
sonal incomes should stimulate justers may have to work evenings or
property and liability sales as weekends in order to interview
families insure homes, additional witnesses and claimants when they
automobiles, and other consumer are available. Since most companies
durables. Expanding businesses will provide 24-hour claim service to
need protection for new plants and their policyholders, some adjusters
equipment and for insurance cover­ always must be on call. (See the
ing workmen’s compensation and statement on the Insurance Industry
product liability. As more people live for additional information on work­
and work in densely populated areas, ing conditions and em ployee
the increased risk of automobile benefits.)
accident, fire, or theft should result
in a greater number of claims.
Sources off Additional
Growth of this occupation may be
slower than in recent years as no­
fault plans enable adjusters to handle
Information about licensing re­
more cases. Independent adjusters quirements for claim adjusters may
who specialize in automobile damage be obtained from the department of
claims may suffer some loss of insurance in each State. General in­
business. Prospects are best for ad­ formation about a career as a claim
justers who specialize in other types adjuster is available from the home
of claims or those who can move into offices of many property and liability
other lines of adjusting.
insurance companies. Information
about career opportunities as a claim
adjuster also may be obtained from:
Earnings and Working

Insurance Information Institute, 110
William St., New York, N.Y . 10038.

According to an American In­
Information about public insur­
surance Association/American Mu­ ance adjusting is available from:
tual Insurance Alliance survey of
National Association of public Adjust­
companies that sell property and
ers, 1613 Munsey Building Baltimore,
MD. 21202.
liability insurance, all-lines adjusters
averaged $10,000 a year in 1972.
Adjusters with supervisory respon­
sibilities averaged $13,000; some
earned over $20,000 a year. Most
public adjusters are paid a percen­
tage of the amount of the loss ad­
justment—generally 10 percent. Ad­
(D.O.T. 168.288 and 249.268)
justers may be furnished company
cars or reimbursed for use of their
Nature off the Work
own vehicles during business hours.
Salaries of claim adjusters are above
Although policyholders expect
the average earnings for nonsuper- their insurance claims to be paid
visory workers in private industry, promptly, important questions often
except farming.
must be answered first. These


questions may arise when large
settlements are made by property/liability company adjusters, when
a false claim is suspected, or as
regular procedure when a claim ex­
ceeds a specified amount. Claim ex­
aminers, also called claim represen­
tatives or claim reviewers, investi­
gate details of the claim to provide
answers for these questions.
Life insurance claim examiners
may check claim applications for
completeness and accuracy, inter­
view medical specialists, consult
policy files to verify information on a
claim, or calculate benefit payments.
They are authorized to investigate
and approve payment on all claims
up to a certain limit; larger claims
are referred to a senior examiner.
In property/liability companies,
the claim examiner reviews claims to
be sure that the adjusters, who do
most of the investigative work, have
followed proper procedures. (See the
statement on Claim Adjusters else­
where in the Handbook.) Some
property/liability firms employ
workers to examine and settle small
claims only, such as those arising
over minor automobile damage.
These claim workers, called “inside
adjusters,” contact claimants by
telephone or mail and have the
policyholder send repair costs, medi­
cal bills, and other statements to the
In both life and property/liability
companies, some home office ex­
aminers process only unusual or
questionable claims referred from
regional or field offices.
Claim examiners need a thorough
knowledge of their company’s settle­
ment procedures and basic policy
provisions. Although they can con­
sult company claim manuals, ef­
ficient examiners must be familiar
with procedures so that frequent
checking is unnecessary. Besides
verifying claims and approving pay­
ment, claim examiners maintain rec­


Examiner discusses insurance claims with policyholder.

ords and prepare reports to be sub­
mitted to their company’s data
processing department.
Examiners checking incorrect or
questionable claims may correspond
with investigating companies, field
managers, agents, and policy­
holders. Claim exam iners oc­
casionally travel to obtain infor­
mation by a personal interview, or
contact State insurance depart­
ments and other insurance com­
panies. Experienced examiners serve
on committees, conduct surveys of
claim practices within their com­
pany, and help devise more efficient
ways to process claims. They also
may appear in court to testify on
contested claims.

life insurance companies in large
cities such as New York, Hartford,
Chicago, San Francisco, and Dallas,
where home or regional offices are
located. Some were employed in field
offices in smaller cities and towns
where their companies sell and serv­
ice insurance policies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although many employers prefer
college graduates for claim examiner
positions, some firms accept appli­
cants with good high school records
if they have experience in clerical
work or some college training. The
employee who has only a high school
education may begin as a claim
processor in a group life or health inPlaces of Employment
su ran ce d e p a rtm e n t. C ollege
About 29,000 persons—half of graduates, or those having 2 years or
them women—worked as claim ex­ more of college training, usually
aminers in 1972. Most worked for begin work as junior claim ex­



aminers. Although courses in in­
surance, economics, or other
business subjects are helpful, a major
in almost any college field is ade­
quate preparation.
The beginning claim examiner is
given on-the-job training under the
direction of an experienced claim
manager. Trainees who are college
graduates also may receive instruc­
tion in insurance fundamentals or
personnel management designed to
prepare them for more responsible
jobs. The Life Office Management
Association (LOMA) cooperates
with the In tern atio n al Claim
Association in offering a claims
education program for life and
health insurance claim examiners.
The program is part of the LOMA
In stitu te Insurance Education
Program leading to the professional
designation of FLMI (Fellow, Life
M anagem ent In s titu te ) upon
successful completion of eight
written examinations. Most in­
surance companies encourage study
by making educational materials
available to employees enrolled in
the LOMA Institute Program. Many
firms offer classroom intruction in
preparation for the annual ex­
Because they have frequent con­
tact with agents and brokers, field
managers, and policyholders, claim
examiners must be able to com­
municate effectively in many dif­
ferent situations. In addition, they
need to be familiar with medical and
legal terms and practices and Federal
and State insurance laws and
regulations. Because the claim ex­
aminer may have to check premium
payments, policy values, and other
numerical items in processing a
claim, some skill in performing
mathematical calculations is an
asset. They also should have a good
memory and enjoy working with
College trained workers usually

can be promoted to claim examiner
or senior claim representative after
one year; workers who lack formal
academic training generally advance
more slowly. Examiners who show
unusual competence in claim work
sometimes are promoted to claim ap­
prover or another supervisory job
within the claim departm ent.
Qualified examiners also can ad­
vance to jobs in underwriting, data
processing, or administration.
Employment Outlook

supervisors averaged $13,000; some
earned over $20,000 a year. Salaries
of claim examiners who are not
supervisors are slightly above the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Claim examiners have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­
tivity. Although the average work
week for examiners is 35 to 40 hours,
they may work longer at times of
peak claim load or when quarterly
and annual statements are prepared.
They also may need to travel oc­
casionally. (See the statement on the
Insurance Industry for additional in­
formation on working conditions and
employee benefits.)

Employment of claim examiners is
not expected to increase through the
mid-1980’s. Some job openings will
occur, however, as examiners die,
retire, or transfer to other work.
Competition for the few supervisory
Sources of Additional
openings is expected to be keen.
Although the volume of insurance
General information about a
should continue to expand, com­
career as a claim examiner is avail­
puters will enable each examiner to
process more claims, especially rou­ able from the home office of many
tine ones and those that arise under life insurance and property/liability
group life and health policies. In ad­ insurance companies and also from:
dition, as smaller branch offices are
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
consolidated, companies will be able
to handle the rapidly expanding
Insurance Information Institute 110
William St., New York, N .Y .
volume of claims with a relatively
stable work force.
Earnings and Working

College graduates hired by life in­
surance companies as claim ex­
aminer trainees averaged $8,000 a
year in 1972, according to a Life Of­
fice Management Association sur­
vey. Supervisors of claims earned
$11,500 to $17,300 a year. In most
cases, examiners in large companies
earned higher salaries.
An A m e ric a n I n s u r a n c e
Association/American Mutual In­
surance Alliance survey of property/liability insurance companies
showed that in 1972 “inside ad­
justers’’ averaged $7,500. Claim

(D.O.T. 169.188)
Nature of the Work

Insurance companies assume mil­
lions of dollars in risks each year, by
transferring chance of loss from their
policyholders to themselves. Under­
writers appraise and select the risks
their company will insure. (The term
underwriter sometimes is used in
referring to insurance salespeople;
see the statement on Insurance
Agents and Brokers elsewhere in the


Handbook for a discussion of that
An underwriter decides if his com­
pany will select a risk after ana­
lyzing information in insurance
applications, reports of safety engi­
neers, and actuarial studies (reports
that describe the probability of in­
sured loss). Some routine appli­
cations that require very little inde­
pendent judgment are handled by
computers. Generally, however, un­
derwriters use considerable personal
judgment in making decisions. Be­
cause these decisions are seldom re­
viewed at a higher level, the under­
writer has great responsibility. His
company may lose business to com­
petitors if he appraises risks too con­
servatively or have to pay many
future claims if his underwriting ac­
tions are too liberal.
When deciding that a policy is an
acceptable risk, an underwriter may
outline the terms of the contract, in­
cluding the amount of the premium.
Underwriters frequently correspond
with policyholders, agents, and
management about policy cancel­
lations or information requests. In
addition, they sometimes accom­
pany salespeople on appointments
with prospective customers. Some
underwriters in small companies
issue policies or supervise the sales
Most underwriters specialize in
one of three major categories of in­
surance: life, property and liability,
or health. Life underwriters may fur­
ther specialize in one or more types
of life insurance, such as group or in­
dividual policies. The property and
liability underwriter specializes by
type of risk insured, such as fire,
automobile, marine, or workmen’s
compensation. Some underwriters,
called commercial account under­
writers, handle business insurance
exclusively. They must evaluate a
firm’s entire operation in appraising
its insurance application.


Underwriter discusses information on an insurance application.

A group insurance policy insures
all persons in a specified group
through a single contract. The group
underwriter analyzes the overall
composition of the group to be sure
that total risk is not excessive. The
duties of some group underwriters
are similar to those of insurance
salespeople, and include meeting
with union or employer represen­
tatives to discuss the types of poli­
cies available to their groups.
Places of Employment

About 60,000 persons—most of
them men—worked as insurance un­
derwriters in 1972. Nearly threefourths were property and liability
underwriters working in field or
home offices throughout the United
States; most life insurance under­
writers are in home offices in a few
large cities, such as Hartford, New
York City, Chicago, Dallas, and San
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

For beginning underwriting jobs,

most insurance companies seek col­
lege graduates who have degrees in
liberal arts or business adminis­
tration, but a major in almost any
field provides a good general back­
ground. Some high school graduates
who begin as underwriting clerks
may be trained as underwriters after
they demonstrate an aptitude for the
College graduates usually start as
trainees or junior underwriters. They
study claim files to learn the factors
associated with certain types of
losses and carry out their work
assignments under an experienced
risk appraiser. Many supplement onthe-job training with courses and in­
struction at home office schools or
local colleges and universities. Many
firms pay tuition and the cost of
books for those who satisfactorily
complete underwriting courses.
Some companies offer salary in­
creases as an incentive. Several inde­
pendent study programs are avail­
able through associations such as the
American Institute for Property and
Liability Underwriters, the Amer­
ican College for Life Underwriters,
the Home Office Life Underwriters



Association and the Institute of
Home Office Underwriters, and
the Life Office Management Asso­
Underwriting can be a satisfying
career for a young man or woman
who likes working with details and
enjoys relating and evaluating facts.
In addition to analyzing problems,
underwriters must make prompt
decisions and be able to communi­
cate their ideas to others. They also
must be imaginative and aggressive,
especially when they have to get
additional information from outside
Experienced underwriters who
complete study courses may advance
to chief underwriter or underwriting
manager. Some underwriting man­
agers are promoted to senior mana­
gerial jobs after several years.
Employment Outlook

The employment of underwriters
is expected to grow moderately
through the mid-1980’s as insurance
sales continue to expand. Each year
many jobs will become available as
the occupation grows and as those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
work are replaced.
Several factors underlie the ex­
pected growth in the volume of insur­
ance and the resulting need for un­
derwriters. Higher personal incomes
should stimulate purchases of life in­
surance, especially policies which
provide retirement income and
money for children’s education.
Property and liability insurance sales
should expand as purchases of auto­

mobiles, pleasure boats, and other
consumer durables increase. Both
spending for new home construction
and the American public’s growing
security consciousness should con­
tribute to demand for more exten­
sive insurance protection. Expand­
ing businesses will need protection
for new plants and equipment and in­
surance for workmen’s compen­
sation and product liability. Height­
ened competition among insurance
companies and changes in regula­
tions affecting investment profits
also are expected to increase the in­
surance industry’s need for com­
petent underwriters.

1972. Earnings varied by under­
writing specialty; ocean marine un­
derwriters earned the highest and
personal line underwriters the low­
est annual salaries. Experienced un­
derwriters earn nearly twice the aver­
age earnings of nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Underwriting supervisors in
property and liability companies
averaged $13,400 a year in 1972;
many earned over $16,000.
Most underwriters have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­
tivity. Although the average week is
35 to 40 hours, underwriters some­
times work overtime. Most insur­
ance companies have liberal vaca­
tion policies and other employee
Earnings and Working
benefits. (See the statement on the
Insurance Industry for additional in­
College graduates hired as under­ formation on working conditions and
writer trainees averaged $8,140 a employee benefits.)
year in 1972, according to a Life Of­
fice M anagem ent A ssociation
Sources of Additional
(LOMA) survey of 55 U.S. com­
panies. Senior underwriters (those
General information about a
with 5 years’ experience) earned
$10,000 to $15,000 in 1972; super­ career as an insurance underwriter is
visors of underwriting in life insur­ available from the home offices of
ance companies averaged $13,000 to many life insurance and property and
$20,000. In most cases, underwriters liability insurance companies. Infor­
in larger companies earned higher mation about career opportunities as
salaries. Salary ranges also were an underwriter also may be obtained
higher in the Eastern and Central from:
states, slightly lower in the West, and
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
substantially lower in the South.
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
An American Insurance AssociInsurance Information Institute, 110
ation/American Mutual Insurance
William St., New York, N .Y .
Alliance survey of companies that
sell property and liability insurance
American Mutual Insurance Alliance,
showed that experienced under­
20 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111.
writers averaged $10,000 a year in

Most administrative workers are
professional office employees who
run, or help run, business and other
organizations. Some are managers,
who supervise, plan operations, and
make company policy. Others pro­
vide assistance to management, such
as personnel workers who recruit and
hire staff members and handle
employee problems. The success or
failure of an organization depends
heavily on the way administrative
workers do their jobs.
Nearly all administrative jobs re­
quire a college degree, although
employers vary in the specific area of
study they prefer. Some seek busi­
ness administration or liberal arts
graduates; others want a back­
ground in a technical area such as
engineering or science.
Many administrative workers
solve problems and make decisions,
using numbers and technical data. In
addition, these workers must be tact­
ful and able to get along with others.
They must be able to handle the un­
even flow of work in offices.
This section describes several ad­
ministrative occupations including

portant decisions. Accountants pre­
pare and analyze financial reports
that furnish this kind of information.
Three major accounting fields are
public, management, and govern­
ment accounting. Public account­
ants are independent practitioners or
employees of accounting firms.
Management accountants, often
called industrial or private account­
ants, handle the financial records of
their firms. Government account­
ants examine the records of govern­
ment agencies and audit private busi­
nesses and individuals whose deal­
ings are subject to government
Accountants often specialize in
areas such as auditing, taxes, or
budgeting and control. Many public
accountants specialize in auditing
(reviewing a client’s financial records

and reports to judge their reliabil­
ity). Others advise clients on tax
matters and other financial and ac­
counting problems. Management ac­
countants provide the financial infor­
mation that executives need to make
intelligent business decisions. They
may specialize in taxes, budgeting,
investments, or internal auditing (ex­
amining and appraising their firms’
financial systems and management
control procedures). Many account­
ants in the Federal Government
work as Internal Revenue agents, in­
vestigators, and bank examiners;
other government accountants have
regular accounting positions.

Places of Employment

More than 700,000 people worked
as accountants in 1972; about 20 per­
cent were Certified Public Account­
ants (CPA’s). About 3 percent of
the CPA’s and 22 percent of all
accountants are women.
More than 60 percent of all ac­
countants do management account­
ing work. An additional 20 percent

city managers, Accountants, Credit
Officials, and Personnel workers.

(D.O.T. 160.188)
Nature of the Work

Managers must have up-to-date
financial information to make im­

Accountant discusses client’s financial records.


are engaged in public accounting as
proprietors, partners, or employees
of independent accounting firms.
Other accountants work for Federal,
State and local government agencies,
and a small number teach in col­
leges and universities.
Accountants are found wherever
business, industrial, or government
organizations are located. Most,
however, work in large urban areas
where many public accounting firms
and central offices of large busi­
nesses are concentrated.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Training in accounting is avail­
able at colleges and universities, ac­
counting and business schools, and
correspondence schools. Although
many graduates of business and cor­
respondence schools are successful in
small accounting firms, most large
public accounting and business firms
require applicants to have at least a
bachelor’s degree in accounting or a
closely related field. Many employ­
ers prefer those with the master’s
degree in accounting. For beginning
accounting positions, the Federal
Government requires 4 years of col­
lege training (including 24 semester
hours in accounting or related sub­
jects) or an equivalent combination
of education and experience. For
teaching positions, most colleges and
universities require the master’s
degree or the doctorate with the Cer­
tified Public Accountancy Certifi­
Previous work experience in ac­
counting can help an applicant get a
job. Many colleges offer students an
opportunity to gain experience
through internship programs con­
ducted by public accounting or busi­
ness firms.
Anyone working as a “certified
public accountant’’ must hold a cer­
tificate issued by the State board of

accountancy. All states use the CPA
examination, administered by the
American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants, to establish cer­
tification. Although only half the
States require CPA candidates to be
college graduates, most successful
candidates have college degrees.
Nearly all States require applicants
to have at least 2 years of public ac­
counting experience for a CPA cer­
Requirements vary, but more than
half the States restrict the title
“public accountant’’ to those who
are licensed or registered. Informa­
tion on requirements may be ob­
tained directly from individual State
boards of accountancy or from the
National Society of Public Accoun­
People planning a career in ac­
counting should have an aptitude for
mathematics. Neatness and accu­
racy also are necessary. Employers
seek applicants who handle respon­
sibility and work with little supervi­
Accountants who want to get to
the top in their profession usually
must continue their study of account­
ing even though they already have
college degrees or CPA certificates.
They may take part in seminars
sponsored by various professional
associations or take courses offered
by their employers. An increasing
number of accountants study com­
puter operation and programming to
adapt accounting procedures to new
data processing methods. Although
capable accountants may advance
rapidly, those having inadequate aca­
demic preparation are likely to be as­
signed routine jobs and may find
promotions difficult to obtain.
Junior public accountants usually
start by assisting with auditing work
for several clients. They may ad­
vance to intermediate positions with
more responsibility in 1 or 2 years
and to senior positions within


another few years. In larger firms,
those who deal successfully with top
industry executives often become
supervisors, managers, or partners,
or transfer to executive positions in
private firms. Some open their own
public accounting offices.
Beginning management account­
ants often start as ledger account­
ants, junior internal auditors, or as
trainees for technical accounting
positions. They may advance to jobs
such as chief plant accountant, chief
cost accountant, budget director,
senior internal auditor, or manager
of internal auditing. Some become
controllers, treasurers, financial vicepresidents, or corporation presi­
dents. In the Federal Government,
beginners are hired as trainees and
usually promoted in a year or so. In
college and university teaching, those
having minimum training and ex­
perience may receive the rank of in­
structor without tenure; advance­
ment and permanent faculty status
depend upon further education and
teaching experience.
Employment Outlook

Employment of accountants is ex­
pected to increase rapidly through
the mid-1980’s as businesses and
government agencies continue to ex­
pand in size and complexity. Thou­
sands of additional openings will oc­
cur as employees die, retire, or leave
their jobs to seek other work.
Greater use of accounting infor­
mation in business management,
changing tax systems, and growth of
large corporations that must pro­
vide financial reports to stock­
holders, all point to excellent oppor­
tunities for accountants. Because of
the growing complexity of business
accounting requirements, account­
ants with college degrees will be in
stronger demand than those who
lack this training. In addition, the
trend toward specialization will



create opportunities for people train­
ed in a specific phase of accounting.
As data processing systems con­
tinue to replace manual preparation
of accounting records and state­
ments, the need for some lower level
accountants may be reduced or
eliminated. On the other hand, many
highly-trained accountants will be re­
quired to prepare, administer, and
analyze the information made avail­
able by these systems.
Earnings and Working

Starting salaries of beginning ac­
countants in private industry were
$9,100 a year in 1972, according to a
Bureau of Labor Statistics survey in
urban areas. Earnings of experi­
enced accountants ranged between
$11,900 and $17,400, depending on
their level of responsibility and the
complexity of the accounting system.
In general, experienced accountants
earn about twice as much as average
earnings of all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Chief accountants who di­
rect the accounting program of a
company or one of its establish­
ments earned between $15,300 and
$26,500, depending upon the scope of
their authority and size of profes­
sional staff.
According to the same survey, be­
ginning auditors averaged $9,600 a
year, while experienced auditors’
earnings ranged between $12,900 and
Salaries generally are somewhat
higher for accountants holding a
graduate degree or a CPA certif­
icate. Earnings also are higher for
those who are required to travel a
great deal.
In the Federal Civil Service the en­
trance salary for junior accountants
and auditors was about $7,700 in
early 1973. Candidates who had su­
perior academic records received a

starting salary of about $9,500.
Some auditors began at about $10,300. Experienced accountants in the
Federal Government averaged about
$20,000 a year. Those with admin­
istrative responsibilities earned
Accountants often work very long
hours under heavy pressure during
the tax season and some travel ex­
tensively. The majority, however, re­
main in one office and work between
35 and 40 hours a week, under the
same general conditions as fellow of­
fice workers.
Sources of Additional

Information about CPA’s and ap­
titude tests given in many high
schools, colleges, and public ac­
counting firms may be obtained
American Institute of Certified Public
Accountants, 666 Fifth Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10019.

Further information on spe­
cialized fields of accounting is avail­
able from:
National Association of Accountants,
919 Third Ave., New York, N.Y.

National Society of Public Account­
ants, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave.,
NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 050.088, 132.088,
141.081 and .168, 162.158,
and 164.068 through .168)
Nature of the Work

Through advertisements, busi­
nesses try to reach potential cus­
tomers and persuade them to buy
their products or services. Adver­
tising workers are employed in many

industries to plan and prepare ads.
To get advertisements before the
public, copywriters write texts; ar­
tists prepare illustrations; ad­
ministrative and technical workers
reproduce “ads” ; and salesmen sell
advertising space and time for
publications, radio, and television. In
some small advertising organiza­
tions, one person handles all these
tasks; large organizations, however,
may employ research, copywriting,
and other specialists. The following
specialties commonly are found in
advertising work.
Advertising managers direct a
firm’s advertising program. They
decide policy questions such as the
type of advertising, the advertising
budget, and the agency to employ.
The advertising manager and agency
work together to plan the program
and carry it through. They also may
supervise the preparation of special
sales brochures, display cards, and
other promotional materials. Adver­
tising managers of newspapers, radio
stations, or other advertising media
are responsible for selling advertis­
ing time or space. Their work is
similar to that of sales managers in
other businesses.
Account executives work in adver­
tising agencies to handle relations
between the agency and its clients.
An account executive studies the
client’s sales and advertising prob­
lems, develops a plan to meet the
client’s needs, and seeks his approval
of the proposed program. Account
executives must be able to sell ideas
and maintain good relations with
clients. They must also know how to
write copy and use artwork, even
though copywriters and artists usual­
ly carry out their ideas and sugges­
tions. Some advertising agencies
have account supervisors who over­
see the work of the account execu­
tives. In others, account executives
are responsible directly to agency


Research directors and their as­
sistants assemble and analyze infor­
mation for advertising programs.
They study possible uses of a prod­
uct, its advantages and disadvan­
tages compared to competing prod­
ucts, and ways of reaching potential
buyers. These workers may survey
buying habits and motives of cus­
tomers, or try out sample advertise­
ments to find the best selling theme
or media. (See the statement on
Marketing Research Workers for
more information on this oc­
Advertising copywriters create the
headlines, slogans, and text that at­
tract buyers. They collect informa­
tion about products and potential
customers. Copywriters use a knowl­
edge of psychology and writing to
prepare copy especially suited for the
particular readers or listeners sought
as buyers and for the advertising
medium used. They may specialize in
a type of copy that appeals to cer­
tain groups—housewives, business­
men, scientists, engineers—or that
deals with a class of items such as
packaged goods or industrial prod­
ucts. In advertising agencies, copy­
writers work closely with account ex­

ecutives, although they m^y also be
under the supervision of a copy chief.
Artists and layout workers plan
and create visual effects in adver­
tisements. (See the statements on
Commercial Artists and Photogra­
phers elsewhere in the Handbook for
more information on these oc­
Advertisers and advertising agen­
cies employ media directors (or
space buyers and time buyers) to ne­
gotiate contracts for advertising
space or time. They determine where
and when advertising should be
carried to reach the largest group of
prospective buyers at the least cost.
They must know the advertising
costs in different media and the char­
acteristics of the audience reached in
various parts of the country by
specific publications, broadcasting
stations, and other media.
Production managers and their
assistants arrange to have the copy
and art work converted into print.
They deal with printing, engraving,
filming, recording, and other firms
involved in the reproduction of
advertisements. The production
manager needs a thorough knowl­
edge of printing, photography, paper
and inks, and related technical mate­
rials and processes.
Places of Employment

In 1972, about 150,000 people
worked in jobs that require con­
siderable knowledge of advertising.
More than one-third were employed
in advertising agencies, largely con­
centrated in New York City and
These workers also are employed
by organizations having products or
services to sell, like manufacturing
companies and stores; by advertis­
ing media, such as newspapers and
magazines; and by firms providing
services to advertisers, including
printers, engravers, art studios, and


product and package designers.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most employers prefer college
graduates having liberal arts train­
ing or majors in advertising, market­
ing, journalism, or business ad­
ministration. However, no typical
educational background is equated
with success in advertising. Experi­
ence in copywriting, work on school
publications, or summer jobs with
marketing research services are help­
Some large advertising organiza­
tions recruit outstanding college
graduates and train them through
programs that cover all aspects of
advertising work. Some beginners
start as assistants in research or
production work or as space or time
buyers. A few begin as junior
Most advertising jobs require a
flair for language, both spoken and
written. Because every assignment
requires specialized handling, an
ability for problem-solving also is
important. Advertising workers
should be interested in people and
things; they also need tact to help
them sell their ideas to superiors,
advertisers, and the public. They
must also be able to accept criticism
and work as part of a team.
Copywriters and account execu­
tives may advance to managerial
jobs or more responsible work in
their own specialties, if they demon­
strate ability in dealing with clients.
Some top-flight copywriters and ac­
count executives establish their own
Employment Outlook

Em ploym ent of advertising
workers is expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1980’s,
as the volume of consumer goods and



American Association of Advertising
competition among manufacturers
Agencies, 200 Park Ave., New
increase. Although opportunities
York, N.Y. 10017.
should be favorable for highly quali­
fied applicants, those seeking entry
Association of Industrial Advertisers,
41 East 42nd Street, New York,
jobs will face stiff competition. Most
N.Y. 10017.
openings will result from the need to
replace those who retire, die, or leave
A list of schools providing training
the occupation for other reasons.
in advertising may be obtained from:

Earnings and Working

According to the limited infor­
mation available, annual starting
salaries for beginning advertising
workers with bachelor’s degrees
ranged from $6,500 to $10,000 in
1972 and from $11,000 to $13,000
for those with master’s degrees.
The higher starting salaries usually
were paid by very large firms to
outstanding college graduates.
Salaries of experienced advertis­
ing workers employed by advertis­
ing agencies varied by size of firm
and type of job. For example, ac­
count executives’ salaries averaged
$18,000 to $22,000 a year; media
directors, $10,000 to $16,000, ac­
cording to limited information.
Advertising workers frequently
work under great pressure. Working
hours sometimes are irregular
because of deadlines and last minute
changes. People in creative jobs often
work evenings and weekends to
finish important assignments.
Advertising may be a satisfying
career for those who enjoy variety,
excitement, creative challenges, and
competition. Advertising workers ex­
perience the satisfaction of having
their work in print, on television, or
on radio, even though they remain
unknown to the public at large.

American Advertising Federation,
1225 Connecticut Ave., N W .,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 188.118)
Nature of the Work

Population growth and industrial
expansion place increasing pressure
on housing, transportation, and
other facilities of cities. Problems
associated with growing modern
communities, such as air and water

pollution and rising crime rates, also
demand attention. To cope effective­
ly with these problems, sophisti­
cated management techniques are
required. Consequently, many com­
munities hire a specialist who has
these skills—the city manager.
A city manager is responsible to
the community’s elected officials
who appoint him. Although duties
vary by city size, city managers
generally coordinate and administer
activities of operating departments,
such as tax collection and disburse­
ment, law enforcement, and public
works; hire department heads and
their staffs; and prepare the annual
budget to be approved by elected of­
ficials. They also study current
problems, such as unionization of
government employees or urban
renewal, and report their findings
to the elected council.
City managers must plan for
future growth and development of
cities and surrounding areas. To pro­
vide for an expansion of public ser-

Sources of Additional

Information on advertising agen­
cies and the careers they offer may
be obtained from:

City manager discusses urban renewal project with staff.


vices, they frequently appear at civic
meetings to advocate certain pro­
grams or to inform citizens of
current government operations.
City managers work closely with
planning departments to coordinate
new and existing programs. In
smaller cities that have no per­
manent planning staff, coordination
may be assumed entirely by the
Many cities employ assistant city
m anagers, d e p a rtm e n t head
assistants, and administrative assist­
ants to aid city managers. Under his
direction, they administer pro­
grams, prepare reports, receive
visitors, answer correspondence, and
generally help to keep the city func­
tioning smoothly. Assistant city
managers organize and coordinate
city program s, supervise city
employees, and act for the city
manager when he is absent. They
also may assume responsibility for
some projects, such as the develop­
ment of a preliminary annual budget.
Department head assistants gener­
ally are responsible for one activity,
such as personnel, finance, or law,
but also may assist in other areas.
Administrative assistants, also called
executive assistants or assistants to
the city manager, usually do ad­
ministrative and staff work in all
departments under the city manager.
For instance, they may compile
operating statistics, or review and
analyze work procedures.
Places of Employment

About 2,500 city managers, nearly
all of them men, were employed in
1972. In addition, several thousand
persons worked as administrative
assistants, department head assist­
ants, and assistant city managers.
About nine out of ten city managers
worked for cities and counties hav­
ing a council-manager form of
government. Most of the remainder

worked in municipalities having
other forms of government, such as
mayor-council government in which
the mayor appoints the city manager
as his “administrative assistant” or
“chief administrative officer.” A few
city managers also worked for
metropolitan or regional planning
organizations and councils of
Although four-fifths of all city
managers work for small cities with
populations less than 25,000, most
larger cities also employ a city
manager. About half of the cities
with populations between 10,000 and
500,000 have city managers. City
managers work in all States except
Hawaii and Indiana, but one-half are
concentrated in Eastern United
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree, preferably
with a major in political science or
public administration, is the mini­
mum educational background need­
ed to become a city manager. How­
ever, a master’s degree in public or
m u nicipal a d m in is tra tio n is
In 1972, about 90 colleges and uni­
versities offered graduate degree pro­
grams in public or municipal ad­
ministration. Degree requirements in
some schools include successful com­
pletion of an internship program in a
city manager’s office. During this in­
ternship period, which may last from
6 months to a year, the degree can­
didate observes local government
operations and does research under
the direct supervision of the city
Most new graduates work as ad­
m inistrative assistants to city
managers for several years and gain
experience in solving urban prob­
lems, coordinating public services,
and management techniques. Others


work in an area of government oper­
ations such as finance, public works,
or public planning. They may ac­
quire supervisory skills and addi­
tional experience by working as
assistant city manager or depart­
ment head assistant in operations.
City managers first are employed in
small cities, but during their careers,
they usually work in several cities of
increasing size to gain experience.
Young persons who plan a career
in city management should like to
work with detail and as part of a
team. They must have sound judg­
ment, self-confidence, and be able to
perform well under stress. To handle
emergency situations, city managers
must quickly isolate problems, iden­
tify their causes, and provide alter­
nate solutions. City managers should
be tactful and able to communicate
with and work well with people.
City managers also must be dedi­
cated to public service since they
often put in long hard hours in times
of crises.
Employment Outlook

This small occupation is expected
to grow very rapidly as problems of
our growing cities become complex.
Examples of this complexity are
computerized data collection of
police information, advances in tech­
nology of traffic control, and the
application of systems analysis to ur­
ban problems. The demand for city
managers also will increase as cities
convert to the council-manager form
of government, currently the fastest
growing form of city government.
Furthermore, city managers will be
needed in places having other forms
of government to help elected of­
ficials cope with day-to-day oper­
ations of government.
Persons who seek beginning city
management jobs as administrative
assistants, department head assist­
ants, or assistant city managers may



face competition through the mid- ness. Managers generally are reim­
1980’s, especially if they do not have bursed for expenses incurred while
a graduate degree in public ad­ attending professional meetings and
ministration or related management seminars.
experience. Competition should be
keen among the growing number of
Sources of Additional
administrative assistants, depart­
ment head assistants, and assistant
International City Management Asso­
city managers for the relatively few
ciation, 1140 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
city manager positions.
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Earnings and Working

Salaries of city managers and their
assistants vary according to their
education and experience as well as
job responsibility and size of city. (D.O.T. 045.108, 090.118, 090.168,
Generally, city manager’s earnings
129.108 and 166.168)
are very high relative to the average
earnings for nonsupervisory workers
Nature of the Work
in private industry, except farming.
In 1972, annual salaries of city
A student’s choice of a particular
managers ranged from about $12,- institution of higher education for
000 in cities of 5,000 to more than further study is influenced by many
$35,000 in cities of more than 250,- factors. Availability of a specific
000, according to the International educational program, quality of the
City Management Association. In
cities of 10,000 or more, seven out of
ten city managers were paid at least
$20,000. City managers in cities not
having council-manager govern­
ments received slightly less.
Salaries of assistant city managers
and department head assistants rang­
ed from about $10,000 in small cities
to more than $25,000 in large ones.
They were generally paid about
three-fourths the salaries paid city
managers. Administrative assistant
salaries typically ranged from $8,500
to $10,000, annually.
City managers often work more
than 40 hours a week. Emergency
problems may require evening and
weekend work and meetings with in­
dividuals and citizen’s groups con­
sume additional time.
Fringe benefits usually include
health and life insurance programs,
pension plans, sick leave, vacation
time, and often a car for official busi­

school, and cost, as well as proximity
to home, may all play important
For many students, an equally im­
portant standard is the institution’s
ability to provide for their housing,
social, cultural, and recreational
needs. Development and adminis­
tration of the latter services, and of
similar programs serving students’
well-being in addition to their educa­
tional needs, provide a wide variety
of jobs for college student personnel
workers. The admissions officer,
registrar, the dean of students, and
the career planning and placement
counselor are probably the best
known among these. Some other
types of workers that may make up
this broad occupational field are stu­
dent activities and college union per­
sonnel, student housing officers,
counselors in the college counseling
center, financial aid officers and
foreign student advisors.
Titles of student personnel
workers vary from institution to in-


stitution and from program to pro­
gram within a single school. Titles
also vary with the level of respon­
sibility within a certain student per­
sonnel program. The more common
titles include dean, director, officer,
associate dean, assistant director,
and counselor,
The dean o f students, or the vice
president for student affairs, heads
the student personnel program at a
school. Among his duties, he
evaluates the changing needs of the
students and helps the president of
the college develop institutional
policies. The dean of students
generally coordinates a staff of
associate or assistant deans; these
are in charge of the specific pro­
grams that deal directly with the
At some schools, the admissions
office and the records office are
separate. Admissions Counselors in­
terview and evaluate prospective
students and process their appli­
cations. They may travel extensively
to recruit high school, junior college
and older students and to acquaint
them with opportunities available at
their College. They work closely with
faculty, administrators, financial aid
personnel and public relations staff
to determine policies for recruiting
and admitting students. Personnel in
the office of the registrar maintain
the academic records of students,
and provide current enrollment stat­
istics for communication both within
the college and between the college
and the community.
Student financial aid personnel
assist students in obtaining financial
support to pay for their education.
Workers in this field must keep well
informed about sources of financial
aid, funding, and about manage­
ment of all forms of financial
aid—scholarships, grants, loans, stu­
dent employment, fellowships,
teaching and research assistantships. They work closely with ad­

m in istrato rs, the adm issions,
counseling, business, and academic
office staffs.
Career planning and placement
counselors, sometimes called college
placement officers, assist students in
making long-range career selections
and may also help students get parttime and summer jobs. On many
campuses, they arrange for prospec­
tive employers to visit the school to
discuss their firm’s personnel needs
and to interview applicants. (For
further information on this field, see
statement on College Career Plan­
ning and Placement Counselors).
The student personnel staff in
charge of student activities work
with members of proposed and es­
tablished student organizations, es­
pecially with student government.
They help the student groups to plan,
implement, and evaluate their ac­
tivities. Often, the student activities
staff will assist in the orientation of
new students.
College union staff members work
with students to provide intellectual,
cultural, and recreational programs.
Many college union staff members
are responsible for directing the
operation of the physical facilities
and services of the building, such as
food and recreational services, build­
ing maintenance, fiscal planning,
conference facilities, and employee
S tu dent housing officers
sometimes live in the dormitories
and, in general, help the students to
live together in harmony. They may
serve as counselors to individual
students with personal problems.
Housing officers also may be in­
volved in managing the fiscal, food
service, and housekeeping operation
of student residences.
Counselors help students with per­
sonal, educational, and vocational
problems. Students may come to the
counselors on their own or be
referred by a faculty member, a


residence hall counselor, or a friend.
Topics of discussions may include
lack of self-confidence or motivation
on the part of the student, failure in
academic work, desire to leave
college or transfer to another college,
inability to get along with others,
loneliness, drug abuse, or marriage
problems. In addition, there is a
growing trend for counselors to try
to reach more students by establish­
ing group sensitivity sessions and
telephone “hotlines” . Counselors
often administer tests that indicate
aptitudes and interests to students
having trouble understanding them­
selves. Some also teach in the college
or assist with admissions, orienta­
tion and training of residence hall
staff. (For further information on
th is field, see s ta te m e n t on
Foreign student advisers admin­
ister and coordinate many of the ser­
vices which are crucial in insuring a
successful academic and social ex­
perience for students from other
countries. They usually assist with
foreign student admissions, orienta­
tion, financial aid, housing, English
as a foreign language, academic and
personal advising, student-com­
munity relationships, placement, and
alumni relations. In addition they
may be an adviser for international
associations and nationality groups
and for United States students in­
terested in study, educational travel,
work, or service projects abroad.
Places of Employment

An estimated 35,000 to 40,000
college student personnel workers,
roughly one-third of them women,
were employed in 1972. Every
college and university, whether a
two-year or a four-year school, has a
staff performing student personnel
functions. They are not always or­
ganized as a unified program. Large
colleges and universities generally


deal with the unexpected and the un­
usual, therefore emotional stability
and the ability to function while un­
der pressure are necessities.
Entry-level positions are usually
those of student activities advisors,
admissions counselors, financial aid
Training, Other Qualifications,
counselors, residence hall directors,
and Advancement
and assistants to deans. Persons
Because of the diversity in duties, without graduate degrees may find
the education and backgrounds of advancement opportunities limited.
college student personnel workers A doctorate is usually necessary for
vary considerably. A bachelor’s the top student personnel positions.
degree is the minimum requirement;
however, for some student personnel
Employment Outlook
programs it is necessary to have a
Employment of college student
master’s degree, and others in the
personnel workers is likely to remain
field have doctoral degrees.
In 1972, more than 100 colleges relatively stable through the midand universities offered graduate 1970’s. Tightening budgets, in both
programs in student personnel work. public and private colleges and uni­
However, many employers prefer in­ versities, is the chief factor underly­
stead a graduate degree in a specific ing this expected stability in employ­
academic field added to some ment. Student personnel positions
courses in student personnel work. A least likely to be affected if some
m aster’s degree in clinical or reduction in number becomes
counseling psychology is usually re­ necessary are those most closely tied
quired for work as a college to the academic function of the
counselor. This degree also is help­ school—admissions, financial aid,
ful in other student personnel fields records, and counseling. The number
such as career planning and place­ of graduate programs in student per­
ment. Business administration also is sonnel is continuing to grow as is the
helpful, especially for those who wish number of graduates, a situation
to go into the admissions, records, which the National Association of
college union, financial aid, or stu­ Student Personnel Administrators
dent housing fields. Familiarity with feels could result in competition for
data processing is an asset especially jobs in this field. Over the short run,
for work in admissions, records, or until colleges and universities resolve
financial aid. Social science and their financial difficulties, most
recreation degrees also are useful, as openings each year will result from
is work experience in business, the need to replace personnel who
government, or educational associa­ transfer to other positions, retire, or
tions. The majority, however, have leave the field for other reasons.
degrees in education or the social
After the mid-1970’s, however,
employment of student personnel
College student personnel workers workers is expected to increase as
must be interested in, and able to colleges provide more services for
work with, people of all back­ students, especially the growing
grounds and ages. They must have number from low-income and
the patience to cope with conflicting minority families who often require
viewpoints of students, faculty, and special counseling and assistance.
parents. People in this field often The increasing number of college
have specialized staffs for each per­
sonnel function. However, in many
small colleges the entire student per­
sonnel program may be carried out
by just a few persons.


students, particularly in junior and
community colleges, is a factor
which also could contribute to some
growth in the student personnel oc­
cupations, especially if financial
problems should ease. Two-year
public colleges, for the most part,
have less serious financial problems
because, unlike most four-year
colleges, their enrollments are grow­
ing and their operating costs are
Earnings and Working

Median salaries of chief student
affairs officers ranged from $11,900
in small non-public colleges to $26,000 in large public universities in
1972, according to a National
Education Association survey of
public and private colleges and uni­
versities. Median salaries of deans o f
admissions ranged from $11,062 to
$19,400; for registrars, from $8,130
to $17,725. Directors o f student
testing and counseling had median
salaries of $9,900 to $19,800. The
median salaries of the other student
personnel workers were somewhat
College student personnel workers
frequently work more than a 40-hour
week; often irregular hours and over­
time work are necessary. Employ­
ment in these occupations is usually
on a 12-month basis. In many
schools, they are entitled to retire­
ment, group medical and life in­
surance, sabbatical and other
Sources of Additional

A pamphlet, Careers in Higher
Education, is available from:
The American Personnel and Guidance
Association, 1607 New Hampshire
Ave. N W ., W ashington, D.C.



(D.O.T. 168.168 and 186.288)
Nature of the Work

Many daily activities of businesses
and individuals depend upon re­
ceiving goods and services on credit
or obtaining cash loans. In most
forms of credit granting, a credit of­
ficial makes the decision to accept or
reject the application. These workers
include credit managers, who
authorize customer purchases when
payment is promised at a later date,
and loan officers, who approve cash
loans by financial institutions.
In extending credit to a business
(commercial credit), the credit of­
ficial analyzes detailed financial
reports submitted by the applicant,
interviews a company representative
about its management, and reviews
credit agency reports to determine
the firm’s reputation for repaying
debts. He also checks at banks where
the company has deposits or previ­
ously was granted credit. In extend­
ing credit to individuals (consumer
credit), detailed financial reports
usually are not available. The credit
official must rely more on personal
interviews, credit bureaus, and banks
to provide information about the
person applying for credit.
Loan officers in many large banks
make decisions based on their analy­
sis of reports submitted by credit
analysts. Officers may specialize in
handling certain types of credit, such
as installment loans, commercial
loans, real estate mortgages, and
agricultural loans. In smaller finan­
cial institutions, such as branch
banks and consumer finance com­
panies, the loan officer (who some­
times is the manager of the firm)
may do all the work of granting
loans himself. He may interview
applicants, analyze the information
gained in the interview, and make the
final lending decision.

Credit manager reviews previous credit transactions from computer printout.

Credit managers in retail and
wholesale trade usually cooperate
with the sales department in develop­
ing credit policies liberal enough to
allow the company’s sales to increase
and yet strict enough to deny credit
to customers whose ability to pay
their debts is questionable.
A credit manager frequently must
contact a customer who is unable or
refuses to repay his debt. He does
this though writing, telephoning, or
personal contact. If these attempts at
collection fail, the credit manager
may refer the account to a collection
agency or assign an attorney to take
legal action. Some credit managers
supervise workers who gather infor­
mation, analyze facts, and perform
general office duties in a credit
department; they include investi­
gation clerks, application clerks,
credit authorizers, information
clerks, credit collectors, adjustment
clerks, bookkeepers, and secretaries.
Places of Employment

More than 110,000 credit officials

were employed in 1972; most were
men. About 75,000 were credit
managers working in wholesale and
retail stores, in manufacturing firms,
and for services that process a com­
pany’s credit operations. Loan of­
ficers working in banks and other
financial institutions numbered
about 40,000. In addition, some
other bank officers, general manag­
ers, and office managers spend part
of their time supervising the granting
of credit within their companies.
Although goods and services are
sold on credit, and cash loans
granted, throughout the United
States, most credit officials work in
urban areas where many financial
and business establishments are
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A college degree is becoming in­
creasingly important for entry level
jobs as credit officials. Employers
usually seek persons who have ma­
jored in business administration,



economics, or accounting, but may
instead hire graduates holding liberal
arts degrees. Some employers pro­
mote high school graduates to credit
official positions if they have experi­
ence in credit collection or proc­
essing credit information.
The new credit official may be
hired as a management trainee and
work under the guidance of more ex­
perienced personnel in the credit
departm ent. Here he gains a
thorough understanding of the com­
pany’s credit procedures and policies
and learns various sources of credit
information. He may analyze previ­
ous credit transactions to learn how
to recognize which applicants should
prove to be good customers. The
trainee also learns to deal with credit
bureaus, banks, and other businesses
that can provide information on the
past credit dealings of their
Many formal training programs
are available through the educa­
tional branches of the associations
that serve the credit and finance
field. This training includes home
study, college and university pro­
grams, and special instruction to im­
prove beginners’ skills and keep ex­
perienced credit officials aware of
new developments in their field.
Many banks will pay tuition for loan
officers who take courses in credit
and finance at colleges and univer­
A person interested in a career as a
credit official should be able to
analyze detailed information and
draw valid conclusions based on this
analysis. Because it is necessary to
maintain good customer relation­
ships, a pleasant personality and the
ability to speak and write effectively
also are characteristics of the
successful credit official.
The work performed by credit of­
ficials allows them to become
familiar with almost every phase of
their respective businesses. Highly

qualified and experienced officials
can advance to top-level executive
positions. However, in small and
medium-sized companies, such op­
portunities are limited.
Employment Outlook

Employment of credit officials
is expected to increase rapidly
through the mid-1980’s as the num­
ber of individual credit transactions
continues to grow. In addition to op­
portunities resulting from growth,
many jobs will open each year from
the need to replace those who leave
the occupation.
Although the increasing use of
computers for storing and retrieving
information will allow individual
credit officials to serve more cus­
tomers, this should not slow the
growth of the occupation. As com­
panies handle greater numbers of
credit transactions, the credit official
will spend more time managing and
supervising the credit handling
process in his firm. Moreover, many
duties of credit officials, such as cus­
tomer counseling and interviewing
applicants, demand the tact and
good judgment only personal con­
tact can provide.
In addition, attractive credit terms
are a major tool for increasing the
sales volume of almost any business.
As firms strive to maximize their
sales, in the face of competition,
there will be a greater demand for
skilled credit officials who can es­
tablish credit policies strict enough
to minimize bad debt losses.
Earnings and Working

In 1972, beginning credit officials
earned annual salaries that ranged
from about $7,500 to just over $10,000, depending on the type of credit
granting performed and the geo­
graphic location of the job. Bank of­

ficers hired as trainees earned annual
starting salaries of about $8,500. The
Nation’s largest banks and major
business firms, however, may offer
slightly higher salaries to entry level
credit officials.
As credit officials gain experience
and reach middle management posi­
tions, their earnings usually range
from $10,000 to $20,000 a year; with
the largest employers, earnings may
be as high as $25,000 or more. Some
individuals in top-level positions
earned salaries well over $40,000 a
According to a Bank Administra­
tion Institute survey conducted in
May of 1971, salaries of loan officers
were generally highest in the North­
east and Middle Atlantic regions and
lower in the South.
Credit officials normally work the
standard workweek of their com­
pany—35-40 hours. Some work
longer hours, particularly in retail
trade where a seasonal increase in
credit sales can produce a greater
work volume.
Sources of Additional

General information about the
field of consumer credit, including
career opportunities, is available
Association, 1000 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Specific information about train­
ing programs available in consumer
credit may be obtained from:
Society of Certified Consumer Credit
Executives, 7405 University Dr., St.
Louis, Mo. 63130.

For information about training
programs available in commercial
credit write:
Credit Research Foundation, 3000
Marcus Ave., Lake Success, N.Y.



(D.O.T. 163.118 and 187.118 and
Nature of the Work

Hotel managers are responsible
for profitably operating their estab­
lishments and providing maximum
comfort for their guests. More than
110,000 managers worked in hotels
and motels in 1972; 40,000 of these
were self-employed. Managers direct
and coordinate the activities of the
front office, kitchen, and dining
rooms; and various hotel depart­
ments including housekeeping,
accounting, personnel, and mainte­
nance. They determine room rates,
establish credit policy, and have
final responsibility for solving the
many problems that arise in op­
erating their hotels. Like other
business managers, they may confer
with business and social groups and
participate in community affairs.
In small hotels, the manager also
may do much of the front office cleri­
cal work. In the smallest hotels and
in many motels, the owners—some­
times a family team—completely run
the business.
The general manager of a large
hotel may have several assistants
who manage departm ents and
assume general administrative re­
sponsibilities when he is absent.
Because preparing and serving food
is important in the operation of most
large hotels, a special manager
usually is in charge of this depart­
ment. Managers of large hotels
usually employ a sales manager to
advertise hotel facilities for meet­
ings, banquets, and conventions.
Since large hotel chains often cen­
tralize activities such as purchasing
and planning employee training pro­
grams, managers in these hotels may
have a smaller range of duties than
those in independently owned estab­

Hotel manager makes final arrangements for a convention.

lishments. Hotel chains may assign
managers to organize either a newly
acquired hotel, or to establish hotels
in different cities or in foreign coun­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although experience is generally
the most important consideration in
selecting managers, employers are
increasingly emphasizing college ed­
ucation. Many believe a 4-year
college curriculum in hotel and res­
taurant administration is the best ed­
ucational preparation. Courses in
hotel work, available in a few junior
colleges and through the American
Hotel and Motel Association, also
are helpful.

College level courses in hotel man­
agement include hotel administra­
tion, accounting, economics, food
service management and catering,
and hotel maintenance engineering.
Students are encouraged to work in
hotels or restaurants during summer
vacations. The experience gained and
the contacts made with employers
may help them to get better hotel
jobs after graduation.
Managers should have initiative,
self-discipline, and the ability to or­
ganize work and run a department or
hotel. They must be able to concen­
trate on details and solve problems.
Some large hotels have special onthe-job management trainee pro­
grams in which trainees rotate
among various departments. Out­
standing employees may receive fi­
nancial assistance for college study.



Most hotels promote employees
with proven ability, usually front of­
fice clerks, to assistant manager and
eventually to general manager. Hotel
chains may offer better opportun­
ities for advancement than in­
dependent hotels, since vacancies
may arise anywhere in the chain or
central office.
Employment Outlook

Hotel manager employment is ex­
pected to increase very rapidly
through the mid-1980’s. New posi­
tions will arise as additional hotels
and motels are built. Many openings
for management personnel also will
occur as workers die, retire, or trans­
fer to other jobs. Applicants having
college degrees in hotel administra­
tion will have an advantage in
seeking entry positions and later
See the Hotel statement else­
where in the Handbook for informa­
tion on Earnings and Working Con­
ditions, Sources of Additional In­
formation, and additional informa­
tion on Employment Outlook.

(D.O.T. 184.168)
Nature of the Work

Industrial firms want to receive
raw materials and deliver cus­
tomers’ goods promptly, safely, and
with minimum cost. Arranging the
transportation of materials and fin­
ished products is the job of an indus­
trial traffic manager. Industrial traf­
fic managers analyze various trans­
portation possibilities and choose the
most efficient type for their com­
panies’ needs—rail, air, road, water,

pipeline, or some combination. Then
they select the route and the particu­
lar carrier. To make their decisions,
managers consider factors such as
freight classifications and regula­
tions, time schedules, size of ship­
ments, and loss and damage rates.
(This statement does not cover traf­
fic managers who sell transportation
services for railroads, airlines, truck­
ing firms, and other freight carriers.)
Activities of industrial traffic
managers range from checking
freight bills to deciding whether the
company should buy its own fleet of
trucks rather than contract for serv­
ices. They route and trace ship­
ments, arrange with carriers for
transportation services, prepare bills
of lading and other shipping docu­
ments, and handle claims for lost or
damaged goods. Traffic managers
keep records of shipments, freight
rates, commodity classifications, and
applicable government regulations.
They also must stay informed about
changing transportation technology,
such as containerization (the use of
containers packed with many in­
dividual item s). Some traffic
managers (called physical distribu­
tion managers) are responsible for
packaging shipments and maintain­
ing warehouse facilities and trans­
portation equipment.
Traffic managers often consult
with other company officials about
the firm’s transportation needs. They
may, for example, work with pro­
duction department personnel to
plan shipping schedules, or with
members of the purchasing depart­
ment to determine what quantities of
goods can be transported most
Since many aspects of transporta­
tion are subject to Federal, State,
and local government regulations,
traffic managers must know about
these and any other legal matters
that apply to their companies’ ship­
ping operations. High level traffic

managers represent their companies
before ratemaking and regulatory
bodies such as the Interstate Com­
merce Commission, State com­
missions, and local traffic bureaus.
Places of Employment

More than 20,000 persons were in­
dustrial traffic managers in 1972. Al­
though most jobs are found in man­
ufacturing firms, some traffic man­
agers work for large stores. A few
are self-employed consultants, or
work for firms that handle transpor­
tation problems for clients. Most
traffic managers are men.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although high school graduates
with Experience in traffic depart­
ments sometimes are hired as traffic
managers, a college education is be­
coming increasingly important in
this field. For some kinds of work,
college training is required. For ex­
ample, in order to argue cases before
the Interstate Commerce Com­
mission, a traffic manager must meet
standards that include at least 2
years of college. Although some em­
ployers prefer graduates who have a
degree in traffic management, others
seek liberal arts majors who have
had courses in transportation, man­
agement, economics, statistics, mar­
keting, or commercial law.
Industrial traffic training is avail­
able through colleges and universi­
ties, traffic management schools, and
seminars sponsored by private or­
ganizations. More than 100 colleges,
universities, and junior colleges offer
a degree in traffic management.
Industrial traffic managers should
be able to analyze numerical and
technical data such as freight rates
and classifications to solve transpor­
tation problems. These jobs also re­
quire the ability to work independ-



visory workers in private industry,
except farming. Industrial traffic
managers working for companies
whose transportation requirements
were small earned about $16,000 a
year. Those in companies whose
transportation needs were large re­
ceived from $25,000 to $30,000 a
year. Some traffic executives earned
$40,000 or more a year.
Although industrial traffic man­
agers usually have a standard work
week, those in particularly respon­
sible jobs may have to spend some
time outside regular working hours
preparing reports, attending meet­
ings, and traveling to hearings before
State and Federal regulatory agen­
Sources off Additional
Industrial traffic manager checking freight bills.

Information on education and
technical training is available from:

American Society of Traffic and
ping and receiving activities in sepa­
Transportation, Inc., 547 West
rate departments. A few openings
Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111.
will become available each year as
new jobs are created, and as traffic
managers die, retire, or leave the
field for other reasons.
Growth in this occupation will
stem from an increasing emphasis on
efficient management of traffic ac­
tivities and from the trends toward (D.O.T. 110.108, .118, and 119.168)
procuring materials over greater dis­
tances and distributing products in
Nature of the Work
wider markets. There will be a strong
At some time in our life, each of us
demand for specialists who can ob­
tain the lowest possible freight rates. may need a lawyer for advice about
our rights and responsibilities when
buying property, making a will, or
Earnings and Working
settling an estate. In addition, law­
yers, also called attorneys, negotiate
Industrial traffic managers, sal­ the settlement of legal problems out
aries started at about $9,000 a year of court or, when necessary, repre­
in 1972, according to the limited in­ sent clients in court or before govern­
Employment Outlook
formation available. Although the ment agencies.
Employment of industrial traffic earnings of experienced traffic man­
Most lawyers are engaged in
managers is expected to increase agers vary by the company’s trans­ general practice, handling all kinds
slowly through the mid-1980’s as portation costs, they are much higher of legal work for clients. However, a
more businesses centralize their ship­ than the average for all nonsuper­ significant number specialize in one

ently and to present facts and figures
in a convincing manner.
Newly hired traffic managers
often complete shipping forms and
calculate freight charges. After gain­
ing experience, they do more techni­
cal work such as analyzing transpor­
tation statistics. A competent worker
may advance to a supervisory job
such as supervisor of rates and
routes; a few are promoted to assist­
ant general traffic managers and eventually to general traffic man­
agers. Industrial traffic managers
can sometimes help their chances for
advancement by participating in
company-sponsored training pro­
grams or taking other courses in traf­
fic management.



branch of law, such as corporation,
criminal, labor, patent, real estate,
tax, or international law. Some at­
torneys devote themselves entirely to
trying cases in the courts. Others
never appear in court but instead
draw up wills, trusts, contracts,
mortgages, and other legal docu­
ments; conduct out-of-court negoti­
ations; and do investigative and other
legal work to prepare for trials.
Some may act as trustees by manag­
ing a person’s property and funds or
as executors by seeing that the provi­
sions of their client’s will are carried
out. Still others teach, do research or
writing, or perform administrative
work. Government attorneys play a
large part in developing Federal and
State laws and programs; they
prepare drafts of proposed legisla­
tion, establish law enforcement
procedures, and argue cases.
Many people who have legal train­
ing do not work as lawyers but use
Legal research demands careful attention to detail.
their knowledge of law in other oc­
cupations. They may, for example, others do legal work part time while must have completed 3 years of
be insurance adjusters, tax col­ in another occupation.
college and have graduated from a
lectors, probation officers, credit in­
law school approved by the
vestigators, or claim examiners. A
American Bar Association or the
legal background also is an asset to
proper State authorities. A few
those seeking or holding public of­ Training, Other Qualifications,
States accept the study of law wholly
and Advancement
in a law office or in combination with
In order to practice law in the study in a law school; only California
courts of any State, a person must be accepts study of law by correspon­
Places of Employment
admitted to its bar. Applicants for dence as qualification for taking the
About 300,000 persons, most of admission to the bar must pass a bar exam. Several States require reg­
them men, worked as lawyers in written examination; however, a few istration and approval of students by
1972. Most were in private practice, States drop this requirement for the State Board of Examiners, either
either self-employed (alone or in graduates of their own law schools. before they enter law school, or dur­
partnerships) or working for other A lawyer who has been admitted to ing the early years of legal study. In a
lawyers or law firms.
the bar in one State usually can be few States, candidates must com­
In 1972, almost 15,000 lawyers admitted in another without taking plete clerkships before they are ad­
worked for the Federal Govern­ an examination provided he meets mitted to the bar.
ment, chiefly in the Justice, Defense, that State’s standards of good moral
The required college and law
and Treasury Departments, and the character and has a specified period school work usually takes 7 years of
Veterans Administration; another of legal experience. Each Federal full-time study after high school—4
15,000 were employed by State and court or agency sets its own quali­ years of college followed by 3 years
local governments. Others worked fications for those practicing before in law school. Although a number of
law schools accept students after 3
for private companies or taught in it.
To qualify for the bar exami­ years of college, and a few after 2, an
law schools. Some salaried lawyers
also have independent practices; nation in most States, an applicant increasing number require appli­


cants to have a bachelor’s degree. To
meet the needs of students who can
attend only part time, a number of
law schools have night divisions
which usually require 4 years of
study. In 1971, about one-fourth of
all law students in ABA-approved
schools were enrolled in evening
Law schools seldom specify
college subjects that must be includ­
ed in students’ prelegal education.
H o w ev er, E n g lis h , h is to r y ,
economics and other social sciences,
logic, and public speaking are impor­
tant for prospective lawyers. Stu­
dents interested in a particular aspect
of the law may find it helpful to take
related courses; for example, engi­
neering and science courses for the
prospective patent attorney, and ac­
counting for the future tax lawyer.
Acceptance by most law schools
depends on the applicant’s ability to
demonstrate an aptitude for the
study of law, usually through the
“ Law School Admissions Test.’’ In
1972, 149 law schools were approved
by the American Bar Association.
Others—chiefly night schools—were
approved by State authorities only.
The first 2 years of law school
generally are devoted to funda­
mental courses such as contracts,
property law, and judicial proce­
dure. In the third year, students may
elect specialized courses in fields
such as tax, labor, or corporation
law. Practical experience is often
acquired by participation in schoolsponsored legal aid activities, in the
school’s practice court where stu­
dents conduct trials under the super­
vision of experienced lawyers, and
through writing on legal issues for
the school’s law journal. Graduates
receive the degree of juris doctor
(J.D.) from most schools, although
some confer the bachelor o f laws
(L.L.B.) as the first professional
degree. Advanced study is often
desirable for those planning to

specialize, do research, or teach in
law schools.
The practice of law involves a
great deal of responsibility. Young
people planning careers in law should
like to work with people and ideas,
and be able to win the confidence of
their clients.
Most beginning lawyers start in
salaried positions, although some go
into independent practice im­
mediately after passing the bar ex­
amination. Newly hired salaried at­
torneys usually act as research assist­
ants (law clerks) to experienced
lawyers or judges. After several years
of progressively responsible salaried
employment, many lawyers go into
practice for themselves. Some law­
yers, after years of practice, become
Employment Outlook

A rapid increase in the number of
law school graduates seeking
employment is expected to create
keen competition for the available
jobs. Graduates of well known law
schools and those who rank high in
their classes should find salaried
positions with law firms, on the legal
staffs of corporations and govern­
ment agencies, and as law clerks for
judges. Graduates of less prominent
schools and those with lower scho­
lastic ratings may experience some
difficulty in finding salaried jobs.
However, many will find opportuni­
ties in fields where legal training is an
asset but not normally a require­
The employment of lawyers is ex­
pected to grow moderately through
the mid-1980’s as increased business
activity and population create a de­
mand for attorneys to deal with a
growing number of legal questions.
Supreme Court decisions extending
the right to counsel for persons ac­
cused of lesser crimes, the growth of
legal action in the areas of consumer


protection, the environment, safety,
and an expected increase in the use of
legal services by middle income
groups through prepaid legal service
programs also should provide
employment opportunities. Other
jobs will be created by the need to
replace lawyers who retire or leave
the occupation for other reasons.
Prospects for establishing a new
practice probably will continue to be
best in small towns and expanding
suburban areas. In such com­
munities competition is likely to be
less than in big cities and new law­
yers may find it easier to become
known to potential clients; also, rent
and other business costs are some­
what lower. Salaried positions, on
the other hand, will be limited largely
to urban areas where the chief
employers of legal talent—govern­
ment agencies, law firms, and big
corporations—are concentrated.
Earnings and Working

Lawyers entering practice in 1972
earned starting salaries ranging from
$7,000 to $20,000 a year. Factors
affecting the salaries offered to new
graduates include: their academic
records; and types, sizes, and loca­
tions of their employers; and whether
the new lawyer has any specialized
educational background that the
employer requires. Lawyers with 1
year’s experience working for
manufacturing and business firms
earned about $14,000 a year; those
with a few years of experience earned
$18,000 annually. In the Federal
Government, annual starting salaries
for attorneys were $11,614 or $13,996 in early 1973 depending upon
their academic and personal qual­
ifications. Those with a few years of
experience earned $19,700 a year. On
the average, lawyers earn over three
times as much as nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except



Beginning lawyers engaged in legal
aid work usually receive the lowest
starting salaries. New lawyers start­
ing their own practices may earn lit­
tle more than expenses during the
first few years and may need to work
part time in other occupations.
Lawyers on salary receive in­
creases as they assume greater
responsibility. In 1972, those in
charge of legal staffs in private in­
dustry averaged more than $33,700 a
year. Incomes of lawyers in private
practice usually grow as their prac­
tices develop. Private practitioners
who are partners in law firms
generally earn more than those who
practice alone.
Lawyers often work long hours
and are under considerable pressure
when a case is being tried. In addi­
tion, they must keep abreast of the
latest laws and court decisions. How­
ever, since lawyers in private prac­
tice can determine their own hours
and workload, many stay in practice
well past the usual retirement age.
Sources of Additional

(D.O.T. 050.088)
Nature of the Work

Businessmen require a great deal
of information to make sound deci­
sions on how to market their prod­
ucts. Marketing research workers
provide much of this information by
analyzing available data on prod­
ucts and sales, making surveys, and
conducting interviews. They prepare
sales forecasts and make recom­
mendations on product design and
Most marketing research starts
with the collection of facts from
sources such as company records,
published materials, and experts on
the subject under investigation. For
exam ple, m arketing research
workers making sales forecasts may
begin by studying the growth of sales
volume in several different cities.
This growth may then be traced to
increases in population, size of the
company’s sales force, or amount of
money spent on advertising. Other

marketing research workers may
study changes in the quantity of com­
pany goods on store shelves or make
door-to-door surveys to obtain infor­
mation on company products.
Marketing research workers are
often concerned with customer’s
opinions and tastes. For example, to
help decide on the design and price of
a new line of television sets, market­
ing research workers may survey
consumers to find out what styles
and price ranges are most popular.
This type of survey usually is super­
vised by marketing researchers who
specialize in consumer goods; that is,
merchandise sold to the general
public. They may be helped by statis­
ticians who select a group (or sam­
ple) to be interviewed and “motiva­
tional research” specialists who
phrase questions to produce reliable
information. Once the investigation
is underway, the marketing research
worker may supervise the inter­
viewers. He also may direct the of­
fice workers who tabulate and
analyze the information collected.
Marketing surveys on products
used by business and industrial firms

The specific requirements for ad­
mission to the bar in a particular
State may be obtained at the State
capital from the clerk of the
Supreme Court or the secretary of
the Board of Bar Examiners.
Information on law as a career is
available from:
Information Service, The American Bar
Association 1155 East 60th St.,
Chicago, 111. 60637.

Information on specific topics
such as developments in financial aid
and law school accreditation is avail­
able from:
Association of American Law Schools,
Suite 370, 1 Dupont Circle NW,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Marketing research worker reviews results of survey.


may be conducted somewhat differ­
ently from consumer goods surveys.
The marketing researcher often con­
ducts the interviews himself to gather
opinions of the product. He also may
speak to company officials about
new uses for it. He must therefore
have specialized knowledge of both
marketing techniques and the indus­
trial uses of the product.
Places off Employment

About 25,000 full-time marketing
research workers were employed in
1972; most were men. They included
research assistants and others in
junior positions as well as super­
visors and directors of research. In
addition, a limited number of other
professionals (statisticians, econo­
mists, psychologists, and sociolo­
gists) and several thousand clerical
workers were employed full time in
this field. Thousands of additional
workers, many of them women,
worked part time or on a temporary
basis as survey interviewers.
Most jobs for marketing research
workers are found in manufacturing
companies and independent adver­
tising and research organizations.
Large numbers also are employed by
stores, radio and television firms,
and newspapers; others work for un­
iversity research centers and govment agencies. Marketing research
organizations range in size from oneman enterprises to firms having a
hundred employees or more.
The largest number of marketing
research workers is in New York Ci­
ty, where many major advertising
and independent marketing research
organizations are located, and where
many large manufacturers have their
central offices. The second largest
concentration is in Chicago. How­
ever, marketing research workers are
e m p lo y e d in m an y o th e r
cities— wherever there are central
offices of large manufacturing and
sales organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although a bachelor’s degree is
the usual entry requirement for
marketing research trainees, gradu­
ate training is becoming important
for some specialized positions and
for advancement to higher level posi­
tions. Many graduates qualify for
jobs through previous experience in
other types of research, while
employers may hire university
teachers of marketing or statistics to
head new m arketing research
College courses considered to be
valuable preparation for work in
marketing research are statistics,
English composition, speech, psy­
chology, and economics. Some
marketing research positions require
skill in specialized areas, such as
engineering, or substantial sales ex­
perience and a thorough knowledge
of the company’s products. Knowl­
edge of data processing is helpful
because of the growing use of com­
puters in sales forecasting, distribu­
tion, and cost analysis.
Trainees usually start as research
assistants or junior analysts. At first,
they may do considerable clerical
work, such as copying data from
published sources, editing and coding
questionnaires, and tabulating sur­
vey returns. They also learn to con­
duct interviews and write reports on
survey finding. As they gain experi­
ence, assistants and junior analysts
may assume responsibility for
specific marketing research projects,
or advance to supervisory positions.
An exceptionally able worker may
become marketing research director
or vice president for marketing and
Either alone or as part of a team,
marketing research workers must be
resourceful as they analyze problems
and apply various techniques to their
solution. As advisers to manage­
ment, they should be able to write


clear reports informing company of­
ficials of their findings.
Employment Outlook

College graduates trained in
marketing research, and statistics
will find favorable job opportunities
in this occupation through the mid1980’s. The growing complexity of
marketing research techniques also
will expand opportunities for psy­
chologists, economists, and other
social scientists. Job opportunities
for those who hold master’s and doc­
tor’s degrees will be excellent.
The dem and for m arketing
research services is expected to in­
crease very rapidly through the next
decade. Existing marketing research
organizations will expand and new
marketing research departments and
independent firms will be set up.
Business managers will find it in­
creasingly important to obtain the
best information possible for ap­
praising marketing situations and
planning marketing policies. Also, as
marketing research techniques im­
prove and more statistical data ac­
cumulate, company officials are like­
ly to turn more often to marketing
research workers for information
and advice.
Earnings and Working

Starting salaries for m arket
research trainees averaged about $9,000 a year in 1972, according to the
limited data available. Persons hav­
ing masters degrees in business ad­
ministration and related fields usual­
ly started with annual salaries close
to $13,000.
Earnings were greater for experi­
enced marketing research workers
who held management positions of
high responsibility. Vice presidents
of marketing and directors of
marketing research often earned
between $25,000 and $35,000 a year.



M arketing research workers
usually work in modern, centrally
located offices. Some, especially
those employed by independent
research firms, do a considerable
amount of traveling in connection
with their work. Also, they may fre­
quently work under pressure and for
long hours to meet deadlines.
Sources off Additional

Additional information on careers
in marketing research is available
American Marketing Association, 230
North Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 166.088 through .268)
Personnel worker administers test to job applicant.

Nature of the Work

Attracting the best employees
available and matching them to jobs
they can do effectively are im­
portant for the successful operation
of business and government. Per­
sonnel workers interview, select, and
recommend applicants who have the
education and experience to fill va­
cancies. In addition to staffing, they
counsel employees, plan training,
develop wage and salary scales, and
investigate methods to improve per­
sonnel operations. Some jobs re­
quire only limited contact with peo­
ple; others involve frequent contact
with employees, union representa­
tives, job applicants, and other peo­
ple outside the organization.
Large organizations employ per­
sonnel workers at varying levels of
responsibility. Department heads
formulate policy, advise company
officials on personnel matters, and
administer the work of their staffs.

Supervisors and specialists in wage
administration, training, safety, and
job classification direct the work of
staff assistants and clerical em­
ployees. Small organizations employ
relatively few personnel workers;
sometimes one individual performs
personnel duties in addition to other
Personnel workers in government
agencies generally do the same kind
of work as those in large business
firm s. G overnm ent personnel
workers, however, spend consider­
ably more time classifying jobs, and
devising, administering, and scoring
competitive examinations given to
job applicants.
Places off Employment

In 1972, a b o u t 2 3 5 ,0 0 0
people—three-fourths of them
men—were personnel workers. Well
over half worked in private industry

including banks, telephone com­
panies, and department stores. Large
numbers also worked in Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies. A few were in business for
themselves, often as management
consultants or employee manage­
ment relations experts. In addition,
some taught college or university
courses in personnel administration,
industrial relations, and similar sub­
Most jobs for personnel workers
are located in the highly industrial­
ized sections of the country.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A college education is becoming
increasingly important for per­
sonnel work. Many employers in pri­
vate industry prefer applicants who
have majored in business or per­
sonnel administration; people inter­


ested in working for the government
should major in public administra­
tion, political science, or personnel
administration. However, those with
other majors also are eligible for
government positions.
For some positions, specialized
training may be necessary. Testing
and counseling often require a bache­
lor’s degree with a major or grad­
uate degree in psychology. An en­
gineering degree may be desirable for
work dealing with time studies or
safety standards, and training in in­
dustrial relations may be helpful for
work involving employee manage­
ment relations. An accounting back­
ground is useful for positions con­
cerned with wages, pensions, and
other employee benefits.
Although most employers seek
college graduates to work in per­
sonnel, some prefer workers who al­
ready have Firsthand knowledge of
operations, regardless of their edu­
cational preparation. Large numbers
now in personnel work who are not
college graduates entered the field
this way.
New workers usually enter formal
or on-the-job training programs to
learn how to classify jobs, interview
applicants, or perform other per­
sonnel functions. After training, they
are assigned to work in specific
Personnel workers should speak
and write effectively and be able to
work with people of all levels of in­
telligence and experience. They also
must be able to see both the em­
ployee’s and the employer’s points of
view. In addition, personnel workers
should be able to work as part of a
team. They need supervisory abili­
ties and must be able to accept re­
sponsibility. A personnel worker
should like detail, be persuasive, and
have a congenial personality.
After gaining experience, per­
sonnel workers usually can advance
within their own organization or

transfer to other employers. Those in
the middle ranks of a big organiza­
tion often transfer to a top job in a
smaller one. Employees with ex­
ceptional ability usually are pro­
moted to executive positions, such as
personnel director.
Employment Outlook

The number of personnel workers
is expected to expand very rapidly
through the mid-1980’s as employ­
ers recognize the need for trained
personnel to maintain good em­
ployee relations. In addition to new
jobs created by growth, many open­
ings will become available each year
to replace workers who die, retire, or
leave the occupation for other
reasons. People trained in psychol­
ogical testing and in handling workrelated problems will find particu­
larly good job prospects. Advance­
ment to personnel positions from
production, clerical, or subprofes­
sional jobs will be limited.
Earnings and Working


master’s degree and a high class
standing started at $11,600 a year.
Personnel workers having high levels
of administrative responsibility and
several years of experience earned
more than $16,500; some in charge
of personnel for major departments
in the Federal Government earned
more than $26,800 a year.
Employees in personnel offices
generally work 35 to 40 hours a
week. During a period of intensive
recruitment or emergency, they may
work much longer. As a rule, per­
sonnel workers are paid for holidays
and vacations, and share in the same
retirement plans and other benefits
available to all professional workers
in their organizations.
Sources off Additional

General information on careers in
personnel work may be obtained
American Society for Personnel Ad­
ministration, 19 Church St., Berea,
Ohio 44017.

G eneral inform ation about
government careers in personnel is
Beginning personnel workers in available from:
private industry started at $9,500 a
International Personnel Management
year in 1972, according to a Bureau
Association, 1313 East 60th St.,
of Labor Statistics survey in urban
Chicago, 111. 60637.
areas. Experienced workers earned
$15,000, about twice as much as the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Directors of personnel
earned between $14,300 and $24,700
a year; some top personnel and in­
dustrial relations executives in large
(D.O.T. 165.068)
corporations earned considerably
Nature of the Work
In the Federal Government, inex­
How successfully an organization
perienced graduates with bachelor’s
degrees earned $7,700 a year in early presents itself may affect its public
1973; those having exceptionally acceptance and influence. Public re­
good academic records or one year lations workers help an employer
of graduate work began at $9,500. build and maintain a beneficial
Inexperienced workers having a public image. To accomplish this,



they must understand changing atti­
tudes and opinions of customers, em­
ployees, and other groups.
Public relations departments are
found in many different organiza­
tions, so that workers must tailor
their programs to an employer’s par­
ticular needs. For example, a public
relations director for a small college
may devote most of his energies to
attracting additional students, while
one in a business firm may handle
the employer’s relationship with
stockholders, government agencies,
and community groups.
Public relations workers gather
and give out information that keeps
the public aware of their employer’s
projects and accomplishments. They
prepare and assemble information
and contact the people who may be

interested in publicizing their
material. Many newspaper items,
magazine articles, and pamphlets
giving information about a company
start at public relations workers’
Public relations workers also
arrange and conduct direct public
contact programs. Such work in­
cludes setting up speaking engage­
ments for officials and writing the
speeches they deliver. These workers
often serve as an employer’s repre­
sentative during community pro­
jects and occasionally show films at
school assemblies, plan conventions,
or manage fund-raising campaigns.
Public relations staffs in large
firms sometimes number 200 or
more. The director of public rela­
tions may develop overall plans and

policies with a company vice-presi­
dent or another executive having the
authority to make final decisions. In
addition, large public relations de­
partments employ writers, research
workers, and other specialists who
prepare material for the different
media or write reports sent to
Workers who handle publicity for
an individual or direct public rela­
tions for a university or small busi­
ness may do all aspects of the job.
They make contacts with outsiders,
do the necessary planning and re­
search, and prepare material for pub­
lication. These workers may com­
bine public relations duties with ad­
vertising or managerial work; some
are top-level officials and others have
lower level positions. The most skill­
ed public relations work of making
overall plans and maintaining con­
tacts usually is done by the depart­
ment director and highly experi­
enced staff members.

Places of Employment

Public relations worker checks material for press release.

More than 85,000 persons—nearly
one-third women—were public rela­
tions workers in 1972. In recent
years, an increasing number of
women have entered the field. Man­
ufacturing firms, stores, and trade
and professional associations hire the
majority of public relations workers.
Others work for consulting firms
furnishing public relations services to
clients for a fee.
Public relations workers are con­
centrated in large cities where press
services and other communications
facilities are readily available, and
where many businesses and trade
associations have th eir head ­
quarters. More than half of the
public relations consulting firms in
the United States are in New York
City, Los Angeles, Chicago, and
Washington, D.C.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A college education or journalism
experience generally is the best
preparation for public relations
work. Although most workers major
in public relations, journalism, or
English, some employers prefer a
background in science or some field
related to the firm’s business. Others,
especially small firms, want college
graduates with secretarial skills who
can combine clerical duties with
public relations. Still others want
college graduates with at least one
year’s experience working for the
news media. After a few years’ expe­
rience, these workers may advance to
full-time public relations jobs.
In 1972, over 80 colleges and more
than 30 graduate schools offered
degree programs or special curriculums in public relations. In addition,
nearly 200 colleges offered at least
one course in this field.
Courses in journalism, business
administration, psychology, and
public speaking help in preparing for
a public relations career. Extracur­
ricular activities, such as writing for
a school publication, give valuable
experience. Part-time or summer
jobs in selling or public relations pro­
vide training that can help overcome
competition for entry positions.
Creativity, initiative, and the abili­
ty to express thoughts clearly and
simply are important to the public
relations worker. Fresh ideas are so
vital in public relations that some ex­
perts spend all their time developing
new ideas with management, leaving
the job of carrying out programs to
A person choosing public rela­
tions work as a career needs an out­
going personality, self-confidence,
and an understanding of human psy­
chology. He should have the en­
thusiasm necessary to motivate peo­
ple. Public relations workers need a
highly developed sense of competi­

tiveness and the ability to function as
part of a team.
Some companies—particularly
those with large public relations
s ta f f s —have fo rm al tra in in g
programs for new workers. In other
firms, new employees learn by work­
ing under the guidance of experi­
enced staff members. Beginners
often maintain files of material
about company activities, scan news­
papers and magazines for ap­
propriate articles to clip, and as­
semble information for speeches and
pamphlets. After gaining experi­
ence, they work on progressively
more difficult assignments such as
writing press releases, speeches, and
articles for publication.
Promotion to supervisory jobs
may come as the worker shows he
can handle more difficult and
creative assignments. Some experi­
enced public relations workers start
their own consulting firms.
Employment Outlook

Employment of public relations
workers is expected to increase mod­
erately through the mid-1980’s. In
addition to new jobs created as ex­
panding organizations require more
public relations specialists, openings
will occur because of the need to re­
place workers who leave the field.
The demand for public relations
workers will grow as population in­
creases and the general level of busi­
ness activity rises. In recent years,
public relations spending has in­
creased, and many organizations
have developed new public relations
departments. This trend should con­
tinue in the years ahead.
Earnings and Working

Starting salaries for men begin­
ning public relations work averaged
$9,000 a year in 1972, according to


the limited data available; entry
salaries for newly hired women aver­
aged $6,900 a year. Many experi­
enced public relations workers earn­
ed from $ 15,000 to $25,000 and more
a year.
The salaries of experienced
workers generally are highest in
large organizations having extensive
public relations programs. Directors
of public relations for medium-sized
firms earned $15,000 to $30,000 a
year; those at large companies had
salaries in the $20,000 to $50,000
range. Salaries for some officials,
such as vice-presidents in charge of
public relations, can range from
$25,000 to $75,000 a year or more.
The median salary for directors of
public relations was $21,000 in 1972.
Many consulting firms employ
large staffs of experienced public re­
lations specialists and often pay
somewhat higher salaries than other
business organizations. In social wel­
fare agencies, nonprofit organiza­
tions and universities, salaries
generally are lower.
Although the workweek for public
relations staffs usually is 35 to 40
hours, overtime may be necessary to
prepare or deliver speeches, attend
meetings and community activities
or travel out of town. Occasionally,
the nature of their regular assign­
m ents





public relations workers to be on call
around the clock.
Sources of Additional

Further information about the
nature of public relations work is
available from:
Service Department, Public Relations
News, 127 East 80th St., New
York, N.Y. 10021.
Research Department, PR
Meriden. N.H . 03770.


For additional career information
and a list of schools offering degrees



and courses in the field write:
Career Information, Public Relations
Society of America, Inc., 845 Third
Ave., New York, N .Y . 10022.

(D.O.T. 162.158, 180.118,
191.118, and 252.358)
Nature of the Work

If materials, supplies, or equip­
ment are not on hand when needed
an organization’s work may be inter­
rupted or halted. Maintaining an
adequate supply of items a firm
needs to operate is the purchasing
agent’s job.
Purchasing agents and their assist­
ants obtain goods and services of the
required quality at the lowest possi­
ble cost, and see that adequate sup­
plies are kept on hand. Agents who
work for manufacturing firms buy
machinery, raw m aterials, and
product components; those working
for government agencies may pur­
chase office supplies, furniture, and
business machines. (“ Buyers” who
purchase merchandise for resale in
its original form are not included in
this statement.)
Purchasing agents buy when
stocks on hand reach a prede­
termined reorder point, or when a
department in the organization req­
uisitions items it needs. Because
agents usually can purchase from
many sources, their main job is se­
lecting the seller who offers the best
Purchasing agents use a variety of
means to select among suppliers.
They compare listings in catalogs
and trade journals and telephone
suppliers to get information. They
also meet with salesmen to examine
samples, watch demonstrations of
equipment, and discuss items to be

purchased. Sometimes agents invite
suppliers to bid on large orders; then
they select the lowest bidder among
those who meet requirements for
quality of the goods and delivery
It is important that purchasing
agents develop good business rela­
tions with their suppliers. This can
result in savings on purchases, favor­
able terms of payment, and quick de­
livery on rush orders or material in
short supply. They also work closely
with personnel in various depart­
ments of their own organization. For
example, they may discuss product
sp e c ific a tio n s with com pany
engineers or shipment problems with
workers in the shipping and receiv­
ing or traffic departments.
Once an order has been placed
with a supplier, the purchasing agent
makes periodic checks to insure that
it will be delivered on time. This is
necessary to prevent work flow inter­
ruptions due to lack of materials.

After an order has been received and
inspected, the purchasing agent
authorizes payment to the shipper.
Because of its importance, pur­
chasing usually is designated as a
separate responsibility within a firm.
In a large firm, the head of the pur­
chasing department directs the work
of a staff which includes assistant
purchasing agents and clerical
workers. Assistants may purchase
certain categories of goods, such as
raw materials or office supplies, or
specialize in buying specific
items—for example, steel, lumber,
cotton, or oil.
Places off Employment

About 180,000 persons—90 per­
cent of them men—were purchasing
agents in 1972. Nearly half worked
in manufacturing industries. Large
numbers also were employed by
government agencies, construction
companies, hospitals, and schools.

Purchasing agents examine sample equipment.



Following the initial training
Most purchasing agents work in
firms that have fewer than 10 em­ period, a trainee often becomes a
ployees in the purchasing depart­ junior buyer of standard catalog
ment. Some large firms, however, items. As he gains experience and
may have a hundred or more spe­ exercises good judgment in the
various aspects of purchasing, he
cialized buyers.
may be promoted to assistant pur­
chasing agent and then to purchas­
Training, Other Qualifications,
ing agent. Some agents advance to
and Advancement
positions as vice presidents of pur­
Many large em ployers seek chasing or procurement officers.
college graduates for beginning posi­
The purchasing agent must be able
tions as purchasing agents. Al­ to analyze numbers and technical
though companies that manufacture data in order to make buying de­
complex machinery or chemicals cisions and take responsibility for
may prefer a background in spending large amounts of company
engineering or science, other firms money. The job requires the ability
hire business administration or to work independently and a good
liberal arts majors for trainee jobs. memory for details. In addition, a
Courses in accounting, economics, purchasing agent must be tactful in
and purchasing are helpful. Many dealing with salesmen and able to
small firms prefer experience with motivate others.
the company, and select purchasing
workers from among their own per­
Employment Outlook
sonnel, whether or not they have a
A moderate increase in the
college education. For advancement
to high-level positions, however, a employment of purchasing agents is
college degree is becoming increas­ expected through the mid-1980’s. In
addition to job openings resulting
ingly important.
Regardless of previous training, from growth, many opportunities are
the beginning purchasing agent must expected annually because of the
spend considerable time learning need to replace personnel who re­
about his company’s operations and tire, transfer, or leave the field for
purchasing procedures. He may be other reasons.
assigned to the storekeeper’s section
Major factors underlying this
to learn about purchasing forms, in­ growth include the continued in­
ventory records, or storage facil­ crease in the size of business and
ities. Next he may work with an ex­ manufacturing firms and the de­
perienced buyer to learn about types velopment of new products and
of goods purchased, prices, and sources of supply such as foreign
markets. In particular, the ever-in­

creasing complexity and specializa­
tion of business functions and prod­
ucts will spur demand for purchas­
ing agents with knowledge in spe­
cific areas.
Earnings and Working

College graduates hired as pur­
chasing trainees in large firms earned
from $7,500 to $8,500 a year in 1972,
according to the limited data avail­
able. In the Federal Government, be­
ginning purchasing agents who had
college degrees earned $7,700 or $9,500 in early 1973, depending on
scholastic achievement and per­
formance on the Federal Service En­
trance Examination.
In 1972, experienced agents pur­
chasing standard items averaged
more than $10,500; buyers purchas­
ing complex or technical goods aver­
aged more than $15,000. Some top
purchasing executives earned over
$45,000 a year. Purchasing agents
earn about one and one-half times as
much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.

Sources of Additional

Further information on education
and training is available from;
National Association of Purchasing
Management, 11 Park Place, New
York, N .Y . 10007.


Workers in service occupations
police streets, serve food, put out
fires, clean homes and buildings, and
provide services to the American
people in many other ways. In 1972
approximately 11 million service
workers were employed in a wide
range of occupations that included
babysitters, policemen, cooks, hos­
pital attendants, theater ushers,
barbers, and buildings custodians.
The major groups of service workers
are discussed below:
Food service occupations. In 1972,
more than 3.0 million people, or
about 1 in 3 service employees, work­
ed in this group that includes cooks
and chefs, kitchen workers, waiters
and waitresses, and bartenders.
These workers are employed in
hotels, restau ran ts, hospitals,
schools, and plant cafeterias.

Cleaning and related occupations.
Over 2 million persons who clean
and provide other services in build­
ings made up the second largest
group of service workers in 1972.
This group includes building custo­
dians, chambermaids, and exter­
Private household service occupa­
tions. About 1.7 million people were
private household service workers in
1972. Most performed domestic
tasks that are familiar to all home­
m akers—preparing and serving
meals, making beds, cleaning and
doing laundry, and caring for chil­
dren. Private households also re­
quire the services of workers in other
occupations including gardeners,
chauffeurs, private secretaries, and
Protective and related service

Nearly 11 Million People W ork in
Service Occupations

workers safeguard lives and proper­
ty. More than 1 million people, or
about one-tenth of all service
workers, were in protective service
occupations in 1972. The majority
were policemen, guards, or firemen.
Most policemen and detectives are
government employees, but some
work for hotels, stores, and other
businesses. Guards and watchmen,
another large group of protective
service employees, work chiefly for
private companies to protect their
property and enforce company rules
and regulations. Firemen, also a sig­
nificant group of protective service
employees, work mainly for city
governments. The remaining protec­
tive service workers are sheriffs and
bailiffs, crossing watchmen and
bridge tenders, and marshals and
Over 3 million additional service
workers provide health care, groom­
ing and personal services, or work in
occupations related to entertain­
ment and leisure time activities.
About half this number worked in
health service occupations, includ­
ing hospital attendants and nurse
aides. Occupations concerned with
grooming and personal services, such
as barbers and cosmetologists,
provided employment for over 700,000 workers. More than 100,000
were in occupations related to enter­
tainment, including ski instructors
and ushers.
The sections that follow have de­
tailed statements for cleaning, food,
personal, private household, and pro­
tective service occupations. In­


formation on other service occupa­
tions is given in the industry state­
ments on government; transporta­
tion, communications, and public
utilities; service and miscellaneous;
and wholesale and retail trade; the
section on health occupations; and
the statements on Exterminators,
Meat Cutters, and Funeral Directors
elsewhere in the Handbook.

work as a porter, life guard, or win­
dow cleaner; and a pleasing manner
and appearance are especially im­
portant for the theater usher,
elevator operator, and checkroom
girl. Other service workers, such as
store and hotel detectives and travel
guides, need good judgment and
should be skillful in dealing with peo­
Some service workers eventually
go into business for themselves as
caterers or restaurant operators, for
Training, Other Qualifications,
example, or proprietors of barber or
and Advancement
beauty shops. Advanement from
Training and skill requirements service occupations that require little
differ greatly among the various training or skill may be difficult for
service occupations. FBI special people without a good basic educa­
agents, for example, must have a tion and some knowledge of the busi­
college degree. Barbers and beauty ness in which they work.
operators need specialized voca­
tional training. Still other occupa­
tions—general maid, waitress, and
Employment Trends
hotel bellman, for example—have no
and Outlook
specific educational requirements for
In the last decade, the number of
entry, although a high school
diploma is always an advantage. The workers in service occupations grew
Federal Government sponsors train­ at about the same rate—20 per­
ing for many service occupations un­ cent—as the labor force as a whole.
der provisions of the Manpower De­ Since the beginning of the 1970’s,
velopment and Training Act and however, service workers have in­
creased substantially faster than the
other legislation.
For many service occupations, total labor force. The number of
personality traits and special abili­ private household workers, how­
ties may be as important as formal ever, has continued the downtrend
schooling. Thus, physical strength begun in the 1960’s, despite a strong
and endurance are a necessity for demand for their services.


Employment in service occupa­
tions is expected to expand mod­
erately to the mid-1980’s as income
levels rise and leisure time increases.
As total employment rises, however,
various occupations within the ser­
vice group are likely to be af­
fected differently—some growing
very rapidly, others only moderately,
and a few decreasing in size.
Most of the future employment in­
crease is expected to be among
policemen and other protective serv­
ice workers; attendants in hospitals
and businesses that offer profes­
sional and personal services; beauty
operators; and cooks, waiters, and
others who prepare and serve meals
outside the home. Some of the fac­
tors responsible for employment
growth in these occupations are: the
greater need to protect life and
property as urbanization continues
and cities become more crowded; the
added medical care required by a
growing and aging population; and
the more frequent use of restau­
rants, beauty parlors, and other serv­
ices as income levels rise and an in­
creasing number of housewives take
jobs outside the home.
Although jobs for service workers
are found throughout the country,
firefighters, hospital attendants,
hotel service employees, and amuse­
ment and recreation attendants work
chiefly in larger towns and cities.

The need for cleaning workers
coincides with the continued growth
of urban centers. As more hospitals,
office buildings, hotels, and apart­
ment houses are built, large num­
bers of people are needed to clean
and maintain these structures.
Workers in cleaning and related
occupations usually gain their skills
on the job, but some learn through
specific training courses. Hotel
housekeepers and assistants, for ex­
ample, often take courses in house­
keeping procedures and interior
decorating. Other cleaning workers
participate in training offered by un­
ions and government agencies.
In addition to knowing the duties
of their jobs, cleaning employees
should have certain personal traits.
Exterminators, for example, must be
courteous, tactful, and neat because
they deal constantly with the public.
Building custodians should be able to
withstand the tiring and monoto­
nous routine of their jobs.
This section describes 3 cleaning
and related occupations: Building
Custodians, Exterminators, and
Hotel Housekeepers and Assistants.

(D.O.T. 187.168, 381.137 and
.887; 382.884, 891.138)

ap artm en t houses, and other
Custodial workers see that heat­
ing and ventilating equipment work
properly, keep the building clean and
orderly, and do other tasks that keep
a building in good condition. On a
typical day, a custodian may wet- or
dry-mop floors, vacuum carpets,
clean furniture and other equip­
ment, make minor repairs, and ex­
terminate insects and rodents. (See
the statement on Exterminators else­
where in the Handbook for more in­
formation on this occupation.)
Custodians use many different
tools and cleaning materials. For
one job, they may need only a simple
mop; for another, they may use an
electric polishing machine and a
special cleaning compound. Chem­
ical cleaners and power equipment
have reduced the effort needed for
cleaning jobs. Custodians must be
familiar with cleaning equipment
and materials designed for specific
tasks because improper use of a
chemical cleaner or machine may
harm surfaces.
Some custodians supervise the
cleaning and maintenance of an en­
tire building or section of a building,
and see that jobs, such as floor wax­
ing or furniture polishing, are done

the majority work in the more pop­
ulated areas of the country.
Many building custodians are
employed by hospitals, hotels, fac­
tories, and retail stores. Large num­
bers also work in apartment houses
and office buildings; some are
employed by contract firms that pro­
vide building maintenance service for
a fee.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

No special education is required
for most custodial jobs, but the
beginner should know simple
arithmetic and be able to follow in­
structions. High school shop courses
are helpful to the building service
worker who does various handyman
tasks, such as minor plumbing or
Most building custodians learn
their skills on the job. Usually,
beginners do routine cleaning. As

Places of Employment

In 1972, about 1.9 million peo­
ple—75 percent of them men—work­
Building custodians, sometimes ed as building custodians. Although
called janitors or cleaners, maintain jobs for custodians are found in cities
hotels, hospitals, office buildings, and towns throughout the Nation,
Nature of the Work

Building custodian replaces light




workers gain experience, they are
given more complicated duties.
In some cities, unions and govern­
ment agencies have programs to
teach necessary skills to building
custodians. Students learn about the
different kinds of surfaces in modern
buildings and ways to clean them.
They learn to operate and maintain
machines, such as wet and dry vacu­
ums, buffers, and polishers. They
also receive instructions concerning
minor electrical, plumbing, and
other repairs. Students learn to plan
their work, to deal with the public,
and to work independently without
supervision. A few training programs
offer remedial courses in reading,
writing, and arithmetic.
Advancement opportunities for
custodial workers may be limited
because the custodian often is the
only maintenance worker in a
building. Where there is a large
maintenance staff, however, custo­
dians can be promoted to super­
visory jobs. For advancement to
supervisor, a high school diploma is
helpful. Some custodians become
self-employed and maintain build­
ing for clients on a fee basis, after
becoming thoroughly familiar with
the work.
Building custodians usually find
work by answering newspaper adver­
tisements or by applying directly to a
company. They also get jobs through
State employment offices. For
government positions, an employ­
ment application must be filled out
and the civil service personnel head­
quarters contacted.
Employment Outlook

Employment of building custodi­
ans is expected to rise moderately
through the mid-1980’s as the con­
struction of apartm ent houses,
motels, and other buildings that use
custodial services expands. The
growth of the condominium as a

form of home ownership also will
contribute to the favorable outlook
for these workers. In this kind of
dwelling unit, custodians perform
much of the maintenance formerly
done by the homeowner.
In addition to the large number of
new jobs that will be created, thou­
sands of workers will be needed each
year to replace experienced custo­
dians who retire, die, or leave for
other reasons.
Earnings and Working

Earnings of building custodians
vary by industry and area of the
country; workers in large cities of the
North Central region earn the
highest wages. In 1971— custo­
dians in private industry had the
following average hourly earnings,
according to a Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics survey in urban areas:


A verage

M anufacturing.............................
Public U tilitie s..................................
Wholesale Trade .............................
Retail T ra d e......................................
F in ance...............................................

Custodial workers often suffer from
minor cuts, bruises, and burns caus­
ed by machines, hand tools, and
chemicals. An additional hazard of
custodial work is heavy lifting.
Building custodians stand up most
of the time at work. Many tasks,
such as dusting or sweeping, require
constant bending, stooping, and
stretching. Some must clean build­
ings after the regular staff has left for
the day. To provide 24-hour
maintenance, custodians may be
assigned shift work.
Sources of Additional

Information about opportunities
in custodial work and training under
p ro v isio n s of the M anpow er
Development and Training Act and
other legislation may be obtained
from the local office of your State
employment service.
General information on job oppor­
tunities and wage rates in local areas
may be obtained for this occupation
Service E m ployees International
Union, 900 17th St. NW „ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

In general, custodial workers earn
about three-fourths as much as the
average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
In the Federal Government,
(D.O.T. 389.781 and 389.884)
building custodial workers’ pay rates
are similar to those paid by private
Nature of the Work
industries in the same local areas.
R a ts , m ice, and com m on
Most building service workers
receive paid holidays and vacations, household insects, such as flies and
roaches, contaminate food and
and health insurance.
Although custodians usually work spread sickness; termites can eat
inside heated, well-lighted buildings, away houses. Eliminating these pests
sometimes they work outdoors from homes and businesses is the job
sweeping walkways, mowing lawns, of professional exterminators who
or shoveling snow. Those who main­ are classified either as pest-control
tain machinery and heating systems routem en or term ite trea ters.
may work in noise and grease. Although these Fields of work are


separate, many exterminators do
Routemen service restaurants,
hotels, food stores, and other cus­
tomers who have problems with rats,
mice, and common household in­
sects. Since these pests can be dif­
ficult to stamp out, many customers
have contracts for regular service.
Routemen serving such commercial
accounts may visit a dozen or more
locations in one day, and return to
most of them two weeks to a month
later. Service to homes may require
only one to three visits per year.
Routemen usually work alone.
Termite treaters, on the other
hand, may spend one or more days
servicing a single building. Addi­
tional visits are seldom necessary,
because a treatment usually keeps
termites away for many years.
Treaters frequently work in pairs or
are assisted by helpers.
On a typical day at the office, ex­
terminators load their trucks or cars
with chemical pesticides and other
supplies and feceive written instruc­
tions of services to be performed.
Most customers are billed, but some­
times they pay the exterminator who
keeps work records, including pesti­
cides used and amount of time spent
at each location, to be turned in to
the office.
To choose the safest and most
effective pesticide for each job,
routemen must know the habits and
hiding places of different insects and
rodents, what attracts them, and how
they get into buildings. Behind cabi­
nets, under sinks, and in cracks and
crevices, exterminators apply liquid
pesticides, which are usually pre­
mixed, through a portable sprayer.
Power bulbs are used in some areas.
Traps or poisonous baits are plac­
ed near areas where rats or mice
nest. Routemen must be careful not
to apply poisons around areas where
food is exposed or where there would
be a danger to children or pets. Most

of their work is fairly routine, but oc­
casionally they handle an unusual
job, such as removing bird nests from
an attic.
Routemen tell customers how to
correct conditions that attract pests.
For example, they may recommend
replacing damaged garbage con­
tainers, sealing open food containers,
and repairing cracks in walls. Pestcontrol salesmen usually contact
prospective customers.
Subterranean termites, the most
common wood-attacking insects, live
in underground colonies and build
mud “commuter tubes” to reach the
house above. To destroy a colony,
termite treaters put a poisonous
chemical barrier between it and the
wooden parts of the house. One way
is to treat the soil around the founda­
tion of the house using special tools
attached to a pressure pump. To


block all avenues of entry, however,
it is sometimes necessary to get at
the soil underneath masonry sur­
faces, such as basement floors and
brick steps. Treaters drill holes
through these surfaces, and pour or
pump the chemical into the holes.
They seal these holes with a cement­
like putty and replace any floor
coverings, such as tiles, which had to
be removed. Because termites cannot
cross treated areas, those in the
ground must find food or starve and
those trapped in the house die for
lack of moisture.
Treaters sometimes have to alter
buildings to prevent pests from
returning. For example, they may
raise foundations, replace wood, in­
stall concrete flash walls, or insulate
earth-to-earth contacts with con­
Helpers assist treaters by digging



around and underneath houses, help­
ing set-up and operating equipment,
and mixing cement, and doing
general clean-up work.
Some highly experienced treaters
inspect houses for termites, estimate
costs, and explain the proposed work
to customers. In most exterminating
firms, however, the manager, super­
visor, or pest control salesmen do
these jobs.
Places of Employment

More than half of the estimated
25,000 exterminators employed in
1972 were pest-control routemen; the
rest were termite treaters and com­
bination routemen-treaters. Very few
women held these jobs.
Most exterminators work for or
own firms that specialize in pest con­
trol. A small number work for
Federal, State, and local govern­
Jobs in this field can be found
throughout the country. Employ­
ment, however, is concentrated in
major metropolitan areas and large
towns. In towns too small to support
a firm that specializes in extermi­
nating, pest control may be a parttime activity for workers in other oc­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Beginning exterm inators are
trained by supervisors and experi­
enced workers. Many large firms
also provide a few weeks of training,
which includes classes on the char­
acteristics of termites or other pests,
the safe and effective use of pesti­
cides, customer relations, and the
preparation of work records. To aid
beginners, many employers provide
training manuals. Beginners gain
practical experience by helping pestcontrol routemen or termite treaters
on the job. Most can complete train­

ing for routine work in one of these
occupations after 2 to 3 months.
About 30 States require extermi­
nators to be licensed. In most States,
the license is only for registration,
but a growing number of these States
require applicants to pass a written
Employers prefer trainees who are
high school graduates, have safe
driving records, and are in good
health. Many firms require their
employees to be bonded; applicants
for these jobs must have a record of
honesty and respect for the law.
Because routemen frequently deal
with customers, employers look for
applicants who are courteous, tact­
ful, and well-groomed. Termite
treaters need manual dexterity and
mechanical ability. Some firms give
aptitude tests to determine an
applicant’s suitability for the work.
High school courses in chemistry
and business arithmetic provide a
helpful background for extermi­
nators. Students interested in becom­
ing routemen also may benefit from
courses in salesmanship. Those inter­
ested in termite treatment work can
gain valuable experience by taking
courses in carpentry.
Experienced workers with ability
can advance to higher-paying posi­
tions, such as service manager or
pest-control salesman. Those who
acquire the necessary capital can
open their own businesses.
The skills learned by extermi­
nators also can be transferred to
other occupations. Much of the pestcontrol routeman’s work is similar to
that of routemen who sell and deliver
products to retail stores. With addi­
tional training, termite treaters can
get jobs as carpenters.

perienced workers who retire or die
or transfer to other occupations also
will create many job openings.
Because pests reproduce rapidly
and tend to develop immunity to
pesticides, their control is a neverending problem. Population growth
an d f u r th e r c o n g e s tio n o f
metropolitan areas will add to the
need for more exterminators. The
deterioration of older buildings also
is increasing the need for these
workers, since buildings become
more prone to infestation as they
Earnings and Working

Based on the limited information
available, starting pay for inexperi­
enced trainees ranged from $2 to
$2.25 an hour in 1972. Earnings of
experienced exterminators ranged
from $2.50 to $4 an hour.
Some routemen are paid an hourly
rate or weekly salary. Others receive
a commission based upon charges to
customers. Nearly all term ite
treaters are paid an hourly rate or
weekly salary.
On the average, exterminators
work 40 to 44 hours a week. During
spring and summer, however, hours
may be longer because pests are
more prevalent. Most work is done
during the day. Routemen, however,
occasionally work nights because
many restaurants and stores do not
want them to work while customers
are present.
Most firms provide holiday and
vacation pay. Typically, employees
receive 1 week’s paid vacation after 1
year of service, 2 weeks after 2 years,
and 3 weeks after 15 years. Many
firms also provide paid sick leave,
furnish laundered uniforms free of
Employment Outlook
charge, and contribute to life and
Employment of exterminators is health insurance.
Exterminators work both indoors
expected to grow rapidly through the
mid-1980’s. The need to replace ex­ and outdoors in all kinds of weather.



They frequently lift and carry equip­
ment and materials, but most items
weigh less than 50 pounds. Routemen also do a great deal of walking.
Termite treaters occasionally must
crawl under buildings and work in
dirty, cramped spaces. Workers in
these occupations are subject to
some hazards. Although most pesti­
cides are not harmful to humans,
some can cause injury if they are in­
haled or left on the skin. Such in­
juries, however, are avoided if safety
precautions are followed. Because
they spend a lot of time driving,
routemen have a relatively high ex­
posure to traffic hazards. Termite
treaters risk injury from power tools
and sharp or rough materials in
Exterminators are on their own to
Executive housekeeper demonstrates the proper way to make a bed.
a great extent. They do not work un­
der strict supervision and, within
limits, may decide how they will han­ also hire, train, and supervise maids, keepers who supervise the work on
dle a job.
linen and laundry workers, house­ one or more floors. Large hotels also
men, seamstresses, and repairmen. may employ assistant executive
In addition, they keep employee housekeepers. More than 16,000 per­
Sources of Additional
records and perform other duties sons, most of them women, worked
which vary by size and type of hotel. as hotel housekeepers in 1972.
Further information on oppor­
Housekeepers employed in mid­
tunities in this Field may be available dle-size and small hotels not only
Training, Other Qualifications,
from local exterminating companies supervise the cleaning staffs but also
and Advancement
and the local office of the State may do some of their work. In large
employment service. General infor­ hotels and smaller luxury hotels, the
Although no specific educational
mation about the work can be ob­ duties of executive or head house­ requirements exist for housekeep­
tained from the National Pest Con­ keepers are primarily administra­ ers, most employers prefer appli­
trol Association, Inc., 250 W. Jersey tive. Besides supervising a staff that cants having at least a high school
St., Elizabeth, N.J. 07207.
may number in the hundreds, they diploma. Experience also is helpful
prepare the budget for the house­ in getting a job.
Training in hotel administration,
keeping department; submit reports
to the manager on the condition of including courses in housekeeping, is
rooms, needed repairs, and sug­ available at several colleges and
gested improvements; and purchase universities.
Some offer summer
supplies and new furnishings. Some courses or evening classes; many re­
executive housekeepers employed by ceive guidance and approval from
(D.O.T. 321.138)
large hotel chains may have special the National Executive House­
assignments such as reorganizing keepers Association. In addition, the
Nature of the Work
housekeeping procedures in an estab­ American Hotel and Motel Associ­
Hotel housekeepers are respon­ lished hotel or setting up the house­ ation offers courses for classroom
and individual home study. The most
sible for keeping hotels or motels keeping department in a new hotel.
In many hotels, executive house­ helpful courses deal with housekeep­
clean and attractive. They account
for furnishings and supplies. They keepers are assisted by floor house­ ing; personnel management; budget


preparation; interior decoration; and
the purchase, use, and care of differ­
ent types of equipment and fabrics.
Executive housekeepers, should be
good at planning and organizing
work. In addition, they must get
along well with people, especially
those they supervise. Housekeepers
also should be able to work inde­
pendently and analyze numbers and
written data.
Assistant housekeepers may be
promoted to executive housekeepers
after several years of experience. Op­
portunities are limited, however, be­


cause only one executive house­
keeper job is available in any hotel or

Employment Outlook

Several hundred openings for
hotel housekeepers and their assist­
ants are expected each year through
the mid-1980’s. Although most open­
ings will be to replace workers who
die, retire, or transfer to other jobs,
some new positions will become
available in newly built hotels and

the growing number of luxury
Because established hotels usually
fill vacancies by promotions from
within (assistant housekeepers to ex­
ecutive housekeepers) outsiders will
find their best job opportunities in
newly built m otels or hotels.
Competition is likely to be keen.
See the Hotel statement else­
where in the Handbook for informa­
tion on Earnings and Working Con­
ditions, Sources of Additional Infor­
mation, and for additional informa­
tion on Employment Outlook.

Food service workers make up one
of the largest and fastest-growing oc­
cupational groups in the Nation’s
labor force. In 1972 more than 3 mil­
lion of these workers were em­
ployed, mostly in restaurants, hotels,
factory and school cafeterias, and
catering Firms. Job opportunities can
be found almost everywhere, be­
cause even very small communities
have roadside diners and school
There are no specific educational
requirements for most food service
work and skills usually can be learn­
ed on the job. Young persons who
have less than a high school educa­
tion and no previous experience often
can get jobs as kitchen workers, dish­
washers, or fountain workers. Also,
many restaurants hire inexperienced
persons as waiters and waitresses,
cooks and bartenders. Experience is
needed, however, to get one of these
jobs in large restaurants and cater­
ing firms. A head cook or chef must
have special training or m any years

serve drinks, and collect payment
from customers.
Bartenders working in large
restaurants or hotels usually have
barboys or bartender helpers
(D.O.T. 312.887) to help them with
their duties. These workers keep the
bar supplied with liquor, mixes, and
ice; stock refrigerators with wines
training, outlook, and earnings of and beer; and replace empty beer
waiters and waitresses, cooks and kegs with full ones. They also keep
chefs, and bartenders are presented the bar area clean, polish fixtures,
and remove empty bottles and trash.
in the statements that follow.
Places of Employment

(D.O.T. 312.878)
Nature of the Work

Cocktails range from the ordi­
nary to the exotic and bartenders
make these concoctions by combin­
ing different kinds of liquor with
mixes such as soda water, bitters,
fruit juices, and cream. There are
dozens of combinations, and each
one can be made in several ways. Be­
cause most people have a preference
for a particular brand of liquor or a
certain cocktail recipe, bartenders
are often asked to mix drinks to suit
a custom er’s taste.

of experience.
Besides cocktails, bartenders also
Many vocational schools, both serve wine, draft or bottled beer, and
public and private, offer courses in a wide variety of nonalcoholic
cooking, catering, and bartending.
Employment of food service work­
Bartenders usually are respon­
ers is expected to grow moderately sible for ordering and maintaining an
through the mid-1980’s. The demand inventory of liquor, mixes, and other
for these workers will increase as bar supplies. They also arrange
new restaurants, cafeterias, and bars bottles and glasses to form a dis­
open in response to population play, wash glassware, and clean the
growth and increased spending for bar.
food and beverages outside the
In some establishments, bar­
home. Higher average incomes and tenders work at service bars and
more leisure time will allow people to simply make drinks for waiters and
eat out more often.
waitresses to serve. In others, they
Detailed discussions of the work, work at public bars and take orders,

About 200,000 bartenders worked
full-time in 1972, nearly one-fourth
of them women. Most bartenders
work in restaurants and bars, but
many are also employed by hotels,
entertainment and recreation places,
and private clubs. Roughly one-third
are self-employed.
In addition, several thousand peo­
ple tend bar part time. They usually
have full-time jobs in other occupa­
tions or attend college. Part-time
workers often serve at banquets and
private parties; usually they get these
jobs through a union clearing house.
Most bartenders work in the urban
population centers of New York,
California, and other large States,
but many are employed in small
communities also. Vacation resorts
offer seasonal employment, and
some bartenders alternate between
summer and winter resorts rather
than remain in one area the entire
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although preparing drinks at
home can be good practice, it does
not qualify a person to be a bar­
tender. Besides knowing a variety of
cocktail recipes, bartenders must
know how to stock a bar properly
and also must be aware of State and



assuring that they are free from con­
tagious diseases. In some instances,
they must be bonded.
Small restaurants, neighborhood
bars, and resorts usually offer a
beginner the best entry oppor­
tunities. Once he has gained experi­
ence, a bartender may wish to work
in a large restaurant or cocktail
lounge where he can probably earn
more, and may advance to head bar­
tender, wine steward, or beverage
manager. Some bartenders open
their own business.
Employment Outlook

local laws concerning the sale of
alcoholic beverages. Most bar­
tenders learn their trade on the job.
Young persons who wish to be­
come bartenders can get good experi­
ence by working as barboys, busboys, or busgirls. They can watch the
bartender at work, and when he has
time to give instructions they can
learn how to mix drinks and do other
tasks. Working as a waiter or wait­
ress also is good training.
Some private schools offer short
courses in bartending that include in­
structions on State and local laws
and regulations, cocktail recipes, at­
tire and conduct, and stocking a bar.

Employment of bartenders is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to those caused by employment
growth, several thousand job open­
ings will arise annually from the need
to replace experienced bartenders
who retire, die, or transfer to other
The demand for bartenders will in­
crease as new restaurants, hotels,
and bars open in response to popu­
lation growth and increased spend­
ing for food and beverages outside
the home. H igher average incom es
and more leisure time will allow peo­
ple to go out for dinner or cocktails
more often, and to take more vaca­
Some of these schools help their tions. Also, as more women enter the
labor force, families often find din­
graduates find jobs.
Bartenders should have pleasant ing out a welcome convenience.
personalities because they deal with These factors will contribute to the
the public. They also need physical growing demand for bartenders.
stamina, since they work on their
feet and may have to lift heavy kegs
Earnings and Working
and cases. Bartenders must be able
to measure and pour ingredients
quickly and accurately to turn out
Hourly earnings of bartenders
well-made drinks when serving large ranged from $2.50 to $4.63 in 1972,
according to limited data from union
Generally, bartenders must be at contracts in the restaurant industry.
least 21 years of age, although some Besides wages, bartenders at public
employers prefer those who are 25 or bars often receive tips that increase
older. Some States require bar­ their earnings. Since bartenders at
tenders to have health certificates service bars do not receive tips, they



are often paid higher wages to com­
Bartenders usually receive free
meals at work and may be furnished
bar jackets or complete uniforms.
Paid holidays and vacations are cus­
tomary, as are various types of em­
ployee benefits such as health and
accident insurance and pension
Many bartenders work more than
40 hours a week, but there is a trend
toward working fewer hours. Nightand weekend-work and split shifts
are common. For many bartenders,
however, the opportunity to social­
ize with customers and the possi­
bility of someday managing or own­
ing a bar or restaurant more than
offset these disadvantages. For
others, the opportunity to get parttime work is important.

and hotels where they work because
of their skill in creating new dishes
and improving familiar ones.
A cook’s work depends partly on
the type and size of the estab­
lishment in which he works. Prepar­
ing Chinese dishes, for example, is
different from charcoaling steaks.
Many small restaurants offer a few
short order dishes plus pies and other
baked goods bought from a bakery.
In these places, one cook prepares
all the food with the help of a short
order cook and one or two kitchen
Large eating places usually have
more varied menus and prepare
more of the food they serve. Kitchen
staffs often include several cooks,
sometimes called assistant cooks,
and many kitchen helpers. Each
cook usually has a special assign­
ment and often a special job
title—pastry cook, fry cook, roast
Sources of Additional
cook, vegetable cook, or sauce cook,
for example. The head cook or chef
Information about job oppor­ coordinates the work of the kitchen
tunities may be obtained from the staff, and often takes direct charge of
Hotel and Restaurant Employees certain kinds of food preparation. He
and Bartenders International Union, decides on the size of servings, some­
which is the principal union organ­ times plans menus, and buys food
izing bartenders, and from the State supplies. He also sees that every item
employment service.
on the menu looks attractive and
tastes good.
Places of Employment

(D.O.T. 313.131 through .887;
314.381 through
.878; and 315.131 through .381)
Nature of the Work

A reputation for serving fine food
is an asset to any restaurant, whether
it prides itself in “home cooking” or
exotic foreign cuisine. Cooks and
chefs are largely responsible for the
reputation a restaurant acquires.
Many chefs have earned fame for
both themselves and the restaurants

About 870,000 cooks and chefs
were employed in 1972. Most work­
ed in restaurants, but many worked
in schools, colleges, hotels and hos­
pitals. Government agencies, manu­
facturing plants, private clubs, and
many other kinds of establishments
also employed cooks and chefs.
Three out of 5 of these workers are
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most cooks acquire their skills on

the job while employed as kitchen
helpers. Less frequently, they are
trained as apprentices under trade
union contracts or in the training
programs some large hotels and
restaurants run for new employees.
Inexperienced workers usually can
qualify as assistant or fry cooks after
several months of on-the-job train­
ing, but acquiring all-round skills
necessary for advancement to head
cook or chef in a fine restaurant
often takes several years.
Young people who have had
courses in restaurant cooking will
have an advantage when looking for
jobs in large restaurants and hotels
because hiring standards are often
high in these establishments. Many
vocational programs—in both public
and private high schools—offer this
kind of training to students. Other
courses, ranging from a few months
to 2 years or more, and open in some
cases only to high school graduates,
are given under the guidance of
restau ra n t associations, hotel
management groups, trade unions,
and technical schools and colleges.
The Armed Forces are also a good
source of training and experience in
food service work. Programs to train
unemployed and underemployed
workers for jobs as cooks were oper­
ating in several cities in 1972 under
the Manpower Development and
Training Act.
Although curricula may vary, a
student usually spends most of his
time learning to prepare food
through actual practice in wellequipped kitchens. The student
learns to bake, broil, and otherwise
prepare food, and to use and care for
kitchen equipment. He also may be
taught to select and store food, use
leftovers, determine the size of por­
tions, plan menus, and buy food sup­
plies in quantity. Students also learn
hotel and restaurant sanitation and
public health rules for handling food.
Many school districts provide on-



ing places where food preparation is
fairly simple will provide the great­
est number of starting jobs for cooks.
Beginners who have had training in
restaurant cooking, however, will be
Employment Outlook
able to find jobs in hotels and restau­
Employment of cooks and chefs is rants where foods are prepared more
expected to increase moderately elaborately.
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to employment growth, thousands of
Earnings and Working
job openings will arise annually from
the need to replace experienced
workers who retire, die, or transfer
Limited wage data from union
to other occupations.
contracts in large metropolitan areas
The demand for cooks and chefs indicate that in 1972 hourly pay rates
will increase as population grows and ranged from $2.83 to $5.22 for chefs,
people spend more money on eating $2.46 to $4.63 for cooks of various
away from home. Higher average in­ types, and $1.89 to $4.36 for assist­
comes and more leisure time wil al­ ant cooks. Most cooks and chefs,
low people to go out for dinner more however, are not covered by union
often, and to take more vacations. contracts.
Also, as more women enter the labor
Wages of cooks and chefs vary de­
force, families often find dining out a pending on the part of the country
welcome convenience. These factors and the type of establishment in
will contribute to the growing de­ which they work. Wages generally
mand for cooks and chefs.
are higher in the West and in large,
Small restaurants and other eat­ well known restaurants and hotels.
Cooks and chefs in famous restau­
rants earn much more than the mini­
mum rates and several chefs with
national reputations earn more than
$30,000 a year.
In addition to wages, restaurant
cooks usually receive uniforms and
at least one free meal a day. Paid
vacations and holidays are common,
and various types of health insur­
ance programs also are provided.
Hours in restaurants include late eve­
ning, holiday, and weekend work,
and range from 40 to 48 hours a
week. Cooks employed in public and
private schools work regular school
hours during the school year only,
usually for 9 months.
Many kitchens are air-condi­
tioned and have convenient work
areas and modern equipment.
Others, particularly in older or
smaller eating places, are often not
as well equipped and working condi­
instructs trainees.
tions may be less desirable. In kitch­

the-job training for cafeteria work­
ers who wish to become cooks. In
addition, they may conduct work­
shops during the summer, and select
school cooks from employees who
have participated.
Young people who want to be­
come cooks or chefs should like to
work with people in a team relation­
ship and be able to work under pres­
sure during busy periods. Cleanli­
ness and a keen sense of taste and
smell are also important qualifi­
cations. A cook or chef in a super­
visory position not only must be an
expert cook, but also must be able to
organize and direct kitchen oper­
ations effectively. Most States re­
quire health certificates, indicating
that cooks and chefs are free from
contagious diseases.
Many cooks acquire higher pay­
ing positions and new cooking skills
by moving from restaurant to restau­
rant. Some eventually go into busi­
ness as caterers or restaurant owners;
others may become instructors in


vocational programs in high schools,
junior and community colleges, and
other institutions.



ens of all kinds, however, cooks must
stand most of the time, lift heavy
pots and kettles, and work near hot
ovens and ranges.
The principal union organizing
cooks and chefs is the Hotel &
Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union.
Sources of Additional

Information about job oppor­
tunities may be obtained from local
employers, locals of the Hotel &
Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union, and
local offices of the State employ­
ment service. The State employ­
ment service also may have informa­
tion about the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act and other
training programs.
General information about restau­
rant cooks and chefs is available
from the:
Culinary Institute of America, P.O.
Box 53, Hyde Park, N.Y. 12538.
E d u ca tio n a l D ir ec to r, N a tio n a l
Institute for the Food Service In­
dustry, 120 South Riverside Plaza,
Chicago, 111. 60606.
The Educational Institute, American
Hotel and Motel Association, 77
Kellogg Center, Michigan State
University, East Lansing, Mich.
The Council on Hotel, Restaurant and
Institutional Education, 1522 K St.
NW ., Washington, D.C. 20005.


mary duty is to divide animal car­
casses into steaks, roasts, chops, and
other serving-sized portions. They
also prepare meat products such as
sausage and corned beef. Meat cut­
ters who work in retail food stores
may set up counter displays and wait
on customers.
In cutting a beef carcass, meat­
cutters divide it into halves with a
band saw, and then into quarters by
cutting each half between the ribs
with a knife and sawing through the
backbone. A special meat cutting
saw is used to divide the quarters into
primal cuts. Primal cuts yield only
one cut of meat such as T-bone
steaks or rib roasts. Meatcutters
divide the primal cut into pieces
small enough for an average serving.
Meatcutters use a butcher knife or
sheer to divide boneless cuts and a
band saw or cleaver to divide cuts
containing bones. Any bone chips
left on the meat are scraped off with
a knife or brushed off by a machine.
Meatcutters grind trimmings into
Places of Employment

The estimated 200,000 meat­
cutters employed in 1972 were
located in almost every city and town
in the Nation. Only a small propor­
tion were women. Most meatcutters
worked in retail food stores. About 1
in 10 worked in wholesale food out­
lets; a few worked in restaurants,
hotels, hospitals, and other in­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Meatcutters acquire their skills on
the job either through apprentice­
ship programs or informally. Gener­
Nature of the Work
ally, trainees begin by doing odd
Meatcutters prepare meat, fish, jobs, such as removing bone chips
and poultry for sale in supermarkets from retail cuts. Under the guidance
or wholesale food outlets. Their pri­ of skilled meatcutters, they learn the
(D.O.T. 316.781, 316.884)

identity of various cuts and grades of
meats and the proper use of tools and
equipment. After demonstrating skill
with tools, they learn first to divide
primal cuts into individual portions
and then to divide quarters into
primal cuts.
In addition to learning to cut
meat, beginning meatcutters may
learn to cut and prepare fish and
poultry, roll and tie roasts, grind
hamburger, prepare sausage, and
cure and corn meat. During the later
stages of training, they may learn
marketing operations such as inven­
tory control, meat buying and grad­
ing, and recordkeeping.
Meatcutters who learn the trade
through apprenticeship generally
complete 2 to 3 years of supervised
on-the-job training which may be
supplemented by some classroom
work. At the end of the training peri­
od apprentices are given a meat­
cutting test which is observed by
their employer. A union member is
also present in union shops. If they
pass the test, apprentices become ful­
ly qualified journeyman m eat­
cutters. If they fail, apprentices can



take the test again at a later time. In
many areas of the country, appren­
tices may become journeymen in less
than the usual training time if they
can pass the meat-cutting test.
The most common method of
entering this occupation is to be
hired and trained by an individual re­
tailer or wholesaler. A few meatcutters have gained entry by attend­
ing vocational schools that offer
courses in meat-cutting. Unem­
ployed and underemployed workers
seeking entry jobs as meatcutters are
trained in many cities under the
Manpower Development and Train­
ing Act.
Employers prefer applicants who
have a high school diploma and the
potential to develop into meat
department managers. High school
or vocational school courses in busi­
ness arithmetic are helpful to young
people interested in becoming meatcutters, since they may be called on
to weigh and price meats and to
make change. A pleasant personal­
ity, a neat appearance, an the ability
to communicate clearly also are im­
portant qualifications because meatcutters may wait on customers.
Manual dexterity, good depth
perception, color discrimination, and
good eye-hand coordination are im­
portant in cutting meat. Better than
average strength is necessary since
meatcutters work standing up and
often lift heavy loads. In some com­
munities, a health certificate may be
required for employment.
Meatcutters may progress from
journeymen to first cutter and then
to a supervisory job, such as man­
ager of the meat department in a
supermarket. Some become meat
buyers. Some experienced cutters
open their own meat markets or re­
tail food stores.
Employment Outlook

Little or no increase in the

employment of meatcutters is ex­ grams. Information on training and
pected through the mid-1980’s. other aspects of the trade also may
Nevertheless, thousands of entry jobs be obtained from:
will be available as experienced
American Meat Institute, 59 East Van
meatcutters retire, die, or transfer to
Buren St., Chicago, 111. 60605.
other occupations.
A m algam ated M eat C utters and
Central cutting, the practice of
B utcher W orkm en o f N o rth
having one location at which meat
America, 2800 North Sheridan
Rd„ Chicago, 111. 60657.
for several stores is cut and wrap­
ped, is expected to limit employ­
ment growth. Central cutting per­
mits meatcutters to specialize in both
a type of meat and a type of cut, thus
increasing their efficiency. This
specialization also reduces the
amount of training necessary to be­
(D.O.T. 311.138 through .878)
come a cutter.
Earnings and Working

According to union contracts in
six large cities, hourly earnings of
most journeyman meatcutters rang­
ed from $4.46 to $5.51 in 1972. Some
meatcutters earned $6.18 an hour.
Beginning apprentices usually re­
ceive between 60 and 70 percent of
the journeymen wage and generally
receive increases every 6 to 8 months
until they reach the journeyman
level. Most meatcutters are mem­
bers of the Amalgamated Meat Cut­
ters and Butcher Workmen of North
Meatcutters generally work in
cold rooms designed to prevent meat
from spoiling. They must be careful
when working with sharp tools, espe­
cially those that are powered.
Sources of Additional

Nature of the Work

Waiters and waitresses take cus­
tomers’ orders, serve food and bever­
ages, make out checks, and some­
times take payments. In diners,
coffee shops, and other small restau­
rants they provide fast, efficient serv­
ice. In other restaurants, waiters and
waitresses serve food at a more lei­
surely pace and offer more personal
service to their customers. For exam­
ple, they may suggest wines and ex­
plain the preparation of items on the
Waiters and waitresses may have
duties other than waiting on tables.
They set up and clear tables and
carry dirty dishes to the kitchen. In
very small restaurants they may
combine waiting on tables with coun­
ter service, preparing sandwiches, or
cashiering. In large restaurants and
in places where meal service is for­
mal, waiters and waitresses are re­
lieved of most additional duties. Busboys and busgirls often set up tables,
fill water glasses, and do routine

Further information about work
opportunities can be obtained from
local employers or local offices of the
State employment service. The State
employment service also may have
Places of Employment
information about training oppor­
tunities under the M anpower
About 1,120,000 waiters and wait­
Development and Training Act, ap­ resses were employed in 1972. Many
prenticeship, and other training pro­ were part-time workers. More than



Employment of waiters and wait­
resses is expected to increase moder­
ately through the mid-1980’s. Most
job openings, however, will result
from the need to replace experi­
enced workers who retire, die, or
leave their jobs.
The demand for waiters and wait­
resses will increase as new eating and
drinking places open in response to
population growth and increased
spending for food and beverages out­
side the home. Higher average in­
comes and more leisure time will en­
courage people to go out for dinner
or cocktails more often and to take
more vacations. Also, as more
women enter the labor force fam­
ilies often find dining out a welcome
Eating places that employ waiters
and waitresses, however, will share
only part of the additional business.
Some of it will be handled by food
and beverage vending machines, and
some will go to drug stores, variety
stores, carry outs, and cafeterias
where service is provided by counter
and fountain workers instead of
waiters and waitresses.
Waiters and waitresses seeking
jobs in formal restaurants will find
competition keen for the jobs that
become available. Beginners will find
their best opportunities for employ­
ment in the thousands of restaurants
where food service is less elaborate.

places in several large cities indicate
that straight-time hourly rates for
waiters and waitresses (excluding
tips) ranged from $1.11 to $2.57 in
1972. For many waiters and wait­
resses, tips are greater than hourly
wages. Tips vary, however, depend­
ing on the skill of the waiter or wait­
ress, tipping customs of the com­
munity, and the type of restaurant.
Since tips generally average between
10 and 20 percent of guests’ checks,
those who work in more expensive
restaurants have the highest ear­
Most waiters and waitresses re­
ceive meals at work and many are
furnished with uniforms. Paid vaca­
tions are customary and various
types of health insurance and pen­
sion plans also may be available.
Waiters and waitresses often work
split shifts—that is, they work for
several hours during the middle of
the day, take a few hours off in the
afternoon, and then return to their
jobs for the evening hours. They also
may work on holidays and week­
ends. Large restaurants and dining
rooms usually have convenient work­
ing areas and are often air-condi­
tioned. Working conditions in other
eating places—particularly small
ones—may be less desirable. In all
restaurants, waiters and waitresses
stand most of the time and often
have to carry heavy trays of food.
During lunch and dinner hours they
may have to rush to serve several
tables at once. Workers also must be
careful not to slip or fall, or burn
themselves when handling hot food
and beverages.
The principal union organizing
waiters and waitresses is the Hotel
and Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union.

Earnings and Working

Sources of Additional

larger restaurant where earnings and
prospects for advancement are
better. Advancement can be to
cashier jobs or to supervisory work
as a maitre d \ headwaiter, or
hostess. Some supervisory workers
advance to managerial positions.
Employment Outlook

80 percent of all waiters and wait­
resses work in restaurants, but many
work in hotels, schools, and colleges.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most employers prefer to hire
waiters and waitresses who have had
at least 2 or 3 years of high school.
Although most waiters and wait­
resses pick up their skills on the job,
some public and private schools and
restaurant associations offer special
training for waiters and waitresses.
Unemployed and underemployed
workers in several cities were trained
for jobs as waiters and waitresses in
1972 under provisions of the Man­
power Development and Training
A pleasant appearance, an even
disposition, and stamina are impor­
tant to waiters and waitresses. They
should also be good at arithmetic
and, in a few restaurants, knowledge
of a foreign language is helpful. State
laws often require waiters and wait­
resses to obtain health certificates
showing that they are free of con­
tagious diseases.
In most small eating places oppor­
tunities for promotion are limited.
After gaining experience, however, a
waiter or waitress may transfer to a

Limited data from union con­
tracts that cover eating and drinking

Information about job oppor­
tunities may be obtained from local


employers, locals of the union previ­
ously mentioned, and local offices of
the State employment service. The
State employment service also may
be a source of information about the

Manpower Development and Train­
ing Act and other programs that pro­
vide training opportunities. General
information on waiter and waitress
jobs is available from:

National Institute for the Foodservice
Industry, 120 South Riverside
Plaza, Chicago, 111. 60606.
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and
Institutional Education, 1522 K St.
NW ., Washington, D.C. 20005.

Personal service workers care for
individuals and their belongings by
performing services, including clean­
ing and pressing clothes, cutting hair,
carrying baggage, and arranging
T raining requirem ents vary
among personal service jobs and may
require state licensing. To be eligible
for licensing exams, workers usually
must complete an apprenticeship
that may be preceded by specialized
training. The length of training var­
ies by State, but can last up to 4
years; an apprenticeship usually
takes 1 to 2 years. Other jobs, such
as bellman, have no specialized train­
Personal service workers should be
neat, tactful, and able to get along
with people. Many jobs demand
physical stamina for lifting, carry­
ing objects, and standing for long
periods. Many workers wear uni­
forms supplied by the employer, and
some must purchase their own equip­
Personal service workers may re­
ceive salaries, commissions, or both.
Many also receive tips. Part-time
employment generally is good be­
cause extra workers often are hired
during peak business periods.
This section describes 4 personal
service occupations: B arbers,
Cosmetologists, Funeral Directors
and Embalmers, and Bellmen and
Bell Captains.

(D.O.T. 330.371)
Nature of the Work

Although most men go to a barber
for just a haircut, other services such
as hairstyling and coloring are
becoming increasingly popular. Spe­
cially trained barbers called “hair­
stylists,” are employed in styling
salons and some barber shops. They
cut and style hair to suit each cus­
tomer and may color or straighten
hair and fit hair pieces. All barbers
offer hair and scalp treatments,
shaves, facial massages and sham­
As part of their responsibilities,
barbers keep their scissors, razors,
and other instruments sterilized and
in good condition. They clean their
work areas and may sweep the shop,
as well. Those who own or manage a
shop have additional responsibilities
such as ordering supplies, paying
bills, keeping records, and hiring

Places of Employment

Most of the 160,000 barbers in
1972 worked in barber shops. More
than half operated their own busi­
nesses. A small number of barbers
worked for government agencies and
All cities and towns have barber­
shops. Employment, however, is con­
centrated in large cities and in the
most populous States.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

All States require barbers to be li­
censed. To obtain a license a person
must have graduated from a State
approved barber school, have com­
pleted the eighth grade, meet certain
health requirements, and be at least
16 (in some States 18) years old.
Nearly all States require a begin­
ner to take an examination for an ap­
prentice license, and then, after 1 or
2 years of work, take a second ex­
amination for a license as a regis­
tered barber. The examinations usu­
ally include both a written test and a
demonstration of ability to cut hair.
Fees for these examinations range
from $5 to $25. A few States do not
charge a fee for the apprentice ex­
Barber training is offered in many
public and private schools and a few
vocational schools. Courses usually
last 6 to 11 months. Trainees buy
their own tools which cost about
$100. They study the basic serv­
ices—haircutting, shaving, massag­
ing, and facial and scalp treat­
ments—and, under supervision,
practice on fellow students and cus­
tomers in school “clinics.” Besides
attending lectures on barber services
and the use and care of instruments,
students take courses in anatomy,
sanitation, and hygiene, and learn


how to recognize certain skin condi­
tions. Instruction is also given in
salesmanship and general business
practices. Advanced courses are
available in some localities for bar­
bers who wish to specialize in hair
styling, coloring, and the sales and
service of hairpieces.
Dealing with customers requires
patience and a better than average
disposition. Good health and
stamina also are important because a
barber spends most of the time
standing and works with both hands
at shoulder level.
Beginners may get their first jobs
through the barber school they at­
tended, or through the local barber’s
union or employer’s association.
Some experienced barbers ad­
vance by becoming managers of
large shops or by opening their own
shops. A few may teach at barber
schools. Barbers who go into busi­
ness for themselves must have the
capital to buy or rent a shop and in­
stall equipment. Supplying a onechair shop with new equipment usu­
ally costs from $1,500 to $2,500.
Some shop owners buy used equip­
ment and fixtures at reduced prices.


Because most barber shops will
probably remain one- or two-man
shops, opportunities will be best in
the larger shops opening in sub­
urban shopping centers.

owners and managers is the Associ­
ated Master Barbers and Beau­
ticians of America.

Earnings and Working

Information on State licensing
requirements and approved barber
schools may be obtained from the
State Board of barber examiners or
other State authority at each State
General information on training
facilities and State licensing laws
may be obtained also from:

Barbers receive income from com­
missions or wages and from tips.
Most barbers who are not shop own­
ers normally receive 65 to 75 per­
cent of the money they take in; a few
are paid straight salaries.
Weekly earnings of experienced
barbers (including tips) generally
ranged between $150 and $225 in
1972, according to limited informa­
tion available. Some hairstylists, as
well as some barbers who operated
their own shops, earned more than
$400 a week. Beginning barbers usu­
ally earn about $75 to $125 a week,
hairstylists $125 to $200 a week.
Earnings depend on the size and
location of the shop, customers’ tip­
ping habits, competition from other
barbershops, and the barber’s abil­
ity to attract and hold regular

Most full-time barbers work more
than 40 hours a week and a work­
week of over 50 hours is not uncom­
Employment Outlook
mon. Although Saturdays and lunch
Employment of barbers should hours are generally very busy, a bar­
change little. Most job openings will ber may have some time off during
result from the need to replace ex­ slack periods. To assure an even
perienced barbers who retire, die, or workload, some barbers ask cus­
transfer to other occupations. tomers to make appointments.
Replacement needs are relatively Under some union contracts, bar­
high because barbers are somewhat bers receive 1- or 2-week paid vaca­
older, on the average, than workers tions, insurance, and medical
in other occupations.
Employment opportunities for
The principal union which organ­
barbers have been limited in recent izes barbers—both employees and
years by the trend toward longer shopowners—is the Journeymen
hair. In the future, however, the ef­ Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosmetol­
fect of this trend is expected to be ogists and Proprietors’ Inter­
offset by population increases and national Union of America. The
the growing popularity of hair principal trade association which
styling for men.
represents and organizes shop-

Sources of Additional

N ation al A ssociation o f Barber
Schools, Inc., 338 Washington Ave.,
Huntington, W. Va. 25701.

Additional information on this oc­
cupation is available from:.
Associated Master Barbers and Beau­
ticians of America, 219 Greenwich
Rd„ P. O. Box 17782, Charlotte,
N.C. 28211.
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers,
Cosmetologists, and Proprietors’
International Union of America,
4755 Kingsway Drive #320, India­
napolis, Ind. 46205.

(D.O.T. 324.138 and .878)
Nature of the Work

Bellmen, sometimes called bell­
boys or bellhops, carry baggage for
hotel and motel guests and escort
them to their rooms on arrival. For
the new guest the bellman checks to
see that the room is in order and may
suggest the use of hotel services, such
as the dining room and valet service.
Bellmen also run errands and de­
liver packages. In smaller hotels,
they may relieve the elevator oper­
ators or switchboard operator. In
1972, more than 16,000, persons—


most of them men—worked as bell­
hops and bell captains.
Bell captains are employed in
large and medium-sized hotels to
supervise bellmen. They assign work,
keep time records, and train new
bellmen. They also may obtain
transportation inform ation for
guests and send a bellman to pick up
tickets. In addition, bell captains
handle complaints regarding their
department and take care of un­
usual service requests. At times, bell
captains also may perform the duties
of bellmen.
Superintendents of service, who
are found only in a few hotels with
large service departments, supervise
elevator operators, doormen, and
washroom attendants, as well as bell­
men and bell captains.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Bellmen do not have to meet any
specific educational requirements.
High school graduation, however,
improves a bellman’s chances for
promotion to a front office clerical
job. (See the Front Office Clerk


statement elsewhere in the Hand­
book.) Many hotels fill bellman jobs
(D.O.T. 332.271 and .381;
by promoting elevator operators.
331.878 and 339.371)
Since bellmen have frequent con­
tact with the public, it is important
that they be neat, tactful, and courte­
Nature of the Work
ous. A knowledge of the local com­
Cosmetologists help their cus­
munity is an asset. They also must be
tomers to look as attractive as pos­
able to stand for long periods, carry
heavy baggage, and work in ­ sible. These workers, who are also
known as beauty operators, hair­
dressers, or beauticians, shampoo,
Bellmen can advance to bell cap­
tain and then to superintendent of cut, set, and style women’s hair; they
also straighten, bleach, or tint it and
service, but opportunities are lim­
give permanent waves. Cosmetol­
ited. Because there is only one bell
ogists may give manicures and scalp
captain position in each hotel, many
and facial treatments; provide make­
years may pass before an opening oc­
curs. Opportunities for advance­ up analysis; shape eyebrows; and
ment to superintendent of service are clean and style wigs and hair pieces.
Their duties include making appoint­
even fewer.
ments with customers, cleaning
equipment, and sanitizing im­
Employment Outlook
Cosmetologists may specialize in
Employment of bellmen should re­
different parts of the work such as
main about the same through the
styling, manicuring, or hair tinting;
mid-1980’s as motels, which let
guests drive to their rooms, are ex­ many men cosmetologists specialize
in styling. Self-employed beau­
pected to account for most of the
ticians have managerial duties in
lodging industry’s growth. Most of
addition to their work as operators.
the hundreds of yearly openings for
They keep records, control supplies,
bellmen will be to replace those who
and supervise other workers.
die, retire, or leave the field for other
reasons. Openings also will occur in
Places of Employment
small hotels as experienced bellmen
shift to jobs in luxury hotels where
About 495,000 persons worked as
tips may be higher. In addition, hairdressers and cosmetologists in
many temporary jobs will arise in 1972; 10 percent were men. This oc­
resort hotels open only part of the cupation has a relatively high
proportion of part-time workers.
See Hotel Industry statement else­
Although employment is concen­
where in the Handbook for informa­ trated in urban areas, many
tion on Earnings and Working Con­ cosmotologists find jobs in small
ditions, Sources of Additional Infor­ towns and rural areas. Most work in
mation, and for additional informa­ independently operated salons or in
tion on Employment Outlook.
those connected with hotels and
department or specialty stores. A few
work in motion picture and tele­
vision studios, hospitals, and on
ocean liners.
Most beauty salons are small, hav­
ing fewer than four employees; more
than half are owner-operated.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement


schools and private schools offer
training which meets State licensing
requirements for cosmetologists. In
many of them, instruction preparing
students for an operator’s license is
available in evening classes as well as
in full-time day classes. Many day­
time courses offered by public and
private schools require from 6
months to a year to complete. Other
public school courses, which include
academic subjects required for a high
school diploma, last from 2 to 3
years. Apprentice training usually
continues over 1 to 2 years. Many
States issue special manicurists’
licenses which require substantially
fewer hours of training than general
operators’ licenses.

All States require that beauty
operators be licensed. Before appli­
cants are eligible to take State licens­
ing examinations in cosmetology,
they usually must be 16 years of age,
present certificates of good health,
and have completed the 10th grade.
Many States require a high school
diploma. Successful completion of a
State-approved cosmetology course
is recognized as adequate prepara­
tion for these examinations in all
States; in some, a period of appren­
ticeship may be substituted. Most
States provide for reciprocity which
enables licensed operators in one
State to work in another without tak­
ing an additional licensing examina­
Both public and private school
training programs include class­
About 2,800 public vocational room study, lectures, dem on­

strations, and practical work. Begin­
ning students usually work on each
other or on manikins; when they
have satisfactorily completed a
period of preliminary training, they
practice on patrons in school
“ clinics.” Practically all beauty
schools help their students find jobs
after graduation.
Cosmetologists must keep abreast
of changing hair styles and beauty
techniques. They also need finger
dexterity, a sense of form and art­
istry, and the physical stamina to
stand for long periods of time. Beau­
ticians should be willing and able to
follow customers’ instructions.
Operators usually provide their
own uniforms; a few salons require
them to furnish brushes, combs, and
Newly hired cosmetologists start
as manicurists, shampooers, or allaround operators performing a vari­
ety of tasks. Advancement usually
comes in higher earnings as they gain
experience and build a steady clien­
tele or specialize in one or more
phases of the work. Some experi­
enced operators manage large salons
or open their own; others teach in
cosmetology schools or use their
knowledge and skill to demonstrate
cosmetics in department stores. A
few work as inspectors for State
cosmetology boards.
Employment Outlook

Employment of cosmetologists
will grow rapidly through the
mid-1980’s as the use of beauty
salons increases. Rising incomes and
the growing number of women work­
ing outside the home are among the
factors that will spur demand for the
services cosmetologists provide.
In addition to openings from
growth of the industry, thousands of
workers will be needed each year to
replace those who leave the occupa­
tion. Job opportunities are expected


to be good for newcomers as well as
for experienced cosmetologists, and
this occupation will offer many op­
portunities for those seeking parttime work.
Earnings and Working

Many cosmetologists are paid a
salary plus commission (a percent­
age of receipts from their cus­
tomers). Others are paid only a per­
centage of the receipts. A few are
paid straight salary. Estimating total
earnings is difficult because most
cosmetologists receive tips in addi­
tion to salaries and commissions.
Earnings also depend on experience,
speed of performance, skill, location
of the salon, and the ability to sat­
isfy customers.
Many beginning operators earn
from $100 to $200 a week, accord­
ing to the limited information avail­
able. A very few top stylists and
others in highly specialized jobs may
earn $400 or more a week. Most full­
time operators work 40 hours or
more a week, usually including early
evening and Saturday work. Many
part-time operators also are em­
ployed during these busy periods.
In many large salons, department
stores, and hotels, operators may
participate in group life and health
insurance and other benefit plans
sponsored by the employer. Some es­
tablishments allow their employees
annual paid vacations of at least 1
week after a year’s service.
The most active union in this oc­
cupational field is the Journeymen
Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosmetol­
ogists and Proprietor’s Inter­
national Union of America. Other
organizations in the field are the
N a tio n a l H a ir d r e s s e r s and
Cosmetologists Association, Inc.,
which includes both shopowners and
operators; The Associated Master
Barbers and Beauticians of America,
representing salon owners and man­


agers; the National Association of
Cosmetology Schools, Inc., repre­
senting school owners and teachers;
and the National Beauty Culturists’
League, made up of Negro oper­
ators, teachers, managers, and salon
Sources off Additional

For information about approved
training schools and licensing re­
quirements, write your State board
of cosmetology.
Additional facts about careers in
beauty culture and State licensing
requirements are available from:
National Beauty Career Center, 3839
White Plains Rd., Bronx, N.Y .
National Hairdressers and Cosmetol­
ogists Association, 3510 Olive St.,
St. Louis, Mo. 63103.

General information about cosme­
tology may be obtained from:



Union, 4755 Kingsway Drive #320,
Indianapolis, Indiana 46205.

(D.O.T. 187.168, 338.381)
Nature of the Work

Few occupations require the tact,
discretion, and compassion called for
in the work of funeral directors and
embalmers. The families and friends
of the deceased may be under consid­
erable emotional stress and bewil­
dered by the many details of the
occasion. The funeral director
(D.O.T. 187.168) helps them to
make the personal and business
arrangements necessary for the serv­
ice and burial. The embalmer
(D.O.T. 338.381) prepares the body

for viewing and burial. In many in­
stances, the funeral director and the
embalmer are the same person.
The director’s job begins when a
call is received from a family re­
questing services. After arranging for
the deceased to be removed to the
funeral home, the director obtains
the information needed for the death
certificate, such as date and place of
birth and cause of death. The direc­
tor makes an appointment with the
family to discuss the details of the
funeral. These include: time and
place of service; clergyman and
organist; selection of casket and
clothing; and provisions for burial or
cremation. Directors also make
arrangements with the cemetery,
place obituary notices in news­
papers, and take care of many other
details. Directors must be familiar
with the funeral and burial customs
of various religious faiths and frater­
nal organizations.
Embalming is a sanitary and pre­
servative measure, and under cer­
tain circumstances, such as delayed
burials, is required by law. Em­
balmers, perhaps with the help of ap­
prentices, first wash the body with
germicidal soap and shave it if neces­
sary. The embalming process proper
replaces the blood with a preserva­
tive fluid. Embalmers apply cosme­
tics to give the body a natural
appearance and, if necessary, re­
store disfigured features. Finally,
they dress the body and place it in the
casket selected by the family.
On the day of the funeral, direc­
tors attend to floral displays, pro­
vide cars for the family and pall­
bearers, receive and usher guests to
their seats, and organize the funeral
cortege. After the service they may
help the family fiie claims for social
security, veteran’s and union bene­
fits, and insurance. Directors may
serve a family for several months
following the funeral until all these
matters are satisfactorily completed.



Places of Employment

About 45,000 people were li­
censed as funeral directors and embalmers in 1972. About 2 percent
were women.
Funeral homes, which numbered
23,000 in 1972, employed nearly all
of the directors and embalmers.
Most funeral homes had 1 to 3 of
these workers, including the owner.
Many large homes, however, had 20
or more. Several hundred em­
balmers worked for morgues and
Geographically, employment in
these occupations is concentrated in
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A license is needed to practice em­
balming. State licensing standards
vary but generally an embalmer must
be 21 years old, have a high school
diploma or its equivalent, graduate
from a mortuary science school,
serve an apprenticeship, and pass a
State board examination. One-half
of the States require a year or more
of college in addition to training in
mortuary science.
All but six States also require
funeral directors to be licensed.
Qualifications are similar to those
for embalmers, but directors may
have special apprenticeship training
and board examinations. Most peo­
ple obtain both licenses. Informa­
tion on licensing requirements is
available from the State office of oc­
cupational licensing.
High school students can start pre­
paring for a career in this field by
taking courses in biology, chem­
istry, speech, and psychology. Stu­
dents may find a part-time or sum­
mer job in a funeral home. Although
these jobs consist mostly of mainte­
nance and clean-up tasks, such as
washing and polishing hearses, they
can be helpful in gaining familiarity

with the operation of funeral homes.

Employment Outlook

Little change in the employment
In early 1972, 22 schools had mor­
tuary science programs accredited by of funeral directors and embalmers is
the American Board of Funeral expected through the mid-1980’s.
Service Education. About one-half Nevertheless, many openings will
were private vocational schools that arise each year to replace experi­
offer 1-year programs emphasizing enced workers who retire, die, or
basic subjects such as anatomy and transfer to other occupations.
physiology, as well as practical skills,
In recent years, the number of
such as embalming techniques and mortuary school graduates has ap­
restorative art. A small number of proximately equaled the number of
colleges and universities offer 2- and jobs available. Barring any signifi­
4-year programs in funeral service. cant growth in enrollments, future
These programs included liberal arts graduates should find employment
and management courses as well as opportunities available.
mortuary science. All programs
Demand for funeral services will
offered courses in psychology, ac­ rise as the population grows and
counting, and funeral law.
deaths increase. Most funeral homes,
however, will be able to meet the de­
Apprentices work under the guid­
mand without expanding their
ance of experienced embalmers and
employment. Most homes conduct
directors. Depending on State
only one or two funerals each week
regulations, an apprenticeship usu­
and are capable of handling several
ally lasts 1 or 2 years and may be
served before, after, or during the
Earnings and Working
time one attends mortuary school.
State board examinations consist
of written and oral tests and actual
demonstrations of skills. After pass­
ing the examination, apprentices re­
ceive a license to practice. If they
want to work in another State they
may have to pass its examination, al­
though many States have mutual
agreements which make this un­
Important personal traits for
funeral directors are courtesy, tact,
and the ability to communicate easi­
ly with the public. They also should
have the desire and ability to com­
fort people in their time of sorrow.
Advancement opportunities are
best in large funeral homes where
directors and embalmers may earn
promotion to higher paying posi­
tions such as personnel manager or
general manager. Some workers
eventually acquire enough money
and experience to establish their own


In 1972, funeral directors and em­
balmers generally earned from $150
to $250 a week. Managers generally
earned between $10,000 and $15,000
a year, and many owners earned
more than $20,000. Apprentices
earned between $1.80 and $3.50 an
In large funeral homes, employ­
ees usually have a regular work sch­
edule. Typically they put in 8 hours a
day, 5 or 6 days a week. Overtime,
however, may be necessary when
emergencies arise. Some employees
work shifts; for example, nights one
week, and days the next.
Occasionally embalmers may
come into contact with contagious
diseases but the possibility of their
becoming ill is remote, even less like­
ly than for a doctor or nurse.
Most directors and embalmers re­
ceive paid vacations and sick leave,
retirement benefits, and life, health,
and accident insurance. Some also



receive license renewal fees and suits
to wear on the job.
Sources of Additional

Information about job oppor­
tunities in this field is available from

local funeral homes and from:
National Funeral Directors Associ­
ation of the United States, Inc.,
135 W. W ells St., M ilwaukee,
Wise. 53203.
National Selected Morticians, 1616
Central St., Evanston, 111. 60201.

For a list of accredited schools of
mortuary science and information
about scholarship opportunities, con­
The American Board of Funeral Serv­
ice Education, Inc., 201 Columbia
St., Fairmont, W. Va. 26554.


In 1972, private household service
work employed 1.7 million people,
most of them women. The majority
were domestic workers who eased
the burden of running and maintain­
ing their employers’ residences by
doing any of the tasks found in those
homes, such as cooking, cleaning, or
caring for children. Some special­
ized in one aspect of household work,
such as cooking; others held jobs that
combined several tasks.
Private households also require
the services of workers in a variety of
other occupations, including gar­
deners, chauffers, nurses, and pri­
vate secretaries. Gardeners, for ex­
ample, keep the grounds of private
residences neat and orderly by plant­
ing, fertilizing, and pruning flowers,
trees, and shrubs. Chauffeurs drive
their employers’ cars, keep the
vehicles clean and in good running
condition, and sometimes help with
other chores such as exercising pets.
Some of the most important
domestic occupations found in pri­
vate households, including those of
maid, companion, and housekeeper,
are discussed in the statement that
follows. For information on the serv­
ices that nurses, painters, and secre­
taries may perform in private house­
holds, see the statements on these oc­
cupations elsewhere in the Hand­


(D.O.T. 099.228. 301.887, 303.138
and .878; 304.887, 305.281, 306.878,
307.878, and 309.138 through .999)
Nature of the Work

Thousands of people employ pri­
vate household workers to ease the
burden of running and maintaining
their homes. These workers perform
a variety of jobs ranging from child
care to cleaning and cooking. Some
household occupations involve one
or more related tasks while others re­
quire a mixture of many. In addi­
tion, the duties of some workers
change from day to day.
The general maid or mother’s
helper cleans floors and bathrooms
and may be responsible for meals,
laundry, and child care. When hired
by the hour or day, she is called a day
worker. The handyman or odd-job
man does heavy household tasks and
minor household and yard mainte­
nance. He cleans furniture, washes
windows, waxes floors, paints fences,
and cares for the yard. A few handy­
men work only in the house and
sometimes are called housemen. If
employed year-round, handymen
may be known as caretakers.
Often private household workers
specialize in one aspect of household
work. Cooks prepare meals. Some
do everything from planning the
meal and ordering food to serving
and cleaning the kitchen. Others get
meal-planning instructions from a

family member. Some cooks are aid­
ed by a cook’s helper. The helper,
who is less skilled than a cook, does
things such as clean and peel vege­
tables or cut and grind meats.
Another specialized household
worker is the laundress who washes,
irons, and folds clothing.
Some private household workers
provide personal services and care
for members within a household. The
personal maid attends to a woman’s
needs while the valet attends a man.
They maintain clothing, clean an
employer’s quarters, and help him to
dress. Personal maids and valets may
have additional duties including mix­
ing drinks and running errands.
Companions do the work of a per­
sonal maid or valet and also act as a
friend or aide to a convalescent,
elderly, or handicapped person.
Companions may read or talk with
their employer and look after social
or business affairs.
Many private household workers
specialize in child care. The nurse­
maid, for example, cares for the
physical needs of children. She
bathes them, prepares meals, washes
and irons clothes, and supervises
their play. In fa n ts’ nurses are
responsible for very small children;
they have additional duties con­
nected with babies such as sterilizing
bottles and other equipment and pre­
paring formulas. Babysitters are
nursemaids who work on a daily or
hourly basis. Thqgoverness, who has
greater responsibilities than a nurse­
maid, supervises children’s recrea­
tion, health, and diet; she follows the
parents’ instruction in taking charge
of their education. She also disci­
plines children, arranges activities,
and may teach music and languages.
A household with a large staff of
workers may employ a home house­
keeper or a butler to supervise and
coordinate domestic activities. They
also may hire and Fire other house­
hold employees. Butlers receive and


announce guests, answer the tele­
phone, and serve food and drinks.
They may act as valets. The house­
keeper orders food and cleaning sup­
plies and keeps a record of expen­
ditures. Often a working house­
keeper is the household’s only em­
ployee. Her duties combine those of
the general maid and housekeeper.

employer’s home. Household work­
ers are employed throughout the
country, but most work in urban
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement


schools, vocational schools, and
junior colleges give home economics
courses that help to develop domes­
tic skills beyond the level ordinarily
reached in the home. Training pro­
grams sponsored by Federal agen­
cies, State employment service of­
fices, and local welfare departments
also can develop these skills.
Work experience is less important
than educational and cultural back­
ground for the governess or com­
panion. A com panion’s b ack ­
ground, interests, and age should be
similar to his employer’s. Practical
nursing experience may be helpful if
the employer is an invalid. A back­
ground in the arts is useful to a
governess and teaching skills are
helpful for those who care for young
Private household workers need
physical stamina and the ability to
work independently. They should be
able to get along with people and
want to help them. In addition, they
must have a neat personal appear­
ance and like to work with their
hands. Some household workers,
particularly cooks and infants’
nurses, need a health certificate;
often the employer arranges and
pays for the necessary physical ex­
With the knowledge learned at
home or as a mother’s helper, a
woman can take a job as a general
household worker or nursemaid. Ad­
vancement other than a wage in­
crease generally is not available in
households with only one or two
workers. The domestic worker usu­
ally must transfer to a job requiring
greater skills, such as personal maid,
infant’s nurse, cook or housekeeper.
These opportunities are limited in

For most household worker jobs
there are no formal educational re­
quirements. Instead, the ability to
Places of Employment
cook, sew, wash and iron, clean
In 1972 more than 1.4 million peo­ house, and care for children is impor­
ple were private household workers; tant. Employers prefer workers who
98 percent of them were women. can operate household equipment
Most household workers are em­ such as vacuum cleaners and floor
ployed part-time—a few days a week waxers. Often young people learn
for part or all of a day. Those who these skills while helping with the
live in usually work the longest housework at home.
Some people acquire the neces­
Although a few specialized work­ sary abilities by working for about a
Employment Outlook
ers, such as laundresses or nurse­ year as a mother’s helper under the
maids, may work in their own supervision of an experienced house­
Although the number of private
homes, most jobs are found in the hold worker or housewife. High household workers is expected to



decline rapidly through the mid1980’s, thousands of openings will re­
sult each year from the need to re­
place those who die, retire, or leave
for other reasons. Most of these jobs
will be for maids and childcare
The demand for services that pri­
vate household workers provide will
continue to grow as more women
work outside the home and as family
incomes increase. The decrease in the
number of workers stems from low
earnings and the lack of benefits as
well as increasing opportunities in
other lines of work. The demand for
private household services will be
met in part by new and improved
home appliances and cleaning and
child care businesses.
Earnings and Working

In 1972, full-time private house­

hold workers averages $2,478, less
than half the average for non-supervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Wages vary according to employ­
er’s income, type of work, and local
pay standards. Earnings are higher in
large cities, especially in the North.
Workers who live in generally are
paid more than those who live out
and have room and board. Workers
who live out may receive a free meal
and transportation money.
Frequently the employee works on
her own and has a key to admit her­
self when the employer is away. Pri­
vate household work is hard at times,
especially for day workers, who
generally are given the less desirable
household tasks. Long or irregular
working hours can isolate workers
who live in from family and friends,
and if they are the sole employees in
the households, they are likely to be
alone most of the time.

Sources of Additional

Facts about employment oppor­
tunities and training programs in pri­
vate household work are available
from local offices of State employ­
ment services.
Information on laws affecting
household workers and guidelines for
work is available from:
National Committee on Household
Employment, 1625 I St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.


The growth of our Nation’s popu­
lation and economy demands an ever
increasing emphasis on protective
services. Each city, suburban area,
and National port of entry requires
protective and related service work­
ers to check crime, minimize loss of
life and property, and enforce regula­
tions that protect the health and safe­
ty of our citizens.
Careers in protective and related
service occupations require varied
combinations of education and ex­
perience. Workers such as FBI spe­
cial agents and some inspectors for
the Federal government must have at
least a bachelor’s degree, while some
guards and watchmen have less than
a high school education. Most oc­
cupations in this group, however, re­
quire a high school diploma. In many
cases, a college degree is an asset for
ad v an cem en t to higher level
In addition to educational require­
ments, most workers in protective
and related services must undergo
formal training programs and get onthe-job experience before they are
fully qualified. Training programs
last from several days to a few
months and emphasize specific jobrelated skills.
Personal qualifications such as
honesty and an understanding of
human nature are important. Per­
sons seeking careers in protective
and related service occupations
should sincerely desire to serve the
community and be able to exercise
proper judgment under a variety of

This section describes several oc­
cupations in protective and related
services, FBI Special Agents, Fire­
fighters; State and Local Police,
Guards and Watchmen, and Health,
Regulatory and Construction In­

(D.O.T. 375.168)
Nature of the Work

Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) Special Agents investigate
violations of Federal laws such as
bank ro b b erie s, k id n a p p in g s,
frauds against the Government,
thefts of Government property, es­
pionage, and sabotage. The FBI,
which is part of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Justice, has jurisdiction over
more than 185 Federal investigative
matters. Special Agents, therefore,
may be assigned to any type of case;
however, those with specialized
training usually work on cases re­
lated to their background. Agents
with an accounting background, for
example, investigate frauds involv­
ing Federal Reserve Bank records.
Because the FBI is a fact-gather­
ing agency, its Special Agents func­
tion strictly as investigators. (The
FBI does not give personal protec­
tion to individuals or do police
work to insure that the law is obeyed.
Such matters are handled by local
and State law enforcement agencies.)

To perform their duties, Special
Agents may interview people, ob­
serve the activities of suspects, and
participate in raids; their duties may
involve extensive travel. Because the
FBI’s work is highly confidential,
Special Agents may not disclose any
of the information gathered in the
course of their official duties to un­
authorized persons, including mem­
bers of their families. Agents may
have to testify in court about cases
which they investigate, but they do
not make recommendations concern­
ing prosecution or express opinions
on the guilt or innocence of suspects.
Although they work alone on most
assignments, agents communicate
with their supervisors by radio or
telephone as the circumstances dic­
tate. In performing potentially
dangerous duties, such as arrests and
raids, two or more agents are as­
signed to work together.
Places of Employment

About 8,600 persons were Special
Agents in 1972. Although the vast
majority were men, in May, 1972,
the FBI began accepting applica­
tions from women. There are now a
small number of women assigned as
Special Agents.
Most agents were assigned to the
FBI’s 59 field offices located
throughout the Nation and in Puerto
Rico. They worked in cities where
field office headquarters are located
or in resident agencies (sub-offices)
established under field office super­
vision to provide prompt and eco­
nomic handling of investigative mat­
ters arising throughout the field of­
fice territory. Some agents are as­
signed to the Bureau headquarters
staff in Washington, D.C., which
supervises all FBI activities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

To be eligible for appointment as



assignment to a field office. During
this period, agents receive intensive
training in defensive tactics and fire­
arm s. In a d d itio n , they are
thoroughly schooled in Federal
criminal law and procedures, FBI
rules and regulations, fingerprint­
ing, and investigative work. After
assignment to a field office, the new
agent usually works closely with an
experienced agent for about 2 weeks
before handling any assignments in­
All administrative and super­
visory jobs are filled from within the
ranks by selecting those FBI Special
Agents who have demonstrated the
ability to assume more responsible
Employment Outlook

FBI Special agents inspect car for fingerprints.

an FBI Special Agent, an applicant
usually must have graduated from a
State-accredited resident law school
or a 4-year resident college with a
major in accounting. The law school
training must have been preceded by
at least 2 years of resident under­
graduate college work. Accounting
graduates must have at least 1 year
of experience in accounting, audit­
ing, or a combination of both. In
addition, the position is available to
persons who have a 4-year resident
college degree with a physical science
major or fluency in a foreign lan­
guage for which the FBI has a
current need, or 3 years of profes­
sional, executive, complex investi­
gative, or other specialized ex­
Applicants for the position of FBI
Special Agent must be citizens of the
United States, at least 23 and not
more than 40 years old, and willing
to serve anywhere in the United
States or Puerto Rico. They must be

at least 5 feet 7 inches tall and capa­
ble of strenuous physical exertion;
they must have excellent hearing and
vision, normal color perception, and
no physical defects which would pre­
vent their using firearms or partici­
pating in dangerous assignments.
Each applicant must pass a rigid
physical examination, as well as writ­
ten and oral examinations testing his
knowledge of law or accounting and
his aptitude for meeting the public
and conducting investigations. All of
the tests except the physical ex­
aminations are given by the FBI at
its facilities. Exhaustive background
and character investigations are
made of all applicants. Appoint­
ments are made on a probationary
basis and become permanent after 1
year of satisfactory service.
Each newly appointed Special
Agent is given approximately 14
weeks of training at the FBI
Academy at the U.S. Marine Corps
Base in Quantico, Virginia before

The FBI has experienced a sub­
stantial expansion in its jurisdiction
over the years. Although it is impos­
sible to forecast Special Agent per­
sonnel requirements, employment
may be expected to increase with
growing FBI responsibilities.
The FBI provides a career service
and its rate of personnel turnover is
traditionally low. Nevertheless, the
FBI is always interested in appli­
cations from qualified persons who
would like to be considered for the
position of Special Agent.
Earnings and Working

The entrance salary for FBI Spe­
cial Agents was $12,776 in January
1973. Special Agents are not ap­
pointed under Federal Civil Service
regulations, but, like other Federal
employees, they receive periodic
within-grade salary raises if their
work performance is satisfactory;
they can advance in grade as they
gain experience.
Special Agents are subject to call
24 hours a day and must be avail-



able for assignment at all times and
places. They frequently work longer
than the customary 40-hour week
and, under certain specified condi­
tions, receive over-time pay up to
$3,000 a year. They are granted paid
vacations, sick leave, and annuities
on retirement.
Sources off Additional
The Federal Bureau of Investigation,
U .S . D epartm ent o f Justice,
Washington, D.C. 20535.

(D.O.T. 373.118 through .884)
Nature of the Work

Every year fires destroy thou­
sands of lives and property worth
millions of dollars. Firefighters help
protect the public against this
danger. This statement gives infor­
mation about firefighters who work
full time for city fire departments. It
does not cover part-time volunteers,
private firefighters, or those
employed by the Federal and State
During duty hours firefighters
must be prepared to rush to a fire
and handle any emergency that oc­
curs. Because firefighting is danger­
ous and complicated it requires
teamwork and good organization. At
every fire, firefighters perform
specific duties assigned by their com­
manding officer: They may connect
hose lines to hydrants, operate a
pressure pump, or position ladders.
Because their duties may change
several times while the company is in
action they must be skilled in many
different firefighting activities. In
addition, they help people to safety
and administer first aid.

Fire departments also are respon­
sible for fire prevention. Many
departments provide specially train­
ed personnel to inspect public build­
ings for conditions that might cause
a fire. They may check the number
and working condition of fire escapes
and fire doors, the storage of flam­
mable materials, and other possible
hazards. In addition, firefighters
educate the public about fire preven­
tion and safety measures. They fre­
quently speak on this subject before
school assemblies and civic groups;
and, in some communities, they in­
spect private homes for fire hazards.
Between alarms, firefighters spend
much time improving their skills and
doing maintenance work. They also
have practice drills, clean and lubri­

cate equipment, and stretch hoses to
Places off Employment

About 200,000 men worked as
firefighters in city fire departments
in 1972. Some very large cities have
several thousand firemen; some
towns have fewer than 25. In addi­
tion, about 1,000 women worked as
dispatchers in city fire stations.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Applicants for firefighting jobs
must pass a written intelligence test,
a medical examination, and tests of
strength, physical stamina, and agili­


ty, as specified by local civil service
regulations. In most communities,
these examinations are open to men
who are at least 21 years of age, meet
certain height and weight require­
ments, and have a high school educa­
tion. Those who receive the highest
scores on the examinations have the
best chances for appointment. Extra
credit usually is given for military
service, and experience gained as a
volunteer fireman or through train­
ing in the Armed Forces also may
improve an applicant’s chances for
As a rule, beginners in large fire
departments are trained for several
weeks at the city’s fire school.
Through classroom instruction and
practice drills, the recruits study fire­
fighting techniques, fire prevention,
local building codes, and first aid;
also, they learn how to use axes,
chemical extinguishers, ladders, and
other equipment. After completing
this training, they are assigned to
local fire companies.
Experienced firefighters often con­
tinue study to improve their job per­
formance and prepare for promo­
tional examinations. Fire depart­
ments frequently conduct training
programs, and many colleges and
universities offer courses such as fire
engineering and fire science that are
helpful to Firefighters.
Among the personal qualities fire­
fighters need are mental alertness,
courage, mechanical aptitude, endur­
ance, and a sense of public service.
Initiative and good judgment are ex­
tremely important because fire­
fighters often must make quick
decisions in emergency situations.
Because members of a crew eat,
sleep, and work closely together un­
der conditions of stress and danger,
they should be dependable and able
to get along well with others in a
group. Leadership qualities are
assets for officers who must estab­
lish and maintain a high degree of


discipline and efficiency as well as
plan and direct the activities of the
Firefighters in their companies.
Opportunities for promotion are
good in most fire departments. As
firefighters gain experience, they
may advance to higher ratings. After
3 to 5 years of service they may
become eligible for promotion to the
grade of lieutenant. The line of
further promotion usually is to cap­
tain, then battalion chief, assistant
chief, deputy chief, and Finally to
chief. Chances for advancement
generally depend upon each candi­
date’s position on the promotion list,
as determined by his score on a
written examination, his super­
visor’s rating, and his seniority.
Employment Outlook

The employment of firefighters is
expected to increase rapidly through
the mid-1980’s to meet the need for
fire protection in growing urban
communities. Many jobs will become
available in new and expanding
departments; thousands of addi­
tional openings will occur as fire­
fighters die, retire, or leave their jobs
for other reasons.
Employment of Firefighters should
continue to grow as new fire depart­
ments form and others enlarge their
fire prevention sections. Many jobs
also will be created as smaller com­
munities replace volunteer fire com­
panies with official departments. In
addition, more Firemen will be re­
quired as city fire departments con­
tinue to shorten the hours that their
men work.
The number of young men who
qualify for firefighter jobs in large
cities usually is greater than the num­
ber of job openings, even though the
written examination and physical
requirem ents elim inate many
applicants. Therefore, competition
among candidates is apt to remain

Earnings and Working

In 1972, most Firefighters in cities
with populations of 100,000 or more
who had 1 or 2 years’ experience
earned between $9,000 and $10,700 a
Salaries varied by city size and
region of the country. For example,
firefighters earned from $8,100 to
$9,700 in small cities, $8,800 to $10,500 in cities of 500,000 to 1 million in
population, and $10,400 to $12,250
in those larger than 1 million. Ear­
nings for firefighters were lowest in
the South and highest in the West.
Average earnings of all firefighters
were about one and one-half times as
much as the average of all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Fire chiefs in cities of 100,000 or
more averaged $23,700 a year in
1972. Those who headed fire depart­
ments in cities with populations of
more than 1 million earned $32,000.
Practically all fire departments
furnish allowances to pay for protec­
tive clothing (helmets, boots, and
rubber coats) and many also provide
dress uniforms.
In some cities, Firefighters are on
duty for 24-hours, then off for 24
hours, and receive an extra day off at
intervals. In other cities, they work a
day shift of 10 hours or a night shift
of 14; shifts are rotated at frequent
intervals. The average workweek for
firefighters is 51 hours, but duty
hours usually include some time
when they are free to read, study, or
pursue other personal interests. In
addition to scheduled hours fire­
fighters often must work extra hours
when they are bringing a fire under
control. When overtime is worked
most fire departments give com­
pensatory time off or extra pay.
The job of a firefighter involves
risk of death or injury from sudden
cave-ins of floors or toppling walls
and danger from exposure to flames



and smoke. Firemen also may come
in contact with poisonous, flam­
mable, and explosive gases and
chemicals. In addition, they fre­
quently work in bad weather.
Firefighters generally are covered
by liberal pension plans that often
provide retirement at half pay at age
50 after 25 years of service or at any
age if disabled in the line of duty.
Firefighters also receive paid vaca­
tions. Provisions for sick leave usual­
ly are liberal. Health and surgical
benefit plans are offered in many fire
departments and compensation is
provided for firefighters injured in
the line of duty. Most fire depart­
ments provide paid holidays—rang­
ing to 11 or more a year—or com­
pensatory time off for working on
N early three-fourth s of all
firefighters are members of the Inter­
national Association of Firefighters
Sources of Additional

Information on obtaining a job as
a Firefighter is available from local
civil service commission offices or
fire departments.
Information about a career as a
firefighter or specific job duties may
be obtained from:
International Association of Fire
Fighters, 905 16th St. N W .,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
International Association of Fire
C h ie f s , 1725 K S t . N W . ,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

Additional information on the
salaries and hours of work of fire­
men in various cities is published an­
nually by the International City
Management Association in its
Municipal Yearbook, which is avail­
able in many libraries.

Nature of the Work

Guards and watchmen patrol and
inspect property to protect it against
fire, theft, vandalism, and illegal en­
try. The specific duties of these
workers, however, vary by size, type,
and location of employer.
In office buildings, banks, hospi­
tals, and department stores, guards
and watchmen protect records,
merchandise, money, and equip­
ment. Department store guards often
work with plainclothesmen watch­
ing for theft by store employees.
At ports and railroads, guards and
watchmen protect merchandise in
shipment as well as property and
equipment. They make sure that
nothing is stolen while being loaded
or unloaded, and guard against fires,
prowlers, and trouble among work
crews. Sometimes they direct traffic.
Guards who work in public build­
ings, such as museums or art
galleries, protect paintings or ex­

hibits from fire, theft, or damage.
They also answer routine questions
from visitors and sometimes guide
In large factories, aircraft plants,
and defense installations where valu­
able information must be protected,
some guards check the credentials of
persons and vehicles entering and
leaving the premises. University,
park, or recreation guards perform
similar duties and also may issue
parking permits and direct traffic.
At social affairs, sports events,
conventions, and other public
gatherings, guards maintain order,
give information, and watch for
suspicious persons.
In a large organization, guards
may serve under a security officer
who is in charge of the guard force;
in a small organization a single
watchman may be responsible for
security. Patrolling is usually done
on foot; but if the property is large,
guards or watchmen may make their
rounds by car or motor scooter.
As they make their rounds, guards
and watchmen check all doors and
windows, see that no unauthorized
persons remain after working hours,
and insure that fire extinguishers,
alarms, sprinkler systems, furnaces,
and various electrical and plumbing
systems are working properly.
Guards sometimes set thermostats or
turn on machines for janitorial
Guards and watchmen usually are
uniformed and often carry a night­
stick or gun. They also may carry a
flashlight, whistle, two-way radio,
and a watch clock—a device that
indicates the time at which they
reach various check-points.
Places of Employment

In 1972, about 250,000 per­
sons—90 percent of them men—
worked as guards and watchmen.
Most guards and watchmen work


in office buildings, defense installa­
tions and other government build­
ings, hospitals, nursing homes,
hotels, banks, and schools. Large
num bers also work in m anu­
facturing industries including
automobiles, aerospace, steel, and
Although guard and watchman
jobs are found throughout the coun­
try, most are located in highly indus­
trialized areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although there are no specific
educational requirements, most
employers prefer guards and watch­
men who are high school graduates.
Applicants with less than a high
school education usually are tested
for their reading and writing abili­
ties and their competence in follow­
ing written and oral instructions.
Employers also seek people who
have had experience in the military
police or in State and local police
C an d id ates for gu ard and
watchman jobs in the Federal
Government must be veterans, have
some experience as guards, and pass
a written examination. For most
Federal guard positions, applicants
must qualify in the use of firearms. A
driver’s permit is required for some
Many employers give newly hired
guards pre-job instruction and
several weeks of on-the-job training.
Guards may be taught the use of fire­
arms, the administration of first aid,
how to handle various emergencies,
and ways to spot and deal with
security problems.
Applicants are expected to have
good character references; no police
record; good health—especially in
hearing and vision; and good per­
sonal habits such as neatness and de­
pendability. They also should be


mentally alert, emotionally stable,
and physically fit to cope with emer­
gencies. Some employers require
guards to meet height and weight
specifications or to be within a cer­
tain age range. For example, insur­
ance companies and accounting
firms may hire older guards; while
banks and jewelers, often threatened
by robberies, may prefer younger
applicants better able to handle in­
Although guards and watchmen in
small companies receive periodic
salary increases, advancement is
likely to be limited. However, most
large organizations use a militarytype ranking of guards—from
patrolman, through intermediate
ranks, to captain—that offers ad­
vancement in position and salary.
Guards with some college education
may advance to jobs that involve ad­
ministrative duties or the prevention
of espionage and sabotage.
Employment Outlook

Em ploym ent of guards and
watchmen is expected to grow
moderately through the mid-1980’s
as the number of plants, stores, and
other organizations where they work
expands. The increase in crime, van­
dalism, and social unrest also should
heighten the need for these workers.
In addition to new jobs created by
employment growth, thousands of
openings will occur each year as
guards retire, die, or leave their jobs
for other reasons. Replacement
needs in this occupation are relative­
ly high because guards and watch­
men are somewhat older, on the
average, than workers in most oc­
Earnings and Working

Guards and watchmen in private
industry averaged $100 a week in

1972, according to a Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey of urban
areas. Those working in the North
earned more than the average while
guards employed in the South earned
somewhat less. Guards and watch­
men earn about four-fifths as much
as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Depending on their experience,
newly hired guards in the Federal
Government earned between $112
and $126 a week. Top super­
visory guards in the Federal Govern­
ment may be paid up to $225 a
week. These workers usually receive
over-time pay as well as a wage
differential for the second and third
shifts. Guards and watchmen gener­
ally have paid vacations, sick leave,
and insurance and pension plans.
About two-thirds of all guards and
watchmen work at night; the usual
shift lasts 8 hours. Some employers
have three shifts where guards rotate
to divide daytime, weekend, and
holiday work equally. Guards and
watchmen usually eat on the job in­
stead of taking a regular lunch
Because guards often work alone,
they have no one to call if an acci­
dent or injury occurs. To reduce this
hazard, some large firms use a
reporting service that enables guards
and watchmen to be in constant con­
tact with a central station outside the
plant. If they fail to transmit an ex­
pected signal, the central station in­
Sources of Additional

Further information about work
opportunities for guards and watch­
men is av ailab le from local
employers and the nearest State
employment service office.



(D.O.T. 375.118 through .868
and 377.868)
Nature of the Work

The security of our Nation’s cities
and towns depends greatly on the
work of local policemen whose jobs
range from controlling traffic to pre­
venting and investigating crimes.
Whether on or off duty, these of­
ficers are expected to exercise their
authority whenever necessary.
The policeman who works in a
small community has many duties.
In the course of a day’s work, he may
direct traffic at the scene of a fire, in­
vestigate a housebreaking, and give
first aid to an accident victim. In a
large police department, by con­
trast, officers usually are assigned to
a specific type of duty. Most police­
men are detailed either to patrol or
traffic duty; smaller numbers are as­
signed to special work, such as acci­
dent prevention or operat ion of com­
munications systems. Others work as
detectives (plain-clothesmen) as­
signed to criminal investigation; still
others, as experts in chemical and
microscopic analysis, firearms iden­
tification, and handwriting and
fingerprint identification. In very
large cities, a few officers may work
with special units such as mounted
and motorcycle police, harbor
patrols, helicopter patrols, canine
corps, mobile rescue teams and
youth aid services.
Some city police departments have
women on their forces. Although
some are assigned to regular patrol
duty, most work with juvenile delin­
quents, or search, question, book,
and fingerprint women prisoners.
They may also work with detective
squads, where they normally handle
crimes involving women.
Most newly recruited policemen
begin on patrol duty. Patrolmen may
be assigned to such varied areas as

congested business districts, out­
Places of Employment
lying residential areas, or other sec­
About 370,000 full-time officers
tions of a community. They may
worked for local police departments
cover their beats alone or with other
patrolmen, and they may ride in a in 1972. Although most were men, an
police vehicle or walk on “foot” increasing number of women are
patrol. In any case, they become now being employed.
Some cities have very large police
thoroughly familiar with conditions
forces. For example, New York has
throughout their area and, while on
patrol, remain alert for anything un­ over 30,000 police officers and
usual. They note suspicious circum­ Chicago over 13,000. Hundreds of
stances, such as open windows or small communities employ fewer
lights in vacant buildings, as well as than 25 policemen each. Police­
hazards to public safety such as women work mainly in large cities.
burned-out street lights or fallen
Training, Other Qualifications,
trees. Patrolmen also watch for
and Advancement
stolen automobiles and enforce traf­
Local civil service regulations
fic regulations. At regular intervals,
they report to police headquarters govern the appointment of police of­
through call boxes, by radio, or by ficers in practically all large cities
walkie-talkie. They must also pre­ and in many small ones. Candidates
pare reports about their activities must be U.S. citizens, usually at least
and may be called on to testify in 21 years of age, and be able to meet
court when cases result in legal ac­ certain height and weight standards.
Eligibility for appointment depends


on performance on competitive ex­
aminations, as well as on education
and experience. The physical ex­
aminations often include tests of
strength and agility.
Because personal characteristics
such as honesty, good judgment, and
a sense of responsibility are espe­
cially important in police work, can­
didates are interviewed by a senior
officer at police headquarters, and
their character traits and back­
ground are investigated. In some
police departments, candidates also
may be interviewed by a psychiatrist
or a psychologist, or given a per­
sonality test. Although police of­
ficers work independently, they must
perform their duties in line with laws
and departmental rules. They should
enjoy working with people, and
should want to serve the public.
In large police departments, where
most jobs are found, applicants usu­
ally must have a high school educa­
tion. A few cities require some col­
lege training and some hire law en­
forcement students as police interns.
A few police departments accept
men who have less than a high school
education as recruits, particularly if
they have worked in a field related to
law enforcement.
More and more police depart­
ments encourage applicants to take
post-high school training in soci­
ology and psychology. As a result,
more than 500 junior colleges, col­
leges, and universities now offer pro­
grams in law enforcement. Other
courses helpful in preparing for a
police career include English,
American history, civics and govern­
ment, business law, and physics.
Physical education and sports are
especially helpful in developing the
stamina and agility needed for police
Young persons who have com­
pleted high school can enter police
work in some large cities as police
cadets, or trainees, while still in their


teens. As paid civilian employees of
the police department, they attend
classes to learn police skills and do
clerical work. They may be ap­
pointed to the regular force at age 21
if th e y p a ss a ll n e c e s s a r y
Before their first assignments,
policemen usually go through a
period of training. In small com­
munities, recruits learn by working
for a short time with experienced of­
ficers. Training provided in large city
police departments is more formal
and may last several weeks or a few
months. This training includes class­
room instruction in constitutional
law and civil rights; in State laws and
local ordinances; and in accident in­
vestigation, patrol, and traffic con­
trol. Recruits learn how to use a gun,
defend themselves from attack, ad­
minister first aid, and deal with
Policemen and policewomen usu­
ally become eligible for promotion
after a specified length of service. In
a large department, promotion may
allow an officer to specialize in one
type of police work such as labora­
tory work, traffic control, com­
munications, or work with juveniles.
Promotions to the rank of sergeant,
lieutenant, and captain usually are
made according to each candidate’s
position on a promotion list, as
determined by his performance on
written examinations and his work as
a police officer.
Many types of training help police
officers improve their performance
on the job and prepare for advance­
ment. Through training given at
police department academies and
colleges, officers keep abreast of
crowd-control techniques, civil de­
fense, legal developments that affect
policemen, and advances in law en­
forcement equipment. Many police
departments encourage officers to
work toward college degrees, and
some pay all or part of the tuition.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
police officers are expected to be
favorable for qualified applicants
through the mid-1980’s. Police
employment should rise rapidly as
population and economic growth
create a need for more officers to
protect life and property, regulate
traffic, and provide other police serv­
ices. Many openings also will occur
as policemen retire or leave their jobs
for other reasons.
The use of modern police methods
has increased the need for officers
with specialized skills. In an increas­
ing number of departments, for ex­
ample, electronic data processing is
used to compile administrative,
criminal, and identification records,
and to operate emergency communi­
cations systems. Many departments
also need officers with specialized
training to apply engineering tech­
niques to traffic control or social
work techniques to crime preven­
tion. At the same time, the use of
automatic signal lights has some­
what reduced the number of police­
men needed for directing traffic.

Earnings and Working

In 1972, starting salaries of police
officers in cities with populations of
100,000 or more averaged $9,500 a
year. Most officers receive regular
salary increases during the first few
years of employment until they reach
a set maximum. Maximum earnings
averaged just over $11,000 a year in
1972. In general, police officers are
paid about one and one-half times as
much as nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Although sergeants, lieutenants,
and captains receive higher basic
salaries than patrolmen, the highest
earnings are paid to police chiefs or
commissioners. These top law en­


forcement officials may earn as
much as $40,000 a year in the largest
Police departments usually pro­
vide officers with special allowances
for uniforms and furnish revolvers,
night sticks, handcuffs, and other re­
quired equipment.
The scheduled workweek for
police officers usually is 40 hours.
Because police protection must be
provided around the clock, in all but
the smallest communities some of­
ficers are on duty over weekends, on
holidays, and at night. Policemen are
subject to call any time their serv­
ices are needed and may work over­
time in emergencies. In some depart­
ments, overtime is paid at straight
time or time and a half; in others, of­
ficers may be given an equal amount
of time off on another day of the
Police officers generally are cov­
ered by liberal pension plans, ena­
bling many to retire at half pay by
the time they reach age 55. In addi­
tion, paid vacations, sick leave, and
medical and life insurance plans fre­
quently are provided.
Policemen may have to work out­
doors for long periods in all kinds of
weather. The injury rate is higher
than in many occupations and re­
flects the risks officers take in pursu­
ing speeding motorists, capturing
lawbreakers, and dealing with public


Fraternal Order of Police, National
Headquarters, 3094 Bertha St.,
Flint, Mich. 48504.

(D.O.T. 375.1 18, .138, .168,
.228, .268, and .388)
Nature of the Work

The laws and regulations that
govern the use of our Nation’s road­
ways are designed to insure the safe­
ty of all citizens. State policemen
(sometimes called State highway
patrolmen or troopers) patrol our
highways and enforce these laws.
State police officers issue traffic
tickets to motorists who violate the
law. At the scene of an accident, they
direct traffic, give first aid, call for
emergency equipment including
ambulances, and write reports to be
used in determining the cause of the
In addition, State police officers

provide services to motorists on the
highways. For example, they radio
for road service for drivers in
mechanical trouble, direct tourists to
their destination, or give informa­
tion about lodging, restaurants, and
tourist attractions.
State police officers also provide
traffic assistance and control during
road repairs, fires, and other emer­
gencies, as well as for special occur­
rences such as parades and sports
events. They sometimes check the
weight of commercial vehicles, con­
duct driver examinations, and give
information on highway safety to the
State policemen may investigate
crimes, such as thefts, murders, and
narcotics violations, particularly in
areas that do not have a police force.
They sometimes help city or county
police investigate criminals, catch
lawbreakers, and control civil dis­
turbances. State highway patrols,
however, normally are restricted to
responsibilities involving vehicle and
traffic matters.

Sources off Additional

Information about entrance re­
quirements may be obtained from
local civil service commissions or
police departments.
Additional information describ­
ing careers as policemen or police­
women may be obtained from:
International Association of Chiefs of
P o l i c e , 11 F i r s t f i e l d Rd . ,
Gaithersburg, Md. 20760.

State police investigate serious accident.



Some police officers specialize in
fingerprint classification, chemical
or microscopic analysis of criminal
evidence, instructing trainees in
State police schools, and piloting
police aircraft. Others work with
special State police units such as the
mounted police, canine corps, and
marine patrols.
State police officers also write re­
ports and maintain police records.
Some officers, including division or
bureau chiefs responsible for train­
ing or investigation and those who
command police operations in an as­
signed area, have administrative
Places of Employment

About 44,000 State police officers
were employed in 1972. Although
almost all were men, positions for
women are expected to increase in
the future.
The size of State police forces
varies considerably. The largest force
(in California) has over 5,000 of­
ficers; the smallest (in North
Dakota) has fewer than 100. One
state (Hawaii) does not maintain a
police force.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

State civil service regulations
govern the appointment of State
police officers. All candidates must
be citizens of the United States.
Other entry requirements vary by
State, but most require applicants to
have a high school education or an
equivalent combination of educa­
tion and experience and be at least 21
years old.
Officers must pass a competitive
examination and meet physical and
personal qualifications. Physical re­
quirements include standards of
height, weight, and eyesight. Tests of
strength and agility often are re­

quired. Because honesty and a sense
of responsibility are important in
police work, an applicant’s char­
acter and background are in­
Although State police officers
work independently, they must per­
form their duties in line with depart­
ment rules. They should want to
serve the public and be willing to
work outdoors in all types of
In all States, recruits enter a for­
mal training program for several
months. They receive classroom in­
struction in State laws and jurisdic­
tions, and they study procedures for
accident investigation, patrol, and
traffic control. Recruits learn to use
guns, defend themselves from at­
tack, handle an automobile at high
speeds, and give first aid. After gain­
ing experience, some officers take
advanced training in police science,
administration, law enforcement, or
criminology. Classes are held at
junior colleges, colleges and univer­
sities, or special police institutions
such as the National Academy of the
Federal Bureau of Investigation.
High school and college courses in
English, reading, government, psy­
chology, sociology, and physics help
in preparing for a police career.
Physical education and sports are
useful for developing stamina and
agility. Completion of a driver
education course and training re­
ceived in military police schools also
are assets.
Police officer recruits serve a
probationary period ranging from six
months to three years. After a speci­
fied length of time, officers become
eligible for promotion. Most States
have merit promotion systems that
require officers to pass a competi­
tive examination to qualify for the
next highest rank. Although the
organization of police forces varies
by State, the typical avenue of ad­
vancement is from private to corpo­

ral, to sergeant, to first sergeant, to
lieutenant, and then captain. Police
officers who show administrative
ability may be promoted to higher
level jobs such as commissioner or
In some States, high school grad­
uates may enter State police work as
cadets. These paid civilian employ­
ees of the police organization attend
classes to learn various aspects of
police work and are assigned nonen­
forcement duties. Cadets who qual­
ify may be appointed to the State
police force at age 21.
Employment Outlook

State police employment is ex­
pected to rise very rapidly through
the mid-1980’s. Although most jobs
will result from growth in employ­
ment, some openings will be to re­
place officers who retire, die, or leave
the occupation for other reasons.
Although some State police will be
needed in criminal investigation and
other nonhighway functions, the
greatest demand will be for officers
to work in highway patrol. This is the
result of a growing and more mobile
population. Along with an increas­
ing number of motor vehicles, the
nature of highway systems is rapidly
changing. Limited access highways
need heavier police patrol to control
high speeds, prevent accidents, and
help stranded motorists. The newer
dual highways also require more
patrolmen, because officers can han­
dle only one side of these roads.
Because law enforcement work is
becoming more complex, specialists
will be needed in crime laboratories
and electronic data processing cen­
ters to develop administrative and
criminal information systems.
Earnings and Working

In 1972, beginning salaries for
State policemen ranged from about


$500 to nearly $800 a month. The
most common entry rates ranged
from $600 to $700 a month. Al­
though starting salaries are nor­
mally higher in the West and lower in
the South, State police officers on
the average earn about one and onehalf times as much as nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
State policemen generally receive
regular increases, based on experi­
ence and performance, until a speci­
fied maximum is reached. The 1972
maximums ranged from $700 to over
$1,200 a month; the most common
maximum rates ranged between $800
and $900 a month. Earnings in­
crease with promotions to higher
ranks. The most common maximum
salaries for State police sergeants
were between $900 and $1,000. Lieu­
tenants earn more, often between
$1,100 and $1,200 a month.
State police agencies usually pro­
vide officers with uniforms, fire­
arms, and other necessary equip­
ment, or give special allowances for
their purchase.
In many States, the scheduled
workweek for police officers is 40
hours. Although the workweek is
longer in some States, hours over 40
are being reduced. Since police
protection must be provided around
the clock, some officers are on duty
over weekends, on holidays, and at
night. Police officers also are sub­
ject to emergency calls at any time.
State policemen usually are cov­
ered by liberal pension plans. Paid
vacations, sick leave, and medical
and life insurance plans frequently
are provided.
The work of State police officers is
sometimes dangerous. They always
run the risk of an automobile acci­
dent while pursuing speeding motor­
ists or fleeing criminals. Officers also
face the risk of injury while appre­
hending criminals or controlling dis­

Sources of Additional

Information about specific en­
trance requirements may be ob­
tained from State civil service com­
missions or State police head­
quarters, usually located in each
State Capitol.

(D.O.T 168.168, 168.268,
and 168.287)
Nature of the Work

Protecting the public from health
and safety hazards, prohibiting un­
fair trade and employment prac­
tices, and raising revenue are includ­
ed in the wide range of responsibil­
ities of government. Health and
regulatory inspectors insure observ­
ance of the laws and regulations that
govern these responsibilities.
The duties, titles, and responsibil­
ities of Federal, State, and local
health and regulatory inspectors vary
widely. Some types of inspectors
work only for the Federal Govern­
ment while others also are employed
by State and local governments.
Health and regulatory inspectors are
two of the principal types of govern­
ment inspectors. For discussion of a
third, see the statement on Construc­
tion Inspectors (Government) else­
where in the Handbook. Many other
workers employed as accountants,
agricultural cooperative extension
service workers, and other agricul­
tural professionals, manufacturing
inspectors, safety professionals, and
sanitarians also have inspection
Health inspectors work with
en g in eers, ch em ists, m ic ro ­


biologists, and health workers to in­
sure compliance with public health
and safety regulations governing
food, drugs, and various other con­
sumer products. They also ad­
minister regulations that govern the
quarantine of persons and products
entering the United States from
foreign countries. The major types of
health inspectors are: food and drug,
meat and poultry, egg products,
foreign quarantine, and agricultural
quarantine inspectors.
Federal, State, and local govern­
ment laws declare that marketed
foods must be wholesome and
produced under sanitary conditions;
that drugs, cosmetics, therapeutic
devices, and other products must be
safe and effective for their intended
uses; and that such products must be
honestly packaged and labeled. Food
and drug inspectors make certain
that the Nation’s businesses comply
with these laws.
Most food and drug inspectors
specialize in one area of inspection
such as food, feeds and pesticides,
weights and measures, or drugs
and cosmetics. Some, especially
those who work for the Federal
government, may be proficient in
several of these areas. Working in­
dividually or in teams under the
direction of a senior or supervisory
inspector they travel throughout a
geographical area to check, periodi­
cally, firms that produce, handle,
store, and market food, drugs, and
cosmetics. They look for evidence of
inaccurate product labeling, decom­
position, chemical or bacteriological
contamination, and other factors
that could result in a product becom­
ing detrimental to consumer health.
They assemble evidence of viola­
tions using portable scales, cameras,
ultraviolet lights, container sampling
devices, thermometers, chemical
testing kits, and other types of equip­
Product samples collected as part



Food and drug inspector checks food for leakage or signs of contamination.

of their examinations are sent to
laboratories for analysis. After com­
pleting their inspection, they discuss
their observations with the manage­
ment of the plant and point out any
areas where corrective measures are
needed. They prepare written reports
of their findings, and, when neces­
sary, compile evidence that may be
used in court if legal actions must be
taken to effect compliance with the
Federal and State laws empower
meat and poultry inspectors to in­
spect meat, poultry, and their by­
products to insure that they are
wholesome and safe for public con­
sumption. Working as part of a con­
stant on-site team under the general
supervision of a veterinarian, they in­
spect meat and poultry, slaughter­
ing, processing, and packaging oper­
ations. Those carcasses or parts
found to be safe and wholesome are
conspicuously stamped to that effect.

They condemn as unfit for human
consumption any animals, carcasses,
or processed meat and poultry which
they find displaying evidence of dis­
ease, contam ination, or poor
processing. Meat and poultry inspec­
tors also collect samples for labora­
tory analysis and examine all non­
meat ingredients used in processing.
They check to see that products are
labeled correctly and that proper
sanitation is maintained in slaughter­
ing and processing operations.
Egg products inspectors are en­
trusted by law with the responsibil­
ity of insuring that egg products are
sanitarily processed and packaged
free of contamination or spoilage.
Working at egg processing plants,
they supervise the washing and ex­
amination of shell eggs to insure that
broken eggs are removed and
destroyed or denatured. They super­
vise the processing, cooling, pasteur­
ization, storage, and handling of all

dried, liquid, or frozen egg products.
Periodically, they select samples of
processed egg products for labora­
tory analysis to insure that they have
not spoiled or become contaminated
due to improper storage or handling.
Each day before production begins,
they also inspect the plant and its
equipment to insure that it has been
properly cleaned and that the stand­
ards of sanitation are maintained.
The responsibility of foreign
quarantine inspectors is to prevent
the importation of communicable
d is e a s e s . They in s p e c t th e
passengers, crew, and cargo of air­
craft, and maritime vessels arriving
at airports and seaports, to deter­
mine their medical acceptability for
entrance into the United States.
Working closely with customs, im­
migration, and agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors, they exam ine
travelers for symptoms of diseases,
such as smallpox. Any individuals
that they believe to be ill they detain
for examination by a physician.
Foreign quarantine inspectors also
enforce regulations pertaining to the
admission of animals into the United
States since many diseases common
to various species of animals are
communicable to man. In addition,
they prepare and maintain docu­
ments, certificates, and reports on
persons or animals detained under
suspicion of having contracted a
communicable disease.
Agricultural quarantine inspectors
protect American agricultural prodducts from the introduction and
spread of foreign plant pests and
animal diseases. To safeguard the
health of crops, forests, and gardens,
they inspect ships, aircraft, railroad
cars, and motor vehicles seeking to
enter the United States for the
presence of restricted or prohibited
plant or animal materials. They
often work with customs inspectors
to inspect mail and passenger
baggage. They examine fruits and


vegetables, nursery stock, plants,
seeds, and soil passing through ports
of entry for the presence of foreign
insects, mites, snails, or plant dis­
eases. Plants and plant products
restricted, suspected to be pest in­
fested, or with which “hitchhiking”
pests are associated are ordered
destroyed or fumigated. Agri­
cultural quarantine inspectors also
examine meat and animal products
and by-products entering the United
States from foreign countries to
determine that they are properly
processed and do not carry danger­
ous foreign animal diseases. At the
request of American exporters, they
may also inspect and certify domes­
tically grown plants and plant and
animal products for compliance with
the import requirements of foreign
Regulatory inspectors insure com­
pliance with various laws and regula­
tions that protect the public welfare
Important types of regulatory in­
spectors are: immigration, customs,
aviation safety, mine, wage-hour
compliance, and alcohol, tobacco,
and firearms inspectors.
Immigration inspectors interview
and examine people seeking admis­
sion, readmission, or the privileges of
passing through or residing in the
United States. They inspect the pass­
ports of aliens and U.S. citizens to
determine whether they are legally
eligible to enter the United States
and to verify their citizenship, status,
and identity. Working closely with
inspectors in foreign quarantine,
a g ric u ltu ra l q u a ra n tin e , and
customs, they examine the visas of
aliens and inquire as to the reasons
for their visit. If they question an in­
dividual’s admissibility, he can be
detained. Immigration inspectors
also prepare reports, maintain
records, and process applications
and petitions by aliens for privileges
such as immigrating to or tempo­
rarily living in the United States.

Customs inspectors enforce the
laws governing U.S. imports and ex­
ports. Stationed at airports, sea­
ports, and border crossing points
they count, weigh, gauge, measure,
and sample commercial cargoes
entering and leaving the United
States to determine the amount of
tax that must be paid. They also in­
spect baggage and articles worn or
carried by the passengers and crew of
ships, aircraft, and motor vehicles to
insure that all merchandise being
brought through ports of entry is
declared and the proper taxes paid.
Most often, customs inspectors
participate in a traveler inspection
program at points that have a large
volume of travelers passing through.
They screen travelers and baggage
for violations of immigration laws,
public health quarantine regula­
tions, or transportation of prohib­
ited meats, plants, or other mate­
rials. Customs inspectors who work
at isolated border crossing points
often perform the added duties of
health, immigration and agricul­
tural inspecting. They also partici­
pate in the enforcement of gold, nar­
cotics, and trademark restrictions
and work with Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI) agents, treasury
agents, and other law enforcement
officers. When not conducting in­
spections, they write reports and
keep records.
A viation safety officers insure that
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) regulations that govern the
quality and safety of aircraft equip­
ment and personnel are maintained.
Aviation safety officers may inspect
aircraft manufacturing, mainte­
nance, or operations procedures.
They usually specialize in inspecting
either commercial aircarriers or
general aviation (privately owned
and operated aircraft).
Working under the direction of a
principal inspector, teams of from
two to four manufacturing inspec­


tors check the construction of every
aircraft to assure that it conforms to
its approved and certificated design.
They spend about one half of their
time visiting production facilities to
make measurements and check the
materials used during construction.
Their results and observation are
recorded and any changes or devia­
tion they find from the certificated
production model must receive ap­
proval or be corrected. They issue
A irw orthiness C ertificates to
acknowledge that an aircraft con­
forms to its design type. They also
inspect manufacturers’ production
facilities and evaluate production
methods and quality control sys­
tems in order to improve the quality
and safety of aircraft being manu­
Aviation maintenance inspectors
adm inister Federal regulations
relating to the maintenance of com­
mercial and private aircraft. They
periodically examine and certify me­
chanics, mechanic training pro­
grams, and schools. They also in­
spect and certificate aircraft repair
and maintenance facilities and major
overhauls of aircraft or alterations.
They determine if work was per­
formed in accordance with the manu­
facturer’s latest instructions and
FAA approved methods, tech­
niques, and practices.
Aviation operation inspectors in­
spect and certify aircraft pilots and
flight crews, training programs and
schools, pilot examiners, flight in­
structors, and instructional mate­
rials. Most operations inspectors ex­
amine and certify the pilots and
crews of one or two models of planes.
They also observe the semiannual
proficiency flight checks given com­
mercial pilots by their airlines or
supervise the activities of approved
FAA pilot examiners and inspect
and certify general aviation ground
and flight instructors, pilots, and
other airmen. Operations inspectors


spend much of their time in the cock­
pit of aircraft observing the pilot and
crews under actual flight conditions.
Mine inspectors work to enhance
the health and safety of miners and
to promote good mining practices.
Federal mine inspectors are responsi­
ble for inspecting nearly 21,000 min­
ing and quarrying operations.
To insure compliance with safety
laws and regulations, mine inspec­
tors visit mines and related facilities
to obtain information on health and
safety conditions. Before an inspec­
tion, they study the mine’s permits,
authorizations, and records to
familiarize themselves with its opera­
tions. They note areas where viola­
tions were discovered in previous in­
spections and check on how these
were corrected. At the work site,
they look for evidence of flam­
mable, combustible, or explosive
gasses and dust and check roof sup­
ports, quantity of airflow, storage of
explosives, haulage systems, and
automatic mining equipment. They
also inspect the surface equipment
such as the electrical installations,
elevators, and ventilation systems.
Mine inspectors discuss their find­
ings with the management of the
mine, prepare written reports that
substantiate their findings and
decisions, and issue notices of find­
ings that describe violations and
hazards that must be corrected. They
also investigate and prepare reports
on mine accidents and direct rescue
and firefighting operations when
fires or explosions occur.
Wage-hour compliance officers in­
spect the employer’s time, payroll,
and personnel records to insure com­
pliance with the provisions of vari­
ous Federal laws on minimum
wages, overtime, pay, employment
of minors, equal employment, and
wage garnishment. They often inter­
view em ployees to verify the
employer’s records and to check for
any complaints. As recognized


authorities on wage and hour stand­
ards, compliance officers often are
consulted for advice by members of
management and labor union of­
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in­
spectors insure that the liquor, tobac­
co, and firearms industries comply
with the provisions of revenue laws
and other regulations on operating
procedures, unfair competition, and
trade practices. They spend most of
their time inspecting distilleries,
wineries, breweries; cigar and
cigarette manufacturing plants;
wholesale liquor dealers and im­
porters; firearms and explosives
manufacturers, dealers, and users;
and other regulated facilities. They
periodically audit these establish­
ments to determine that appropriate
taxes are correctly determined and
paid. Alcohol, tobacco, and fire­
arms inspectors also safeguard
against unfair competition and trade

Federal Aviation Administration;
wage-hour compliance officers, for
the Department of Labor; mine in­
spectors, the Department of the
Interior; and alcohol, tobacco, and
firearms inspectors, the Treasury
Department. Immigration, customs,
and foreign and agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors work at airports, sea­
ports, border crossing points, and at
foreign airports and seaports. They
are employed by the Justice and the
Treasury Departments.
Training, Advancement,
and Other Qualifications

People who want to become health
or regulatory inspectors should be
able to accept responsibility and like
detail work. They should be neat and
personable and able to express them­
selves well orally and in writing.
Curiosity is important since inspec­
tors must keep abreast of techno­
logical advances and other develop­
ments in their fields. Persuasiveness
Places of Employment
also is an asset, since they frequently
Nearly 25,000 people, 5 percent of must convince people to comply with
them women, worked as health and policies and procedures.
The U.S. Food and Drug Ad­
regulatory inspectors in 1972. Of
these, about 3 out of 5 are health in­ ministration requires applicants for
spectors, nearly half of whom are food and drug inspector jobs to have
food and drug inspectors. The largest a bachelor of science degree which
single employer of food and drug in­ includes at least 18 semester hours of
spectors is the U.S. Food and Drug chemistry or biology . They also must
Administration but the majority achieve a satisfactory score on the
work for State governments. Meat, Federal Service Entrance Exam­
poultry, and egg products inspectors ination (FSEE). Applicants who are
who work in processing plants are accepted receive on-the-job training
employed mainly by the U.S. in the coverage of the Food, Drug,
Department of Agriculture. Foreign and Cosmetic Act, the extent of their
quarantine and agricultural quaran­ authority, standards of sanitation
tine inspectors work either for the and purity, inspections and sampling
U.S. Public Health Service or the techniques, and the use of product
testing equipment. They are given
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Regulatory inspectors work for progressively more difficult field
various agencies within the Federal assignments under supervision until
Government, mainly in regional and they are able to conduct independent
district offices distributed through­ inspections.
out the United States. For example,
After 1 to 3 years of experience,
aviation safety officers work for the food and drug inspectors may elect


to specialize in bacteriological sani­
tation, food, or drug inspection.
Courses in these specialized areas are
given by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration, usually in conjunc­
tion with colleges and universities.
Inspectors often become experts in
their chosen specialty Fields and may
be promoted to senior inspector and
then supervisory inspector. Inspec­
tors who display a high level of ex­
pertise in a specialty occasionally
transfer to administrative positions
in that area of operation. Food and
drug inspectors who do not choose to
specialize may advance to senior or
resident inspector and, if qualified, to
supervisory inspector.
A high school diploma and experi­
ence in meat or poultry slaughtering
or processing generally are min­
imum requirements for becoming a
meat and poultry inspector. A
college education may be substituted
for experience.
Working under the close super­
vision of experienced inspectors,
trainees are taught plant inspection
procedures that insure sanitary con­
ditions and practices. They are in­
structed how to examine animals,
carcasses, and processed meat and
poultry for evidence of disease, con­
tamination, or other undesirable
conditions. When they are ready to
assume their full inspectional duties,
they usually begin as slaugher inspec­
tors. After gaining experience they
may advance to processing inspec­
tor, inspection supervisor, and
officer-in-charge in a processing es­
A high school education and at
least 3 years of experience in the
quality control of fresh or processed
food generally is the minimum re­
quirement for employment as an egg
products inspector. College educa­
tion may be substituted for experi­
ence at the rate of one year of under­
graduate study for 9 months of ex­
perience. Egg products inspectors

receive classroom instruction in
plant sanitation, facilities, proper
handling of egg products, correct
pasteurization procedures, sampling
techniques, and record keeping. They
get additional training on the job
while working closely with an experi­
enced inspector. Experienced inspec­
tors can advance to supervisory
Applicants for jobs as foreign
quarantine inspectors should have at
least 4 years of experience in com­
municable disease control or en­
vironmental sanitation; sanitary in­
spection at airports, seaports, or
border points; performance of labo­
ratory tests and analyses to deter­
mine the presence of germs or chemi­
cal composition; or recognizing ill­
ness, administering innoculations,
and dispensing medicines. Courses
above the high school level in the bio­
logical or physical sciences, public
health, or sanitary engineering may
be substituted for up to 3 years of ex­
perience. Applicants also must take a
written examination.
Foreign quarantine inspectors
begin as trainees and attend a train­
ing center where they learn regula­
tions and inspection techniques.
They also receive on-the-job train­
ing. Experienced inspectors can ad­
vance to supervisory positions.
The minimum educational re­
quirement for agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors is a bachelor’s degree
with a major in one of the biological
sciences. Undergraduate work
should include at least 20 semester
hours in the life sciences. They
receive additional on-the-job train­
ing and classroom instruction in
these subjects during their First year
of employment. After one year of
successful service, inspectors are
eligible for promotion and may even­
tually progress to specialists, super­
visory, or administrative positions.
People can enter the immigration
inspection Field as an aide or trainee


if they have a minimum of 3 years of
administrative or responsible clerical
work experience that demonstrates
their ability to deal with people,
learn and interpret facts, and obtain
the cooperation of others in follow­
ing procedures and regulations.
College training may be substituted
for up to 3 years of general experi­
ence at the rate of one scholastic year
for 9 months of experience. Appli­
cants must take the FSEE.
Immigration aides and inspector
trainees receive a combination of
formal instruction and on-the-job
training. Trainees may be promoted
after their First year of duty and may
reach the journeyman level after an
additional year. Further advance­
ment to immigration examiner or
positions depends upon individual
The minimum requirement for
beginning customs inspector jobs is 4
years of work experience in govern­
ment, education, business, or the
Armed Forces dealing with people
and enforcing regulations or instruc­
tions. College education may be sub­
stituted for up to three years of ex­
perience at the rate of one year of
college for 9 months of experience.
Completion of all requirements for a
law degree may be substituted for all
experience. Applicants must take the
FSEE, be in good physical condi­
tion, and be free of handicaps which
might hinder them in the per­
formance of their duties.
Customs inspectors begin as
trainees and receive over a month of
formal instruction in their duties.
After a year of on-the-job training in
which they-work an experienced in­
spector, they receive regular assign­
ments. Advancement is possible to
supervisory inspector or to ad­
ministrative positions.
At least 5 years of aviation related
experience usually is required to get
a job as an aviation safety ofFicer.


Resident study in an appropriate
field at an accredited college or uni­
versity, however, may be substituted
for up to 3 years of experience.
Maintenance inspector applicants
must have aircraft maintenance exp e rie n c e and hold an FAA
mechanics certificate. Manufactur­
ing inspector applicants must have
experience in manufacturing of air­
craft and aircraft components.
Applicants for these positions may
substitute a bachelor’s degree in
engineering or aviation for 3 years of
experience. Operations inspector
applicants must have pilot experi­
ence and a commercial pilot cer­
Aviation safety officers are trained
on-the-job and usually attend a 5week indoctrination course in
Oklahoma City. They periodically
receive additional training to famil­
iarize them with the operation, main­
tenance, or inspection of various mod­
els of aircraft or new aircraft manu­
facturing technology. Qualifed avia­
tion safety officers may advance to
supervisory inspector, principal in­
spector, or district office supervisor.
Applicants for beginning mine in­
spection jobs must be in good
physical condition and possess at
least 3 years of experience in mining
or construction work where under­
ground excavation is the principal
activity. They also must take a
general aptitude test and demon­
strate their ability to drive a car. Per­
sons who have at least 5 years of
responsible experience in the mining
industry are not required to take the
aptitude test and may begin at higher
salaries. A bachelor’s degree may be
substituted for 3 years of experience.
Trainees receive 10 weeks of class­
room training in math, English,
public speaking, inspection proce­
dures, mining technology, surface
structures, ventilation systems, roof
supports, respirable dust, and fire
protection. They also receive on-the-


job training by teaming with an ex­
perienced inspector. Their inspec­
tion assignments become progres­
sively more difficult until they are
able to make a solo inspection.
Mine inspectors can advance to in­
spection supervisors, subdistrict and
district managers, and specialists in
dealing with specific types of mine
hazards. Many become mine exam­
iners or mine safety personnel in
private industry.
Wage-hour compliance officers
should have a bachelor’s degree from
an accredited college or university
with at least 24 semester hours credit
in any one or a combination of ac­
counting, business administration,
economics, government, industrial
relations, journalism, law, political
science, sociology, statistics, or
closely related subjects. Three years
of non-clerical work experience that
provides knowledge of the basic prin­
ciples of finance, economics, ac­
counting, statistics, law, business, or
public administration may be sub­
stituted for a bachelor’s degree.
After a few weeks on the job, compli­
ance officer trainees attend a 4-week
training program to acquaint them
with wage-hour laws and standards.
They accompany experienced com­
pliance officers on field assignments
and help them make inspections until
they are ready to undertake inde­
pendent assignments.
At least 3 years of working ex­
perience are generally the minimum
requirement to become an alcohol
and tobacco tax inspector. Educa­
tion at an accredited college or uni­
versity may be substituted for experi­
ence at the rate of one year of study
for 9 months of experience or a
bachelor’s degree in lieu of experi­
ence. Applicants also must achieve a
satisfactory score on the Federal
Service Entrance Examination
People enter the field as trainee in­
spectors and receive a year of train­

ing that includes classroom instruc­
tion in the laws of regulations
governing liquor, tobacco, and fire­
arms industries; orientation in the in­
spection techniques used to deter­
mine compliance; and on-the-job
training under the close supervision
of an experienced inspector. The
complexity of their assignments is
gradually increased until they can
work independently.
Employment Outlook

Employment of health and regula­
tory inspectors as a group is expected
to increase very rapidly through the
mid-1980’s. The growth in employ­
ment of health inspectors is expected
to be very rapid but regulatory in­
spectors are expected to have
moderate growth. In addition to job
op p o rtu n ities stem m ing from
growth, many inspectors will be
needed each year to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
Health and regulatory inspection
programs are expected to receive in­
creased emphasis as the importance
of existing programs is recognized
and new mandatory inspection pro­
grams are created in areas where
government involvement is new, par­
ticularly at the State and local level.
Increased food consumption caused
by population growth and growing
public concern over potential health
hazards should create additional jobs
for food and drug, meat, and poul­
try, and egg products inspectors.
Aviation industry growth, in­
creased international travel, and in­
creases in the volume of U.S. im­
ports and exports should continue to
create new openings for aviation
safety officers, foreign and agricultrual quarantine inspectors, im­
migration inspectors, and customs
inspectors. Continued public con­
cern over mine safety and equal
employment rights should create


additional mine inspector and wagehour compliance officer jobs.

Sources off Additional

Earnings and Working

For facts about public administra­
tion inspector careers in the Federal
Government, contact:

With the exception of aviation
safety officers, the Federal Govern­
ment paid health and regulatory in­
spector trainees starting salaries of
$7,694 a year in early 1973; or $9,520
if they had exceptional qualifica­
tions. Aviation safety officers receiv­
ed starting salaries of $11,614.
Salaries of experienced meat and
poultry inspectors, egg products in­
spectors, foreign and agricultural
quarantine inspectors, and customs
and immigration inspectors ranged
from $11,614 to $15,097 a year in
1973. S alaries of experienced
alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in­
spectors ranged from $11,614 to
$18,190. Experienced food and drug
inspectors and wage-hour com­
pliance officers received salaries
ranging from $13,996 to $18,190.
Mine inspector and aviation safety
officers earned between $16,682 and
$ 21, 686 .
Most health and regulatory in­
spectors live an active life, meeting
many people and working in a varie­
ty of environments. They must often
travel a great deal but are usually
furnished with an automobile.
At times inspectors must work un­
der unfavorable working conditions.
For example, meat and poultry, egg
products, and alcohol, tobacco, and
firearms inspectors frequently come
in contact with strong, unpleasant
odors; aviation maintenance inspec­
tors who spend much of their time in
maintenance and repair shops, must
tolerate a lot of noise, and mine in­
spectors spend a great deal of time in
mines where they are exposed to the
same hazards as miners. Many in­
spectors work long and often irregu­
lar hours.

Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Ser­
vice Examiners for Washington,
D.C. 1900 E St. NW ., Washington,
D.C. 20415.

Information about career oppor­
tunities as inspectors in State and
local governments is available from
the State Civil Service Commissions,
usually located in each State capital,
or from local government offices.

(D.O.T. 168.168 and 182.287)
Nature of the Work

Federal, State, and local govern­
ment construction inspectors insure
that recognized standards of safe
construction and quality workman­
ship are observed in public and pri­
vate construction. They inspect the
construction, alteration, or repair of
highways, streets, sewer and water
systems, dams, bridges, buildings,
and other structures to insure com­
pliance with building codes and ordi­
nances, zoning regulations, and con­
tract specifications.
Construction inspectors visit
worksites to inspect recently com­
pleted construction. On large proj­
ects, visits generally are required
after each new stage of construction
is completed. Members of large in­
spection staffs may be assigned to a
single complex project. Inspectors
prepare written reports and often
keep a daily log of their work.
Inspections are primarily visual in
nature, although blueprints, tape


measures, standard electrical meter­
ing devices and equipment fre­
quently are used for testing the qual­
ity of concrete.
Construction inspectors notify the
construction contractor, super­
intendent, or foreman when they dis­
cover a detail of a project that is not
in compliance with the appropriate
codes, ordinances, or contract
specifications. If the deficiency is not
corrected within a reasonable period
of time, they have authority to issue
a “stop-work” order.
Many inspectors also investigate
reported incidents of “bootlegging,”
construction or alteration that is be­
ing carried on without proper per­
mits. Persons found in violation of
permit laws are directed to obtain
permits and submit to inspection.
Construction inspectors must keep
ab reast of new building code
developments, since they advise
representatives of the construction
industry and the general public on
matters of code interpretation, con­
struction practices, and new tech­
nical developments. Senior inspec­
tors usually coordinate the inspec­
tion of large projects and handle the
m o st c o m p le x in s p e c tio n
In addition to their field inspec­
tion duties, supervisory construction
inspectors assign and coordinate the
work of other inspectors and review
reports submitted to them. They may
review plans and specifications of
proposed construction for com­
pliance with codes, interpret codes
and ordinances, and prepare con­
struction progress reports. Super­
visory building inspectors are often
asked to assist in drawing up or
revising local building codes and or­
Construction inspectors generally
specialize in one particular type of
construction work. Broadly cate­
gorized, these are building, elec­
trical, mechanical, and public works.



tems, an generating equipment. They
also may inspect the installation of
the electrical wiring or heating and
air conditioning systems, kitchen
appliances, and other components.
Mechanical inspectors inspect
plumbing systems including septic
tanks, plumbing fixtures and traps,
water, sewer, and vent lines. They
also inspect the installation of the
mechanical components of kitchen
appliances, heating and air-con­
ditioning equipment, gasoline and
butane tanks, gas piping, and gas
fired appliances. Some specialize in
boiler, mechanical components, or
plumbing inspection.
Public works inspectors insure
that Federal, State, and local govern­
ment construction of water and
sewer systems, highways, streets,
bridges, and dams conform to de­
tailed contract specifications. They
inspect excavation and fill oper­
ations, the placement of forms for
concrete, concrete mixing and pour­
ing, and asphalt paving. They also
record the amount of work per­
formed and materials used so that
contract payment calculations can be
made. Public works inspectors may
specialize in inspection of highways,
reenforced concrete, or ditches.
A construction inspector checks a blueprint for compliance with the building code.

Building inspectors inspect the
structural quality of buildings. Be­
fore construction, they determine
whether the plans for the building or
other structure comply with local
zoning regulations and are suited to
the engineering and environmental
demands of the building site. They
visit the worksite before the founda­
tion is poured to inspect the posi­
tioning and depth of the footings.
They inspect the foundation after it
has been completed. The size and
type of structure and the rate of com­
pletion determine the frequency and

number of other visits they must
make. Upon completion of the proj­
ect, they conduct a final compre­
hensive inspection. Some building in­
spectors may specialize, for example,
in structural steel or reinforced con­
Electrical inspectors inspect the in­
stallation of electrical systems and
equipment to insure that they work
properly and are in compliance with
electrical codes and standards. They
visit worksites to inspect the instal­
lation of new and existing wiring,
lighting, sound and security sys­

Places of Employment

About 23,000 persons, nearly all
of them men, worked as Federal,
State, and local government con­
struction inspectors in 1972. More
than three-fourths worked for
municipal or county building depart­
ments. Public works construction in­
spectors were employed primarily at
the Federal and State level.
The employment of local govern­
ment construction inspectors is con­
centrated in cities and in suburban
areas undergoing rapid growth. They
employ larger inspection staffs in­
cluding most of the local construc­
tion inspectors who specialize in



structural steel, reenforced concrete,
and boiler inspection.
About half the construction in­
spectors employed by the Federal
Government work for the Depart­
ment of Defense, primarily for the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Training, Advancement, and
Other Qualifications

To become a construction inspec­
tor, several years of experience is
generally required as a construction
contractor, supervisor, or crafts­
man. Federal, State, and most local
governments also require an appli­
cant to have a high school diploma.
Workers who want to become in­
spectors should have a thorough
knowledge of construction materials
and practices in either a general area
like structural or heavy construc­
tion, or in a specialized area such as
electrical or plumbing systems, reen­
forced concrete, or structural steel.
Many employers prefer inspectors to
be graduates of an apprenticeship
program, to have studied at least two
years toward an engineering or archi­
tectural degree, or to have a degree
from a community or junior college,
with courses in construction tech­
nology, blueprint reading, technical
mathematics, English, and building
Construction inspectors must be in
good physical condition in order to
walk and climb about construction
sites. They also must have a motor
vehicle operator’s license. In addi­
tion, Federal, State, and many local
governments usually require that
construction inspectors pass a civil
service examination.
Construction inspectors receive
most of their training on the job.
During the First couple of weeks, they
learn about inspection techniques;
codes, ordinances, and regulations;
contract specifications; and record­
keeping and reporting duties by

working with an experienced inspec­
tor. They begin by inspecting less
complex types of construction such
as residential buildings. The diffi­
culty of their assignments is grad­
ually increased until they are able to
handle complex assignments. An
engineering degree is frequently
needed in order to advance to super­
visory inspector.
The Federal Government and
most State and large city govern­
ments conduct formal training pro­
grams for their construction inspec­
tors to broaden their knowledge of
construction materials, practices,
and inspection techniques or ac­
quaint them with new materials and
practices. Inspectors who work for
smaller local construction inspec­
tion agencies which do not conduct
training programs frequently can
broaden their knowledge of construc­
tion and upgrade their skills by at­
tending State-conducted training
programs or by taking college or cor­
respondence courses.
Employment Outlook

Employment of government con­
struction inspectors is expected to
grow rapidly through the mid 1980’s.
Because of the increasing com­
plexity of construction technology as
well as the trend towards estab­
lishment by State governments of
minimum professional standards for
construction inspectors, job oppor­
tunities should be best for inspectors
who have some college education or
knowledge of a specialized type of
In addition to growth needs, job
openings for construction inspectors
will occur each year to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
The rapid growth in employment
of construction inspectors should re­
sult from population increases and
continued expansion in residential

construction. The demand for con­
struction inspectors also should in­
crease as they are given more respon­
sibility for insuring quality work­
manship and safe construction of
prefabricated building materials and
other components that are mass pro­
duced in factories and assembled on
the construction site.
Earnings and Working

Starting salaries of construction
inspectors working in cities and
towns averaged $9,430 a year in
1972, according to a survey con­
ducted by the Public Personnel
Association. Top salaries for senior
inspectors averaged $11,460. Sala­
ries for supervisory inspectors were
higher in large cities; they often re­
ceived as much as $20,000 annually.
Among geographic regions, the
western region of the United States
tended to have the highest salaries,
cities in the southern region the
In the Federal Government, con­
struction inspectors started at $7,694
or $9,520 a year in early 1973, de­
pending on the amount and nature of
their earlier work experience.
Journeyman construction inspectors
were paid salaries ranging from $11,614 to $15,097, and more experi­
enced construction representatives
were paid salaries ranging from $13,996 to $18,109.
Construction inspectors often
spend a large portion of their time
traveling between worksites. Usu­
ally, an automobile is furnished for
their use or their expenses are reim­
bursed if they use their own. Since
they spend the majority of their time
outdoors or in partially enclosed
structures, they are exposed to all
types of inclement weather.
Unlike the seasonal and intermit­
tent nature of employment in many
of the occupations associated with



the construction industry, inspection
work tends to be steady and yearround.
Sources of Additional

Persons seeking additional infor­
mation on a career as a State or local
government construction inspector

should contact their State employ­
ment service, their local building
department, or:
Secretariat of the N ational Con­
ference of States on Building Codes
and Standards, Building Research
D ivision, N ation al Bureau o f
Standards, Washington, D.C. 20234.
International Conference of Building
Officials, 5360 Workman Mill Rd.,
Whittier, Calif. 90601.

Persons interested in a career as a
construction inspector with the Fed­
eral Government can get informa­
tion from:
Interagency Board of the U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washington,
1900 E St. N W „
Washington, D.C. 20415.


(D.O.T. 233.138 and 233.388)
Nature of the Work

Most mail carriers, commonly
known as mailman, travel planned
routes delivering and collecting mail.
Carriers start work at the post office
early in the morning, spend a few
hours arranging their mail for deliv­
ery, readdress letters to be for­
warded, and take care of other de­
tails such as signing receipts for
postage-due and cash-on-delivery
(c.o.d.) items.
A carrier typically covers the route
on foot, toting a heavy load of mail
in a leather bag or pushing it in a
cart. In outlying suburban areas
where houses are far apart a car or
small truck is sometimes needed to
deliver mail. Residential carriers
cover their routes only once a day,
but carriers assigned a business dis­
trict may make two or more trips.
Deliveries are made house-to-house
except in large buildings, such as
apartment houses, which have all the
mail boxes on the first floor.
Besides making deliveries, car­
riers collect postage-due and c.o.d.
fees and obtain signed receipts for
registered and certain insured mail.
If a customer is not home a notice is
left that tells where special mail is be­
ing held. Carriers also pick up let­
ters to be mailed.
After completing their routes, car­
riers return to the post office with
mail gathered from street boxes and
homes. They separate letters and
parcels so that stamps can be cancel­

ed easily and turn in the receipts and
money collected during the day.
Many carriers have more special­
ized duties than those described
above. Some deliver only parcel post.
Others collect mail from street boxes
and office mail chutes. Rural car­
riers provide a wide variety of postal
services. In addition to delivering
and picking up mail, they may sell
stamps and money orders and ac­
cept parcels and letters to be regis­
tered or insured.
All carriers answer customers’
questions about postal regulations
and service and provide change-ofaddress cards and other postal forms
when requested.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Mail carriers must be at least 18
and pass a four-part written ex­
amination. The first part tests read­
ing accuracy by asking the applicant
to compare pairs of addresses and
indicate which are identical. The se­
cond part tests ability to follow oral
instructions. The third measures gen­
eral intelligence, including vocabu­
lary, and the fourth tests ability to do
simple arithmetic.
Applicants must have a driver’s
license and pass a road test if the job
involves driving. They also must pass
a physical examination and may be
asked to show that they can lift and
handle mail sacks weighing up to 70
pounds. Applicants who have had
health conditions that might inter­
fere with work must have a special
review to determine their eligibility.

Applicants should apply at the
post office where they wish to work
because each post office keeps a
separate list of those who have pass­
ed the examination. Applicants’
names are listed in order of their
scores. Five extra points are added to
the score of an honorably dis­
charged veteran, and 10 extra points
to the score of a veteran wounded in
combat or disabled. Disabled veter­
ans who have a compensable, serv­
ice-connected disability of 10 per­
cent or more are placed at the top of
the list. When a vacancy occurs, the
appointing officer chooses one of the
top three applicants; the rest of the
names remain on the list to be con­
sidered for future openings.
Mail carriers are classified as
casual, part-time flexible, part-time
regular, or full-time. Casual work­
ers are hired to help handle the
Christmas mail. Part-time flexible
employees do not have a regular
work schedule but replace absent
workers and help with extra work as
the need arises. Part-time regulars
have a set work schedule—for exam­
ple, four hours a day.



New carriers are trained on the
job. They begin as part-time flexible
city carriers and become regular or
full-time carriers in order of senior­
ity as vacancies occur. Advance­
ment possibilities are limited, but
carriers can look forward to obtain­
ing preferred routes as city carriers,
or to jobs as rural carriers, as their
seniority increases. The supervisory
examination may be taken after 4 to
5 years of service.
Employment Outlook

E m p lo y m e n t of m ail c a r ­
riers—who numbered 263,000 in
1972—is expected to grow slowly
through the mid-1980’s. Most job
openings, however, will arise as a
result of the need to replace experi­
enced workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
As population and business grows,
mail volume is expected to increase
and more carriers will be needed.
Most openings will be for city car­
riers since most of the growth in
population and business activity will
be in urban and suburban areas. Lit­
tle or no change is expected in rural
carrier employment.
Earnings and Working

In mid-1972, wages of part-time
flexible carriers began at $4.02 an
hour, with periodic increases up to
$5.31 an hour after 7 years of serv­
ice. Hourly wages of part-time regu­
lars were $3.88 an hour, with peri­
odic increases up to $5.12 an hour
after 7 years of service.
Full-time city carriers are paid on
an annual basis, beginning at $8,072
and increasing to a maximum of
$10,657 after 7 years. Those pro­
moted to parcel-post carriers earn up
to $11,448.
Rural carriers are paid a fixed an­
nual salary plus an amount varying
with the number of miles in their

routes. They also receive an allow­
ance of 12 cents a mile for the use of
their automobiles. For example, as
of July 1972, the salary of a carrier
with a 61-mile route (the average
length) would begin at $8,614 a year
and increase to $11,199 after 7 years.
The automobile allowance provides
an extra $7.32 each work day.
Substitute rural carriers receive the
same pay as the regular carriers
whose routes they are covering.
A full-time city carrier usually
works an 8-hour day, 5 days a week.
City carriers who work more than 8
hours a day or 40 hours a week are
paid one and one-half times their
regular rate of pay for the extra
hours. City carriers who work either
full or part-time receive 10 percent
additional pay for work between 6
p.m. and 6 a.m. Rural carriers work
either a 5- or 6-day week and do not
receive overtime pay.
Most carriers begin work early in
the morning, in some cases as early
as 6 a.m. if they have routes in the
business district. Carriers spend
most of their time outdoors in all
kinds of weather, walking from
house to house with their heavy mailbags. Even those who drive must
walk when making deliveries, and
must lift heavy sacks of parcel post
when loading their vehicles.
The job has its advantages, how­
ever. Carriers who begin work early
in the morning are through by early
afternoon. They are also free to work
at their own pace as long as they
cover their routes within a certain
period of time.
(For information on fringe bene­
fits, see the statement on postal serv­
ice occupations elsewhere in the

ply details about entrance examina­
tions and employment opportunities
for mail carriers.

(D.O.T. 235.862)
Nature of the Work

Although millions of telephone
numbers are dialed each day with­
out assistance, practically every one
sometimes makes a call that re­
quires help from the operator. Often
the operator is asked to reverse long
distance charges, locate an individ­
ual, or indicate the cost of the call.
Frequently the customer needs a cor­
rect number. The operator also may
be needed to contact the police in an
emergency, assist a blind person who
is unable to dial, or arrange a confer­
ence call for business executives in
different locations.
These and many other services are
provided by two groups of oper­
ators—those at switchboards in tele­
phone company central offices and
those at private branch exchange
(PBX) switchboards. Usually oper­
ators place calls by inserting and
removing plugs that make switch­
board connections and by listening
and speaking into their headsets.
Some switchboards are operated by
pushbuttons or dials.
Telephone company operators
may be assigned to handle either
long distance calls or give directory
assistance. Long distance operators
obtain the information needed to
complete the call, make the neces­
sary connections, and record the de­
tails for billing. Directory assistance
Sources of Additional
operators (D.O.T. 235.862) look up
and provide telephone numbers.
Local post offices and State Service assistants train and help new
employment service offices can sup­ operators to complete difficult calls.



PBX operators (D.O.T. 235.862)
run switchboards for business offices
and other establishments. They con­
nect interoffice or house calls,
answer and relay outside calls, assist
company employees in making out­
going calls, supply information to
callers, and record charges. In many
small establishments, PBX oper­
ators work at switchboards that
serve only a limited number of tele­
phones. These operators may do
other office work such as typing or
sorting mail and many also act as
receptionists or information clerks.
(The work of receptionists is de­
scribed elsewhere in the Handbook.)

three-fifths worked as operators in
telephone companies and the rest as
PBX operators in other types of busi­
nesses. A large number of PBX oper­
ators worked in manufacturing
plants, hospitals, schools, and
department stores. Telephone com­
pany and PBX operators tend to be
concentrated in heavily populated
areas. Nearly one-fifth of the total
were employed in the New York,
Chicago, and Los Angeles metro­
politan areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Men and women planning to be­
come telephone operators should like
Places of Employment
to serve the public, be pleasant and
About 400,000 telephone oper­ courteous, and able to sit in a con­
ators were employed in 1972; about fined area for long periods. A clear

and pleasing voice also is important.
Most telephone companies and many
large business firms require appli­
cants to pass physical examinations
and general aptitude tests.
New operators receive on-the-job
training to become familiar with the
equipment, records, and work. Oper­
ators first learn the procedures used
to handle calls. Then they put
through practice calls. After this in­
struction and practice—which usu­
ally lasts from 1 to 3 weeks—they
are assigned to regular operator jobs
and receive further instructions from
PBX operators who handle rou­
tine calls may have a somewhat
shorter training period than tele­
phone company operators. In small
businesses an experienced operator
usually supervises the training. In
large businesses, an instructor from
the local telephone company may
train new employees.
Experienced telephone company
operators may be promoted to cleri­
cal, craft, or supervisory jobs. Simi­
lar opportunities exist for PBX oper­
ators in large firms; in many small
businesses, however, opportunities
for advancement are limited.
Employment Outlook

Employment of telephone and
PBX operators as a group is ex­
pected to show no significant in­
crease through the mid-1980’s.
Thousands of new workers, how­
ever, will be hired each year to re­
place experienced operators who
transfer to other occupations, retire,
or stop working for other reasons.
Although direct dialing and other
changes have displaced many oper­
ators in the past, the number of tele­
phone company operators has in­
creased slightly recently due to the
rise in number of directory assist­
ance and long distance calls, and
further increases are anticipated.



Because of the widespread use of
Central Exchange (CENTREX), the
number of PBX operators is ex­
pected to show little change. With
CENTREX, incoming calls can be
dialed direct to any extension with­
out an operator’s assistance, and out­
going and intercom calls can be dial­
ed direct by the extension users. The
number of new jobs created as more
small and medium size businesses re­
quire PBX services, however, should
about offset reduced demand for
PBX operators among large firms
converting over to CENTREX.
Earnings and Working

Telephone company operators in
training averaged $2.67 an hour in
early 1972; experienced operators
$3.11; service assistants $3.90; and
managers $5.21. Contracts between
unions and telephone companies
generally provide for periodic pay in­
creases and extra pay for work on
evenings, Sundays, and holidays.
Experienced PBX operators in
metropolitan areas averaged $127.50

a week in early 1972; those who han­
dle routine calls averaged $103.00 a
week. Average earnings for PBX
operators were highest in public util­
ities and lowest in retail trade and
service industries.
Most telephone company and
PBX operators work between 35 and
40 hours a week. Often, their sched­
uled hours are approximately the
same as those of other clerical work­
ers in the business community. In
telephone companies, however, and
in hotels, hospitals, and other places
where telephone service is on a 24hour basis operators usually work on
shifts and on holidays and week­
ends. Some operators work split
shifts—that is, they are on duty dur­
ing the peak calling periods in the
late morning and early evening, and
have time off between these two
Operators usually work in welllighted and pleasant surroundings.
Lounges often are provided for
relaxation during “breaks” in their
scheduled hours. Insurance, pension
programs, holidays, vacations, and
other fringe benefits are much the

same as those for other types of cleri­
cal employees.
Many operators employed by tele­
phone companies are members of the
C o m m u n icatio n s W o rk ers of
America, the International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers, and the
Alliance of Independent Telephone
Sources of Additional

For more details about employ­
ment opportunities, contact the tele­
phone company in your community
or local offices of the unions that
represent telephone workers. Gen­
eral information on telephone oper­
ators is available from the following
Alliance of Independent Telephone
Unions, P.O. Box 5462, Hamden,
Conn. 16518.
United States Independent Telephone
Association, 1801 K St. NW .,
Suite 1201, W ashington, D.C.
Communication Workers of America,
1925 K St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.


The industrial and occupational
structure of the Nation has gradu­
ally shifted from goods-producing to
service-producing, white-collar activ­
ities. Accompanying this shift has
been a continued rise in the educa­
tional achievement of the labor

force—in part reflecting changing
job requirements. People also have
more time to spend on education and
personal development.
Today about 3 out of 10 people of
all ages participate in the educa­
tional process as students or teach­

ers. Many more read and study on
their own. The occupations of teach­
ers and librarians play a vital role in
the educational process and are cov­
ered in this section.


Teaching is the largest of the
professions; about 2.7 million full­
time teachers were employed in
1972-73 in the Nation’s elementary
and secondary schools and colleges
and universities. In addition, thou­
sands taught part-time; among them
were many scientists, physicians, ac­
countants, members of other profes­
sions, and graduate students. Simi­
larly, large numbers of craftsmen in­
structed part-time in vocational
schools. Many other people taught in
preschool and adult education and
recreation programs.
No other profession offers women
so many employment opportunities
as teaching. About 1.7 million
women are teachers, or nearly 2 1/2
times as many as are registered
nurses, the second largest field of
professional employment for women.
The number of teachers required
depends on the number of students
enrolled and the number of persons
who leave the profession. New
teachers also are needed to improve
the student-teacher ratio.
Detailed information on how these
demand factors are expected to af­
fect the outlook for teachers through
the mid-1980’s is presented in the
following statements.

(D.O.T. 092.228)
Nature of the Work

Kindergarten and elementary

school teachers introduce children to
science, numbers, language, and
social studies, and develop students’
capabilities in these subject areas.
Their primary job is to provide a
good learning environment and to
plan and present programs of in­
struction using m aterials and
methods designed to suit the stu­
dents’ needs.
Most elementary school teachers
instruct a single group of 25 to 30
children in several subjects. In some
schools two or more teachers “team
teach” and are jointly responsible for
a group of students or for a particu­
lar subject. A recent survey indi­
cates that about 1 public elementary
school teacher in 6 is team teaching.
An increasing number of elemen­
tary school teachers specialize in one

or two selected subjects and teach
these subjects to several classes; 1
teacher in every 5 teaches on this
departmentalized basis. Some teach
special subjects such as music, art, or
physical education, while others
teach basic subjects such as English,
mathematics, or social studies.
Besides the actual student instruc­
tion, teachers participate in many ac­
tivities outside the classroom. They
generally must attend regularly
scheduled faculty meetings and may
serve on faculty committees. They
must prepare lessons and evaluate
student performance. They also
work with students who require spe­
cial help and confer with parents and
other school staff. To stay up-to-date
on educational m aterials and
teaching techniques, they partici­
pate in workshops and other inservice activities.
New forms of instructional media
give teachers more opportunities to
work with students. Also, about 4
out of every 10 public elementary
school teachers have aides who


generally do secretarial work and
help supervise lunch and playground
activities. Thus, growing numbers of
teachers are freed from routine
duties and can give more individual
attention to students.
Places of Employment

More than 1.3 million people—85
percent of them women—worked as
elementary school teachers in 1972.
An increasing number of men, con­
centrated heavily in the upper
grades, teach at the elementary level.
Most teachers work in public
elementary schools that have six
grades; however, some teach in mid­
dle schools—schools that cover the
three or four years between the lower
elementary grades and four years of
high school. Only about 11 percent
of elementary school teachers work
in nonpublic schools.
More than one-third of all public
elementary teachers teach in urban
areas; about one-fifth in cities of
250,000 or more; one-eighth in rural
areas; and the remainder in small
towns or suburban areas.


d e g re e or a f if th y e a r o f
study—within a certain period after
their initial certification. Some States
required U.S. citizenship; some an
oath of allegiance; and several a
health certificate.
Local school systems sometimes
have additional requirements for
employment. Students should write
to the local superintendent of schools
and to the State department of
education for information on spe­
cific requirements in the area in
which they want to teach.
In addition to educational and cer­
tification requirements, a teacher
should be dependable, have good
judgment, and should have the de­
sire and ability to work with chil­
dren. Enthusiasm for teaching and
the competence to handle classroom
situations also are important.
Opportunities for advancement
in elementary teaching come prin­
cipally with experience. Teachers
may advance within a school system
or transfer to another which recog­
nizes experience and has a higher
salary scale. Some teachers may ad­
vance to supervisory, adm inis­
trative, or specialized positions.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employment Outlook

All 50 States and the District of
Columbia require public elementary
school teachers to be certified by the
department of education in the State
in which they work. Some States also
require certification of teachers in
private and parochial schools.
To qualify for certification, a
teacher must study 4 years at an ap­
proved teacher education institu­
tion. Besides a bachelor’s degree
which provides the necessary liberal
arts background, States require that
prospective teachers have student­
teaching and education courses.
In 1972, 11 States required teach­
ers to get supplementary post-gradu­
ate education—usually a master’s

Kindergarten and elementary
school teachers are expected to face
competition for jobs through the
mid-1980’s. If patterns of entry and
reentry to the profession continue in
line with past trends, the number of
persons qualified to teach in elemen­
tary schools will exceed the number
of openings.
Enrollment is the basic factor un­
derlying the need for teachers. Be­
cause of fewer births in the sixties,
elementary enrollments have been on
the decline since they peaked at near­
ly 32 million in 1967. The U.S. Of­
fice of Education projects that by
1977 the downward enrollment trend
will halt at a level of 29 million, and

enrollments again will advance to
nearly 35 million by 1985.
Besides new positions created by
increasing enrollments, additional
techers will be needed to replace
those who are not now certified; to
meet the expected pressure for an im­
proved pupil-teacher ratio; and to fill
positions vacated by teachers who re­
tire, die, or leave the profession for
other reasons. Many persons leave
teaching at least temporarily to take
on full-time homemaking or family
Recent college graduates qual­
ified to teach at the elementary level
and teachers seeking reentry to the
profession make up the basic source
of teacher supply. Through the mid1980’s reentrants to the field will face
increasing competition from new
graduates, and although reentrants
have experience in their favor, begin­
ning teachers may have an advan­
tage because they command lower
salaries and have more recent train­
While the outlook based on past
trends points to a competitive
employment situation through the
mid-1980’s, several factors could in­
fluence the demand for teachers. In­
creased emphasis on early childhood
education, special programs for dis­
advantaged children, and individual
instruction may result in larger
enrollments, smaller student-teacher
ratios, and consequently an in­
creased need for teachers. However,
possible budget restraints for educa­
tional services might limit program
A potential decline in the number
of children born over the next decade
could produce a decrease in the de­
mand for teachers. While the trend
has not been clearly established,
women since 1970 have continued to
have fewer children, and according
to a 1972 survey, they expect to con­
tinue having smaller families than
were common 10 years ago.



Earnings and Working

According to the National Educa­
tion Association (NEA), public
elementary teachers in 1972-73 aver­
aged $9,823 a year. Average earn­
ings in 1972 were about one and onethird times as much as the average
earnings for nonsupervisory work­
ers in private industry, except farm­
ing. In the five highest-paying States
(Alaska, New York, Michigan, Cali­
fornia, and New Jersey), teachers’
salaries averaged more than $11,000;
in the ten States having the lowest
salaries (Mississippi, Arkansas,
Idaho, South Dakota, Kentucky,
Oklahoma, North Dakota, South
C arolina, West V irginia, and
Georgia), they averaged less than
$ 8, 000 .
Public schools systems enrolling
6,000 or more pupils paid teachers
with a bachelor’s degree average
starting salaries of $7,357 a year in
1972-73; those with a master’s de­
gree earned an average of $8,176.
Public elementary teachers work­
ed an average of about 36-1/2 hours
a week in 1972. Additional time
spent preparing lessons, grading
papers, making reports, attending
meetings, and supervising extra­
curricular activities increased the
total number of hours to about 46.
The elementary teacher usually
works 9 months and averages 181
days in the classroom and 4 work­
days on nonteaching activities. In
addition, many teach summer ses­
sions, and others take courses for
professional growth or work at other
jobs during the summer months.
Employment in teaching is steady,
and business conditions usually do
not affect the market for teachers. In
1972, 38 States and the District of
Columbia had tenure laws that in­
sured the jobs of teachers who had
successfully taught for a certain
number of years.
Collective bargaining agreements

cover an increasingly large number
of teachers. In early 1973, 30 States
had enacted laws which required
collective bargaining in the teacher
contract negotiation process. More
than one-half of the public school
systems that enroll 1,000 students or
more bargain with teacher organiza­
tions over wages, hours, and the
terms and conditions of employment.
Sources of Additional

Information on schools and cer­
tification requirements is available
from local school systems and State
departments of education.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Office of Educa­
tion, Washington, D.C. 20202.

Other sources of general informa­
tion are:
American Federation of Teachers,
1012 14th St. NW ., Washington,
D.C. 20005.

Educational A ssociation,

1201 16th S t. N W ., W ashington,

D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 091.228)
Nature of the Work

Secondary school teachers intro­
duce students to subjects ranging
from world history and elementary
algebra to anthropology and com­
puter mathematics. They help mold
their students for future roles as citi­
zens, homemakers, and jobholders.
Secondary school teachers usu­
ally specialize in a particular field.

English, mathematics, social stud­
ies, and science are the subjects most
commonly taught. Other specialties
include health and physical educa­
tion, business education, home
economics, foreign languages, and
music. Increasingly, teachers are
developing courses which deal with
particular areas within the broad
subjects so students may acquire indepth as well as general knowledge
of a field.
Secondary school teachers usu­
ally conduct classes in their spe­
cialty for 5 or 6 groups of students a
day. The average daily pupil load for
public school teachers is 134
Teachers design their classroom
presentation to meet the demands of
a balanced curriculum and to suit the
individual student’s needs. Second­
ary school teachers instruct students
at a single grade level or from dif­
ferent grades. They must consider
the subject matter, as well as instruc­
tional methods and materials that
best meet the students’ needs.
Secondary school teachers also
supervise study halls and home­
rooms, prepare lessons, grade
papers, evaluate students, and at­
tend meetings with parents and
school personnel. Often they work
with student groups outside of class.
Teachers also participate in activ­
ities, such as workshops and college
classes, to keep up-to-date on their
subject specialty and on current
trends in education.
Increasingly, in recent years,
teachers have been able to devote
more time towards improved instruc­
tion due to the increased availability
of teacher aides who perform secre­
tarial work, grade papers, and do
other routine tasks. New develop­
ments in educational technology also
have provided teachers with instruc­
tional media and other new mate­
rials and techniques to improve stu­
dent learning.



A chemistry teacher provides his student with special help.

Places of Employment

More than 1 million teachers
worked in secondary schools in 1972.
Of these, about one-half were
According to a recent survey,
slightly more than one-half of all
public secondary teachers work in
senior high schools; about one-third
teach at the junior high level. About
one-tenth teach in junior-senior high
schools, and a very small number are
elementary-secondary combination
Of those in public schools, about 1
teacher in 5 works in a city of 250,000 or more; 1 in 8 in a city of less
than 250,000. Over one-half teach in
small town or suburban schools; and
about 1 in 7 in a rural location. Only
about 1 teacher in 14 works in a non­
public school.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

All 50 States and the District of

dent-teaching that States require.
They also offer the academic courses
which qualify teachers in subject
specialties taught at the secondary
States and local jurisdictions often
have general teacher requirements,
such as the recommendation of the
college, a certificate of health, and
citizenship. Prospective teachers
may get complete information on
such educational and general re­
quirements from each State depart­
ment of education and from the
superintendent of schools in each
Personal qualifications which a se­
condary teacher must have include a
desire to work with young people,
an interest in a special subject, and
the ability to motivate students and
to relate knowledge to them.
For secondary teachers, educa­
tion and experience provide the pri­
mary bases for advancement. Ad­
vancement to supervisory and ad­
ministrative positions usually re­
quires at least 1 year of professional
education beyond the bachelor’s de­
gree and several years of successful
classroom teaching. Some experi­
enced teachers with special prepara­
tion may work as special school serv­
ice personnel, such as school psy­
chologists, educational specialists, or
guidance counselors. Often these
jobs require special certification as
well as special education.

Columbia require the certification of
public secondary school teachers.
Many States also require certifi­
cation of secondary teachers in
private and parochial schools.
In every State, the minimum
educational requirement for certifi­
cation is a bachelor’s degree. More­
over, 12 States have specified that a
secondary school teacher must get
additional education, usually a fifthyear of study or a master’s degree,
within a certain period after begin­
ning employment.
In 1972, the District of Columbia
was the only jurisdiction requiring a
Employment Outlook
master’s degree for initial certifi­
cation as a senior high school
The supply of secondary school
teacher. However, according to a re­ teachers through the mid-1980’s will
cent national survey, 2 out of every 5 greatly exceed anticipated require­
public secondary school teachers had ments if past trends of entry into the
profession continue. As a result,
a master’s or higher degree.
The educational qualifications for prospective teachers are likely to
secondary school teachers vary by face keen competition for jobs.
U.S. Office of Education projec­
State and by school system. Ap­
proved colleges and universities in tions indicate that enrollments in se­
every State offer programs which in­ condary schools will begin to decline
clude the education courses and stu­ in the mid-1970’s after continuous



growth through the 1960’s and into
the early seventies. Enrollments are
expected to increase slightly in the
1980’s, but by 1985 are expected still
to be below the 1972 level. Thus, over
the 1972-85 period nearly all teach­
ing positions will stem from the need
to replace the tens of thousands of
teachers who die, retire, or leave the
profession for other reasons. Pres­
sures for an improved pupil-teacher
ratio and replacement of noncertified teachers will create additional
At the same time demand is level­
ing off, the number of qualified
graduates—the basic source of sup­
ply—will continue to grow rapidly,
and other teachers will seek reentry
to the profession. As a result, an in­
creasing proportion of prospective
teachers will have to consider alter­
natives to secondary school teach­
ing. Many schools may favor hiring
new graduates who command lower
salaries and whose training is more
recent rather than experienced reen­
Although the overall outlook for
secondary teachers indicates a highly
competitive market, employment
conditions may be favorable in cer­
tain fields. A recent survey found
continuing teacher shortages in
mathematics, industrial arts, special
education, and some vocationaltechnical subjects.
Earnings and Working

According to the National Edu­
cation Association (NEA), public
secondary school teachers in 197273 averaged $10,460. This is one
and one-half times the average
for nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming. NEA
estimates indicate that 11 States
(Alaska, New York, California,
Michigan, Illinois, New Jersey,
Maryland, Minnesota, Arizona,

Nevada, and Connecticut) paid aver­
age annual salaries of $11,000 or
more, and 3 (Mississippi, Arkansas,
and Idaho) paid secondary school
teachers less than $8,000 a year.
Beginning teachers with a bache­
lor’s degree in school systems with
enrollments of 6,000 or more earned
average salaries of $7,357 in school
year 1972— New teachers with a
master’s degree started at $8,176 a
year. Beginning teachers could ex­
pect regular salary increases as they
gained experience and additional
A recent survey of public school
teachers indicated that the average
required school week for those in se­
condary schools was 37 hours. How­
ever, when all teaching duties, in­
cluding meetings, lesson prepara­
tion, and other necessary tasks are
taken into consideration, the total
number of hours spent working each
week was slightly more than 48.
In some schools, teachers receive
supplementary pay for certain
school-related activities such as
coaching students in sports and
working with students in extra­
curricular music, dramatics, or
school publications. About onefourth of the public secondary teach­
ers receive pay for extra duties, and
one-third supplement their incomes
with earnings from additional school
One-sixth of public school teach­
ers also work in their school systems
during the summer. More than onefourth hold summer jobs outside the
school system. In all, about threefifths of public secondary school
teachers have extra earnings from
summer work, additional schoolyear work, or a combination of the
During the school-year, teachers
work an average of 181 days. They
average 26 teaching periods and 5
unassigned periods a week. Laws in
38 States and the District of Colum­

bia ensure the employment of those
who have achieved tenure status.
Laws requiring collective bargaining
of wages, hours, and the terms and
conditions of employment cover in­
creasing numbers of teachers.
Sources of Additional

Information on schools and cer­
tification requirements is available
from local school systems and State
departments of education.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Office of Educa­
tion, Washington, D.C. 20202.

Other sources of general informa­
tion are:
American Federation of Teachers,
1012 14th St. NW „ Washington,
D.C. 20005,
National Education Association, 1201
16th St. NW „ Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 090.168 through .999)
Nature of the Work

About 60 percent of all persons in
the United States between 18 and 21
attended college in 1972, compared
with 40 percent ten years ago. To
meet the demand of students for
higher education, colleges and uni­
versities hire teachers to provide in­
struction in many fields. The most
common subjects include the social
sciences, teacher education, the
physical sciences, health profes­
sions, fine and applied arts, English,


the biological sciences, mathe­
matics, foreign languages, and busi­
ness and commerce.
Slightly more than one-half of all
college and university teachers in­
struct undergraduates; another onethird teach both graduates and un­
dergraduates; and about one-tenth
work only with graduate students.
Most teachers lecture and con­
duct classroom discussions to present
subject matter effectively. Many
work with students in laboratories.
Some teachers provide individual in­
struction or supervise independent
study. Nearly one-third of the fac­
ulty in universities have teaching
assistants. Some college and univer­
sity teachers use closed-circuit tele­
vision, and especially in two-year
colleges, instruction is machineaided.
To be effective, college teachers
must keep up with developments in
their field by reading current mate­
rial, participating in professional ac­
tivities, and conducting research.


Some publish books and articles.
The importance of research and
publication varies from one institu­
tional level to another. In univer­
sities, about 70 percent of the fac­
ulty have published professional arti­
cles compared to 25 percent of 2-year
college faculty. Also, in certain
fields, such as engineering and the
physical sciences, the demand for re­
search is strong.
In addition to time spent on
preparation, instruction, and evalua­
tion, college and university teachers
also participate in faculty activities;
work with student organizations and
individual students outside of classes;
work with the college adminis­
tration; and in other ways serve the
institution and the community. Some
are department chairmen and have
supervisory duties.
Places off Employment

In 1972, about 620,000 teachers
worked in more than 2,600 colleges

and universities. An estimated
395,000—nearly two-thirds—were
full-time senior staff. Of the remain­
der, about 110,000 were part-time
senior staff, and nearly 20,000 were
full-time junior instructors; the rest
generally worked as part-time as­
sistant instructors, teaching fellows,
teaching assistants, or laboratory
Of full-time faculty, about onethird teach in universities; nearly
one-half work in 4-year colleges; and
about one-seventh teach in 2-year
colleges. About two-thirds of the fac­
ulty in universities and 4-year col­
leges teach in public institutions;
nearly nine-tenths of the faculty in
two-year institutions work in public
junior and community colleges.
In 1972, about one-fourth of all
college and university teachers were
women. Women worked more fre­
quently in 2-year colleges than in 4year colleges and universities and
were more likely to teach certain
subjects such as nursing, home
economics, and library science. On
the other hand, men were the prin­
cipal instructors in agriculture, law,
the earth sciences, engineering, and
other subjects.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most college and university fac­
ulty are classified in four academic
ranks: instructors, assistant profes­
sors, associate professors, and full
professors. About one-fifth of all fac­
ulty are instructors; another one-fifth
are professors. Slightly more than
one-third are assistant professors;
and one-fourth are associate
To get an initial appointment, in­
structors generally must have a
master’s degree. For advancement to
higher ranks, they need further aca­
demic training plus experience.
Assistant professors usually need a



year of graduate study beyond the
master’s degree and at least a year or
two of experience as an instructor.
Appointments as associate profes­
sors frequently demand the doctoral
degree and an additional 3 or more
years of college teaching experience.
For a full professorship, the doc­
torate and extensive teaching experi­
ence are essential.
In addition to advanced study and
college-level teaching experience,
outstanding academic, adminis­
trative, and professional contribu­
tions influence advancement. Re­
search, publication, and work experi­
ence in a subject area may hasten ad­
The ranks of college and univer­
sity teachers and their educational
backgrounds differ by institutional
level. In universities, more than 50
percent of the faculty have doctoral
degrees compared with less than 10
percent in 2-year colleges. Corre­
spondingly, more than 50 percent of
the faculty in universities are either
professors or associate professors,
while in 2-year colleges, only 1
teacher in 6 is within these upper
ranks. Conversely, in community
and junior colleges, where the
master’s is the highest degree held by
nearly two-thirds of the faculty, in­
structors constitute a relatively large
faculty segment.
Teachers should be able to moti­
vate students and to adapt their Field
of study to students’ needs and inter­
Employment Outlook

Entrants to college and university
teaching are expected to face keen
competition through the mid-1980’s.
Although the demand for teachers
will continue to expand, the supply of
new doctoral and master’s degree
graduates—the principal source of
teacher supply—is expected to more
than meet these needs.

College enrollment represents the
basic factor underlying the demand
for teachers. During the 1960’s and
early 1970’s, teacher employment ex­
panded due to growth in both the
number of college-age persons and
the proportion of 18- to 21-year olds
enrolled in college. While the propor­
tion attending college is expected to
continue to rise, the number of col­
lege-age persons will decline after
1978, and by the early 1980’s, enroll­
ment will taper off and begin to fall.
Over the 1972-85 period, the total
number of college teachers needed is
expected to rise only 20 percent. This
compares with a more than 100 per­
cent increase over the previous 13year period.
Through the mid-1980’s as de­
mand is slowing, the numbers of both
master’s and Ph.D. degree recipi­
ents are expected to grow rapidly.
Consequently, a smaller proportion
of each year’s degree recipients will
be needed for college teaching. An
increasing proportion of prospective
college teachers, therefore, will have
co seek nonacademic jobs. Alterna­
tive opportunities will exist in
government and industry, which
have traditionally competed with col­
leges and universities for Ph.D.’s and
holders of master’s degrees. Also,
some of those persons holding gradu­
ate degrees may find it increasingly
necessary to enter occupations that
have not traditionally required ad­
vanced levels of study. Secondary
school teaching may provide oppor­
tunities for an increasing number of
master’s graduates.
The employment outlook also de­
pends on the institutional level and
on the teacher’s qualifications. Al­
though enrollments in the 1970’s are
expected to stabilize in 4-year col­
leges and universities, many institu­
tions, including junior and com­
munity colleges, may hire additional
Ph.D.’s to upgrade their faculties.
Master’s graduates also will con­

tinue to Find jobs in 2-year colleges.
Public institutions are expected to
continue to attract an increasing
proportion of total college enroll­
ment. Thus, opportunities in public
colleges will be greater than in pri­
vate institutions.
Earnings and Working

In 1972-73, full-time college and
university faculty on 9-10 month
contracts averaged $13,813, or twice
the average earnings for nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. Salaries varied, how­
ever, by teacher rank and by institu­
tional level. Average salaries were:
Instructors ...................................
Assistant professors....................
Associate professors ..................


In general, larger institutions paid
higher salaries. Salaries of teachers
in 4-year colleges tended to be higher
than those in 2-year colleges; univer­
sity teachers averaged the highest
College and university teachers’
salaries also vary by geographic
region. According to a recent survey
of 4-year colleges and universities,
schools in the Mideast and New
England paid the highest full-time
faculty salaries.
Since about 2 out of 3 college
teachers have 9-10 month contracts,
many have additional summer earn­
ings from research, writing for
publication, or other employment.
Royalties and fees for speaking
engagements may provide addi­
tional earnings. Some teachers also
undertake additional teaching or re­
search projects or work as con­
College and university teachers
also may enjoy certain benefits, in­
cluding tuition waivers for depend­
ents, housing allowances, travel
allowances, and leaves of absence.


Colleges typically grant a semes­
ter’s leave after 6 or 7 years of
About 95 percent of all college and
university teachers work in institu­
tions which have tenure systems. Of
the full-time teachers employed in
these institutions, over one-half are
tenured. Under a tenure system, a
teacher usually receives 1-year con­
tracts for a probationary period
ranging from 3 to 7 years; some uni­
versities award 2- or 3-year con­
tracts. After the probationary peri­
od, institutions consider teachers for
tenure and the assurance of contin­
uing employment with freedom from
dimissal without cause.
The working hours and environ­
ment of college teachers generally
are favorable. Classrooms, office
facilities, and laboratories usually
are well-equipped and teachers have
access to library facilities and cleri­
cal assistance.


College teachers usually have
flexible teaching schedules. Accord­
ing to a recent survey, the under­
graduate faculty in 4-year colleges
and universities normally teach 12
hours and usually no more than 14 or
15 hours a week. Graduate faculty
have a teaching load of about 10
hours a week. In addition to time
spent in the classroom, college and
university teachers devote much time
to preparation and other duties.
Overall, full-time faculty spend
about 40 hours a week on school-re­
lated activities. For faculty in junior
and community colleges, the normal
teaching load is slightly heavier, but
the total number of hours on the job
are fewer.
Sources of Additional

Information on college teaching as
a career is available from:

U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Office of Educa­
tion, Washington, D.C. 20202.
American Association of University
Professors, 1 Dupont Circle NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Council on Education, 1 Du­
pont Circle N W ., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
American Federation of Teachers,
1012 14th St. NW ., Washington,
D.C. 20065.

Professional societies in the vari­
ous subject fields will generally pro­
vide information on teaching re­
quirements and employment oppor­
tunities in their particular fields.
Names and addresses of societies are
given in the statements on specific
professions elsewhere in the Hand­

People in all walks of life are in the nical services—for example, cata­
midst of an information explosion. loged and acquisitions librari­
Worlds that just a matter of a few ans—deal less frequently with
years ago were beyond imagination the public; they order, classify,
are being explored, and information catalog, and in other ways prepare
is growing at a rapid pace. Each day the materials for use.
1,000 books are printed.
The size of the library determines
Librarians and library technical to a large extent the scope of a
assistants, described in detail in the librarian’s job. In small libraries, the
following statements, serve people of job may include both technical and
all ages and lifestyles. They collect reader services. The librarian may
and organize books, periodicals, and select and organize materials,
other printed materials, as well as publicize services, do research, and
less conventional information such give reference help to groups and
as microfilms and computer tapes individuals. In large libraries, li­
for library users.
brarians usually specialize in either
technical or reader services. They
may specialize further in certain
areas, such as science, business, the
arts, or medicine. Their work may in­
(D.O.T. 100.118 through .388)
volve reviewing and abstracting pub­
Nature of the Work

Making information available to
people is the job of librarians. They
select and organize collections of
books, pamphlets, manuscripts, pe­
riodicals, clippings, and reports, and
assist readers in their use. In many li­
braries, they also provide phono­
graph records, maps, slides, pictures,
tapes, films, paintings, braille and
talking books, microfilms, and com­
puter tapes and programs.
Through the librarian, informa­
tion in the library becomes available
to users. Librarians classify and
catalogue materials.
Two principal kinds of library
work are reader and technical serv­
ices. Librarians in reader ser­
vices—for example, reference and
children’s librarians—work directly
with the public. Librarians in tech­

lished materials and preparing bibli­
ographies in their specialty.
Librarians generally are classified
according to the type of library in
which they work: public libraries,
school media centers, college and
university libraries, and special
Public librarians serve all kinds of
people—children, students, research
workers, housewives, teachers, and
o th e rs. In creasin g ly , public
librarians are providing special
materials and services to culturally
and educationally deprived persons,
and to persons who because of
physical handicaps cannot use con­
ventional print.
The professional staff of a large
public library system may include
the chief librarian, an assistant chief,
and several division heads who plan
and coordinate the work of the entire
library system. The system also may
include librarians who supervise
branch libraries and specialists in
certain areas of library work. The
duties of some of these specialists are
briefly described as follows:


Acquisition librarians purchase
books and other materials and main­
tain a well-balanced library that
meets the needs and interests of the
public. Catalogers classify these
materials by subject and otherwise
describe them to help users find what
they are looking for. Reference
librarians answer specific questions
and suggest sources of information
that may be useful.
Some librarians work with specific
groups of readers. C hildren’s
librarians serve the special needs of
young people by finding books they
will enjoy and showing them how to
use the library. They may plan and
conduct special programs such as
story hours or film programs. Their
work in serving children often in­
cludes working with school and com­
munity organizations. Adult serv­
ices librarians serve adults by sug­
gesting materials suited to their
needs and interests. They may co­
operate in planning and conducting
education programs, such as com­
munity development, public affairs,
creative arts, problems of the aging,
and home and family life. Young
adult services librarians help junior
and senior high school students select
and use books and other materials.
They may organize programs of in­
terest to young adults, such as book
or film discussions or concerts of
recorded popular and classical
music. They also may coordinate the
library’s work with school pro­
grams. Bookmobile librarians offer
library services to people not ade­
quately served by a public library
such as those in inner city neighbor­
hoods, migrant camps, rural com­
munities and institutions including
hospitals and homes for the aged.
School media specialists instruct
students in the use of the school
library and help them choose from
the media center’s collection of print
and non-print materials items that
are related to their interests and to


the subjects that they study in the
classroom. Working with teachers
and supervisors, school media spe­
cialists familiarize students with the
library’s resources. They prepare
lists of materials on certain subjects
and help select materials for school
programs. They also select, order,
and organize the library’s materials.
In some schools, media specialists
may work with teachers to develop
units of study and independent study
programs, or they may participate in
team teaching. Very large high
schools may employ several media
specialists, each responsible for a
particular function of the library pro­
gram or for a special subject area.
College and university librarians
serve students, faculty members, and
research workers in institutions of
higher education. They may provide
general reference service or may
work in a particular subject field,
such as law, medicine, economics, or
music. Those working on university
research projects operate documen­
tation centers that use computers
and other modern devices to record,
store, and retrieve specialized infor­
mation. College and university
librarians may teach classes in the
use of the library.
Special librarians work in libraries
maintained by government agencies
and by commercial and industrial
firms, such as pharmaceutical com­
panies, banks, advertising agencies,
and research laboratories. They pro­
vide materials and services covering
subjects of special interest to the
organization. They build and arrange
the organization’s inform ation
resources to suit the needs of the
library users. Special librarians assist
users and may conduct literature
searches, compile bibliographies,
and in .other ways provide informa­
tion on a particular subject.
Others called information science
specialists, like special librarians,
work in technical libraries or in­

formation centers of commercial and
agencies and research centers. Al­
though they perform many duties
of special librarians, they must
possess a more extensive technical
and scientific background and a
knowledge of new techniques for
handling information. The informa­
tion science specialist abstracts com­
plicated information into short, read­
able form, and interprets and anal­
yzes data for a highly specialized
clientele. Among other duties, they
develop classification systems, pre­
pare coding and programming tech­
niques for computerized information
storage and retrieval systems, design
information networks and develop
microform technology.
Information on library technical
assistants is found in a separate
statement in the Handbook.

Places of Employment

Of the approximately 125,000
professional librarians in 1972,
school librarians accounted for near­
ly one-half; public libraries and col­
leges and universities each employed
about one-fifth. An estimated oneseventh worked in special libraries,
including libraries in government
agencies. Some librarians worked in
correctional institutions, hospitals,
and State institutions, while a small
number served as consultants, State
and Federal Government adminis­
trators, and teachers and administra­
tors in schools of library science. The
Federal Government employed more
than 3,500 professional library ad­
More than 85 percent of all li­
brarians are women. In college and
university libraries, however, men
make up about 35 percent of the
total professional staff. Men also are
relatively numerous in law libraries
and in special libraries concerned



storing and recalling technical infor­
Most States require that public
school librarians be certified and
trained both as teachers and librari­
ans. The specific education and ex­
perience necessary for certification
vary according to State and the
school district. The local super­
intendent of schools and the State
department of education can pro­
vide information about specific re­
quirements in an area.
In the Federal Government, begin­
ning positions require completion of
a 4-year college course and a
master’s degree in library science, or
demonstration of the equivalent in
experience and education by passing
an examination.
Many students attend library
schools under cooperative workstudy programs by combining the
academic program with practical
work experience in a library.
Scholarships for training in library
science are available under certain
State and Federal programs and
from library schools, as well as from
a number of the large libraries and
library associations. Loans, assistantships, and financial aids also are
Librarians should be intellectu­
ally curious and able to express
themselves verbally, and should have
the desire and ability to search out
and help others use library materials.
Experienced librarians may ad­
vance to administrative positions or
to specialized work. Promotion to
these positions, however, is limited
primarily to those who have com­
pleted graduate training in a library
school, or to those who have special­
ized training.

Although employment in the field is
expected to grow over the period to
1985, the supply of persons qualified
for librarianship is likely to expand
rapidly as an increasing number of
new graduates and labor force re­
Training, Other Qualifications,
entrants seek jobs as librarians.
and Advancement
The anticipated increase in de­
mand for librarians in the 1970’s and
A professional librarian ordinarily
early 1980’s will not be nearly as
must complete a 1-year master’s
great as it was in the 1960’s. Then,
degree program in library science. A
school enrollments were rising rap­
Ph.D. degree is an advantage to
idly and Federal expenditures sup­
those who plan a teaching career in
ported a variety of library pro­
library schools or who aspire to a top
administrative post, particularly in a
Fewer births during the 1960’s will
college or university library or in a
result in a slight decline in elementa­
large library system. For those who
ry and secondary school enrollments
are interested in the special libraries
through the remainder of the 1970’s;
Field, a master’s degree or doctorate
an upturn in enrollments is expected
in the subject of the library’s special­
thereafter. The effect of birth rates in
ization is highly desirable.
the 1960’s will begin to be mani­
In 1972, 49 library schools in the
fested in colleges and universities in
United States were accredited by the
the early 1980’s, when total
American Library Association and
degree-credit enrollment is expected
offered a master’s degree in library
to level off. In both the schools and
science (M.L.S.). In addition, many
the colleges and universities, as a
other colleges offer graduate pro­
result, the demand for librarians will
grams or courses within 4-year un­
increase at a slower pace than in the
dergraduate programs.
Most graduate schools of library
On the other hand, requirements
science require ( 1) graduation from
for public librarians are expected to
an accredited 4-year college or uni­
increase through 1985. The growth
versity. (2) a good undergraduate
of an increasingly well-educated pop­
record, and (3) a reading knowledge
ulation will necessitate an increased
of at least one foreign language.
number of librarians to serve the
Some schools also require intro­
public. Also, the educationally dis­
ductory undergraduate courses in
advantaged, handicapped, and
library science. Most prefer a liberal
various minority groups will need
arts background with a major in an
qualified librarians to provide special
area such as the social sciences, the
arts, or literature. Some schools re­
quire entrance examinations.
Employment of special librarians
Special librarians and informa­
also will continue to grow. Because
tion science specialists must have ex­
of ever-increasing demands upon
tensive knowledge of their subject
high-level executives in business and
matter as well as training in library
industry, management will rely more
science. In libraries devoted to scien­
heavily on special librarians and in­
formation specialists to keep abreast
tific information, librarians should
Employment Outlook
of new developments. Expanding use
be proficient in one or more foreign
languages. They also must be well in­
The employment outlook for of computers to store and retrieve in­
formed about new equipment, librarians is expected to be favor­ formation will contribute to in­
methods, and techniques used in able through the m id-1980’s. creased demand for information
with science and technology.
Most librarians work in cities and
towns. Those attached to book­
mobile units serve widely scattered
population groups.



specialists and library automation
In addition to openings from
growth, thousands of job openings
for librarians will occur each year to
replace those who retire, die, transfer
to other types of work, or leave the
labor force.
Although overall employment op­
portunities are favorable, some
librarians may have to compete for
jobs of their choice. New graduates
in commanding lower beginning
salaries and in having more recent
training may have an employment
advantage over reentrants to the
Employment opportunities will
vary not only by type of library but
also by the librarian’s educational
qualifications and area of special­
ization. Also, whether the librarian
seeks a job in a large or small city, a
suburb or town, or a rural area, and
the region of the country in which a
person wants to work will affect
work employment prospects.
Earnings and Working

ranged somewhat higher. Depart­
ment heads in college libraries
generally earned between $10,000
and $14,000 a year.
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary for librarians with a
master’s degree in library science
was $11,614 a year in early 1973.
The ty p ical w orkw eek for
librarians is 5 days, ranging from 35
to 40 hours. The work schedule of
public and college librarians may in­
clude some weekend and evening
work. School librarians generally
have the same workday schedule as
classroom teachers. A 40-hour week
during normal business hours is com­
mon for government and other
special librarians.
The usual paid vacation after a
year’s service is 3 to 4 weeks. Vaca­
tions may be longer in school librar­
ies, and somewhat shorter in those
operated by business and industry.
Many librarians are covered by sick
leave; life, health, and accident insur­
ance; and pension plans.
Sources of Additional

Additional inform ation, p ar­
Salaries of librarians vary by type ticularly on accredited programs,
of library, individual’s qualifi­ and scholarships or loans may be ob­
cations, and the size and geographi­ tained from:
cal location of the library.
American Library Association, 50 East
Starting salaries of graduates of
Huron St., Chicago, 111. 60611.
American Library Association ac­
credited library school programs
For information on requirements
averaged $9,248 a year in 1972, rang­ of special librarians write to:
ing from $8,713 in public libraries to
Special Libraries Association, 235
$9,549, in school libraries. Accord­
Park Ave., South, New York, N.Y.
ing to a recent survey, the average
annual salary for special librarians
Information on Federal assistance
was $13,900 in 1973. For librarians for library training under the Higher
in college and university libraries, Education Act of 1965 is available
average salaries in 1972— ranged from:
from $8,700 a year for librarians
Division of Library and Educational
with limited experience working in
Facilities, Bureau of Libraries and
private 4-year colleges to over
Learning Resources, Office of Edu­
$13,000 for university librarians
cation, U.S. Department of Health,
with more extensive experience.
E d u c a t io n , and W e lfa r e ,
Salaries for library administrators
Washington, D.C. 20202.

Those interested in a career in
Federal Libraries should write to:
Secretariat Federal Library Com­
mittee, Room 310, Library of
C o n g re ss, W a sh in g to n , D .C .

Inform ation on inform ation
science specialists may be obtained
American Society for Information
Science, 1140 Connecticut Ave.
NW „ Washington, D.C. 20036.

Individual State library agencies
can furnish information on scholar­
ships available through their offices,
on requirements for certification,
and general information about ca­
reer prospects in their regions. State
boards of education can furnish in­
formation on certification require­
ments and job opportunities for
school librarians.

(D.O.T. 249.368)
Nature of the Work

Library technical assistants sup­
p o rt and a ssist p ro fe ssio n a l
librarians in providing information.
They are supervised by a librarian
and have duties in either technical
services or reader services.
In technical services, library
technical assistants prepare the
library’s materials and equipment
for reader use. For example, they
may keep current files of special
materials, such as newspaper clip­
pings and pictures. They may
operate and maintain audiovisual
and data processing equipment, in­
cluding slide projectors and tape
recorders, as well as readers that
magnify, project on a screen, and
sometimes print out information on



In some libraries, library technical
assistants may supervise the work of
others who handle routine duties that
keep the library functioning.
Places of Employment

An estim ated 25,000 p eo ­
p le — f o u r - f i f t h s
o f th em
women—worked as library tech­
nical assistants in 1972. Most work­
ed in large public libraries or in
college and university libraries.
Smaller numbers worked in school
libraries and in medical, law, scien­
tific, technical, and other special
In 1972, the Federal Government
employed about 3,300 library tech­
nicians. These people worked chiefly
in the Department of Defense and
the Library of Congress, although
many worked in small Federal
libraries throughout the country.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Library technical assistant photographs
magazine to make slides.

microfilm and microfiche cards.
Library technical assistants also
may perform many of the routine
tasks involved in purchasing and
processing library materials. The
details of cataloging new books and
other additions to the library’s col­
lection are often an important part of
their job.
In reader’s services, library
technical assistants furnish informa­
tion on library services, facilities,
and rules, and answer questions that
involve simple fact-finding in stand­
ard reference sources. They also
assist readers in the use of catalogs
and indexes to locate books and
other materials. Library technical
assistants may check-out, reserve,
and receive materials that users

Library technical assistants may
receive training for their work either
on the job or in a formal post-high
school program. Depending on the
library, on-the-job programs general­
ly require from 1 to 3 years to com­
Junior or community colleges and
technical institutes offer 2-year for­
mal educational programs which
lead to an associate or arts degree in
library technology. Many people
working in libraries take courses
part-time to become certified
or to get their degree.
Junior and community college
programs generally include 1 year of
liberal arts courses and a year of
library-related study on purposes
and organization of libraries, and on
procedures and processes involved in
operating a library. Students learn to
order and process, catalog, and cir­
culate library m aterials. Some

receive training in data processing as
it applies to libraries. Many learn to
use and maintain audiovisual mate­
rials and equipment.
In 1972, 120 institutions offered
library technical assistants training.
These institutions—mostly 2-year
colleges—are in over 30 States. Over
the next several years, the number is
expected to grow and formal train­
ing may become an established re­
quirement for library technical
assistants. Some programs teach
skills for a particular type of library.
Therefore, a prospective student
should select a program with a
knowledge of the curriculum, in­
structional facilities, faculty
qualifications, and the kinds of jobs
that graduates have found. Also,
while programs may lead to an asso­
ciate degree, credits earned in a
library technology program may not
apply toward a professional degree in
library science.
A high school diploma or its
equivalent is the standard require­
ment for both academic and on-thejob training programs. Many pro­
grams also require typing.
Library technical assistants should
enjoy detail and have manual dex­
terity, verbal ability to explain proce­
dures, and numerical ability to
handle circulation statistics. Jobs
may require much standing,
stooping, bending, and reaching.
Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for
library technical assistants is ex­
pected to be good through the mid1980’s particularly for graduates of
academic programs. Opportunities
are likely to be especially favorable
in large public libraries and in college
and university libraries.
Factors influencing the steadily
growing demand for library tech­
nical assistants are population
growth and expansion of library


service. Library technical assistants
increasingly are performing some of
the routine tasks formerly done by
the professional staff.
In addition to openings created by
growth, several thousand library
technical assistants will be needed
annually to replace those who die,
retire, or transfer to other fields.
Earnings and Working

Salaries for library technical
assistants vary widely depending on
the size of the library or library
system in which they work as well as
the geographical location and size of
the community.


In the Federal Government, programs. Library technicians
salaries of library technicians employed by the Federal Govern­
generally ranged from $6,882 to $9,- ment receive the same benefits as
520 a year in early 1973. A few earn­ other Federal workers.
ed $11,614 a year, or more.
Library technical assistants in
Sources of Additional
government and special libraries
usually work a regular 40-hour week,
Information on institutions offer­
but persons in public libraries and
college and university libraries may ing programs for the training of
have schedules that include weekend library technical assistants, may
and evening hours. In schools, write:
library technical assistants work dur­
Council of Library Technical Assistants,
6800 South Wentworth Ave., Chicago,
ing regular school hours.
111. 60621.
Most libraries provide fringe
benefits such as group insurance and
retirement pay. Additional benefits
offered by private businesses often
include ed u catio n a ssista n c e

Saleswork offers career oppor­
tunities for people who have com­
pleted high school as well as for col­
lege graduates, for those who want to
travel and those who do not, and for
salaried workers as well as men and
women who wish to run their own
Workers in these jobs may sell for
manufacturers, service firms, whole­
salers, and retailers.
In 1972 about 5.4 million people,
were in sales occupations; about 25
percent worked part-time. Forty per­
cent were women who worked main­
ly in retail stores. Most salesworkers outside of retail stores were
men. Chart 14 shows employment
in the major sales occupations dis­
cussed in this section. The Hand­
book also includes individual state­
ments for automotive salesworkers,
automobile parts countermen, auto­

mobile service advisors, gasoline
service attendants, models, and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Training requirements for sales­
work are as varied as the work itself.
Salesworkers who sell standardized
merchandise such as magazines, can­
dy, cigarettes, and cosmetics usually
are trained on the job by experi­
enced salesclerks; in some large
stores, they may attend brief train­
ing courses. The salesworker who
sells complex products or services,
such as electronic equipment or
liability insurance, needs more ed­
ucation and training than most re­
tail salesclerks. For some positions,
salesworkers must be college gradu­

Nearly 5 .4 Million Workers Are in
Sales Occupations




R etail salesworkers
W holesale salesw o rkers
M anufacturers' salesmen
Insurance agents and brokers

ates with majors in a field such as
engineering. Others get the neces­
sary technical knowledge from un­
iversity or manufacturers’ courses.
Still others learn through years of
on-the-job experience, often supple­
mented by home study. Thus, a real
estate agent may take university ex­
tension courses; a department store
beauty counselor may participate in
an industry-sponsored training pro­
gram; or a jewelry salesworker may
learn through years of observation
and study on the job.
Even in the most routine kinds of
selling, a high school diploma is an
asset to a beginner. Courses in busi­
ness, as well as specialized courses in
distributive education, are particu­
larly good preparation. The Federal
Government also sponsors training
for some salesworkers under provi­
sions of the Manpower Develop­
ment and Training Act and other
Salesworkers must understand the
needs and viewpoints of their cus­
tomers and be poised and at ease
with strangers. Other important at­
tributes for selling are energy, selfconfidence, imagination, self-disci­
pline, and the ability to communi­
cate. Arithmetic skills are an asset.
In almost all saleswork except retail
trade, salesworkers need initiative to
locate prospective customers and to
plan work schedules.

R eal estate agents
Securities salesm en
Other salesworkers

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

21 8

Employment Outlook

Employment in sales occupations
is expected to rise moderately
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to jobs from growth, thousands of



general description. By knowing out the country in dealerships and
parts catalogs and the layout of the automobile parts wholesale stores.
stockroom they quickly can Find any Those who work for warehouse dis­
of several thousand items. If a cus­ tributors, trucking companies, and
tomer needs a part that is not stock­ buslines are employed mainly in
ed, countermen may suggest one that large cities.
is interchangeable, place a special
order, or refer the custom er
Training, Other Qualifications,
Parts countermen determine the
and Advancement
prices of parts from lists, Fill out
sales receipts, and accept payments.
Automobile parts countermen
When necessary they package items should know the different types and
functions of motor vehicle parts and
In addition to selling, countermen be able to work with numbers. They
keep catalogs and price lists up to should be neat, friendly, and tactful
date, replenish stock, unpack and since they deal with the public. A
distribute incoming shipments, good memory and the ability to write
record sales, and take inventories. legibly and concentrate on details
Large Firms employ stock and receiv­ also are desirable. High school or
ing clerks to do some of the work.
vocational school courses in auto­
Parts countermen use microm­ mobile mechanics, commercial arith­
eters, calipers, fan belt measures, metic, salesmanship, and bookand other devices to measure parts
(D.O.T. 289.358)
for interchangeability. They also
may use coil condenser testers, spark
Nature of the Work
plug testers, and other equipment to
Automobile parts countermen sell Find defective parts. In some Firms,
replacement parts and accessories particularly small wholesale stores,
for automobiles, trucks, and other they repair parts by using equip­
motor vehicles. Most of them work ment such as brake riveting
in wholesale stores and automobile machines and brake drum lathes.
dealerships. They sell over the coun­
ter and take telephone orders for
items such as piston rings, head gas­
Places of Employment
kets, shock absorbers, rearview mir­
rors, and seat covers.
Most of the estimated 72,000
Parts countermen employed by automobile parts countermen em­
wholesalers sell parts for many ployed in 1972 worked for auto­
makes of automobiles and trucks to mobile dealers and parts whole­
independent repair shops, service sta­ salers. Most dealers employed one to
tions, self-employed mechanics, and four parts countermen; many whole­
Countermen salers employed more than four.
employed by dealers usually sell Other employers include truck deal­
parts only for the makes of automo­ ers, retail automobile parts stores,
biles and trucks sold by the dealers. and warehouse distributors of auto­
They may spend most of their time motive parts. Trucking companies
supplying parts to mechanics em­ and buslines employ parts counter­
ployed by the dealer.
men to maintain stockrooms and dis­
Parts countermen identify and pense parts to mechanics who repair
Auto parts counterman looks in
locate in the stockroom items the their fleets.
catalogue to get correct part.
Parts countermen work through­
customer needs—often only from
openings will occur each year as
workers die, retire, or leave for other
As employment rises, the propor­
tion of part-time workers—already
higher than in most occupational
groups—also is likely to increase.
Many part-time jobs will be in sub­
urban shopping centers which have
retail stores open several nights a
F u rth e r in fo rm a tio n ab o u t
employment prospects for salesworkers in individual occupations,
including retail trade, is given in
statements that follow.



keeping are helpful to young per­
sons interested in becoming parts
countermen. Practical experience
from working in a gasoline service
station or automobile repair shop, or
working on cars as a hobby also is
helpful. Employers generally prefer
high school graduates for entry jobs.
Most parts countermen learn the
trade on the job. Beginners usually
are hired as parts delivery men or
trainees. In some large firms, begin­
ners start as stock or receiving
clerks. Trainees gradually learn the
different types of parts, the use of
catalogs and price lists, and the lay­
out of the stockroom. Although
trainees may wait on customers after
a few months’ experience, generally
about 2 years are required for a parts
co u n term an to becom e fully
Parts countermen training pro­
grams for unemployed and under­
employed workers were in operation
in 1972 in several cities under the
Manpower Development and Train­
ing Act. Persons who complete these
programs, which usually last up to a
year, may need additional on-the-job
training to become fully qualified.
Parts countermen who have super­
visory and business management
ability may become parts depart­
ment or store managers. Others may
become “outside salesmen” for parts
wholesalers and distributors. Sales­
men call on automobile repair shops,
service stations, trucking com­
panies, and other businesses that buy
parts and accessories in large quan­
tities. Some parts countermen open
their own automobile parts stores.

Employment Outlook

Employment of automobile parts
countermen is expected to increase
rapidly through the mid-1980’s. In
addition to jobs from employment
growth, more than a thousand open­

ings are expected annually to re­
place experienced workers who re­
tire, die, or transfer to other oc­
Employment will rise because
more parts will be needed to repair
the Nation’s growing number of
motor vehicles. Moreover, the vari­
ety of parts is expanding because
manufacturers are producing a
greater selection of makes, models,
and optional equipment.
Earnings and Working

Automobile parts countermen are
paid a weekly or monthly salary, or
an hourly wage rate. In addition,
they may receive commissions on
sales. Parts countermen employed by
automobile dealers in 34 large cities
had estimated average earnings of
$3.90 an hour in late 1972, slightly
higher than the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
Most parts countermen work 40 to
48 hours a week. Many firms work
half a day on Saturday.
Some employers provide paid holi­
days and vacations, and part or all of
additional benefits such as life and
health insurance. Others also con­
tribute to retirement plans.
Stockrooms usually are clean and
well lighted. The work is not physi­
cally strenuous, but parts counter­
men spend much time standing or
walking. They have to work rapidly
when waiting on customers and
answering telephone calls at the
same time.
Many parts countermen belong to
unions including the following: the
In te rn a tio n a l A sso ciatio n of
Machinists and Aerospace Work­
ers; the Sheet Metal Workers’ Inter­
national Association; and the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.).

Sources of Additional

Details about employment oppor­
tunities may be obtained from local
automobile dealers and parts whole­
salers, locals of the unions previ­
ously mentioned, or the local office
of the State employment service. The
State employment service also may
be a source of information about the
Manpower Development and Train­
ing Act and other training programs.
General information about the
work of automobile parts counter­
men may be obtained from:
Automotive Service Industry Associa­
tion, 230 North Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60601.
National Automotive Parts Associa­
tion, 29 East Madison St., Chicago,
111. 60602.

(D.O.T. 280.358)
Nature of the Work

Automobile salesworkers are im­
portant links between dealers and car
buyers. Many sell only new or used
cars. Others, particularly those em­
ployed in small dealerships, sell both
new and used cars, as well as trucks.
(This statement does not discuss
salesmen who sell trucks only.)
Automobile salesmen spend much
time waiting on customers in the
showroom or used-car lot. They
determine the kind of car the cus­
tomer wants by asking questions and
encouraging comments about cars on
display. For example, one customer
may be interested primarily in econ­
omy, but another may be more im­
pressed with styling and perform­
ance. The salesmen emphasize the
points that satisfy the customers’ de­
sires and stimulate their willingness



to buy. To illustrate features such as
smoothness of ride and ease of oper­
ation, the salesman may invite the
customer to test drive the car.
Because cars are a major pur­
chase, customers must be convinced
that they are making a wise deci­
sion. Successful salesmen can over­
come the customer’s hesitancy to
buy, and get the order. Since closing
the sale frequently is difficult for
beginners, experienced salesmen or
sales managers often lend assist­
ance. Salesmen may quote prices and
trade-in allowances, but these figures
usually require the approval of sales
managers. Salesmen register cars
and may get license plates and ar­
range financing and insurance for
Before salesmen approve deliv­
ery, they make sure cars have been
serviced properly and have the acces­
sories specified by customers. They
answer customers’ questions on sub­
jects such as the car’s controls and
the maintenance warranty. Follow­
ing delivery, they may contact cus­
tomers to express appreciation for
their business and to inquire about
the car. From time to time, sales­
men also may send brochures on
new-car models and other literature.
By keeping in contact with cus­
tomers, they build repeat business.
Salesmen develop and follow leads
on prospective customers. For exam­
ple, they obtain names of prospects
from automobile registration records
and dealer sales, service, and finance
records. They also can obtain leads
from gasoline service station oper­
ators, parking lot attendants, and
others whose work brings them into
frequent contact with people. Sales­
men may contact prospects by phone
or mail.

1972, a small number were women.
New-car dealers employed about 80
percent of the total and used-car
dealers the remainder. Although
many used-car dealers employ only 1
salesman, a few new-car dealers em­
ploy more than 50.
A utom obile salesm en work
throughout the country, but most are
concentrated in heavily populated
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most beginners are trained on the
job by sales managers and experi­
enced salesmen. Many large dealers
also provide several days of class­
room training on obtaining cus­
tomer leads, making sales presenta­
Places of Employment
tions, and closing sales. Automobile
Of the 130,000 persons who work­ manufacturers may furnish training
ed as automobile salesworkers in manuals and other educational mate­

rial. Experienced and beginning
salesmen receive continuing guid­
ance and training from sales man­
agers, both on the job and at peri­
odic sales meetings. Salesmen also
may attend training programs
offered by automobile manufac­
A high school diploma usually is
the minimum educational require­
ment for beginners. Courses in pub­
lic speaking, commercial arith­
metic, English, business law, psy­
chology, and salesmanship provide a
good background for selling. Previ­
ous sales experience or other work
requiring contact with the public is
helpful. Many automobile salesmen
previously worked as furniture sales­
men, route salesmen, door-to-door
salesmen, automobile parts counter­
men, or gasoline service station at­
tendants. However, many sales man­
agers will hire inexperienced appli­



cants who have satisfactory per­
sonal and educational qualifications.
Although age requirements for
beginning salesmen vary, many
employers prefer applicants who are
at least in their mid- or late twen­
ties. As a rule, however, 21 is the
minimum age for beginners. Age
requirements may be waived for a
mature applicant.
Automobile salesworkers must be
tactful, well-groomed, and able to
express themselves well. Initiative
and aggressiveness also are impor­
tant, for the number of cars sold usu­
ally depends on the number of
prospective customers contacted. Be­
cause automobile salesmen occa­
sionally work for days without mak­
ing a sale, they need self-confidence
and determination to get through
these slow periods.
Successful salesmen who have
managerial ability may advance to
assistant sales manager, sales man­
ager, or general manager. Some
sales managers and general man­
agers open their own dealerships or
become partners in dealerships.
Employment Outlook

Employment of automobile sales­
men is expected to grow moderately
through the mid-1980’s as auto­
mobile sales increase. In addition to
jobs resulting from employment
growth, a few thousand openings will
occur each year to replace salesmen
who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. Although selling cars is
rewarding for many people, others
seek new jobs because they are not
suited for the work.
Increased car sales will cause
employment to rise as population,
multicar ownership, and personal in­
comes grow. Car sales generally fluc­
tuate from year to year due to
changes in business conditions, con­
sumer preferences, and the avail­
ability of credit. Salesmen employ­

ment also fluctuates, but tends to be
more stable than car sales.
Earnings and Working

Most salesmen are paid a commis­
sion based on the selling price of a
car or the profit received by the
dealer. Additional commissions may
be paid when cars are financed and
insured through the dealer. Al­
though salesmen work year-round,
their sales, and therefore their com­
missions, vary from month to month.
So that commissioned salesmen will
have a steady income, many dealers
pay a modest weekly or monthly
salary. Others advance salesmen
money against future commissions.
A few dealers pay salesmen a
straight salary. Dealers may guaran­
tee beginners a modest income for a
few weeks or months. Thereafter,
they are paid on the same basis as ex­
perienced salesmen.
Salesmen employed by new car
dealers had estimated average week­
ly earnings of $224 in 1972. Earn­
ings varied considerably, depending
on individual ability and experience,
geographic location, and dealership
size. For example, salesmen em­
ployed by dealers that sold between
100 and 149 new vehicles annually
averaged $168 a week, while those
employed by dealers that sold 1,000
or more averaged $257.
Many dealers allow salesmen to
use demonstrator cars free of charge.
Others sell or lease demonstrators to
salesmen at a discount, often at deal­
er’s cost. Salesmen also receive dis­
counts on cars bought for personal
use. Most dealers provide paid vaca­
tions. Many also offer life and health
insurance plans.
Because most customers find
shopping after work convenient,
salesmen frequently work evenings.
In some areas, they may work on
Sundays and take a day off during

the week. Many dealers assign sales­
men “floortime”—hours they spend
in the showroom greeting cus­
tomers. For example, a salesman
may work in the showroom from 9
a.m. to 3 p.m. one week, from 3 p.m.
to 9 p.m. the next week, and all day
on Saturdays. When not assigned to
the showroom, salesmen may spend
a few hours each day delivering cars
to customers and looking for new
Details on employment oppor­
tunities may be obtained from local
automobile dealers or the local office
of the State employment service.
General information about the work
of automobile salesmen may be ob­
tained from:
National Automobile Dealers Associ­
ation, 2000 K St. NW „ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 620.281)
Nature of the Work

Many automobile dealers and
some large independent garages
employ service advisors to wait on
customers who bring their auto­
mobiles for maintenance and repairs.
The service advisor, sometimes call­
ed service salesman or service writer,
confers with customers to determine
their service needs and arranges for a
mechanic to perform the work.
For a routine checkup, service ad­
visors merely write the customer’s
requests on a repair order. How­
ever, when the customer complains
of mechanical or electrical trouble,
the advisor asks about the nature of
the trouble and may test drive the
automobile. For example, if the cus­
tomer says his automobile is dif­


ficult to start, the advisor may try to
find out if this happens when the
engine is cold or after it warms up,
and then writes a brief description of
these symptoms on the repair order
to help the mechanic locate the trou­
ble. Service advisors also include the
name of the customer and make of
his automobile on the repair order. If
a factory warranty covers the
repairs, the engine and body num­
bers, mileage, and date of purchase
are recorded.
Service advisors tell customers
what repairs are needed, their ap­
proximate cost, and how long the
work will take. If service advisors
cannot tell the customer what repairs
are needed until a mechanic has in­
spected the automobile, they phone
him later for permission to do the
work. They may advise on the neces­
sity of having work done, by point­
ing out that it will assure improved
performance, safer operation, and
prevent more serious trouble. In
addition to advising customers on
service needs, they may sell
accessories such as air-conditioners
or radios.
Service advisors give repair orders
to the shop dispatcher who then
figures cost of repairs and assigns
work to mechanics. In some shops,
advisors compute repair costs. If a
mechanic has questions about a
repair order, he contacts the advisor
who wrote it. After the mechanic has
finished the work, the service advisor
may test drive the automobile to be
sure the problem has been corrected.
When the customer returns for his
automobile, the service advisor
answers questions regarding the
repairs and settles complaints about
their cost or quality. If the auto­
mobile is to be returned to the shop
because the customer is dissatisfied
or the cost of repairs is to be ad­
justed, the advisor usually must get
perm ission from the service
manager. In some dealerships, the


Advisor writes repair order.

most experienced service advisors
substitute for service managers when
they are absent.
Places of Employment

More than 20,000 persons worked
as service advisors in 1972; a small
number were women. Most service
advisors worked for large auto­
mobile dealers that employed from
one to four advisors, but some work­
ed for large independent automobile
repair shops.

years, but learning to estimate the
cost of automobile body repairs may
take a longer time. In addition to onthe-job training, some advisors at­
tend formal training programs con­
ducted by automobile manufac­
For service advisor trainees,
employers prefer high school gradu­
ates over 21 years of age with work
experience in automobile repair or
related activities. Employers usually
promote young persons from within
their own organizations. For exam­
ple, a young person may apply for a
job as service advisor trainee after
gaining experience in the firm as a
mechanic trainee or parts counter­
man trainee. Some firms, however,
prefer to hire fully experienced
Because service advisors deal
directly with customers, employers
look for applicants who are neat,
courteous, even-tempered, attentive
listeners, and good conversationa­
lists. High school and vocational
school courses in automobile me­
chanics, commercial arithmetic,
salesmanship, public speaking, and
English are helpful.
Service advisors with supervisory
ability may advance to shop fore­
men or to service managers. Some
open their own automobile repair
Employment Outlook

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Service advisors are trained on the
job under the guidance of experi­
enced service advisors and the serv­
ice manager. In many shops, trainees
begin by helping the service depart­
ment dispatcher. They learn to route
repair orders through the shop, to
compute costs, and to determine the
time required for different repairs.
The beginner usually can become a
qualified service advisor in 1 to 2

Employment of automobile ser­
vice advisors is expected to increase
rapidly through the mid-1980’s as a
result of the increasing number of
automobiles. In addition to the job
openings resulting from employ­
ment growth, a few hundred open­
ings are expected each year to
replace experienced service advisors
who retire, die, or transfer to other
The number of automobiles is ex­
pected to grow as population, con­


sumer purchasing power, and multi­ and the International Brotherhood of
car ownership increase. More auto­ Teamsters, Chauffers, Warehouse­
mobiles and their increasing com­ men and Helpers of America (Ind.).
plexity will require additional serv­
ice advisors. Also, some small
Sources of Additional
dealers are expected to hire service
advisors as work increases.
Details on employment oppor­
tunities may be obtained from local
Earnings and Working
automobile dealers or repair shops;
locals of the unions previously men­
Service advisors employed by tioned; or the local office of the State
automobile dealers in 34 large cities employment service.
had estimated average earnings of
General information about the
$5.03 an hour in late 1972, more than work of automobile service ad­
one-third higher than the average for visors may be obtained from:
all nonsupervisory workers in private
Automotive Service Industry Associa­
industry, except farming.
tion, 230 North Michigan Ave.,
Many service advisors are paid a
Chicago, 111. 60601.
salary plus commission; others are
A u tom otive Service C ouncils o f
paid a straight commission. Com­
America, Inc., 4001 Warren Blvd.,
missions usually are based on both
Hillside, 111. 60162.
the cost of repairs and the price of
accessories sold. Commissions may
vary as the amount of repair work
Many employers provide paid
holidays and vacations, and pay all STATION ATTENDANTS
or part of the cost of life and health
(D.O.T. 915.867)
insurance. Others also contribute to
retirement plans. Many employers
furnish laundered uniforms.
Nature of the Work
Most service advisors work 40 to
Gasoline service station attendants
48 hours a week. They are busiest in
the early morning when most cus­ (also called gasoline station sales­
tomers bring their cars for repairs, men or servicemen) help keep the
and in late afternoon when they Nation’s 115 million motor vehicles
return. During these peak hours ad­ running and in good operating condi­
visors may be rushed to wait on tion.
Service station attendants pump
Service advisors stand much of the gasoline, clean windshields, and offer
time and may be outdoors in all the additional services of checking
kinds of weather, but their work is water level, oil level, and tire air
not physically strenuous. Occasion­ pressure. They also may check the
ally, they have to deal with dis­ tires, fan belt, and other parts for ex­
gruntled customers, but most cus­ cessive wear.
Attendants have other respon­
tomers are pleasant.
Unions that organize service ad­ sibilities besides servicing cars. They
visors include the International sell and install parts and accessories
Association of Machinists and Aero­ such as tires, batteries, fan belts, and
space Workers; the Sheet Metal windshield wiper blades. When a cus­
Workers’ International Association; tomer pays the bill, attendants either


make change or prepare a charge
slip. They may perform minor
maintenance and repair work, such
as changing oil, rotating tires, repair­
ing tires, or replacing a muffler.
Some attendants, called mechanicattendants, perform more difficult
Attendants also may keep the ser­
vice areas, building, and restrooms
clean and neat. In some stations,
they help the station manager take
inventory, set up displays, and per­
form other duties associated with the
operation of a small business.
If a service station provides
emergency road service, attendants
occasionally may drive a tow truck
to a disabled car to “boost” the
battery, change a flat tire, or per­
form other minor repairs. If more
extensive repairs are needed, they
tow the customer’s vehicle back to
the service station.
Gasoline service station attendants
may use simple handtools such as
screwdrivers, pliers, and wrenches,
and power tools such as pneumatic
wrenches. Mechanic-attendants fre­
quently use more complex equip­
ment, such as motor analyzers and
wheel alignment machines.
Places of Employment

About 435,000 people worked as
gasoline service station attendants in
1972. More than one-third of these
were part-time employees. In addi­
tion to attendants, more than 225,
000 g aso lin e service s ta tio n
managers and owners did similar
Service station attendants work in
every section of the country, in the
largest cities, in the smallest towns,
and in outlying areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Applicants for jobs as gasoline ser-


vice station attendants should have a
driver’s license, a general under­
standing of how an automobile
works, and some sales ability. They
should be friendly and able to speak
well, present a generally neat appear­
ance, and have self-confidence.
Applicants should know simple
arithmetic so they can make change
quickly and accurately and help keep
business records. They also should be
familiar with local roads, highways,
and points of interest in order to give
directions to strangers and to locate
vehicles whose owners have called
for road service.


and cleaning windshields. Gradually,
they progress to more advanced
work such as doing simple mainte­
nance, installing accessories on cars,
and helping to keep the station
records. It usually takes from several
months to a year to become fully
Formal training programs for gas­
oline service station work are offered
in many high schools around the
country. In this curriculum, stu­
dents in their last 2 years of high
school take business education
courses and work part-time in a
gasoline service station, where they
receive instruction in all phases of
service station work.
Some attendants are enrolled in
formal training programs for service
stations managers, which are con­
ducted by most major oil com­
panies. These programs usually last
from 2 to 8 weeks and emphasize
subjects such as simple automobile
maintenance, salesmanship, and
business management.
Several avenues of advancement
are open to gasoline service station
attendants. Additional training
qualifies attendants to become auto­
mobile mechanics; those having busi­
ness management capabilities may
advance to station manager. Many
experienced station managers and
automobile mechanics go into busi­
Although completion of high ness for themselves by leasing a sta­
school is not generally a require­ tion from an oil company or by buy­
ment for getting an entry job, it is an ing their own station. Oil companies
advantage because it indicates to hire some service station managers
many employers that a young person as salesmen or district managers.
can “finish a job.” A high school
education usually is required for
Employment Outlook
service station management training
programs conducted by oil com­
Employment of gasoline service
station attendants is expected to in­
Service station attendants usually crease moderately through the midare trained on the job, although there 1980’s. In addition to the job open­
are some formal training programs. ings from employment growth, thou­
Attendants who train on the job do sands of openings are expected each
relatively simple work at first, such year from the need to replace atten­
as cleaning the station, pumping gas, dants who retire, die, or transfer to



other occupations.
Increased employment of service
station attendants is expected due to
the growing consumption of gaso­
line and other service station prod­
ucts. The number of motor vehicles
is expected to rise because of grow­
ing population and income, multiple
car ownership, and the continuing
movement to the suburbs. Also,
greater use of cars is expected as
families have more leisure time.
Continued fuel shortages, however,
may adversely affect highway travel.
More attendants also may be
needed to perform additional main­
tenance on newer, more complex
cars. For example, more cars will
have devices that reduce exhaust
fumes, and these devices must be
serviced periodically.

possibility of someday managing
their own service stations more than
offset these disadvantages. For
others, the opportunity to get parttime employment is important.
Some college students have been
able to work their way through
school as service station attendants.
Some workers also supplement their
income from regular jobs by work­
ing part-time as attendants.

Earnings and Working


Earnings of gasoline service sta­
tion attendants vary considerably.
Hourly earnings for many attendants
ranged from $2.00 to $3.00 in 1972,
according to the limited information
available. Attendants employed in
large metropolitan areas generally
had higher earnings than those in
small towns.
In many stations, employers
provide fringe benefits such as health
insurance and paid vacations. Some
employers furnish uniforms and pay
for their cleaning. More than onehalf of the attendants work over 40
hours a week; many work more than
48 hours. Attendants frequently
work at night and on weekends and
Attendants work outdoors in all
kinds of weather. They do consider­
able lifting and stooping and spend
much time on their feet. Possible in­
juries include cuts from sharp tools
and burns from hot engines. For
many attendants, however, the op­
portunity to deal with people and the

Sources of Additional

For more details about work op­
portunities, contact local gasoline
service stations or the local office of
the State employment service.

(D.O.T. 250.258)
Nature of the Work

Insurance agents and brokers sell
policies that protect individuals and
businesses against future losses and
financial pressures. They may help
plan financial protection to meet the
special needs of a customer’s family;
advise about insurance protection for
an automobile, home, business, or
other property; or help a policy­
holder obtain settlement of an insur­
ance claim.
Agents and brokers usually sell
one or more of the three basic types
of insurance: life, property/liability,
and health. Life insurance policies
pay survivors when a policyholder
dies; they also may provide retire­
ment income, funds for the educa­
tion of children, and other benefits.
Property/liability insurance pro­
tects policyholders from financial
losses as a result of automobile acci­

dents, fire and theft, or other
hazards. Health insurance policies
offer protection against the costs of
hospital and medical care or loss of
income due to illness or injury. Many
agents also offer securities, such as
mutual fund shares.
An insurance agent may be either
an insurance company salesworker
or an independent business person
authorized to represent one or more
insurance companies. Brokers, on
the other hand, are not under con­
tract with any company; they place
policies directly with the company
that best meets a client’s needs.
Otherwise, agents and brokers do
much the same kind of work.
Agents and brokers spend most of
their time discussing insurance
policies with prospective and exist­
ing customers. Some time must be
spent in office work to prepare
reports, maintain records, plan in­
surance programs that are tailored to
prospects’ needs, and draw up lists of
prospective customers. Specialists in
group po licies may help an
employer’s accountants set up a
system of payroll deductions for
employees covered by the policy.
Places of Employment

About 385,000 agents and bro­
kers—90 percent of them men—sold
insurance full time in 1972. Many
others worked part time. About half
specialized in life insurance; the rest,
in some type of property/liability in­
surance. Almost all also sold health
Agents and brokers are employed
in cities and towns throughout the
country, but most work near large
population centers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although some employers prefer



to communicate effectively with
different types of people. Because
agents usually work without super­
vision, they need initiative to locate
new prospects. For this reason, many
employers seek people who have
been successful in other jobs.
Insurance agents who show un­
usual sales ability and leadership
may be promoted to sales manager
in a district office or to a managerial
job in a home office. A few agents
may advance to top positions as
agency superintendents or company
vice-presidents. Many who have built
up a good clientele prefer to remain
in sales work. Some, particularly in
the property/liability field, eventual­
ly establish their own independent
agencies or brokerage firms.
Employment Outlook

Employment of insurance agents
college graduates for jobs selling in­ and universities and attending in­ and brokers is expected to grow
surance, most hire high school stitutes, conferences, and seminars moderately through the mid-1980’s
graduates with work experience. sponsored by insurance organi­ as the volume of insurance sales con­
College training may help the agent zations. The Life Underwriter Train­ tinues to expand. Many additional
g rasp the fu n d am e n tals and ing Council (LUTC) awards a jobs will open as agents and brokers
procedures of insurance selling more diploma in life insurance marketing die, retire, or leave their jobs to seek
quickly. Courses in accounting, to agents who successfully complete other work. Due to the competitive
economics, finance, business law, the Council’s 2-year life program. nature of insurance selling, begin­
They also offer other courses in life ners often leave their jobs because
and insurance subjects are helpful.
All agents and most brokers must and health insurance. As an agent or they have been unable to establish a
be licensed in the States where they broker gains experience and knowl­ successful clientele.
As personal incomes rise and life
plan to sell insurance. In most edge, he can qualify for the
States, licenses are issued only to Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU) expectancy increases, more families
applicants who pass written ex­ designation by passing a series of ex­ will depend on life insurance for
aminations covering insurance fun­ aminations given by the American educational funds for their children
damentals and the State insurance Society of Chartered Life Under­ and retirement income. Expansion in
laws. New agents usually receive writers. In much the same way, a industrial plant and equipment and a
training at insurance company home property/liability agent can qualify growing number of major consumer
offices or at the agencies where they for the Chartered Property Casualty purchases, such as homes or auto­
will work. Beginners sometimes at­ Underwriter (CPCU) designation by mobiles, will stimulate sales of prop­
tend company-sponsored classes to passing an examination given by the erty/liability insurance. Rising medi­
prepare for examinations. Others American Institute for Property and cal costs will increase sales of health
study on their own and accompany Liability Underwriters, Inc. The insurance.
Em ploym ent of agents and
experienced salesworkers when they CLU and CPCU designations are
call on prospective clients.
recognized marks of achievement in brokers, however, is not expected to
keep pace with growing insurance
Agents and brokers can broaden their respective fields.
their knowledge of the insurance
Agents and brokers should be sales because more policies will be
business by taking courses at colleges enthusiastic, self-confident, and able sold to groups and by mail. Also,



agents should be able to handle more
business as computers relieve them
of time-consuming clerical tasks.
Earnings and Working

ment ot insurance at any State
Information about a career as a
life insurance agent also is available
Institute of Life Insurance, 227 Park
Ave., New York, N.Y . 10017.

Beginners in this occupation often
Life Insurance Agency Management
are guaranteed moderate salaries or
Association, 170 Sigourney St.,
advances on commissions while they
Hartford, Conn., 06105.
are learning the business and build­
The N ational A ssociation of Life
ing a clientele. Thereafter, most
Underwriters, 1922 F St., NW .,
agents are paid a commission. The
Washington, D.C. 20006.
size of the commission depends on
Information about sales training
the type and amount of insurance in life and health insurance is avail­
sold, and whether the transaction is a able from:
new policy or a renewal. After a few
The Life Underwriter Training Coun­
years, an agent’s commissions on
cil, 1922 F St. NW., Washington,
new policies and renewals may range
D.C. 20006.
from $8,000 to $20,000 annually. A
Information about property/lia­
number of established and highly
successful agents and brokers earn bility agents and brokers can be ob­
tained from:
more than $30,000 a year.
Agents and brokers generally pay
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William St., New York, N .Y .
their own automobile and traveling
expenses. In addition, those who
own and operate independent busi­
National Association of Insurance
Agents, Inc., 85 John St., New
nesses must pay office rent, clerical
York, N.Y. 10038.
salaries, and other operating ex­
penses out of their earnings.
Although insurance agents usually
are free to arrange their own hours of
work, they often schedule appoint­
ments during evenings and week­
ends for the convenience of clients.
(D.O.T. 297.868 and 961.868)
Some agents work more than the
customary 40 hours a week. (See the
Nature of the Work
statement on the Insurance Industry
for more information about work in
Models convey the idea that life
life and property/liability com­
can become happier, more glamor­
ous, or secure if people buy the prod­
ucts or use the services they adver­
Sources of Additional
tise. The attractive female model or
handsome male model furnishes the
General occupational information indispensable image that can trigger
about insurance agents and brokers public demand for a new look or
may be obtained from the home of­ product.
fice of many life and property/lia­
Most models specialize in some
bility insurance companies. Informa­ line of live or photographic work.
tion on State licensing requirements
Some fashion models work before
may be obtained from the depart­ an audience, often by participating in

style shows. Models walk past cus­
tomers and pause to exhibit favor­
able features of the clothes they are
wearing. On some jobs they may stop
to tell individual customers a gar­
ment’s price and style number.
Fashion models who work for cloth­
ing designers, manufacturers, and
distributors are called showroom or
wholesale models. They work con­
stantly during peak seasons, but dur­
ing slack times they may have
clerical duties such as typing.
Informal models work in depart­
ment stores and custom salons where
the pace is more leisurely than in
showrooms. Still others, may dem­
onstrate new products and services at
manufacturers’ exhibits and trade
Photographic models usually are
hired on an assignment basis. After
arriving for an assignment, the
model changes into the appropriate
clothing. The photographer then
decides on poses, adjusts lights, and
takes several pictures. M ost
photographic models display
fashions, but some pose with other
merchandise such as cars or china.
In addition to fashion and
photographic work, some models
pose for artists or sculptors, or work
in films or television. Models avail­
able for all types of assignments are
known as free-lancers. They work on
their own or through a model agency
which schedules clients’ assignments.
Places of Employment

More than 7,000 persons worked
as full-time models in 1972; many
others had part-time modeling jobs.
Most models are women. Although
models work in nearly all urban
areas, most jobs are in New York Ci­
ty, the center of the fashion industry.
Large numbers also work in Chicago
and Los Angeles.
Manufacturers, designers, and
wholesalers employ the largest



Because photographs distort im­
ages and emphasize undesirable
traits, photograhic models usually
are thinner than other models and
have fine physical features. Female
photographic models, for instance,
must be long-waisted and at least 5
feet 7 inches tall. They also need
good teeth and a face that is pretty or
reflects the style of the period.
Models should like working as
part of a team. The ability to with­
stand the pressures of competition,
close schedules, and quick changes is
important. Sometimes they work un­
der uncomfortable conditions, such
as modeling furs in the summer or
swim suits in winter. The job
demands not only perfect grooming,
poise, and a pleasant personality, but
also physical stamina and a generous
helping of determination.

Models prepare to pose.

number of full-time models. In New ing courses, students are taught to
York City’s garment district, hun­ pose for the photographer and to
dreds of firms and designers employ show different emotions before the
one or two permanent models. Some camera. Although employers have
models work for advertising agen­ no specific educational require­
cies, retail stores, and magazines; ments, some models complete high
others are hired by artists, photogra­ school and others have college train­
phers, and sculptors.
ing. Courses in art, drama, dancing,
and fashion design can develop poise
and a sense of style.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Prospective models should know
hair styling, and the use of makeup,
and the proper way to walk and
stand. Modeling schools and many
agencies in large cities provide this
instruction. In photographic model­

Fashion models must be well
proportioned and slim to fit
manufacturers’ samples. A female
shoe model generally must wear size
5, and a hosiery model needs long
and graceful legs. The male model
should wear trim clothing—usually a
size 40 or 41 long suit.

Placement offices at modeling
schools provide jobs for many
students. Some jobseekers find
employment by registering at a
model agency. An agency usually
asks the applicant for photos in a
number of modeling poses to show
prospective clients. Department
stores may hold auditions that give
inexperienced models a chance to
show the newest styles. In addition,
many sales jobs in department stores
provide useful experiences in han­
dling clothing, observing customers,
and occasional modeling. Some­
times a model can gain experience in
local fashion shows given to raise
funds for charity.
Modeling can be a stepping stone
to other jobs in the fashion field, such
as fashion coordinator, staff editor of
a fashion magazine, or fashion con­
sultant. Models who work as doubles
or stand-ins in movies or television
may become actors or actresses.
Some work their way through art
school by modeling and then qualify
for jobs as fashion illustrators.



Employment Outlook

Full-time modeling will remain
highly competitive through the mid1980’s. Because young people are at­
tracted by the glamour of this oc­
cupation, the number of job hunters
is expected to be much larger than
the number of full-time jobs. Oppor­
tunities for part-time work, however,
should be favorable.
Employment of models is expected
to increase moderately during the
next decade as apparel manufactur­
ing and sales expand. As the com­
petition for sales grows, manu­
facturers will stress advertising, and
this emphasis on product promotion
will contribute to the demand for
Most openings for models will be
to replace those who leave the field.
Many high fashion models have to
retire when they lose their youthful
appearance, and others are eased out
of the field because they are identi­
fied with outdated products.
Although a female model seldom
works more than 8 years, a male
model often works 20 years or more.

Earnings and Working

A model’s earnings depend chiefly
on the number of assignments and
their length. Although a few top
models make as much as many top
executives, most earn far less. Ac­
cording to the limited information
available, fashion models working
full time for manufacturers or whole­
salers earned from $125 to $200 a
week in 1972. Models working for
New York City retail stores were
paid from $110 to $180 a week, and
those working outside of New York
from $80 to $120.
Free-lance models charge their

clients fees. Those working through
agencies pay a commission to the
agency. In 1972, free-lance models
working in fashion shows averaged
$50 an hour in New York City.
Photographic models in New York
earned $40 to $75 an hour. These
rates are misleading because many
models, especially beginners, work
only a few hours each week.
Although photographic modeling
often pays well, many models must
provide their own accessories and
pay for other expenses such as trans­
portation. Occasionally, a complete
outfit is needed to get a job.
Television models earn at least $35
for an appearance as an extra, and
about $135 for an appearance as a
principal character; they are paid an
additional amount for each rerun.
Television models must be members
of the American Federation of Tele­
vision and Radio Artists or the
Screen Actors Guild, Inc.
Modeling may influence personal
life. Because the camera highlights
the effects of keeping late hours, for
example, a model may limit evenings
out to be fresh for the next day’s
work. In addition, a female model
must spend part of each night on
beauty care, and sometimes prepares
clothing and accessories for the next
Sources of Additional

Employers of models such as
magazines and newspapers may be
able to recommend reputable model­
ing agencies or schools to those in­
A list of approved modeling
schools is available from individual
State Departments of Education.
Write the directors of particular
modeling schools for catalogs
describing the program, entrance
requirements, and tuition costs.

(D.O.T. 260. through 289.458)
Nature of the Work

P ractically all m an u factu r­
ers—whether they make computers
or can openers—employ salesworkers. M anufacturers’ salesworkers sell mainly to other busi­
nesses—factories, railroads, banks,
wholesalers, and retailers. They also
sell to hospitals, schools, and other
M ost m an u factu rers’ salesworkers sell nontechnical products.
They must be well informed about
their firms’ products and also about
the special requirements of their cus­
tomers. When salesworkers visit
firms in their territory, they use an
approach adapted to the particular
line of merchandise. A salesworker
who handles crackers or cookies, for
example, emphasizes the whole­
someness, attractive packaging, and
variety of these products. Some­
times salesworkers promote their
products by displays in hotels and
conferences with wholesalers and
other customers.
Salesworkers who deal in highly
technical products, such as elec­
tronic equipment, often are called
sales engineers or industrial sales­
workers. In addition to having a
thorough knowledge of their firms’
products, they must be able to help
prospective buyers with technical
problems. For example, they may try
to determine the proper materials
and equipment for a firm’s manufac­
turing process. They then present
this information to company officials
and try to negotiate a sale. Often,
sales engineers work with the research-and-development depart­
ments of their own companies to
devise ways to adapt products to a
customer’s specialized needs. Sales-



Manufacturer’s salesworkers learn the advantages of new packaging materials.

workers who handle technical prod­
ucts sometimes train their customers’
employees in the operation and
maintenance of new equipment, and
make frequent return visits to be
certain that it is giving the desired
Although manufacturers’ sales­
workers spend most of their time
visting prospective customers, they
also do paperwork including re­
ports on sales prospects or cus­
tomers’ credit ratings. In addition,
they must plan their work schedules,
draw up lists of prospects, make ap­
pointments, handle some corre­
spondence, and study literature relat­
ing to their products.
Places of Employment

Over 42,000 people—10 percent
of them women—were manufac­
turers’ salesworkers in 1972. About

25,000 were sales engineers. Some
work out of home office’s, often
located at manufacturing plants. The
majority, however, work out of
branch offices, usually in big cities
near prospective customers.
More salesworkers are employed
by companies that produce food
products than by any other industry.
Large numbers also work in the
printing and publishing, chemicals,
fabricated metal products, and elec­
trical and other machinery industries
The largest employers of sales engi­
neers produce heavy machinery,
transportation equipment, fabri­
cated metal products, and profes­
sional and scientific instruments.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although high school graduates
can be successful manufacturers’

salesworkers, college graduates in­
creasingly are preferred as trainees.
Manufacturers of nontechnical
products often hire college grad­
uates who have a degree in liberal
arts or business administration.
Some positions, however, require
specialized training. Drug sales­
workers usually need training at a
college of pharmacy. Manufacturers
of electrical equipment, heavy
machinery, and some types of chemi­
cals prefer to hire college-trained
engineers or chemists. (Information
on chemists, engineers, and other
professionally-trained workers who
may be employed as manufacturers’
salesmen is given elsewhere in the
Beginning salesworkers take
specialized training before they start
on the job. Some companies, espe­
cially those that manufacture com­
plex technical products, have formal
training programs that last 2 years or
longer. In some of these programs,
trainees rotate among jobs in sev­
eral departments of the plant and of­
fice to learn all phases of produc­
tion, installation, and distribution of
the product. Other trainees take for­
mal class instruction at the plant, fol­
lowed by on-the-job training in a
branch office under the supervision
of field sales managers.
A pleasant personality and
appearance, and the ability to meet
and get along well with many types
of people are important. Because
salesworkers may have to walk or
stand for long periods or carry prod­
uct samples, physical stamina is
necessary. As in most selling jobs,
arithmetic skills are an asset.
Sales representatives who have
good sales records and leadership
ability may advance to sales super­
visors, branch managers, or district
managers. Those having managerial
skill eventually may advance to sales
manager or other executive posi­
tions; many top executive jobs in in­



dustry are filled by people who
started as salesworkers.
Because of frequent contact with
business people in other firms, sales­
workers often transfer to better jobs.
Some go into business for them­
selves as manufacturers’ agents sell­
ing similar products of several
manufacturers. Other experienced
salesworkers find opportunities in
advertising and marketing research.
Employment Outlook

The number of manufacturers’
salesworkers is expected to rise
moderately through the mid-1980’s
as a result of general economic
growth and the greater emphasis
manufacturers will place on their
sales activities. In addition to open­
ings from growth, several thousand
jobs will emerge annually as existing
positions become vacant because of
retirements or deaths. Still other
vacancies will occur as salesworkers
leave their jobs to enter other types
of employment.
Among the factors expected to in­
fluence employment growth in the
occupation are the expansion of
markets for technical products and
the resulting demand for trained
salesworkers. In addition, the in­
creased volume of business trans­
acted with some customers—mod­
ern industrial complexes, chain
stores, and large institutions of many
kinds—will heighten competition
among the manufacturers supplying
these organizations and intensify the
need for effective selling. Although
they will fill thousands of sales jobs
each year, manufacturers are ex­
pected to be selective in hiring. They
will look for ambitious young people
who are well trained and tempera­
mentally suited for the job.
Earnings and Working

According to limited data, sala­

ries for beginning salesworkers aver­
aged about $9,000 a year in 1972, ex­
clusive of commissions and bonuses.
The highest starting salaries gener­
ally were paid by manufacturers of
electrical and electronic equipment,
construction materials, hardware
and tools, and scientific and preci­
sion instruments.
Some manufacturing concerns pay
experienced salesworkers a straight
commission, based on their dollar
amount of sales; others pay a fixed
salary. The majority, however, use a
combination plan of salary and com­
mission, salary and bonus, or salarycommission and bonus. Commis­
sions vary according to the sales­
workers’ efforts and ability, the com­
mission rate, location of their sales
territory, and the type of product sold.
Bonus payments may depend on in­
dividual performance, that of all
salesworkers in the group or district,
or on the company’s sales. Some
firms pay annual bonuses; others
offer bonuses as incentive payments
on a quarterly or monthly basis. In
1972, many experienced sales­
workers earned between $16,000 and
$32,000 annually; some earned more.
In general, the earnings of manufac­
turers’ salesworkers are higher than
the average for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Some m an u factu rers’ sales­
workers have large territories and do
considerable traveling. Others usu­
ally work in the neighborhood of
their “home base.” When on busi­
ness trips, salesworkers are reim­
bursed for expenses such as transpor­
tation and hotels. Some companies
provide a car or pay a mileage allow­
ance to salesworkers who use their
own cars.
Manufacturers’ salesworkers call
at the time most convenient to cus­
tomers and may have to travel at
night or on weekends. Frequently,
they spend evenings writing reports.

However, some plan their schedules
for time off when they want it. Most
salesworkers who are not paid a
straight commission receive 2 to 4
weeks’ paid vacation, depending on
their length of service. They usually
share in company benefits, including
life insurance, pensions, and
hospital, surgical, and medical
Sources of Additional

For more information on the oc­
cupation of manufacturers’ salesworker write:
Sales and Marketing Executives Inter­
national, Student Education Divi­
sion, 630 Third Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 250.358)
Nature of the Work

Real estate salesworkers and
brokers represent property owners in
selling or renting their properties.
They are also called real estate
agents or, if they are members of the
National Association of Realtors, ®
“ Realtors®.”
Brokers are independent busi­
nessmen who not only sell real estate,
but also sometimes rent and manage
properties, make appraisals, and
develop new building projects. In
closing sales, brokers usually make
arrangements for loans to finance the
purchases, for title searches, and for
meetings between buyers and sellers,
when details of the transaction are
agreed upon and the new owners take
possession. Brokers must also man­
age their own offices, advertising


properties, and handle other busi­
ness operations. Some combine other
work such as selling insurance or
practicing law with their real estate
Salesworkers or agents work for
brokers. They show and sell real es­
tate, handle rental properties, and
obtain “listings” (owner agreements
to place properties for sale with the
Firm). Because obtaining listings is
an important job duty, salesworkers
may spend much time on the tele­
phone exploring leads gathered from
advertisements and personal con­
tacts. They also answer inquiries
about properties over the telephone.
A worker who sells real estate or
handles rental properties often must
leave the office to call on prospects
and drive them to inspect properties


for sale. When a number of houses
are for sale in a new development,
the agent may operate from a model
Most real estate salesworkers and
brokers sell residential property. A
few, usually in large Firms, special­
ize in commercial, industrial or other
types of real estate. Each specialty
requires knowledge of the particular
type of property. For example, sell­
ing or leasing business property re­
quires an understanding of leasing
practices, business trends, and loca­
tion needs; those who sell or lease in­
dustrial properties must know about
transportation, utilities and labor
supply. To sell residential properties
the agent must know the location of
schools, churches, shopping facil­
ities, and public transportation.

Familiarity with tax rates and insur­
ance is also important. The salesworker who is a broker’s only em­
ployee may need some knowledge of
all types of property.
Places of Employment

About 350,000 persons—60 per­
cent of them men—were full-time
real estate brokers and salesworkers
in 1972. Many others sold real estate
part time. The total number of men
and women licensed to sell was about
1 million in 1972, according to the
National Association of Real Estate
License Law Officials.
Most real estate employees work
for small business establishments; a
few, in urban areas, work for Firms
with large staffs. Brokers generally
are self-employed. Real estate is sold
in all areas but employment is con­
centrated in large urban areas and in
smaller but rapidly growing com­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Real estate salesworker points out features of condominium project.

Real estate salesworkers and
brokers must be licensed in every
State and in the District of Colum­
bia. All States require prospective
agents to pass written tests. The ex­
amination—more comprehensive for
brokers than for salesworkers—in­
cludes questions on basic real estate
transactions and on laws affecting
the sale of property. In more than 60
percent of the States, candidates for
a broker’s license must have a speci­
fied amount of experience in selling
real estate or the equivalent in re­
lated experience or education (gener­
ally 1 to 3 years). State licenses usu­
ally can be renewed annually with­
out reexamination.
Employers prefer applicants with
at least a high school education.
High school courses in selling, archi­
tectural drawing, business law, eco­



nomics, and public speaking are
helpful for those planning a career in
real estate. Most agents have some
college training and many are col­
lege graduates. College courses in
real estate subjects as well as psy­
chology, economics, finance, and
business administration are an asset.
Young men and women interested
in beginning jobs as real estate salesworkers often apply in their own
communities, where their knowl­
edge of local neighborhoods is an ad­
vantage. The beginner usually learns
the practical aspects of the job under
the direction of an experienced
Many firms offer formal training
programs for both beginners and ex­
perienced salesworkers. About 360
universities, colleges, and junior col­
leges offer courses in real estate. At
some, a student can earn an associ­
ate’s or bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in real estate; several offer ad­
vanced degrees. Many local real es­
tate boards that are members of the
National Association of Realtors ®
sponsor courses covering the funda­
mentals and legal aspects of the
field. Advanced courses in appraisal,
mortgage financing, and property
development and management also
are available through various Na­
tional Association affiliates.
Characteristics important for suc­
cess in selling real estate include a
pleasant personality, honesty, and a
neat appearance. Maturity, tact, and
enthusiasm for the job are required
in order to motivate prospective cus­
tomers in this highly competitive
field. Agents also should have a good
memory for names and faces and
business details such as prices and
zoning regulations.
Trained and experienced sales­
workers can advance in many large
firms to sales or general managers.
Licensed brokers may open their
own offices. Training and experi­
ence in estimating property value can

lead to work as a real estate ap­
praiser, and people familiar with
operating and maintaining rental
properties may specialize in prop­
erty management. Those who gain
general experience in real estate, and
a thorough knowledge of business
conditions and property values in
their localities, may enter mortgage
financing or real estate counseling.
Employment Outlook

Employment of real estate sales­
workers and brokers is expected to
rise moderately through the mid1980’s as more salesworkers are
needed to serve a growing popula­
tion. In addition to opportunities
that result from growth, several
thousand openings will occur each
year as employees die, retire, or leave
for other reasons. Replacement
needs are relatively high in this oc­
cupation because agents are older, on
the average, than workers in most
other job fields; in addition, many
beginners transfer to other work
after a short time selling real estate.
Mature workers, including those
transferring from other kinds of
saleswork, are likely to find many
job opportunities. The proportion of
part-time real estate salesworkers
may decline, as State licensing re­
quirements change and agents need
more specialized knowledge to han­
dle real estate transactions.
The favorable outlook for employ­
ment in this field will stem partly
from increased demand for new
home purchases or rentals by the
many young people born following
World War II. Continued migration
to metropolitan areas and urban re­
newal programs are among other
factors which will contribute to a
growing need for agents. Although
this field is likely to remain highly
competitive it should offer many
career opportunities to people with
an aptitude for selling.

Earnings and Working

Commissions on sales are the
main source of earnings—very few
real estate agents work for a salary.
The rate of commission varies ac­
cording to the type of property and
its value; the percentage paid on the
sale of farm and commercial prop­
erties or unimproved land usually is
higher than that paid for selling a
Commissions may be divided
among several employees of a real
estate firm. The person who ob­
tained the listing often receives a part
when the property is sold; the broker
who makes the sale either gets the
rest of the commission, or else shares
it with the agent who handles the
transaction. Although an agent’s
share varies greatly from one firm to
another, often it is about half of the
total amount received by the firm.
Many full-time real estate agents
earn between $12,000 and $20,000 a
year, according to the limited data
available. Beginners usually earn
less. Experienced real estate sales­
workers may earn $30,000 or more a
Income usually increases as an
agent gains experience, but individ­
ual ability, economic conditions, and
the type and location of the property
also affect earnings. Salesworkers
who are active in community
organizations and local real estate
boards can broaden their contacts
and increase their earnings. A begin­
ner’s earnings often are irregular be­
cause a few weeks or even months
may go by without a sale. Although
some brokers allow a salesworker a
drawing account against future earn­
ings, this practice is not usual with
new employees. The beginner, there­
fore, should have enough money to
live on until commissions increase.
Brokers provide office space, but
salesworkers generally furnish their
own automobiles. Agents and



create an interest in the merchan­
In addition to selling, most retail
dise. The salesman or saleswoman salesworkers make out sales or
may answer questions about the con­ charge slips, receive cash payments,
struction of an article, demonstrate and give change and receipts. They
its use, and show various models and also handle returns and exchanges of
colors. In some stores, special merchandise and keep their work
knowledge or skills may be needed to areas neat. In small stores, they may
sell the merchandise carried. For ex­ help order merchandise, stock
Sources of Additional
ample, in a pet shop, the sales­ shelves or racks, mark price tags,
worker should know about the care take inventory, and prepare dis­
The real estate commission or and feeding of animals. On the other plays. (Route salesmen, who sell
board located in each State capital hand, people who sell standardized bread, milk, and other products
can supply details on licensing re­ articles, such as many items in hard­ directly to customers on a regular
quirements for real estate sales­ ware and drug stores, often do little route, are discussed under Driving
workers and brokers in the State. more than take payments and wrap Occupations elsewhere in the Hand­
Most local real estate organizations customer’s purchases. (In super­ book.)
also have this information. Many markets and some drugstores, cash­
States can furnish manuals helpful to iers wrap or bag purchases, receive
Places of Employment
applicants who are preparing for the payments, and make change. See
required written examinations.
statement elsewhere in the Hand­
In 1972, about 2.8 million sales­
More information about oppor- book on Cashiers.)
w orkers—th ree-fifth s of them
tunites in real estate work, as well as
a list of colleges and universities
offering courses in this field, may be
obtained by writing to:

brokers often work in the evenings
and during weekends to suit the con­
venience of customers. Some firms,
especially the large ones, furnish
group life, health, and accident in­

National Association of Realtors ®
Department of Education, 155
East Superior St., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 260. through 290.877)
Nature of the Work

The success of any retail business
depends largely on its salesworkers.
Courteous and efficient service from
behind the counter or on the sales
floor does much to satisfy customers
and build a store’s reputation. Even
though contact with customers is a
part of all sales jobs, the duties,
skills, and responsibilities of sales­
workers are as different as the kinds
of merchandise they sell.
In selling items such as furniture,
electrical appliances, or clothing, the
salesworker’s primary job is to

Retail salesworker describes fabric content to customer.


women—were employed in retail
businesses. They worked in stores
ranging from the small drug or
grocery store that employs one parttime salesclerk to the giant depart­
ment store that has hundreds of
salesworkers. They worked also for
door-to-door sales companies and
mail-order houses. The largest
employers of retail trade sales­
workers are department stores and
those selling general merchandise,
food, and apparel and accessories.
Men predominate in stores that sell
furniture, household appliances,
hardware, farm equipment, shoes,
and lumber, and in automobile
dealerships. (See statement on Auto­
mobile Salesworkers elsewhere in the
Handbook.) Women outnumber men
in department and general merchan­
dise, variety, apparel and acces­
sories, and in drugstores.
Although sales jobs are found in
almost every community, most sales­
workers are employed in large cities
and populated suburban areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers prefer high school
graduates for sales jobs. Subjects
such as salesmanship, commercial
arithmetic, and home economics
provide a good background for many
selling positions. Some high schools
have distributive education pro­
grams that offer courses in merchan­
dising and principles of retail sell­
ing; many give students a chance to
gain practical experience working
part time in local stores. Such parttime selling experience may be help­
ful in getting a full-time job.
Young persons interested in sales
jobs may apply to the personnel of­
fices of large retail stores, where they
are interviewed and sometimes given
aptitude tests. Employers prefer
those who enjoy working with people
and have the tact to deal with differ­


ent personalities. Among other
desirable characteristics are an inter­
est in sales work, a pleasant per­
sonality, a neat appearance, and the
ability to communicate clearly. Also,
prospective salesworkers should be
healthy since they must stand for
long periods. Arithmetic skills are an
asset for those who calculate prices
and make change.
In many small stores, an experi­
enced employee or the proprietor in­
structs newly hired sales personnel in
making out sales slips and operating
the cash register. In larger stores,
training programs are likely to be
more formal, and to include special­
ized training in selling certain
Although large retail businesses
often promote college graduates
hired as trainees to executive jobs,
retail selling remains one of the few
fields in which able employees may
advance regardless of education.
Some salesworkers eventually be­
come buyers, department managers,
or store managers. Others, particu­
larly in large stores, may advance to
administrative work in areas such as
personnel or advertising. Oppor­
tunities for advancement are limited
in small stores where one person,
often the owner, does most man­
agerial work. Retail selling experi­
ence may be an asset in qualifying
for sales work with wholesalers or

time jobs, there will be many
opportunities for part-time work­
ers, as well as for temporary workers
during peak selling periods such as
the Christmas season.
Sales employment will increase
more slowly than the volume of sales
as self-service—already the rule in
most food stores—is extended to
drug, variety, and other kinds of
stores. On the other hand, rising in­
come levels probably will increase
the demand for some merchandise
(such as electrical appliances and
automobiles) that requires the salesworker to spend a good deal of time
with each customer.
Earnings and Working

In 1972, salesworkers starting in
routine jobs where they did little
more than “wait on” customers
generally earned $1.60 an hour (in
many stores, the minimum wage re­
quired by law). In stores where sell­
ing is more important, starting sala­
ries were sometimes higher. Salaries
usually are lower in rural than in ur­
ban areas.
Often, experienced salesworkers,
including those whose pay scales are
determined by union contracts, earn
$3 an hour or more. Many are paid a
straight salary; in addition some re­
ceive commissions—that is, a per­
centage of the sales they make; still
others are paid a straight commis­
sion alone. Earnings are likely to be
Employment Outlook
highest in jobs that require special
Employment of salesworkers in re­ skill in dealing with customers, or
tail trade is expected to increase technical knowledge of the merchan­
moderately through the mid-1980’s, dise sold. Among the highest paid
as the volume of sales rises and the are people who sell automobiles,
trend for stores to remain open major appliances, and furniture. On
longer continues. Thousands of the average, retail trade sales­
openings will occur each year be­ workers earn about as much as noncause of employment growth and the supervisory workers in private indus­
need to replace salesworkers who try, except farming.
retire or leave the occupation for
Salesworkers in many retail stores
other reasons. In addition to full­ can buy merchandise at a discount,


often from 10 to 25 percent below
regular prices. This privilege some­
times is extended to the employee’s
family. Some stores, especially the
large ones, pay all or part of the cost
of such employee benefits as life in­
surance, retirement, hospitalization,
and surgical and medical insurance.
Many full-time salesworkers have
a 5-day, 40 hour week, although in
some stores the standard workweek
is longer. Because Saturday is a busy
day in retailing, employees usually
work that day and have another
weekday off. Longer than normal
hours may be scheduled before
Christmas and during other peak
periods, and employees who work
overtime receive additional pay or
an equal amount of time off dur­
ing slack periods. Some, especially
those employed by stores in sub­
urban shopping centers regularly
work one evening a week or more.
Part-time salesworkers generally
work during the store’s peak hours of
business—daytime rush hours, eve­
nings, and weekends.
Salesworkers in retail trade usu­
ally work in clean, well-lighted
places and many stores are air-condi­
tioned. Some jobs, however, require
work outside the store. A kitchen
equipment salesworker may visit
prospective customers at their
homes, for example, to help them
plan renovations, and a used-car
salesworker may spend much time at
an outdoor lot.


or from local unions of the Retail
Clerks International Association.
Information on retailing courses
given in high schools may be ob­
tained from local Superintendents of
Schools or from the State Super­
visor of Distributive Education in the
Department of Education at each
State capital.

(D.O.T. 292.358)
Nature of the Work

Routemen drive light trucks over
assigned routes to sell and deliver
goods or provide services. They are
sometimes known as driver-salesmen
or route-salesmen. They must,
through their selling ability, increase
sales to existing customers and ob­
tain new business by canvassing
potential customers within their
Routemen’s work varies according
to the industries in which they are
employed, the type of routes they
have (retail or wholesale), and the
companies employing them. Some
specific examples, however, may
describe in a general way what most
routemen do.
On a typical day, laundry and drycleaning routemen begin by picking
up cleaned garments at the process­
ing plant and load their trucks, which
are equipped with carrying racks.
Sources of Additional
They deliver the cleaned garments to
homes and there pick up soiled cloth­
Information about careers in re­
ing. They mark the soiled articles so
tail sales is available from:
that they can be identified at the
The N ation al R etail M erchants
plant. Sometimes, they make notes
Association, 100 W. 31st St., New
of the type of stains to be removed or
York, N.Y. 10001.
of special processes to be used, such
Additional information on careers as waterproofing. Each cleaned gar­
in retailing may be obtained from the ment has an itemized bill attached so
personnel offices of local stores; that drivers can collect the amounts
from State merchants’ associations; of money due.

Although all routemen must be
able to get along well with people, it
is particularly important for the drycleaning and laundry routemen.
Their reactions to complaints and
requests for special services may be
the difference between increasing
business or losing custom ers.
Periodically, they may call at homes
along their routes to try to sell their
company’s services.
W holesale bakery routem en
deliver bread and other baked goods
to grocery stores. Their trucks are
loaded the night before or early in
the morning, and they check to see
whether the proper variety and quan­
tity of products are aboard before
starting on the route. Each of them
generally stops at from 10 to 50
grocery stores, and at each stop,
carries the orders of bread and other
baked goods into the store and
arranges them on the display racks.
Together with the store owner or
manager, bakery routemen check the
merchandise delivered. They also
credit the store for the value of the
stale items left over from the
previous delivery.
Bakery routemen prepare a list of
products they plan to deliver the next
day. These lists are estimates of the
amount and variety of baked goods
that will be sold by the grocery
stores. From time to time, they call
on grocers along the route who are
not customers and try to get orders
from them.
Vending machine routemen make
certain the machines on their routes
are stocked with merchandise and in
good working order. At each loca­
tion, they check the items remaining
in machines and the money deposited
in the cash boxes. They check vend­
ing machines to see that merchandise
and change are dispensed properly,
and make minor adjustments to
machines that are broken. They
clean machines, removing waste and
accumulated dust, and replace stock.



Routemen keep records of the mer­
chandise placed in each machine and
the money removed. They may try to
find new locations for vending
machines by calling on stores, fac­
tories, and other businesses along
their routes.
Places of Employment

About 190,000 routemen worked
for a wide variety of businesses in
1972. Since most of them were
employed by companies that dis­
tributed food products or provided
personal services, they worked in
small towns as well as in large cities.
The greatest concentration of
employment was in dairies, bakeries,
food and beverage distributors, and
drycleaning plants in the large cities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

In addition to being good drivers,
routemen must have sales ability. To
get people to buy, they must have a
thorough knowledge of the product
or service they sell and a persuasive
personality. Other important sales
qualifications are a pleasant voice,
ability to speak well, and a neat ap­
pearance. They also need self-confi­
dence, initiative, and tact.
Routemen must be able to work
without direct supervision, do simple
arithmetic, and write legibly. In most
States, a routeman is required to
have a chauffeur’s license, which is a
commercial driving permit. Informa­
tion regarding this license can be ob­
tained from State Motor Vehicle
Most employers require their
routemen to be high school gradu­
ates, preferably 25 years of age or
older. Many large companies give
applicants aptitude tests to deter­
mine whether they will make good
salesmen and safe drivers. Routemen who handle a great deal of
money may have to be bonded.

School-and-work programs in
retail and wholesale merchandising
are helpful to a person interested in
entering this occupation. High
school courses in salesmenship,
public speaking, driver training,
bookkeeping, and business arith­
metic are helpful; almost immediate­
ly after high school graduation,
valuable experience may be obtained
as a sales clerk in a store or in some
other type of selling job.
Another method of entering this
occupation is to get a job as a routeman helper (D.O.T. 292.887).
Employers occasionally hire persons
18 years of age or over to assist
routemen. When an opening occurs,
helpers may be promoted to routemen. Helpers, however, are not like­
ly to be employed in the dairy or
vending machine industries.
Most companies give their routemen on-the-job training which varies
in length and thoroughness. Many
large companies have classes in
salesmanship. Some companies
assign newly hired routemen for brief
periods to jobs in the different
departments of the plant, so that
they can become familiar with
processing operations and answer
customers’ questions intelligently.
Routemen may be promoted to
route foreman or sales supervisor,
but these jobs are relatively scarce.
Advancement usually is limited to
moving from a retail to a wholesale
route, where earnings are generally
higher. However, some routemen ob­
tain better-paying sales jobs as a
result of their experience in route
Employment Outlook

The total number of routemen is
expected to change little through the
mid-1980’s, although employment
trends will differ for various types of
routemen. For laundry and drycleaning retail routemen, for exam­

ple, the outlook is for a decrease in
employment as more people take
their clothes to neighborhood plants
or drive-up stores for quicker, more
economical service. Even in declining
Fields, however, openings for new
workers will arise as experienced
routemen transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die.
Employment of wholesale bakery
and dairy routemen probably will re­
main at about present levels or
decline slightly. Since large super­
markets have been replacing small
neighborhood stores, fewer routemen are required. Moreover, some
manufacturers and wholesale food
companies are replacing their routemen with salesmen who cover ter­
ritories by automobile and truckdrivers who follow-up with the
On the other hand, opportunities
for employment as vending machine
routemen will be excellent through
the mid-1980’s because of the ex­
pected rapid increase in the vending
machine business. Some of the fac­
tors expected to stimulate the busi­
ness are the development of new and
improved machines and the greater
use of automatic food service in in­
dustrial plants, schools, hospitals,
and other high-traffic areas.
Earnings and Working

M ost ro u te m e n re c e iv e a
minimum salary plus a percent of the
sales they make. Thus, earnings are
determined largely by their selling
ability and initiative. According to
limited information available in
1972, retail routemen in the dairy
and b a k in g in d u s tr ie s w ere
guaranteed weekly wages of $110 to
$180 plus commissions on sales.
Many of these routemen earned
more than $200 a week. Wholesale
routemen usually earn more than
retail routemen.


The number of hours worked by
routemen varies. Some work only
about 30 hours a week; others may
work 60 hours or more depending
upon whether the individual has a
well-established route or is trying to
build up a new one, whether he has a
retail or a wholesale route, and how
ambitious he is. The number of hours
worked may be limited by a union
contract, although many contracts
specify merely the earliest hour that
work may begin and the latest quit­
ting time. The hours may also vary
with the season. During the springcleaning season, for example, drycleaning routemen may work about
60 hours a week, but in winter they
may work less than 30 hours.
Many companies require routemen to wear uniforms. Some
employers pay for the uniforms and
for keeping them clean.
Most routemen receive paid vaca­
tions, generally ranging from 1 to 4
weeks, depending upon length of
service, and 6 paid holidays or more
a year. Many employers also provide
hospitalization and medical bene­
fits; some have pension plans.
The routemen is on his own to a
great extent. He does not work under
strict supervision and, within certain
broad limits, may decide how rapidly
he will work and where and when he
will have a lunch or rest period. On
the other hand, a routeman has to
make deliveries in bad weather and
do a great deal of lifting, carrying,
and walking. He also may have to
work unusual hours. For example
retail milk routemen generally start
work in the very early morning.
Many routemen, particularly
those delivering bakery and dairy
products, are members of the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.) Some be­
long to the unions which represent
the plant workers of their employers.


Sources of Additional

For details on routemen employ­
ment opportunities, contact local
employers, such as bakeries and
vending machine companies, or the
local office of the State employment

(D.O.T. 251.258)
Nature of the Work

When investors buy or sell stocks,
bonds, or shares in mutual funds,
they call on securities salesworkers
to put the “market machinery” into
operation. Both the individual who
invests a few hundred dollars and the
large institution with millions to in­
vest need such services. Often these
workers are called registered repre­
sentatives, account executives, or
customers’ brokers.
In initiating buy or sell transac­
tions, securities salesworkers relay
orders through their firms’ offices to
the floor of a securities exchange.
When the trade takes place in the
over-the-counter market instead,
they send the order to the Firm’s
trading department. In either case,
the salesworker promptly notifies the
customer of the completed trans­
action and the final price.
In addition, they provide many
related services for their customers.
They may explain to new investors
the meaning of stock market terms
and trading practices. For more ex­
perienced investors who may have a
variety of holdings, they may give
suggestions and advice on the pur­
chase or sale of a particular security.
Some individuals may prefer long­

term investments designed for either
capital growth or income over the
years; others might want to make
short-term investments which seem
likely to rise in price quickly.
Securities salesworkers furnish infor­
mation about the advantages and
disadvantages of each type of invest­
ment based on each person’s objec­
tives. They also supply the latest
stock and bond quotations on any
security in which the investor is inter­
ested, as well as information on the
activities and financial positions of
the corporations these securities
Securities salesworkers may serve
all types of customers or they may
specialize in one type only, such as
institutional investors. They also
may specialize in handling only cer­
tain kinds of securities such as
mutual funds. Some handle the sale
of “new issues” , such as corporation
securities issued for plant expansion
Beginning securities salesworkers
spend much of their time searching
for customers. Once they have estab­
lished a clientele, however, they put
more effort into servicing existing ac­
counts and less into seeking new
Places of Employment

About 220,000 persons—90 per­
cent of them men—sold securities in
1972. Half worked full time in
securities firms and in selling mutual
funds. The rest include insurance
salespersons offering securities to
their customers, and part-tim e
mutual fund representatives.
Securities salesw orkers are
employed by brokerage firms, invest­
ment bankers, mutual funds, and in­
surance companies in all parts of the
country. Many of these firms are
very small. Most salesworkers, how­
ever, work for a small number of
large firms with main offices in big



Saiesworkers discuss new stock offering.

cities (especially in New York) or for clude passing an examination and
the nearly 7,000 branch offices in furnishing a personal bond. In addi­
other areas.
tion, saiesworkers usually must
register as representatives of their
firms according to regulations of the
Training, Other Qualifications,
securities exchanges where they do
and Advancement
business or the National Associa­
Because a securities salesworker tion of Securities Dealers, Inc.
must be well inform ed about (NASD). Before beginners can
economic conditions and trends, a qualify as registered representatives,
college education is increasingly im­ they must pass the Securities and Ex­
portant, especially in the larger change C om m ission’s (S E C ’s)
securities firms. This is not true, General Securities Examination, or
however, for part-time work selling examinations prepared by the ex­
mutual funds. Although employers changes or the NASD. These tests
seldom require specialized training, measure the prospective representa­
courses in business administration, tive’s knowledge of the securities
economics, and finance are helpful. business. Character investigations
Almost all States require persons also are required.
who sell securities to be licensed.
Most employers provide training
State licensing requirements may in­ to help saiesworkers meet the re­

quirements for registration. In
member firms of all major exchanges
the training period is at least six
months. Trainees in large firms may
receive classroom instruction in
security analysis and effective speak­
ing, take courses offered by schools
of business and other institutions and
associations, and undergo a period of
on-the-job training. In small firms,
and in mutual funds and insurance
companies, training programs may
be brief and informal. Beginners read
assigned materials and watch other
saiesworkers transact business.
Many employers consider per­
sonality traits as important as
academic training. Employers seek
applicants who are well groomed,
able to motivate people, and am­
bitious. Because maturity and the
ability to work independently also
are important, many employers
prefer to hire those who have achiev­
ed success in other jobs. Successful
sales or managerial experience is
very helpful to an applicant.
The principal form of advance­
ment for securities saiesworkers is an
increase in the number and the size
of the accounts they handle.
Although beginners usually service
the accounts of individual investors,
eventually they may handle very
large accounts such as those of cor­
porations. Some experienced saies­
workers advance to positions as
branch office managers, who super­
vise the work of other saiesworkers
while executing “buy” and “sell”
orders for their own customers. A
few representatives may become
partners in their firms or do other
administrative work.
Employment Outlook

The n u mb e r of s e c u r i t i e s
saiesworkers is expected to grow
moderately through the mid-1980’s
as securities investments continue to
increase. In addition to jobs result-


ing from growth, many salesworkers will be needed to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to
other jobs. Because of the com­
petitive nature of the occupation,
many leave their jobs, unable to es­
tablish a successful clientele.
E m p lo y m e n t of s e c u r itie s
salesw o rk ers will expand as
economic growth and rising personal
incomes increase the funds available
for investment. The activities of in­
vestment clubs, which enable small
investors to make minimum monthly
payments toward the purchase of
securities, also will contribute to the
demand for securities salesworkers.
Growth in the number of in­
stitutional investors will be particu­
larly strong as more people pur­
chase insurance; participate in pen­
sion plans; contribute to the endow­
ment funds of colleges and other
nonprofit institutions; and deposit
their savings in banks. In addition,
more workers will be needed to sell
securities issued by new and expand­
ing corporations and by State and
local governments financing public
Earnings and Working

Trainees usually are paid a salary
until they meet licensing and
registration requirements. After
registration, a few firms continue to
pay a salary until the new repre­
sentative’s commissions increase to a
stated amount. The salaries paid dur­
ing training usually range from $500
to $700 a month; those working for
large securities firms may receive as
much as $850 a month.
After candidates are licensed and
registered, their earnings depend on
commissions from the sale and pur­
chase of securities for customers.
Commission earnings are likely to be
high when there is much buying and
selling, and lower when there is a


slump in market activity. Most firms
provide salesworkers with a steady
income by paying a “draw against
commission”—that is, a minimum
salary based on the commissions
which they can be expected to earn.
A few firms pay salesworkers only
salary and bonuses, that usually are
determined by the volume of com­
pany business.
Earnings of full-time, experienced
securities salesworkers averaged
$21,000 a year in 1972, according to
the limited data available. Some
earned more than $30,000 a year.
Full-time securities salesworkers
earn about three times as much as
average earnings for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Securities salesworkers usually
work in offices where there is much
activity. In large offices, for exam­
ple, rows of salesworkers sit at desks
in front of “quote boards” which
continually flash information on the
prices of securities transactions.
Although established salesworkers
usually work the same hours as
others in the business community,
beginners who are seeking cus­
tomers may work longer. Some
salesworkers accommodate cus­
tomers by meeting with them in the
evenings or on weekends.
Sources of Additional

Further information concerning a
career as a securities salesworker
may be obtained from the personnel
departments of individual securities

(D.O.T. 260. through 289.458)
Nature of the Work

Salesworkers in wholesale trade
play an important role in moving
goods from the factory to the con­
sumer. Each salesworker may repre­
sent a wholesaler that distributes
hundreds of similar products. A
wholesale drug company, for exam­
ple, may stock its warehouse with
many brands of drugs, soap, and cos­
metics to supply stores that sell
directly to the consumer. In much
the same way, a wholesale building
materials distributor sells hardware
and construction materials to build­
ers who would otherwise have to deal
with many manufacturers.
At regular intervals, salesworkers
visit buyers for retail, industrial, and
commercial firms, as well as buyers
for institutions such as schools and
hospitals. They show samples, pic­
tures, or catalogs that list the items
which their company stocks. Sales­
workers seldom urge customers to
purchase any particular product,
since they handle a large number of
items. Instead, they offer prompt,
dependable service so buyers will be­
come regular customers.
Wholesale salesworkers per­
form many important services, such
as checking the store’s stock and
ordering items that will be needed
before the next visit. Some whole­
sale salesworkers help store person­
nel improve and update systems for
ordering and inventory. In addition,
they often advise retailers about
advertising, pricing, and arranging
window and counter displays. A
salesworker who handles specialized
products, such as air-conditioning
equipment, may give technical assista n c e on i n s t a l l a t i o n an d



Companies that sell food prod­
ucts are leading employers of whole­
sale salesworkers. Other large
employers are wholesalers dealing in
drugs, dry goods and apparel, motor
vehicle equipment, and electrical
appliances. Firms selling machinery
and building materials to industrial
and business users employ many
salesworkers as well.

Wholesale trade salesworker checks
drug store inventory before writing
order for new shipment.

Salesworkers do some record­
keeping and attend to other details.
They must forward orders to their
wholesale houses, prepare reports
and expense accounts, plan work
schedules, draw up lists of pros­
pects, make appointments, and study
literature relating to their products.
Some collect money for their com­
Places of Employment

About 690,000 people, mostly
men, were wholesale salesworkers in
1972. Wholesale houses usually are
located in cities, but salesworkers
may be assigned territories in any
part of the country. Their territory
may cover a small section of a city
having many retail stores and indus­
trial users; in less populated regions
it may cover half a State or more.

items the wholesaler carries. Later
they may learn the prices of ar­
ticles and discount rates for goods
sold in quantities. Next, they are
likely to work on “inside” sales, and
write telephone orders. Later, as they
accompany an experienced sales­
worker on calls, trainees come to
know some of the Firm’s customers.
The time spent in these initial jobs
varies among companies, but usu­
ally it takes 2 years or longer to pre­
Training, Other Qualifications,
pare trainees for outside selling.
and Advancement
Experienced salesworkers who
have leadership qualities and sales
In hiring trainees for sales work,
most wholesalers seek, people who ability may advance to supervisor,
are neat, outgoing, self-confident, sales manager, or other executive
enthusiastic about the job, and un­ positions.
derstanding of human nature. As in
most selling jobs, skills in arithmetic
Employment Outlook
and a good memory are assets. High
Employment opportunities for
school graduation is the usual educa­
tional requirement, although many salesworkers in wholesale trade are
companies that sell technical and expected to be good through the midscientific products prefer applicants 1980’s. In addition to new positions
who have specialized training beyond created by growth, thousands of
high school. In some cases, an engi­ openings will occur each year as
salesworkers retire, die, or leave the
neering degree is required.
Newly hired salesworkers who are occupation for other reasons.
The number of wholesale sales­
college graduates usually participate
workers is expected to rise moder­
in formal training programs that
combine classroom instruction and ately as economic growth and in­
short rotations in various nonselling creases in population spur continued
jobs. By working a few weeks in the business expansion. Although the
wholesaler’s warehouse, a new em­ computer will relieve workers of
ployee may gain First-hand experi­ some duties, wholesale salesworkers
ence in writing orders, pricing, and will spend more time giving special
locating stock. Through cooperative services to customers.
As chain stores and other large
programs, some college students
combine academic study and on-the- Firms centralize purchasing activ­
job experience. Graduates having ities, the value of the sales made to
this background often begin outside individual customers becomes larger
and competition for sales corre­
saleswork without further training.
High school graduates may begin spondingly greater. Wholesalers can
a career with a wholesale Firm in a be expected to meet this competition
nonselling job or be hired as a sales by emphasizing sales activities.
trainee. In either case, beginners usu­
ally work in several kinds of nonsell­
Earnings and Working
ing jobs before being assigned to
sales. They may start in the stockroom or shipping department to be­
According to limited information,
come familiar with the thousands of most beginning salesworkers earned



around $9,000 a year in 1972. Ex­
perienced salesworkers averaged
$15,000 annually, and many earned
considerably more. In general,
wholesale salesworkers’ earnings are
much higher than those of nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
Most employers pay a salary plus
a percentage commission on sales;
others pay a straight commission.
Although most wholesale sales­
workers have steady, year-round
work, sales (and commissions) vary
because demand for some prod­
ucts—for example, air condition­
ing—is greater during certain
seasons. To provide salesworkers
with a steady income, many com­
panies pay experienced personnel a

“ draw” against annual commis­
sions. Most companies furnish cars
or allowances for cars and reim­
bursements for certain expenses on
the road.
Salesworkers often have long,
irregular work hours. Although they
call on customers during business
hours, they may travel at night or on
weekends to meet their schedule.
However, most salesworkers seldom
are away from home for more than a
few days at a time. They may spend
evenings writing reports and orders,
may carry heavy catalogs and sam­
ple cases, and may be on their feet
for long periods.
Depending on length of service,
most salesworkers have a 2-to-4week paid vacation. Many are cov­

ered by company benefits, including
health and life insurance and retire­
ment pensions.
Sources of Additional

Information on jobs in wholesale
selling may be obtained directly from
local wholesale houses or from
associations of wholesalers in many
of the larger cities. If no local associ­
ation is available, write to:
National Association of WholesalerDistributers, 1725 K St. NW .,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Sales and Marketing Executives Inter­
national, Student Education Divi­
sion, 630 Third Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10017.


Construction craftsmen represent
the largest group of skilled workers
in the Nation’s labor force. Alto­
gether, there were 3.3 million of
these craftsm en em ployed in
1972—about 3 out of every 10 skilled
The more than two dozen skilled
construction trades vary greatly in
size. Several major trades—car­
penter, painter, plumber, pipefitter,
bricklayer, operating engineer, and
electrician—each had more than a
hundred thousand workers. (See
chart 15.) Carpenters alone num­
bered 1,045,000—nearly one-third of
all construction craftsmen. By con­
trast, only a few thousand each were
employed in trades such as marble
s e tte r, te rra z z o w o rk er, and
What are the Construction

Workers in the construction trades
build, repair, and modernize homes
and all kinds of buildings. They also
work on a variety of other struc­
tures, including highways, airports,
and missile launching pads.
The construction trades consist
primarily of craftsmen who have a
high level of skill and a sound knowl­
edge of their trade. They often are
assisted by apprentices, tenders, and
The work of construction trades­
men may be divided into three cate­
gories: structural, finishing, and
mechanical. Some craftsmen—for
example, carpenters—do both finish­
ing and structural work. In general,


Employment in the Construction Trades
WORKERS 1972 (in hundreds of thousands)






1000 1200

Electricians (construction and m aintenance)
Operating engineers
Pain ters (construction and maintenance) and
Plumbers and pipefitters
Structural metal workers2
Roofers and slaters
Cement m asons3

1Includes stonemasons, marble setters, and tile setters.
2Structural and ornamental iron workers.
3Includes terrazxo workers.

Bureau of Labor Statistics

each trade falls in one of the follow­
ing categories:
Trades mainly concerned with struc­
tural work: Carpenter, operating
engineer (construction machinery
operator), bricklayer, structural-iron
worker, ornamental-iron worker, ce­
ment mason, reinforcing-iron worker
(rodman), rigger and machine
mover, stonemason, and boiler­
Trades mainly concerned with finish­
ing work: Lather, plasterer, marble
setter, terrazzo worker, painter,
paperhanger, glazier, roofer, floor
covering installer, and asbestos
Trades mainly concerned with
mechanical work: Plumber, pipe­
fitter, construction electrician, sheet-

metal worker, elevator constructor,
and millwright.
Most construction trades occupa­
tions are described individually later
in this chapter. Boilermakers and
millwrights are described elsewhere
in the Handbook. These descrip­
tions are necessarily brief and incom­
plete, and do not apply fully to all
Also, they are not statements or
recommendations concerning the
work jurisdiction of these trades, and
are inappropriate for use in juris­
dictional negotiations or the settle­
ment of jurisdictional questions.
Where Construction Tradesmen
Are Employed

Construction tradesmen are em­
ployed mostly by contractors in the


construction industry. There are sev­
eral hundred thousand contractors,
and most are small—generally
employing fewer than 10 craftsmen.
Some large contractors, however,
employ thousands. Large numbers of
construction tradesmen are em­
ployed in other industries, such as
mining and manufacturing, mainly
to do maintenance and repair work.
Chemical manufacturers, for exam­
ple, need plumbers and pipefitters to
maintain the complex pipe networks
in their processing plants. Govern­
ment agencies employ construction
tradesmen to maintain highways,
buildings, and sanitation systems.
Many construction trades work­
ers are self-employed and work
directly for property owners on small
jobs. Self-employment is most com­
mon in carpentry and painting, but it
also is found in other trades.
Employment of construction
tradesmen is distributed geograph­
ically in much the same way as the
Nation’s population. Thus, the high­
est concentration generally is in in­
dustrialized and highly populated

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities recom­
mend formal apprentice training as
the best way to acquire the all-round
skills in the construction trades. Ap­
prenticeship is a prescribed period of
on-the-job training, supplemented by
related classroom instruction which
is designed to familiarize appren­
tices with the materials, tools, and
principles of their trade. Formal ap­
prenticeship agreements are regis­
tered with a State apprenticeship
agency or the U.S. Department of
Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training.
Many construction tradesmen ac­
quire their skills informally, by
working as laborers and helpers and


observing experienced craftsmen.
The registered apprenticeship
Some acquire skills by attending agreements also stipulate the length
vocational or trade schools or by tak­ of time the apprentice is to work in
ing correspondence school courses.
each major operation of the trade, as
Apprentices in the construction well as the rate of pay. The appren­
trades generally must be 18 to 25 tice is paid a rate that usually starts
years old, and in good physical con­ at 50 percent of the journeyman’s
dition. The maximum age limit may pay. The apprentice’s rate increases
be waived for veterans or others who at 6-month or 1-year intervals until a
have experience or special qualifi­ rate of about 90 percent of the
cations. A high school education, or journeyman’s pay is reached in the
its equivalent, including courses in final months of training. Often, ad­
mathematics and the sciences, is vanced apprenticeship standing and
desirable and is required in a few pay are given to apprentices who
trades. Often, applicants are given have acquired trade skills in the
tests to determine their aptitude. For Armed Forces or through trade
some trades, manual dexterity, school instruction.
mechanical aptitude, and an eye for
In most communities, the appren­
proper alignment of materials are ticeship programs are supervised by
joint apprenticeship committees
The formal apprenticeship agree­
composed of representatives of the
ment generally calls for a training
local employers or employer groups
period of from 2 to 5 years and 144
and the local union. The committee
hours or more a year of related class­
determines the need for apprentices
room instruction. The journeymen
in the locality and establishes mini­
and the foreman explain to the ap­
mum standards of education, experi­
prentice how the work is done and
ence, and training. Whenever an
show how different operations are
employer cannot provide all-round
performed and the way different
instruction or relatively continuous
tools are used. Ordinarily, most in­
employment, the committee trans­
struction is given by a particular
fers the apprentice to another em­
journeyman to whom the apprentice
ployer. Where specialization by con­
is assigned.
tractors is extensive—for instance, in
Classroom instruction varies
among the construction trades, but electrical work—customarily the
usually includes courses such as his­ committee rotates apprentices
tory of the trade, characteristics of among several contractors at inter­
materials, shop mathematics, and vals of about 6 months.
In areas where these committees
basic principles of engineering. It
have not been established, the ap­
also includes sketching, elementary
drafting, and interpretation of draw­ prenticeship agreement is solely be­
ings; safety practices; and special tween the apprentice and the em­
trade theory such as color harmony ployer or employer group. Many
for painters and elementary sanita­ tradesmen have received valuable
tion for plumbers. This instruction training under these programs, but
seldom is offered in small communi­ they have some disadvantages. No
ties where there may be only a few committee is available to supervise
apprentices. In these communities, the training offered and settle differ­
apprentices receive instruction ences over the terms and conditions
through courses offered in the local of training. What the apprentice
high school or by visiting instructors learns depends largely on the
who are generally furnished by the employer’s business prospects and
policies. If the employer lacks con­



tinuous work or does only a re­
stricted type of work, the apprentice
cannot develop all-round skills.
In early 1973, about 155,000 train­
ees were registered in construction
trades apprentice programs. Addi­
tional apprentices receive their train­
ing in unregistered programs.
In many localities, c ra fts­
men—most commonly construction
electricians and plumbers—are re­
quired to have a journeyman’s li­
cense to work at their trade. To qual­
ify for these licenses, they must pass
an examination to demonstrate a
broad knowledge of the job and of
State and local regulations.
Construction trades craftsmen
may advance in a number of ways.
For example, journeymen may be­
come foremen. In most localities,
small jobs are run by “working fore­
men” who work at the trade along
with members of their crews. On
larger jobs, the foremen do only
supervisory work. Craftsmen also
can become estimators for con­
tractors. In these jobs, they estimate
material requirements and labor
costs to enable the contractor to bid
on a particular construction project.
Some craftsmen advance to jobs as
superintendents on large projects.
Others become instructors in trade
and vocational schools or salesm en
for building supply companies.
Many craftsmen have become con­
tractors in the homebuilding field.
Starting a small contract construc­
tion business is easier than starting a
small business in many other indus­
tries. Only moderate financial invest­
ment is needed because liberal credit
arrangements make it easy to buy
materials, and conducting a fairly
substantial business from the propri­
etor’s home is possible. However, the
contract construction field is highly
competitive, and the rate of business
failure is especially high among
small contractors.

Employment Outlook

Employment in the construction
trades is expected to increase rapidly
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to employment growth, more than
100,000 job openings will result each
year from the need to replace experi­
enced workers who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die.
The rapid growth in employment
is expected to result primarily from a
rapid rise in construction activity.
The anticipated large increases in
population and households, and the
relatively low-level of housing con­
struction in the late 1960’s, are ex­
pected to create strong pressure for
new housing. Among other factors
that will stimulate construction ac­
tivity are a rise in spending for new
industrial plants and equipment and
higher levels of personal and corpo­
rate income. Also, there will be a
growing demand for alteration and
modernization work on existing
structures, as well as for mainte­
nance and repair work on the ex­
panding highway systems and on the
additional numbers of dams, bridges,
and similar projects.
The increase in employment is not
expected to be as great as the expan­
sion in construction activity. Contin­
ued technological developments in
construction methods, tools and
equipment, and materials will raise
output per construction worker. One
important development is the grow­
ing use of prefabricated units at the
job site. For example, preassembled
outside walls and partitions can be
lifted into place in one operation. An
outgrowth of prefabrication is “ mod­
ule building” in which units, includ­
ing complete rooms, are assembled
at a factory.
Also expected to increase work­
ers’ efficiency are technological ad­
vances in construction tools and
equipment. Items formerly un­
loaded and moved to the construc­
tion site by hand, such as concrete

and brick, now are being moved by
forklift trucks, motorized wheel­
barrows, and conveyor belts. The
size and speed of cranes and other
construction machines have in­
creased considerably. New machines
that reduce labor requirements also
are being developed. Concrete pav­
ing machines that perform the work
formerly done by four separate
machines are an example.
The rates of employment growth
will differ among the various con­
struction trades. Em ploym ent
growth is expected to be most rapid
for construction electricians, cement
masons, glaziers, operating engi­
neers, and plumbers and pipefitters.
Among the trades that will have a
slower growth rate are stonemasons
and marble setters.
Earnings and Working

Hourly wage rates for construc­
tion tradesmen are among the high­
est for skilled workers. However, be­
cause construction work is seasonal
and time also is lost for other
reasons, annual earnings are not as
high as the hourly rates of pay would
indicate. Union minimum hourly
averages for journeymen in 68 large
cities in 1972 are shown in the ac­
companying tabulation.
A substantial proportion of con­
struction trades workers are in­
cluded in health, insurance, and pen­
sion programs negotiated between
unions and employers and financed
entirely by employer contributions.
Construction work frequently re­
quires prolonged standing, bending,
stooping, and working in cramped
quarters. Exposure to weather is
common as much of the work is done
outdoors or in partially enclosed
structures. Many people prefer con­
struction work because it permits
them to be outdoors.


Hourly rate
All building tr a d e s...............


Journeymen ...................................
Electricians (inside
wirem en)...............................
Plumbers ...............................
Sheet-metal w o r k e rs...........
Asbestos w orkers.......................
Elevator constructors .........
Stonemasons ........................
Structural-iron workers . . . .
Rodmen .................................
L ath ers...................................
Terrazzo w orkers..................
Marble setters ...........................
P lasterers...............................
C arpenters..................................
Roofers, composition ..............
Cement masons (finishers)
G laziers........................................
Roofers, slate and t i l e .........
T ilesetters....................................


Average hourly union scales for
construction helpers and laborers are
listed in the following tabulation:
Hourly rate
Helpers and la b o rers....................
Terrazzo workers’
Marble setters’ helpers . . . .
Tilesetters’ helpers...............
Bricklayers’ tenders.............
Plasterers’ laborers .............
Plumbers’ laborers................
Elevator constructors’
Building la b o rers..................
Composition roofers’ helpers


Construction work generally is
more dangerous than work in
manufacturing, but the risk of in­
jury is lessened considerably when
safe work practices are followed.
Forty hours was the standard
workweek for a vast majority of un­
ion construction workers in 1972.
Time and one-half generally was
paid for hours worked beyond the
standard workday of 8 hours. Time
and one-half or double-time rates
were usually paid for work on Satur­
days and Sundays or holidays.

The construction trades offer espe­
cially good opportunities for young
people who are not planning to go to
college, but who are willing to spend
several years in learning a skilled oc­
cupation. Construction tradesmen
can Find job opportunities in all parts
of the country. Their hourly wage
rates generally are much higher than
those of most other manual work­
ers. As previously noted, construc­
tion tradesmen with business ability
have greater opportunities to open
their own businesses than workers in
most other skilled occupations.
A large proportion of construc­
tion workers are members of trade
unions affiliated with the Building
and Construction Trades Depart­
ment of the American Federation of
Labor and Congress of Industrial

Trades Department, 815 16th St.
NW „ Washington, D.C. 20006.
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW .,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
National Association of Home Build­
ers, 1625 L St. NW ., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

For the names of labor organiza­
tions and trade associations con­
cerned with specific trades, see the
discussions of individual building
trades later in this chapter.

(D.O.T. 863.381, .781, and .884)
Nature of the Work

Sources of Additional

Information about opportunities
for apprenticeship or other training
can be obtained from local construc­
tion Firms and employer associ­
ations, locals of the office of the
State apprenticeship agency, or the
local office of the Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor. Many apprentice­
ship programs are supervised by
local union-management commit­
tees. In these instances, an appren­
tice applicant may apply directly to
the coordinator of the committee. In
addition, the local office of the State
employment service may have infor­
m ation about the M anpower
Development and Training Act, ap­
prenticeship, and other programs
that provide training opportunities.
For additional information on jobs
in the construction trades, write to
the organizations listed below:
American Federation of Labor and
Congress of Industrial Organiza­
tions, Building and Construction

Asbestos and insulation workers
cover pipes, boilers, furnaces, and re­
lated equipment with asbestos and
other insulating materials. These
materials retain heat or cold, absorb
sound, and can act as a vapor bar­
rier. Insulated walls and ceilings in a
home, for example, reduce fuel costs
by preventing loss of heat during the
cold months.
Insulating materials are installed
by pasting, wiring, taping, stud-weld­
ing, spraying, or plastering. When
covering pipework, asbestos work­
ers cut either block or preformed in­
sulation to the required size and
shape, and then wrap this material
around the pipe. They secure the in­
sulating material by using wire
bands, or by covering it further with
tar paper, cloth, or canvas, sewed or
stapled into place. Care is required to
cover joints completely.
When covering flat surfaces,
asbestos workers spotweld or screw
wire fasteners to the surface and in­
stall the insulating material. They
coat joints with an asbestos cement
and wrap them with tape for a tight



ticeship programs in other building
trades. The improvership program
consists of a specified period of onthe-job training in which the trainee
learns all aspects of the trade.
Applicants for improvership pro­
grams generally must be 18 to 30
years old and in good physical condi­
tion. Trainee wage rates start at
about 50 percent of the journey­
man’s rate and increase periodically
until the journeyman’s rate is reach­
ed at the completion of the pro­
gram. Trainees are required to pass
an examination that demonstrates
their knowledge of the trade.
A skilled asbestos and insulation
worker may advance to foreman,
shop superintendent, or estimator, or
he may open his own insulation con­
tracting business.
Employment Outlook

Asbestos worker cuts insulating material.

seal. They sometimes spray or
plaster insulating material to a wire
mesh placed on the surface to be cov­
ered. The wire mesh provides a sur­
face for adhesion as well as struc­
tural strength for the insulation. A
final coat is applied and finished for
a smooth appearance.
Asbestos and insulation workers
use common handtools—trowels,
brushes, scissors, sewing equipment,
and stud-welding guns. Powersaws,
as well as handtools, are used to cut
and fit insulating materials.

most of whom worked for insulation
contractors. Others were employed
to alter and maintain insulated pipe­
work in chemical factories, petro­
leum refineries, atomic energy instal­
lations, and similar plants which
have extensive steam installations for
power, heating, and cooling. Some
large firms which have cold storage
facilities also employ these workers
for maintenance and repair.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most asbestos and insulation
workers learn their trade through a
About 30,000 asbestos and insula­ 4-year “ improvership” program,
tion workers were employed in 1972, similar in many respects to appren­
Places of Employment

Employment of asbestos and in­
sulation workers is expected to in­
crease rapidly through the mid1980’s. Several hundred annual
openings are expected because of an
increase in construction activity and
the need to replace those journey­
men who transfer to other occupa­
tions, retire or die. Employment
growth will result from a rise in com­
mercial and industrial building. (See
discussion in construction occupa­
tions introduction.) The increasing
use of pipe systems in manufac­
turing processes also will expand job
opportunities for these workers.
Earnings and Working

Union minimum wage rates for
asbestos and insulation workers in 68
large cities averaged $8.01 an hour in
1972, compared with $7.69 an hour
for all building trades journeymen.
Minimum rates for asbestos and in­
sulation workers in 14 of these cities,
selected to show how wages differ



among various areas of the country,
appear in the accompanying tabula­
Birmingham ...................................
Buffalo ............................................
Cleveland ........................................
C olum bus........................................
Denver ............................................
M em phis..........................................
Minneapolis-St. P aul....................
N ew ark ............................................
N o rfo lk ............................................
San D ie g o ........................................
Springfield ......................................
Tampa ............................................

Hourly rate
$ 6.68

(D.O.T. 861.381,.781, and .884)
Nature of the Work

Bricklayers (or brickmasons) build
walls, partitions, fireplaces, and
other structures with brick, cinder
block, and other masonry materials.
They also install fire brick linings
in industrial furnaces.
In putting up a brick wall, brick­
layers first build the corners at each
end of the wall, using plumb lines
and a mason’s level. A line is then
stretched from corner to corner as a
Asbestos and insulation workers guide for each course or layer of
spend most of the workday on their brick. Bricklayers spread a bed of
feet, either standing, bending, stoop­ mortar (cement mixture) with a
ing, or squatting. Sometimes they trowel, place the brick on the
work from ladders or in tight spaces mortar bed, and then tap it into
when covering pipes and ducts. place. When necessary, they cut
Removing old insulation before in­ bricks to fit around windows, doors,
stalling new materials is often dusty and other openings. Mortar joints
are finished with jointing tools to
and dirty.
A large proportion of the workers leave a neat and uniform appear­
in this trade are members of the ance.
International Association of Heat
and Frost Insulators and Asbestos
Sources of Additional

For information about asbestos
and insulation workers’ improvership programs or other work oppor­
tunities in this trade, contact a local
asbestos contractor or a local of the
International Association of Heat
and Frost Insulators and Asbestos
Workers. In addition, the local office
of the State employment service may
provide information about work and
training opportunities, including
training programs operated under
the Manpower Development and
Training Act.

Bricklayers use handtools pri­
marily, including trowels, brickhammers, levels, chisels, and rules.
Powersaws are often used for cutting
and fitting bricks and other masonry
Bricklayers are assisted by hod
carriers, or helpers, who supply them
with bricks and other materials, mix
mortar, and set up and move scaf­
folding. (Detailed occupational de­
scriptions for construction laborers
and hod carriers appear elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Places of Employment

Bricklayers—who numbered about
180,000 in 1972—are employed
mainly in building new homes,
schools, hospitals, and other struc­
tures. A few specialize in sewer con­
struction, building manholes and
catch basins, while others build large
chimneys and smokestacks for fac­
tories and electric power plants.
In addition, many bricklayers alter,



maintain, and repair buildings. They
also work in factories that make
glass or steel, where furnaces and
kilns require fire brick linings.
Bricklayers can find jobs through­
out the country, but employment
is concentrated in heavily populated

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities recom­
mend the completion of an appren­
ticeship program as the best way to
learn bricklaying. Many workers,
however, pick up the trade informal­
ly by starting as helpers or hod
carriers, and by observing and learn­
ing from experienced bricklayers.
Apprentice applicants generally
must be 17 to 24 years old, but this
requirement may be waived for
veterans. A high school education
or its equivalent is desirable. The
ability to solve arithmetic problems
quickly and accurately is an asset.
The apprenticeship program gen­
erally consists of 3 years of on-thejob training, in addition to 144 hours
of classroom instruction each year
in subjects such as blueprint read­
ing, layout work, measurement and
sketches, and welding. Some pro­
grams qualify the apprentice trainee
as a bricklayer-welder. Apprentices
also learn the relationship between
bricklaying and other building
trades. In some areas apprentice­
ship includes brief pre-job instruc­
tion, usually at a vocational school,
to give apprentices a basic knowl­
edge of the tools and materials of
the trade and prepare them for the
start of their on-the-job training.
Hourly wage rates for apprentices
generally start at 50 percent of the
journeyman bricklayer’s rate, and
increase periodically until 95 percent
of the journeyman’s rate is reached
during the last period of apprentice­

Bricklayers must have an eye for
straight lines and proportions. Good
physical condition and manual dex­
terity also are important.
Bricklayers may advance to jobs
as foremen. They also may become
estimators for bricklaying contrac­
tors. Estimators compute material
requirements and labor costs. Some
journeymen become bricklaying
superintendents on large construc­
tion projects, while others may start
their own contracting businesses.

Employment Outlook

Employment of bricklayers is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to the job openings that result from
employment growth, many openings
will arise as journeymen bricklayers
retire, die, or transfer to other
Much of the expected growth in
this trade will result from the antici­
pated large increase in construction
activity. The demand for bricklayers
also will be favorably affected by
the growing use of ornamental brick­
work for structures such as lobbies
and foyers. In addition, the use of
brick load-bearing walls is growing,
particularly in apartment construc­
tion. Brick panels, laid in factories
by bricklayers, are being introduced
and will provide additional jobs for

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum wage rates for
bricklayers in 68 large cities aver­
aged $7.99 an hour in 1972, com­
pared with $7.69 an hour for all
building trades journeymen. Mini­
mum rates for bricklayers in 14 of
these cities, selected to show how
wages differ among various areas of
the country, appear in the accom­
panying tabulation.

C ity

A tla n ta ..............................
B oston................................
Charlotte ..........................
C hicago..............................
Cleveland ..........................
Detroit ..............................
M emphis............................
M ilw au kee........................
N ew ark..............................
Sacramento ......................
S eattle................................
Tampa ..............................
Topeka ..............................

H o u rly ra te


$ 7.80

Although hourly rates for brick­
layers are relatively high, time lost
because of poor weather and occa­
sional unemployment between jobs
make annual earnings less than the
hourly rates would imply.
Bricklaying is sometimes strenu­
ous. It involves stooping to pick up
materials, moderately heavy lifting,
and prolonged standing. Most of the
work is done outdoors.
A large proportion of bricklayers
are members of the Bricklayers,
Masons and Plasterers’ Internation­
al Union of America.

Sources of Additional

For details about apprenticeships
or other work opportunities in this
trade, contact local bricklaying con­
tractors; a local of the Bricklayers,
Masons and Plasterers’ International
Union of America; a local joint
union-management apprenticeship
committee; or the nearest office of
the State apprenticeship agency or
the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, U.S. Department of
Labor. In addition, the local office
of the State employment service
may provide details about the Man­
power Development and Training
Act, apprenticeship, and other train­
ing opportunities. Some local em­
ployment service offices provide
services such as screening applicants
and giving aptitude tests.



General information about the
trade is available from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

Institute of America,
Meadow Road, McLean, Va.

Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’
International Union of America,
815 15th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 860.281 through .781)
Nature of the Work

Carpenters, the largest group of
building trades workers, are em­
ployed in almost every type of con­
struction activity. They erect the
wood framework in buildings and
install windows, doors, paneling,
cabinets, and other items. They also
build stairs, lay hardwood floors,
and install soft floor coverings such
as linoleum and asphalt tile.
Carpenters install heavy timbers
used to build docks, railroad trestles,
and similar structures. They build
the forms needed to pour concrete
decks, columns, piers, and retaining
walls used in construction of bridges,
buildings, and other structures. They
erect scaffolding and temporary
buildings at the construction site.
Because of the variety of work in
the trade, some carpenters specialize
in a particular type of carpentry.
For example, some build forms to
receive concrete; others install millwork and finish hardware (trim­
ming), lay and finish hardwood
floors, or build stairs. Specializa­
tion is more common in large cities;
in small communities, carpenters
often perform a wider range of tasks.
In rural areas, carpenters may do
the work of other craftsmen, par­

ticularly painting, glazing, or roof­
ing. Carpenters generally stay in a
particular field of construction, such
as home, bridge, or highway con­
struction, or in industrial mainte­
Carpenters use nails, bolts, wood
screws, or glue to fasten lumber,
plywood, and other materials. They
use handtools such as hammers,
saws, and chisels, and power tools
such as electric saws, drills, and
powder-actuated fastening devices.

tion of many kinds of display
materials such as signs and bill­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities recom­
mend the completion of a 4-year
apprenticeship program as the best
way to learn carpentry. A sub­
stantial number of workers in this
trade, however, acquire some car­
pentry skills informally (for ex­
ample, by working on a farm). Many
also gain some knowledge of the
Places of Employment
trade by taking correspondence or
About 1,045,000 carpenters were trade school courses.
employed in 1972. Most carpenters
Apprenticeship applicants general­
are employed by contractors and ly must be 17 to 27 years old, and a
homebuilders to construct new build­ high school education or its equiva­
ings and other structures. A sub­ lent is desirable. Good physical
stantial number, however, alter, condition, a good sense of balance,
remodel, or repair buildings. Some and lack of fear of working on high
carpenters alternate between wage structures are important assets. Ap­
employment for contractors and self- prentices should also have manual
employment on small jobs. Others dexterity and the ability to solve
work for government agencies, util­ arithmetic problems quickly and ac­
ity companies, or manufacturing curately. In addition, they should be
plants. A large number of carpenters able to work closely with others.
maintain and repair facilities within
The apprenticeship program usu­
factories, hotels, office buildings, ally consists of 4 years of on-the-job
and other large establishments. Still training, in addition to a minimum
others are employed in shipbuild­ of 144 hours of related classroom
ing, in mining, and in the produc­ instruction each year. On the job
apprentices learn elementary struc­
tural design and become familiar
with the common systems of frame
and concrete form construction.
They also learn to use the tools,
machines, equipment, and materials
of the trade. In addition, they learn
the many carpentry techniques, such
as laying out, framing, and Finishing.
Apprentices receive classroom in­
struction in drafting and blueprint
reading, mathematics for layout
work, and the use of woodworking
machines. Both in the classroom
and on the job they learn the
relationship between carpentry and
the other building trades, because
the work of the carpenter is basic



to the construction process.
Hourly wage rates for apprentices
usually start at about 50 percent
of the journeyman carpenter’s rate
and increase by about 5 percent in
each 6-month period, until a rate of
85 to 90 percent is reached during
the last period of apprenticeship.
Young people interested in car­
pentry should obtain the all-around
training given in apprenticeship pro­
grams. Carpenters with such training
will have especially favorable longrange job prospects. They will be
in much greater demand and will
have better opportunities for ad­
vancement than those who can do
only the relatively simple, routine
types of carpentry.
Carpenters may advance to car­
penter foremen or to general con­
struction foremen. Carpenters
usually have greater opportunities
than most other building craftsmen
to become general construction fore­
men since they are involved with
the entire construction process.
Some carpenters are able to become
contractors and employ other jour­
neymen. The proportion of selfemployed is higher among carpenters
than among most other building
trades workers.

Employment Outlook

Employment of carpenters is ex­
pected to increase moderately
through the mid-1980’s. Tens of
thousands of openings are expected
each year because of both employ­
ment growth and the need to replace
experienced carpenters who transfer
to other fields of work, retire, or
The expected rise in construction
activity, particularly homebuilding
(see discussion in construction occu­
pations introduction), is expected
to result in a growing demand for
carpenters. Additional carpenters
also will be needed in the mainte­

nance departments of factories,
stores, large apartment projects, and
government agencies.
Employment growth, however,
will be limited by technological
developments. For example, the use
of construction materials prepared
away from the building site will
reduce the amount of carpentry re­
quired in a building. More wide­
spread use of improved tools and
equipment will increase the effi­
ciency of carpenters.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum wage rates for
carpenters in 68 large cities aver­
aged $7.41 an hour in 1972, com­
pared with $7.69 for all building
trades journeymen. Minimum rates
for carpenters in 14 of these cities,
selected to show how wages differ
among various areas of the coun­
try, are shown in the accompany­
ing tabulation.
A tla n ta ..............................
Charlotte ..........................
Cleveland ..........................
Denver ..............................
Detroit ..............................
Los Angeles ......................
New O rleans.....................
St. L o u is............................
San D ie g o ..........................
S eattle................................

Hourly rate

$ 7.40

As in other building trades, the
carpenter’s work is active and some­
times strenuous, but exceptional
physical strength is not required.
However, prolonged standing, as
well as climbing and squatting, are
often necessary. Carpenters risk in­
jury from slips or falls, from con­
tact with sharp or rough materials,
and from the use of sharp tools and
power equipment. Many young per­
sons like carpentry because they

can work outdoors. Some worktime,
however, is lost due to bad weather.
A large proportion of carpenters
are members of the United Brother­
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of

Sources of Additional

For information about carpentry
apprenticeships or other work op­
portunities in this trade, contact
local carpentry contractors or gen­
eral contractors, a local union of
the United Brotherhood of Car­
penters and Joiners of America, a
local joint union-management ap­
prenticeship committee, or the near­
est office of the State apprenticeship
agency or the Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training, U.S. De­
partment of Labor. Also, the local
office of the State employment
service can supply information about
the Manpower Development and
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
other programs that provide train­
ing opportunities. Some local em­
ployment services screen applicants
and give aptitude tests.
General information on appren­



ticeship in this trade is also avail­
able from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
United Brotherhood of Carpenters
and Joiners of America, 101 Con­
stitution Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20001.

(D.O.T. 844.884 and 852.884)
Nature of the Work

Cement masons finish concrete
surfaces on many types of construc­
tion projects. The projects range
from finishing of small jobs, such as
patios and floors, to work on huge
dams, miles of concrete highways,
and missile launching sites. Finishing
concrete can provide wide variation;
for example, cement masons may
color concrete surfaces, expose ag­
gregate in walls and sidewalks, or
fabricate concrete beams, columns,
and panels. In addition, materials
other than concrete, such as latex
and epoxy products applied to floors,
vats, and tanks, have enlarged the
cement mason’s area of work.
On small projects, a mason,
assisted by one or two helpers, may
do all of the masonry work; on large
projects, a crew of several masons
and many helpers may be employed.
In preparing the site for pouring
(placing) the concrete mixture, the
cement mason makes sure that the
forms, which are to mold the con­
crete, are set for the desired pitch
and depth and are properly aligned.
The mason directs the pouring of the
concrete and supervises laborers who
use shovels or special rakes to place
and spread the concrete. The mason
then levels the surface further using a

“straightedge” (a rod made of wood
Places of Employment
or lightweight metal long enough to
About 75,000 cement masons were
extend across the freshly poured con­
employed in 1972. Cement masons
crete.) The concrete is now ready for
work for general contractors who
intermediate and final finishing.
construct entire projects such as
The cement mason uses special
tools, such as a float, whip, or darby, highways, or large industrial and
to fill minor depressions and remove residential buildings and for con­
high spots. Final finishing is usually tractors who do only concrete work.
delayed until the concrete has hard­ Some masons install composition re­
ened sufficiently to support the silient floors for specialty floor con­
weight of a mason on kneeboards. tractors. A small number of masons
While the concrete is still workable, are employed by municipal public
he uses handtools—a wood or mag- works departments, public utilities,
sium float and a finishing trowel— and manufacturing firms that do
to bring the concrete to the proper their own construction work. Others
consistency and obtain the desired are self-employed and contract small
finish. Concrete finishing may be jobs, such as sidewalks, driveways,
done also with power-operated trow­ patios, and curbs and gutters.
els; however, edges, corners, and
other inaccessible places must be
Training, Other Qualifications,
finished by hand.
and Advancement
On concrete work, which is exposed
Most training authorities recom­
(for example, columns, ceilings, and
mend a 3-year apprenticeship program
wall panels), cement masons correct
as the best way to learn this trade.
surface defects and air pockets after
A substantial number of workers,
the forms are stripped. This involves
however, acquire cement masonry
preparing the surface with a hammer
skills informally by working on con­
and chisel and rubbing brick to re­
struction jobs as laborers assisting
move high spots. A rich cement mix­
cement masons.
ture is rubbed into the concrete sur­
Apprenticeship applicants general­
face using a sponge rubber float or ly must be 18 to 25 years old. Good
piece of burlap to fill imperfections physical condition and manual dex­
and voids. The end result is a uni­
terity are important assets. Ability
formly smooth appearance.
to work as part of a team and to direct
Some cement masons specialize in the activities of others are also impor­
laying a mastic coat (a fine asphalt tant.
mixture) over concrete, particularly
The apprenticeship program usu­
in buildings where sound-insulated or ally consists of 2 to 3 years of onacid-resistant floors are specified. the-job training, in addition to re­
Heavy hand tools are used to smooth lated classroom instruction. On the
the hot mastic.
job, apprentices learn to use and
Cement masons must know their handle the tools, equipment, ma­
materials and be familiar with vari­ chines, and materials of the trade.
ous chemical additives which speed They also learn finishing, layout
or slow the setting time. Because of work, and safety techniques. In the
the effects of heat, cold, and wind on classroom, apprentices receive in­
the curing of cement, masons must struction in subjects such as applied
be able to recognize by sight and mathematics and related sciences,
touch what is occurring in the cement blueprint reading, architectural draw­
mixture so that they can prevent ing, estimating materials and costs,
structural defects.
and local building regulations. Al-



more job opportunities for cement
Employment of cement masons
is not expected to increase as
rapidly as the use of concrete
products. Many concrete products
are precast and generally do not re­
quire finishing. The efficiency of ma­
sons also has increased through new
and improved construction meth­
ods, materials, and equipment. For
certain jobs, concrete can be applied
pneumatically through hoses. Plastic
forms provide a smooth surface and
reduce rubbing and patching work.
Worker efficiency has also been in­
creased because of new machines,
such as powered wheelbarrows, elec­
tric concrete vibrators, hydraulic
joint-forming machines, powered
concrete cutting saws, and cement­
finishing machines.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Cement mason operating troweling machine.

though a high school education is
not required, education above the
grade school level, preferably in­
cluding mathematics, is needed to
understand the classroom instruc­
Cement masons may advance to
foremen or become materials and
cost estimators for concrete con­
tractors. Others may start their own
concrete contracting businesses.
Employment Outlook

Employment of cement masons
is expected to increase very
rapidly through the mid-1980’s.
Thousands of openings are ex­
pected each year because of
employment growth and the need

to replace masons who transfer
to other occupations, retire, or
Employment of cement masons
will increase mainly because of
the expected increase in construc­
tion activity (see discussion in
construction occupations intro­
duction), accompanied by the
growing use of concrete and con­
crete products. For example, pre­
stressed concrete makes possible
wide spans where column-free
construction is desired, and light­
weight concrete wall panels that
are fire- and weather-resistant
are being used increasingly on
nonload-bearing walls. Also, new
products, such as epoxy and
latex flooring systems, provide

Union minimum wage rates for
cement masons in 68 large cities
averaged $7.24 an hour in 1972,
compared with $7.69 for all journey­
men in the building trades. Minimum
rates for cement masons in 14 of
these cities, selected to show how
wages differ among various areas of
the country, appear in the accom­
panying tabulation.
Hourly rate

B oston................................
Charlotte ..........................
Cleveland ..........................
C olum bus..........................
D a lla s .................................
Denver ..............................
Fresno .................................
Jacksonville ......................
M ilw aukee........................
N ew ark..............................
Salt Lake C i t y .................
Washington, D.C...............


$ 6.18

Cement masons usually receive
premium pay for hours worked in
excess of the regularly scheduled
workday or workweek. They often


work overtime, because once con­
crete has been poured the job must
be completed.
The work of the cement mason is
active and strenuous, like the work
of building tradesmen generally.
Since most cement finishing is done
on floors or at ground level the ma­
son is required to stoop, bend, or
kneel. Much of the work is done out­
doors. Worktime is lost because of
rain or freezing weather. In some
cases, however, concrete can be
poured year round by using heated,
temporary shelters made of sheet
A large proportion of cement ma­
sons are union members. They belong
either to the Operative Plasterers’
and Cement Masons’ International
Association of the United States
and Canada, or to the Bricklayers,
Masons and Plasterers’ Interna­
tional Union of America.

Sources of Additional Information

For information about cement
mason apprenticeships or other work
opportunities in the trade, contact
local cement finishing contractors;
locals of unions previously men­
tioned; a local joint union-manage­
ment apprenticeship committee; or
the nearest office of the State ap­
prenticeship agency or the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training, U.S.
Department of Labor. In addition,
the local office of the State employ­
ment service may provide information
about the Manpower Development
and Training Act, apprenticeship,
and other programs that provide
training opportunities.
General information about the
work of cement masons may be ob­
tained from:
Associated General Contractors of
America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW „ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’
International Union of America, 815

15th St.

NW .,



Operative Plasterers’ and Cement Ma­
sons’ International Association of the
United States and Canada, 1125 17th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 809.887, 842.887, 844.887,
850.887 through 853.887; 859.887
through 862.887; 865.887, 866.887,
and 869.887)
Nature of the Work

Construction laborers work on all
types of construction projects—
houses, highways, dams, airports,
missile sites. They are usually the
first workers to arrive on a construc­
tion project—assisting in site prepa­
ration—and the last to leave. They
erect and dismantle scaffolding, set
braces to support the sides of exca­
vations, and clean up rubble and
debris. Laborers also help unload
materials, machinery, and equip­
ment, and deliver these goods to
building craftsmen such as carpen­
ters and masons.
On alteration and modernization
jobs, laborers tear out the existing
work. They perform most of the
work done by wrecking and salvage
crews during the demolition of
When concrete is mixed at the
worksite, laborers unload and handle
materials and fill mixers with ingredi­
ents. Whether the concrete is mixed
on-site or hauled in by truck, labor­
ers pour and spread the concrete and
spade or vibrate it to prevent air
pockets. In highway paving, laborers
clean the right-of-way, grade and
help prepare the site, place the forms
into which wet concrete is poured.
They cover new pavement with
straw, burlap, or other materials to

keep it from drying too rapidly.
Some construction laborers have
job titles that indicate the kinds of
work they do. Bricklayers’ tenders
and plasterers’ tenders, both com­
monly known as hod carriers, help
bricklayers and plasterers by mixing
and supply materials, setting up and
moving portable scaffolding, and
providing the many other services
needed. Hod carriers must be famil­
iar with the work of these craftsmen
and have knowledge of the materials
and tools used. Some hod carriers
also help cement masons.
Construction laborers are com­
monly classified as unskilled work­
ers, but this term can be misleading.
Many jobs require training and ex­
perience, as well as a broad knowl­
edge of construction methods, ma­
terials, and operations. Rock blast­
ing, rock drilling, and tunnel con­
struction are examples of work in
which “know-how” is important.
Laborers who work with explosives
drill holes in rock, handle explosives,
and set charges. They must know the
effects of different explosive charges
under varying rock conditions to pre­
vent injury and property damage.
Laborers do all the work in the bor­
ing and mining of a tunnel, including
operations which would be handled
by craftsmen if the job were located
above ground.
Places of Employment

About 875,000 construction la­
borers were employed in 1972. Most
of them worked for construction
contractors, for State and city public
works and highway departments,
and for public utility companies.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Little formal training is needed
to get a job as a construction laborer.
Generally, a young man must be at



duty cranes. The use of earth moving
machines, including specialized equip­
ment such as trenchers and frontend loaders, is also increasing.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Union minimum hourly wage
rates for building laborers and brick­
layers’ tenders in 68 large cities
averaged $5.57 and $6.06, respective­
ly, in 1972, compared with $7.27 an
hour for all building trade workers.
Minimum rates for bricklayers’
tenders and building laborers in 14
of these cities, selected to show how
w a g e s d iffe r a m o n g v a r io u s a r e a s o f
th e

c o u n tr y ,



th e

accom -

p a n y in g ta b u la tio n .
H o u rly ra te
B u ildin g

B r ic k la y e r s ’
C ity

ten d ers

la b o re rs

Albuquerque. . . . . . .
B altim ore.........
Buffalo .............
C leveland.........
C olum bus.........
Des M oines. . . .
F resno...............
Los Angeles . ..
Omaha .............
P hoenix............. ..........
Providence . . . . .........
Richm ond...................
S eattle............... ..........
Tampa ............. ..........




6 .39





6 .14

5 .00


6 .5 0


3 .50


borers is expected to increase slowly
through the mid-1980’s. Most job
openings will occur as experienced
Construction work is physically
laborers transfer to other occupa­ strenuous, since it requires frequent
tions, retire, or die.
bending, stooping, and heavy lifting.
The anticipated large increase in Much of the work is performed out­
construction activity (see discussion doors, and some worktime is lost
in construction occupations introduc­ because of bad weather. Many con­
tion) is expected to result in a grow­ struction laborers are members of
ing demand for laborers, but this the Laborers’ International Union
demand will be somewhat limited by of North America.
more widespread use of mechanized
equipment. For example, materials Sources of Additional Information
formerly handled at the construc­
For information about work op­
tion site, such as brick, concrete,
portunities as a construction laborer,
and lumber, are moved by forklift
truck, powered wheelbarrows, and contact local building or construc­
conveyor belts. Materials are lifted tion contractors, a local of the
Employment Outlook
to the upper floors of high-rise build­ Laborers’ International Union of
Employment of construction la­ ings by automatic lifts and heavy North America or the local office

least 18 years of age and in good
physical condition. A laborer’s first
job is usually on the simplest type
of work, but as he gains experience,
he does more difficult tasks. If he
works closely with a skilled crafts­
man for several years, he may be
able to pick up the skills of the trade.
Many tasks assigned to laborers
have, however, now become too
complex to learn through on-the-job
training alone. Recognizing this
problem, contractors and unions
have established formal training pro­
grams, lasting 4 to 8 weeks, in many
areas of the country.




Electricians, for safety reasons,
must follow National Electrical
Code regulations and, in addition,
must fulfill requirements of State,
county, and municipal electrical
Electricians generally furnish
their own tools including screw­
drivers, pliers, knives, and hack­
saws. Employers furnish heavier
tools, such as pipe threaders, con­
duit benders, and most test meters
and power tools.

(D.O.T. 821.381,824.281, and
829.281 and .381)

Places of Employment

of the State employment service.
General information about the
work of construction laborers may
be obtained from:
Laborers’ International Union of North
America, 905 16th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20006.

Most of the 240,000 construc­
tion electricians employed in 1972
worked for electrical contractors.
Heat, light, power, air condition­
Many others were self-employed
ing, and refrigeration components
contractors. A small number of
all operate through electrical sys­ electricians worked for govern­
tems that are assembled, installed, ment agencies or businesses that do
and wired by construction electri­
cians. These craftsmen also install
machinery, electronic
equipment, controls, and signal and
communications systems. (Mainte­
nance electricians, who usually
maintain the electrical systems in­
stalled by construction electricians,
are discussed elsewhere in the
Construction electricians follow
blueprints and specifications for
most installations. To install wir­
ing, they may bend and fit conduit
(pipe or tubing) inside partitions,
walls, or other concealed areas.
They then pull insulated wires or
cables through the conduit to com­
plete the circuit between outlets
and switches. In lighter construc­
tion, such as housing, plasticcovered wire is usually used rather
than conduit. In any case, electri­
cians connect the wiring to circuit
breakers, transformers, or other
components. Wires are joined by
soldering or mechanical means.
When the wiring is finished, they
test the circuits for proper connec­
tions and grounding.
Nature of the Work

their own electrical work. Con­
struction electricians are employed
throughout the country, but are
concentrated in industrialized and
urban areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most training authorities recom­
mend the completion of a 4-year
apprenticeship program as the best
way to learn the electrical trade.
However, some people learn the
trade informally by working for
many years as electricians’ helpers.
Many helpers gain additional
knowledge by taking trade school
or correspondence courses, or
through special training in the
Armed Forces.
The International Brotherhood
of Electrical Workers and the Na­
Association have jointly developed
an extensive apprenticeship pro­
gram. Apprenticeship applicants
generally must be 18 to 24 years
old, but exceptions may be made
for veterans. A high school educa­
tion is required; courses in math­
ematics and physics are desirable.
Applicants usually are required to
take tests to determine their apti­
tude for electrical work.
Apprenticeship programs are
conducted under written agree­
ment between the apprentice and
the local joint union-management
apprenticeship committee, which
supervises the training. The com­
mittee determines the need for ap­
prentices in the locality, estab­
minimum apprenticeship
standards, and schedules a diversi­
fied, rotating work program. This
program is designed to provide all­
round training by having the ap­
prentice work for several electrical
usually requires 4 years of on-thejob training, in addition to a mini­



mum of 144 hours of related class­
room instruction each year in elec­
trical layout, blueprint reading,
mathematics, and electrical theory,
including electronics. After com­
pleting their apprenticeships, many
journeymen electricians enroll in
courses, which may include ad­
vanced electronics, to keep abreast
of the latest developments in this
rapidly changing occupation.
Hourly wage rates of appren­
tices usually start at 40 to 50 per­
cent of the journeyman rate and in­
crease by 5 percent in each 6month period until the journey­
man’s rate is reached.
To obtain a license, which is
necessary in most cities, the elec­
trician must pass an examination
which requires a thorough knowl­
edge of the craft and of State and
local building codes.
Experienced construction elec­
tricians can transfer readily to
other types of electrical work. For
example, many take jobs as main­
tenance electricians in factories,
and others work as electricians in
shipbuilding and aircraft manufac­
Many electricians become fore­
men or superintendents for electri­
cal contractors on construction
jobs. Some become estimators for
electrical contractors, computing
material requirements and labor
A large number of electricians
start their own contracting busi­
nesses. In most large urban areas,
a contractor must have a master
electrician’s license.
Employment Outlook

Employment of construction
electricians is expected to increase
rapidly through the mid-1980’s. In
addition to jobs from employment
growth, many openings will arise
as experienced electricians retire,

die, or transfer to other occupa­
Employment of electricians is
expected to increase mainly be­
cause of the anticipated expansion
in construction; wiring for appli­
ances, air-conditioners, and elec­
trical heating in homes; and the ex­
tensive wiring for computers and
electrical control devices in com­
merce and industry.

risk falls from ladders and scaf­
folds, blows from falling objects,
and electrical shock. However,
safety practices have helped to re­
duce the injury rate.
A large proportion of construc­
tion electricians are members of
the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers.
Sources of Additional Information

For details about electrician ap­
prenticeships or other work oppor­
tunities in this trade, contact local
Union minimum wage rates for
electrical contractors; a local union
electricians in 68 large cities aver­
of the International Brotherhood
aged $8.19 an hour in 1972, com­
of Electrical Workers; a local joint
pared with $7.69 for all building
union-management apprenticeship
trades journeymen. Because the
committee, or the nearest office of
seasonal nature of construction
the State apprenticeship agency or
work affects electricians less than
the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
journeymen in most building
Training, U.S. Department of
trades, their annual earnings also
Labor. In addition, the local office
tend to be higher. Average mini­
of the State employment service
mum rates for construction electri­
may have information about the
cians in 14 of these cities, selected
to show how wages differ among
Training Act, apprenticeship, and
various areas, appear in the ac­
other programs that provide train­
companying tabulation.
ing opportunities. Some local em­
ployment service offices screen ap­
Hourly rate
plicants and give aptitude tests.
Birmingham..................... ............
General information about the
Buffalo .............................. ............
Charlotte .......................... ............
work of electricians may be ob­
C olum bus.......................... ............
tained from:
Earnings and Working Conditions

Des M oines........................
E r ie .....................................
Grand R apids...................
Little R o c k ........................
Louisville ..........................
Spokane ............................
Trenton ..............................
Washington, D .C .............











Construction electricians are not
required to have great physical
strength, but they frequently must
stand for long periods and work
in cramped quarters. Because
much of their work is indoors, elec­
tricians are less exposed to unfav­
orable weather than are most
other construction workers. They

International Brotherhood of Electri­
cal Workers, 1125 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Electrical Contractors Asso­
ciation, 1730 Rhode Island Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Joint Apprenticeship and
Training Committee for the Elec­
trical Industry, 1730 Rhode Island
Ave. NW ., Washington, D.C. 20036.



(D.O.T. 825.381 and 829.281)
Nature of the Work

Elevator constructors (also called
elevator mechanics) assemble and
install elevators, escalators, and simi­
lar equipment. In new buildings,
they install equipment during con­
struction. In older buildings, they
replace earlier installations with new
equipment. Once the equipment is in
service, they maintain and repair
it. Installation or repair work is
usually performed by small crews
consisting of skilled elevator con­
structors and their helpers.
In elevator construction, the
crew first installs the guide rails
of the car in the elevator shaft.
Then they install the hoisting
machines, the car frame and plat­
form, controls, and other elevator
parts. Next, the car frame is con­
nected to a counterweight with
cables, the cab body and roof are
installed, and the control system
is wired. Finally, the entire as­
sembly is carefully adjusted and
tested. Similar procedures are
followed to install other equip­
ment, such as escalators.
Alteration work on elevators
is important because of the rapid
rate of innovation and improve­
ment in elevator engineering.
This work is similar to new instal­
lation because all elevator equip­
ment except the old rail, car
frame, platform, and counter­
weight is generally replaced. Ele­
vator mechanics inspect elevator
and escalator installations peri­
odically and, when necessary,
adjust cables and lubricate or re­
place parts.
To install and repair modern
elevators, most of which are elec­
trically controlled, elevator con­
structors must have a working

Elevator constructor and job superintendent check wiring system.

knowledge of electricity, electron­
ics, and hydraulics. They also
must be able to repair electric
motors, as well as control and
signal systems. Because of the
variety of their work, they use
many different handtools, power
tools, and testing meters and

instead by small, local contractors
who specialize in elevator mainte­
nance and repair. Still others work
for government agencies or business
establishments that do their own ele­
vator maintenance and repair. Ele­
vator constructors are employed as
elevator inspectors, also, for munic­
ipal or other government licensing
and regulatory agencies.

Places of Employment

Most of the estimated 17,000
elevator constructors in 1972 were
employed by elevator manufacturers
to do installation, modernization,
and repair work. Some are employed

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most elevator constructors begin
as helpers and learn their skills pri­
marily through on-the-job training.



The helper-trainee must be at least
18 years of age, in good physical con­
dition, and have a high school educa­
tion or its equivalent, preferably
including courses in mathematics
and physics. Mechanical aptitude
and an interest in machines are also
To become a skilled elevator con­
structor, at least 2 years of continuous
job experience, including 6 months’
on-the-job training at the factory of
a major elevator firm, is usually
necessary. During this period, the
helper learns to install, maintain,
and repair elevators, escalators, and
similar equipment. The helper-trainee
generally attends evening classes in
vocational schools. Among the sub­
jects studied are mathematics, physics,
electrical and electronic theory, and
safety techniques.
Elevator constructors may advance
to foremen for elevator manufac­
turing firms. A few may establish
small contracting businesses; how­
ever, opportunities are limited.

Employment Outlook

A very rapid increase in employ­
ment of elevator constructors is ex­
pected through the mid-1980’s. A
few thousand job openings will be­
come available each year because of
employment growth and the need to
replace experienced workers who
transfer to other fields of work,
retire, or die.
More elevator constructors will be
needed because of growth in the
number of new industrial, commer­
cial, and apartment buildings (see
discussion in construction occupa­
tions introduction). In addition,
technological developments in eleva­
tor and escalator construction will
spur modernization of older instal­
lations and thus contribute to the
need for these craftsmen. Also,
installation and adjustment of auto­
matic control systems on modern

elevators require more work and
higher skill levels.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Both the hourly wage rates and the
annual earnings of elevator construc­
tors are among the highest in the
skilled building trades. These crafts­
men lose less worktime because of
seasonal factors than do most other
building trades workers.
Union minimum wage rates for
elevator constructors in 68 large
cities averaged $8 an hour in mid1972, compared with $7.69 for all
building trades journeymen. Mini­
mum rates for elevator constructors
in 14 of these cities, selected to show
how wages differ among various
areas of the country, appear in the
accompanying tabulation.
C ity

H o u r ly ra te

B altim ore.......................................
C hicago...........................................
Cleveland .......................................
Denver ...........................................
Fresno .............................................
Houston .........................................
Jacksonville ................... ...............
Little R o c k ....................................
Los Angeles ................... ...............
M ad ison .........................................
Philadelphia................... ...............
Providence ..................... ...............
Richm ond......................................
R ochester....................... ...............

$ 7.92

Elevator construction involves lift­
ing and carrying heavy equipment
and parts, but this is usually done
by helpers. Most of the work takes
place indoors—sometimes in cramped
and awkward positions.
Most elevator constructors are
members of the International Union
of Elevator Constructors.
Sources of Additional Information

For further details about work
opportunities as a helper in this
trade, contact elevator manufacturers,
elevator construction or maintenance
firms, or a local of the International

Union of Elevator Constructors. In
addition, the local office of the State
employment service may have infor­
mation about opportunities in this
General information about the
work of elevator constructors may
be obtained from the International
Union of Elevator Constructors, 12
South 12th St., Philadelphia, Pa.

(D.O.T. 864.781)
Nature of the Work

Floor covering installers (also
called floor covering mechanics and
floor layers) install, replace, and
repair floor coverings, including re­
silient tile, linoleum and vinyl sheets,
and carpeting. These craftsmen install
coverings over floors made of wood,
concrete, or other materials. They
generally specialize in either carpet
or resilient floor installation, although
some can install both types.
Before putting down resilient cov­
ering (such as asphalt tile) installers
first inspect the floor to be sure that
it is firm, dry, smooth, and free of
dust or dirt. Some floors have to be
prepared for covering. For example,
installers may sand a rough or
painted floor and fill cracks and
indentations. An extremely uneven
floor may be resurfaced with wood
or other materials.
On newly poured concrete floors
or floors laid over earthwork, instal­
lers test for moisture content. If the
moisture is too great, they may sug­
gest postponing installation of floor
covering or recommend a covering
technique suited to the floor’s con­
Installers of resilient flooring meas-



tors. Many others worked for retailers
of floor covering and home altera­
tion and repair contractors.
Installers can find jobs throughout
the Nation, but most are concen­
trated in urban areas that have high
levels of construction activity.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

ure and mark off the floor according
to a plan. The plan may be architec­
tural drawings that specify every
detail of the covering design, or a
simple, verbal description by the
customer. When the plan is com­
pleted, installers, often assisted by
apprentices or helpers, cut, fit, and
glue the flooring into place. It must
be carefully fit, particularly at door
openings, along irregular wall sur­
faces and around fixtures, such as
columns or pipes. Installers must
take special care also in cutting out
and setting in decorative designs.
After the flooring is in place, they
run a roller over it to insure good
Carpet craftsmen, like the installer
of resilient coverings, first inspect
the floor to determine its condition.

Then they plan the layout after
allowing for expected traffic patterns
so that best appearance and long
wear will be obtained. To hold the
carpet after it is installed, crafts­
men fasten tackless strips with
adhesive, nails, or tacks along the
borders. Padding is cut and placed
along the framework of the strip and
the carpet is placed approximately in
position. If the carpet has not been
precut and seamed, installers will do
this work before stretching it into
place. Edges are trimmed for a se­
cure and smooth fit.

Employers prefer applicants with
a high school education, but this
qualification generally is not re­
quired. Most seek applicants 17 to
30 years of age who have average
physical strength and manual dex­
terity. A neat appearance and a
pleasant business-like manner also
are important, because the work is
performed on the customer’s prem­
Training authorities generally rec­
ommend a 3- or 4-year apprentice­
ship program as the best way to learn
the floor covering trade. Many
people, however, have learned the
trade by observing and working with
experienced installers.
Most a